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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Barli fragmentary Brāhmī Inscription of ca. 443 BCE (possibly the earliest Brāhmī inscription)

    The inscription was found in the temple of Bhilot Mata, about a mile from the village Barli, situated about 36 miles southeast of Ajmer. http://www.indovacations.net/Rajasthan-Tour-Package/SourcesofHistoryand CultureRajasthan.htm  This town Barli (बडली) (Badli) was named as Majhimika.

    This inscription is present on a piece of pillar of dimension 13x10 inches.

    The first line:  'वीर' (T) 'य भागव(त) = भागवत mf()n. (fr. भग-वत्) relating to or coming from भगवत् i.e. विष्णु or कृष्ण , holy , sacred , divine MBh. Hariv. Pur.

    The second line 'चतुरासिति व (स)'  = 84 वश authority , power , control , dominion (in AV. personified). 

    I suggest that the expression is a reference to 84 Mahasiddha-s revered in Tantra and Bauddham traditions.

    variant readings

    dva in line 1: Sircar reads against Jayaswal and Halder dvaṃ instead of  . At the same time he interprets the sign as the second syllable of siddhaṃ; the reading of  seems very unlikely.
    ti in line 2: The i-mātrā seems to be extended downwards by a crack in the rock.
    Scan Template : Sircar, Dines Chandra - "Barli Fragmentary Stone Inscription." JBORS 37.1951: 34-38.
    Further reading: Jayaswal, KP - "An Important Brahmi Inscription." JBORS 16: 1930: 67-68.
    Halder, RR - "A note on an inscription of the fourth century BC" IA 58.1929: 229.
    The inscription was considered by Halder and Jayaswal to be "pre-Aśokan". It is relatively poorly preserved or reproduced.

    Alternative views:

    ''Veer Samvat' 84 years after Bhagvan Mahavir Nirvan mentioned in ancient Barli inscription of 443 years B.C. Barli inscription which had been discovered in year 1912, is oldest inscription in history which is showing Veer Samvat and no other inscription before Ashoka period has been discovered till date in the world."

    According to historian G. H. Ojha, who discovered the inscription in 1912, the inscription contains the line Viraya Bhagavate chaturasiti vase, which can be interpreted as "dedicated to Lord Vira in his 84th year". Based on this reading, Ojha concluded that the record was inscribed in 443 BCE (year 84 of the Vira Nirvana Samvat), 84 years after the death of the Jain leader Mahavira. The existence of a Vira Nirvana Samvat is disputed by DC Sircar. 
    Image may contain: text
    Barli (बडली) (Badli) is a Village in Bhinay Tehsil in District AjmerRajasthan.
    Dr Gauri Shankar Hirachandra Ojha obtained in 1912 a fragmentary Inscription of year 443 BC which along with Piprava Inscription of 487 BC are the most ancient Indian Inscriptions. It is in Brahmi script and preserved in Ajmer Museum.  Piprawa is a village in the Basti district of Uttar Pradesh.
    Dr Ozha writes that this small inscription is piece of pillar. In its first line , the words 'वीर' (T) 'य भागव(त)' and in the second line, the words 'चतुरासिति व (स)' are inscribed. https://www.jatland.com/home/Barli_Ajmer

    váśa m. ʻ will, authority, power ʼ RV., vaśēna ʻ on account of, by means of ʼ ŚrS. [√vaś]Pa. vasa -- m.n. ʻ will, power ʼ (vasēna ʻ on account of ʼ), Pk. vasa -- n.; P. vāhbāh m.f. ʻ power ʼ; N. bas ʻ authority, control ʼ, Or. baśa (obl. baśũ ʻ owing to ʼ), Mth. bas (basi rahab ʻ to be under the control of ʼ), Bhoj. Aw.lakh. H. bas m.; OMarw. basi loc. sg. m. ʻ in the power of ʼ, OG. vasivasū; OSi. vasin ʻ through, by means of ʼ, Si. visin, (SigGr) vaha ʻ control ʼ.(CDIAL 11430)

    caturaśīti f. ʻ 84 ʼ.Pa. cūḷāsīti -- , cullā˚, Pk. culasīcōrāsīi, S. corāsī, L. côrāsī, P. curāsī, N. caurāsi, A. saurāxi, B. curāśi, Or. caürāaśī, Aw. lakh. H. caurāsī, G. cɔrāsī, M. ċauryāśī, OSi. suvāsū.(CDIAL 4597)

    Names of the 84 Mahasiddhas

    In Vajrayana Buddhism there are eighty-four Mahasiddhas. The list below includes their name and their epithet. An asterisk after their name denotes a female Mahasiddha.
    1. Acinta, the "Avaricious Hermit";
    2. Ajogi, the "Rejected Wastrel";
    3. Anangapa, the "Handsome Fool";
    4. Aryadeva (Karnaripa), the "One-Eyed";
    5. Babhaha, the "Free Lover";
    6. Bhadrapa, the "Exclusive Brahmin";
    7. Bhandepa, the "Envious God";
    8. Bhiksanapa, "Siddha Two-Teeth";
    9. Bhusuku (Shantideva), the "Idle Monk";
    10. Camaripa, the "Divine Cobbler";
    11. Champaka, the "Flower King";
    12. Carbaripa (Carpati) "the Petrifyer";
    13. Catrapa, the "Lucky Beggar";
    14. Caurangipa, "the Dismembered Stepson";
    15. Celukapa, the "Revitalized Drone";
    16. Darikapa, the "Slave-King of the Temple Whore";
    17. Dengipa, the "Courtesan's Brahmin Slave";
    18. Dhahulipa, the "Blistered Rope-Maker";
    19. Dharmapa, the "Eternal Student" (c.900 CE);
    20. Dhilipa, the "Epicurean Merchant";
    21. Dhobipa, the "Wise Washerman";
    22. Dhokaripa, the "Bowl-Bearer";
    23. Dombipa Heruka, the "Tiger Rider";
    24. Dukhandi, the "Scavenger";
    25. Ghantapa, the "Celibate Bell-Ringer";
    26. Gharbari or Gharbaripa, the "Contrite Scholar" (Skt., pandita);
    27. Godhuripa, the "Bird Catcher";
    28. Goraksha, the "Immortal Cowherd";
    29. Indrabhuti, the "Enlightened Siddha-King";
    30. Jalandhara, the "Dakini's Chosen One";
    31. Jayananda, the "Crow Master";
    32. Jogipa, the "Siddha-Pilgrim";
    33. Kalapa, the "Handsome Madman";
    34. Kamparipa, the "Blacksmith";
    35. Kambala (Lavapa), the "Black-Blanket-Clad Yogin";
    36. Kanakhala*, the younger Severed-Headed Sister;
    37. Kanhapa (Krishnacharya), the "Dark Siddha";
    38. Kankana, the "Siddha-King";
    39. Kankaripa, the "Lovelorn Widower";
    40. Kantalipa, the "Ragman-Tailor";
    41. Kapalapa, the "Skull Bearer";
    42. Khadgapa, the "Fearless Thief";
    43. Kilakilapa, the "Exiled Loud-Mouth";
    44. Kirapalapa (Kilapa), the "Repentant Conqueror";
    45. Kokilipa, the "Complacent Aesthete";
    46. Kotalipa (or Tog tse pa, the "Peasant Guru";
    47. Kucipa, the "Goitre-Necked Yogin";
    48. Kukkuripa, (late 9th/10th Century), the "Dog Lover";
    49. Kumbharipa, "the Potter";
    50. Laksminkara*, "The Mad Princess";
    51. Lilapa, the "Royal Hedonist";
    52. Lucikapa, the "Escapist";
    53. Luipa, the "Fish-Gut Eater";
    54. Mahipa, the "Greatest";
    55. Manibhadra*, the "Happy Housewife";
    56. Medhini, the "Tired Farmer";
    57. Mekhala*, the Elder Severed-Headed Sister;
    58. Mekopa, the "Guru Dread-Stare";
    59. Minapa, the "Fisherman";
    60. Nagabodhi, the "Red-Horned Thief'";
    61. Nagarjuna, "Philosopher and Alchemist";
    62. Nalinapa, the "Self-Reliant Prince";
    63. Nirgunapa, the "Enlightened Moron";
    64. Naropa, the "Dauntless";
    65. Pacaripa, the "Pastrycook";
    66. Pankajapa, the "Lotus-Born Brahmin";
    67. Putalipa, the "Mendicant Icon-Bearer";
    68. Rahula, the "Rejuvenated Dotard";
    69. Saraha, the "Great Brahmin";
    70. Sakara or Saroruha;
    71. Samudra, the "Pearl Diver";
    72. Śāntipa (or Ratnākaraśānti), the "Complacent Missionary";
    73. Sarvabhaksa, the "Glutton");
    74. Savaripa, the "Hunter", held to have incarnated in Drukpa Künleg;
    75. Syalipa, the "Jackal Yogin";
    76. Tantepa, the "Gambler";
    77. Tantipa, the "Senile Weaver";
    78. Thaganapa, the "Compulsive Liar";
    79. Tilopa, the "Great Renunciate"
    80. Udhilipa, the "Bird-Man";
    81. Upanaha, the "Bootmaker";
    82. Vinapa, the "Musician";
    83. Virupa, the "Dakini Master";
    84. Vyalipa, the "Courtesan's Alchemist".

    Mahāsiddha (Sanskritmahāsiddha "great adept; Tibetanགྲུབ་ཐོབ་ཆེན་པོWyliegrub thob chen poTHLdruptop chenpo) is a term for someone who embodies and cultivates the "siddhi of perfection". A siddha is an individual who, through the practice of sādhanā, attains the realization of siddhis, psychic and spiritual abilities and powers. Mahasiddhas were practicioners of yoga and tantra, or tantrikas. Their historical influence throughout the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayas was vast and they reached mythic proportions as codified in their songs of realizationand hagiographies, or namtars, many of which have been preserved in the Tibetan Buddhist canon. The Mahasiddhas are the founders of Vajrayana traditions and lineages such as Dzogchen and Mahamudra.
    Robert Thurman explains the symbiotic relationship between Tantric Buddhist communities and the Buddhist universities such as Nalanda which flourished at the same time:
    The Tantric communities of India in the latter half of the first Common Era millennium (and perhaps even earlier) were something like "Institutes of Advanced Studies" in relation to the great Buddhist monastic "Universities". They were research centers for highly cultivated, successfully graduated experts in various branches of Inner Science (adhyatmavidya), some of whom were still monastics and could move back and forth from university (vidyalaya) to "site" (patha), and many of whom had resigned vows of poverty, celibacy, and so forth, and were living in the classical Indian sannyāsin or sādhu style. I call them the "psychonauts" of the tradition, in parallel with our “astronauts”, the materialist scientist-adventurers whom we admire for their courageous explorations of the "outer space" which we consider the matrix of material reality. Inverse astronauts, the psychonauts voyaged deep into "inner space", encountering and conquering angels and demons in the depths of their subconscious minds.(
    David B. Gray, ed. (2007). The Cakrasamvara Tantra: The Discourse of Śrī Heruka (Śrīherukābhidhāna). Thomas F. Yarnall. American Institute of Buddhist Studies at Columbia University. pp. ix–x.)
    According to Ulrich von Schroeder, Tibet has different traditions relating to the mahasiddhas. Among these traditions, two were particularly popular, namely the Abhayadatta Sri list and the so-called Vajrasana list. The number of mahasiddhas varies between eighty-four and eighty-eight, and only about thirty-six of the names occur in both lists. It is therefore also wrong to state that in Buddhism are 84 Mahasiddhas. The correct title should therefore be Names of the 84 Mahasiddhas according to the Abhayadatta Sri Tradition. It should also be clearly stated that only Tibetan translations of this Sanskrit text Caturasiti-siddha-pravrtti(CSP) or The Lives of the Eighty-four Siddhas seem to have survived. This means that many Sanskrit names of the Abhayadatta Sri tradition had to be reconstructed and perhaps not always correctly. (von Schroeder, Ulrich (2006). Empowered Masters: Tibetan Wall Paintings of Mahasiddhas at Gyantse. Chicago: Serindia Publications.)
    See:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahasiddha 

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    This monograph demonstrates that the Early Sumerian Lyre refers to tigi, a string instrument and that this Sumerian word tigi has cognates in Meluhha, Ancient Indian sprachbund, and derived from the words: Pe. tiga wire. Kuwi (F.) tīgē  guitar string;(Ṭ.) trīga wire. (DEDR 3239) తీగ  , తీగె or తీవ tīga. [Tel.] n. A creeping plant or vine; a tendril or spray. లత. A wire, the string of a lute, తంతి. A necklace of gold wire, a gold or silver belt. Renate Marian Van Dijk's narrative demonstrates that the Sumerian lyre was used in temple songs and festivities. Ancient Indian  Āgama temple worship traditions demonstrates, in Viśvaksena mūrti the personification of Hari or Viṣṇu. In Viṣṇu's abode Vaikunṭha, Viśvaksena is worshipped before any ritual or function in Vaiṣṇava sampradāya. He occupies an important place in Vaikhānasa and Pancarātra temple traditions, where often temple festivals begin with his worship and procession.

    This stunning parallel between the functions of Sumerian lyre and the Ancient Indian  Āgama temple worship traditions shows that the Sumerian artifacts of lyres are originated by Ancient Indian artisans during their sojourns in Sumeria and other parts of Mesopotamia including Mari.

    फड phaḍa is a place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room.

    नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. 

    Such a phaḍa working in metalwork to the accompaniment of dancers and singers is best exemplified by a sculptural frieze from Kailasanatha Temle,Kanchipuram.
    Image result for dancers kailasanatha
    Dancing Gaṇas  (Dancers include karibha, ibha'elephant' rebus: karba, ib'iron'; bahi'boar' rebus: bahi 'worker in iron and wood'; vāḍī 'merchant'. These are Gaeśa, Varāha (baḍiga, 'artificer') metaphors of wealth-accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues in Indus Script Cipher..

    In a scintillating monograph, Renate Marian Van Dijk provides a succinct narrative of the Mesopotamian/Sumerian Early Dynastic Bull-lyres: "According to Black, Cunningham, Robson and Zóloymi (2006:xxiv), “about a fifth of knownSumerian literary compositions have native genre designations.” Some of these were named after the musical instruments to which they were recited or sung. One of these genres is the  balag. The Sumerian word balag probably means “stringed instrument” and appears to 
    have been used to designate both “harp” and “lyre” (De Schauensee 2002:72), although balag  may have been used for ‘harp” andzà-mí, which probably had the meaning “praise”, denoted “lyre”(Zettler & Horne 1998:55). It seems more likely that balag refers not to a drum, but to a stringed instrument, most likely a lyre. Similarly, the Sumerian word tigi, because it is made from the cuneiform signs balag.nar, should be translated as a stringed instrument, and not a drum as it often is (e.g. Black et al 2006:xxiv). It is possible that  balag,tigi  or zà-mí originally referred to the bull-lyre." (Renate Marian VAN  DIJK, 2013, Mesopotamian Early Dynastic Bull-Lyres )
    loc.cit.: Black, J., Cunningham, G., Robson, E. & Zólyomi, G. 2006.The Literature of Ancient Sumer. New York: Oxford University Press; De Schauensee, M. 2002. Two Lyres from Ur.Philadelphia: University of PennsylvaniaMuseum of Archaeology and Anthropology; Zettler, R.L. & Horne, L.Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur. Philadelphia: University Pennsylvania. London: 
    British Musuem

    Viśvaksena is believed to symbolize the sacred Āgama scriptures.



    Viśvaksena mūrti of the Venkaṭeśwara Temple has four hands and carries a conch (shankhaSudarśana cakra (discus) in his upper hands and his lower hands are on thigh (Gada hasta) and in Avgana hasta. Viśvaksena or Viśwaksena, also known as Senai Mudalvar (Sena Mudaliar) and Senādhipathi (all literally "army-chief"), is the commander-in-chief of the army of Viṣṇu and the gate-keeper and "chamberlain" of Viṣṇu's abode Vaikunṭha. Viśvaksena is worshipped before any ritual or function in Vaiṣṇava sampradāya. He occupies an important place in Vaikhānasa and Pancarātra temple traditions, where often temple festivals begin with his worship and procession.


    That illustrious and puissant Being is otherwise called by the name of Viśvaksena or Hari.(Mbh.12.347.23012) 





    Ta. tivavu bands of catgut for a yār̤; tīn-toṭai string of a lute, lute (for toṭai, see 3480). Ka. tīge a creeping plant, vine, tendril on spray, the string of a lute, wire. Te. tī˜ga, tī˜giya, tī˜ge wire, string of a musical instrument, a creeping or climbing plant, creeper, vine, a necklace of gold wire. Kol. (SR.) tīg 
    creeper. Pa. tiv thread. Ga. (P.) tīg creeper. Go. (Grigson) tiyā iron neckring (Voc. 1725); (LuS.) teegá wire. Konḍa tiva creeper of a plant or shrub. Pe. tiga wire. Kuwi (F.) tīgē  guitar string;
    (Ṭ.) trīga wire. (DEDR 3239)తీగ  , తీగె or తీవ tīga. [Tel.] n. A creeping plant or vine; a tendril or spray. లత. A wire, the string of a lute, తంతి. A necklace of gold wire, a gold or silver belt, మొల నూలు. A gold ornament worn by women, బంగారుపట్టెడ. ప్రేముతీగలు the rattan lacing in a chair. మెరుపుతీగె a flash of lightning. పాచితీగె, బంగారుతీగె, &c., are various creepers. తీగెగరక tīge-garika. n. A creeping species of bent grass, called Agrostis stolonifera. తీగబచ్చలి a creeper, Convolvuḷus repens. See బచ్చలి. తీగయిల్లు an arbour పొదరిల్లు. తీగయెలుగు a low voice హీనస్వరము. తీగబోడి tīga-bōdi. n. A slight and graceful girl. తీగమల్లె the creeping Jasmine. తీగమెరుగు tīga-merugu. n. Lightning without thunder ఉరుములేని మెరుపు. A sort of grain. తీగమోడి tīga-mōḍi. n. Patterns of flourishes or carved work in carpentry. వ్రాతపని. ముత్తెములు తీగెమోడికుట్టే పనులు embroidery in the fashion of sprigs of pearl. తీగసాగు tīga-sāgu. v. n. To increase, to prosper వర్ధిల్లు. గార బాగా తీగెలు సాగేలాగున కలిపిరి they mixed the mortar till it was of a proper consistency. తీగలుపారు to spread వ్యాపించు. తీగవిలుకాడు an epithet of Manmadha. తీగసరులు a kind of rice ధ్యాన్యవిశేషము.


