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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    This is an addendum to:  

    This text message on Dholavira tablet includes a hieroglyph which compares with Sign 244 (Mahadevan Concordance, ASI 1987):

    I suggest that this Sign 244 is descriptive orthograph of a warehouse or granary of the type seen in Harappa archaeological site.
    "The so-called "granary" of Harappa is found on Mound F. It is a brick structure that was built on a massive brick foundation over 45 meters north south and 45 meters east-west. Two rows of six rooms that appear to be foundations are arranged along a central passageway that is about 7 meters wide and partly paved with baked bricks. Each room measures 15.2 by 6.1 meters and has three sleeper walls with air space between them. A wooden superstructure supported in some places by large columns would have been built on top of the brick foundations, with stairs leading up from the central passage area. Small triangular opening may have served as air ducts to allow the flow of fresh air beneath the hollow floors.
    No special concentrations of burned grain or storage containers were discovered by the earlier excavators and the interpretation of these structures as granaries is based on comparisons with Roman buildings and has no parallels with any building tradition in South Asia. Most scholars agree that there is little evidence for the construction of massive granaries at either Mohenjo-daro or Harappa and that these structures should only be seen as evidence for large public buildings. Rulers and state officials probably did meet in such large public buildings and many of them may have been used for specific religious functions, but their specific function will always remain a mystery.
    The Meluhha word to signify a warehouse: kṓṣṭha2 n. ʻ pot ʼ Kauś., ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ MBh., ʻ inner apartment ʼ lex., ˚aka -- n. ʻ treasury ʼ, ˚ikā f. ʻ pan ʼ Bhpr. [Cf. *kōttha -- , *kōtthala -- : same as prec.?]Pa. koṭṭha -- n. ʻ monk's cell, storeroom ʼ, ˚aka<-> n. ʻ storeroom ʼ; Pk. koṭṭha -- , kuṭ˚koṭṭhaya -- m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ; Sv. dāntar -- kuṭha ʻ fire -- place ʼ; Sh. (Lor.) kōti(ṭh?) ʻ wooden vessel for mixing yeast ʼ; K. kōṭha m. ʻ granary ʼ, kuṭhu m. ʻ room ʼ, kuṭhü f. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ; S. koṭho m. ʻ large room ʼ, ˚ṭhī f. ʻ storeroom ʼ; L. koṭhā m. ʻ hut, room, house ʼ, ˚ṭhī f. ʻ shop, brothel ʼ, awāṇ. koṭhā ʻ house ʼ; P. koṭṭhākoṭhā m. ʻ house with mud roof and walls, granary ʼ, koṭṭhīkoṭhī f. ʻ big well -- built house, house for married women to prostitute themselves in ʼ; WPah. pāḍ. kuṭhī ʻ house ʼ; Ku. koṭho ʻ large square house ʼ, gng. kōṭhi ʻ room, building ʼ; N. koṭho ʻ chamber ʼ, ˚ṭhi ʻ shop ʼ; A. koṭhākõṭhā ʻ room ʼ, kuṭhī ʻ factory ʼ; B. koṭhā ʻ brick -- built house ʼ, kuṭhī ʻ bank, granary ʼ; Or. koṭhā ʻ brick -- built house ʼ, ˚ṭhī ʻ factory, granary ʼ; Bi. koṭhī ʻ granary of straw or brushwood in the open ʼ; Mth. koṭhī ʻ grain -- chest ʼ; OAw. koṭha ʻ storeroom ʼ; H. koṭhā m. ʻ granary ʼ, ˚ṭhī f. ʻ granary, large house ʼ, Marw. koṭho m. ʻ room ʼ; G. koṭhɔ m. ʻ jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse ʼ, ˚ṭhī f. ʻ large earthen jar, factory ʼ; M. koṭhā m. ʻ large granary ʼ, ˚ṭhī f. ʻ granary, factory ʼ; Si. koṭa ʻ storehouse ʼ. -- Ext. with -- ḍa -- : K. kūṭhürü f. ʻ small room ʼ; L. koṭhṛī f. ʻ small side room ʼ; P. koṭhṛī f. ʻ room, house ʼ; Ku. koṭheṛī ʻ small room ʼ; H. koṭhrī f. ʻ room, granary ʼ; M. koṭhḍī f. ʻ room ʼ; -- with -- ra -- : A. kuṭharī ʻ chamber ʼ, B. kuṭhrī, Or. koṭhari; -- with -- lla -- : Sh. (Lor.) kotul (ṭh?) ʻ wattle and mud erection for storing grain ʼ; H. koṭhlā m., ˚lī f. ʻ room, granary ʼ; G. koṭhlɔ m. ʻ wooden box ʼ. kōṣṭhapāla -- , *kōṣṭharūpa -- , *kōṣṭhāṁśa -- , kōṣṭhāgāra -- ; *kajjalakōṣṭha -- , *duvārakōṣṭha -- , *dēvakōṣṭha -- , dvārakōṣṭhaka -- .Addenda: kṓṣṭha -- 2: WPah.kṭg. kóṭṭhi f. ʻ house, quarters, temple treasury, name of a partic. temple ʼ, J. koṭhā m. ʻ granary ʼ, koṭhī f. ʻ granary, bungalow ʼ; Garh. koṭhu ʻ house surrounded by a wall ʼ; Md. koḍi ʻ frame ʼ, <-> koři ʻ cage ʼ (X kōṭṭa -- ). -- with ext.: OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible ʼ, P. kuṭhālī f., H. kuṭhārī f.; -- Md. koṭari ʻ room ʼ.3547 kōṣṭhapāla m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ W. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, pāla -- ]M. koṭhvaḷā m.   3548 *kōṣṭharūpa ʻ like a room ʼ. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, rūpá -- ]B. kuṭru ʻ tent ʼ.   3549 *kōṣṭhāṁśa ʻ share of store ʼ. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, áṁśa -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāsa -- m. ʻ share, portion ʼ, adj. ʻ divided into ʼ (ā felt as contraction of a -- a and preserved before ṁs; consequent āṁs > ās: cf. re -- establishment of prefix ā before MIA. double consonant, e.g. Pk. āṇavēdi < *āṇṇ˚ replacing aṇṇ -- < Sk. ājñ -- ); Si. koṭasakohoṭa ʻ share, part, piece ʼ.   3550 kōṣṭhāgāra n. ʻ storeroom, store ʼ Mn. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, agāra -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāgāra -- n. ʻ storehouse, granary ʼ; Pk. koṭṭhāgāra -- , koṭṭhāra -- n. ʻ storehouse ʼ; K. kuṭhār m. ʻ wooden granary ʼ, WPah. bhal. kóṭhār m.; A. B. kuṭharī ʻ apartment ʼ, Or. koṭhari; Aw. lakh. koṭhār ʻ zemindar's residence ʼ; H. kuṭhiyār ʻ granary ʼ; G. koṭhār m. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ, koṭhāriyũ n. ʻ small do. ʼ; M. koṭhār n., koṭhārẽ n. ʻ large granary ʼ, -- ˚rī f. ʻ small one ʼ; Si. koṭāra ʻ granary, store ʼ.kōṣṭhāgārika -- .Addenda: kōṣṭhāgāra -- : WPah.kṭg. kəṭhāˊr, kc. kuṭhār m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ, J. kuṭhārkṭhār m.; -- Md. kořāru ʻ storehouse ʼ ← Ind.
       3551 kōṣṭhāgārika m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ BHSk. [Cf. kōṣṭhā- gārin -- m. ʻ wasp ʼ Suśr.: kōṣṭhāgāra -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāgārika -- m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ; S. koṭhārī m. ʻ one who in a body of faqirs looks after the provision store ʼ; Or. koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ; Bhoj. koṭhārī ʻ storekeeper ʼ, H. kuṭhiyārī m.Addenda: kōṣṭhāgārika -- : G. koṭhārī m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ.CDIAL 3546 to 3551)

    Thus, the entire text message of inscription of the Dholavira tablet reads:

    koṭṭhāra'warehouse' (of) kuila  sal 'bronze workshop' PLUSdul khaṇḍa 'cast metal implements'.

    These are the wealth artifacts created by dhokra kamar'cire perddue metal caster' of pola'zebu' rebus: pola'ferrite,magnetite ore' PLUS kod'horn' rebus: kod'workshop' (using) kol'tiger' rebus: kol'working in iron' PLUS panja'feline paw' rebus: panja'kiln' PLUS kuti 'jump' rebus: kuhi 'smelter'

    Ta. kuti (-pp-, -tt-) to jump, leap, bound, frolic, leap over, escape from, splash (as water), spurt out; n. jump, leap; kutippuleaping. Ma. kuti leap, gallop; kutikka to jump, skip, boil, bubble up; kutukkuka to take a spring in order to leap. Ka. gudi to jump, stamp, make a noise with the feet; kudukuto trot; n. trotting; (Hav. S.) gudiku to jump. Tu. guttu a leap, jump; a stride. Te. kudupu to shake (tr.), agitate, jolt; n. shaking, jolting; kudulu to be shaken, jolt. (K. also) shake while walking, flutter in agony; kudilincu to shake (tr.); kudilika shaking, agitation, jolting. Konḍa gudlis- (-t-) to shake violently. Kur. kuddnā to move about; kudāba'ānā to make run; kudākudī in hot haste; kuduṛ-kuduṛ at a trot. (DEDR 1705) Dholavira tablet text message: koṭṭhāra 'warehouse' (of) kuṭila sal 'bronze workshop' PLUS dul khaṇḍa 'cast metal implements'
    (CDIAL 3411, 3412) Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'

    Sign 244: koṭṭhāra -- n. ʻ storehouse ʼ(Pkt.)(CDIAL 3550).

     kuṭilika 'bent, curved' rebus: कुटिल kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin); sal 'splinter' rebus: sal'workshop'. Thus, together, 'bronze workshop'

    kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'. Thus the pair of 'arrows' signify, cast metal implements.

    karika 'rim of jar' rebus: karī 'supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale'; कर्णिक having a helm; a steersman (Monier-Williams)

    Side B of the tablet: 

    Hieroglyph: dhokra ‘decrepit woman with breasts hanging down’. Rebus: dhokra kamar 'artisan metalcaster using lost-wax technique'. Ku. ḍokro, ḍokhro ʻ old man ʼ; B. ḍokrā ʻ old, decrepit ʼ, Or. ḍokarā; H. ḍokrā ʻ decrepit ʼ; G. ḍokɔ m. ʻ penis ʼ, ḍokrɔ m. ʻ old man ʼ, M. ḍokrā m. -- Kho. (Lor.) duk ʻ hunched up, hump of camel ʼ; K. ḍọ̆ku ʻ humpbacked ʼ perh. < *ḍōkka -- 2. Or. dhokaṛa ʻ decrepit, hanging down (of breasts) ʼ.(CDIAL 5567). M. ḍhẽg n. ʻ groin ʼ, ḍhẽgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. M. dhõgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. (CDIAL 5585). (The decrepit woman is ligatured to the hindpart of a bovine).

    kāruvu ‘crocodile’ Rebus: khār ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)  PLUS dula 'pair' rebus; dul 'metal casting'. Thus, the pair of crocodiles signify metalcaster smith.

    Heroglyph: Person with upraised arms: eraka 'upraised arm' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper'. Ka. eṟe to pour any liquids, cast (as metal); n. pouring; eṟacu, ercu to scoop, sprinkle, scatter, strew, sow; eṟaka, eraka any metal infusion; molten state, fusion. Tu. eraka molten, cast (as metal); eraguni to melt. Kur. ecchnā to dash a liquid out or over (by scooping, splashing, besprinkling). (DEDR 866).

    The Mohenjo-daro seal shows the combined text of dhokra woman PLUS zebu; same imagery as on Dholavira tablet. Zebu signifies rebus: poḷa 'ferrite, magnetite ore'. 

    Immagine in linea con il testoThe person with upraised arm and bovine legs and tail is a blacksmith: eraka 'upraised arm' rebus: 'moltencast' + dhangar 'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. Some details at

    The tree behind the Fig. 103, composite image (zebu+decrepit woman+horns) is the wealth accounting ledger classifier. I think it signifies a smelter.
    FS Fig. 103 Tiger with horns, leaps and looks back kolhe kō̃da कोँद kamar ko 'smelter kiln blacksmith, artisan’s workshop'.The hieroglyph of dhokaṛa 'an old female with breasts hanging down' and ligatured to the ḍhōṅgā 'buttock' of a bovine is also deployed on this Mohenjo-daro seal (FS Fig. 103); rebus: dhokra.dokra 'cire-perdue lost-wax metal casting artifice' PLUS dhangar'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'; thus, the hypertext signifies: cire-perdue metalcaster smith. On a Mohenjo0daro seal this is reinforced by two hieroglyphs: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter (worker)'. kuhi 'tree' rebus: kuhi 'smelter'. Tiger's paws: panja 'feline paws' rebus: panja 'kiln, furnace' kũdā 'jumping' rebus: kō̃da कोँद 'furnace' (Kashmiri) koḍ 'horn' rebus: koḍ 'workshop'. 

    Hieroglyph: Tiger looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali) 

    Reading of Text 1357 on Mohenjo-daro seal: gō̃ṭu an ornamental appendage to the border of a cloth, fringe' rebus: goṭa 'laterite, ferrite ore' khoṭa 'ingot, wedge'. ḍato 'claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs'; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; rebus: dhatu 'mineral (ore)' xoli 'fish-tail' rebus: kolhe 'smelter', kol 'working in iron' dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.

    Mohenodaro seal. Pict-103 Horned (female with breasts hanging down?) person with a tail and bovine legs standing near a tree fisting a horned tiger rearing on its hindlegs.

     See: Please scroll down to Fig. 8.31, 8.32: Details on the flat & curved surfaces of the terracotta tablet. Acc. No. 8099 of

    Excavations at Dholavira 1989-2005 (RS Bisht, 2015) Full text including scores of Indus inscriptions announced for the first time 

    Fig. 8.31, 8.32: Details on the flat & curved surfaces of the terracotta tablet. Acc. No. 8099

    Dholavira terracotta tablet with Indus Script deciphered, countering Parpola's wrong 'reading' of child sacrifice 



    This is an addendum to 

    . The objective of this addendum to counter a wrong 'reading' provided by Asko Parpola on the hieroglyphs on a Dholavira terracotta molded tablet which signifies a dhokra 'cire perdue artificer'.
    Dholavira molded terracotta tablet with Meluhha hieroglyphs written on two sides. 

    I read the image on Side A as follows: a seated person raises up two 'children' on his two arms.

    Some Meluhha rebus readings of the hieroglyphs on the tablet: 

    Hieroglyphs to children held aloft on a seated person's hands: dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' kuī 'girl, child' Rebus: kuhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) kuī f. ‘fireplace’ (H.); krvi f. ‘granary (WPah.); kuī, kuohouse, building’(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kui ‘hut made of boughs’ (Skt.) gui temple (Telugu)

    Text on Side A: The entire text message reads: Supercargo (merchant) with smithy/forge, bronze workshop, cast metal implements

    kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge'
     kuṭilika 'bent, curved' rebus: कुटिल kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin); sal 'splinter' rebus: sal'workshop'. Thus, together, 'bronze workshop'

    kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'. Thus the pair of 'arrows' signify, cast metal implements.

    karika 'rim of jar' rebus: karī 'supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale'; कर्णिक having a helm; a steersman (Monier-Williams)

    Side B of the tablet: 

    Hieroglyph: dhokra ‘decrepit woman with breasts hanging down’. Rebus: dhokra kamar 'artisan metalcaster using lost-wax technique'. Ku. ḍokro, ḍokhro ʻ old man ʼ; B. ḍokrā ʻ old, decrepit ʼ, Or. ḍokarā; H. ḍokrā ʻ decrepit ʼ; G. ḍokɔ m. ʻ penis ʼ, ḍokrɔ m. ʻ old man ʼ, M. ḍokrā m. -- Kho. (Lor.) duk ʻ hunched up, hump of camel ʼ; K. ḍọ̆ku ʻ humpbacked ʼ perh. < *ḍōkka -- 2. Or. dhokaṛa ʻ decrepit, hanging down (of breasts) ʼ.(CDIAL 5567). M. ḍhẽg n. ʻ groin ʼ, ḍhẽgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. M. dhõgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. (CDIAL 5585). (The decrepit woman is ligatured to the hindpart of a bovine).

    kāruvu ‘crocodile’ Rebus: khār ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)  PLUS dula 'pair' rebus; dul 'metal casting'. Thus, the pair of crocodiles signify metalcaster smith.

    Heroglyph: Person with upraised arms: eraka 'upraised arm' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper'. Ka. eṟe to pour any liquids, cast (as metal); n. pouring; eṟacu, ercu to scoop, sprinkle, scatter, strew, sow; eṟaka, eraka any metal infusion; molten state, fusion. Tu. eraka molten, cast (as metal); eraguni to melt. Kur. ecchnā to dash a liquid out or over (by scooping, splashing, besprinkling). (DEDR 866).

    0 0

    This is an addendum to: Dholavira tablet text message: koṭṭhāra 'warehouse' (of) kuṭila sal 'bronze workshop' PLUS dul khaṇḍa 'cast metal implements'

    An overview of the images of Jiroft indicates that the Indus Script hypertexts of Dhokra kamar 'cire perdue metalcasters' were inscribed in Meluhha (Indian sprachbund, 'speech union')  to sitnify wealt-accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues.

    Dhokra kamar as a Meluhha hieroglyph: Dholavira, Mohenjo-daro seals Rebus: lost-wax casting
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 wallet
    Ziggurat, stepped pyramid on wallet. See more images:
    Image result for sit shamshi
    Ziggurat, Ur. Compares with Stupa of Mohenjo-daro and stepped pyramid on Sit-Shamshi Bronze model (Louvre Museum)
    Image result for jiroft culture
    Related image
    artifact-dates-to-3000-bc-jiroft-civilization-iranJiroft. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' bicha 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'haematite, ferrite ore'. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.
    Related imageRelated imageJiroft. Basket-shaped wallet. Entwined serpents. Hooded snakes.  फड ''cobra hood' rebus: फड 'manufactory, company, guild'.meḍhi 'plait, twist' Rupaka, 'metaphor' or rebus reading: meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic languages)
    Related imageJiroft. Basket-shaped wallet.
    Related imageJiroft. Basket-shaped wallet. arye 'lion' rebus: ara 'brass' poḷa 'zebu' rebus: poḷa 'ferrite, magnetite ore'.
    Source of images: Massimo Vidale, 2015, Searching for mythological themes on the ‘Jiroft’ chlorite artefacts, in: Iranica Antiqua, Vol. L, 2015. pp. 15-59
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 walletpoḷa 'zebu' rebus: poḷa 'ferrite, magnetite ore'. 

    Review: Jiroft and "Jiroft-Aratta" A Review Article of Yousef Madjidzadeh, "Jiroft: The Earliest Oriental Civilization"

    Reviewed Work: Jiroft: The Earliest Oriental Civilizationby Yousef Madjidzadeh
    Bulletin of the Asia Institute
    New Series, Vol. 15 (2001), pp. 173-198 kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'  P آهن āhan, s.m. (9th) Iron. Sing. and Pl. آهن ګر āhan gar, s.m. (5th) A smith, a blacksmith. Pl. آهن ګران āhan-garānآهن ربا āhan-rubā, s.f. (6th) The magnet or loadstone. (E.) Sing. and Pl.); (W.) Pl. آهن رباوي āhan-rubāwī. (Pashto)
    Related imageJiroft. Wallet. aśani ‘thunderbolt’ cognate śyena ‘falcon’, sena ‘thunderbolt’. The semantics of aśani ‘thunderbolt’ leads to the expression āhangar ‘blacksmith’. (Pashto. Kashmiri) kūdī 'twig' kuṭhi 'smelter' 

    Stalk of culm of millet: kaḍambákalamba -- 1, m. ʻ end, point, stalk of a pot- herb ʼ lex. [See kadambá -- ]B. kaṛamba ʻ stalk of greens ʼ; Or. kaṛambā°mā stalks and plants among stubble of a reaped field ʼ; H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.); M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ. -- Or. kaḷama ʻ a kind of firm -- stemmed reed from which pens are made ʼ infl. by H. kalam ʻ pen ʼ ← Ar.?(CDIAL 2653) Rebus: karba 'iron'  (Tulu)(DEDR 1278) ajirda karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu) Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron.(DEDR 192) karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron'. karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu)
    Related See:

    Related imagepoḷa 'zebu' rebus: poḷa 'ferrite, magnetite ore'; ḍāng 'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'..kANDa 'water' rebus: khaNDa 'metal implements'.

    Images: the first corresponds to a disc decorated with animals, the second to an excavation in Jiroft, Konar Sandal A

     त्वर्क in tŏrka-chān त्वर्क-छान्कौटतक्षः m. a private carpenter, a village carpenter who works on his own account, a cabinet maker (H. vii, 17, 2); cf. chān 1. -chān-bāy -छान्-बाय्स्वतन्त्रतक्षस्त्री f. his wife. -chönil - कौटतक्षता f. the occupation of a cabinet maker. tŏrka-chöñü कौटतक्षस्त्री f. a cabinet maker's wife. (Kashmiri)

    Dhokra- root in:  tarkhā (Western Pahadi) X  Tvaṣṭr̥ (Rigveda)

    ترکانړ tarkāṟṟṉ, s.m. (5th) A carpenter. Pl. ترکانړان tarkāṟṟṉān. (Panjābī).دروزګر darūz-gar, s.m. (5th) A carpenter, a joiner. Pl. دروزګران darūzgarān (corrup. of P درود گر).(Pashto) P. hokā m. ʻ carpenter (CDIAL 5513)taka in cmpd. ʻ cutting ʼ, m. ʻ carpenter ʼ VarBr̥S., vka -- takaka -- m. ʻ tree -- feller ʼ R. [takṣ]Pa. tacchaka -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, taccha -- sūkara -- m. ʻ boar ʼ; Pk. takkha -- , °aya -- m. ʻ carpenter, artisan ʼ; Bshk. sum -- tac̣h ʻ hoe ʼ (< ʻ *earth -- scratcher ʼ), tec̣h ʻ adze ʼ (< *takī -- ?); Sh. tac̣i f. ʻ adze ʼ; -- Phal. tērc̣hi ʻ adze ʼ (with "intrusive" r). (CDIAL 5618) tákan (acc. tákaam RV., takāam Pā.) m. ʻ carpenter ʼ. [takṣ]Pk. takkhāa -- m., Paš. ar. tac̣an -- kr, weg. taāˊn, Kal. ka -- tačon, Kho. (Lor.) tačon, Sh. thac̣&oarcacute; m., ka -- th°, K. chān m., chöñü f., P. takhā m., °ī f., H.takhān m.; Si. sasa ʻ carpenter, wheelwright ʼ< nom. tákā. -- With "intrusive" r: Kho. (Lor.) tračon ʻ carpenter ʼ, P. tarkhā m. ( H. tarkhān m.), WPah. jaun. tarkhā. -- With unexpl. d -- or dh -- (X dāˊru -- ?): S. rakhau m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; L. drakhā, (Ju.) darkhā m. ʻ carpenter ʼ (darkhā pakkhī m. ʻ woodpecker ʼ), mult. dhrikkhā m., dhrikkhaī f., awā. dhirkhā m. (CDIAL 5621)

    On both the seals (Mohenjodaro and Dholavira), a decrept woman is signified with breasts hanging down to convey the semantics 'decrepit'. The decrepit woman on both seals is ligatured to the back of a bovine (buttock). On both the seals the woman is shown with her arm upraised signifying semantics of 'striking':P. ṭhokṇā ʻ to strike ʼ; Ku. ṭhokṇo ʻ to wield ʼ; N. ṭhoknu ʻ to knock ʼ; A. ṭhūkiba ʻ to strike ʼ, B. ṭhokāṭhukā, Or. ṭhukibā; H. ṭhoknā ʻ to knock, make firm ʼ; G. ṭhokvũ ʻ to strike ʼ, M. ṭhokṇẽ (CDIAL 5513) The rebus rendering is a phonetic determinant: dhokra/dokra 'cire perdue, lost-wax metalcaster'.

