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- 11/27/18--16:53: _Four शार्दूल on lot...
- 11/27/18--18:40: _Veda word amśu 'som...
- 11/27/18--19:34: _Indus Script hierog...
- 11/27/18--21:34: _Iravatham Mahadevan...
- 11/28/18--19:22: _Ancient Maritime Ti...
- 11/28/18--20:50: _Paśu 'animals' in R...
- 11/29/18--00:00: _Two issues that Dr ...
- 11/29/18--18:21: _Toc de scris 'Writi...
- 11/29/18--21:28: _False English trans...
- 11/29/18--23:10: _Itihāsa. China's st...
- 11/30/18--04:49: _Indus Script octopu...
- 11/30/18--07:09: _Seven interlocked t...
- 11/30/18--18:04: _Harappan settlement...
- 12/01/18--05:43: _Cipher war, after a...
- 12/01/18--07:17: _Mohenjo-daro -- Ind...
- 12/01/18--19:21: _Mohanna boatpeople'...
- 12/02/18--18:00: _Metaphors of Rāṣṭrī...
- 12/03/18--03:00: _China's dam-buildin...
- 12/03/18--16:05: _Itihāsa. Greatest m...
- 12/03/18--17:07: _Hypertexts, person ...
- Two silver bracelets were also found with this hoard. (Marshall, Pl. CLXIV)
- Silver vase, Mohenjodaro (After Marshall, Pl. CXLVIII). The silver vase contained gold jewellery.
- phonetic values
- Sumerian: SAG, SUR14
- Akkadian: šag, šak, šaq, riš sign evolution
- 1. the pictogram as it was drawn around 3000 BC;
- 2. the rotated pictogram as written around 2800 BC;
- 3. the abstracted glyph in archaic monumental inscriptions, from ca. 2600 BC;
- 4. the sign as written in clay, contemporary to stage 3;
- 5. late 3rd millennium (Neo-Sumerian);
- 6. Old Assyrian, early 2nd millennium, as adopted into Hittite;
- 7. simplified sign as written by Assyrian scribes in the early 1st millennium.
- SAG(.KAL) "first one"
- (LÚ.)SAG a palace official
- ZARAḪ=SAG.PA.LAGAB "lamentation, unrest"
- SAG.DUL a headgear
- SAG.KI "front, face, brow"
- Ceylon Coins and Currency: H. W. Codrington, Colombo, 1924.
Chapter VII Mediaeval Indian - Chola Page 84 PL 104
- Coins of the Cholas: C. H. Biddulph, NSI #13, 1966.
- Oriental Coins: Michael Mitchiner,
London, Hawkins Publications, 1978.
Ellora: Alternate transcriptions: Ellura, Elapura Writing in Marathi: वेरूळ Illustration of Uma Devi and Surya from Lankesvara (top), Lions from the roof or mandapa of Kailasa (bottom) from Kailasanatha [Kailasa] Temple, cave XVI, at Ellora from James Burgess''Original Drawings [of] Elura Cave Temples Buddhist and Brahmanical.'
"The spectacular site of Ellora, in Maharashtra, is famous for its series of Buddhist, Hindu and Jain cave temples excavated into the rocky façade of a cliff of basalt. The works were done under the patronage of the Kalachuri, the Chalukya and the Rashtrakuta dynasties between the 6th and the 9th centuries. The Kailasanath is the most noted of all the splendours of Ellora, a free-standing temple rather than a cave, entirely sculpted out of a great mass of basalt. Commissioned by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I in the mid-eighth century, it symbolises Mount Kailasa, the sacred abode of Shiva. A tall screen marks the entrance, and river goddesses mark the route to the three sections of the temple (a Nandi shrine, a mandapa, and the main sanctuary) which are on a raised plinth borne by elephants. The principal shrine is topped by a pyramidal tower (shikara). Superb sculptural friezes in the temple tell tales from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and of Shiva. Two monolithic obelisks are situated on the side of the main temple. They are 17 metres high and decorated with relief carvings.
In both alternative readings, the most frequently used Indus Script Sign 342 (rim-of-jar) signifies a wealth-accounting ledger, metalwork catalogue:1. scribe, supercargo, stersman; 2. iron, electrum alloy.
Alternative 1: Hieroglyph: brim: aṉsu aṉsu
Alternative 2: Indus script. Meluhha rebus readings karṇika'rim-of-jar''scribe; karṇaka'steersman'karṇi'supercargo'
Link with R̥gveda Tocharian ancu 'iron' is cognate amśu 'soma' bought from merchants of Mt.Mujavant (Mushtag Ata, Kyrgystan, Tarim basin). Soma 'electrum' pyrite is identified.