    Standard of Ur- Both sides- Sumerian
    Standard of Ur has a frame showing a Sumerian lyre.


    La Théorie Sensorielle, 'sensory theory' elaborated (2014) by Philip Roi et al., suggests analogy between Urukean harp and the auditory system. 

    The fundamental process of 'hearing' as a phenomenon of brain functions is well-illustrated compared with the imagery of 'lyre-players or harpists' of Ancient Near East. See: Philippe Roi and Tristan Girard, 2014, Analogy between the Urukean Harp and the Auditory System in the theory posited.


    Codage et Traitement de l'Information Sensorielle par le Cerveau Translation from French: The Sensory Theory, Coding and Treatment of Sensory Information by the Brain (2014)
    https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/


    How is the auditory sensory information processed in the brain to realise 'meaning' of the coded & processed information? One theory is 

    स्फोट sphoṭa, 'm. bursting , opening , expansion , disclosure (cf. नर्म-स्फ्°) MBh. Ka1v. &c.; the eternal and imperceptible element of sounds and words and the real vehicle of the idea which bursts or flashes on the mind when a sound is uttered.'(पतञ्जलि)


    Let us take an example of Urukean auditory information (heard from the lyre/harp shown on the cylinder seal impression. I suggest that the cylinder seal is a wealth-production accounting ledger in Meluhha Indus Script cipher.

    Source: Fig. 3 of cylinder seal impression from Choga Mish. 4th millennium BCE. Potters at work are accompanied by hardp players, and other musicians playing clappers?, trumpets and a drum. 

    The narrative includes a person playing a lyre. I suggest that this is an Indus Script hypertext. Hieroglyph: tanbūra  'lyre' Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper'.


    Indus Script hyper texts related to metalwork of the Tin-Bronze Revolutionary Age, from ca. 4th millennium BCE provide evidences of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union of Ancient India). Two vivid hieroglyph-multiplexes or hypertexts in Indus Script Corpora are: bull-men (
    hangar, 'bull') and lyre-players (tambur, 'lyre, harp'). 


    The rebus readings are: hangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi), tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya).



    Related image

    A bronze four sided stand showing a man carrying a copper ox-hide ingot and tree. 12th Century BC, possibly from Kourion, British Museum. The same stand also portrays a lyre-player. "There is evidence to suggest that copper was initially smelted into rough products - bars and ox-hide ingots - close to the mines.  This was then transported for further refinement and working to the coastal settlements. 

     

    Ceremonial bronze stand, possibly Kourion, Cyprus. Shows a man carrying an oxhide ingot towards a tree, and another playing a Lyre. "Bronze tools and weapons were cast in double moulds. The cire perdue process was evidently employed for the sockets of the fine decorated spear-heads of the Late Minoan period. Copper was available in some parts of Crete, notably in the Asterousi mountains which border the Mesara plain on the south, but it may have been imported from Cyprus as well. The standard type of ingot found throughout the East Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age was about two or three feet long, with inward-curving sides and projections for a man to grasp as he carried it on his shoulder. Smaller bun-shaped ingots were also in use." (Sinclair Hood, 1971, The Minoans: Crete in the Bronze Age, Thames and Hudson, p. 106)

     

    Oxhide ingot in Indus Script is signified by the word: ḍhālako  'a large metal ingot' (Gujarati) This shape of ingot is sshown on a Mohenjo-daro seal with a boat carrying a pair of such ingots. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus,metal casting ingots. The association of the lyre-player or harpist with the person carrying an ox-hide ingot is significant. This lyre-player signifies: tanbura 'harp' rebus: tambra 'copper'. Thus, the oxhide ingot is a large copper ingot. Tamar (Hebrew: תמר ) is a female name of Hebrew origin, meaning "date" (the fruit), "date palm" or just "palm tree" Renis" tambra 'copper' as signified by the two palm trees on the Mohenjo-daro boat tablet which carried a consignment of oxhide ingots. An alternative is that the palm tree hieroglyph: ताल् m. the palmyra tree or fan palm, Borassus flabelliformis. (Kashmiri) Rebus: ḍhālako  'a large metal ingot' (Gujarati) The pair of bird hieroglyphs flanking the pair of oxhide ingots on the boat: Pa. kāraṇḍava -- m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ; Pk. kāraṁḍa -- , °ḍaga -- , °ḍava -- m. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ Rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy'. 



    Sign 311 Indus Script Sign List (Mahadevan)  tantrīˊ f. ʻ string of a lute ʼ ŚāṅkhŚr. [tántra -- ]


    तन्ति f. ( Pa1n2. 6-4 , 39 Ka1s3. on iii , 3 , 174 and vii , 2 , 9) a cord , line , string (esp. a long line to which a series of calves are fastened by smaller cords) RV. vi , 24 , 4 BhP. Sch. on S3Br. xiii and Ka1tyS3r. xx (ifc.) Rebus: a weaver.

    Pa. tanti -- f. ʻ lute ʼ, Pk. taṁtī -- f.; OAw. tāṁti ʻ string of a musical instrument ʼ, H. tant f.; Si. täta ʻ string of a lute ʼ.(CDIAL 5667)
    Ta. taṇṭu lute. Ma. taṇṭi a musical instrument. (DEDR 3057)


    Hieroglyph: kora 'harp' rebus: koraga 'musician' (Tulu) khār 'blacksmith'

    See: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/harp By Bo Lawergre, 2003, in: Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XII, Fasc. 1, pp. 7-13. "HARP (čang, q.v.),a string instrument which flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 3000 B.C.E., until the 17th century. The original type was the arched harp as seen at Čoḡā Miš and on later third millennium seals (Figure 1a-c)...Third millennium B.C.E. This was the era of arched harps in Persia. It came to an end with the arrival of angular harps, ca. 1900 B.C.E. (Figure 5a). However, arched harps survived in India and diffused from there during the first millennium C.E. (Lawergren, 1995/6, pp. 244-45), including to Panjikent (Figure 1d)."


    harp02.gif (39545 bytes)
    FIGURE 1. Arched harps on Persian seal impressions (second millennium B.C.E.). a. Čoḡa Miš, Persia, 3300-3100 B.C.E.; a celebrant on a cushion (far right) is faced by an ensemble (left) consisting of a singer, horn player (?), harper, and drummer (Delougaz and Kantor, 1996, Pls. 45N and 155A). b. Southeastern Persia, 2500 B.C.E.; a harp appears among participants in a ritual involving animal parts (shown between two vertical lines); snakes protrude from the shoulders of the central participant seated below the harp (Porada, 1965, fig. 16; Porada, 1988, Pl. IV; Amiet, 1986, fig. 132 [10]). c. Southeastern Persia, 2300-2100 B.C.E.; a cult scene involving the same participant as above (a snake-man); the harpist sits near a table that supports this participant (Amiet, 1986, fig. 132 (12), Musée du Louvre, Paris). d. Panjikent (Sogdiana, Greater Persia), 8th century (Lawergren, 1996, fig. 3i; Lawergren, 1995/96, fig. 3C).


    FIGURE 2. Robust, vertical, angular harps (first millennia B.C.E. and C.E.). a. Extant Egyptian harp, 1000-500 B.C.E. (Musée du Louvre, Paris). b. Terracotta plaque, Persia, 250 B.C.E.-223 C.E. (Colledge, 1967, Pl. 20d). c. Mosaic, Bišāpur (Persia), 250-300 C.E. (Musée du Louvre, Paris). d. Silver vessel, Persia/Central Asia, 8-9th c. C.E. (Farmer, 1966, Pl. 7). e. Silver vessel, Persia/Central Asia, 8-9th c. C.E. (Gunter and Jett, 1992, p. 163).

    FIGURE 3. Horizontal, angular harps. a. Terracotta plaque, Iščāli (Mesopotamia), 1900-1500 B.C.E. (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 71). b. Terracotta figurine, Susa, 1900-1500 B.C.E. (Spycket, 1992a, Pl. 95, no. 803). c. Silver plate, Persia, 8th-10th century C.E. (Farmer, 1966, Pl. 6).
    FIGURE 4. Light, vertical, angular harps. a. Wall relief, Ṭāq-e Bostān (Persia), ca. 600 C.E. (Fukai et al., 1972, Pl. LIXb). b. Shōsōin Treasure Depository, Nara (Japan), extant specimen, eighth century C.E. (Hayashi et al., 1967, a composite of Pls. 93-99, 106-7).
    FIGURE 5. Robust vertical harps (second millennium B.C.E.). a. Terracotta plaque, Babylon, 1900-1500 (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 62). b. Terracotta figurine, Babylon, 1900-1500 (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 70). c. Terracotta figurine, Susa, 1900-1500 (Spycket, 1992a, Pl. 96, no. 813).

    The Figure 5c. dancing terracotta figure is cognate with the narrative of नाचण्याचा फड A nach house in the following Meluhha expressions related to phaḍā a metals manufactory.

    phaḍā related Meluhha expressions: फडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or स (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस

    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 

    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 

    फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 
    FIGURE 6. Elamite (Persian) angular harps (first millennium B.C.E.). a. Rock reliefs at Kul-e Fara, near Iḏa/Malāmir (Lawergren, 1997a, fig. 26). Kul-e Fara I: end of 7th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 30) or 7th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-151). Kul-e Fara III: 8-7th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 32) or 6th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-51). Kul-e Fara IV: 9th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 33) or 6th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-51). b. Wall relief of Madaktu ensemble, 650 B.C.E. shown in Aššurbanipal’s Palace, Nineveh.
    FIGURE 7. Harps illustrated in Persian miniature manuscripts produced in various workshops during the Islamic period. Dates are given in C.E.

    See: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/cang-harp ČANG “harp” (Pahl. čang, mentioned in Xusrō ī Kawādān ud rēdag, pars. 62-63), a musical instrument of the free-stringed family. By Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Mallāḥ, 1990. "The oldest known harps are arched like a bow with a sound box added to the lower end. The oldest record of an arched harp in Persia is an engraving on a seal datable to 3400 b.c. found at Čoḡā Mīš in Ḵūzestān during excavations by Helen J. Cantor and Pinhas P. Delugaz in 1961-66 (Figure 55)...The instrument mentioned as čangby Rīāḥī (p. 25) is a lyre (tanbūra), called čang by the Baluch. In Afghanistan and Tajikistan čang designates a type of santūr. In Georgia harps are called čangī and six types are in use, four rectangular and two acute-angled..."

    https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/the-boat-shaped-lyre/
    Sumerian Musicians on Relief
    Sumerian bas relief depicting musicians playing various instruments. The steatite relief was excavated at ancient Adab, a city of ancient Sumer. The bas relief dates back to around 3000 BC. There are two harp players, a drummer, a trumpet player, and a conducter with a leaf baton.
    http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/4/8/


    Image result for sumer cylinder seal harp
     SCENE ON A GOLD CYLfNDER SEAL from a grave in the Ur cemetery (PG L054). In the bottom register are 2 “cymbalists” (figures playing clappers), a dancer, and a seated figure playing a bovine lyre. The top register shows festive banqueters. U. 11904. From Woolley 1934, pt. 1: fig. 23
    https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/the-musical-instruments-from-ur-and-ancient-mesopotamian-music/


    https://tinyurl.com/ybpcac89


    Indus Script Meluha hyper texts process auditory, sensory information through sphoṭa, 'bursting' in semantic neural networks.


    La Théorie Sensorielle, 'sensory theory' elaborated (2014) by Philip Roi et al., suggests analogy between Urukean harp and the auditory system. 

    The fundamental process of 'hearing' as a phenomenon of brain functions is well-illustrated compared with the imagery of 'lyre-players or harpists' of Ancient Near East. See: Philippe Roi and Tristan Girard, 2014, Analogy between the Urukean Harp and the Auditory System in the theory posited.


    Codage et Traitement de l'Information Sensorielle par le Cerveau Translation from French: The Sensory Theory, Coding and Treatment of Sensory Information by the Brain (2014)
    https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/


    How is the auditory sensory information processed in the brain to realise 'meaning' of the coded & processed information? One theory is 

    स्फोट sphoṭa, 'm. bursting , opening , expansion , disclosure (cf. नर्म-स्फ्°) MBh. Ka1v. &c.; the eternal and imperceptible element of sounds and words and the real vehicle of the idea which bursts or flashes on the mind when a sound is uttered.'(पतञ्जलि)


    Let us take an example of Urukean auditory information (heard from the lyre/harp shown on the cylinder seal impression. I suggest that the cylinder seal is a wealth-production accounting ledger in Meluhha Indus Script cipher.

    Source: Fig. 3 of cylinder seal impression from Choga Mish. 4th millennium BCE. Potters at work are accompanied by hardp players, and other musicians playing clappers?, trumpets and a drum. 

    The narrative includes a person playing a lyre. I suggest that this is an Indus Script hypertext. Hieroglyph: tanbūra  'lyre' Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper'.


    Indus Script hyper texts related to metalwork of the Tin-Bronze Revolutionary Age, from ca. 4th millennium BCE provide evidences of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union of Ancient India). Two vivid hieroglyph-multiplexes or hypertexts in Indus Script Corpora are: bull-men (
    hangar, 'bull') and lyre-players (tambur, 'lyre, harp'). 


    Another example is a plaque from Lagash which shows a bull in front of a lyre player. I suggest that the Lagash plaque is a wealth-production accounting ledger in Meluhha Indus Script cipher.


    Lyre-player, from one of the steles of king Gudea of Lagash. The lyre has eleven strings. Around 2150 BCE 


    Louvre, Departement des Antiquites Orientales, Paris, France Glyph: tambura ‘harp’; rebus: tambra ‘copper’ (Pkt.) ḍangar ‘bull’ (Hindi) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi).

    ḍangur ‘bullock’ (Kashmiri) rebus: bull-men, ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi); tambura 'lyre'-players (harpists) rebus: tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya) Indus Script Meluhha hypertexts of Ancient Near East.

    I suggest that the Urukean lyre/harp and the Lagash plaque are hypertexts to signify the profession of a coppersmith, in the context of metaslwork by artisans/potters. The presence of a lyre/harp in a narrative on Indus Script writing system, is not always to be interpreted as musical accompaniment of smithywork. A cylinder seal impression uses lyre/harp together with other hypertexts such as trumpet-players to signify artisanal life-activities specifying metalwork related to tambra 'copper' and tuttha, 'copper sulphate'. 


    I suggest that the auditory information processed through cochli are further processed in the deep brain, not only to record and record 'meanings' of the heard sounds, tunes and rhythms, but also to link the auditory data sets with pre-recorded visual data sets evoked by the 'meanings' of heard sounds, tunesand rhythms.

    For example, the heard sound of a lyre evokes the image of a lyre. The image of a lyre links with the related semantics: tanbura 'lyre, harp' rebus: tambra 'copper'.

    Thus, when a person receives an Indus Script hypertext object containing the hieroglyph the visual sensory neuronal sets related to tanbura 'lyre, harp', are spontaneously evoke (or trigger or activate) the data sets of auditory neuronal sets of networks which recollect or record the heard sounds and understand the 'meaning' of the sounds, in the context of Meluhhan life-activity of working with coppersmithy or copper metalwork.

    The recipient of auditory and visual sensor information from the sound of a tanbura or the visual information or image of a tanbura (say, on a cylinder seal) are somehow linked. This linkage of auditory and visual data sets (in neuronal networks) results in an understanding of 'meaning' by the relational datasets of neuronal networks related to the recipient's life experience of heard tanbura sounds and seen images of tanbura lyre or harp.

    Thus, when a recipient hears a tanbura or sees an image of a tambura (say, from a cylinder seal impression) or recollects the related image visual/auditory sensory networks from memory, the life-activity of cognate sound: tambra 'copper' is flashed as meaning of the sensory experience related to earlier life-experience working with copper metal.

    This is a possible neuroscience process to explain the rebus principle in Indus Script cipher which links visual form and life-function related to a wealth-producing activity of metalwork.

    The  (bursting forth) of the sound sequence 'tambura' recollected from neuronal networks results in the instantaneous recognition of 'meaning' associated with 1. lyre/harp as a musical instrument and 2. rebus tambra as a copper smithy life-activity.

    This is a falsifiable hypothesis suggesting a functional neuroscience model of brain activity, within the deep structures of the brain linking audotory, visual and memory data sets related to the wealth-giving meaning set: tambra 'copper'.


    ḍangur ‘bullock’ 
    (Kashmiri) rebus: bull-men, ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi); tambura 'lyre'-players (harpists) rebus: tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya) Indus Script Meluhha hypertexts of Ancient Near East.

    It is suggested the lyre/harp is a hypertext to signify the profession of a coppersmith, in the context of metaslwork by artisans/potters. The presence of a lyre/harp in a narrative on Indus Script writing system, is not always to be interpreted as musical accompaniment of smithywork. A cylinder seal impression uses lyre/harp together with other hypertexts such as trumpet-players to signify artisanal life-activities specifying metalwork related to tambra 'copper' and tuttha, 'copper sulphate'. 