    Plate II. Chlorite artifacts referred to as 'handbags' f-g (w 24 cm, thks 4.8 cm.); h (w 19.5 cm, h 19.4 cm, thks 4 cm); j (2 28 cm; h 24 cm, thks 3 cm); k (w 18.5, h 18.3, thks 3.2) Jiroft IV. Iconography of chlorite artifacts.

    An allograph to signify dhokra/dokra is a dhokra 'basket or wallet.' This hieroglyph is shown on a number of 'basket-shaped or wallet-shaped' stone sculptures from Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex. Hieroglyph: N. dhokro ʻ large jute bag ʼ, B. dhokaṛ; Or. dhokaṛa ʻ cloth bag ʼ; Bi. dhŏkrā ʻ jute bag ʼ; Mth. dhokṛā ʻ bag, vessel, receptacle ʼ; H. dhukṛīf. ʻ small bag ʼ; G. dhokṛũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- ṭṭ -- : M. dhokṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ; -- with -- n -- : G. dhokṇũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- s -- : N. (Tarai) dhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in ʼ.2. L. dhohẽ (pl. dhūhī˜) m. ʻ large thatched shed ʼ.3. M. dhõgḍā m. ʻ coarse cloth ʼ, dhõgṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ.4. L. ḍhok f. ʻ hut in the fields ʼ; Ku. ḍhwākā m. pl. ʻ gates of a city or market ʼ; N. ḍhokā (pl. of *ḍhoko) ʻ door ʼ; -- OMarw. ḍhokaro m. ʻ basket ʼ; -- N.ḍhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in, large basket ʼ.(CDIAL 6880) Rebus: dhokra ‘cire perdue’ casting metalsmith. 

    The hieroglyph of dhokaṛa 'an old female with breasts hanging down' and ligatured to the ḍhōṅgā 'buttock' of a bovine is also deployed on a Mohenjo-daro seal; rebus: dhokra.dokra 'cire-perdue lost-wax metal casting artifice' PLUS dhangar'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'; thus, the hypertext signifies: cire-perdue metalcaster smith. On a Mohenjo0daro seal this is reinforced by two hieroglyphs: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'. kuhi 'tree' rebus: kuhi'smelter'. On a Dholavira seal, the reinforcing hieroglyphs are a pair of crocodiles: karā 'crocodile' rebus: khār'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) PLUS dula 'pair' rebus; dul 'metal casting' Thus, together, metalcaster blacksmith.

    Mohenodaro seal. Pict-103 Horned (female with breasts hanging down?) person with a tail and bovine legs standing near a tree fisting a horned tiger rearing on its hindlegs.

    Dholavira molded terracotta tablet with Meluhha hieroglyphs written on two sides. Hieroglyphs: dhokaṛa ʻdecrepit, hanging down (of breasts)' (Oriya)(CDIAL 5567). 

    M. ḍhẽg n. ʻ groin ʼ, ḍhẽgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. M. dhõgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. (CDIAL 5585). Glyph: Br. kōnḍō on all fours, bent double. (DEDR 204a) Rebus: kunda ‘turner’ kundār turner (A.); kũdār, kũdāri (B.); kundāru (Or.); kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase; kundau dhiri = a hewn stone; kundau murhut = a graven image (Santali) kunda a turner’s lathe (Skt.)(CDIAL 3295) Tiger has head turned backwards. క్రమ్మర krammara. adv. క్రమ్మరిల్లు or క్రమరబడు Same as క్రమ్మరు (Telugu). Rebus: krəm backʼ(Kho.)(CDIAL 3145) karmāra ‘smith, artisan’ (Skt.) kamar ‘smith’ (Santali) 

    Ta. ṭoṅku crookedness. Ma. koṭuṅ-kai bent arm; Ka. kuḍu, kuḍa, kuḍi state of being crooked, bent, hooked, or tortuous; ḍoṅku to bend, be crooked; ḍoṅku, ḍoṅka state of being bent, curved, crooked; crookedness, a bend, a curve. Koḍ. koṭṭï katti billhook. Tu. guḍke a crooked man; ḍoṅků, ḍoṅku crookedness; crooked, curved, perverse; ḍoṅkelů crookedness; (B-K.) daṅgāvu to bend, incline. Kuwi (P.2ḍong- (-it-), (Isr.) ḍōṅg- (-it-)to be bent,  crooked; (P.2ḍok- (-h-), (Isr.) ḍōk- (-h-) to bend (elbow, wrist, finger); (Su. Isr.) ḍoveli, (F.) dō'velli (pl. dōvelka) sickle; (S.) doweli knife. Br. kōnḍō on all fours, bent double. Initial  of some forms is < *kḍ- (*kḍoṅg-, *kḍōk-; *kḍoveli < koḍavali); ? cf. also 2983 Kol. toŋge. / Cf. Mar. ḍõgā curved, bent.(DEDR 2054)

    ټوقړ ṯṯūḳaṟṟ ټوقړ ṯṯūḳaṟṟ, s.m. (5th) An old or decrepit man. Pl. ټوقړان ṯṯūḳaṟṟān. See ټاقړ

    ټوقړه ṯṯūḳaṟṟaʿh ټوقړه ṯṯūḳaṟṟaʿh, s.f. (3rd) An old woman. Pl. يْ ey.(Pashto) தொங்குகிழவன் toṅku-kiḻavaṉ , n. < id. +. Decrepit, old man; தொண்டு கிழவன். Loc.(Tamil)

    ढोंक (p. 205) ḍhōṅka n An old and decayed tree. 2 fig. An aged and infirm man or woman.*ḍōkka2 ʻ defective ʼ. 2. *dhōkka -- 2. [~ *ṭugga -- . See lists s.vv. *ḍagga -- and *ṭuṇṭa -- 2]

    1. Ku. ḍokroḍokhro ʻ old man ʼ; B. ḍokrā ʻ old, decrepit ʼ, Or. ḍokarā; H. ḍokrā ʻ decrepit ʼ; G. ḍokɔ m. ʻ penis ʼ, ḍokrɔ m. ʻ old man ʼ, M. ḍokrā m. -- Kho. (Lor.) duk ʻ hunched up, hump of camel ʼ; K. ḍọ̆ku ʻ humpbacked ʼ perh. < *ḍōkka -- 1.
    2. Or. dhokaṛa ʻ decrepit, hanging down (of breasts) ʼ. (CDIAL 5567) ḍŏsuru ड्वसुरु&below; । देहभुग्नता (sg. dat. ḍŏsaris ड्वसरिस्, ag. ḍŏsȧri ड्वस्&above;रि&below;), a bowed or bent condition of the body owing to old age, disease, or the like. -- aʦun -- अचुन् । भुग्नतापत्तिः m.inf. such a condition to enter; the body to begin to be bowed as one of the first symptoms of old age or disease.(Kashmiri)

    *ḍhōṅga1 ʻ projecting part of body ʼ. [Cf. *ḍhuṅga- ʻ lump ʼ]Ash. ḍoṅgḍoṅzã̄ -- ḍō̃ (< jāˊnu -- ) ʻ knee ʼ; Shum. ḍuãdotdot;lik ʻ knee ʼ, ḍuṅgurik ʻ elbow ʼ; Gaw. ḍuṅgɔ́ ʻ knee ʼ (→ Woṭ. ḍṓṅga ʻ lower leg ʼ Buddruss Woṭ 100), ḍuṅgī ʻ elbow ʼ; Sv. ḍuiṅgya ʻ elbow, ankle -- bone ʼ; H. ḍhõgā m. ʻ hip ʼ. -- Gy. pal. dṓni ʻ knee ʼ (NTS ii 255) X jāˊnu -- ? (CDIAL 5605)

    ढोंगा (p. 205) ḍhōṅgā m A buttock. (Marathi)

    ଦୋକର Dokara দোকর

    ଦେ. ଅ
    1 ଦୁଇ ଥର—1. Double; twice.

    2 ଦ୍ବିତୀଯଥର—2. For the second time.
    ଶିକ୍ଥ Ṡiktha
    ସଂ. ବି—(ଶିଚ ଧାତୁ=ସେବା କରିବା+କରଣ ଥ)
    1 ମହଣ; ମହୁଶିଠା—1. Wax; beeswax. Artificers who work with wax for metalwork are sithriya (Oriya) "West Bengal is the home to Dhokra Kamar tribes, who are the traditional metalsmiths. They follow a technique of metal casting known as Dhokra, named after the tribe. A look at these artefacts makes you believe that they have been made out of a single piece of wire wound around a piece of clay. But that is not the case. The object is cast in metal, using what is known as the lost- wax technique. The artefacts are ritual objects and their themes are mostly animals, jewellery, and icons of gods and goddesses. The Dhokras make many varieties of diyas (lamps) that are both single and multiple. Some of the lamps are mounted on elephant back.
    The lost-wax technique is not confined to India only. Evidence of this kind of casting of copper based alloys has been found in China, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, and some areas of Central America too.
    Amongst the trinkets made by these artisans, payeri (anklets), hansuli (necklace), earrings and bangles are most abundant. Besides these, some of the knickknacks made by these artisans are the Buli (piggybank), and a ceremonial finial pot kalas, which is mounted on a wooden pole for festivals.
    The Dhokra Kamar tribes are part of the same family, which includes the Malhars of Jharkhand and Sithrias of Orissa (metal craftsmen)."

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    Gods and Robots. Myths, Machines, and Ancient Dreams of Technology
    Adrienne Mayor
    Hardcover 2018 29.95 24.00
    304 pp. 6 1/8 x 9 1/4 75 black & white illustrations 11 color illustrations
    E-book ISBN9780691185446

    The fascinating untold story of how the ancients imagined robots and
    other forms of artificial life—and even invented real automated

    The first robot to walk the earth was a bronze giant called Talos.
    This wondrous machine was created not by MIT Robotics Lab, but by
    Hephaestus, the Greek god of invention. More than 2,500 years ago,
    long before medieval automata, and centuries before technology made
    self-moving devices possible, Greek mythology was exploring ideas
    about creating artificial life—and grappling with still-unresolved
    ethical concerns about biotechne, “life through craft.” In this
    compelling, richly illustrated book, Adrienne Mayor tells the
    fascinating story of how ancient Greek, Roman, Indian, and Chinese
    myths envisioned artificial life, automata, self-moving devices, and
    human enhancements—and how these visions relate to and reflect the
    ancient invention of real animated machines.

    As early as Homer, Greeks were imagining robotic servants, animated
    statues, and even ancient versions of Artificial Intelligence, while
    in Indian legend, Buddha’s precious relics were defended by robot
    warriors copied from Greco-Roman designs for real automata. Mythic
    automata appear in tales about Jason and the Argonauts, Medea,
    Daedalus, Prometheus, and Pandora, and many of these machines are
    described as being built with the same materials and methods that
    human artisans used to make tools and statues. And, indeed, many
    sophisticated animated devices were actually built in antiquity,
    reaching a climax with the creation of a host of automata in the
    ancient city of learning, Alexandria, the original Silicon Valley.

    A groundbreaking account of the earliest expressions of the timeless
    impulse to create artificial life, Gods and Robots reveals how some of
    today’s most advanced innovations in robotics and AI were foreshadowed
    in ancient myth—and how science has always been driven by imagination.
    This is mythology for the age of AI.

    Adrienne Mayor is the author, most recently, of The Amazons: Lives and
    Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World and The Poison King:
    The Life and Legend of Mithradates, Rome’s Deadliest Enemy, which was
    a finalist for the National Book Award (both Princeton). She is a
    research scholar in classics and the history of science at Stanford
    University and lives in Palo Alto, California.

    Intro to book:

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    From Hanoi-Malacca (Malakka) to Meluhha, from Meluhha to Mari-Haifa, the speech area (sprachbund) from 5th millennium BCE was Meluhha. The areas identified as Bronze-Age sites and of Austro-Asiatic speakers attest to this sprachbund since the major wealth-creating activity involved tin trade of the Tin-Bronze Revolution from 5th millennium BCE, from the Tin Belt of the Globe in the Himalayan river basins of Mekong, Irrawaddy and Salween through Brahmaputra, Ganga-Yamuna-Sarasvati-Persian Gulf, complementing the Indian Ocean Maritime Route. 
    See: Backbone of Indus Script Corpora. Tin Road of Bronze Age Indian Ocean Community linking Ancient Far East and Ancient Near East.

    This monograph presents images of artifacts with Indus Script hypertexts which signify wealth-accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues. These include:

    खरडा kharaḍā 'A leopard' (cheetah) Rebus: karaḍā 'hard metal alloy'
    पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu, bos indicus taurus' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, ferrite ore: Fe3O4'. 
    seṇa 'falcon' śyena, anzu 'eagle', aśáni 'thunderbolt' rebusآهن ګر āhan gar, 'blacksmith
     miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic languages)
    arye 'lion' rebus: ara 'brass'
    kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'
    फड 'cobra hood' (फडनीस phaḍanīsa 'scribe' of  फड 'metals manufactory'
    Frieze of a mosaic panel Circa 2500-2400 BCE Temple of Ishtar, Mari (Tell Hariri), Syria Shell and shale André Parrot excavations, 1934-36 AO 19820 कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen', 'young bull',Rebus: kõdār 'turner' (Bengali). konda 'furnace, fire-altar' kō̃da कोँद 'furnace for smelting': kõdā 'to turn in a lathe' (B.) कोंद kōnda. 'engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems' (Marathi) kundaṇa 'fine gold' 
    karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron'. 
    Image result for ziggurat jiroftThe ziggurat of Jiroft (Konar Sandal) is an echo of the Mohenjo-daro Stupa also enshrined on the tiered structures of Sit-Shamshi Bronze (Louvre).Sit-Shamshi bronze is a veneration of the morning Sun. शुष्मः 'sun' (Skt.) cognate Shamash (Akkadian), Sun divinity. A word cognate with shamas, 'sun' (Akkadian) is शुष्णः śuṣṇḥशुष्णः [शुष्-नः कित् Uṇ.3.12] 1 The sun.-2 Fire.-शुष्मः śuṣmḥ शुष्मः [शुष्-मन् किच्च] 1 The sun. -2 Fire. शाश्वत 'heaven , ether' (Samsktam). शुष्मः for शुष्ण Pa1n2. 3-1 , 85 Sch. m. the sun
    Aratta is a land that appears in Vedas(B.S 2.13.14)
    and Sumerian myths surrounding Enmerkar and Lugalbanda, two early and possibly mythical kings of Urukalso mentioned on the Sumerian king list.Aratta is described as follows in Sumerian literature:
    • It is a fabulously wealthy place full of gold, silver, lapis lazuli and other precious materials, as well as the artisans to craft them.
    • It is remote and difficult to reach.
    • It is home to the goddess Inana, who transfers her allegiance from Aratta to Uruk.
    • It is conquered by Enmerkar of Uruk. Writers in other fields have continued to hypothesize Aratta locations. A "possible reflex" has been suggested in Sanskrit Āraṭṭa or Arāṭṭa mentioned in the Mahabharata and other texts; Alternatively, the name is compared with the toponym Ararat or Urartu.
    Marhaši (Mar-ḫa-šiKI 𒈥𒄩𒅆𒆠MarhashiMarhasiParhasiBarhasi; in earlier sources Waraḫše) was a 3rd millennium BC polity situated east of Elam, on the Iranian plateau. It is known from Mesopotamian sources, but its precise location has not been identified, though some scholars link it with Jiroft. Francfort and Tremblay[1] on the basis of the Akkadian textual and archaeological evidence, proposed to identify the kingdom of Marhashi and Ancient Margiana. An inscription attributed to Lugal-Anne-Mundu of Adab (albeit in much later copies) mentions it among the seven provinces of his empire, between the names of Elam and Gutium...Hammurabi of Babylonia's 30th year name was "Year Hammurabi the king, the mighty, the beloved of Marduk, drove away with the supreme power of the great gods the army of Elam who had gathered from the border of Marhashi, Subartu, Gutium, Tupliash (Eshnunna) and Malgium who had come up in multitudes, and having defeated them in one campaign, he (Hammurabi) secured the foundations of Sumer and Akkad."

    Image result for malacca

    Bronze Age sites of eastern Bha_rata and neighbouring areas: 1. Koldihwa; 2. Khairdih; 3. Chirand; 4. Mahisadal; 5. Pandu Rajar Dhibi; 6. Mehrgarh; 7. Harappa; 8. Mohenjo-daro; 9. Ahar; 10.Kayatha; 11. Navdatoli; 12. Inamgaon; 13. Non Pa Wai; 14. Nong Nor; 15. Ban Na Di and Ban Chiang; 16. Non Nok Tha; 17. Thanh Den; 18. Shizhaishan; 19. Ban Don Ta Phet [After Fig. 8.1 in: Charles Higham, 1996, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press].

    Image result for meluhha map
    Image result for meluhha map
    Araṭṭa as Meluhha speech area (sprachbund)
    Related imageImage result for meluhha map
    Image result for meluhha map
    Image result for meluhha map
    Image result for haifa mapImage result for meluhha mapImage result for mari map

    Related imageImage result for jiroft mapImage result for jiroft map
    Figure 1. Map of Iran, with Jiroft, Konār Ṣandal, and sites of the 3rd millenium BCE with chlorite vessels. Courtesy of the author. (Jean Perrot)

    One of the most potentially significant finds reported on the Internet from Konar Sandal—but to the Internet from the “excavations in Jiroft,” “the Jiroft ancient site—”are a number of alleged inscriptions. It remains unclear how many inscriptions exist, where they were excavated, or if any in fact were recovered from one or both of the tepes. The Internet mentions two inscriptions discovered at Konar Sandal in 2005, but no contexts are mentioned. In the same source, Madjidzadeh is quoted as stating that they should be labeled Proto-Iranian, not Proto-Elamite. Further, two other inscriptions are said to have been recovered in a local farmer’s backyard, 300 meters from one of the tepes in 2006, that is, they were not excavated; they measure 18 x 10 cm and 13.5 x 8.5 cm. One Internet-published alleged inscription is on a broken object labeled a brick (20.3 cm) and preserving parts of one and a half lines of indentations. It is proclaimed to be 300 years older than writing from Susa, which signifies to the excavator that the Elamites learned about writing from “Jiroft.” Another is a broken but complete tablet alleged to derive from Konar Sandal B (Basello, 2006; no documentation for the source or size is provided); it consists of five lines of incised geometric indentations. Another alleged inscription (still unpublished but circulating among scholars) consists of four lines of geometric incisions (that look as if freshly incised). Not one of the published (not by Madjidzadeh but on the Internet) tablets and their indentations has any relationship with any known system of writing from any ancient culture (see Covington, 2004, p. 11).
    Concomitant with the Konar Sandal tepe excavations, Madjidzadeh (2003b, p. 26) briefly mentioned excavations of several burials at two local cemeteries, Riganbar and Konar Sandal, but with no reference to their specific locations relative to the tepes or what was recovered. Only one has been published as a photograph (ibid., p. 25) that shows pottery vessels; it is a Bronze Age burial. An Internet report recorded that the bronze head of a goat “was found in the historical cemetery of Jiroft,” a site that eludes us.
    Such is the situation about the limited extent of archeological knowledge both of the plunder and the excavations at sites south of Jiroft up to 2007.

    Pierre Amiet, review of Madjidzadeh, 2003a, in Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie Orientale 96/1, 2002, pp. 95-96.
    Gian Pietro Basello, “The Tablet from Konar Sandal B (Jiroft),” at www., accessed on 7 November 2006.
    Richard Covington, “What was Jiroft?” Saudi Aramco World, September/October 2004, pp. 2-11.
    Cultural Heritage News Agency, “Discovery of the Main Part of Kenar Sandal’s Ziggurat,” at “Latest Archaeological News from Iran,” /discovery-of-main-part-of-kenar.html, accessed on 25 February 2006.
    Jean Daniel Forest, “La Mésopotamie et les échanges à longue distance aux IV et III millénaires,” Dossiers d’Archeologie, no. 287, October 2003, pp. 126-34.
    C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, “New Centers of Complexity in the Iranian Bronze Age,” The Review of Archaeology, Spring 2004, pp. 5-10.
    Andrew Lawler, “Rocking the Cradle,” Smithsonian, May 2004, pp. 41-48.
    Yousef Madjidzadeh, Jiroft: The Earliest Oriental Civilization, Tehran, 2003a.
    Idem, “La découverte de Jiroft,” Dossiers d’Archeologie, no. 287, October 2003b, pp. 19-26.
    Idem, “La premiére campagne de fouilles à Jiroft,” Dossiers d’Archeologie, no. 287, October 2003c, pp. 65-75.
    Oscar White Muscarella: “Jiroft and ‘Jiroft-Aratta’,” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 15, 2001 (publ. 2005), pp. 173-98.
    Jean Perrot, “L’iconographie de Jiroft,” Dossiers d’Archeologie, no. 287, October 2003, pp. 97-113.
    Jean Perrot and Youssef Madjidzadeh, “Découvertes récentes á Jiroft (sud du plateau Iranien),” CRAIBL, 2003, pp. 1087-1102.
    Idem, “Récentes découvertes à Jiroft (Iran): Résultats de la campagne de fouilles, 2004,” CRAIBL, 2004, pp. 1105-20.
    Idem, “L’iconographie des vases et objets en chlorite de Jiroft (Iran),” Paléorient31/2, 2005, pp. 123-52.
    Idem, “À travers l’ornamentation des vases et objets en chlorite de Jiroft,” Paléorient 32/1:, 2006, pp. 99-112.
    Holly Pittman “La culture du Halil Roud,” Dossiers d’Archeologie, no. 287, October 2003, pp. 78-87.
    D. T. Potts, “In the Beginning: Marhashi and the Origins of Magan’s Ceramic Industry in the Third Millennium BC,” Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 16/1, 2005, pp. 67-78.
    (Oscar White Muscarella)
    Originally Published: December 15, 2008
    Last Updated: April 17, 2012

    World's Oldest Ziggurat in Jiroft Being Excavated

    25 Feb. 2006 
               Stairs of Konra-Sandal Ziggurat
    LONDON, (CAIS) -- The main part of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat of the Jiroft ancient site, located in the southern Iranian province of Kerman, has recently been excavated, the Persian service of CHN reported on Friday.

    Before the discovery of the ziggurat in 2002, Chogha Zanbil, a major remnant of the Elamite civilization near Susa , was the only surviving ziggurat in Iran . Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat dates back to 1250 BCE.

    “The main part of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat is the lower part and is 200 years older than the upper section. Thus, construction of the ziggurat was carried out in stages beginning in 2200 BCE,” said Professor Yusef Majidzadeh, the director of the archaeological team working at the site.

    Built some time around 2100 BCE by king Ur-Nammu, the Ur Ziggurat is the oldest one inMesopotamia , but the Konar Sandal Ziggurat is a century older than it, he added.

    The Ur Ziggurat was built in honor of the god Sin in Ur , a Sumerian city on the Euphrates , in the south of modern-day Iraq . It was called 'Etemennigur', which means 'house whose foundation creates terror'.

    “The archaeologists have determined the original shape of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat for restoration,” Majidzadeh said.

    Jiroft came into the spotlight nearly four years ago when reports of extensive illegal excavations and plundering of the priceless historical items of the area by local people surfaced.