Tin Isotopes and the Sources of Bronze Age Tin in the Old World."This multidisciplinary project comprising archaeology, history, geochemistry, and geology aims at the decipherment of the enigma of the origin of a material that emerged in the third millennium BCE and gave an entire cultural epoch its name, namely the alloy of copper and tin called bronze. While copper deposits are relatively widely distributed there are only very few tin deposits known in the Old World (Europe, the Mediterranean basin and southwest Asia). "
This is an addendum to:
Source: Keith and Macdonnell, Vedic Index, Vol. I, pp.509-511
kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'.
Sign 123 is comparable to Sign 99 'splinter' hieroglyph. kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā kuṭhi metalware smelter.
If only he had lived for a few more years, he might have come up with a ‘revision’ on his view on Aryan entry.November 29, 2018
As one who has read most of his papers for a research work, the only thought lingering on this writer’s mind is that Mahadevan was truly humble and open for change.
Toc de scris 'Writing pen'
Ku. suyārī, siyã̄rī ʻ needle bag ʼ.(CDIAL 13550) sūcīˊ f. ʻ needle ʼ RV., sūcí -- m. R. (f. Kālid. lex.), sūcikā -- f. lex.: v.l. śucĭ̄ -- . 2. *sūñcī -- . [Kaf. forms with č -- and Kho š -- can be explained as assimilation of s -- č, but Ash. points to IA. ś -- . If originally IA. had śūci -- (agreeing with Pahl. sūčan, Pers. sōzen), ś -- was perh. replaced by s -- through the influence of sīˊvyati, sūˊtra -- . Cf. similar influence of verb ʻ to sew ʼ in N.] 1. Pa. sūci -- , °ikā -- f. ʻ needle ʼ, Pk. sūī -- f., Gy. eur. suv, pl. suvya f., pal. suʻ , as. siv, Ḍ. sūiya f., Ash. arċūˊċ (ar -- < āˊrā -- ); Kt. čim -- čič ʻ iron needle ʼ, p -- čič ʻ thread ʼ; Paš.ar. sūī ʻ needle ʼ, chil. sūĩ, kuṛ. sũī, Shum. suīˊ, Gaw. suī˜, Kal.rumb. suš (< *suž with -- š carried into obl. sūšuna), urt. sužīk, Bshk. sū̃ī; Sh.gil. sū f. ʻ needle, pine needle ʼ, koh. sū̃ f., gur. sūw f.; K. suyu m. ʻ needle ʼ, suwa m. ʻ large pack -- needle ʼ; S. suī f. ʻ needle ʼ, suo m. ʻ pack -- needle ʼ, L.awāṇ. P. sūī f., sūā m., N. siyo (X siunu < sīvayati), B. sui, sũi, chũi, Or. sui, Bi. sūī, Mth. sui, Bhoj. suī, sūwā ʻ large needle ʼ, Aw.lakh. sūī, H. sūī f., sūā m., G. soy f., soyɔ, soiyɔ m., M. sū, sūī f., Ko. sū, suvva, Si. (h)ida, st. (h)idi -- . -- Ext. -- ḍ -- : S. suiṛī f. ʻ tattooing needle ʼ; Ku. syūṛo ʻ needle ʼ, gng. śwīṛ; N. suiro ʻ needle, goad, blade of grass ʼ.2. Wg. čunċ ʻ needle ʼ, Dm. čū̃či (NTS xii 163 < *šū̃či), Paš.dar. weg. sū˘nčék, gul. čánčak, Kho. šunǰ, B. sũc, suc, chũc, Or. suñci, chuñci, H. chū̃chī f.; Si. hin̆du ʻ porcupine quill ʼ. -- K. saċ m. ʻ large pack -- needle ʼ,saċan f. ʻ needle ʼ ← Ir., cf. Wkh. siċ, Pahl. sūčan.sūcika -- , *sūcya -- , saucika -- ; *sūcikāgharikā -- .*sūcya -- ʻ tailor ʼ see sūcika -- .Addenda: sūcīˊ -- [Cf. Ir. *sūčī -- in Shgh. X. Rosh. siǰ f. ʻ needle ʼ EVSh 73; also Pahl. sūčan id.]: deriv. WPah.kṭg. súɔ ʻ large needle ʼ. -- In line 2 read v.l. śūcĭ̄ -- .(CDIAL 13551)M. suċṇẽ ʻ to come to mind ʼ, sucẽ n. ʻ hint, suggestion ʼ, caus. Or. sucāibā ʻ to remind ʼ, G. sucavvũ ʻ to hint ʼ, rather than < śúcyati; -- WPah.kc. sunċṇo ʻ to consider ʼ, A. xusāiba rather < †samarthyatē? (J.C.W.)(CDIAL 13551a)1. WPah. (Joshi) sūī m. ʻ tailor ʼ, OG. suī m. (whence saïyaṇi f. ʻ his wife ʼ), G. soi, saī m. (or < 2).2. P. soī m. ʻ tailor ʼ, G. see 1.3. K. saċ m. ʻ tailor ʼ?Addenda: sūcika -- . 2. saucika -- : WPah.kṭg. sói m. ʻ tailor ʼ.(CDIAL 13549)