    Tanbur, a long-necked, string instrument originating in the Southern or Central Asia (Mesopotamia and Persia/Iran)

    Iranian tanbur (Kurdish tanbur), used in Yarsan rituals
    Turkish tambur, instrument played in Turkey
    Yaylı tambur, also played in Turkey
    Tanpura, a drone instrument played in India
    Tambura (instrument), played in Balkan peninsula
    Tamburica, any member of a family of long-necked lutes popular in Eastern and Central Europe
    Tambouras, played in Greece
    Tanbūra (lyre), played in East Africa and the Middle East
    Dombra, instrument in Kazakhstan, Siberia, and Mongolia
    Domra, Russian instrument

    It is possible that the stupa mound of Mohenjo-daro may have a signified a ziggurat comparable to the Chogah Zanbil ziggurat.


    Hieroglyph: tambura 'lyre, harp', rebus:  tambra 'copper', tāmbarā

    'coppersmith' (Oriya)


    Hieroglyph: bugle-horn: Ta. tuttā̆ri a kind of bugle-horn. Ma. tuttāri horn, trumpet. Ka. tutūri, tuttāri, tuttūri a long trumpet. Tu. tuttāri, tuttūri trumpet, horn, pipe. Te. tutārā a kind of trumpet. / Cf. Mar. tutārī a wind instrument, a sort of horn. (DEDR3316)  tūra m. ʻ a musical instrument ʼ Yaś., tūla -- 3 BHSk. 2. tūrya -- n. Pāṇ. Mn. 3. *tūriya -- .1. Pk. tūra -- , turu -- m.n.; P. turhī f. ʻ trumpet ʼ (+?), N. turahiturai, B. turaṛi, Or. tura, H. turhīturaī f., G. tūr n., turāī f.; Si. turu ʻ drum ʼ.2. Pk. tujja -- n. ʻ a musical instrument 3. Pa. tū˘riya -- n., Pk. tū˘ria -- n.; K. tūrī f. ʻ trumpet ʼ, S. turī f., Ku. turi, H. G. turī f.(CDIAL 5901) Rebus: tutthá n. (m. lex.), tutthaka -- n. ʻ blue vitriol (used as an eye ointment) ʼ Suśr., tūtaka -- lex. 2. *thōttha -- 4. 3. *tūtta -- . 4. *tōtta -- 2. [Prob. ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 381; cf. dhūrta -- 2 n. ʻ iron filings ʼ lex.]1. N. tutho ʻ blue vitriol or sulphate of copper ʼ, B. tuth.2. K. thŏth, dat. °thas m., P. thothā m.3. S. tūtio m., A. tutiyā, B. tũte, Or. tutiā, H. tūtātūtiyā m., M. tutiyā m.4. M. totā m. (CDIAL 5855)

    Drummer, musician,metalworker: ḍamaru m. ʻ drum ʼ Rājat., °uka -- m. lex. 2. *ḍam- baru -- . [Onom. and perh. ← Mu. EWA i 460, PMWS 86] 1. Pk. ḍamarua -- m.n.; L. awāṇ. P. ḍaurū m. ʻ tabor, small drum ʼ; Ku. ḍaũrḍaũru ʻ drum ʼ; M. ḍaurḍavrā m. ʻ hourglass -- tabor ʼ, ḍaurī m. ʻ itinerant musician ʼ.2. N. ḍambaruḍamaru ʻ small drum ʼ, A. ḍambaru, B. ḍamru, Or. ḍambaruḍamaru, H. ḍamrū m., G. M. ḍamru m.Other variants: K. ḍābürü f. ʻ large drum used for proclamations ʼ; -- Or. ḍempha ʻ shallow kettledrum ʼ; -- N. ḍamphu°pho ʻ small drum or tambourine ʼ; B. ḍamphu ʻ drum ʼ; -- Ku. ḍãphṛī ʻ drum ʼ, ḍaphulo°uwā ʻ small drum ʼ; N. ḍaph ʻ a partic. musical instrument played during Holi ʼ; G. ḍaph f.n. ʻ a kind of tabor ʼ; <-> G. ḍamkɔ m. ʻ drum ʼ.ḌAMB ʻ push ʼ: viḍambatē.*ḍamba -- ʻ belly ʼ see ḍimba -- 2.Addenda: ḍamaru -- . 1. WPah.J. ḍõru m. ʻ small drum ʼ, Garh. ḍɔ̃ru m., Brj. ḍaurū˘.2. *ḍambaru -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍɔmru m. id.*ḍambaru -- ʻ drum ʼ see ḍamaru -- Add2.(CDIAL 5531)
    Hieroglyp: drummer: dhārmiká ʻ righteous ʼ Mn., m. ʻ judge ʼ lex., ʻ juggler ʼ Ratnāv. [dharmin -- ]Ku. dhāmī m. ʻ drummer who excites people to dance under the inspiration of a deity ʼ; N. dhāmi ʻ wizard ʼ, dhamini ʻ his wife ʼ; H. dhāmiyã̄ m. pl. ʻ a Hindu sect who are followers of Prānnāth ʼ; M. dhāmyā°mādhām -- gãḍ m. ʻ insulting term of address to a Mādhyandina or Yajurvedī ʼ (LM 354 < dharmya -- ). Addenda: dhārmiká -- : Garh. dhāmī ʻ a priest of folk -- religion ʼ.(CDIAL 6798)
    ḍōmba
     m. ʻ man of low caste living by singing and music ʼ Kathās., ḍōma -- m. lex., ḍōmbinī -- f. [Connected with Mu. words for ʻ drum ʼ PMWS 87, EWA i 464 with lit.]Pk. ḍoṁba -- , ḍuṁba -- , ḍoṁbilaya -- m.; Gy. eur. rom m. ʻ man, husband ʼ, romni f. ʻ woman, wife ʼ, SEeur. i̦om ʻ a Gypsy ʼ, pal. dōm ʻ a Nuri Gypsy ʼ, arm. as. (Boša) lom ʻ a Gypsy ʼ, pers. damini ʻ woman ʼ; Ḍ. ḍōm (pl. °ma) ʻ a Ḍom ʼ; Paš. ḍōmb ʻ barber ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) ḍom ʻ musician, bandsman ʼ; Sh. ḍom ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, K. ḍūmbḍūmm., ḍūmbiñ f.; S. ḍ̠ūmu m., ḍūmṛī f. ʻ caste of wandering musicians ʼ, L. ḍūm m., ḍūmṇī f., (Ju.) ḍ̠om m., ḍ̠omṇīḍomṛī f., mult. ḍōm m., ḍōmṇī f., awāṇ. naṭ -- ḍūm ʻ menials ʼ; P. ḍūmḍomrā m., ḍūmṇī f. ʻ strolling musician ʼ, ḍūmṇā m. ʻ a caste of basket -- makers ʼ; WPah. ḍum ʻ a very low -- caste blackskinned fellow ʼ; Ku. ḍūm m., ḍūmaṇ f. ʻ an aboriginal hill tribe ʼ; N. ḍum ʻ a low caste ʼ; A. ḍom m. ʻ fisherman ʼ, ḍumini f.; B. ḍomḍam m. ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, ḍumni f. (OB. ḍombī); Or. ḍoma m., °aṇī f., ḍuma°aṇīḍambaḍama°aṇī ʻ a low caste who weave baskets and sound drums ʼ; Bhoj. ḍōm ʻ a low caste of musicians ʼ,H. ḍombḍomḍomṛāḍumār m., ḍomnī f., OMarw. ḍūma m., ḍūmaṛī f., M. ḍõbḍom m. -- Deriv. Gy. wel. romanō adj. (f. °nī) ʻ Gypsy ʼ romanō rai m. ʻ Gypsy gentleman ʼ, °nī čib f. ʻ Gypsy language ʼ.(CDIAL 5570) *ḍōmbakuṭaka ʻ a Ḍom's hut ʼ. [ḍōmba -- , kuṭī -- ]Ku. ḍumauṛo ʻ habitation of the Ḍoms Rebus:*ḍōmbadhāna -- , or *ḍōmbādhāna -- , ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ. [*ḍōmba -- , dhāˊna -- or ādhāˊna -- ]Ku. ḍumāṇo ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ.*ḍōlla -- ʻ bucket ʼ see *dōla -- 2.Addenda: *ḍōmbadhna -- or †*ḍōmbādhāna -- .Garh. ḍumāṇu ʻ part of a village where Ḍoms live ʼ. (CDIAL 5571, 5572). Dombs are metalworkers.

    Hieroglyh: ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'

    Indus Script hyper texts related to metalwork of the Tin-Bronze Revolutionary Age, from ca. 4th millennium BCE provide evidences of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union of Ancient India). Two vivid hieroglyph-multiplexes or hypertexts in Indus Script Corpora are: bull-men (hangar, 'bull') and lyre-players (tambur, 'lyre, harp').  *ḍaṅgara1 ʻ cattle ʼ. 2. *daṅgara -- . [Same as ḍaṅ- gara -- 2 s.v. *ḍagga -- 2 as a pejorative term for cattle]1. K. ḍangur m. ʻ bullock ʼ, L. ḍaṅgur, (Ju.) ḍ̠ãgar m. ʻ horned cattle ʼ; P. ḍaṅgar m. ʻ cattle ʼ, Or. ḍaṅgara; Bi. ḍã̄gar ʻ old worn -- out beast, dead cattle ʼ, dhūr ḍã̄gar ʻ cattle in general ʼ; Bhoj. ḍāṅgar ʻ cattle ʼ; H. ḍã̄gar,ḍã̄grā m. ʻ horned cattle ʼ.

    2. H. dã̄gar m. = prec.(CDIAL 5526)

    The rebus readings are: hangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi), tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya).



    Related image

    A bronze four sided stand showing a man carrying a copper ox-hide ingot and tree. 12th Century BC, possibly from Kourion, British Museum. The same stand also portrays a lyre-player. "There is evidence to suggest that copper was initially smelted into rough products - bars and ox-hide ingots - close to the mines.  This was then transported for further refinement and working to the coastal settlements. 

     

    Ceremonial bronze stand, possibly Kourion, Cyprus. Shows a man carrying an oxhide ingot towards a tree, and another playing a Lyre. "Bronze tools and weapons were cast in double moulds. The cire perdue process was evidently employed for the sockets of the fine decorated spear-heads of the Late Minoan period. Copper was available in some parts of Crete, notably in the Asterousi mountains which border the Mesara plain on the south, but it may have been imported from Cyprus as well. The standard type of ingot found throughout the East Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age was about two or three feet long, with inward-curving sides and projections for a man to grasp as he carried it on his shoulder. Smaller bun-shaped ingots were also in use." (Sinclair Hood, 1971, The Minoans: Crete in the Bronze Age, Thames and Hudson, p. 106)

     

    Oxhide ingot in Indus Script is signified by the word: ḍhālako  'a large metal ingot' (Gujarati) This shape of ingot is sshown on a Mohenjo-daro seal with a boat carrying a pair of such ingots. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus,metal casting ingots. The association of the lyre-player or harpist with the person carrying an ox-hide ingot is significant. This lyre-player signifies: tanbura 'harp' rebus: tambra 'copper'. Thus, the oxhide ingot is a large copper ingot. Tamar (Hebrew: תמר ) is a female name of Hebrew origin, meaning "date" (the fruit), "date palm" or just "palm tree" Renis" tambra 'copper' as signified by the two palm trees on the Mohenjo-daro boat tablet which carried a consignment of oxhide ingots. An alternative is that the palm tree hieroglyph: ताल् m. the palmyra tree or fan palm, Borassus flabelliformis. (Kashmiri) Rebus: ḍhālako  'a large metal ingot' (Gujarati) The pair of bird hieroglyphs flanking the pair of oxhide ingots on the boat: Pa. kāraṇḍava -- m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ; Pk. kāraṁḍa -- , °ḍaga -- , °ḍava -- m. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ Rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy'. 


    A characteristic representation of bull-man occurs on many Sumerian/Mesopotamian artifacts and cylinder seals. This hieroglyph-multiplex has its roots in the hieroglyphs used on Indus Script Corpora which display horned persons with the hindparts of a bovine and wearing headdress of a twig which in Indus Script cipher is kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) 
    "... head and torso of a human but the horns, lower body and legs of a bull...Baked clay plaques like this were mass-produced using moulds in southern Mesopotamia from the second millennium BCE. British Museum. WCO2652Bull-manTerracotta plaque. Bull-man holding a post. Mesopotamia, ca. 2000-1600 BCE." Terracotta. This plaque depicts a creature with the head and torso of a human but the horns, lower body and legs of a bull. Though similar figures are depicted earlier in Iran, they are first seen in Mesopotamian art around 2500 BC, most commonly on cylinder seals, and are associated with the sun-god Shamash. The bull-man was usually shown in profile, with a single visible horn projecting forward. However, here he is depicted in a less common form; his whole body above the waist, shown in frontal view, shows that he was intended to be double-horned. He may be supporting a divine emblem and thus acting as a protective deity. 

    Harp, tantiburra, tambur, BAN.TUR (Sumerian) is an Indus Script hypertext. "Burra" is referred to tambura, a musical string instrument with a hollow shell. (Telugu). "burrakatha" means story narrated to the accompaniment of a lyre or harp Burra means a skull in Telugu. The shell resembles a human skull. It is made of baked clay or dried pumpkin, or of brass and copper. The instrument looks very similar to veena and the performer can pull and press strings to get music.


    Hieroglyph: tantiburra, tambura 'lyre, harp, string musical instrument' rebus: tambra 'copper'. Tamba (nt.) [Sk. tāmra, orig. adj.=dark coloured, leaden; cp. Sk. adj. taŋsra id., to tama] copper ("the dark metal"); usually in combinations, signifying colour of or made of (cp. loha bronze), e. g. lākhātamba (adj.) Th 2, 440 (colour of an ox); ˚akkhin Vv 323 (timira˚) Sdhp 286; ˚nakhin J vi.290; ˚nettā (f.) ibid.; ˚bhājana DhA i.395; ˚mattika DhA iv.106; ˚vammika DhA iii.208; ˚loha PvA 95 (=loha).(Pali)  tāmrá ʻ dark red, copper -- coloured ʼ VS., n. ʻ copper ʼ Kauś., tāmraka -- n. Yājñ. [Cf. tamrá -- . -- √tam?]Pa. tamba -- ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ copper ʼ, Pk. taṁba -- adj. and n.; Dm. trāmba -- ʻ red ʼ (in trāmba -- lac̣uk ʻ raspberry ʼ NTS xii 192); Bshk. lām ʻ copper, piece of bad pine -- wood (< ʻ *red wood ʼ?); Phal. tāmba ʻ copper ʼ (→ Sh.koh. tāmbā), K. trām m. (→ Sh.gil. gur. trām m.), S. ṭrāmo m., L. trāmā, (Ju.) tarāmã̄ m., P. tāmbā m., WPah. bhad. ṭḷām n., kiũth. cāmbā, sod. cambo, jaun. tã̄bō, Ku. N. tāmo (pl. ʻ young bamboo shoots ʼ), A. tām, B. tã̄bātāmā, Or. tambā, Bi tã̄bā, Mth. tāmtāmā, Bhoj. tāmā, H. tām in cmpds., tã̄bātāmā m., G. trã̄bũtã̄bũ n.;M. tã̄bẽ n. ʻ copper ʼ, tã̄b f. ʻ rust, redness of sky ʼ; Ko. tāmbe n. ʻ copper ʼ; Si. tam̆ba adj. ʻ reddish ʼ, sb. ʻ copper ʼ, (SigGr) tamtama. -- Ext. -- ira -- : Pk. taṁbira -- ʻ coppercoloured, red ʼ, L. tāmrā ʻ copper -- coloured (of pigeons) ʼ; -- with -- ḍa -- : S. ṭrāmiṛo m. ʻ a kind of cooking pot ʼ, ṭrāmiṛī ʻ sunburnt, red with anger ʼ, f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; Bhoj. tāmrā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; H. tã̄bṛātāmṛā ʻ coppercoloured, dark red ʼ, m. ʻ stone resembling a ruby ʼ; G. tã̄baṛ n., trã̄bṛītã̄bṛī f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; OM. tāṁbaḍā ʻ red ʼ. -- X trápu -- q.v. tāmrika -- ; tāmrakāra -- , tāmrakuṭṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭaka -- , tāmracūḍa -- , *tāmradhāka -- , tāmrapaṭṭa -- , tāmrapattra -- , tāmrapātra -- , *tāmrabhāṇḍa -- , tāmravarṇa -- , tāmrākṣa -- .Addenda: tāmrá -- [< IE. *tomró -- T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 65] S.kcch. trāmotām(b)o m. ʻ copper ʼ, trāmbhyo m. ʻ an old copper coin ʼ; WPah.kc. cambo m. ʻ copper ʼ, J. cāmbā m., kṭg. (kc.) tambɔ m. (← P. or H. Him.I 89), Garh. tāmutã̄bu.tāmrakāra m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ lex. [tāmrá -- , kāra -- 1]Or. tāmbarā ʻ id. ʼ.tāmrakuṭṭa m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ R. [tāmrá -- , kuṭṭa -- ] 
    N. tamauṭetamoṭe ʻ id. ʼ.Addenda: tāmrakuṭṭa -- : Garh. ṭamoṭu ʻ coppersmith ʼ; Ko. tāmṭi.

    tāraká -- 1 see tārā -- Add2.*tāmraghaṭa ʻ copper pot ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]

    Bi. tamheṛī ʻ round copper vessel ʼ; -- tamheṛā ʻ brassfounder ʼ der. *tamheṛ ʻ copper pot ʼ or < next?