    Since 2002, two excavation seasons have been carried out at the Jiroft site under the supervision of Majidzadeh, leading to the discovery of a ziggurat made of more than four million mud bricks dating back to about 2200 BCE.

    Jiroft is one of the richest historical areas in the world, with ruins and artifacts dating back to the third millennium BCE. Over 100 historical sites are located along the approximately 400 kilometers of the Halil Rud riverbank.

    Many Iranian and foreign experts see the findings in Jiroft as signs of a civilization as great as Sumer and ancient Mesopotamia . Majidzadeh believes that Jiroft is the ancient city of Aratta , which was described as a great civilization in a Sumerian clay inscription.

    Philology of Ethnic Epithet of Iranian Peoples

    By Sir Harold Bailey
    December 1987

    ARYA, an ethnic epithet in the Achaemenid inscriptions and in the Zoroastrian Avestan tradition. It is used in the Avesta of members of an ethnic group and contrasts with other named groups (Tūirya, Sairima, Dāha, Sāinu or Sāini) and with the outer world of the An-airya "non-Arya." Old Persian ariya- occurs in the phrase of Darius: ariyaariyaciça, "Arya, of Arya origin," and of Xerxes: pārsapārsahyāpuçaariyaariyaciça, "a Persian, son of a Persian, Arya, of Arya origin." The phrase with ciça, "origin, descendance," assures that it is an ethnic name wider in meaning than pārsa and not a simple adjectival epithet. The corresponding Akkadian and Elamite offer the transcriptions a-ri-iar-ri-i ṣitir and har-ri-iahar-ri-iaṣi-iš-ša. Elamite has also preserved the gloss to the name of the god Ahuramazdā: u-ra-mas-da na-ap har-ri-ia-na-um(Behistun 62), "Ahuramazdā, god of the Aryas." In DB 4.89 ariyā, "in the Arya," refers to script or language. The Avesta has the plural aire (Yt. 5.69): yaθa azəm avata vərəθra hačāne yaθa vīspe anye aire "may I possess so much force as all the other Aryas." The archer Ǝrəxša- (NPers. Āraš) is described (Yt. 8.6) as xšviwi.išvatəmō airyanąm "most swift-arrowed of the Aryas." Kavi Haosravō is called (Yt. 15.32) arša airyanąm "the hero (aršan- "male") of the Aryas." The dahyu- lands of the Aryas (gen. plur. airyanąmdahyunąm) are known; and once the pāδa- "settlement" is mentioned (Yt. 4.5 airyābyō pa’aēibyō). The xᵛarənah- "fortune" or (of royalty) a vague "glory," is coupled with the gen. plur. (airyanąm xᵛarənō) and with the adjective (airyanəm xᵛarənō). The same adjective qualifies vaēǰah- "extensive territory," in the name airyanəm vaēǰō, loc. sing. airyene vaēǰahi "the Aryan plain," the first of the lands created by Ahura Mazdā (Vidēvdāt 1.3). In Yašt 13.87, the phrase nāfō airyanąm daḣyunąm čiθrəm airyanąm daḣyunąm "the kindred of the Arya lands, the origin of the Arya lands," coincides in use of čiθra- with Old Pers. ariyaciça. Over against the Arya lands stand those which are anairya- "non-Arya" (as in anairyǡ diŋhāvōYt. 19.68); this dichotomy was continued later in Persian tradition.
    Four place-names containing airya- occur in the Avesta. The airyō.šayana- "dwelling of the Aryas" (Yt. 10.14), comprises six names, of which four are well known: iškatəm pourutəmča mourum hārōyum gaomča suγδəm xᵛāirizəmča "Iskata, Pouruta, Margu, Haraiva, Gava-Sugda, Hvārazmi." The mountain Airyō-xšuθa (Yt. 8.6) was in eastern Iran: yaθa tiγriš mainya-asǡ yim aŋhaṱ ərəxšō xšviwi.išuš xšviwi.išvatəmō airyanąm airyō.xsuθaṱ hača garōiṱ xᵛ anvantəm avi gairīm "like the mind-swift arrow which the archer Ǝrexša shot, swift-arrowed, most swift-arrowed of the Aryas, from Mount Airyō-xšuθa to Mount Xvanvant." The forest (razurāYt. 15.32) called vīspe.aire.razuraya (loc. sing.) was where Kavi Haosravō slew Vāyu. The fourth name is the airyanəm vaēǰō, Zor. Pahl. ērān-vēž, frequent in the texts and remembered also in Manichean Sogdian ʾryʾn wyžn (*aryān vēžan) and Turfan Parthian (/ / / n wyžn, see W. B. Henning, BSOAS 11, 1943, p. 69). In Greek, Herodotus (7.62) stated that, in the past, the Medes had been called Arioi. The Greek use of Areia (Latin Aria) for Old Pers. Haraiva, Balōčī Harē(v), Arm. H(a)reu, was likely to cause confusion.
    The same ethnic concept was held in the later centuries. The Dēnkard (ed. Madan, p. 438.23) offers hutōhmaktom ēr martōm "the best-born Arya man," associating arya- with good birth; cf. the Old Persian connection with birth in ariyačiça. Similarly ērīh ut dahyupatīh (ibid., 553.17) "nobility and lordship," contrasts with arg ut bār hač škōhišn, "labor and burdens from poverty." In the inscription of Šāpūr I on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt (ŠKZ), Parth. ʾryʾn W ʾnʾryʾn (aryān ut anaryān), Mid. Pers. ʾyrʾn W ʾnyrʾn (ērān ut anērān; cf. Armenian eran eut aneran) comprises the inhabitants of all the known lands. The imperial title in Sasanian inscriptions is Parth. MLKYN MLKʾ aryān ut anaryān kē šihr hač yazdān. Mid. Pers. kē čiθrē hač yazdān, Greek arianōn kai arrarianōn (ŠKZ 1). In the singular Parth. ʾry, Mid. Pers. ʾyly, Greek arian occurs in a title: ʾry mzdyzn nrysḥw MLKʾ, *ary mazdēzn Narēsahv šāh (Parth. ŠKZ 19); ʾyly mzdysn nrsḥy MLKʾ (Mid. Pers. version 24), Greek arian masdaasnou. The empire is called ʾryʾn ḥštr(Parth.), ērān šahr (Zor. Pahl.). Armenian has retained arya- in nom. pl. ari-kʿ, gem. pl. areacʿ, and in sing. ari ayr "Arya man, Persian;" the negative anari-kʿ is found, as well as the Mid. Pers. phrase eran eut aneran. New Persian has ērān (western, īrān), ērān-šahr. In the Caucasus Ossetic has Digoron eräirä, Iron ir, with Dig. iriston, Iron iryston (the i-umlaut modifying the vowel a-, but leaving the -r- untouched), the ancestral "Alān" and Latin (1459 A.D.) Arani. The name "Alān" is found in Greek Alanoi, Latin Alani, Chinese A-lan, Caucasian Megrel alani kʾočʿi "brave man," Georgian Alaneṭʿi "Alan country," Pers. Alān, Arab-Pers. al-Lān as the name of a people north of the Caucasus powerful until the Mongol invasion.
    An ethical use of Zor. Pahl. ēranēr can be seen in Mēnōg ī xraḍ 20.15: anērīh ī hrōmāyīkān "the evil conduct of the Romans (i.e., Byzantines);" Dādīstān ī dēnīg 66.1: mart ī ēr ī hudēn "the Arya man of good faith" (here "noble").
    Outside Iranian there is much further evidence in the Old Indian tradition of the Vedas and later texts. A word arya- with three accentuations (árya-, aryá-, aryà-) is traditionally glossed by īśvara- "owner, possessor," more vaguely "lord." This same meaning was also offered for Rig Veda arí-. But to compare with Iranian arya- the Indian tradition has āˊrya-. The latter is normally taken as an adjective by lengthened vowel (vṛddhi formation) but could also be explained by a long ā before two consonants. In the Vedas occurs Kāṭhaka āryaṃ varṇaṃ "the Arya color," contrasting with dāˊsaṃ várṇaṃ "the Dāsa color" of the enemies of the Arya people (RV 2.12.4). Beside this confrontation there is also the social difference of Jaiminīya āryaṃ ca varṇaṃ śaudraṃ ca "both the Ārya and the Śūdra color," the Śūdra being at first the workers. In RV 1.77.3 occurs devayántīr víśa . . . āˊrīḥ "the devout Ārya houses" (if this is the feminine to āˊrya-; the traditional rendering is from ar- "to move"). In later Indian texts the drama has āryaputra for the wife’s address to her husband: "son of an Arya" or "of a noble." In Buddhist sources ārya-, feminine āryikā-, is a laudatory epithet of the monk and nun used in place of bhikṣu- and bhikṣuṇī. It is used in some sense of "noble" of the Buddhist satyāni (true doctrines) and of the dharma- (doctrine) in the terms ārya-satyāni and ārya-dharma-. In ārya-dharma- the arya- is translated by Khotan Saka āysña "of high birth." The later Indian languages, Pali, and various Prakrits have the corresponding later forms. The Buddhist glosses confirm the sense of "high-born" or "noble" and "lord." Thus Tibetan has rje-porje-hujo-bo jo-hu "lord," with Chinese gloss "honored person;" Tibetan ya-rabs "high birth," renders āryatā (hence "nobility"). As laudatory epithet note also Āryadésa- "noble land," for India; and Ārya-bhāṣā- "noble language," for Sanskrit. Note, with Suffix, āryaka- "honored man," Pali ayyaka- "grandfather," and ayyakā- "grandmother." Hindu Sanskrit has āryāvarta. The contrast between ārya- "noble and dāsá- "slave" and dásyu- (the pejorative epithet) is missing in the Iranian tradition. Old Persian has dahyu- "a land and its people;" Turfan Parth. has dāhīft "slavery." But Khotan Saka daha- "man, virile person," and Waxī ’ai "hero" (*dahy-) are used in a good sense. To this daha- one can compare dása- "man" (RV6.21.11), who is set in a generation before mánu- "man."
    These facts are undisputed, but no decision has yet been reached regarding the earlier meaning of the Iranian and Indian words. No evidence for such an Indo-European ethnic name has been found. The Irano-Indian ar- is a syllable ambiguous in origin, from IE. ar-, er-, or or-. The only evidence that this word is from Indo-European ar- is in the Celtic Old Irish aire "the free man" in Irish law, and aire (gen. sing. airech, nom. pl. airig) glossed by Latin optimas "of the best class." (The first component ario- of Germanic names may always be identified with hario- "army, troop." The Celtic first component ario- in names is uncertain because Celtic lost initial p-.) On this slight evidence it has been usual to accept Indo-European ar- as the base. Attempts to connect arya- with other basic words have been many. H. Güntert, Der arische Weltkönig und Heiland (Halle, 1924), proposed "allied" (base ar- "to fit"). Paul Thieme offered a detailed proposal to trace Rigvedic arí, glossed īśvara- and arí, Atharvavedic ári- "enemy" (AV 13.1.29: árir yó naḥ pṛtanyati "the foe who fights against us"), together with arya- and ārya-, to a primitive society in which the mutual connection of host and guest was expressed by the one word; he translated it "stranger" (Der Fremdling in Ṛgveda, Leipzig, 1938). This was adopted by L. Renou (Ētudes védiques et pāṇinéennes II, Paris, 1956, pp. 109-11) and in Wackernagel-Debrunner (the revised preface) but criticized by G. Dumézil, Le troisième soverain, Paris, 1949. It places the work too early in Indo-European times and hardly offers a way to advance from "stranger" to an ethnic name. A different explanation was proposed by the writer in "Iranian arya and daha-," TPS, 1959, pp. 71-115 and supplementary note TPS, 1960, pp. 87-88. Accepting the interpretation of arí- and arya- by īśvara- "possessor," these words were traced to a base ar- well attested in Iranian in the sense of "get" and "cause to get, give." Avestan has ar- and Ossetic ar-; cf. Greek arnumai "to get," and Armenian aṙnoum "to take," hence Indo-European ar-. (The word ari-, ári- "enemy," however, was connected with Rigvedic ṛti- "attack," and Iranian Pahl. artīk "attack," and so to Indo-European er-.) For arya-, the Iranian ethnic name, it was proposed to start from the sense of "good birth" and so with Ossetic ār-: ārd "to bear young," a specialized meaning of the same IE. base ar-. Cf. Old Norse geta "to get," also "to bear young," getinn "born." The stage of society represented by the word was the oikarkhia, birth into which gave nobility; this is expressed by the later use of ā-zan- as in āzāta- "born into the House, noble;" in the Indian tradition it is expressed by ājāneya- "well born" (said of man or animal). This arya-, Indian ārya- "noble," was thus an excellent name for a people; and it favored the further development into an ethical concept of "excellence, nobility." The identification of ar- with ā-zan- is attested by the Khotan Saka rendering of arya- by āysña- from *ā-zan-ya-, for which Avestan provides āsna- "well born," and Man. Mid. Pers. āznān, Armenian azniu "excellent, noble." The Celtic *ariak "free man" and "optimas" fit here admirably. Note, too, that (with causative -nu-) Hittite ar-nu- "to bring an animal to copulation," can best be placed with this same Iranian Ossetic ār- "to bear young, give birth," rather than with Greek ornumi "to stir up, excite." For the pregnant meaning "good birth" for arya-, note how Latin gentīlis, originally simply "of the family," was in the Romance languages changed to the meaning "noble." Hittite arawa- "free, noble" could be brought in here in preference to E. Laroche, Hommages à G. Dumézil, Brussels, 1960, pp. 124-28, where it is traced to ara- "friend," and compared with Gothic freis "free," and frijonds "friend."

    Arya- as first component in proper names becomes ambiguous if two words existed: arya- "Aryan," and *arya- "wealth" (cf. Man. Parth. ʿyr, Arm. ir, Mid. Pers. xīr, Khotan Saka hära-, all meaning "thing"). Such names are Old Pers. Ariyāramna (Greek Ariaramnēs), Ariobarzanēs, Elamite Harrikhama, Harrimade, Harrimana, Harripirtan; Lydian Arijamaña; Nisa Parthian ʾrymtrkʾrybrzn; the Sogdian name of the capital city Bukhara: in Chinese, A-lam-mit from *aryāmēθa(n) (J. Markwart, Wehrot und Arang, Leiden, 1938, p. 140), later Rāmēθan.
    Finally various explanations have been offered for Rigvedic Aryamán-, Avestan airyaman-, where the first component has been rendered "true, Aryan, wealth." The supernatural being (called ādityá-) Aryaman has the epithet sátpati- "official in the house." He is in charge of the treasury; hence this writer has preferred to explain his name as "the being in charge of riches and hospitality."

    O. Schrader and A. Nehring, Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde, Berlin and Leipzig, 1917-23 (s.v. Arier).
    A Debrunner, "Zum Ariernamen," in A Volume of Eastern and Indian Studies Presented to F. W. Thomas, Bombay, 1939, pp. 71-74.
    W. Belardi, "Sui nomi ari nell’Asia anteriore antica," Fontes Ambrosiani XXVII, 1951, pp. 55-74.
    M. Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen I, Heidelberg, 1956, pp. 49,70, etc.
    Idem, Onomastica persepolitana, Vienna, 1973, nos. 8.458, 8.472, etc.
    H. W. Bailey, "The Second Stratum of the Indo-Iranian Gods", in Mithraic Studies, ed. J. R. Hinnells, Manchester, 1975, pp. 1-20.

    Elamites Used Decimal System in Calculations

    12 June 2004
    An Iranian scholar believes Elamites used a decimal system in their bills to reflect the heightened importance of trade at that era.

    “Studies on an inscription representing an Elamite bill manifest they were the first people in Iran to use a decimal system in their business transactions. Other inscriptions in pictorial language of pre-Elamite show animals, vessels and other objects standing for fractions and decimal numbers,” said Rogha’eh Behzadi, the author of “Ancient Tribes in Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Fertile Crescent”.

    She added, “On these tablets, there some designs of circles and the thumb. A small circle is believed to have been used to represent zero while the thumb was a symbol of 1. The pre-Elamites language was read from right to left.”

    Elam first came into existence sometime between 3500 and 2500 BC. In around 2000 BC the Elamite dynasty conquered most of southern Mesopotamia.

    At its zenith, Elam controlled an empire that stretched from what is now the Baghdad area to the entrance of the Persian Gulf. The Assyrians sacked the Elamite capital, Susa, in 647 BC.

    Jiroft is the Ancient City of Marhashi: Piotr Steinkeller

    8 May 2008 
    LONDON, (CAIS) -- Piotr Steinkeller, professor of Assyriology in Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations of Harvard University, believes that the prehistoric site of Jiroft is the lost ancient city of Marhashi.

    He developed the theory in his paper during the first round of the International Conference on Jiroft Civilisation, which was held in Tehran on May 5 and 6.

    Marhashi, (in earlier sources Warahshe) was a 3rd millennium BCE polity situated east of Elam, on the Iranian plateau. It is known from Mesopotamian sources, and its precise location has not been identified. An inscription of Lugal-Anne-Mundu, the most important king of the Adab city-state in Sumer, locates it, along with Elam, to the south of Gutium, an ancient polity in upper Mesopotamia. The inscription also explains that Lugal-Anne-Mundu confronted the Warahshe king, Migir-Enlil.

    Jiroft is the lost ancient city of Marhashi, which had been located between Anshan and Meluhha, Steinkeller said.

    Anshan was one of the early capitals of Elam, from the 3rd millennium BCE, which is located 36 kilometers northwest of modern Shiraz in Fars Province, southwestern Iran.

    The Indus Valley Civilization has been tentatively identified with the toponym Meluhha known from Sumerian records.

    According to Steinkeller, Marhashi was a political and economic power in eastern Iran, which had been in a close contact with Babylonia. This relationship had been developed over two periods, which has influenced the political history of the region for at least a half century.

    Steinkeller had previously been searching the Kerman region in order to identify a site from the 3rd millennium BCE, which he could consider it as Marhashi. He had found Tappeh Yahya and Tall-e Eblis, but he believes that Tappeh Yahya is too small to be considered as Marhashi and Tall-e Eblis has been has almost entirely been destroyed over the years.

    Thus, he said that Jiroft is the heart of the ancient city of Marhashi and hoped that upcoming excavations and studies would help archaeologists discover other parts of the city.

    According to the conference scientific secretary Professor Yusef Majidzadeh, over 700 ancient sites such as Tappehs and graves have been discovered in Jiroft over the past six seasons of excavation by a team of archaeologists led by Majidzadeh.

    Located next to the Halil-Rud River in southern Iran’s Kerman Province, Jiroft came into the spotlight in 2002 when reports surfaced of extensive illegal excavations being carried out by local people who went on to plunder priceless historical items.

    Majidzadeh team unearthed a great number of artefacts at Jiroft as well as three tablets in one of the present-day villager’s homes and a brick inscription near Jiroft’s Konar-Sandal region wherein they also discovered ruins of a large fortress, which previously was believed to be a ziggurat. The structure is surmised have been made of more than four million mud bricks.

    The pottery works and the shards discovered in the Konar-Sandal fortress date back to an interval between the fourth millennium BCE and early years of the Islamic period, Majidzadeh said during the conference.

    Once, Majidzadeh had said that Jiroft is the ancient city of Aratta, which was described in a Sumerian clay inscription as an impressive center of civilization. In December 2007, he suggested that archaeologists use the term Proto-Iranian instead of Proto-Elamite for the script found at Jiroft.

    He believes that the world should revise its knowledge of the Eastern civilizations due to the inscriptions discovered at Jiroft.

    Majidzadeh describes the inscriptions as unique and also elaborates that the tablets and the brick inscription bearing a script which has been invented along with the Mesopotamia script at the same time.

    A great number of Iranian and foreign archaeologists and scholars will discuss latest studies on the Jiroft civilization during the conference, which will be continued in Jiroft from May 8 to 9.

    Photo: A team of archaeologists work on a prehistoric site near Konar-Sandal in the Jiroft region in undated photo. This site was previously believed to be a ziggurat.

    Jiroft Inscriptions Necessitate Reconsideration of Eastern Civilizations: Majidzadeh 

    LONDON, (CAIS) --  Iranian archaeologist Professor Yusef Majidzadeh believes that new inscriptions discovered at the 5000-year-old sites of Jiroft invites us to a revise our knowledge of the Eastern civilizations. 

    Majidzadeh described the inscriptions as unique and added, “We have discovered a script which has been invented along with the Mesopotamia script at the same time.”

    “The script is geometrical and differs from the Mesopotamian one. Thus, the discovery of this script is very important for the world, because many traditional theories on the Eastern civilizations must be revised because of the discovery of the new script,” he added.

    However, this idea is in opposition to the previous theory crediting the Sumerians of ancient Mesopotamia with inventing the earliest system of writing, which appeared ca. 3500 BCE.

    During the past six seasons of excavation by a team of archaeologists led by Majidzadeh, the team had unearthed three tablets in one of the present-day villager’s homes and a brick inscriptions near Jiroft’s Konar-Sandal region wherein they also discovered a ziggurat made of more than four million mud bricks.

    Located next to the Halil-Rud River in southern Iran’s Kerman Province, Jiroft came into the spotlight in 2002 when reports surfaced of extensive illegal excavations being carried out by local people who went on to plunder priceless historical items.

    In November 2007, the team returned to Jiroft in order to renew digs of the site in the hope of finding further artifacts bearing inscriptions, but this season came to an end with no result. 

    According to Majidzadeh, it is roughly impossible to decipher the inscriptions due to little number of discovered items bearing such writings.

    “The deciphering of ancient writings such as hieroglyphic and cuneiform scripts have been carried out using a tablet or a brick that bore bilingual inscriptions which referred to the same subject and one inscription could be read by another one,” he explained.

    “We should search Jiroft for a bilingual tablet or something like that which would enable us to read the geometrical script, otherwise deciphering the inscriptions are unattainable. In nay case, the important fact is that the Jiroft inscriptions are part of a civilization,” he added.

    After numerous unique discoveries had been made in the region, Majidzadeh declared Jiroft to be the cradle of art. 

    Many scholars questioned this theory due to the fact that no writings had been discovered at the site, but shortly afterwards his team discovered the inscriptions.

    The inscriptions are older than the oldest inscriptions, such as the Inshushinak, found at Elamite sites.

    Many Iranian and foreign experts consider the Jiroft findings as evidence for the existence of a civilization in Jiroft as great as that of Sumer or ancient Mesopotamia. 

    Majidzadeh believes that Jiroft is the ancient city of Aratta, which was described in a Sumerian clay inscription as an impressive center of civilization. In December 2007, he suggested that archaeologists use the term Proto-Iranian instead of Proto-Elamite for the script found at Jiroft. 

    Latest studies on the Jiroft civilization are scheduled to be discussed during a conference, which will be held in Tehran, Kerman, and Jiroft from May 5 to 9. 

    Majidzadeh is the scientific secretary of the conference, which its first edition was held in 2004.

    The inscription on a brick found in the archeological site of Jiroft is identified by experts as a manuscript belonging to the Elamite era.

    The inscription which includes two lines proves that the residents of the area enjoyed writing during the Bronze Age (the first half of the third millennium BC).

    Jiroft historical site, which is located next to the Halilrood River in the central province of Kerman, has been called “Archeologists’ Lost Heaven”. Numerous ancient items and remains have been discovered there during the last three years.

    The inscription on the brick is not the first example of handwriting found in Jiroft and some other evidence had previously been identified among seal impressions, however, it is notable with respect to the reassurance it gives experts concerning the existence of handwriting then.

    The inscription is written on a brick, of which only the left corner and two written lines remain. Enough to have archeologists categorize it as an Elamite one, explained head of the Jiroft excavation team, Yusef Majidzadeh.