Cuneiform text on Indus Seal, cursive writing on gold pendant used as stylus for writing and notes on hypertexts of an early writing system
SM Katre (1941) refers to a cuneiform inscription on an Indus silver artefact. This is contradicted by John Marshall (1931). But, there is an Indus Seal with a cuneiform inscription found in Ur, noted by CJ Gadd (1932) which indicates that Indus Script was used to signify a hypertext of a 'bull' (barad, 'bull' rebus:bharata 'alloy copper, pewter, tin) while cuneiform syllabary was used to signify the 'profession' --sag-kusida, 'money-lender'-- of the seal-holder.
“Another fact connected with Mohenjo Daro but strangely omitted from the official reports is the discovery of a piece of silver, bearing the number DK 1341 (NS9), made by Rao Bahadur (then Mr.) KN Dikshit, on the 1st of January 1926, on both sides of which he noted the occurrence of cuneiform punches. This silver piece is the earliest known cuneiform inscription or writing found in India, and will form part of the work of a future palaeographist who will have to revise the now classical treatise of Buhler (Indische Palaeographie, Strassburg, 1896).”(SM Katre, 1941, Introduction to Indian Txtual criticism, p.3)
Gold jewellery, Mohenjodaro (After Marshall, Pl. CXLVIII).
The comments made by John Marshall on three curious objects at bottom right-hand corner of Pl. CLI, B3: “Personal ornaments…Jewellery and Necklaces…Netting needles (?) Three very curious objects found with the studs and the necklace appear to be netting needles of gold. They are shown just above the ear-studs and also in the lower right-hand corner of Pl. CLI, B, 3-5 and 12-14. The largest of these needles (E 2044a) is 2.5 inches long. The handle is hollow and cylindrical and tapers slightly, being 0.2 inch in diameter at the needle-end. The needle point is 0.5 inch long and has a roughly shaped oval eye at its base. The medium sized needle (E 2044b) is 2.5 inches long and of the same pattern: but the cap that closed the end of the handle is now missing. The point which has an oval eye at its base is 0.3 inch long. The third needle (E 2044c) is only 1.7 inches long with the point 0.3 inch in length. Its handle, which is otherwise similar to those of the other two needles, is badly dented. The exact use of these three objects is open to question, for they could have been used for either sewing or netting. The handles seem to have been drawn, as there is no sign of a soldered line, but the caps at either end were soldered on with an alloy that is very little lighter in colour than the gold itself. The two smaller needles have evidently been held between the teeth on more than one occasion.” (p.521)
Evidently, Marshall has missed out on the incription written in paint, as a free-hand writing, over one of the objects: Pl. CLI, B3.
This is an extraordinary evidence of the Indus writing system written down, with hieroglyphs inscribed using a coloured paint, on an object.
aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron'(Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)
What could these three objects be? Sewing needles? Netting needles?
Mrugendra Vinod links the needle to an Ashvamedha reference:
The gold needles are found in Mohen jo Daro. They are explicitly referred to in Ashvamedha Ritual. (Ref.7)
Ref. 7 यत्सूच न्नर्रन्नसपिातकल्पयन्नति।----िय्याः सूच्यो र्वन्नति। अयस्िय्यो रजिा हररण्याः। तै .ब्रा.3.9.6
I do not know the explanation for the reference to and use of सूची in the Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa in the context of Ashvamedha yajña.