     *tāmraghaṭaka ʻ copper -- worker ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 2]Bi. tamheṛā ʻ brass -- founder ʼ or der. fr. *tamheṛ see prec. tāmracūḍa ʻ red -- crested ʼ MBh., m. ʻ cock ʼ Suśr. [tāmrá -- , cūˊḍa -- 1]Pa. tambacūḷa -- m. ʻ cock ʼ, Pk. taṁbacūla -- m.; -- Si. tam̆basiluvā ʻ cock ʼ (EGS 61) either a later cmpd. (as in Pk.) or ← Pa. *tāmradhāka ʻ copper receptacle ʼ. [tāmrá -- , dhāká -- ]

    Bi. tama ʻ drinking vessel made of a red alloy ʼ.

     tāmrapaṭṭa m. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ Yājñ. [Cf. tāmrapattra -- . -- tāmrá -- , paṭṭa -- 1]
    M. tã̄boṭī f. ʻ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick ʼ.

    tāmrapattra n. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ lex. [Cf. tāmrapaṭṭa -- . -- tāmrá -- , páttra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoti ʻ copper plate ʼ.

    tāmrapātra n. ʻ copper vessel ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , pāˊtra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoi ʻ copper vessel for water ʼ.

    *tāmrabhāṇḍa ʻ copper vessel ʼ. [tāmrá -- , bhāṇḍa -- 1]
    Bhoj. tāmaṛātāmṛā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; G. tarbhāṇũ n. ʻ copper dish used in religious ceremonies ʼ (< *taramhã̄ḍũ).

     tāmravarṇa ʻ copper -- coloured ʼ TĀr. [tāmrá -- , várṇa -- 1]
    Si. tam̆bavan ʻ copper -- coloured, dark red ʼ (EGS 61) prob. a Si. cmpd.

     tāmrākṣa ʻ red -- eyed ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , ákṣi -- ]
    Pa. tambakkhin -- ; P. tamak f. ʻ anger ʼ; Bhoj. tamakhal ʻ to be angry ʼ; H. tamaknā ʻ to become red in the face, be angry ʼ.


    tāmrika ʻ coppery ʼ Mn. [tāmrá -- ]
    Pk. taṁbiya -- n. ʻ an article of an ascetic's equipment (a copper vessel?) ʼ; L. trāmī f. ʻ large open vessel for kneading bread ʼ, poṭh. trāmbī f. ʻ brass plate for kneading on ʼ; Ku.gng. tāmi ʻ copper plate ʼ; A. tāmi ʻ copper vessel used in worship ʼ; B. tāmītamiyā ʻ large brass vessel for cooking pulses at marriages and other ceremonies ʼ; H. tambiyā m. ʻ copper or brass vessel ʼ.
    (CDIAL 5779 to 5792)
    *ut -- stambha ʻ support ʼ. [Cf. údastambhīt RV., Pk. uṭṭhaṁbhaï ʻ supports ʼ: √stambh]OG. uṭhaṁbha m.(CDIAL 1897) stambha m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ Kāṭh., °aka -- m. Mahāvy. [√stambh]
    Pa. thambha -- m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Aś.rum. thabhe loc., top. thaṁbhe, ru. ṭha()bhasi, Pk. thaṁbha -- , °aya -- , taṁbha -- , ṭhaṁbha -- m.; Wg. štɔ̈̄ma ʻ stem, tree ʼ, Kt. štom, Pr. üštyobu; Bshk. "ṭam"ʻ tree ʼ NTS xviii 124, Tor. thām; K. tham m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ, S. thambhu m.; L. thammthammā m. ʻ prop ʼ, (Ju.) tham°mā, awāṇ. tham, khet. thambā; P. thamb(h), thamm(h) ʻ pillar, post ʼ, Ku. N. B. thām, Or. thamba; Bi. mar -- thamh ʻ upright post of oil -- mill ʼ; H. thã̄bhthāmthambā ʻ prop, pillar, stem of plantain tree ʼ; OMarw. thāma m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Si. ṭäm̆ba; Md. tambutabu ʻ pillar, post ʼ; -- ext. --  -- : S. thambhiṛī f. ʻ inside peg of yoke ʼ; N. thāṅro ʻ prop ʼ; Aw.lakh. thãbharā ʻ post ʼ; H. thamṛā ʻ thick, corpulent ʼ; -- -- ll -- ; G. thã̄bhlɔthã̄blɔ m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ. -- X 
    sthūˊṇā -- q.v.*ut -- stambha -- , *kāstambha -- ; *kūpastambha -- . stambha -- : S.kcch. thambhlo m. ʻ pillar ʼ, A. thām, Md. tan̆bu.(CDIAL 13682)
    stambhana ʻ stopping ʼ MBh., n. ʻ stiffening ʼ Suśr., ʻ means of making stiff ʼ Hcat. [√
    stambh]Pa. thambhanā -- f. ʻ firmness ʼ; Pk. thaṁbhaṇa -- n., °ṇayā -- f. ʻ act of stopping ʼ; S. thambhaṇu m. ʻ glue ʼ, L. thambhaṇ m.(CDIAL 13683)

    Hieroglyph: dewlap: stambá m. ʻ tuft or clump of grass, cluster, bunch ʼ AV. [Cf. 
    stábaka -- . -- For ʻ cluster ʼ words see *stu -- 3]
    Pa. thambha -- , °aka -- m. ʻ clump of grass ʼ; Pk. thaṁba -- m. ʻ bunch, tuft of grass &c. ʼ; Kal. istam ʻ first blossoms of spring ʼ; Si. tam̆ba ʻ dew -- lap of a bullock ʼ.(CDIAL 13681)

    ḍangar ‘bull’ (Hindi) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi). 

    Harp, tantiburra, tambur, BAN.TUR (Sumerian) is an Indus Script hypertext. 


    Hieroglyph: tantiburra, tambura 'lyre, harp, string musical instrument' rebus: tambra 'copper'. Tamba (nt.) [Sk. tāmra, orig. adj.=dark coloured, leaden; cp. Sk. adj. taŋsra id., to tama] copper ("the dark metal"); usually in combinations, signifying colour of or made of (cp. loha bronze), e. g. lākhātamba (adj.) Th 2, 440 (colour of an ox); ˚akkhin Vv 323 (timira˚) Sdhp 286; ˚nakhin J vi.290; ˚nettā (f.) ibid.; ˚bhājana DhA i.395; ˚mattika 
    DhA iv.106; ˚vammika DhA iii.208; ˚loha PvA 95 (=loha).(Pali)  tāmrá ʻ dark red, copper -- coloured ʼ VS., n. ʻ copper ʼ Kauś., tāmraka -- n. Yājñ. [Cf. tamrá -- . -- √tam?]Pa. tamba -- ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ copper ʼ, Pk. taṁba -- adj. and n.; Dm. trāmba -- ʻ red ʼ (in trāmba -- lac̣uk ʻ raspberry ʼ NTS xii 192); Bshk. lām ʻ copper, piece of bad pine -- wood (< ʻ *red wood ʼ?); Phal. tāmba ʻ copper ʼ (→ Sh.koh. tāmbā), K. trām m. (→ Sh.gil. gur. trām m.), S. ṭrāmo m., L. trāmā, (Ju.) tarāmã̄ m., P. tāmbā m., WPah. bhad. ṭḷām n., kiũth. cāmbā, sod. cambo, jaun. tã̄bō, Ku. N. tāmo (pl. ʻ young bamboo shoots ʼ), A. tām, B. tã̄bātāmā, Or. tambā, Bi tã̄bā, Mth. tāmtāmā, Bhoj. tāmā, H. tām in cmpds., tã̄bātāmā m., G. trã̄bũtã̄bũ n.;M. tã̄bẽ n. ʻ copper ʼ, tã̄b f. ʻ rust, redness of sky ʼ; Ko. tāmbe n. ʻ copper ʼ; Si. tam̆ba adj. ʻ reddish ʼ, sb. ʻ copper ʼ, (SigGr) tamtama. -- Ext. -- ira -- : Pk. taṁbira -- ʻ coppercoloured, red ʼ, L. tāmrā ʻ copper -- coloured (of pigeons) ʼ; -- with -- ḍa -- : S. ṭrāmiṛo m. ʻ a kind of cooking pot ʼ, ṭrāmiṛī ʻ sunburnt, red with anger ʼ, f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; Bhoj. tāmrā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; H. tã̄bṛātāmṛā ʻ coppercoloured, dark red ʼ, m. ʻ stone resembling a ruby ʼ; G. tã̄baṛ n., trã̄bṛītã̄bṛī f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; OM. tāṁbaḍā ʻ red ʼ. -- X trápu -- q.v.
    tāmrika -- ; tāmrakāra -- , tāmrakuṭṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭaka -- , tāmracūḍa -- , *tāmradhāka -- , tāmrapaṭṭa -- , tāmrapattra -- , tāmrapātra -- , *tāmrabhāṇḍa -- , tāmravarṇa -- , tāmrākṣa -- .Addenda: tāmrá -- [< IE. *tomró -- T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 65] S.kcch. trāmotām(b)o m. ʻ copper ʼ, trāmbhyo m. ʻ an old copper coin ʼ; WPah.kc. cambo m. ʻ copper ʼ, J. cāmbā m., kṭg. (kc.) tambɔ m. (← P. or H. Him.I 89), Garh. tāmutã̄bu.

    tāmrakāra m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ lex. [tāmrá -- , kāra -- 1]Or. tāmbarā ʻ id. ʼ.

    tāmrakuṭṭa m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ R. [tāmrá -- , kuṭṭa -- ]
    N. tamauṭetamoṭe ʻ id. ʼ.
    Addenda: tāmrakuṭṭa -- : Garh. ṭamoṭu ʻ coppersmith ʼ; Ko. tāmṭi.
    tāraká -- 1 see tārā -- Add2.

    *tāmraghaṭa ʻ copper pot ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]
    Bi. tamheṛī ʻ round copper vessel ʼ; -- tamheṛā ʻ brassfounder ʼ der. *tamheṛ ʻ copper pot ʼ or < next?

     *tāmraghaṭaka ʻ copper -- worker ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 2]
    Bi. tamheṛā ʻ brass -- founder ʼ or der. fr. *tamheṛ see prec.

     tāmracūḍa ʻ red -- crested ʼ MBh., m. ʻ cock ʼ Suśr. [tāmrá -- , cūˊḍa -- 1]
    Pa. tambacūḷa -- m. ʻ cock ʼ, Pk. taṁbacūla -- m.; -- Si. tam̆basiluvā ʻ cock ʼ (EGS 61) either a later cmpd. (as in Pk.) or ← Pa.

     *tāmradhāka ʻ copper receptacle ʼ. [tāmrá -- , dhāká -- ]
    Bi. tama ʻ drinking vessel made of a red alloy ʼ.

     tāmrapaṭṭa m. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ Yājñ. [Cf. tāmrapattra -- . -- tāmrá -- , paṭṭa -- 1]
    M. tã̄boṭī f. ʻ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick ʼ.

    tāmrapattra n. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ lex. [Cf. tāmrapaṭṭa -- . -- tāmrá -- , páttra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoti ʻ copper plate ʼ.

    tāmrapātra n. ʻ copper vessel ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , pāˊtra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoi ʻ copper vessel for water ʼ.

    *tāmrabhāṇḍa ʻ copper vessel ʼ. [tāmrá -- , bhāṇḍa -- 1]
    Bhoj. tāmaṛātāmṛā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; G. tarbhāṇũ n. ʻ copper dish used in religious ceremonies ʼ (< *taramhã̄ḍũ).

     tāmravarṇa ʻ copper -- coloured ʼ TĀr. [tāmrá -- , várṇa -- 1]
    Si. tam̆bavan ʻ copper -- coloured, dark red ʼ (EGS 61) prob. a Si. cmpd.

     tāmrākṣa ʻ red -- eyed ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , ákṣi -- ]
    Pa. tambakkhin -- ; P. tamak f. ʻ anger ʼ; Bhoj. tamakhal ʻ to be angry ʼ; H. tamaknā ʻ to become red in the face, be angry ʼ.

    tāmrika ʻ coppery ʼ Mn. [tāmrá -- ]
    Pk. taṁbiya -- n. ʻ an article of an ascetic's equipment (a copper vessel?) ʼ; L. trāmī f. ʻ large open vessel for kneading bread ʼ, poṭh. trāmbī f. ʻ brass plate for kneading on ʼ; Ku.gng. tāmi ʻ copper plate ʼ; A. tāmi ʻ copper vessel used in worship ʼ; B. tāmītamiyā ʻ large brass vessel for cooking pulses at marriages and other ceremonies ʼ; H. tambiyā m. ʻ copper or brass vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 5779 to 5792).

    Flag-staff (ḍhāla, thãbharā) carried as a Meluhha proclamation (ketu) of metalwork competence, rebus: ḍhālako 'ingot', tambra'copper', tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya) 

    Girsu (Tlloh) archaeological find. 11 ft. tall copper plated flagpost. This may relate to a period when 
       
      Girsu (ca. 2900-2335 BCE) was the capital of Lagash at the time of Gudea.


    ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati)Allograph: ढाल [ ḍhāla ] f (S through H) The grand flag of an army directing its march and encampments: also the standard or banner of a chieftain: also a flag flying on forts &c. ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. 2 fig. The leading and sustaining member of a household or other commonwealth. 5583 ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- . 1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f. WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f. (CDIAL 5583).

    *ut -- stambha ʻ support ʼ. [Cf. údastambhīt RV., Pk. uṭṭhaṁbhaï ʻ supports ʼ: √stambh]OG. uṭhaṁbha m.(CDIAL 1897) stambha m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ Kāṭh., °aka -- m. Mahāvy. [√stambh]
    Pa. thambha -- m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Aś.rum. thabhe loc., top. thaṁbhe, ru. ṭha()bhasi, Pk. thaṁbha -- , °aya -- , taṁbha -- , ṭhaṁbha -- m.; Wg. štɔ̈̄ma ʻ stem, tree ʼ, Kt. štom, Pr. üštyobu; Bshk. "ṭam"ʻ tree ʼ NTS xviii 124, Tor. thām; K. tham m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ, S. thambhu m.; L. thammthammā m. ʻ prop ʼ, (Ju.) tham°mā, awāṇ. tham, khet. thambā; P. thamb(h), thamm(h) ʻ pillar, post ʼ, Ku. N. B. thām, Or. thamba; Bi. mar -- thamh ʻ upright post of oil -- mill ʼ; H. thã̄bhthāmthambā ʻ prop, pillar, stem of plantain tree ʼ; OMarw. thāma m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Si. ṭäm̆ba; Md. tambutabu ʻ pillar, post ʼ; -- ext. --  -- : S. thambhiṛī f. ʻ inside peg of yoke ʼ; N. thāṅro ʻ prop ʼ; Aw.lakh. thãbharā ʻ post ʼ; H. thamṛā ʻ thick, corpulent ʼ; -- -- ll -- ; G. thã̄bhlɔthã̄blɔ m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ. -- X sthūˊṇā -- q.v.*ut -- stambha -- , *kāstambha -- ; *kūpastambha -- . stambha -- : S.kcch. thambhlo m. ʻ pillar ʼ, A. thām, Md. tan̆bu.(CDIAL 13682)

    stambhana ʻ stopping ʼ MBh., n. ʻ stiffening ʼ Suśr., ʻ means of making stiff ʼ Hcat. [√stambh]Pa. thambhanā -- f. ʻ firmness ʼ; Pk. thaṁbhaṇa -- n., °ṇayā -- f. ʻ act of stopping ʼ; S. thambhaṇu m. ʻ glue ʼ, L. thambhaṇ m.(CDIAL 13683)

    Hieroglyph: dewlap: stambá m. ʻ tuft or clump of grass, cluster, bunch ʼ AV. [Cf. stábaka -- . -- For ʻ cluster ʼ words see *stu -- 3]Pa. thambha -- , °aka -- m. ʻ clump of grass ʼ; Pk. thaṁba -- m. ʻ bunch, tuft of grass &c. ʼ; Kal. istam ʻ first blossoms of spring ʼ; Si. tam̆ba ʻ dew -- lap of a bullock ʼ.(CDIAL 13681)

    ḍangar ‘bull’ (Hindi) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi). 
    Rebus: ḍān:ro = a term of contempt for a blacksmith (N.)(CDIAL 5524).   ṭhākur = blacksmith (Mth.) (CDIAL 5488).


    Sign 311 Indus Script Sign List (Mahadevan)  tantrīˊ f. ʻ string of a lute ʼ ŚāṅkhŚr. [tántra -- ]


    तन्ति f. ( Pa1n2. 6-4 , 39 Ka1s3. on iii , 3 , 174 and vii , 2 , 9) a cord , line , string (esp. a long line to which a series of calves are fastened by smaller cords) RV. vi , 24 , 4 BhP. Sch. on S3Br. xiii and Ka1tyS3r. xx (ifc.) Rebus: a weaver.