    The most known Elamite manuscript is the inscription of In-Shushinak, the Elamite King, which dates to the second millennium BC and has been unearthed in the Susa diggings, Khuzestan, south of Iran. Meanwhile, the oldest discovered handwriting is early Elamite dating to the third millennium BC.

    Elamite manuscripts have previously been found in Susa, the Burnt City, and some other ancient sites.

    Majidzadeh and Holly Pittman, an ancient art professor at the University of Pennsylvania working in Jiroft are optimist that further diggings will lead to an understanding of the more ancient developments and maybe the root of the newly discovered handwriting. It is not yet read, but the archeologists say it is probably a building inscription or an offering to the King.

    Archaeologists have Discovered the World's Oldest Inscription in Jiroft

    5 November 2007

    LONDON, (CAIS) -- Archaeologists have discovered the world's most ancient inscription in the Iranian city of Jiroft, near the Halil Roud historical site, according to Iran Press TV.

    "The inscription, discovered in a palace, was carved on a baked mud-brick whose lower left corner has only remained,” explained Professor Yousof Majid-Zadeh, head of the Jiroft excavation team.

    “The only ancient inscriptions known to experts before the Jiroft discovery were cuneiform and hieroglyph,” said Majid Zadeh, adding that,”the new-found inscription is formed by geometric shapes and no linguist around the world has been able to decipher it yet.”

    Archaeologists have found many artefacts confirming the existence of a rich civilization dating back to the third millennium BCE, during the 5 previous seasons.

    The sixth season of Jiroft excavations will focus on the temple and the sites where the tablets were found during previous phases.

    Archaeologists believe the discovered inscription is the most ancient written script found so far and that the Elamite written language originated in Jiroft, where the writing system developed first and was then spread across the country.

    Jiroft Inscription the Most Controversial Discovery in the Region: Majidzadeh

    8 March 2007
    LONDON, (CAIS) -- Director of the excavation team in Jiroft historical site said that the traces of primitive scripts are the most controversial findings in the region since it invalidates claims by foreign archaeologists that until the Achaemenid era, the writing was unknown to Iranian peoples.
    According to Persian service of ISNA, Professor Yousef Majidzadeh, who was speaking in a meeting titled ’Latest Jiroft Excavation’ added that currently explorations are being conducted in Matoutabad, Hosseinabad and Konar Sandal. The main section of the studies focuses on Konar Sandal, he noted.

    Most of the objects discovered, particularly the earthenware found in cemeteries, are mythological oriented since they pertain to life after death, he said, adding that the origin of the belief is not yet clear.

    He stated, “Jiroft culture is self-existent and cannot be compared to that of Mesopotamia to conclude that such beliefs were not indigenous.“

    Probably the Achaemenid art has its root in Jiroft because common elements have been found in the two, Majidzadeh said.

    Referring to the four inscriptions found in the region, he said that based on carbon tests conducted in Pennsylvania University, they date back to 2500 BCE.

    The script used in writing them is totally different from the Mesopotamian script or even the Egyptian Hieroglyph, he said.

    “We have called the script geometric or Jiroft script, which is similar to scripts which were once prevalent in Ilam for a period of 20 years,“ he concluded.

    Foreign Experts to Attempt to Decipher Newly Discovered Jiroft Script
    15 February 2005

    The brick inscription which was recently discovered in Konar Sandal at the ancient site of Jiroft will be studied by foreign experts who will attempt to decipher its text, the director of the archaeological team working on Jiroft and the Halil-Rud River cultural area announced on Tuesday.

    The archaeological team determined in initial studies that the inscription dates back to the Bronze Age (the first half of the third millennium B.C.).

    “The inscription proves that writing was in use in the region at the time and it will shed light on the dark corners of life in the first half of the third millennium B.C. Thus, we decided to give the inscription to an expert from France and several others from the U. S.,” Yusef Majidzadeh added.

    “Although only the left corner and two lines of writing remain, the script of the inscription has been definitely identified as Elamite,” he said.

    The oldest Elamite script, known as Proto-Elamite, first appeared in about 2900 B.C. in Susa, the capital of Elam, in the southwestern Iranian province of Khuzestan. The Proto-Elamite script is thought to have been developed from an early Sumerian script.

    Old Elamite was a syllabic script derived from Proto-Elamite and was known to have been used between about 2250 and 2220 B.C., although it may have been invented at an earlier date. The Inshushinak inscription, found during an excavation in Susa, had been written in this type of script.

    “The Konar Sandal inscription is older than the Inshushinak inscription, thus it seems that the recently discovered inscription will link proto and old Elamite scripts,” Majidzadeh said.

    Known as the “archeologists’ lost heaven”, the ancient site of Jiroft is located next to the Halil-Rud River in the southern province of Kerman. Numerous ancient ruins and artifacts of Jiroft have been excavated by archaeologists, and also by smugglers unfortunately, over the past three years.

    Jiroft Inscription, Oldest Evidence of Written Language

    12 January 2006  
    LONDON, (CAIS) -- Studies by five linguists from the United States, France, Russia, Denmark, and Iran on a discovered inscription in Jiroft indicate that this Elamite script is 300 years older than that of the great civilization of Susa. 


    Archeologists believe that Jiroft was the origin of Elamite written language in which the writing system developed first and was then spread across the country and reached Susa. The discovered inscription of Jiroft is the most ancient written script found so far.

    The city of Jiroft is situated close to Halil-Rud historical site. Halil-Rud, located on the basin of Halil-Rud River enjoyed a rich civilization. Many stone and clay objects as well as other historical evidence belonging to the 3rd millennium BC have been discovered during the archeological excavations and also the illegal diggings by the smugglers in this area. 120 historical sites, including that of Jiroft, have been identified in the basin of the 400 kilometer length of Halil-Rud River.

    According to archeological studies, the history of Halil-Rud area goes back to some 3000 years ago. The discovered stone dishes in the area belonging to the first half of the third millennium BC point to the developed art of carving on stones at that time.

    “Five Elamite professional linguists from different countries have studied the brick inscription discovered in Jiroft. According to the studies, they have concluded that this discovered inscription is 300 years older than that found in Susa; and most probably the written language went to Susa from this region. However, more studies are still needed to give a final approval to this thesis,” said professor Yousof Majid Zadeh, head of archeological excavation team in Jiroft.

    “This inscription was discovered in a palace. Although it is not yet known which Elamite king this inscription belongs to, it is definitely an Elamite inscription. More studies are needed to determine the exact time in which it was inscribed, but most probably it is the most ancient written language. Further excavations are being carried out to find the rest of the inscription. However, what is obvious about this discovered inscription is that it is older than the Elamite inscription of Susa,” explained Majidzadeh.

    The inscription was carved on a brick, and only the lower left corner of it has been remained. Although only two lines with a few words are remained intact on this inscription, there is no doubt that it is an Elamite written script.

    The most famous Elamite script is the Susinak inscription which was unearthed during archeological excavations in Susa. This inscription is most probably left from the reign of Susinak, Elamitee king who ruled during the second half of the first millennium BC. .

    Elamite language is only partly understood by scholars. It had no relationship to Sumerian, Semitic or Indo-European languages, and there are no modern descendants of it. After 3000 BC the Elamites developed a semi-pictographic writing system called Proto-Elamite. Later the cuneiform script was introduced.

    Archeological excavations are being carried out in north and south shores of the Halil-Rud River in order to discover different dwellings and cemeteries in the region.
    The wide plundering of the historical and archeological relics by the smugglers led to the lost of a lot of these invaluable evidences. Most of these historical relics were taken out of the country. Although Iran is trying to redeem them, some of those who have collected these relics refuse to give them back claiming that these articles were not made in Iran and thus don’t belong to this country. Iranian archeologists are trying to discover more evidence to prove Iran’s possession over these historical objects.

    News Source: CHN

    Second Royal Inscription Discovered at Joroft's Konar Sandal Ziggurat

    8 April 2006
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    LONDON, (CAIS) -- A team of archaeologists working at the ancient site of Jiroft recently discovered a second royal inscription at the Konar Sandal Ziggurat, the Persian service of CHN reported on Thursday.

    Team member Nader Soleimani said that the discovery provides further evidence that Jiroft dates back to the third millennium BCE.

    The inscription is on an 11x7 centimeter piece of brick which bears five lines with each line containing 12 words, Soleimani added.

    “The first example was found during the previous excavations, which French archaeologist Jean Perrot called a royal edict. Considering the similarity of the newly discovered inscription with the previous one, experts surmise that this is the second royal decree.

    “The inscription was found near the stairway of the upper section of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat, which is a century older than the Ur Ziggurat,” he explained.

    The Konar Sandal Ziggurat is one of the ruins of ancient Jiroft, which is located in the southern Iranian province of Kerman.

    Analysis of pieces of coal discovered during last year’s excavations of Jiroft indicates that the oldest layer of the region dates back to 2800 BC.

    Many Iranian and foreign experts see the findings in Jiroft as signs of a civilization as great as Sumer and ancient Mesopotamia.

    Iranian expert Yusef Majidzadeh believes that Jiroft is the ancient city of Aratta, which was described as a great civilization in a Sumerian clay inscription.

    Jiroft Inscription the Symbol of Eastern Civilisatio
    n30 May 2006

    LONDON, (CAIS) -- In his latest research paper about the discovered inscription in Konar Sandal in Jiroft, Piotr Steinkeller, professor of Assyriology in Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations of Harvard University, explains that there exists no correlation between the inscriptions discovered in Jiroft, Shahdad, and Melian historical sites with the Elamite civilization which itself was under the influence of the Mesopotamian civilization, and they should be considered as an eastern written language.

    “In his latest paper, Prof. Steinkeller has explained that there should not have been any relation between the discovered inscription in Jiroft and Elamite civilization, which itself was under the influence of Mesopotamian civilization. Steinkeller believes that it would be better to throw away this way of thinking and say ‘eastern script’ instead of ‘Elamite script,’” said Yousof Majidzadeh, head of excavation team in Jiroft.

    The Elamite script is known to belong to Khutelutush-In-Shushinak (c. 1120 - 1110 BCE), the Elamite king. Experts believe that it is not logical to accept that a nation, who has a writing language itself, abandons its script after the conquest of a powerful neighbor and adopt Mesopotamian culture and script. They believe that this script found its way to Susa from eastern Iran.

    “Decoding the discovered inscription in Jiroft requires a lot of time. However, archaeologists believe that this script must have been more ancient than that of the Elamite civilization. Further archaeological excavations in Jiroft historical site might help researchers to learn more about the identity of this inscription. We had two different writing languages in Iran during ancient times: One of them is Proto-Elamite script, which was mainly figures and numbers, and the other was writing language which did not use images. Prior to the discovery of Jiroft inscription, the most ancient script had been found in Susa historical site which has remained from the reign of Khutelutush-In-Shushinak. This inscription dates back to 1200 BCE, while the Jiroft inscription is older than that and is estimated to be between 4400 to 4500 years old,” added Majidzadeh.

    Elam is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. It was centered in the far west and southwest of today Iran. The Elamites came in power about 300 years after the fall of the Jiroft Kingdom (5000-3000 BCE). The reign of the Elamite kings lasted from 2700 to 539 BCE, coming after what is known as the Proto-Elamite period which began around 3200 BCE when Susa, the later capital of the Elamites, began to receive influences from the cultures of the Iranian Plateau to the east.

    “It is believed that Jiroft’s writing language came into existence at the same time Mesopotamia started developing a writing system. According to the carbon 14 tests conducted on the layers in which Jiroft inscription was discovered, this inscription was dated to 2500 BCE. Although such tests have not been carried out on Mesopotamia inscription yet, based on the discovered evidence so far, archaeologists strongly believe that Mesopotamia’s script goes back to 2600-2700 BCE at most,” explained Majidzadeh.

    The new discoveries during the archaeological excavations in Konar Sandal such as historical inscriptions, the most ancient ziggurat of the world, and many other historical relics have confused archaeologist and confronted them with an unknown civilization in the east. This further led into revisions on some previous archaeological hypotheses.

    The city of Jiroft is situated close to Halil Rud historical site in Kerman province. The discovered stone dishes in the area belonging to the first half of the third millennium BCE point to the developed art of carving on stones at that time. The second inscription that was recently discovered at the Konar Sandal Ziggurat of Jiroft is scheduled to be deciphered by teams of researchers from the University of Chicago and the University of Paris. Archeologists are waiting for the results to come out which may well change the history of civilization as we know today.

    Professor Piotr Steinkeller
    Semitic Museum
    Harvard University
    6 Divinity Avenue
    Cambridge, MA 02138

    Semitic Museum, Room 103

    Before coming to teach at Harvard (in 1981), Professor Steinkeller pursued research at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. His scholarly work deals broadly with the history, culture, and languages of early Mesopotamia (3000-1500 BCE), its particular focus being the socioeconomic history of Babylonia during the 3rd mil. BCE and, most recently, the early history of Sumero-Akkadian religion. He is also interested in Mesopotamian archaeology, as evidenced in his present involvement in an archaeological project at the site of Tell Arbid in north-west Syria. Among his ongoing projects is a study of the population density and settlement patterns in Babylonia at ca. 2900 BCE, which utilizes both textual and archaeological data, and an investigation of the economic organization of the Ur III state (2900-2000 BC). He has written or co-authored three books and over eighty articles and book reviews. He teaches a wide range of courses and seminars on the Sumerian and Akkadian languages, Mesopotamian religion, and history of ancient Mesopotamia.

    French & US Experts to Decipher Jiroft Inscription

    9 April 2006
    LONDON, (CAIS) -- The second inscription that was recently discovered at the Konar Sandal Ziggurat of the Jiroft ancient site is scheduled to be deciphered by teams of researchers from the University of Chicago and the University of Paris.

    The inscription, which is on a brick 11x7 centimetres with a depth of two centimetres, is more intact than the first inscription discovered during the previous phase of excavations carried out at the site last year. Only the left corner and two lines of writing remain of the first inscription.

    “Professor Yusef Majidzadeh has sent pictures of the inscription to the researchers, who believe the previous inscription was an imperial decree,” Nader Soleimani, a member of the archaeological team working at Konar Sandal, told the Persian service of CHN on Saturday.

    Due to the similarities between the words written in Elamite on both inscriptions, Iranian archaeologists believe that the new inscription is also an imperial decree. The inscription has five lines, each with about 12 words.

    Known as the “archeologists’ lost heaven”, the ancient site of Jiroft is located next to the Halil-Rud River in the southern province of Kerman. Many ancient ruins and artifacts of Jiroft have been excavated by archaeologists, and also by smugglers, unfortunately, over the past four years.

    After numerous artifacts were discovered in the region, Majidzadeh, the director of the archaeological team working on Jiroft and the Halil-Rud River cultural area, named Jiroft the cradle of human art. Many scholars doubted the idea due to the fact that no writings or architectural structures had yet been discovered at the site, but the newly discovered writings have caused experts to reconsider their views on the site.

    The oldest Elamite script, known as Proto-Elamite, first appeared in about 2900 BCE in Susa, the capital of Elam, in the southwestern Iranian province of Khuzestan. The Proto-Elamite script is thought to have been developed from an early Sumerian script.

    Old Elamite was a syllabic script derived from Proto-Elamite and was known to have been used between about 2250 and 2220 BCE, although it may have been invented at an earlier date. The Inshushinak inscription, found during an excavation in Susa, had been written in this type of script.

    The Konar Sandal inscriptions are older than the Inshushinak inscription, thus it seems that the recently discovered inscriptions link Proto and Old Elamite scripts.

    Image result for kuninda coin bharatkalyan97 Indus Script Hypertexts of Kuninda coin. On the Indus Script hieroglyphs of the Kuninda coin see:
    Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script, from left to right):: "Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya." Obverse: Kharoshti legend. AIC pg. 146, 1; MACW 4442; Senior pg. 233. Legend in Kharoshti script, from righ to left: Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa, ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas").

    Tin Road: Ashur-Kultepe and Meluhha hieroglyphs

    The land of Kuninda (also called Kulinda) stretched along the foothills of the Himalayas eastwards from the borders of Audumbara (c. 150-100 BCE) temporarily independent of the Punjab area in the Pathankot region of the Beas river valley to the borders of Nepal.

    Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script, from left to right):: "Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya." Obverse: Kharoshti legend. AIC pg. 146, 1; MACW 4442; Senior pg. 233. Legend in Kharoshti script, from righ to left: Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa, ("Great King Amoghabhuti, of the Kunindas").
    The hieroglyphs on the Kuninda/Puninda silver coin of ca. 2nd century BCE are : on the obverse a deer to the right of a female figure (facing) and holding a flower in right hand and her left hand rests on the thigh with inscriptions written around.  On the reverse a five-arched hill in the centre surmounted by a Nandi-pada symbol, on the right is a tree in a railing and on the left two symbols: svastika and 'standard device' sangaḍa 'lathe, portable furnace'.

    Animal-human hieroglyph multiplex: ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' barad 'ox' rebus: bharata 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin' hangi 'molluscs' rebus: sangi 'pilgrim'. The woman with a 'lotus' flag is Lakshmi with tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'.
    The mollusc 'sangi' may also connote s'ankhanidhi (one of nine nidhi or treasures of Kubera) as on a Bharhut frieze with a flag-bearer carrying a s'ankha (turbinella pyrum) mounted post:
    Image result for kuninda coins purola

    kola 'woman' Rebus: kola 'working in iron'.

    melh ‘goat’ (Brahui) Rebus: milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) 

    kāṇḍa ‘flowing water’ Rebus: Ku. lokhaṛ  ʻiron tools ʼ; H. lokhaṇḍ  m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ(CDIAL 11171).

    ḍangar 'bull', ḍã̄g mountain-ridge (H.)(CDIAL 5476). Rebus: dhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili)

    The 'nandipada' hieroglyph may signify tied-up pair of fish with a rope: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' aya 'fish' rebus: aya, ayas 'iron, metal', dhAtu 'strand of rope' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral'. Thus, together with the mountain-ridge hieroglyph, the combined message is: ironsmith.

    satthiya 'svastika glyph' Rebus satthiya, jasta 'zinc' (Kashmiri. Kannada); sattva 'zinc' (Prakrit

    Rebus: khōṇḍa ‘leafless tree’ (Marathi). Rebus: kõdā’turner’ (Bengali) Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree (DEDR 2200). खोट [khōṭa] alloyed ingot (Marathi). koḍ ‘artisan’s workplace’. kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi'smelter'. See:

    khambhaṛā 'fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'coiner, coinage, mint' aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, the srivatsa hypertext on Kuninda coin signifies an alloy metalcasting mint PLUS Hieroglyph: seed, something round: *gōṭṭa ʻ something round ʼ. [Cf. guḍá -- 1. -- In sense ʻ fruit, kernel ʼ cert. ← Drav., cf. Tam. koṭṭai ʻ nut, kernel ʼ, Kan. goae &c. listed DED 1722]K. goh f., dat. °i f. ʻ chequer or chess or dice board ʼ; S. g̠ou m. ʻ large ball of tobacco ready for hookah ʼ, °ī f. ʻ small do. ʼ; P. go f. ʻ spool on which gold or silver wire is wound, piece on a chequer board ʼ; N. goo ʻ piece ʼ, goi ʻ chess piece ʼ; A. go ʻ a fruit, whole piece ʼ, °ā ʻ globular, solid ʼ, gui ʻ small ball, seed, kernel ʼ; B. goā ʻ seed, bean, whole ʼ; Or. goā ʻ whole, undivided ʼ, goi ʻ small ball, cocoon ʼ, goāli ʻ small round piece of chalk ʼ; Bi. goā ʻ seed ʼ; Mth. goa ʻ numerative particle ʼ; H. gof. ʻ piece (at chess &c.) ʼ; G. go m. ʻ cloud of smoke ʼ, °ṭɔ m. ʻ kernel of coconut, nosegay ʼ, °ī f. ʻ lump of silver, clot of blood ʼ, °ilɔ m. ʻ hard ball of cloth ʼ; M. goā m. ʻ roundish stone ʼ, °ī f. ʻ a marble ʼ, gouā ʻ spherical ʼ; Si. guiya ʻ lump, ball ʼ; -- prob. also P. goṭṭā ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ, H. goā m. ʻ edging of such ʼ (→ K. goa m. ʻ edging of gold braid ʼ, S. goo m. ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ); M. go ʻ hem of a garment, metal wristlet ʼ.*gōḍḍ -- ʻ dig ʼ see *khōdd -- .Addenda: *gōṭṭa -- : also Ko. u ʻ silver or gold braid ʼ.(CDIAL 4271) Ta. koṭṭai seed of any kind not enclosed in chaff or husk, nut, stone, kernel; testicles; (RS, p. 142, items 200, 201) koṭṭāṅkacci, koṭṭācci coconut shell. Ma. koṭṭakernel of fruit, particularly of coconut, castor-oil seed; kuṟaṭṭa, kuraṭṭa kernel; kuraṇṭi stone of palmfruit. Ko. keṭ testes; scrotum. Ka. koṭṭe, goṟaṭe stone or kernel of fruit, esp. of mangoes; goṭṭa mango stone. Ko. koraṇḍi id. Tu. koṭṭè kernel of a nut, testicles; koṭṭañji a fruit without flesh; koṭṭayi a dried areca-nut; koraṇtu kernel or stone of fruit, cashew-nut; goṭṭu kernel of a nut as coconut, almond, castor-oil seed. Te. kuriḍī dried whole kernel of coconut. Kol. (Kin.) goṛva stone of fruit. Nk. goṛage stone of fruit. Kur. goā any seed which forms inside a fruit or shell. Malt. goṭa a seed or berry. / Cf. words meaning 'fruit, kernel, seed' in Turner, CDIAL, no. 4271 (so noted by Turner).(DEDR 2069) Rebus: khōa 'alloy ingot' (Marathi)