Why needle-like endings? Maybe, the pendants were used as 'writing' devices 1) either to engrave hieroglyphs into objects; 2)or to use the needle-ending like a metal nib to dip into a colored ink or liquid or zinc-oxide paste or cinnabar-paste. This possibility is suggested by the use of cinnabar in ancient China to paint into lacquer plates or bowls. Cinnabar or powdered mercury sulphide was the primary colorant lof lacquer vessels. "Known in China during the late Neolithic period (ca. 5000–ca. 2000 ), lacquer was an important artistic medium from the sixth century to the second century and was often colored with minerals such as carbon (black), orpiment (yellow), and cinnabar (red) and used to paint the surfaces of sculptures and vessels...a red lacquer background is carved with thin lines that are filled with gold, gold powder, or lacquer that has been tinted black, green, or yellow." http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2009/cinnabar
Hieroglyph: ḍāv m. ʻdice-throwʼ rebus: dhāu 'ore'; dã̄u ʻtyingʼ, ḍāv m. ʻdice-throwʼ read rebus: dhāu 'ore' in the context of glosses: dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻa caste of iron -smelters', dhāvḍī ʻcomposed of or relating to ironʼ. Thus, three dotted circles signify: tri-dhāu, tri-dhātu 'three ores' (copper, tin, iron).
Button seal. Harappa.
Sibri cylinder seal with Indus writing hieroglyphs: notches, zebu, tiger, scorpion?. Each dot on the corner of the + glyph and the short numeral strokes on a cylinder seal of Sibri, may denote a notch: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.
Fired steatite button seal with four concentric circle designs discovered at Harappa.
Ahar-Banas region of Rajasthan (close to the Khetri copper belt) is a copper complex.
kod. = place where artisans work (Gujarati) kod. = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.lex.) gor.a = a cow-shed; a cattleshed; gor.a orak = byre (
मौजा or village, composed generally of the huts of one caste.कोंडडाव (p. 180) [ kōṇḍaḍāva ] m Ring taw; that form of marble-playing in which lines are drawn and divisions made:--as disting. from अगळडाव The play with holes.कोंडवाड [ kōṇḍavāḍa ] n f C ( कोंडणें & वाडा) A pen or fold for cattle.कोंडाळें (p. 180) [ kōṇḍāḷēṃ ] n ( कुंडली S) A ring or circularly inclosed space. 2 fig. A circle made by persons sitting roun.) कोंड [ kōṇḍa ] A circular hedge or field-fence. 2 A circle described around a person under adjuration. 3 The circle at marbles. 4 A circular hamlet; a division of a d.
I have suggested that a dotted circle hieroglyph is a cross-section of a strand of rope: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) धवड (p. 436) [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or
The phoneme dhāī˜ (Lahnda) signifying a single strand may thus signify the hieroglyph: dotted circle. This possibility is reinforced by the glosses in Rigveda, Tamil and other languages of Baratiya sprachbund which are explained by the word dāya 'playing of dice' which is explained by the cognate Tamil word: தாயம் tāyam, n. < dāya Number one in the game of dice; கவறுருட்ட விழும் ஒன்று என்னும் எண்.
Ivory combs. Turkmenistan.
Ivory objects. Sarasvati Civilization
Tablets.Ivory objects. Mohenjo-daro.
Button seal. Baror, Rajasthan.
Courtesy: manasataramgini @blog_supplement
Button tablet. Harappa. Dotted circles.
यष्टृ is NOT a victim. यष्ट्/ऋ or य्/अष्टृ, mf(ट्री A1pS3r. Sch.) n. worshipping , a worshipper RV. Yajña is NOT sacrifice. It is prayer. We have been misled by false English translations. See Swaminathan's evidence https://tamilandvedas.com/2018/07/06/yupa-sacrificial-post-part-2-post-no-5186/ …
China Sends Stern Message to Pakistan With Map Depicting PoK as Part of India For First Time
As it is highly unlikely that a state-run television would ever defy Beijing, sources said that it was a move by China to signal to Pakistan its strong displeasure to Pakistan for its failure to protect its citizens.
|Codrington #104; Mitchiner #729; Biddulph #5|
|Codrington #104; Mitchiner #729; Biddulph #5|
|Codrington #104; Mitchiner #729; Biddulph #5|
Obverse : Head usually represented by an oval with a projection for the chin ; the oval is countersunk inside leaving the eye standing out ; Two lines above chin for nose and mouth. Crown (makuta), a thick line behind which a triangle. Left arm extended, bent upwards at elbow and holding a jessamine flower. Legs short and straight ; dhoti stiff, line between legs ; the whole standing on a double lotus plant Co-joined in the center by a small circle and terminating on the left in a chank and on the right in a jessamine flower. To the left under arm hanging lamp and further to left a standing lamp, tall with four branches. To write four annulets each with a dot in center surmounted by ball (filled circle). All in bead circle
Reverse : Head and crown as on obverse. Seated king on left facing right with left arm extended, bent down over leg. Right arm raised upwards with elbow outwards, and holding in front of the face, a chank. Asana short with two cross lines. Legend in Nagari script to right in three lines Sri RajaRaja. All in bead circle.