    Pa. tanti -- f. ʻ lute ʼ, Pk. taṁtī -- f.; OAw. tāṁti ʻ string of a musical instrument ʼ, H. tant f.; Si. täta ʻ string of a lute ʼ.(CDIAL 5667)
    Ta. taṇṭu lute. Ma. taṇṭi a musical instrument. (DEDR 3057)

    Hieroglyph: kora 'harp' rebus: koraga 'musician' (Tulu) khār 'blacksmith'


    Pict-63

    Pict-90
    Image result for Pict- bharatkalyan97Pict-91

    ḍhaṁkaṇa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article'. Ta. taṅkam pure gold, that which is precious, of great worth. Ma. taṅkam pure gold. / ? < Skt. ṭaṅka- a stamped (gold) coin.(DEDR 3013) ṭaṅka1 m.n. ʻ weight of 4 māṣas ʼ ŚārṅgS., ʻ a stamped coin ʼ Hit., °aka -- m. ʻ a silver coin ʼ lex. 2. ṭaṅga -- 1 m.n. ʻ weight of 4 māṣas ʼ lex. 3. *ṭakka -- 1. [Bloch IA 59 ← Tatar tanka (Khot. tanka = kārṣāpaṇa S. Konow Saka Studies 184)]
    1. Pk. ṭaṁka -- m. ʻ a stamped coin ʼ; N. ṭã̄k ʻ button ʼ (lw. with k); Or. ṭaṅkā ʻ rupee ʼ; H. ṭã̄k m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ; G. ṭã̄k f. ʻ a partic. weight equivalent to 1/72 ser ʼ; M. ṭã̄k m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ. 2. H. ṭaṅgā m. ʻ a coin worth 2 paisā ʼ.3. Sh. ṭăk m. ʻ button ʼ; S. ṭako m. ʻ two paisā ʼ, pl. ʻ money in general ʼ, ṭrakaku ʻ worth two paisā ʼ, m. ʻ coin of that value ʼ; P. ṭakā m. ʻ a copper coin ʼ; Ku. ṭākā ʻ two paisā ʼ; N. ṭako ʻ money ʼ; A. ṭakā ʻ rupee ʼ, B. ṭākā; Mth. ṭakāṭakkāṭakwā ʻ money ʼ, Bhoj. ṭākā; H. ṭakā m. ʻ two paisā coin ʼ, G. ṭakɔ m., M. ṭakā m.*uṭṭaṅka -- , *ṣaṭṭaṅka -- , ṭaṅkaśālā -- .Addenda: ṭaṅka -- 1 [H. W. Bailey in letter of 6.11.66: Khot. tanka is not = kārṣāpaṇa -- but is older Khot. ttandäka ʻ so much ʼ < *tantika -- ] (CDIAL 5426) 
    Rebus: ṭaṅkaśālā -- , ṭaṅkakaś° f. ʻ mint ʼ lex. [ṭaṅka -- 1, śāˊlā -- ]

    N. ṭaksāl°ār, B. ṭāksālṭã̄k°ṭek°, Bhoj. ṭaksār, H. ṭaksāl°ār f., G. ṭãksāḷ f., M. ṭã̄ksālṭāk°ṭãk°ṭak°. -- Deriv. G. ṭaksāḷī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ, M. ṭāksāḷyā m.Addenda: ṭaṅkaśālā -- : Brj. ṭaksāḷī, °sārī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ.(CDIAL 5438)
     ṭaṅka2 m.n. ʻ spade, hoe, chisel ʼ R. 2. ṭaṅga -- 2 m.n. ʻ sword, spade ʼ lex.
    1. Pa. ṭaṅka -- m. ʻ stone mason's chisel ʼ; Pk. ṭaṁka -- m. ʻ stone -- chisel, sword ʼ; Woṭ. ṭhõ ʻ axe ʼ; Bshk. ṭhoṅ ʻ battleaxe ʼ, ṭheṅ ʻ small axe ʼ (< *ṭaṅkī); Tor. (Biddulph) "tunger" m. ʻ axe ʼ (? AO viii 310), Phal. ṭhō˘ṅgif.; K.ṭŏnguru m. ʻ a kind of hoe ʼ; N. (Tarai) ṭã̄gi ʻ adze ʼ; H. ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ; G. ṭã̄k f. ʻ pen nib ʼ; M. ṭã̄k m. ʻ pen nib ʼ, ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ.
    2. A. ṭāṅgi ʻ stone chisel ʼ; B. ṭāṅg°gi ʻ spade, axe ʼ; Or. ṭāṅgi ʻ battle -- axe ʼ; Bi. ṭã̄gā°gī ʻ adze ʼ; Bhoj. ṭāṅī ʻ axe ʼ; H. ṭã̄gī f. ʻ hatchet ʼ.(CDIAL 5427)Image result for pot with lid bharatkalyan97m478B Part of pictorial motif: Rim of jar + lid (pot cover)

    कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'rim of jar''rim of jar', 'pericarp of lotus' karaṇī 'scribe, supercargo', kañi-āra 'helmsman'.Ka. diṅku a jump, leap, skipping about in frolic, gambol. Go. (Mu.) ḍev-, (SR. G. Ma. Pat. S.) ḍey-, (Tr.) ḍai-, (Y.) ḍhay-, (W. Ph.) ḍahk-, (M.) ḍehk-, (L.) dehek- to jump (Voc. 1584). Kui dega (degi-) to run, jump, leap; n. running, jumping, jump, leap; detka (detki-) to jump; n. a jump. Kuwi (F.) devali to bound, jump; (S.) ḍēwinai to leap; (Su.) ḍēv- (-it-) to jump; (Isr.) ḍēv-/ḍēm- (-it-) id. Kur. ḍegnā to leap, jump. / Cf. Pkt. ḍev- to jump. There is some connection with items in Turner, CDIAL, no. 5534, ḍáyate; cf. esp. Or. ḍeĩbā to jump. (DEDR 2971)
    *ṭakk1 ʻ remain, stop ʼ. 2. *ṭikk -- . 3. *ṭēkk -- usu. tr. [Cf. *ḍakk -- 3, *ṭhēkk -- ]
    1. Sh. (Lor.) ṭak boiki ʻ to be hampered, be stuck ʼ; P. ṭakk m. ʻ settlement of price ʼ; N. ṭakka aṛinu ʻ to come to a dead stop ʼ; G. ṭakvũ ʻ to stop ʼ; M. ṭākṇẽ ʻ to leave ʼ.
    2. Kho. (Lor.) tika ʻ support, cushion behind the back ʼ; S. ṭikaṇu ʻ to remain, be firm ʼ; L. ṭikkaṇ ʻ to stay ʼ; P. ṭikṇā ʻ to stay ʼ, ṭikkṇā ʻ to appoint ʼ; N. ṭiknu ʻ to remain, last ʼ; A. ṭikiba ʻ to last, be of service ʼ; B. ṭikā ʻ to remain ʼ; Or. ṭikibā ʻ to last, be effective ʼ; H. ṭiknā ʻ to stop, remain ʼ; M. ṭikṇẽ ʻ to stay ʼ.
    3. P. ṭekṇā ʻ to prop ʼ, ṭekaṇ m. ʻ prop, bundle of wood ʼ; Ku. ṭekṇo ʻ to prop ʼ, ṭeko ʻ prop, obstacle ʼ; N. ṭeknu ʻ to set up ʼ, ṭek ʻ obstinacy ʼ, ṭekan ʻ prop ʼ; A. ṭek ʻ middle part of a dam ʼ; B. ṭẽkā ʻ to remain ʼ; Or. ṭekibā ʻ to lift up ʼ; OAw. ṭekaï ʻ puts, stops ʼ, ṭeka f. ʻ prop ʼ; H. ṭeknā ʻ to prop ʼ; G. ṭekvũṭek m.f. ʻ support ʼ; M. ṭekṇẽ tr. and intr. ʻ to rest ʼ.
    Addenda: *ṭakk -- 1. 2. *ṭikk -- : WPah.J. ṭikṇu ʻ to stop ʼ.
    3. *ṭēkk -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ṭekṇõ ʻ to stop, stay, stand, support, endure, place ʼ; J. ṭekṇu ʻ to support ʼ.(CDIAL 5420)Ta. takai (-v-, -nt-) to stop, resist, check, deter, obstruct or forbid by oath, seize, take hold of, overpower, subdue, shut in, enclose, include, bind, fasten, yoke; (-pp-, -tt-) to check, resist, stop, deter, bind, fasten; n.binding, fastening, garland, obstruction, check, hindrance, armour, coat of mail; takaippu surrounding wall, fortress, palatial building, section of house, apartment, battle array of an army. Ka. taga, tagave, tagahu, tagedelay, obstacle, hindrance, impediment; tage to stop, arrest, obstruct, impede, stun; tagar to be stopped or impeded, impede, etc.(DEDR 3006) Ta. taṅku (taṅki-) to stay, sojourn, abide, remain, be stable, firmly established, be retained in the mind, exist, halt, wait, delay, be obstructed, reserved, or kept back; n. staying, stopping; taṅkal stopping, halting, resting, delay, halting place, persistence, stability; takku (takki-) to come to stay, become permanent, lasting (as a possession or acquisition), be retained; takkam stability. Ma. taṅṅuka to stop, come into possession, be there, be arrested in the midst of progress; taṅṅal rest, shelter; taṅṅikka to delay, stop; takkuka to be obtained; tañcuka to stop, remain; tañcam being at rest, posture. Ko. taŋg- (taŋgy-) to spend time in a place away from home. To. tok- (toky-) to last long (money, situation), (child) lives long; to&ztail; other, different (i.e. the remaining one, the other one). Ka. taṅgu to stop, stay, tarry, sojourn, lodge; n. stoppage, halt, a day's journey; dakku to accrue to, be obtained, fall to one's share, come into and remain in one's possession, remain, be preserved; n. acquirement, attainment, possession, property; dakkisu to cause to be obtained, etc. Tu.dakkati possession, control, appropriation, digest; dakkāvoṇuni to retain or digest anything eaten, misappropriate successfully, take charge of; daksāvuni to bring into another's possession; daksuni to be retained or digested as food, medicine, etc., be misappropriated successfully. Te. takku to remain, be left, be excepted or omitted; n. remainder, other; takkina remaining, other; dakku, ḍakku to remain, be left as a balance or residue, be saved or spared. Kol. tak- (takt-) to live (in a place), remain, stay (e.g. silent). Nk. tak- to stay, remain. Go. (Tr.) taggānā to wear well (of clothes), remain in one's service (of servants); (A.) tagg- to stay, last (Voc. 1642).(DEDR 3014)


     *ḍakk3 ʻ stop ʼ. [Cf. *ṭakk -- 1]L. ḍakkaṇ, (Ju.) ḍ̠a° ʻ to stop, obstruct ʼ; P. ḍakkṇā ʻ to block up, hinder ʼ, ḍakk m. ʻ hindrance ʼ, ḍakkā m. ʻ plug ʼ.(CDIAL 5518)  *ḍhakk ʻ cover ʼ. 2. *ḍhaṅk -- . [Cf. ḍhakkana -- n. ʻ shutting ʼ Śīl.]1. Pk. ḍhakkaï ʻ shuts ʼ; S. ḍhakaṇu ʻ to cover ʼ; L. ḍhakkaṇ ʻ to imprison ʼ; P. ḍhakkṇā ʻ to cover ʼ, Ku. ḍhakṇo, N. ḍhāknu, A. ḍhākiba, B. ḍhākā, Bhoj. ḍhākal, OMarw. ḍhakaï; -- Pk. ḍhakkiṇī -- f. ʻ lid ʼ, S. ḍhakkaṇī f., P. ḍhakṇā m., °ṇī f., WPah. bhad. ḍhakkaṇ n., Ku. ḍhākaṇ, N. ḍhakni, A. ḍhākni, B. ḍhākanḍhāknā°ni; Bi. ḍhaknā ʻ cover of grain -- pot ʼ, Mth. ḍhākni; Bhoj. ḍhaknī ʻ lid ʼ. -- Poss. K. ḍākürü f. ʻ wide shallow basket ʼ; N. ḍhāki ʻ basket ʼ, ḍhākar ʻ a kind of large basket ʼ; Bi. mag. ḍhākā ʻ large open basket ʼ; -- P. ḍhakkā m. ʻ pass between two hills ʼ.2. Pk. ḍhaṁkissaï ʻ will cover ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) ḍaṅgeik ʻ to cover, shut, bury ʼ; Phal. ḍhaṅg -- ʻ to bury ʼ; Or. ḍhaṅkibā ʻ to cover ʼ, H. ḍhã̄knā, Marw. ḍhã̄kṇo, G. ḍhã̄kvũ, M. ḍhã̄kṇẽ; -- Pk. ḍhaṁkaṇa -- n., °ṇī -- f. ʻ cover, lid ʼ, Or. ḍhāṅkuṇi, H. ḍhãknī f., G. ḍhã̄kṇũ n., °ṇī f., M. ḍhã̄kaṇ n., ḍhã̄kṇī f.*ḍhagga -- ʻ defective ʼ see *ḍagga -- 2.
    *ḍhaṅk -- ʻ cover ʼ see *ḍhakk -- .*ḍhaṅkha -- ʻ defective ʼ see *ḍagga -- 2.Addenda: *ḍhakk -- 1: S.kcch. ḍhakṇū ʻ to cover, shut (a door) ʼ, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhàkṇõ, Garh. ḍhakṇu; A. ḍhākiba (phonet. dh -- ) ʻ to cover ʼ, G. ḍhākvũ, M. ḍhākṇẽ.(CDIAL 5574) 

    Rebus: धक्क (p. 245dhakka a (Imit.) Steady, enduring, unshaken (as under misfortune): hale, hearty, stanch, unflinching--man or animal: stout, sound, firm, fit to render good service--cloth, an article gen. 2 Brightshining, brilliant, very lustrous--metal, a gem, a firework. Hence 3 Bright and good, altogether excellent--a rupee or other coin. *dhakṣati ʻ burns ʼ [Cf. fut. part. vidhakṣyánt -- , aor. part. dhákṣat RV. -- √dahG. dhakhvũ ʻ to get into a passion ʼ, dhakhāvvũ ʻ to make hot ʼ, dhakh f. ʻ thirst ʼ.Addenda: dhákṣu -- : S.kcch. ḍakho m. ʻ quarrel ʼ; B. dhak ʻ sudden blaze ʼ, Or. dhaka ʻ blaze ʼ (rather than < *dhagg -- ).(CDIAL 6703)

    Rebus: *tāmradhāka ʻ copper receptacle ʼ. [tāmrá -- , dhāká -- ]Bi. tama ʻ drinking vessel made of a red alloy ʼ. (CDIAL 5785)


    ^  Inverted V, m478 (lid above rim of narrow-necked jar) The rimmed jar next to the tiger with turned head has a lid. Lid ‘ad.aren’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ karnika 'rim of jar' Rebus: karni 'supercargo' (Marathi) Thus, together, the jar with lid composite hieroglyhph denotes 'native metal supercargo'. karn.aka = handle of a vessel; ka_n.a_, kanna_ = rim, edge; kan.t.u = rim of a vessel; kan.t.ud.iyo = a small earthen vessel; kan.d.a kanka = rim of a water-pot; kan:kha, kankha = rim of a vessel. In an alternative reading, the pot PLUS lid is read rebus as: dhakka karni 'bright metal supercargo'.Mahadevan concordance Field Symbol 83: Person wearing a diadem or tall head-dress standing within an ornamented arch; there are two stars on either side, at the bottom of the arch.मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] 'the polar star' (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.)
    Hieroglyph: karã̄ n. pl. ʻwristlets, bangles ʼ (Gujarati); kara 'hand' (Rigveda) Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) 
    The bunch of twigs = ku_di_, ku_t.i_ (Skt.lex.) ku_di_ (also written as ku_t.i_ in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kaus’ika Su_tra (Bloomsfield’s ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk,98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badari_, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).[Note the twig adoring the head-dress of a horned, standing person]
    Horned person. Terracotta. Harappa.

    mēd 'body' (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ 'iron' (Ho.)  Ta. mēṉi body, shape, colour, beauty; mēl body. Ma. mēni body, shape, beauty, excellence; mēl body. Koḍ. me·lï body. Te. mēnu id.; mēni brilliancy, lustre; belonging to the body, bodily, personal. Kol. me·n (pl.me·nḍl) body. Nk. mēn (pl. mēnuḷ) id. Nk. (Ch.) mēn id. Pa. mēn (pl. mēnul) id. Ga. (S.) mēnu (pl. mēngil), (P.) mēn id. Go. (Tr.) mēndur (obl. mēnduḍ-), (A. Y. W. M.) mēndul, (L.) meṇḍū˘l, (SR.) meṇḍol id. (Voc.2963). Konḍa mēndol human body. Kur. mē̃d, mēd body, womb, back. Malt. méth body (DEDR 5099)

    Ta. kōṭu (in cpds. kōṭṭu-) horn, tusk, branch of tree, cluster, bunch, coil of hair, line, diagram, bank of stream or pool; kuvaṭu branch of a tree; kōṭṭāṉ, kōṭṭuvāṉ rock horned-owl (cf. 1657 Ta. kuṭiñai). Ko. ko·ṛ (obl.ko·ṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kw&idieresisside;ṛ (obl. kw&idieresisside;ṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn. Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn. Ga. (Oll.) kōr (pl. kōrgul) id. Go. (Tr.) kōr (obl. kōt-, pl. kōhk) horn of cattle or wild animals, branch of a tree; (W. Ph. A. Ch.) kōr (pl. kōhk), (S.) kōr (pl. kōhku), (Ma.) kōr̥u (pl. kōẖku) horn; (M.) kohk branch (Voc. 980); (LuS.) kogoo a horn. Kui kōju (pl. kōska) horn, antler. 
      (DEDR 2200) Rebus: koḍ artisan's workshop (Kuwi) Ta. koṭṭakai shed with sloping roofs, cow-stall; marriage pandal; koṭṭam cattle-shed; koṭṭil cow-stall, shed, hut; (STD) koṭambe feeding place for cattle. Ma. koṭṭil cowhouse, shed, workshop, house. Ka. koṭṭage, koṭige, koṭṭige stall or outhouse (esp. for cattle), barn, room. Koḍ. koṭṭï shed. Tu. koṭṭa hut or dwelling of Koragars; koṭya shed, stall. Te. koṭṭā̆mu stable for cattle or horses; koṭṭāyi thatched shed. Kol. (Kin.) koṛka, (SR.) korkā cowshed; (Pat., p. 59) konṭoḍi henhouse. Nk. khoṭa cowshed. Nk. (Ch.) koṛka id. Go. (Y.) koṭa, (Ko.) koṭam (pl. koṭak) id. (Voc. 880); (SR.) koṭka shed; (W. G. Mu. Ma.) koṛka, (Ph.) korka, kurkacowshed (Voc. 886); (Mu.) koṭorla, koṭorli shed for goats (Voc. 884). Malt. koṭa hamlet. / Influenced by Skt. goṣṭha-. (DEDR 2058)




    Sign 418

    Variants Sign 12

    Sign 418








    Variants Sign 50, Sign 51
    Daimabad seal. Rimofjar Kalibangan pottery. Sign 342                                                                       See: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/harp By Bo Lawergre, 2003, in: Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XII, Fasc. 1, pp. 7-13. "HARP (čang, q.v.),a string instrument which flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 3000 B.C.E., until the 17th century. The original type was the arched harp as seen at Čoḡā Miš and on later third millennium seals (Figure 1a-c)...Third millennium B.C.E. This was the era of arched harps in Persia. It came to an end with the arrival of angular harps, ca. 1900 B.C.E. (Figure 5a). However, arched harps survived in India and diffused from there during the first millennium C.E. (Lawergren, 1995/6, pp. 244-45), including to Panjikent (Figure 1d)."


    harp02.gif (39545 bytes)
    FIGURE 1. Arched harps on Persian seal impressions (second millennium B.C.E.). a. Čoḡa Miš, Persia, 3300-3100 B.C.E.; a celebrant on a cushion (far right) is faced by an ensemble (left) consisting of a singer, horn player (?), harper, and drummer (Delougaz and Kantor, 1996, Pls. 45N and 155A). b. Southeastern Persia, 2500 B.C.E.; a harp appears among participants in a ritual involving animal parts (shown between two vertical lines); snakes protrude from the shoulders of the central participant seated below the harp (Porada, 1965, fig. 16; Porada, 1988, Pl. IV; Amiet, 1986, fig. 132 [10]). c. Southeastern Persia, 2300-2100 B.C.E.; a cult scene involving the same participant as above (a snake-man); the harpist sits near a table that supports this participant (Amiet, 1986, fig. 132 (12), Musée du Louvre, Paris). d. Panjikent (Sogdiana, Greater Persia), 8th century (Lawergren, 1996, fig. 3i; Lawergren, 1995/96, fig. 3C).