    kharosti 'blacksmith lip, carving' and harosheth 'smithy' Suniti Kumar Chatterjee suggested that kharōṣṭī may be cognate with harosheth in: harosheth hagoyim 'smithy of nations'. Etymology of harosheth is variously elucidated, while it is linked to 'chariot-making in a smithy of nations'. See also: Harosheth Hebrew: חרושת הגויים‎; is pronounced khar-o-sheth? Most likely, (haroshet) a noun meaning a carving. Hence, kharoṣṭī came to represent a 'carving, engraving' art, i.e. a writing system. Harosheth-hagoyim See: Haroshet [Carving]; a forest; agriculture; workmanship;Harsha [Artifice: deviser: secret work]; workmanship; a wood Cognate with haroshet: karṣá m. ʻ dragging ʼ Pāṇ., ʻ agriculture ʼ Āp.(CDIAL 2905). karṣaṇa n. ʻ tugging, ploughing, hurting ʼ Mn., ʻ cultivated land ʼ MBh. [kárṣati, √kr̥ṣ] Pk. karisaṇa -- n. ʻ pulling, ploughing ʼ; G. karsaṇ n. ʻ cultivation, ploughing ʼ; OG. karasaṇī m. ʻ cultivator ʼ, G. karasṇī m. -- See *kr̥ṣaṇa -- .(CDIAL 2907). Harosheth-hagoyim is the home of general Sisera, who was killed by Jael during the war of Naphtali and Zebulun against Jabin, king of Hazor in Canaan (Judges 4:2). The lead players of this war are the general Barak and the judge Deborah. The name Harosheth-hagoyim obviously consists of two parts. The first part is derived from the root , which HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament treats as four separate roots (harash I, II, III, & IV). The verb (harash I) means to engrave or plough. HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament reads, "The basic idea is cutting into some material, e.g. engraving metal or plowing soil." Derivatives of this verb are: (harash), meaning engraver; (haroshet) a noun meaning a carving. This word is equal to the first part of the name Harosheth-hagoyim; (harish), meaning plowing or plowing time; (maharesha) meaning ploughshare; (harishi), a word which is only used in Jona 4:8 to indicate a certain characteristic of the sun - vehement (King James) or scorching (NIV). The verb (harash II) most commonly denotes refraining from speech or response, either because one is deaf or mute, or because one doesn't want to respond. None of the sources indicates a relation with the previous root, and perhaps there is none, but on the other hand, perhaps deafness was regarded in Biblical as either being marked or else cut or cut off. The noun (horesh) from root (hrsh III) occurs only in Isaiah 17:9 and has to do with a wood or forest. The noun (heresh) from root (hrsh IV) occurs only in Isaiah 3:3 and probably means magical art or expert enchanter, or something along those lines. The second part of the name, hagoyim, comes from the definite article (ha plus the common word (goy) meaning nation, people, gentile. This word comes from the assumed root (gwh), which is not translated but which seems to denote things that are surpassed or left behind. Other derivatives are: (gaw a and gew), meaning back, as in "cast behind the back," i.e. put out of mind (1 Kings 14:9, Nehemiah 9:26, Isaiah 38:17); (gewiya), meaning body, either dead or alive (Genesis 47:18, Judges 14:8, Daniel 10:6). The meaning of the name Harosheth-hagoyim can be found as any combination of the above. NOBS Study Bible Name List reads Carving Of The Nations, but equally valid would be Silence Of The Gentiles or Engraving Of What's Abandoned. Jones' Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads Manufactory for Harosheth and "of the Gentiles" for Hagoyim. khar 5 ख््र्, in khara-ponzu ख््र-पं&above;जु&below; । म्लिष्टरेखाः unmeaning scrawls in imitation of writing, made by untaught children, or the like.(Kashmiri)khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -द्वकुरु‍&below; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -ग&above;जि&below; or -güjü -ग&above;जू&below; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू&below;), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü -कूरू‍&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -क&above;टु&below; । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü -क&above;टू&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.(Kashmiri) Allograph: khāra 2 खार (= ) or khār 4 खार् (L.V. 96, K.Pr. 47, Śiv. 827) । द्वेषः m. (for 1, see [khār 1] ), a thorn, prickle, spine (K.Pr. 47; Śiv. 827, 153)(Kashmiri) खरोष्टी kharōṣṭī , 'A kind of alphabet; Lv.1.29'. Often, there is an alternative (perhaps, erroneous) transliteration as kharōṣṭhī. The compound is composed of: khar + ōṣṭī (or, उष्ट 'mfn. burnt' (CDIAL 2386); uṣṭa -- ʻ settled ʼ (CDIAL 2385) ṓṣṭha m. ʻ lip ʼ RV. Pa. oṭṭha -- m., Pk. oṭṭha -- , uṭ°, hoṭṭha -- , huṭ° m., Gy. pal. ōšt, eur. vušt m.; Ash. ọ̈̄ṣṭ, Wg. ṳ̄ṣṭ, wūṣṭ, Kt. yūṣṭ (prob. ← Ind. NTS xiii 232); Paš. lauṛ. ūṭh f. ← Ind. (?), gul. ūṣṭ ʻ lip ʼ, dar. weg. uṣṭ ʻ bank of a river ʼ (IIFL iii 3, 22); Kal. rumb. ūṣṭ, uṣṭ ʻ lip ʼ; Sh. ō̃ṭṷ m. ʻ upper lip ʼ, ō̃ṭi̯ f. ʻ lower lip ʼ (→ Ḍ ōṭe pl.); K. wuṭh, dat. °ṭhas m. ʻ lip ʼ; L. hoṭh m., P. hoṭh, hõṭh m., WPah. bhal. oṭh m., jaun. hōṭh, Ku. ū̃ṭh, gng. ōṭh, N. oṭh, A. ō̃ṭh, MB. Or. oṭha, Mth. Bhoj. oṭh, Aw. lakh. ō̃ṭh, hō̃ṭh, H. oṭh, õṭh, hoṭh, hõṭhm., G. oṭh, hoṭh m., M. oṭh, õṭh, hoṭ m., Si. oṭa.WPah.poet. oṭhḷu m. ʻ lip ʼ, hoṭṛu, kṭg. hóṭṭh, kc. ōṭh, Garh. hoṭh, hō̃ṭ. (CDIAL 2563). In the context of use of the term kharōṣṭī for a writing system, it is apposite to interpret the compound as composed of khar + ōṣṭī 'blacksmith + lip'. "The Kharosti scrolls, the oldest collection of Buddhist manuscripts in the world, are radiocarbon-dated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The group confirms the initial dating of the Senior manuscripts to 130-250 CE and the Schøyen manuscripts to between the 1st and 5th centuries CE." "The Kharoṣṭhī script is an ancient Indic script used by the Gandhara culture of ancient Northwest South Asia(primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gāndhārī language (a dialect of Prakrit) and theSanskrit language. An abugida (or "alphasyllabary"), it was in use from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until it died out in its homeland around the 3rd century CE. It was also in use in Kushan, Sogdiana (see Issyk kurgan) and along the Silk Road where there is some evidence it may have survived until the 7th century in the remote way stations of Khotan and Niya...As preserved in Sanskrit documents the alphabet runs: a ra pa ca na la da ba ḍa ṣa va ta ya ṣṭa ka sa ma ga stha ja śva dha śa kha kṣa sta jñā rtha (or ha) bha cha sma hva tsa gha ṭha ṇa pha ska ysa śca ṭa ḍha ...
    Paper strip with writing in Kharoṣṭhī. 2-5th century CE, Yingpan, Eastern Tarim Basin, XinjiangMuseum...The Kharoṣṭhī script was deciphered by James Prinsep (1799–1840), using the bilingual coins of the Indo-Greeks (Obverse in Greek, reverse in Pāli, using the Kharoṣṭhī script). This in turn led to the reading of the Edicts of Ashoka, some of which, from the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, were written in theKharoṣṭhī script...The study of the Kharoṣṭhī script was recently invigorated by the discovery of the Gandharan Buddhist Texts, a set of birch-bark manuscripts written in Kharoṣṭhī, discovered near the Afghan city of Hadda just west of the Khyber Pass in modern Pakistan. The manuscripts were donated to the British Library in 1994. The entire set of manuscripts are dated to the 1st century CE, making them the oldest Buddhistmanuscripts yet discovered." List of all known Gandhari inscriptions (20 edicts):  Salomon, Richard. New evidence for a Ganghari origin of the arapacana syllabary. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Apr-Jun 1990, Vol.110 (2), p. 255-273.  Salomon, Richard. An additional note on arapacana. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 1993, Vol.113 (2), p. 275-6.  Salomon, Richard. Kharoṣṭhī syllables used as location markers in Gāndhāran stūpa architecture. Pierfrancesco Callieri, ed., Architetti, Capomastri, Artigiani: L’organizzazione dei cantieri e della produzione artistica nell’asia ellenistica. Studi offerti a Domenico Faccenna nel suo ottantesimo compleanno. (Serie Orientale Rome 100; Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente, 2006), pp. 181–224.  "In general, some form or other of Bühler's essential thesis that Brâhmî was developed out of a Semitic prototype in pre-Mauryan India has been accepted by most scholars in the west, but rejected by the majority of South Asian experts, who generally argue for a separate and indigenous origin for the Indic scripts, often by way of derivation, direct or indirect, from the Indus script...The major conclusion shared by the studies of Fussman, von Hinüber, and Falk is that at least the Brâhmî script, and possibly also Kharo.s.thî, originated in the Mauryan period and not earlier. Although they disagree in specifics, especially with regard to the date of the development of Brâhmî, all three agree that Kharo.s.thî, which was a regional script of the far northwest, was older than the pan-Indian Brâhmî and influenced its formation...That the basic system of indication of post-consonantal vowels by diacritic marking was originally developed in and adapted from Kharo.s.thî seems well established...Kharo.s.thî itself almost certainly did predate Brâhmî, as argued by Falk et al., and probably dates back at least to the late 4th century, and ( contra Falk) quite possibly even before then...Nevertheless, it would be unwise to rule out surprises in the future, and we should leave the door open, as does Falk (p.340), to discoveries that could revive theories of an early development of Brâhmî. But we must also agree, if reluctantly, with his final sentence: "Zur Zeit erscheint dieser Fall jedoch kaum zu erwarten" (Trans. Currently, this case seems hardly to be expected.)(p.340)." On The Origin Of The Early Indian Scripts: A Review Article by Richard Salomon, University of Washington (via The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 122, April-June, 2002. Kharosti and Brahmi by Hartmut Scharfe THE EMERGENCE OF WRITING (1) IN INDIA and the relation between the two early scripts, Brahmi and Kharosti, have received new attention in the last several years. (2) A consensus has emerged that challenges Georg Buhler's theories that had widely been accepted in Western scholarship for a century: that the Brahmi script was derived for commercial use in the eighth century B.C. from an Aramaic alphabet, and that later, during the Achaemenid domination of Northwestern India, a more modern Aramaic script was introduced into that part of India and subsequently modified under the influence of the Brahmi script. (3) Several Indian scholars (and some early European scholars) considered the Brahmi script an indigenous development, and some tried to derive it from the undeciphered script found on the seals of the Indus Valley Civilization that flourished before 2000 B.C. (4) One of the problems with Buhler's theory is the oddity that the Brahmi which is better equipped to write an Indian language, would have been replaced by the less apt Kharosti (which would see some secondary modifications under the influence of the Brahmi). Buhler refers to the introduction of the Arabic script after the Muslim conquest, but the parallel is not close: the massive influx of Afghans and Turks and the introduction of Islam and Quran study into India cannot be compared with the few Aramaic scribes who would have served the Persian overlords in the provinces of Gandhara and Sindhu. In fact no Aramaic documents of any kind have surfaced from the period of Achaemenid domination in India. Raj Bali Pandey (5) concluded from this lack of Aramaic documents that Kharosti could not be derived from Aramaic, and that perhaps "the Persians did not rule over India directly." But while no Aramaic inscriptions or other texts are known from the whole eastern half of the Achaemenid empire, the Aramaic inscriptions of Asoka, almost a century later, found in Eastern Afghanistan prove the importance of the Aramaic language and script in that border area. The distinctive features of both scripts are well known. The Kharosti is more cursive, the Brahmi more monumental. While the Kharosti is written from the right to left, does not differentiate between long and short vowels, and indicates initial vowels with similar signs, the Brahmi is written from left to right, distinguishes between long and short vowels, and uses distinctive letters for the initial vowels. Neither direction of writing offers distinct advantages--it is like driving either on the right side or the left side of the road. The other two features are now seen as improvements of the Brahmi over the Kharosti, but all is not well with the arguments offered. The Kharosti script used in the inscriptions of Asoka, the Sakas, and Kusanas does not differentiate between short and long vowels. Buhler, who considered the Kharosti essentially a clerk's script, spoke of the "lack of [signs for] the long vowels which are useless in everyday usage," (6) and Pandey argued that "The absence of long vowels in the Kharosthi is due to the fact that it was used for writing Prakrits which avoid long vowels ... not due to any Semitic influence." (7) While long vowels were usually shortened in all Prakrit dialects before a consonant cluster, long vowels in open syllables remained mostly unchanged. The contrast wasphonemic and could result in different meanings, e.g., dina "day" and dina "miserable." In the shorthand of accounting and of business notes the ambiguity could be tolerated. But the careful distinction of phonetic and phonemic qualities was essential for maintaining the correct recital of Vedic mantras, and the brahmin phoneticians and grammarians studied the distinctions with great care. The Brahmi script essentially differentiates between short and long vowels, but the distinction of i/i and u/u is not always observed, especially in the Asoka inscriptions at Kalsi and the inscriptions at Sohgaura, Piprawa, and Mahasthan. (8) In the more carefully executed inscriptions the strictly phonemic form of the Brahmi script is maintained: one letter for each phoneme (and only one phoneme for each letter). (9) The lack of differentiation of vowel length in the Kharosti (10) has nothing to do with the phonetic or phonemic reality of the Prakrit languages underlying these inscriptions. It derives ultimately from the technique of Semitic writing that essentially only wrote the consonants--with the occasional option to mark a vowel with the letter yod or waw (for /i/ or /u/), in the so-called plene writing. (11) It has been suggested--most recently by H. Falk--that these innovations are at least partially due to Greek influence. But R. Salomon has rightly countered that the Greek distinction of vowel length is very haphazard and incomplete, (12) whereas the Indian sound table and alphabet are strictly phonemic and well ordered. At the same time, the Indian scribes did not move on to a letter script (as later the Avestan scribes did, probably under Greek influence, in the fourth century A.D.) (13) but stayed with the semi-syllabic design. (14) The pattern of the phonemic analysis of the Sanskrit language achieved by Vedic scholars is much closer to the Brahmi script than the Greek alphabet. The modern analysis of the writing of initial vowels in the Kharosti script has been deeply flawed. "The full or initial vowel signs further differ from those of Brahmi in that they are all constructed from the basic vowel sign for a to which are affixed the postconsonantal vowel diacritics to form initial i, u, and so on: thus [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] = initial a/a, while [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] = initial i/i/." (15) This statement of Salomon's echoes similar statements by Buhler, (16) Charu Chandra Das Gupta, (17) and others. (18) As [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (ta) with vowel diacritics denotes [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (ti) and [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (te) and [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (tu), we have [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (a), [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (i), [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (u), etc. All these scholars confused the "original" letter [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (t) with the syllabic value /ta/ that it has in Kharosti. The vowel diacritics for /i,u,e/ "displace" the basic /a/ in creating syllabic signs for /ti/, /tu/, /te/, etc., and equally these vocalic diacritics are not attached to the "basic vowel sign for a"--they displace the /a/. Then what are these diacritics attached to? The answer has to come from the Semitic writing system, where the vowel onset, the Semitic aleph, is treated as a consonant--the aleph is phonemic in Semitic languages (cf. Arabic ra's "head," qur'an "Koran"). The Kharosti writing of initial vowels continues directly the Semitic way of writing (19) rather than "responding to a desire for simplification." (20) Why did the creators of the Brahmi go their own way in the denotation of initial vowels, creating discrete letters for each of them? (21) One could suspect Greek influence, but Greek influence cannot explain the precise notation of vowel length in Brahmi, and it would have failed to promote a true alphabetic script. As the notation of vowel length can be fully explained by the advances of Indian phoneticians and grammarians, we should look at these achievements for inspiration when trying to explain the initial vowel signs of the Brahmi. In the "semi-syllabic" Indian scripts (both in Kharosti and Brahmi) the vowels are marked on the preceding consonant: ka (by default), ki, ku, etc. (by diacritics). But how could an initial vowel be marked by a diacritic? The Kharosti simply followed the Semitic model, attaching the diacritic to the sign for the (consonantal) phoneme aleph. But the Brahmi is a phonemic script, and the vowel onset is not a phoneme in Sanskrit (or any Indian language). There could thus be no consonantal sign in the Brahmi for the vowel diacritics to be attached to. To write iyam "this" (the beginning of Asoka's Rock Edict I) it was necessary to create special letters for the vowels in initial position. Only in the second half of the first millennium A.D. do we come across letters for initial r and au--some with a unique design, and some based on the letter for/a/. Buhler pointed out that in modern Devanagari the letters for /o/ and /au/ (also for /r/!) are modifications of the letter for /a/ and that this trend continued in Gujerati where also the letters for /e/ and /ai/ are formed that way; but the innovation did not spread to the notation of initial /i/ or /u/. The need for letters for initial /r/, /ai/, and /au/ was negligible, since continuous writing made the notation of initial vowels less common than, e.g., in Greek or English--and words beginning with these vowels (i.e., r, ai, au) are not numerous to begin with. Buhler erred when he saw in this trend a parallel to the Kharosti notation of initial vowels--which is not a simplification of Brahmi writing but its forerunner. (1.) I leave aside here the undeciphered script of the Indus Valley Civilization of a much earlier time. (2.) Oskar von Hinuber, Der Beginn der Schrift und fruhe Schriftlichkeit in Indien, Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, 1989 nr. 11 (Mainz 1989); Harry Falk, Die Schrift im alten Indien (Tubingen 1993); Richard Salomon, Indian Epigraphy (New York 1998). (3.) Georg Buhler, Indische Palaeographie (Strassburg 1896), 18-21. (4.) Raj Bali Pandey, Indian Paleography, 2nd ed. (Varanasi 1957), 51. Pandey (57f.) denies also the derivation of Kharosti from Aramaic for which the evidence, though, is quite strong: CharuChandra Das Gupta, The Development of the Kharosthi Script (Calcutta 1958), 284-90. (5.) Pandey, 56. (6.) Buhler, 20: "das Fehlen der, fur den Gebrauch des taglichen Lebens unnutzen, langen Vocale..." (7.) Pandey, 56. (8.) Salomon, Indian Epigraphy, 31. (9.) It has been suggested (M. B. Emeneau, Language 22, PP. 86-93) that n in Sanskrit is not a phoneme, since it is predictably conditioned by its context (rajne, panca). But this is not true for Prakrit (anno, ranno). Panini includes n in his pratyaharasutra-s and uses it as a metalinguistic determinative; is this acceptance of n prompted by a desire for symmetry in the table of consonants or by acceptance of a sound that was phonemic in Prakrit? (10.) In later times, probably under the influence of Brahmi, Kharosti texts from Niya in Central Asia show notations of long vowels. E. J. Rapson (Kharosthi Inscriptions Discovered by Sir M. A. Stein, part III [Oxford 1927] pp. 298f.) wrote: "It was formerly supposed that the Kharosthi alphabet lacked the means of distinguishing long from short vowels; and the fact that such a means existed, even if it was not commonly used, was first made clear by evidence supplied by Niya documents. The lengthening of any vowel may be indicated by a short stroke written below the line, in form and position like the virama of the Devanagari alphabet; cf. a, 3." (11.) The Pehlevi script of the inscriptions and books of the Persian middle ages stayed closer to the Semitic pattern where only consonants were written and where virtually no word began with a vowel. Kharosthi innovated with the consistent use of diacritical markers to denote the vowel--but still not its length. (12.) The distinction of [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (and o and [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) is one of vowel quality as much as length (lengthening of [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is often written as [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], of o as o[LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), and there is no marking of different vowel length in the ease of [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [LANGUAGE NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (13.) Though the Avesta script runs from right to left (like the Semitic scripts), it writes all sounds individually, including all vowels. The Avesta alphabet with its phonemic and phonetic distinctions exceeds the precision of the Greek alphabet: it observes the phonemic distinctions like the Brahmi and Devanagari alphabet, adding phonetic (allophonic) distinctions that were noted in India only in phonetic manuals of the Siksa, but were rarely expressed in the script. (14.) A rare exception in the Mahanistha is recorded by W. Schubring, Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1918), 13, 74ff. (15.) Salomon, Indian Epigraphy, 48. (16.) Buhler, Indische Palaeographie, 25. (17.) Charu Chandra Das Gupta, The Development of the Kharosthi Script, 3. (18.) Ahmad Hasan Dani (Indian Palaeography [Oxford 1963] 257) similarly writes: "While Brahmi has three basic forms of vowels, a, i and u, Kharoshthi has only one, the forms of the remaining vowels being obtained by the addition of diacritic strokes." (19.) Seen correctly by M. J. Halevy, Journal asiatique ser. 8, 6 (1885), 264. (20.) Buhler, Indische Palaeographie, 25: "einem Streben nach Vereinfachung zuzuschreiben." E. J. Rapson (Kharosthi Inscriptions, p. 297) remarks: "Hoernle has shown how the same principle tended to modify Brahmi when it was used for Khotanese in Central Asia, and how it has prevailed in the Tibetan alphabet which was borrowed from Khotan." Is it accidental that these trends were strongest in areas that were constantly exposed to the Semitic way of writing, i.e., the marking of the vowel onset? (21.) Only a a i u e o are attested in the oldest inscriptions. The letter a is a modification of the letter a, as the rare letters for initial i and u in later inscriptions are modifications of those for i and u.