There are two well-known varieties of RajaRaja gold coins closely resembling the Lanka Kahavanuva of type IIIC(1). The type shown above with four annulets surmounted by ball struck in or for use in Lanka where it is not uncommon. The type found only in mainland with a crescent on top the four annulets on the right of obverse. It may have been stuck for circulation in the conquered Pandyan provinces where the Sinhala gold coins were well known.
These coins are extensively discussed by Biddulph in his 1966 monogram on Coins of the Cholas. He goes into extensive discussions to establish that the Rajaraja Chola coins were the prototype to the "Standing and seated King" series associated with Lanka.
These RajaRaja Chola coins found in Lanka resemble the Kahavanuva. The similar coins found in in India, known as Madais, are of better workmanship but of inferior gold which degraded with time in purity, until in later issues were of merely gold plated silver.
Rajaraja Chola (985-1014) invaded Lanka in 990 AD and conquered the northern half. Ruining Anuradhapura he made Polonnaruwa his capital on the island;. Rajendra (1014-1044) Chola succeeded in extended Chola occupation over the whole island of Lanka in 1018. Lanka became regained independence from Chola occupation in 1070 under Vijayabahu I (1055-1110).
Text edited from
I suggest that the three tigers with interlocked bodies connote cāli 'interlocked bodies'.
Rebus-metonymy layered cipher yields the plain text Meluhha message : kola'tiger'> kolom'three' PLUS cāli 'interlocked bodies': kammasālā 'workshop' (Prakritam) < kolimi 'forge' PLUS śālā, i.e. smithy workshop; salāyisu = joining of metal (Kannada).
kaṇḍ kanka ‘rim of jar’; Rebus: karnI 'supercargo', karṇika ‘scribe’; kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar’. Thus the ligatured Glyph is decoded:
kaṇḍkarṇaka ‘furnace scribe'
कर्णक kárṇaka कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 'spread legs';
(semantic determinant) rebus: kárṇaka, kannā कर्णक 'helmsman'.PLUS
meḍ ‘body’ Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.)
Obverse of the tablets (e.g. m1395) signify functions of the manager of the guild
--Data mining of Harappa Script Corpora, karaḍa aquatic bird, kola, 'tiger', poḷa, 'zebu' tied to a rope, stake -- signifiers of working in karaḍa, 'hard alloys', poḷa, 'magnetite (ferrite ore)', kol, 'working in iron'.
m1395 [PLUS hieroglyphs on obverse of tablet: haematite (ferrite ore), blacksmith artisan, iron implements merchant, armourer, hard alloy metalcasting].
After a century of failing to crack an ancient script, linguists turn to machinesBy
After a century of failing to crack an ancient script, linguists turn to machines
In 1872 a British general named Alexander Cunningham, excavating an area in what was then British-controlled northern India, came across something peculiar. Buried in some ruins, he uncovered a small, one inch by one inch square piece of what he described as smooth, black, unpolished stone engraved with strange symbols — lines, interlocking ovals, something resembling a fish — and what looked like a bull etched underneath. The general, not recognizing the symbols and finding the bull to be unlike other Indian animals, assumed the artifact wasn’t Indian at all but some misplaced foreign token. The stone, along with similar ones found over the next few years, ended up in the British Museum. In the 1920s many more of these artifacts, by then known as seals, were found and identified as evidence of a 4,000-year-old culture now known as the Indus Valley Civilization, the oldest known Indian civilization to date.
While our understanding of the Indus script remains minimal, it’s certainly not for lack of trying. “It’s often called the most deciphered script because there are around 100 decipherments,” says Wells, “but of course nobody likes any of them.” Many people have claimed to have cracked the script, often asserting it’s a precursor to a later language, but none of the decodings have held up. “I suppose the wackiest one is a tantric guru who meditated and got in touch with the great beyond, which told him what the script said,” says Wells.
In order to decipher the Indus script, it’s important to ascertain what we’re looking at — whether the symbols stand for a language, or, like totem poles or coats of arms, just representations of things like family names or gods. “Given the amount of data we have, we cannot make any firm statement regarding the content of the script,” says Yadav. “I think what we’ve done is try to piece together whatever evidence we have to see if it leads us one way or the other,” says Rao. “And I think, at least from the work we’ve done, it seems like it’s more tailed towards the language hypothesis than not.” Most scholars tend to agree.