This is an addendum to
Archaeology, geology & metallurgy of Kannada word ukku (wootz), crucible steel, an advanced material invented in Sarasvati Civilization https://tinyurl.com/y6v6pr4w
Though archaeologically attested crucible steel is dated to ca. 5th cent. BCE in India, there are indications that the processes of crucible steel making date back to ca. 1100 BCE in the neolithic site of Hallur, Karnataka. It is possible that the iron artifacts of this site are comparable to the crucible steel processes evidenced in the iron artifacts found (dated ca. 1st cent. CE) from Junnar caves dated to ca. 3rd cent. BCE.
The Kannada word ukku is also cognate with and a phonetic variant of utsa'well, fountain, source'. The crucible steel realized as ukku is the magnetite mineral source alloyed with carbon, for an armourer to forge swords, knives. The semantics of utsa relates to 'spring, coming from a spring'. The crucible steel cake making process compared to a spring coming out of the magnetite ore PLUS carbon elements subjected to heat in a furnace: útsa m. ʻ spring of water ʼ RV. 2. utsíya -- (utsyà -- ) ʻ coming from a spring (of water) ʼ AV. [√
ud 2].1. Wg. ūċ ʻ spring ʼ, Kt. unċo, Dm. ūċ, Gaw. ū̃ċ, wū̃ċ, Kal. rumb. Kho. uċ, Bshk. ūċ, ūč, Phal. ūċ, Sh. gil. ũċ m., koh. gur. uċ m., A. uh (< *ūcha), Or. ucha.2. Paš. lauṛ. uč f., ar. ūič, ūiċ.(CDIAL 1869). Thus, the word which is pronounced as 'wootz' is relatable to both ukku in Kannada and utsa 'spring' (R̥gveda). A synonym of the word utsa in Kannada is oṟate with the semantics: 'a stream produced by oozing'. Thus, crucible steel, ukku is explained as a stream of carbon oozing into magnetite ore to realize or bloom out a plastic metal alloy -- crucible steel.
Ganesha shrine situated in Cave 7 of Junnar caves (Pune, Maharashtra) is dated to the 1st century CE. Surroundings of Junnar are very rich with ancient cave temples. In total there are more than 220 individual rock-cut caves located in four hills around Junnar. The most famous among the caves is the Lenyadri complex. Iron objects at this complex are found to be made of high carbon steel, dated to ca. 1st cent. CE.
Lenyadri caves in the mountainside
"Junnar has the largest number of excavations numbering over 200 independent excavations and spread over the four hills. All the excavations belong to the Hinayana phase and are datable from mid 3rd century B.C. to late 3rd century CE. The presence of largest number of rock cut excavations, a large number of inscriptions enabling a paleographical study makes Junnar a prominent site for the study of rock cut architecture." http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_tktd_maha_junnarcaves.asp
Jang-SikPark VasantShinde, 2003, Technology, chronology and the role of crucible steel as inferred from iron objects of the ancient site at Junnar, India, in: Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 40, Issue 11, November 2013, Pages 3991-3998
Iron objects from a site (2nd BC–AD 2nd) at Junnar, India, examined.
Objects were made of high carbon steel; some with trace amounts of Si, Mn and S.
Microstructure is uniform and free of non-metallic inclusions.
Radiocarbon dating places the date between 350 BC and AD 136.
Crucible steel technology established in India at an earlier date than supposed