    Kharoshti Script
    A brief essay

    The Kharoshti language was introduced into Gandhara - Afghanistan and the North-west frontiers of India during the early part of the 5th century BCE as a result of Achaemenian conquests eastwards4. The language and script, it seems, became refined with time but it was ultimately overtaken by the much older language of the region, Brahmi and it became extinct by about the middle (c. 300-350 CE) of the Sassanian Dynasty (which lasted c.224 to 641 CE). It certainly differed from all other Indic scripts in that it retained the Semitic characteristic of being written from right to left.  After all it was derived from its north Semitic parent, Aramaic, like Pahlavi was.  Yet it retained the distinct Indian ways - in the use of the consonants, double consonants and the vowels.
    KharoshtiCoin.jpg (14991 bytes)
    Kuninda coin composite 
    Obverse: Brahmi script
    Reverse: Kharoshti script
    (Click to enlarge)
    Sanskrit in Brahmi script slowly gave place to Prakrit in Devnagari script. As Brahmi progressed into the Devnagari group of Indic languages the Kharoshti script gradually died out about c. 305-325 CE.  There was some overlap of the scripts on coins as Satraps vied with the suzerain Kings and usurped their Satrapy as an autonomous kingdom.  
    The coins showing the Greek divinities5 - Zeus (holding a thunderbolt and/or a sceptre), Hercules (usually holding a club and/or lion skin), Nike (usually winged, City divinity holding cornucopia), Artemis drawing arrow from bow, Helios (Sun), Selene (Moon) and the Indo-Iranian divinities: Mozao Oaho or Mazdaonho (Ahura Mazda), Athasho (Fire), Bago (Bhaga), Miiro/ Mioro (Sun/Mithra), Ardoksho (Earth), Orlango (Verethaghna), Saorhora (Sherewar, Mao (Moon), Apto/Appo (Waters), Vado (Wind), Pharro (Aura /Khwarena), Manaobago (Vohu Manah), Boddo (Buddha), sometimes a humped Indian bull or an elephant or the two-humped Bactrian camel on the reverse......etc were slowly replaced by the standing Shiva (holding a trident or a club) in front of a bull, Parvati (consort of Shiva) seated on a lion, Lakshmi (representing wealth) seated or standing on a lotus, Peacock motif…..etc.  The coins were minted mainly in Balkh, Merv, Herat, Pushkalavati (near modern Kabul), Takhshashilla (modern Taxila), Baamiyan, Jammu….etc.
    Kharoshti script and changes of regimes in Gandhara and and surrounding regions
    Graeco-Bactrian Period(c. 250-174 BCE)3The history begins circa 250 BCE when the Indo-Greeks in Bactria revolted against their Seleucid masters and formed an autonomous empire free from the suzerainty of an overlord.  It was led by Diodotus I (c. 250-230 BCE) with his son, Diodotus II (c. 250-230 BCE)  usurped the Eastern Satraps, Sughda and Margiana from the Suzerain King Seleucus I Nikator (ruled c.313-281 BCE), who was himself assassinated. The Graeco-Bactrians had only the Greek legend on both sides of their coins. The Kharoshti script on coins was not in use during this period, which ended in 174 BCE.   
    Indo-Greek (Yonas, word for Ionians) Period(c.174 BCE-10 CE) 3
     Kharosti Alphabet
    Commencing with Apollodotus I (c.174-165 BCE) and ending with Strato II (ruled with Strato III c. 25 BCE -10 CE in North Afghanistan) coins were minted with the Greek legend on the obverse and the Kharoshti script on the reverse.
    Demetrius (at first associated with his father c.205-190 BCE and then by himself c.190-166 BCE) ruling further east and in Arachosia (South Afghanistan) also minted bilingual coins, with Kharoshti on the Reverse (MAHARAJaSa APaRaJITaSa DEMETRIYaSa) and Greek on the Obverse (Invincible King Demetrius).  This could have occurred only if Kharoshti was then a common spoken language among a large population in these regions. The script on the coins was Kharoshti throughout the Indo-Greek period. 
    Indo-Scythian Period: (c.10 CE-130 CE) 3The Indo-Scythians were a branch of the Sakas from central Asia.  Overlapping the Indo-Greeks they had initially settled in the west Afghan plateau of Drangiana, calling it ‘Sakastan’.  About 10 CE the Indo-Scythian King Rajuvula, a minor Satrap in Mathura defeated and dethroned Strato III.  Around 80 CE they moved eastwards to overtake South Afghanistan. In previous times the Indo-Scythian king Maues had already occupied Gandhara and Taxila (improperly dated around 80 BCE), but his kingdom disintegrated upon his death and the Indo-Greeks had prospered again for a while, as suggested by the coinage of kings Apollodotus II(c.110-80 BCE) and Hippostratos (c.90-60 BCE), until the Saka King Azes Ipermanently established Indo-Scythian rule in the northwest in 60 BCE.  They too minted coins with the Greek legend on the obverse and the Kharoshti script on the reverse of their coins.
    The Yueh-chi / Yuehzhi (Kushans from western China) Period: (c.135-350 BCE) 3The Yueh-chi were a nomadic confederation of five tribes that originally lived near the border of China. They came from the Tarim Basin region, which is a part of what is now Gansu and Xinjiang provinces. They encountered severe problems with the Hsiung-nu (White Huns; later called Hephthalites) in the years 176-160 B.C. After suffering two major defeats by the Huns, the Yueh-chi decided to move west and then south. Their decision to migrate affected the course of history. When they moved south, some Turkic tribes went with them. The Turkic people had also encountered problems with the Huns. They moved into an area north of the Oxus in what is now Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and displaced a branch of the Scythians called the Sakas.  By about 135 B.C., the Yue-chi and their Turkic allies had reached Bactria, a region that included parts of North West Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Greek dynasties of the Seleucids and Greco-Bactrians had ruled it for a long time. The Yueh-chi were able to eventually gain control of Bactria. They had driven out the last nomadic Indo-Greek king, Heliocles I (c. 135-110 BCE).
    The later Kushans called themselves the Kushano-Sassanians 230-271 CE and Kushanshahs 271-350 CE.  Depending on the affiliation to the Sassanians or Kushans their coins had only the Pahlavi or Greek script. They thrived roughly up to the middle of the Sassanian rule (about 350 CE). The Nahapana Satraps of the Sassanian era, who ruled in India as far south as Kutch, Gujarat and Saurashtra, however, had coins minted with trilingual scripts - Greek, Brahmi and Kharoshti.
     Kharosti Script
    There was also a short rule of the Indo-Parthians in a limited region (c. 78-124 CE).  Both groups minted coins with the Greek legend on the obverse and the Kharoshti script on the reverse of their coins. This second wave of ‘Indo-Parthians’ moved eastwards into the Kabul Valley and present Pakistan c. 20 CE led by ‘Gondophores’ taking over from the Kushan King, Kujula Kadophises.  Gondophores has been mentioned in the manuscripts “Actae Thomae” as the ‘King, Guduphara’ who had met Saint Thomas, the Apostle on his journey to South India. Christianity had been established in India 500 years before the early Christian Portuguese missionaries c.1522 came with their dreams of the colonializing of India. The missionaries were surprised at seeing huts and buildings with a cross atop in the Malabar coastal region of the present State of Kerala.  The region was recaptured from the Indo-Parthians by the Kushans, possibly by Soter Megas c.45-90 CE. The Kharoshti script was no longer seen on any of the coins.  It was replaced by the Brahmi script, which was now written and read from left to right (although, it seems from an isolated document that the earliest Brahmi script 3rd Century BCE was written from right to left).  He was succeeded by Kadophises II 120 CE.
    By the time of Kanishka I, the greatest of the Kushan kings (the exact dates of his 23-27 years of rule are under dispute) his kingdom included Kashmir, Khotan and Kashgar and Yarkand  The last three were Chinese dependencies in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang.  His vast kingdom extended from Bukhara in the west to Sarnath in India, with Peshawar as the Capital) the coins in the Brahmi script showed the images and/or inscriptions of Boddo (Buddha), (Oisho) Shiva holding a trident near a bull (Nandi), Mihira/Miira (Mithra), Athro (Atar), Varahran (Verethragna), Mao (Moon), Appo (Water), Aodo (Vata).  The appearance of the Avestan divinities was attributed to the fact that the Sassanian King, Hormazd II (303-309 CE) had earlier married the daughter of a Kushan king in Gandhara.
    Thereafter, Ardochso (Lakshmi), the consort of Vishnu remained a standard diety and was absorbed into the first Gupta Empire of Chandra Gupta (305-325 CE). His grandfather, Shrigupta (c 270-290 CE) ruling as ‘Maharaja’ of a small principality was the real founder of the Gupta Dynasty.  Then, all traces of the Iranian influence have been found absent from the coins.
    With regular revolts against the suzerain King there was some overlap of dynasties as kingdoms were lost and regained for short periods.  Some tribal States - the Audumbara and the Kuninda (c. 150-100 BCE), used Kharoshti on one side of their coins and Brahmi on the other side.  Indeed, the Audumbara tribal kings Dharagosa and Rudravarma were credited as being the first to introduce the Brahmi script on one side with the Kharoshti script on the other side of their coins. The neighbouring States soon followed.  Most Kuninda coins have been found in hoards north of a line between Ambala and Saharanpur.  There were also some even with trilingual inscriptions - Greek, Brahmi and Kharoshti. The Kuninda Kings followed the practice.
    The land of Kuninda (also called Kulinda) stretched along the foothills of the Himalayas eastwards from the borders of Audumbara (c. 150-100 BCE) temporarily independent of the Punjab area in the Pathankot region of the Beas river valley to the borders of Nepal.  See the photos of 1) a magnificent specimen of a ‘Kuninda coin’ minted by Raja Amoghabhuti (late 2nd century BCE) of the small tribal State of Kuninda and of the two pages showing 2) the Kharoshti and 3) Brahmi scripts to better understand the coin.  Obverse:3 Deer facing female divinity, holding flowers.  There are 2 snake-like symbols above the deer.  The Brahmi legend reads from left to right: Rajna Kunindasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa’.  Reverse:3 Shows a Buddhist Stupa in the centre flanked by a tree on the right and ancillary symbols - tamga and swastika on the left.  The Kharoshti script reads from right to left: ‘Rana Kunidasa Amoghabhutisa Maharajasa’.
    Apart from archaeological clay tablets and articles found in the diggings and (more than 1000 known) inscriptions, numismatists have also contributed significantly to a better understanding of ancient genealogy, to the correction of improper dating attributed to events gone past and to calculating the era.  Birch-bark (called bhoja-patra) was a primary writing material along with palm-leaf in India. Its use diminished in the Moghal period when paper replaced it as a writing material, but it still has a sacred status in India today.  Birch bark was mentioned as a writing material by the Greek historian, Q. Curtius (c. 115 BCE), noting its wide use by the Hindus during Alexander’s invasion. Early extant manuscripts date back to the 2nd and 3rd centuries, written in the Kharoshti script.  Fragments survive from a range of time periods, and the material is described throughout Indian literature.
    Recently, an ancient Buddhist settlement, belonging to second and third century CE, has been discovered in Badgam district of Central Kashmir2. The tiles unearthed from the site area are in various shapes. They bear swastika motifs and the Kharoshti script, which was popular in Kashmir in the early centuries of the Common Era and ceased its popularity in circa fourth century. The presence of the Kharoshti numerals and swastika motif revealed the date of the site to be between second and third century CE.  Measuring 36 cm x 40 cm, the Kharoshti numerical on the tiles were clearly stamped to maintain the order of tiles in the layout.
    Palm leaf manuscripts1 were probably in use as early as the 2nd century, but no extant leaves survive earlier than the 10th century. Because palm-leaf is still used today in India for certain religious writings, much is known about the manufacture and treatment of the material.  In 1998 an early manuscript of about the 5th century written in the Kharoshti script was found in the Bhaamiyan cave region near the Afghanistan city of Hadda.  Microscopic examination revealed the pages were, in fact, laminated layers of very thin Birch-bark.
    Birch-bark (bhoja-patra)1 manuscripts were literally the ancient database of Buddhism in India.  In the 1930’s, the Musee Guimet in Paris had acquired bundles of birch-bark found at Baamiyan in Afghanistan. The inner bark of the birch tree was used for writing. After being peeled off the tree, the bark was dried. Oil was then applied over it and it was polished. Layers were joined together by a natural gum. Finally, it was cut to a suitable size and kept in between wooden covers. The ink used for writing on birch bark was ‘Indian black’, a carbon ink. It was prepared by burning almond shells to charcoal, which was then boiled with cow’s urine. This ink had a special brilliance and was indelible.

    1. ExpressIndia -Indian Express Newspapers (Bombay) Ltd., 1999
    2. Mitchiner, Michael, The ancient and Classical World (600 BC-AD 650), Oriental Coins and their values, Hawkins Publications, London, 1978.
    3. Plant, Richard J., Greek, Semitic, Asiatic coins and how to read them, Scorpion Publishers, Amherst, New York, 1979.
    4. Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Coins, The collection of the American Numismatic Society, New York 1998.

    Sam Kerr was born in Bombay, India in the third decade of the 20th Century. Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (London) and of several Colleges of Surgery, Sam was Surgeon/Lecturer, the University of NSW and its College Hospitals, Sydney, Australia from 1968 to 2003.  He is now Emeritus Surgeon at the University and Hospitals.

    He initiated the Australian Zoroastrian Association of NSW, Sydney in 1969 and became its founding member.  In addition to his professional writings he has published and lectured on the social, cultural, historical and scriptural aspects of the religion of Zarathushtra.

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    National Lawyers’ Campaign
    Registration No: MH/MUM/1701/2015/GBBSD

    304, Hari Chambers, 3rd Floor,

    54/68  SBS Marg, Near Old Custom House,

    Fort, Mumbai- 400 023 

    Mobile: +91 98205 35428

    3rd December, 2018


    Hon'ble Mr. Justice Kurian Joseph,
    Former Judge, Supreme Court of India,
    New Delhi.


            Today’s Times of India, on its front page, carried an article by Mr. Dhananjay Mohapatra, one of the illustrious legal reporters of
    the country, under the caption “We felt the then CJI was remote-controlled: Joseph”. 

    Within the said main heading, there was a
    sub-heading titled “Ex Supreme Court Judge says minority tag hinders

    Under the said caption Your Lordship is reported to have said “the minority tag is a hindrance to career progression of members of the minority community and fears it could get burst”.  

    Your Lordship has been further quoted thus: “Even if a member of the minority community has outstanding merit, he is recognized only
    because of his minority identity”.
    [Please read a counter to the foregoing :

    As someone belonging to the very same Roman Syrian Catholic community and having known Your Lordship from the day you were the
    student leader, Kerala University General Secretary representing the Kerala Congress (Mani Group) and not one who is totally in the
    darkness as to how Judges of the Kerala High Court are appointed, the pulls and strings behind it, caste and communal considerations behind
    it, a stark reality which cannot be denied, I am deeply pained and surprised.  

    Your Lordship is a Judge whom I hold in the highest of esteem, love and regards as a fellow Christian and as someone who is senior to me in the Kerala High Court Bar.  

    I am pained because Your Lordship’s statement would give the impression that the minorities,
    the Christian community to which Your Lordship belongs, is discriminated.  

    As a sexagenarian and who had occasion to interact with Hindus, more than Christians, during half of my practice outside the State of Kerala, I have never ever experienced or felt any sort of
    discrimination.  Hindus are most tolerant, most liberal and to attribute discrimination to a Christian in a majority Hindu country is
    most unfortunate.  

    I accessed Google only to be reassured that of
    Kerala’s population Christians constitute only 18%, Muslims 26% and Hindus 56%.  

    Kerala so far had 13 Judges in the Supreme Court,
    including Hon'ble Mr. Justice K.M. Joseph, of which 6 Judges were from the Christian community, namely, Justices K.K. Mathew, Kochu Thommen, K.J. Joseph, Cyriac Joseph, Kurian Joseph and K.M. Joseph (son of
    Justice K.K. Mathew).  

    Two Judges, Justices Kum. Fathima Beevi and V.
    Khalid, were from Muslim community. 

    There were only 5 Judges from the Hindu community, including Justice K.G. Balakrishnan, the first Dalit to become a CJI, and Justices V.R. Krishna Iyer, Balakrishna Eradi, K.S. Paripoornan and K.S. Radhakrishnan, son of legendary Sivasankara Panicker, former Advocate General of Kerala.  

    A community which has just 18% of population was represented in the Supreme Court by more
    than the Hindu majority; yet Your Lordship was quoted as having said:“The minority tag has been a hindrance”.
    Today’s Times of India was all about Your Lordship.  At page 7 of “Times Nation”, there was yet another three column news item
    titled “System of collegium is showing signs of reform”.  

    Your Lordship, as someone whom I hold in great esteem and close to my heart, I intend no criticism, but to express my pain.  The posterity
    will unfortunately remember Your Lordship as one responsible for defeating the will of the people, namely, the NJAC, an independent Judicial Commission which would have appointed Judges to the High Courts and the Supreme Court and even the CJI by inviting applications from all eligible; so too references from all stakeholders, instead of the collegium system which Your Lordship in your judgment in the NJAC case had denounced as a euphemism for nepotism and favouritism and one which requires improvement like ‘Perestroika’ and ‘Glasnost’.
    My Lord, a day before your retirement, I am afraid to say, a Five-Judge Constitution Bench, of which Your Lordship was a member, forfeited an opportunity to undo the great error, which the NJAC judgment was, by dismissing the Review Petition by the National Lawyers’ Campaign for Judicial Transparency and Reforms (NLC) along with a few other lawyers and laymen.  

    The Review Petition was dismissed on the ground of delay even when there was no delay because
    the Review Petitioners had challenged the judgment in the NJAC case by means of a petition under Article 32 of the Constitution, which though
    was dismissed it was observed by the Supreme Court that the Petitioners therein could file a review.  

    A review was accordingly filed and the 417 days of delay, which the Registry had noted, was one
    which is done mechanically.  

    In reality, there was no delay.  If the delay in filing the Review Petition is tenable, then the generation to come will be barred from filing a review because their petitions will also carry the bar of delay.  

    Your Lordship along with the other Judges were pleased to observe that there was no ground for review but without uttering a word about the grounds urge and why they were not

    The NLC and others who were not parties to the NJAC case were never ever heard.  

    My Lord, I am sure Your Lordship will, 
    in retrospect, realize that the judgment in the NJAC case and the order dated 28th November, 2018 dismissing the Review Petition of NLC as a
    great error.
    Before concluding, I must, with due apology, add that Your Lordship’s statement “The salary is too little, it is not a respectable salary comparable to the nature of the work a Judge is constitutionally obliged to perform.  The least the Government could do is to exempt it from income-tax as is the norm for those working
    with the United Nations” came as a shock to me.  

    My colleague Mr..A.C. Philip, who has served the Army before enrolling as a lawyer, was

    According to him, when compared with the extreme difficulties, including the very sacrifice of one’s life which a service in the Army calls for, the job of a Judge of the Supreme Court is of great luxury.  Indeed, Judges of the Supreme Court live in palatial bungalows and they enjoy the best of salary and perks.

    I part with wishing Your Lordship the choicest blessings of the Almighty and good health so that Your Lordship’s smile which is contagious continue to keep all those who are associated with Your Lordship in good humour and cheer.

    With most respectable regards,

    Yours sincerely,

    (Mathews J. Nedumpara)

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    CBI gets custody of Christian Michel. Why this will worry Sonia Gandhi

    Christian Michel's revelations will not portend well for Sonia Gandhi
    Christian Michel's revelations will not portend well for Sonia GandhiChristian Michel's revelations will not portend well for Sonia Gandhi
    Christian Michel will be in custody of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) for five days and is expected to be extended to 14 days. The Enforcement Directorate (ED) is also expected to join the interrogation. And after that, it is very certain that he will be in judicial custody for many months. This will be a huge tension for former Congress President Sonia Gandhi, who was described by Michel as the main “driving force” in the controversial purchase of 12 VVIP Helicopters from Italian firm AgustaWestland. What is the role of Sonia Gandhi and Ahmed Patel in this controversial Rs.3600 crores ($511 million) worth deal where the commission/ bribe is believed to be around Rs.375 crores ($53 million) for favouring AgustaWestland by changing many norms?
    The documents and communications seized by Italian investigators from Michel’s partner agent Guido Haschke’s home in 2012 in Switzerland clearly establishes the involvement of Sonia Gandhi and her then political secretary Ahmed Patel’s in the bribery. Photos of Sonia and Ahmed Patel were shown to Haschke in an Italian court as verification and he had confirmed it.  Moreover, in the court, Haschke admitted that he mainly dealt with the top brass of Indian Air Force and senior officials in Defence Ministry for the execution of this corrupt deal, while Christian Michel handled the political leadership, where the major part of the bribe money has gone. The Italian Judgment annexed a handwritten chart of the distribution of bribe money too. Ahmed Patel is named as AP in the note.
    Sonia Gandhi’s name [signora (Mrs) GANDHI] is mentioned four times, two times each on page 193 and 204 of the Italian court judgment, which in 2016 convicted many officials of Finmeccanica, the firm which manufactures AgustaWestland VVIP Choppers.
    The judgment also annexed another letter from Michel to Haschke. The letter dated March 15, 2008, seized by investigators shows the main middleman Christian Michel writing to Peter Hulet, the then India region sales and liaison head of the helicopter company. The letter states that Sonia is the main driving force behind this deal and she will no longer fly in the existing MI-8 choppers. The letter is quoted verbatim in the judgment. This shows that either Sonia herself or Ahmed Patel must have conveyed this decision to Michel.
    Christian Michel’s family has had a long association with Sonia Gandhi’s family from the 1980s. Michel’s father Wolfgang Michel was a multi-nation aviation industry handler in many countries ranging from UK, Russia to Libya. It is an open secret that Sonia Gandhi in the early 90s stayed at Wolfgang Michel’s home when she visited London. This was reported in media citing many former Research and Analytical Wing (RAW) agents, who were deputed by the then Prime Minister Narasimha Rao to track Sonia’s movements in London. The RAW agents promptly filed reports with photos of Sonia’s association with the Michel family in London.
    Another communication annexed in the Italian judgment is very interesting. Page Nos. 163 and 164 names Manmohan Singh and details that Orsi used Italian leadership and diplomats to contact the then Prime Minister to scuttle the probe by non-cooperation from the Indian government side. In Page 163, the Judgment produces a hand-written note by Orsi from jail in July 2013 asking his people to contact then Italian Prime Minister Monti or Ambassador Terracciano to call Manmohan Singh.
    “Call Monti or Amb. Terracciano in my name to ask him to call the PM Singh,” said the note seized from the prison cell of Orsi. The Judgment in several areas blames the non-cooperation from Indian authorities including Defence Ministry and other probe agencies in 2013. These things clearly show that not only in the deal-clinching, but also in sabotaging the Italian probe was done from UPA Government, which was totally under the control of Sonia Gandhi. In April 2016 PGurus published details of the Italian Judgment exposing the role of Sonia Gandhi in this murky deal[1].
    The coming days will be harsh for Sonia Gandhi when Christian Michel in CBI custody starts spilling the beans of the kickbacks in AgustaWestland deal. It must be remembered that this is not the only deal Michel clinched during Sonia’s regime, who was a frequenter to Delhi in October 2012. Michel was also in touch with Congress leaders till mid-2017, when CBI thru Interpol approached Dubai authorities. In June 2016, Michel even came out in the media to give a clean chit to Sonia, when the Italian judgment exposed Sonia’s role in the deal. It is known that Kamal Nath’s son Bakul Nath was behind this pre-arranged media interview to save Sonia. This incident shows that Sonia Gandhi and her managers were in touch with Christian Michel.
    Indian politics is now waiting to see what the revelations of Christian Michel are during the custodial interrogation of CBI.
    1. The conversion rate used in this article is 1 USD = 70.51 Rupees.

    Italian Court judgment exposing Sonia Gandhi & Manmohan Singh in AgustaWestland Deal (Full report)

    The complete judgment of Italian Appellate Court in Milan in the AgustaWestland bribery case.
    The complete judgment of Italian Appellate Court in Milan in the AgustaWestland bribery case.
    The complete judgment of Italian Appellate Court in Milan in the AgustaWestland bribery case.

    This article lists the complete judgment of an Italian Court in the case of bribery in selling AgustaWestland helicopters to India

    The Italian court’s judgment exposes the role of Sonia Gandhi, Manmohan Singh in AgustaWestland Chopper Deal. The 225-page judgment also reveals that Sonia’s Political Secretary accepted the commission of €15 to 16 million ($17 – 18 million) from the middlemen. The judgment of the appeal court in Milan convicting AgustaWestland chopper company chief Giuseppe Orsi described how the firm paid bribes to top Congress leaders in India and lobbied with them to bag the Rs 3600-crore ($451 million) deal. Reproducing the handwritten notes seized from middlemen, the judgment says that the political leaders accepted the commission of 15 to 16 million Euros (around Rs.120 to 125 crores) in the controversial purchase of 12 VVIP chopper deal. It also names the role of Sonia Gandhi’s trusted aide and AICC General Secretary Oscar Fernandes and the then National Security Advisor MK Narayanan (Page 193).
    Mrs. Gandhi and her closest advisers are the people who the British ambassador should target…
    The 225-page judgment of the appeal court in Milan also annexed several documents, handwritten notes exchanged between the middlemen on how the total commission of Euro 30 million between India’s political leaders, bureaucracy, and Air Force officials.
    Payoff details of Euro 30 million for the AgustaWestland chopper deal
    Sonia Gandhi’s name (signora GANDHI) is mentioned four times, two times each on page 193 and 204 of the judgment, convicting Orsi and other officials of Finmeccanica, the firm which manufactures AgustaWestland VVIP Choppers. Orsi and other officials were convicted for four and a half years.

    A letter dated March 15, 2008, seized by investigators shows the main middleman Christian Michel, who is still a fugitive, writing to Peter Hulet, then India region sales and liaison head of the helicopter company. The letter states that Sonia is the main driving force behind this deal and she will no longer fly in the existing MI- 8 choppers. The letter is quoted verbatim in the judgment. Details of lobbying and corruption of Congress leadership, writing to the then British High Commissioner in India that he should target top Congress leadership for clinching the deal are clearly explained.
    Names of Sonia Gandhi, Manmohan Singh and Ahmed Patel in Pg 204“Dear Peter, since Mrs. Gandhi is the driving force behind VIP will no longer fly in the MI-8. Mrs. Gandhi and her closest advisers are the people who the British ambassador should target,” said the letter of Michel seized by the probe team. This letter was seized from the home of arrested middleman Guido Haschke in later early 2013.

    The judgment also says Haschke had identified all the Congress leaders including Sonia Gandhi and Ahmed Patel on the court when their photos were shown to him during the trial by the Italian prosecution.

    The Page 9 of the Judgment also affixed the handwritten note of Michel exchanged to Haschke on how to distribute the total commission of 30 Million Euro. Air Force officials were allotted six Million Euro and Bureaucracy including Defence Ministry officials to be allotted 8.4 Million Euro. The note gives split up to several top bureaucrats like DG Acquisition, Defence Secretary (DS), Joint Secretary(JS) etc. For more, see the interactive Pie chart below:

    Details of how 30 million Euros was to bedistributedPoliticalAir ForceBureaucracy28%20%52%
    Answer Result
    Political 15.6
    Air Force 6
    Bureaucracy 8.4
    The note says Political leaders were to be allotted 15 to 16 Million Euro and the name shown to political level was noted as AP. Only one political leader to whom the money handed over is shown as AP, which refers to Ahmed Patel as confirmed on page 204 (see picture above). The note also shows on sharing the commission with ‘Family’ and the Judgment says it meant the family of the then Air Force Chief S P Tyagi.