    FIGURE 2. Robust, vertical, angular harps (first millennia B.C.E. and C.E.). a. Extant Egyptian harp, 1000-500 B.C.E. (Musée du Louvre, Paris). b. Terracotta plaque, Persia, 250 B.C.E.-223 C.E. (Colledge, 1967, Pl. 20d). c. Mosaic, Bišāpur (Persia), 250-300 C.E. (Musée du Louvre, Paris). d. Silver vessel, Persia/Central Asia, 8-9th c. C.E. (Farmer, 1966, Pl. 7). e. Silver vessel, Persia/Central Asia, 8-9th c. C.E. (Gunter and Jett, 1992, p. 163).

    FIGURE 3. Horizontal, angular harps. a. Terracotta plaque, Iščāli (Mesopotamia), 1900-1500 B.C.E. (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 71). b. Terracotta figurine, Susa, 1900-1500 B.C.E. (Spycket, 1992a, Pl. 95, no. 803). c. Silver plate, Persia, 8th-10th century C.E. (Farmer, 1966, Pl. 6).
    FIGURE 4. Light, vertical, angular harps. a. Wall relief, Ṭāq-e Bostān (Persia), ca. 600 C.E. (Fukai et al., 1972, Pl. LIXb). b. Shōsōin Treasure Depository, Nara (Japan), extant specimen, eighth century C.E. (Hayashi et al., 1967, a composite of Pls. 93-99, 106-7).
    FIGURE 5. Robust vertical harps (second millennium B.C.E.). a. Terracotta plaque, Babylon, 1900-1500 (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 62). b. Terracotta figurine, Babylon, 1900-1500 (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 70). c. Terracotta figurine, Susa, 1900-1500 (Spycket, 1992a, Pl. 96, no. 813).

    The Figure 5c. dancing terracotta figure is cognate with the narrative of नाचण्याचा फड A nach house in the following Meluhha expressions related to phaḍā a metals manufactory.

    phaḍā related Meluhha expressionsफडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or स (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस

    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 

    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 

    फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 
    FIGURE 6. Elamite (Persian) angular harps (first millennium B.C.E.). a. Rock reliefs at Kul-e Fara, near Iḏa/Malāmir (Lawergren, 1997a, fig. 26). Kul-e Fara I: end of 7th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 30) or 7th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-151). Kul-e Fara III: 8-7th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 32) or 6th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-51). Kul-e Fara IV: 9th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 33) or 6th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-51). b. Wall relief of Madaktu ensemble, 650 B.C.E. shown in Aššurbanipal’s Palace, Nineveh.
    FIGURE 7. Harps illustrated in Persian miniature manuscripts produced in various workshops during the Islamic period. Dates are given in C.E.

    See: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/cang-harp ČANG “harp” (Pahl. čang, mentioned in Xusrō ī Kawādān ud rēdag, pars. 62-63), a musical instrument of the free-stringed family. By Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Mallāḥ, 1990. "The oldest known harps are arched like a bow with a sound box added to the lower end. The oldest record of an arched harp in Persia is an engraving on a seal datable to 3400 b.c. found at Čoḡā Mīš in Ḵūzestān during excavations by Helen J. Cantor and Pinhas P. Delugaz in 1961-66 (Figure 55)...The instrument mentioned as čangby Rīāḥī (p. 25) is a lyre (tanbūra), called čang by the Baluch. In Afghanistan and Tajikistan čang designates a type of santūr. In Georgia harps are called čangī and six types are in use, four rectangular and two acute-angled..."

    https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/the-boat-shaped-lyre/
    Sumerian Musicians on Relief
    Sumerian bas relief depicting musicians playing various instruments. The steatite relief was excavated at ancient Adab, a city of ancient Sumer. The bas relief dates back to around 3000 BC. There are two harp players, a drummer, a trumpet player, and a conducter with a leaf baton.
    http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/4/8/


    Image result for sumer cylinder seal harp
     SCENE ON A GOLD CYLfNDER SEAL from a grave in the Ur cemetery (PG L054). In the bottom register are 2 “cymbalists” (figures playing clappers), a dancer, and a seated figure playing a bovine lyre. The top register shows festive banqueters. U. 11904. From Woolley 1934, pt. 1: fig. 23
    https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/the-musical-instruments-from-ur-and-ancient-mesopotamian-music/
    Mosaic panel (the 'Royal Standard of Ur') from Ur, ca. 2450 BCE (Rashid 1984: 45 Abb.12; Woolley 1934: pl. 91)
    Image result for harp cylinder seals ancient near east
    The association of 'harp' with a one-horned young bull is seen on this frieze from Ur.  kundār ‘young bull' rebus: kundār ‘turner’ kundaṇa 'fine gold'.
    Related image
    From the Standard of Ur.

    Image result for harp cylinder seals ancient near east
    This silver lyre from ancient Mesopotamia is over 4,500 years old. Music was an important aspect of many celebrations and rituals.


    Eleven stringed instruments were recovered at Ur (two harps and nine lyres)
    FIG. 3. TilE MEDIUM-SIZED SILVER BOVINE LYRE NOW IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM might have sounded like a cello. ©The British Museum. 121199, neg. E 2241. H. 97.5 em. L. 69 011

    Bull-headed harp with inlaid sound box, from the tomb of Pu-abi (tomb 800), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600-2400 BCE.  Wood, gold, lapis lazuli, red limestone, and shell, 3′ 8 1/8″ high.  British Museum, London.
    Related image

    Sound box of the bull-headed harp from tomb 789 (“King’s Grave”), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq,ca. 2600-2400 BCE.  Wood, lapis lazuli, and shell, 1′ 7″ high.  University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia. 

    "Great Lyre" from Ur: Ht 33 cm. 2550 - 2400 BCE, royal tomb at Ur (cf. pg. 106 of J. Aruz and R. Wallenfels (eds.) 2003  Art of the First Cities).

    Great Lyre from the "King's Grave" (left)
    and Detail of Front Panel of the Great Lyre from the "King's Grave" (right)
    Ur, Iraq, ca. 2650–2550 B.C.
    Gold, silver, lapis lazuli, shell, bitumen, and wood
    Height: 35.6 cm (head), 33 cm (plaque)
    PG 789; B17694 (U.10556)
    University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
    "The figures featured on the sound box of the harp are shell and red limestone and are seperated by registers.  The bottom register features a scorpion-man in composite and a gazelle bearing goblets.  Above them are an ass playing the harp, ajackal playing the zither and a bear steadying the harp or dancing.  The second register from the top has a dog wearing a dagger and carrying a laden table with a lion bringing the beverage service.  The uppermost register features the hero, also in composite, embracing two man-bulls in a heraldic composition.  The meaning behind the sound box depictions is unclear but could be of funerary significance, suggesting that the creatures inhabit the land of the dead and the feast is what awaits in the afterlife.  In any case, the sound box provides a very early specimen of the depiction of animals acting as people that will be found throughout history in art and literature."
    https://klimtlover.wordpress.com/mesopotamia-and-persia/mesopotamia-and-persia-sumerian-art/
    bull-head-lyre-panel
    DETAIL FROM THE PANEL ON THE BULL-HEADED LYRE showing an 8-stringed bovine lyre being played. At the top of the lyre, braided material is wrapped around the crossbar under the tuning sticks. The small fox-like animal facing the front of the lyre holds a sistrum, or rattle. UPM 817694. Detail of neg. 735-110

    Inlay panel from the soundbox of lyre.from Ur, c. 2600 B.C.E Gold, lapis lazuli, shell and bitumen
    tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper' Alternative: khara 'onager', kora 'harp' rebus: khār 'blacksmith'
    barad, barat 'bull' Rebus: bharata, baran 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'
    kola 'tiger, jackal' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'

    bica 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'hematite, ferrite ore'.
    "Great Lyre" from Ur: Ht 33 cm
    . 2550 - 2400 BCE, royal tomb at Ur (cf. pg. 106 of J. Aruz and R. Wallenfels (eds.) 2003  Art of the First Cities).

    Othmar Keel (2009) "Othmar Keel's scientific work exploring the links between the imagery of the Ancient Near East and the Bible and the religious history of Palestine / Israel...In his biblical studies, he has shown how the pictorial symbolism of ancient oriental cultures can serve as a key to the understanding of Old Testament texts (eg, High Song , Gospel in the Book of Job , YHWH Visions in the Books of Isaiah , Ezekiel and Zechariah ).An announcement on 24 Oct 2017 08:40 AM PDT referred to a newly added  title to Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Online
    The following image sources from Plates XXXIII and XXXIV are cited by Brent A. Strawn & Joel M LeMon, following the iconographic analytical method given academic respectability by the work of Othmar Keel.
    Plate XXXIII

    Plate XXXIV. Fig. 1
    Brent A. Strawn & Joel M LeMon, opcit. analyse the following pictorials for the symbolism signified.

    On Figures 14, 15, and 16, onagers are signified as harp-players, performing in presence of a lion. The Indus Script hypertext readings: arye'lion' rebus: ara'brass'khar 'ass, onager' (Kashmiri) rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' A phonetic determinative: kora 'harp'.


    On harp-playing onager on the lyre it is noted by Brent A. Strawn & Joel M. LeMon, that an onager as harp-player. On the hieroglyphs, deployed a one-horned young bull is also shown in the presence of a jackal. कोला (p. 105) kōlā m (Commonly कोल्हा) A jackal. For compounds see under कोल्हे.  कोल्हा (p. 105) kōlhā m A jackal, Canis aureus. Linn. कोल्ही (p. 105) kōlhī A she-jackal.कोल्हें (p. 105) kōlhēṃ n A jackal. Without reference to sex. Pr. अडलें कोल्हें मंगळ गाय Even the yelling jackal can sing pleasantly when he is in distress. कोल्हें लागलें Applied to a practical joke. कोल्हेभूंक (p. 105) kōlhēbhūṅka or -भोंक f (कोल्हा & भुंकणें To bark.) The yelling of jackals. 2 Early dawn; peep of day.  rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'.

    In the bottom register, a scorpion-man is shown. bici 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'haematite, ferrite ore'.

    Inlay panel from the soundbox of lyre.from Ur, c. 2600 B.C.E Gold, lapis lazuli, shell and bitumen
    tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper' Alternative: khara 'onager', kora 'harp' rebus: khār 'blacksmith'
    barad, barat 'bull' Rebus: bharata, baran 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'
    kola 'tiger, jackal' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'

    bica 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'hematite, ferrite ore'.
    A number of lute or harp string instruments are attested in Bronze Age. Typically, the categories are: koradomrayār̤. 
    Hence, a hypothesis is that the onager called khara 'onager' was read rebus -- by the artists who composed the Standard of Ur -- as kora 'harp' (iconography and khār 'blacksmith' (Indus Script hypertext).

    Onager shown on Standard of Ur (2600 BCE) is also shown on Indus Script inscriptions. An example is the seal from Mohenjo-daro (m290)(ca. 2500 BCE) which is a documentation of metalwork wealth by smelters' guild.


    Thus, the symbolic ensemble is a documentation of metalwork in Indus Script Cipher.
    Image result for mohenjodaro seal onagerm290 Mohenjo-daro seal. Decipherment: kola 'tiger' Rebus; kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'smithy, temple' kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattar 'guild of goldsmiths'. panja 'feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln, furnace'
    ṭāṅka ʻleg, thighʼ (Oriya) rebus:  ṭaṅka 'mint'
    khar 'ass, onager' (Kashmiri) rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' khāra-- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ (Kashmiri)(CDIAL 9424)
    kharedo = a currycomb (Gujarati) rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati)

    khaṛ m. ʻ grass, weeds ʼ (Sindhi): khaṭa m., khaḍa -- m.n. ʻ thatching grass ʼ lex. [Cf. kaṭa -- 2, khēṭa -- 4 n. ʻ grass ʼ lex.: ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 368] Pk. khaḍa -- n. ʻ grass ʼ; K. khoru m. ʻ a round -- leaved swamp plant used for fodder, Limnanthemum nymphoides ʼ; L. khaṛ ʻ a tall grass used for fodder ʼ; P. khaṛ m. ʻ straw ʼ; Ku. khaṛ ʻ thatching grass ʼ, N. khar; A.khari ʻ fuel ʼ, kharikā ʻ the stiff part of thatching grass ʼ; B. khaṛ ʻ straw, grass ʼ, khaṛuyā ʻ thatched with straw ʼ; Or. khaṛā ʻ a kind of spinach ʼ; Bi. khar ʻ thatching grass ʼ; Mth. khaṛkhaṛh ʻ grass, esp. long thatching grass ʼ, khaṛa ʻ long stiff grass for thatching ʼ; H. khaṛ m. ʻ ricestalk, rice straw ʼ, khaṛhkhar f. ʻ grass, straw, long grass for thatching ʼ; G. khaṛ n. ʻ grass, weeds ʼ; M. khaḍ f. ʻ short tender grass, fodder (grass, grain, oilcake, &c.) ʼ; -- poss. therefore also S. khaṛu m. f. ʻ dregs of mustard seed after the oil is pressed out, oilcake ʼ if not < khalī -- for which there is no other evidence of earlier --  -- .khaṭakkikā -- ? Addenda: khaṭa -- : S.kcch. khaṛ m. ʻ grass, weeds ʼ; WPah.kṭg. khɔ́̄ṛ m., poet. khɔṛu m. ʻ grass, straw, grass for fodder ʼ, J. khauṛ m.(CDIAL 3769)

    cf. karba 'culm of millet' (Punjabi) rebus: karba 'iron'. When signified as a flagpost to hold aloft a one-horned young bull, the metallurgical association is expressed: kundār 'young bull' rebus; kundaṇa 'fine gold'

    Alternative: कोल्ही (p. 105) kōlhī f A variety of जोंधळा. Its corn is hidden in the ear.  जोंधळा (p. 187) jōndhaḷā m A cereal plant or its grain, Holcus sorghum. Eight varieties are reckoned, viz. उता- वळी, निळवा, शाळू, रातडी, पिवळा जोंधळा, खुंडी, काळबोंडी जोंधळा, दूध मोगरा. There are however many others as केळी, अरगडी, डुकरी, बेंदरी, मडगूप &c. The 'culm of millet' orthography may also relate to a variety of holcus sorghum. Rebus: kolhe 'smelter'.
    Kora DSC 0355.JPGWest African stringed instrument with 21 strings. The kora is a 21-string lute-bridge-harp used extensively in West Africa...Kora players have traditionally come from griot families (also from the Mandinka nationalities) who are traditional historians, genealogists and storytellers who pass their skills on to their descendants.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kora_(instrument)
    Master kora-maker Alieu Suso of the Gambia

      Ta. yāḷi, āḷi a lion; a mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks. Ma. yār̤i lion; panther; āḷi a fabulous animal.(DEDR 5158)

      யா-த்தல் yā- To tell, utter; சொல்லுதல். சூத் திரத்தியல்பென யாத்தனர் புலவர் (தொல். பொ. 655).யாழ் yāḻ, n. perh. யா-.  Stringed musical instruments, of which there are four kinds, viz., pēri-yāḻ, cakōṭa-yāḻ, makara- yāḻ, ceṅkōṭṭi-yāḻ; பேரியாழ், சகோடயாழ், மகர யாழ், செங்கோட்டியாழ் என்ற நால்வகை வீணைக் கருவி. (சிலப். 3, 26.) (பிங்.) (Mus.) Melody-type; பண். (இறை. 1, உரை.) யாழ்ப்பாணர் yāḻ-p-pāṇar 
      n. < யாழ் +. An ancient caste of lute-players; யாழ்வாசினை யில் வல்ல 
      பாணர்வகையார். (பு. வெ. 9, 19, கொளு.)
      Samudragupta, gold dinar, c. 335-375 CE
      Weight: 7.85 gm, Diameter: 20 mm.
      King seated left on a couch, playing the vina
           circular Brāhmī legend around /
      Lakshmi seated left on a stool, holding a cornucopia and diadem,
           Brāhmī legend at right: Samudraguptah
      The Lyrist type of Samudragupta is also a very beautiful and unique design. On this coin, the king is shown seated at ease on a high-backed couch, playing a string instrument like a simple lyre or lute. The fact that the king wanted to publicize an image of himself as a musician is remarkable and a window into the value system of the Gupta state. Samudragupta is known to have been a great patron of the arts and was indeed an accomplished musician and poet.