    Page Nos. 163 and 164 names Manmohan Singh and details that Orsi used Italian leadership and diplomats to contact the then Prime Minister to scuttle the probe by non-cooperation from Indian government side. In Page 163, the Judgment produces a hand-written note by Orsi from jail in July 2013 asking his people to contact then Italian Prime Minister Monti or Ambassador Terracciano to call Manmohan Singh.
    Handwritten note by Orsi to call PM Singh
    “Call Monti or Amb. Terracciano in my name to ask him to call the PM Singh,” said the note seized from the prison cell of Orsi. The Judgment in several areas blames the non-cooperation from Indian authorities including Defence Ministry and other probe agencies in 2013.

    1. The conversion rate is 1 Euro = 1.1264 US Dollars
    2. 1 US Dollar = 66.525 Rupees


    Below is the translation of Pages 162-165 of the judgment. The complete judgment (in Italian) is at the end of this post. The grammar may not be perfect in some sentences – it is reproduced here for completeness.

    The documents also show a wide range of “surrounding” circumstances that outline a more widespread and grave dimension of the case (both from the point of view of the number of the people involved and in terms of financial data than it appears from the description given in Chapter A) which is unlikely to be clarified, due to the limits that the investigations have met in the present case, particularly because of the lack of responses from countries involved in the case, to the requests of assistance placed by the Italian Judicial Authority: this showing a substantial disregard to arrive at a full explanation of the facts, effectively demonstrated by the procedural behavior of the Indian Ministry of Defense (which brought a civil action in the criminal proceedings in the first instance of this judgment), already effectively stigmatized in the appealed judgment.

    This attitude of the Indian authorities with regard to this trial clearly brings to mind an episode that occurred to ORSI during the preliminary investigation, and falls within the context of the previously mentioned initiatives of the defendants intended to disperse and tamper the evidence, and to create elements which are favorable and coherent with the pre-agreed line of defense.

    In the period in which the above (ORSI) was jailed at the prison of Busto Arsizio, the custodial agents found in his cell, among his papers, a handwritten note (a copy of which was produced in the proceedings) which reads:

    “Call Monti 
    or amb. TERRACCIANO
    in my name to ask him
    to call the P.M. Singh”
    Given the date on which the document was found (03/07/13), the information contained in the text, the context in which the protagonists of this story act and move, and other indications which appear from the documents, it is possible to identify the people mentioned (in addition to the lawyer of the defendant):
    • “Monti”: it is undoubtedly the former Prime Minister Mario MONTI, at that time still in office;
    • “amb . TERRACCIANO”: can be identified as Pasquale TERRACCIANO, previously ambassador in Madrid, and, at the time, Diplomatic Advisor to the Prime Minister;
    • “P.M. Singh”: the initials before the surname unequivocally lead to Manmohan SINGH, Prime Minister in India from 2004 to 2014.
    We are obviously not in a position to determine what was the message that ORSI, during his detention, intended to send to the Head of the Government of India, but the same can be guessed if we think – on one hand – about the outcome of the requests for judicial assistance sent to Indian Authorities, of which we spoke about above, and – on the other hand – about the intense activities of evidence tempering which the protagonists of the story carried out for a considerable period of time, and with a considerable deployment of resources.

    The memories written by the defense “skip” to talk about such activities. They dedicate them only a few lines of the extensive defensive memories of Spagnolini dated 03/24/16:

    “This is the lawful alternative explanation that takes into consideration also Haschke’s wish … to get rid of some papers – which instead have been found at Agusta and that pertained to consulting activities provided by GORDIAN and which could be mixed with the contract of engineering works”.

    In addition to the attempt of the defense to circumscribe Haschke’s behaviour to the hiding of “some papers”, the defense here repeats the same reductive interpretative line already seen for the dialogue between Haschke and GEROSA on the corruption and omits to quote any reference to the prolonged tampering activities of the evidence base directly attributable to the accused, and any reference to the agreements on the defensive line and on the representation of the incident to be provided to the Judicial Autority in order to give a semblance of legality to their relations: this, given the absence of any explanation from interested parties or contradicting versions, inevitably results in a further argument in favor of the prosecution.

    In brief, from the analyzed conversations we can get unequivocal indications about:
    • The corruption of an Indian public officer, identified as the cousin of the Tyagi brothers: in this regard, the explicit content of the dialogue is sufficient to establish the “reasonable belief that corruption took place” (recalling GEROSA’s own words);
    • The involvement of different people in the task, including AGUSTAWESTLAND, ORSI, Bruno (SPAGNOLINI), Gautam (KHAITAN), Juli TYAGI;
    • the instrumental connection between the corruption and the Indian contract
    • the money used for this purpose, the amounts transferred to accounts in Mauritius Islands, the cash payments in favor of the Tyagi “family” and other Indian people, still in progress at that time;
    • the means and tricks used for the creation of the illicit funding.
    About this, ORSI and his defenders evoke a conspiracy hatched by the “old guard” of FINMECCANICA against him, as the leader of a line of radical renovation: hypothesis that cannot be accepted, due to the absence of reliable evidence.

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    There are at least Three types of anthropomorph Indus Script hypertexts which are metalsmith professional calling cards, helmsman/ supercargo for 1) metal 2) alloy metal mint 3) metal furnace Mirror: Paul Yule has demonstrated that the copper anthropomorphs are a tradition which dates back to the mature period of Sarasvati (Indus Valley) Civilization.
    The right hands of these two anthropomorphs are upraised. This posture is comparable to the posture of a horned human body with bovine .legs and tail shown on a Harappa tablet.
    Field Symbols Image 88, 89 (Mahadevan concordance, ASI 1987) The horned person with upraised arm and boving hindpart including bovine tail is read rebus: eraka 'upraised hand' rebus: eraka 'molten cast' PLUS dhangar 'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' PLUS kod 'horn' rebus: kod 'workshop'. Thus, rebus reading is: moltencast blacksmith workshop. A similar reading occurs on the two anthropomorphs with upraised right arm:

    Harappa Tablet. Pict-91 (Mahadevan) m0490At m0490B Mohenjodaro Tablet showing Meluhha combined standard of three standards carried in a procession, comparable to Tablet m0491.

    ‘Raised hand’ hieroglyph on Pict-91 Harappa tablet: 

    कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā'legs spread' rebus: कर्णक kárṇaka 'helmsman' PLUS er-aka‘upraised hand’ (Tamil) Rebus: eraka‘copper, moltencast’ PLUS कर्णक 'helmsman' PLUS mē̃d, mēd 'body' rebus: mē̃d, mēd 'iron', med 'copper' (Slavic). Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: me (Ho.); mẽhet'iron' (Munda.Ho.)med'copper' (Slavic).Thus the body hieroglyph signifies an iron helmsman seafaring merchant.

    Prakritam. Hemachandra Desinamamala, p.71, p.78ḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood';  বরাহ barāha'boar' Rebus:  'carpenter' barea 'merchant', कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ rebus: kundana 'fine gold' (Kannada). PLUS Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: me (Ho.); mẽhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic).  Thus, goldsmith, merchant
     Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: me (Ho.); mẽhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) PLUS कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread' rebus: कर्णक 'helmsman' PLUS aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'. Thus, alloy metal (smith), helmsman.

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    Sanauli’s Mysterious ‘Warriors’...Disha Ahluwalia...December 3rd 2018...

    In January 2019, a team of archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology will restart excavations...

    The find prompted archaeologists to debate whether these chariots were horse-driven, a question whos...

    Top view of the site|ASI...
    Earlier this year, in May, an archaeological team working in Sanauli, in Baghpat district of Western Uttar Pradesh...

    Coinciding with the Late Harappan period, around 4,000 years ago, the Sanauli dig yielded evidence of a royal burial site and chariots that may have been pulled by horses...
    Inner side of the chariot wheel, decorated with copper triangles|ASI...
    Top view of the burial pit|ASI...

    ...identity of the Sanaulians...


    Copper decorated lagged coffin and copper channel beneath the coffin|ASI...

    Skeleton, pottery and bull designed comb|ASI...

    Then came some stunning finds. Archaeologists discovered unique, legged coffins – one, in particular had a decorated lid with eight anthropomorphic human-like another the burial was accompanied by other bones placed in the coffin...both these burials were placed alongsidecopper-sheathed and decorated chariots (with copper inlays).
    Eight Anthropomarphic figures on legged coffin, copper pot and copper channel beneath the coffin|ASI..A plethora of ceramic pots was also arranged in the burial pits with ample care,..A plethora of ceramic pots was also arranged in the burial pits with ample care,..there were also copper daggers, antennae swords, shields etc.

    Antenna swords|ASI...OCP/Copperhoard culture...
    Lifting of the turtle based copped pot|ASI...

    Peacock designed comb and copper mirror|

    Anthropomorphic figures adorned with horned and Peepal leaf headgear|ASI...

    Copper decorated legged coffin and pottery|

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    This is an addendum to:

    This is an anthropomorph found at Saipa. It uses orthographic forms drawn from Indus Script hieroglyphs signifying horns of a ram, an a person in seated posture. In other variants, the copper artefact shows two spread legs of a human. Anthropomorphic figure. Northenr India, Doab region, Ganga-Sarasvati Basins. Copper hoard culture. Copper. H. 35.7 cm.W 2.8 cm. Inv. 2504-137. “Like most of the other exemplars of this type, this anthropomorphic figure in copper was probably found in a ‘hoard’, composed of a set of objects deliberatey buried in the ground, a way to store objects of value or to make religious offerings. Paul Yule has enumerated 129 of these ‘caches’, which, in addition to anthropomorphic figures,may contain harpoons, spears, flat axes, and swords (Paul Yule, 1989/1992). One of these figures was found at the site of Saipa, but no stratigraphic information or context has allowed u to provide a precise date, which may have been situated during the second millennium BCE. The figure itself displays no cutting edge or particular traces of its function, apart from the longitudinal impact marks from hammering, suggestive of those on an ingot, and short obliqu groovs superposed on thee fist st of marks, indicating a second operation, perhaps linked to the act of making an offering – Published in Yule, 1998. La profane et le divin, arts de l’;Antiquite, Fleurons de musee Barbier-Mueller, Geneva, Musee Barber-Mueller & Hazan (ed., 2008, p. 299.)
    P. Yule/A. Hauptmann/M. Hughes, The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent: Preliminaries for an Interpretation, Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 36, 1989 [1992], 193-275


    I suggest that these 40+ anthropomorphs discovered from many parts of India are dharma saṁjñā, signifiers of corporate metalwork responsibilities of the holders of the metal tokens. These copper tokens are comparable to the ceramic stoneware bangles (small badges) which are also dharma saṁjñā, signifiers of corporate of the holders of the metal tokens with Indus Script hieroglyphs. These were Bharatam Janam, 'metalcaster folk'. भरत (p. 353) bharata n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.भरताचें भांडें (p. 353) bharatācē mbhāṇḍēṃ n A vessel made of the metal भरत. 2 See भरिताचें भांडें. (Marathi)

    The cist burials with stone slabs comparable in shape to copper anthropomorphs are identifiers of the metalwork performed by the deceased ancestors. See: Dharma sajñā Corporate badges of Indus Script Corpora, ceramic (stoneware) bangles, seals, fillets 

    Anthropomorph. Stone. H&W. 3.25 m. Mottur, Chengam Taluk, Tamil Nadu.  Part of an arrangement of stone slabs called menhir in 3 concentric circles. A pedestal replaces the legs giving it the appearance of a seated figure. An identical figure, 3m. tall, was found at Udayanattam, vilupuram Taluk (part of a stone circle, cist burial).Source: Upinder Singh, 2008, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval IndiaFrom the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Delhi, Pearson Education India, p.252. See: 
    Source: Visiripparai (Near Vettavalam, Villupuram) 

    Anthropomorphic figure from Mottur.

    Fig. 18. Anthropomorphic figure from Mottur. "Menhirs are upright monolikthic stones of varied height...Alignments are considered as monuments (Sundara 1979). In alignments, several monolithic stones are placed parallel in patterns of square or diagonals...A unique type discovered at Katapura was anthropomorphic figure; carved out of single slab (Mulheran, 1868, 116-180). There are several sites reported having anthropomorphic figure distributed in central Godavari Valley to Tamil Nadu. They are found associated with cist and dolmen entombed by circle. Morphologically, these huge anthropomorphic figures (Fig. 18) on stones have resemblance with the anthropomorphic figures of copper hoard culture." (Tilok Thakuria, 2014, Iron Age in the  Peninsular and Southern India, pp.350-351 Fig. 18)

    Dimensions of the anthropomorphic figure, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh are:

    21 ½ x 19 ½ inches (54.6X49.5 cm).

    Anthropomorphic figure formed from copper. Northern India, Doab region, circa 1500-1200 BCE
    Source: Announced in an auction, Sold for 22000 Euro
    24 000 - 26 000 €
    Résultat: 22 000 €

    IMPORTANTE FIGURE ANTHROPOMORPHE. Elle est…Google Translation: IMPORTANT FIGURE ANTHROPOMORPH. It is formed of a thick copper blade and represents a stylized character. The rectangular body rests on two long legs apart and is flanked by two arms winding. The head is suggested by a half-oval. The surface of the monument has many traces of hammering impacts and short oblique cuts. Copper. North India, Doab region, ca. 1500-1200 BC J.-C. H_43,2 cm Former British collection, 1969. These anthropomorphic figures were found in deposits, probably buried as a religious offering or as a storage of valuables. Similar models are preserved at the Metropolitan Museum (Inv., 2000.284.37). Bibliography: The layman and the divine. Arts from Antiquity of Europe to Southeast Asia. Flags of the Barbier-Mueller Museum, Geneva, 2008, pp. 298 and 492.



    One anthropomorph copper plate is reused during the historical periods for recording an inscription:

    "The anthropomorphs have been explained as a vajra, that is a divine weapon fashioned for the Vedic Hindu and later Hindu deity Indra.[8] Considering the find circumstances and constituent hoard patterns, Yule found no evidence for this interpretation, or tell-tale use-wear, or traces of the wooden handle affixed to the anthropomorphs. Interpretations of the anthropomorphs as throwing weapons [9] ignore the find circumstances of associated hoard objects, not to mention the weight (up to 7 kg) of certain examples. Form follows function."


     Paul Yule, Addenda to "The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent: Preliminaries for an Interpretation", Man and Environment 26.2, 2002, 117–120
    P. Yule/A. Hauptmann/M. Hughes, The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent: Preliminaries for an Interpretation,Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 36, 1989 [1992] 262-263 Tab. 4 & 5
     Paul Yule, Beyond the Pale of Near Eastern Archaeology: Anthropomorphic Figures from al-Aqir near Baḥlāʾ, Sultanate of Oman, Man and Mining – T. Stöllner et al. (eds.) Mensch und Bergbau Studies in Honour of Gerd Weisgerber on Occasion of his 65th Birthday, Bochum, 2003, 537–542 also under the same title in Pragdhara 14, 2004, 231–239; A New Prehistoric Anthropomorphic Figure from the Sharqiyah, Oman, in: ‘My Life is like the Summer Rose’ Maurizio Tosi e l’Archeologia come modo de vivere, Papers in Honour of Maurizio Tosi on his 70th Birthday, C. Lamberg-Karlovsky‒B. Genito‒B. Cerasetti (eds.), BAR Intern. Series 2690, Oxford, 2014, 759–60, ISBN 978 1 4073 1326 9;
    Paul YuleThe Bronze Age Metalwork of India, Prähistorische Bronzefunde XX,8 (München 1985), 10-12, Pl 2-4
     Paul YuleThe Bronze Age Metalwork of India, Prähistorische Bronzefunde XX,8 (München 1985), ISBN 3-406-30440-0

     Tapan Kumar Das Gupta, Die Anthropomorphen Figuren der Kupferhortfunde aus Indien, Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, 56, 2009, 39-80, ISSN 0076-2741
    B.B. Lal, Further Copper Hoards from the Gangetic Basin and a Review of the Problem, Ancient India 7, 1951, 20-39
    B.B. Lal (1972). The Copper Hoard Culture of the Ganga Valley. Heffer.
    Selected hoard artefacts from 1-2 South Haryana, 3-4 Uttar Pradesh, 5 Madhya Pradesh, 6-8 South Bihar-North Orissa-Bengalen.
    Anthropomorphic figures.
    Chalcolithic, Ganges-Yamuna basin, 2800-1500 BCE. Provenance: Bisauli (212 km from New Delhi), Badaun district, Uttar Pradesh

    Dimensions: 35.9 x 41.9 cm | 14.1 x 16.5 inches
    1200 B.C Copper Anthropomorphic Figure : News Photo
    1200 B.C Copper Anthropomorphic Figure
    A 1200 B.C. copper anthropomorphic figure, from Shahabad Uttar Pradesh, measures 39 x 36 cm. | Located in: National Museum of India. (Photo by Angelo Hornak/Corbis via Getty Images)
    20 March 2012 Christie Auction in New York

    A bronze anthropomorphic figure


    Price realised
    USD 35,000 Estimate USD 6,000 - USD 8,000

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    This is an addendum to:

    Like the Dholavira sign board, the anthropormorph if displayed on the gateway of workers' quarters or locality is a proclamation symbol of मांझीथा Majhīthā sadya 'member of mã̄jhī boatpeople assembly (community)'. The pictrographs of young bull, ram's horns, spread legs, boar signify: 

    goldsmith, iron metalworker, merchant, steersman. 

    [Details: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver' (one-horned young bull hieroglyph); kundana 'fine gold' (Kannada) PLUS bāṛaï 'carpenter' bari barea 'merchant' (boar hieroglyph) PLUS karṇaka कर्णक steersman ('spread legs'); meḍho 'ram' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron']
    Image result for anthropomorphs bharatkalyan97
    Brāhmī inscription on Indus Script anthropomorph reads (on the assumption that Line 3 is an inscription with Indus Script hypertexts):  

    śam ña ga kī ma jhi tha mū̃h baṭa baran khāṇḍā 

    samjñā 'symbol, sign' 
    kī ma jhi tha 'of Majhitha'
    Sha (?) Da Ya शद   sad-a  'produce (of a country)'.-shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator


    Line 1 (Brāhmī syllables): samjñā 'symbol, sign' (of)

    Line 2 (Brāhmī syllables): kī ma jhi tha 'of Majhitha locality or mã̄jhī boatpeople community or workers in textile dyeing: majīṭh 'madder'. The reference may also be to mañjāḍi (Kannada) 'Adenanthera seed weighing two kuṉṟi-mani, used by goldsmiths as a weight'.

    Line 3 (Indus Script hieroglyphs):  baṭa'iron' bharat'mixed alloys' (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) mū̃h'ingots'khāṇḍā'equipments'.

    Alternative reading of Line 3 (if read as Brāhmī syllables): Sha (?) Da Ya शद   sad-a  signifies: 'produce (of a country' or -shad-ya, m. one who takes part in an assembly, spectator. 

    Thus,an alternative reading is that the threelines may signify symbol of मांझीथा Majhīthā sadya 'assembly participant' or member of mã̄jhī boatpeople assembly (community).

    Thus, this is a proclamation, a hoarding which signifies the Majitha locality (working in) iron, mixed alloys (bharat) ingots and equipments. Alternative reding is: symbol (of) produce of Majhitha locality or community


    A cognate word signifies boatman: *majjhika ʻ boatman ʼ. [Cf. maṅga -- ?] N. mājhimã̄jhi ʻ boatman ʼ; A. māzi ʻ steersman ʼ, B. māji; Or. mājhi ʻ steersman ʼ, majhiā ʻ boatman ʼ, Bi. Mth. H. mã̄jhī m.(CDIAL 9714).மஞ்சி2 mañcin. 1. cf. mañca. [M. mañji.] Cargo boat with a raised platform; படகு Thus, a majhitha artisan is also a boatman. 

    A cognate word is: mañjiṣṭhā f. ʻ the Indian madder (Rubia cordifolia and its dye) ʼ Kauś. [mañjiṣṭha -- ] Pa. mañjeṭṭhī -- f. ʻ madder ʼ, Pk. maṁjiṭṭhā -- f.; K. mazēṭh, dat. ˚ṭhi f. ʻ madder plant and dye (R. cordifolia or its substitute Geranium nepalense) ʼ; S. mañuṭhamaĩṭha f. ʻ madder ʼ; P. majīṭ(h), mãj˚ f. ʻ root of R. cordifolia ʼ; N. majiṭho ʻ R. cordifolia ʼ, A. mezāṭhimaz˚, OAw. maṁjīṭha f.; H. mãjīṭ(h), maj˚ f. ʻ madder ʼ, G. majīṭh f., Ko. mañjūṭi; -- Si. madaṭa ʻ a small red berry ʼ, madaṭiya ʻ the tree with red wood Adenanthera pavonina (Leguminosae) ʼ; Md. madoři ʻ a weight ʼ.māñjiṣṭha -- .Addenda: mañjiṣṭhā -- [Cf. Drav. Kan. mañcaṭigemañjāḍimañjeṭṭi S. M. Katre]: S.kcch. majīṭh f. ʻ madder ʼ.(CDIAL 9718) மஞ்சிட்டி mañciṭṭin. < mañjiṣṭhā. 1. Munjeet, Indian madder, Rubia cordifoliaநீர்ப்பூடுவகை. (I. P.) 2. Arnotto. See சாப்பிரா. (L.) 3. Chayroot for dyeing; சாயவேர். (L.) மஞ்சாடி mañcāṭin. [T. manḍzādi, K. mañjāḍi.] 1. Red-wood, m. tr., Adenanthera paroninaமரவகை. 2. Adenanthera seed weighing two kuṉṟi-mani, used by goldsmiths as a weight; இரண்டு குன்றிமணிகளின் எடை கொண்ட மஞ்சாடிவித்து. (S. I. I. i, 114, 116.) 

    The wor manjhitha may be derived from the root:  मञ्ज्   mañj मञ्ज् 1 U. (मञ्जयति-ते) 1 To clean, purify, wipe off. Thus, the reference is to a locality of artisans engaged in purifying metals and alloys. Such purifiers or assayers of metal are also referred to as पोतदार pōtadāra m ( P) An officer under the native governments. His business was to assay all money paid into the treasury. He was also the village-silversmith. (Marathi)

    The reading of the Munjals is reproduced below:
    Sa Thi Ga
    Ki Ma Jhi Tha
    Sha (?) Da Ya
    Subhash Kak reads the letters as:
    śam ña ga
    kī ma jhi tha
    ta ḍa ya
    that is
    शं ञ ग
    की म झि थ
    त ड य

    शं झ ग              śam ña ga
    की म झी थ         kī ma jhi tha

    Figure 1. The copper object and the text together with the reading in Munjal, S.K. and Munjal, A. (2007). Composite anthropomorphic figure from Haryana: a solitary example of copper hoard. Prāgdhārā (Number 17). 

    Third line of Brāhmī inscription: Line 3

    त ड य              ta ḍa ya (This third line has to be read as Indus Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts and NOT as Brami syllables). Subhash Kak suggests that this third line taḍaya may signify"punishment to inimical forces."

    Third line read as Indus Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts is deciphered as:
    mū̃h baṭa 'iron ingot',baran, bharat 'mixed copper, zinc, tin alloy metal' andkhāṇḍā metalware. 

    Anthropomorph found in a foundation of a house in a village called Kheri Gujar in Sonepat District in Haryana. The house itself rests on an ancient mound that has been variously dated to Late Harappan. The object is about 2 kg. and has dimensions of 30×28.5 cm.

    It is possible that Line 3 is a composition of Indus Script Hieroglyphs (and NOT Brāhmī syllables). Framed on this hypothesis, the message of Line 3 signifies:

    mū̃h baṭa 'iron ingot',
    baran, bharat 'mixed copper, zinc, tin alloy metal' and
    khāṇḍā metalware. 

    Hypertext of Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328 baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron'

    Sign 48 is a 'backbone, spine' hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat 'mixed alloys' (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)

    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    saṁjñāˊ f. ʻ agreement, understanding ʼ ŚBr., ʻ sign ʼ MBh. [√jñā]Pa. saññā -- f. ʻ sense, sign ʼ, Pk. saṁṇā -- f.; S. sañaṇu ʻ to point out ʼ; WPah.jaun. sān ʻ sign ʼ, Ku. sān f., N. sān; B. sān ʻ understanding, feeling, gesture ʼ; H. sān f. ʻ sign, token, trace ʼ; G. sān f. ʻ sense, understanding, sign, hint ʼ; M. sã̄j̈ f. ʻ rule to make an offering to the spirits out of the new corn before eating it, faithfulness of the ground to yield its usual crop ʼ, sã̄jẽ n. ʻ vow, promise ʼ; Si. sanaha˚ ʻ sign ʼ; -- P. H. sain f. ʻ sign, gesture ʼ (in mng. ʻ signature ʼ ← Eng. sign), G. sen f. are obscure. Addenda: saṁjñā -- : WPah.J. sā'n f. ʻ symbol, sign ʼ; kṭg. sánku m. ʻ hint, wink, coquetry ʼ, H. sankī f. ʻ wink ʼ, sankārnā ʻ to hint, nod, wink ʼ Him.I 209.(CDIAL 12874)

    meḍ 'body', meḍho 'ram' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (ram hieroglyph, (human) body hieroglyph)
    कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 , 3 rebus: कर्णिक having a helm; a steersman (Monier-Williams) 
    ayas 'alloy metal' (fish hieroglyph)
    कोंद kōnda ‘engraver' (one-horned young bull hieroglyph); kundana 'fine gold' (Kannada). 
    bāṛaï 'carpenter' (boar hieroglyph)
    bari barea 'merchant' (boar hieroglyph)

    The anthropomorphs are dharma samjña, signifiers of responsibilities of the metalsmith-carpenter-merchant. Signs 389, 387 signify mũhã̄ kuṭhi 'ingot smelter', mũhã̄ kolami 'ingot smithy, forge'.

    Anthropomorphs of Sarasvati Civilization are Indus Script hypertexts which signify metalwork.
    1.. Sign 389,  bun-ingot shape (oval) + 'twig', i.e. ingots produced from a smelter. This indicates that copper plates on which this hypertext occurs with high frequency are accounting ledgers of products produced from a smelter.
    2. Sign 387, bun-ingot shape (oval) + 'riceplant', i.e. ingots worked on in a smithy/forge. This hypertext DOES NOT occur on copper plates. This indicates that Sign 387 signifies ingots processed in a smithy/forge, i.e. to forge ingots into metalware, tools, implements, weapons.

    The two distinctly orthographed Indus Script hypertexts signify 1. mũhã̄ kuṭhi 'ingot smelter', 2. mũhã̄ kolami 'ingot smithy, forge'.

    Brāhmī syllables on Lines 1 and 2:

    शं झ ग              śam ña ga  saṁjñā -- : WPah.J. sā'n f. ʻsymbol, signʼ(CDIAL 12874)
    की म झी थ         kī ma jhi tha

    mū̃h baṭa 'iron ingot',
    baran, bharat 'mixed copper, zinc, tin alloy metal' and
    khāṇḍā metalware. 

    Majhitha on Line 2 signifies the name of the locality of the metals workshop.

    There are a number of localities in many parts of India with the name Majhitha:

    1. Locality Name : Majhitha ( मांझीथा ) Block Name : Singhpur District : Rae Bareli State : Uttar Pradesh Division : Lucknow 
    2. Majhitha Location:  , , Latitude:  21° 26' 8.2" (21.4356°) northLongitude:  82° 0' 48.3" (82.0134°) east Elevation:  276 metres (906 feet)

    3. Village : Majitha Block : Shahpura District : Jabalpur State : Madhya Pradesh Pincode Number : 482053

    Majitha is located in Punjab
    Location in Punjab, India
    Coordinates: 31.76°N 74.95°E
    Country  India
    State Punjab
    District Amritsar
     • Type state government
     • Total 14,503
     • Official Punjabi
    Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)

    Majitha is a town and a municipal council in Amritsar district in the Indian state of Punjab. Majhitha Road, Amritsar-143001, Punjab

    The Majithia Sirdars are a family of Shergill Jat sardars (chiefs) that came from the area of Majitha in the Punjab

    "Majitha located at (31.76°N 74.95°E) is a city and a municipal council in Amritsar district in the Indian state of Punjab. Majitha holds a distinguished place in the history of Punjab as the well-known Majithia Sirdars (chiefs) came from this region. These were several generals in Maharaja Ranjit Singh's army of the Sikh Empire in the first half of the 19th century.
    No less than ten generals from Majitha can be counted in the Maharaja's army during the period of 1800-1849. Chief amongst the Majithia generals during the Sikh Empire were General Lehna Singh, General (aka Raja) Surat Singh, and General Amar Singh. Sons of General Lehna Singh (Sirdar Dyal Singh) and of General Surat Singh (Sirdar Sundar Singh Majithia) had great impact on the affairs of Punjab during the British rule through the latter 1800s and the first half of the 20th century.
    Hari Singh Nalwa was the most celebrated general of the Sikh Kingdom. His family was known to have migrated to Gujranwala (now in Pakistan) from Majitha sometime in the eighteenth century.

    Majithia Sirdars term refers to a set of three related families of Sikh sardars (chiefs) that came from the area of Majitha - a town 10 miles north of the Punjab city of Amritsar and rose to prominence in the early 19th century.
    The Majithia clans threw in with the rising star of the Sikh misls - Ranjit Singh - during the latter 19th century. As Ranjit Singhestablished the Sikh Empire around the turn of the 19th century, the Majithia sardars gained prominence and became very influential in the Maharaja's army. Ten different Majithia generals can be counted amongst the Sikh army during the period of 1800-1849.
    According to the English historians, the Majithia family was one of the three most powerful families in Punjab under the Maharaja. Best known of the Majithia generals were General Desa Singh, General Lehna Singh, General Ranjodh Singh, General Surat Singh and General Amar Singh. In all there were 16 Majithia generals in the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
    The son of General Lehna Singh, Sardar Dyal Singh, was perhaps the most significant Punjabi of the late 19th century in the British Punjab. He was the main force behind the founding of Punjab University; was the founder and the owner of The Tribune newspaper - the most respected English-language newspaper in north-western India to this day; and the founder and owner of the Punjab National Bank - also the most powerful bank in north-western India until nationalized by Indira Gandhi in the early 1970s. He was also one of the charter members of the Indian National Congress party - which later became the main Indian nationalist political party and the party of Nehru and Gandhi.
    The son of General Surat Singh, Sardar Sundar Singh Majithia, also had tremendous impact on the early 20th century Punjab. He was a main force in the Sikh revivalist movement and was one of the founders of the "Chief Khalsa Diwan Society". Amongst his accomplishments can be counted the establishment of the Khalsa College, Amritsar and the founding of the Punjab and Sind Bank. He was knighted by the British - thus often referred to as Sir Sundar Singh Majithia.
    Sardar Sundar Singh's brother, Sardar Umrao Singh, was the father of Amrita Sher-Gil - considered by many to be first great female artist of the Indian subcontinent.
    The Majithia family, although referred to by the name of their village Majitha - which is common in Punjab, in actuality belong to the "Shergill" clan of the Jat Sikhs - itself a subset of the "Gill" clan.
    Other famous members of the Majithia family are:
    Sardar Parkash Singh Majithia, who was one of the most prominent of the Akali leaders of the 70s, 80s and 90s, and was popularly known as 'Majhe da jarnail'. He remained cabinet minister in many Akali governments holding important portfolios like Transport, Agriculture, and Revenue and Rehabilitation. He was elected MLA five times from Majitha constituency. He also played the stellar role during the Anti-Emergency Morcha and the Dharam Yudh Morcha. In the aftermath of Operation Blue Star, he served as the acting President of Akali Dal. Being the senior most Akali leader in the 1990s, he was unanimously appointed the patron of Shiromani Akali Dal, an honour he retained till his last breath.
    Sardar Parkash Singh Majitha was also one of the longest serving elected Presidents of the Governing Council of Khalsa College Amritsar. His grandsons Sardar Jagteshwar Singh Majitha (Member, Punjab Public Service Commission), Sardar Ajay Singh Majitha and Sardar Gurteshwar Singh Majitha (senior leader Youth Congress) have also been serving the people of Majitha and have carried the legacy of the family forward. Sardar Parkash Singh Majitha's son late Sardar Simarjit Singh Majithia (Ex. Chairman PUNSEED Punjab) and his nephew Sardar Rajmohinder Singh Majithia (MP and MLA) are also well-known Akali leaders.
    Bikram Singh Majithia (Minister and MLA) is another famous Majithia, who is Son of Satyajit Singh Majithia and Grandson of Surjit Singh Majithia and also belongs to the family of the Majithia Sardars. Bikram Singh Majithia was a prominent figure in the Shiromani Akali Dal campaign for the 2007 and 2012 Assembly elections. While in 2007, the party fought a formidable Congress Government, in 2012 Shiromani Akali Dal returned to power consecutively for the second term. Majithia became the president of Youth Akali Dal in 2011.
    Bikram Singh Majithia took over as New and Renewable Energy Minister, Punjab, he invited entrepreneurs from across the country and the NRIs to invest in solar power sector. The result was that in a short span Punjab was able to attract investment worth Rs 4,000 crore in this sector and the solar power generation tipped to go up from a meagre 9 megawatt to 541 megawatt by 2016.
    Harsimrat Kaur Badal (M.P,President women Shiromani Akali Dal) who is wife of Deputy Chief Minister of Punjab Sukhbir Singh Badal. She also belongs to family of Majithia Sirdars. She is daughter of Satyajit Singh Majithia and Granddaughter of Surjit Singh Majithia as well as daughter-in-law Parkash Singh Badal.
    Sardar Nirranjan Singh Majithia(Beriwale) also belongs to Majithia Sardars families.


    1. Punjab to generate 4,200 MW solar power by 2022: Bikram Singh Majithia HT Correspondent, Hindustan Times 5 May 2015|
    2. Provide easy credit for solar power projects: Bikram Singh Majithia Hindustan Times 24 June 2015.
    3. Majithia Family.

    Pictorial motifs of anthropomorph

    Hieroglyph: mẽḍhā 'curved horn', miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep; mē̃ḍh 'ram' Rebus: Медь [Med'] (Russian, Slavic) 'copper'. meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)
    Rebus: मृदु, मृदा--कर 'iron, thunderbolt'  मृदु mṛdu 'a kind of iron' मृदु-कार्ष्णायसम्,-कृष्णायसम् soft-iron, lead.
    Santali glosses.
    Sa. <i>mE~R~hE~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mE~RhE~d</i>(M).

    Ma. <i>mErhE'd</i> `iron'.

    Mu. <i>mERE'd</i> `iron'.

      ~ <i>mE~R~E~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mENhEd</i>(M).

    Ho <i>meD</i> `iron'.

    Bj. <i>merhd</i>(Hunter) `iron'.

    KW <i>mENhEd</i>


    — Slavic glosses for 'copper'

    Мед [Med]Bulgarian

    Bakar Bosnian

    Медзь [medz']Belarusian

    Měď Czech

    Bakar Croatian


    Бакар [Bakar]Macedonian

    Miedź Polish

    Медь [Med']Russian

    Meď Slovak


    Бакар [Bakar]Serbian

    Мідь [mid'] Ukrainian[unquote]

    Miedź, med' (Northern Slavic, Altaic) 'copper'.  

    One suggestion is that corruptions from the German "Schmied", "Geschmeide" = jewelry. Schmied, a smith (of tin, gold, silver, or other metal)(German) result in med ‘copper’.

    मेढ mēḍha f A forked stake. Used as a post. Hence a short post generally whether forked or not. Pr. हातीं लागली चेड आणि धर मांडवाची मेढमेढा  mēḍhā m A stake, esp. as forked. 2 A dense arrangement of stakes, a palisade, a paling. 3 fig. A supporter or backer.  मेढेकरी   mēḍhēkarī m The pillar, prop, stay of See मेढ्या.   मेढेकोट   mēḍhēkōṭa m (मेढा & कोट) A dense paling; a palisade or stoccade; any defence of stakes.   मेढेजोशी   mēḍhējōśī m A stake-जोशी; a जोशी who keeps account of the तिथि &c., by driving stakes into the ground: also a class, or an individual of it, of fortune-tellers, diviners, presagers, seasonannouncers, almanack-makers &c. They are Shúdras and followers of the मेढेमत q. v. 2 Jocosely. The hereditary or settled (quasi fixed as a stake) जोशी of a village. मेढेदाई or मेढेदाईक   mēḍhēdāī or mēḍhēdāīka c (मेढा & दाय) The owner of the hedge or fence dividing his enclosure from that of his neighbor.   मेढेमत   mēḍhēmata n (मेढ Polar star, मत Dogma or sect.) A persuasion or an order or a set of tenets and notions amongst the Shúdra-people. Founded upon certain astrological calculations proceeding upon the North star. Hence मेढेजोशी or डौरीजोशी.   मेढ्या   mēḍhyā a (मेढ Stake or post.) A term for a person considered as the pillar, prop, or support (of a household, army, or other body), the staff or stay. 2 Applied to a person acquainted with clandestine or knavish transactions. 3 See मेढे- जोशी.(Marathi)   

    मेढा  mēḍhā A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi)

    मेध m. the juice of meat , broth , nourishing or strengthening drink RV. S3Br. Ka1tyS3r.; a sacrificial animal , victim VS. Br. S3rS.; an animal-sacrifice , offering , oblation , any sacrifice (esp. ifc.ib. MBh. &c

    मेधा f. mental vigour or power , intelligence , prudence , wisdom (pl. products of intelligence , thoughts , opinions) RV. &c; = धन Naigh. ii , 10.

    Pictograph: spread legs

    Spread legs: कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 'spread legs'; (semantic determinant) Rebus: karNa 'helmsman', karNI 'scribe, account''supercargo'. 

    Pictograph: Ram

    मेठ a ram  भेड m. a ram L. (cf. एड , भेड्र and भेण्ड)

    मेंढा   mēṇḍhā m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup. 2 A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c.) and attrib. such a stick, horn, bullock.   मेंढी   mēṇḍhī f (मेंढा or H) A female sheep, a newe    मेंढें   mēṇḍhēṃ n (मेंढा) A sheep. Without reference to sex. 
    9606 bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ lex. [← Austro -- as. J. Przyluski BSL xxx 200: perh. Austro -- as. *mēḍra ~ bhēḍra collides with Aryan mḗḍhra -- 1 in mēṇḍhra -- m. ʻ penis ʼ BhP., ʻ ram ʼ lex. -- See also bhēḍa -- 1, mēṣá -- , ēḍa -- . -- The similarity between bhēḍa -- 1bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- ʻ ram ʼ and *bhēḍa -- 2 ʻ defective ʼ is paralleled by that between mḗḍhra -- 1, mēṇḍha -- 1 ʻ ram ʼ and *mēṇḍa -- 1, *mēṇḍha -- 2 (s.v. *miḍḍa -- ) ʻ defective ʼ]
    Ḍ. bēḍa f. ʻ sheep ʼ, K.ḍoḍ. bhĕḍă pl., L. bheḍ̠ f., awāṇ. bheḍbhiḍ, P. bheḍ˚ḍī f., ˚ḍā m.; WPah.bhal. (LSI) ḍhleḍḍ, (S. Varma) bhe, pl. ˚ṛã f. ʻ sheep and goats ʼ, bhad. bheḍḍ, cur. bhraḍḍbhēḍḍū, cam. bhēṛ, khaś. bhiḍṛu n. ʻ lamb ʼ; Ku. N. bheṛo ʻ ram ʼ, bheṛi ʻ ewe ʼ; A. bherābhẽrā ʻ sheep ʼ; B. bheṛ ʻ ram ʼ, ˚ṛā ʻ sheep ʼ, ˚ṛi ʻ ewe ʼ, Or. bheṛā˚ṛibhẽṛi; Bi. bhẽṛ ʻ sheep ʼ, ˚ṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Mth. bhẽṛo˚ṛī; Bhoj. bheṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhẽṛī ʻ sheep ʼ; H. bheṛ˚ṛī f., ˚ṛā m., G. bheṛi f.; -- X mēṣá -- : Kho. beṣ ʻ young ewe ʼ BelvalkarVol 88.*bhaiḍraka -- ; *bhēḍrakuṭikā -- , *bhēḍrapāla -- , *bhēḍravr̥ti -- .
    Addenda: bhēḍra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) bhèṛ m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhèṛi f., J. bheḍ m.†*bhēḍravāṭa -- , †*bhēḍriya -- .

    1) bhēḍa 9604 bhēḍa1 m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhaiḍaka -- ʻ of sheep ʼ lex. [bhēḍra- X ēḍa -- ?]Ash. biar ʻ she -- goat ʼ, Pr. byär, Bshk. bür; Tor. birāṭh ʻ he -- goat ʼ, Phal. bhīṛo: all with AO viii 300 doubtful.   9607 *bhēḍrakuṭikā ʻ sheepfold ʼ. [bhēḍra -- , kuṭī -- ] bhaṛōṛī or < *bhēḍravr̥ti -- .
       9608 *bhēḍrapāla ʻ shepherd ʼ. [bhēḍra -- , pālá -- ]G. bharvāṛ m. ʻ shepherd or goatherd ʼ, ˚ṛaṇi f. ʻ his wife ʼ (< *bhaḍvār).*bhēḍravr̥ti -- ʻ sheepfold ʼ. [bhēḍra -- , vr̥ti -- ]See *bhēḍrakuṭikā -- .Addenda: *bhēḍrapāla -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) bəḍhàḷɔ m., bəṛaḷɔ m. ʻ shepherd ʼ.9608a †*bhēḍravāṭa -- ʻ sheepfold ʼ. [bhēḍra -- , vāṭa -- 1]WPah.kc. bərhaṛo n. ʻ storey in house where sheep and goats are kept ʼ, bəṛhε̄` m. id. (< *bhēḍrīvāṭa -- ?), bəṛhāˋḷ m. ʻ sheep shed ʼ Him.I 151, 152.9608b †*bhēḍriya -- ʻ sheep -- killer ʼ. [bhēḍra -- semant. cf. *huḍahāra -- ]WPah.kc. bheṛio m. ʻ jackal ʼ; H. bheṛiyā m. ʻ wolf ʼ.  2512 ēḍa m. ʻ a kind of sheep ʼ KātyŚr., ēḍī -- f., ēḍaka -- 1 m. ʻ a sheep or goat ʼ, aiḍa -- ʻ ovine ʼ MBh., aiḍaká m. ʻ a kind of sheep ʼ ŚBr., iḍikka -- f. ʻ wild goat ʼ lex. [← Drav. EWA i 126 with lit.]Pa. eḷaka -- m. ʻ ram, wild goat ʼ, ˚akā -- , ˚ikā -- , ˚ikī -- f.; Aś. eḍaka -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, ˚kā -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ, NiDoc. heḍ'i ʻ sheep (?) ʼ Burrow KharDoc 10 (cf. h -- in Brahui hēṭ ʻ she -- goat ʼ); Pk. ēla -- , ˚aya -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, ēliyā -- f., ēḍayā -- f., ēḍakka -- m., Paš. weg. ēṛāˊ, kuṛ. e_ṛṓ, ar. yeṛóže˚ m. ʻ ram ʼ, weg. ēṛī, kuṛ. e_˚, ar. ye˚ f. ʻ ewe ʼ; Shum. yēṛəyeṛṓlik m. ʻ sheep ʼ, yeṛélik f., Gaw. ēṛayē˚ m., ēṛīyē˚ f., Bshk. īr f., Tor. öi f. (less likely < ávi -- ), Mai. "'ī" Barth NTS xviii 123, Sv. yeṛo m., ēṛia f., Phal. yīṛo m., ˚ṛi f., Sh. jij. ḗṛi; S. eli -- pavharu m. ʻ goatherd ʼ; Si. eḷuvā ʻ goat ʼ; <-> X bhēḍra -- q.v.*kaiḍikā -- .  5152 Ta. yāṭu, āṭu goat, sheep; āṭṭ-āḷ shepherd. Ma. āṭu goat, sheep; āṭṭukāran shepherd. Ko. a·ṛ (obl. a·ṭ-) goat. To. o·ḍ id. Ka. āḍu id. Koḍ. a·ḍï id. Tu. ēḍů id. Te. ēḍika, (B.) ēṭa ram. Go. (Tr. Ph. W.) yēṭī, (Mu. S.) ēṭi she-goat (Voc. 376). Pe. ōḍa goat. Manḍ. ūḍe id. Kui ōḍa id. Kuwi (Mah. p. 110) o'ḍā, (Ḍ.) ōḍa id. Kur. ēṛā she-goat. Malt. éṛeid. Br. hēṭ id. / Cf. Skt. eḍa-, eḍaka-, eḍī- a kind of sheep; Turner, CDIAL, no. 2512.

    1) mēṇḍha (p. 59610310 mēṇḍha2 m. ʻ ram ʼ, ˚aka -- , mēṇḍa -- 4miṇḍha -- 2˚aka -- , mēṭha -- 2mēṇḍhra -- , mēḍhra -- 2˚aka -- m. lex. 2. *mēṇṭha- (mēṭha -- m. lex.). 3. *mējjha -- . [r -- forms (which are not attested in NIA.) are due to further sanskritization of a loan -- word prob. of Austro -- as. origin (EWA ii 682 with lit.) and perh. related to the group s.v. bhēḍra -- ]1. Pa. meṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, ˚aka -- ʻ made of a ram's horn (e.g. a bow) ʼ; Pk. meḍḍha -- , meṁḍha -- (˚ḍhī -- f.), ˚ṁḍa -- , miṁḍha -- (˚dhiā -- f.), ˚aga -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, Dm. Gaw. miṇKal.rumb. amŕn/aŕə ʻ sheep ʼ (a -- ?); Bshk. mināˊl ʻ ram ʼ; Tor. miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ; Chil. mindh*ll ʻ ram ʼ AO xviii 244 (dh!), Sv. yēṛo -- miṇ; Phal. miṇḍmiṇ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍṓl m. ʻ yearling lamb, gimmer ʼ; P. mẽḍhā m., ˚ḍhī f., ludh. mīḍḍhāmī˜ḍhā m.; N. meṛhomeṛo ʻ ram for sacrifice ʼ; A. mersāg ʻ ram ʼ ( -- sāg < *chāgya -- ?), B. meṛā m., ˚ṛi f., Or. meṇḍhā˚ḍā m., ˚ḍhi f., H. meṛhmeṛhāmẽḍhā m., G. mẽḍhɔ, M. mẽḍhā m., Si. mäḍayā.2. Pk. meṁṭhī -- f. ʻ sheep ʼ; H. meṭhā m. ʻ ram ʼ.3. H. mejhukā m. ʻ ram ʼ.*mēṇḍharūpa -- , mēḍhraśr̥ṅgī -- .Addenda: mēṇḍha -- 2: A. also mer (phonet. mer) ʻ ram ʼ AFD 235.  10311 *mēṇḍharūpa ʻ like a ram ʼ. [mēṇḍha -- 2, rūpá -- ] Bi. mẽṛhwā ʻ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's ʼ; M.