      This variety has a tamgha in front of Lakshmi's face and no letter below the king's couch.

       variants were described ranging from 14 to 17 strings, and the instrument used by wandering minstrels for accompaniment...(Kamil Zvelebil (1992). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. BRILL. p 145). Ta. yār̤, ñār̤ stringed musical instrument; er̤u (-v-, -nt-) to emit sound; er̤āl musical notes of the yār̤, the yār̤, human voice; er̤uppu (er̤uppi-) to call forth (as melody from an instrument), raise (as the voice in speaking or singing); er̤uvu (er̤uvi-) to produce or call forth sound; eṭu (-pp-, -tt-) to utter or sing in a loud voice; eṭuppu (eṭuppi-) to produce (as harmonious sounds from an instrument). Ma. ēr̤il music. Ko. et- (eyt-) to sing (song), play musical instrument. (TPM, p. 227, for Ta. yār̤ : er̤u.)

      ḍomrā  'strolling musician' who plays a string instrument domra. Tanbur was called 'tunbur' or 'tunbureh/tunbura' in Al-Hirah, and in Greek it was named tambouras, then went to albania as tampura, in Russia it was named domra, in Siberia and Mongolia as dombra...
      Tanburs have been present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the third millennium BC.Three figurines have been found in Susa that belong to 1500 BCE, and in hands of one of them is a tanbur-like instrument...In the tenth century AD Al-Farabi described two types of tanburs found in Persia, a Baghdad tunbūr, distributed south and west of Baghdad, and a Khorasan tunbūr....The tanbūra (lyre) is a bowl lyre of the Middle East and East Africa. It takes its name from the Persian tanbur via the Arabic tunbur (طنبور), though this term refers to long-necked lutes...Kazakhstan's dombra (or dombyra 
      or dombira or dombora) looks quite similar to the dutar (i.e., two strings) although it is made of staves...Afghan tanbur (or tambur) is played mainly in the North of Afghanistan, in Mazar Sharif and Kabul. Afghan tanbur used to have a wide, hollow neck and gourd-like body.... It has 3 courses (either single or double) of metal strings...The music can be accompanying singing and dancing, or (more rarely) playing classical ghazals.The Afghan tanbur has sympathetic strings.

      ḍōmba m. ʻ man of low caste living by singing and music ʼ Kathās., ḍōma -- m. lex., ḍōmbinī -- f. [Connected with Mu. words for ʻ drum ʼ PMWS 87, EWA i 464 with lit.] Pk. ḍoṁba -- , ḍuṁba -- , ḍoṁbilaya -- m.; Gy. eur. rom m. ʻ man, husband ʼ, romni f. ʻ woman, wife ʼ, SEeur. i̦om ʻ aGypsy ʼ, pal. dōm ʻ a Nuri Gypsy ʼ, arm. as. (Boša) lom ʻ a Gypsy ʼ, pers. damini ʻ woman ʼ; Ḍ. ḍōm (pl. °ma) ʻ a Ḍom ʼ; Paš. ḍōmb ʻ barber ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) ḍom ʻ musician, bandsman ʼ; Sh. ḍom ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, K. ḍūmbḍūmm., ḍūmbiñ f.; S. ḍ̠ūmu m., ḍūmṛī f. ʻ caste of wandering musicians ʼ, L. ḍūm m., ḍūmṇī f., (Ju.) ḍ̠om m., ḍ̠omṇīḍomṛī f., mult. ḍōm m., ḍōmṇī f., awāṇ. naṭ -- ḍūm ʻ menials ʼ; P. ḍūmḍomrā m., ḍūmṇī f. ʻ strolling musician ʼ, ḍūmṇā m. ʻ a caste of basket -- makers ʼ; WPah. ḍum ʻ a very low -- caste blackskinned fellow ʼ; Ku. ḍūm m., ḍūmaṇ f. ʻ an aboriginal hill tribe ʼ; N. ḍum ʻ a low caste ʼ; A. ḍom m. ʻ fisherman ʼ, ḍumini f.; B. ḍomḍam m. ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, ḍumni f. (OB. ḍombī); Or. ḍoma m., °aṇī f., ḍuma°aṇīḍambaḍama°aṇī ʻ a low caste who weave baskets and sound drums ʼ; Bhoj. ḍōm ʻ a low caste of musicians ʼ, H. ḍombḍomḍomṛāḍumār m., ḍomnī f., OMarw. ḍūma m., ḍūmaṛī f., M. ḍõbḍom m. -- Deriv. Gy. wel. romanō adj. (f. °nī) ʻ Gypsy ʼ romanō rai m. ʻ Gypsy gentleman ʼ, °nī čib f. ʻ Gypsy language ʼ.*ḍōmbakuṭaka -- , *ḍōmbadhāna -- .Addenda: ḍōmba -- : Gy.eur. rom m., romni f. esp. ʻ Gypsy man or woman ʼ; WPah.kṭg. ḍōm m. ʻ member of a low caste of musicians ʼ, ḍv̄m m.; Garh. ḍom ʻ an untouchable ʼ. †*ḍōmbādhāna -- .*ḍōmbakuṭaka ʻ a Ḍom's hut ʼ. [ḍōmba -- , kuṭī -- ]Ku. ḍumauṛo ʻ habitation of the Ḍoms ʼ.5572 *ḍōmbadhāna -- , or *ḍōmbādhāna -- , ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ. [*ḍōmba -- , dhāˊna -- or ādhāˊna -- ]Ku. ḍumāṇo ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ.ḍōra -- see davara -- .*ḍōlla -- ʻ bucket ʼ see *dōla -- 2.Addenda: *ḍōmbadhāna -- or †*ḍōmbādhāna  .Garh. ḍumāṇu ʻ part of a village where Ḍoms live ʼ.(CDIAL 5570, 5571, 5572)

      Music stele: tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tambra 'copper' (Santali) ḍangar ‘bull’; rebusḍangar‘blacksmith’ (Hindi)
      Bull head, probably affixed to the sound-chest of a lyre. Copper, mother-of-pearl and lapis lazuli, found in Telloh, ancient Girsu. Louvre Museum, Accession number AO 2676, Excavated by Ernest de Sarzec; gift of Sultan Abdul Hamid, 1896

      Second dynasty of Lagash, reign of Gudea, c. 2120 BC
      Tello (ancient Girsu)
      Limestone
      H. 1.20 m; W. 0.63 m; D. 0.25 m
      E. de Sarzec excavations, 1881
      AO 52 
      [quote]The stele of music shows the foundation rites - performed to the sound of the lyre - of the temple built by Prince Gudea (c. 2100 BC) at his capital of Telloh (ancient Girsu), for Ningirsu, god of the state of Lagash in the Land of Sumer. The stele thus accords with the tradition of Neo-Sumerian art, which unlike that of the preceding period that focused on the warlike exploits of the rulers of Akkad, tends to show the king engaged in pious activities. 

      The building of Ningirsu's temple

      In the Neo-Sumerian Period (c. 2100 BC), the rulers Gudea and Ur-Nammu had themselves depicted taking part in the foundation rites of temples, notably on steles, as statues, and as figurines. On the stele of music, Gudea, carrying a peg and cord and followed by figures probably representing his princely heir and two priests, prepares to lay out the plan of Ningirsu's sanctuary. The ceremony is punctuated by music, which accompanies the chanting or singing of liturgical poems. Behind the cantor, a musician plays on a lyre whose sound box is decorated with a bull. The deep tones of the instrument evoked the bellowing of a bull, and by poetic identification, within the temple of Ningirsu "the room of the lyre was a noisily breathing bull." The making of the god's lyre gave its name to the third year of Gudea's reign, called "the year in which was made the lyre [called] Ushumgalkalamma [the dragon of the land of Sumer]."

      Music in temple foundation ceremonies

      The spirit embodied by the lyre played a part in the events leading to the building of the temple, for it appears in the dream in which the god reveals to Gudea the task he is to accomplish (Gudea Cylinders, Louvre, MNB 1512 and MNB 1511): "When, together with Ushumgalkalamma, his well-beloved lyre, that renowned instrument, his counselor, you bring him gifts [...] the heart of Ningirsu will be appeased, he will reveal the plans of his temple."
      When the work was complete, Ushumgalkalamma went before Gudea, leading all the musical instruments, to mark the arrival of the god in his new abode. Ushumgalkalamma is the god's counselor because its song calms the emotions that disturb the spirit, allowing the return of the reason indispensable to good judgement. Among the divine servants of Ningirsu, it is the lyre's duty to charm his master, a god of changeable mood. It is assisted by the spirit of another lyre that brings consolation in times of darkness: "So that the sweet-toned tigi-drum should play, so that the instruments algar and miritum should resound for Ningirsu, [...] his beloved musician Ushumgalkalamma accomplished his duties to the lord Ningirsu. To soothe the heart and calm the liver [the seat of thought], to dry the tears of weeping eyes, to banish grief from the grieving heart, to cast away the sadness in the heart of the god that rises like the waves of the sea, spreads wide like the Euphrates, and drowns like the flood of the storm, his lyre Lugaligihush accomplished his duties to his lord Ningirsu."

      Representations of musicians in Mesopotamia

      Representations of musicians are not uncommon in Near-Eastern iconography. They are found from the early 3rd millennium BC in the banquet scenes that appear on perforated plaques and cylinder seals. Early in the next millennium, they would appear on molded terracotta plaques, such as the example with the harpist in the Louvre (AO 12454). Very few examples of musical instruments have survived until today (among them the lyres from the royal tombs of Ur, c. 2550 BC); these representations are therefore particularly valuable.

      Bibliography

      André-Salvini Béatrice, "Stèle de la musique", in Musiques au Louvre, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994, pp. 10-11.
      Parrot André, Tello, vingt campagnes de fouilles, 1877-1933, Paris, Albin Michel, 1948, pp. 174-176, pl. 20a.
      Rutten Marguerite-Maggie, "Scènes de musique et de danse", in Revue des arts asiatiques, Paris, École française d'Extrême-Orient, 1935, p. 220, fig. 8.
      Sarzec Édouard de, Découvertes en Chaldée, Paris, Leroux, 1884-1912, pp. 36 et 219-221, pl. 23.
      Sillamy Jean-Claude, La Musique dans l'ancien Orient ou la théorie musicale suméro-babylonienne, Villeneuve d'Ascq, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 1998, p. 160. [unquote]

      Music steletanbūra, tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tambra 'copper' (Santali) ḍangar ‘bull’; rebusḍangar‘blacksmith’ (Hindi)
      OIM A12417, stone plaque, Mesopotamia, IraqBanquet plaque. The top register of this plaque shows a seated man and woman celebrating an unidentified event or ritual by participating in a banquet. Two servants attend them while others bring a jar (probably filled with beer), an animal to be slaughtered, and other edibles carried in bundles on their heads. Musicians and dancers in the bottom register add to the festivities.
      Plaques such as this were part of a door-locking system for important buildings. The plaque was embedded in the doorjamb and a peg, inserted into the central perforation, was used to hold a hook or cord that secured the door and was covered with clay impressed by one or more seals. https://oi.uchicago.edu/collections/highlights/highlights-collection-mesopotamia
      Assyrian / Babylonian musicians playing harp, lyre, chelys, double aulos Babylon.  Assyria. Stock Photo
      Related image
      http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Sumer_Iraq_1.htm

      Image result for ancient near east cylinder seal harp

      A reconstruction of the lyre in Philadelphia Museum had the hieroglyph of a stag.

      The ‘Boat-Shaped’ Lyre Restudy of a Unique Musical Instrument from Ur By: Maude de Schauensee Expedition, Volume 40, Issue 2

      Composition of two horned animals, sitting human playing a four-string musical instrument, a star and a moon.

      Hieroglyph: A. damrā ʻ young bull ʼ, dāmuri ʻ calf ʼ; B. dāmṛā ʻ castrated bullock ʼ; Or. dāmaṛī ʻ heifer ʼ, dāmaṛiā ʻ bullcalf, young castrated bullock ʼ, dāmuṛ°ṛi ʻ young bullock ʼ.Addenda: damya -- : WPah.kṭg. dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox ʼ.damya ʻ tameable ʼ, m. ʻ young bullock to be tamed ʼ Mn. [~ *dāmiya -- . -- √damPa. damma -- ʻ to be tamed (esp. of a young bullock) ʼ; Pk. damma -- ʻ to be tamed ʼ; S. ḍ̠amu ʻ tamed ʼ; -- ext. -- ḍa -- : (CDIAL 6184) Semantic Echo: బుర్రి burri burri. [Tel.] n. A heifer or young cow. (Telugu) 

      tagara 'antelope'. Rebus 1: tagara 'tin' (ore) tagromi 'tin, metal alloy' (Kuwi) dhangar 'bull' Rebus 2: damgar 'merchant'. dhangar 'blacksmith'
      *dab ʻ a noise ʼ. [Onom.]P. dabaṛ -- dabaṛ ʻ with the sound of heavy and noisy steps ʼ; N. dabdab ʻ mud ʼ; H. dabdabā m. ʻ noise ʼ; M. dabdab ʻ noise of a slack drum ʼ.(CDIAL 6170)

      Hieroglyph: harp: tambur

      The rebus reading of hieroglyphs are: తంబుర [tambura] or తంబురా tambura. [Tel. తంతి+బుర్ర.] n. A kind of stringed instrument like the guitar. A tambourine. Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper' tambabica, copper-ore stones; samṛobica, stones containing gold (Mundari.lex.)   

      Thus the seal connotes a merchant of copper.

      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?
      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?
      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?


      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?



      "These exchanges would have led to lengthy arguments carried out in various dialects. At best, the deals ended in banquets and at worst, in blood feuds. History abounds with trade arguments leading to wars. A bloody massacre such as that at Tell Brak would have led to the antagonists finding ways to appease tension during negotiations. Urukeans developed one of the most subtle and ancient arts as a possible solution. This is substantiated by the emergence of harps fitted with three or four strings, as depicted on a fourth millennium seal impression from Choga Mish, east of Uruk in Elam, in modern south-west Iran (Fig. 3). The seal depicts a four-string arched harp played by a seated person, while two others beat a drum, a bowl-drum and clappers. (Dubé, L.; Chebat, J.-C.; Morin, S., ‘The effects of background music on consumers desire to affiliate in buyer-seller interactions.’ Psychology and Marketing. Vol. 12/4. Published by Wiley-Blackwell (1995) pp. 305-319.)As early as the fourth millennium, Urukeans would have discovered that harp music could unite people, allowing them to share feelings and emotions that they could otherwise only have experienced individually. This was the primary function of the harp: the music it produced would have facilitated the exchange of goods. From the beginning it promoted equal understanding; in other words, ‘all were in tune’. From then on, owing to the fact that the harp was a remarkable mediator, music would have been included in communication procedures between different communities, changing people’s mindset and developing empathy between them. Being the first to understand that music could have a significantly smoothing effect on those that listened to it, Urukeans found that it could also affect protagonists during negotiations. If music cannot change the product itself, it can unconsciously act favourably on the customer’s mood. The smoothing effect of the harp on bad tempers, and its contribution to emotional reactions, would have meant that the instrument had high status, from dawn to dusk. The harp was found in potters’ and weavers’ workshops, on goods barges, in banquets (Fig. 6) and even during sexual intercourse (Fig. 4-B). The Urukeans’ pride in their invention was so great that they engraved it on cylinder seals; in its silent manifestation, it sounded to the inner ears of those looking at its impression on seals and tablets. On tablets it was denoted by the Sumerian words BAN.TUR, BAN meaning ‘bow’ and TUR meaning ‘small’, hence harp, and the Sumerogram BALAG, voiced as the onomatopoeic ‘dubdub’, a word echoing the sound of the object it depicts. Around 3,300 to 3,000 BCE, the pictogram with which it is associated clearly depicted a harp with three or four strings (Fig. 4) (Dumbrill, R. (1998). Période au cours de laquelle les cités-États sont en guerre.)." https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/

      See:
      Dumbrill, R., ‘Appendix.’ A Queen’s Orchestra at the Court of Mari: New Perspectives on the Archaic Instrumentarium in the Third Millenium. M. Marcetteau. ICONEA Proceedings 2008 (2008) pp. 73-75.
      Dumbrill, R., ‘Harps.’ The Archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East. Trafford Publishing (2005) pp. 179-226.
      Dumbrill, R., Götterzahlen and Scale Structure (1997).
      Dumbrill, R., ‘Music Theorism in Ancient World.’ ICONEA Proceeding 2009-2010 (2010) pp. 107-132.






      [quote]Harps from Uruk and Djemdet Nasr were generally monoxyle or monostructural, meaning that there was no distinction between the soundbox and the part which would become the yoke, or the neck. They would have been made from gourds or calabashes, the natural shape of which were appropriate for this. It is possible that they were domesticated through simple cultivation techniques which made them grow in the shape of musical instruments. 6The dried fruit was hollowed out from an oval opening, which was then covered with a soundboard made from damp sheep, pig or calf raw hide. It was stretched at the back with wet hide strands. The strings were made from fresh twisted gut or vegetal fibres. A sliver of wood was tied at the end of each string, to prevent it slipping out of the soundboard during tuning. The upper ends of the strings were tied to a strip of woven material rolled around the neck, to ensure tuning by friction (Fig. 5-left). At that time, and especially towards the end of the fourth millennium, the size of soundboxes progressively increased while necks became thinner. Gourds and calabashes would still have been used for soundboxes, but necks would now be made of wood into which the Urukeans would later have plugged tuning pegs to ensure the tension of the strings (Fig. 5-right). Fourth millennium harps would have been small, with probably no more than three strings, stretched over a plan of around 110 degrees determined by the angle of the soundbox in relation to the neck. This suggests an anhemitonic disposition with a span of no more than a musical fifth, possibly including a third. These harps were always depicted in rural scenes, surrounded by animals, but with no reference to religious rituals; practical usage was thus implied, as is clearly shown on cylinder seals. However, from the third millennium onwards, harps were always shown in scenes depicting Inanna, the guardian Goddess of Uruk; they even symbolised her. Some texts record Inanna’s animals and her attributes, which included the reed, the palm, the aster Venus, and the harp itself.

      Having described the harp in its original context, it is very clear that its design rests on the fundamental principle of hearing. Mankind’s perception of sound is an outstanding phenomenon. Sounds are simple periodical variations in air pressure which travel as a wavefront, at a speed of three hundred metres per second. When the waves reach our ear they are channelled into its canal and reach a thin membrane, the eardrum, which separates the middle ear from the outer ear. The vibrations of the eardrum, which result from variations in acoustic pressure, are transmitted to a chain of four small bones located in the stony part of the temporal bone: the hammer, the anvil, the lenticular bone and the stirrup. These ossicles articulate with each other. They are connected by ligaments, and transmit vibrations from the air environment of the middle ear to the aqueous medium of the inner ear, without any loss of energy. The inner ear is a complex structure in the temporal bones, consisting of a labyrinth and several liquid-filled cavities. This system is made up of canals, cavities and a spiralling structure called the cochlea. It is home to two very distinct sensory organs: the vestibular system, which detects and adapts to spatial body position, and the cochlea, which is the auditory receptor organ.
      The cochlea, from the Latin meaning ‘snail’, is a small spiralling structure measuring 1.2 mm in diameter by 35 mm in length. It begins at the anterior part of the vestibule and rotates two and three quarter times around a bony pillar, the modiolus. At its lower end are the oval and round windows, which separate the middle ear from the inner ear. The cochlea is divided lengthwise into three chambers. On each side are the scala tympani and the vestibuli, both of which are filled with a liquid called perilymph. A cochlear duct is located between the two scalae; its lower part ends in the basiliar membrane, its upper part in Reissner’s membrane. The cochlear canal contains the organ of Corti, which is a complex system lying on the basilar membrane and extending right along the cochlea. This organ transforms vibrational energy into electric signals which the brain can interpret (Fig. 8). There are up to 15,000 outer hair cells spread over three or four rows, and 3,500 inner hair cells in one row (Fig. 9).  The cellular bodies of the hair cells float in perilymph liquid, while hair bundles stand in the endolymph-filled cochlear canal. The ionic sealing of the cochlear canal is ensured both at its base by the reticular lamina, resulting from the tightly joined apical surfaces of hair cells and the supporting cells of the organ of Corti, and at its apex by Reissner’s membrane, which forms the ‘roof’ of the cochlear canal. When the stirrup moves under eardrum vibration pressure, it initiates motion of the incompressible scala vestibuli liquid. This motion reaches the top of the cochlea, reverses at the helicotrema, and finally runs down the scala tympani where it activates the round window placed at the other end of the system. The liquid movements initiate undulation of the basilar membrane, each part of which vibrates to a given frequency (Fig. 8-D). In turn these vibrations initiate displacements of the outer hair cells, which are rooted between the basilar membrane (by their basal pole, via Deiters cells), and the tectorial membrane (via their hair bundle) (Fig. 10). A relative alternating movement of the outer hair cells facing the tectorial membrane follows, provoking stereocilia deflection. Thus, the mechanical opening of the ionic channels results from a cellular depolarisation which leads to a rapid contraction of the outer hair cells, or electromotility, which then increases the amplitude of the basilar membrane vibrations. Consequently, this non-linear amplification phenomenon increases the weaker stimuli, which might not otherwise be perceived without interfering with high-intensity stimuli which would damage the inner hair cells, as a result of amplification. Because of this amplification, the stereocilia of the inner hair cells – which are the genuine sensory receptors of the auditory organ – are dragged in by the tectorial membrane and are also deflected. It follows that inner hair cell depolarisation releases neurotransmitter glutamate at its basal pole. This generates a spike train, sent to the brain by the auditory nerve.[unquote] https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/

      "An initial comparison can now be made between the neck of the harp and the basilar membrane (BM). The tuning pegs, around which the strings are wound and then driven into the neck, are comparable to the basilar membrane where Deiters cells are attached, and to which one of the ends of the outer hair cells (OHCs) is affixed. The neck is an essential part, because all the components of a harp rest on it, directly or indirectly. The functional importance of the basilar membrane is equally critical, because the various elements constituting the organ of Corti, again directly or indirectly, are attached to it. The harpist plucks the strings with greater or lesser intensity, his fingers complementing the work of the neck which the musician holds against his chest with his palm. Similarly, the sound vibrations transmitted by the perilymph generate upward and downward movements of the basilar membrane, at a precise location, resulting in the outer hair cells vibrating more or less intensely. As with the neck, the basilar membrane remains motionless right along the organ of Corti (Fig. 11-left)." https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/


      The Sensory Theory Coding and Treatment of Sensory Information by the Brain

      About the book (blurb translated from French) AN ARCHEOLOGY OF SENSORY  PERCEPTION
      Six thousand years ago, in southern Mesopotamia, the Urukeans invent seven remarkable instruments: the plow, the standard brick mold, the writing, the accounting, the harp, the vertical loom and the image of cones. Now, it turns out that all these inventions reproduce biological mechanisms that allow sensory organs to perceive the external environment and to transmit information to the brain. How was man able to develop such instruments at a time when the functioning of the sense organs was inaccessible to his perception and understanding? To answer this question, the authors of the Sensory Theory establish a logical link between these seven inventions and sensory organs by linking knowledge previously fragmented and compartmentalized into various disciplines.

      La théorie Sensorielle

      chapitre 1Chapitre 1
      Origines: Levant, Mésopotamie


      ANALOGY BETWEEN THE URUKEAN HARP AND THE AUDITORY SYSTEM

      le 8 janvier 2014 | par Philippe Roi et Tristan Girard

      By Philippe Roi(1)Tristan Girard(2)Richard Dumbrill(3)Michel Leibovici(4)
      With the participation of Paul Avan(5)

      Abstract: During the fourth millennium BCE, in southern Mesopotamia, the Urukeans invented seven remarkable tools –the ard, the normalised brick mould, writing, accounting, the harp, the vertical weaving loom and the cone image– which the foundations of our civilisation still rely upon today. These inventions, among which was the primitive harp, have been found to mirror biological mechanisms which enable our sensory organs to perceive the world in which we live, and to codify it in order to transmit its representation to the brain. With regard to the primitive harp, its inspiration came from the organ of Corti, the sensory-nervous structure of the cochlea. A question remains as to how man could have created such an instrument at a time when the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear was impossible to perceive and comprehend. In order to answer this question, Philippe Roi and Tristan Girard have combined knowledge that was fragmented and separated into various fields, such as archaeomusicology, cell biology and neuroscience. This is how they discovered that there was a logical link between the Urukean harp and the organ of Corti.

      Anahata Nada Brahman Unstruck sound as Brahman, this OM = Praṇava, which is also the Setu which joins svarga and pr̥thivī

      अन्-ाहत  mfn. unbeaten , unwounded , intact; produced otherwise than by beating; n. the fourth of the mystical चक्रस् , or circles of the body.

      सेतु m. The sacred syllable om; मन्त्राणां प्रणवः सेतुस्तत्सेतुः प्रणवः स्मृतः । स्रवत्यनोङ्कृतं पूर्वं परस्ताच्च विदीर्यते ॥ 

      कालिका-पुराण  औ the सेतु or sacred syllable of the शूद्रs , Ka1lika1P. ?? ([ T. ]) औम् ind. the sacred syllable of the शूद्रs (» 3. औ)  in RV. ix , 20 , 12, the शूद्र is said to have been born from the feet of पुरुष q.v. ; in Mn. i , 87 he is fabled to have sprung from the same part of the body of ब्रह्मा , and he is regarded as of higher rank than the present low and mixed castes so numerous throughout India ; केवल-श्° , a pure शूद्र) RV. &c   kēvala केवल  -आत्मन् a. one whose essence is absolute unity; नमस्त्रिमूर्तये तुभ्यं प्राक्सृष्टेः केवलात्मने Ku.2.4.केवला* त्मन् mfn. one whose nature is absolute unity Kum. ii , 4.

      Atharva Veda ( X - 7,8) --- Skambha Suktam provides some hints while the origins of the worship of the Shiva-Linga as a Fiery Pillar of Light and Flames, are unknown.

      Shiva-Linga has one complete purana which is dedicated to its form and origin. It may be a symbolic representation of self (Atma Linga) or of everything. Some associate it with the physical form of Pranava (Om). Oval form represents even the shape of the Universe including the existing space. The beginning of the oval form is A in OM and prolonged part is U in OM and M is the ending part of the linga. It is single shape of Trimurti. Praying Shiva Linga is considered as praying the Thrimurti in absolute form. Linga represents absolute and Single power of this universe. Some associate them with the famous hymn in the Atharva-Veda Samhitâ sung in praise of the Yupa-Stambha, the sacrificial post. In that hymn a description is found of the beginningless and endless Stambha or Skambha and it is shown that the said Skambha is put in place of the eternal Brahman. As afterwards the Yajna (sacrificial) fire, its smoke, ashes and flames, the Soma plant and the ox that used to carry on its back the wood for the Vedic sacrifice gave place to the conceptions of the brightness of Shiva's body, his tawny matted-hair, his blue throat and the riding on the bull of the Shiva. The Yupa-Skambha gave place in time to the Shiva-Linga. In the Linga Purâna the same hymn is expanded in the shape of stories, meant to establish the glory of the great Stambha and the superiority of Mahâdeva.

      In the context of Hindu mythology, stambha, also spelt as Skambha, is believed to a cosmic column. It is believed that the stambha functions as a bond, which joins the heaven (Svarga) and the earth (prithvi). A number of Hindu scriptures, including the Atharva Veda, have references to stambha. In the Atharva Veda, a celestial stambha has been mentioned, and that has been described as a scaffold, which supports the cosmos and material creation. http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2014/12/skambha-sukta-atharva-veda-x-7-pair-of.html

      औम 
      mf(ई)n. (fr. उमा) , made of flax , flaxen Pa1n2. 4-3 , 158.; mfn. relating to the goddess उमा , Para1s3.(Monier-Williams).
      ओं--कार m. (ओं-क्°) the sacred and mystical syllable ओम् , the exclamation ओम् , pronouncing the syllable ओम् Mn. ii , 75 ; 81 Katha1s. Bhag. &c , (cf.विजयोंकार , कृतोंकार); a beginning , prosperous or auspicious beginning of (e.g. a science) Ba1lar.
      ओम् ind. ( √अव् Un2. i , 141 ; originally ओं = आं , which may be derived from आ BRD. ), a word of solemn affirmation and respectful assent , sometimes translated by " yes , verily , so be it " (and in this sense compared with Amen ; it is placed at the commencement of most Hindu works , and as a sacred exclamation may be uttered [but not so as to be heard by ears profane] at the beginning and end of a reading of the वेदs or previously to any prayer ; it is also regarded as a particle of auspicious salutation [Hail!] ; ओम् appears first in the उपनिषद्s as a mystic monosyllable , and is there set forth as the object of profound religious meditation , the highest spiritual efficacy being attributed not only to the whole word but also to the three sounds अ , उ , म् , of which it consists ; in later times ओम् is the mystic name for the Hindu triad , and represents the union of the three gods , viz. a (विष्णु) , उ (शिव) , म् (ब्रह्मा) ; it may also be typical of the three वेदs ; ओम् is usually called प्रणव , more rarely अक्षर , or एकाक्षर , and only in later times ओंकार) VS. S3Br. ChUp. &c

      Carved stone tablets with the inscription Om syllables from Om Mani Padme Hum mantra - Everest region, Nepal, HimalayasCarved stone tablets with the inscription Om syllables from Om Mani Padme Hum mantra - Everest region, Nepal, Himalayas
      OM is a direct path: Remembering the sound vibration of AUM (or OM), along with a deep feeling for the meaning of what it represents (1.28), brings both the realization of the individual Self and the removal of obstacles that normally block that realization (1.29). In a sense, this practice is like a short cut, in that it goes directly to the heart of the process. Systematically piercing the levels: This practice takes one on a direct route inward, systematically piercing the levels of consciousness. It is done with sincerity and dedication (1.23) towards the untainted creative source or pure consciousness (1.24), which AUM represents (1.27). That consciousness contains the seed of omniscience (1.25), which is the source of the teachings of all the ancient sages (1.26).Remember the meaning: For it to have its effect, the sound of AUM is remembered with deep feeling for the meaning of what it represents. (1.28)

      Yoga Sutras 1.23-1.29:
      Contemplation on AUM (or OM)

      1.23 From a special process of devotion and letting go into the creative source from which we emerged (ishvara pranidhana), the coming of samadhi is imminent.
      1.23 (ishvara pranidhana va) 

      • ishvara = creative source, pure consciousness, purusha, God, supreme Guru or teacher

      • pranidhana = practicing the presence, sincerity, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice

      • va = or

      Through the sincere, dedicated, and devoted practice towards the pure consciousness known by words such as purusha, God, or Guru, which is symbolized by AUM, the results of samadhi come more quickly. In other words, the practice of following AUM through the levels of reality and consciousness is a short cut of sorts, meaning direct route to the center of consciousness. This can be better understood by a close reading of these articles:
      OM and the 7 Levels of Consciousness
      OM and 7 Methods of Practice 

      Meaning of Ishvara: In the Upanishads, the word Īśvara is used to denote a state of collective consciousness. Thus, God is not a being that sits on a high pedestal beyond the sun, moon, and stars; God is actually the state of Ultimate Reality. But due to the lack of direct experience, God has been personified and given various names and forms by religions throughout the ages. When one expands one's individual consciousness to the Universal Consciousness, it is called Self-realization, for the individual self has realized the unity of diversity, the very underlying principle, or Universal Self, beneath all forms and names. The great sages of the Upanishads avoid the confusions related to conceptions of God and encourage students to be honest and sincere in their quests for Self-realization. Upanishadic philosophy provides various methods for unfolding higher levels of truth and helps students to be able to unravel the mysteries of the individual and the universe. (from Swami Rama in the section What God Is from Enlightenment Without God)

      1.24 That creative source (ishvara) is a particular consciousness (purusha) that is unaffected by colorings (kleshas), actions (karmas), or results of those actions that happen when latent impressions stir and cause those actions.
      1.24 (klesha karma vipaka ashayaih aparamristah purusha-vishesha ishvara

      • klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause trouble

      • karma = actions, 

      • vipaka = fruits of, maturing, ripening

      • ashayaih = by the vehicles, resting place, storage of traces, propensities, accumulations

      • aparamristah = untouched, unsmeared

      • purusha-vishesha = a consciousness, a special or distinct purusha (purusha = a consciousness; vishesha = special, distinct)

      • ishvara = creative source, God, supreme Guru or teacher1.26 From that consciousness (ishvara) the ancient-most teachers were taught, since it is not limited by the constraint of time.
        (purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat) 

      • purvesham = of the first, former, earlier, ancient

      • api = too, also

      • guruh = teacher

      • kalena = by time

      • anavachchhedat = not limited by (time), no break or division, continuous

      This pure consciousness, being eternal in nature, is the direct teacher of all of the ancient, earlier, or even the first of the teachers within humanity. In other words, some of the original teachers of humanity have learned directly from this pure consciousness, not from a human lineage of teacher-student, etc., whereby there is just a passing of information. This direct learning from the source continues to be available at all times and places, though the help of human teachers is surely a useful, if not essential aid. 

      1.25 In that pure consciousness (ishvara) the seed of omniscience has reached its highest development and cannot be exceeded.
      1.25 (tatra niratishayam sarvajna bijam)

      • tatra = there, in that (in that special purusha)

      • niratishayam = unsurpassed, not exceeded by any others, limitless

      • sarvajna = all knowing (sarva = all; jna = knowing)

      • bijam = seed

      The pure consciousness identified by AUM is also the seed of pure knowledge or omniscience. That level of knowing is sought in the practice of OM.

      1.26 From that consciousness (ishvara) the ancient-most teachers were taught, since it is not limited by the constraint of time.
      1.26 (purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat) 

      • purvesham = of the first, former, earlier, ancient

      • api = too, also

      • guruh = teacher

      • kalena = by time

      • anavachchhedat = not limited by (time), no break or division, continuous

      This pure consciousness, being eternal in nature, is the direct teacher of all of the ancient, earlier, or even the first of the teachers within humanity. In other words, some of the original teachers of humanity have learned directly from this pure consciousness, not from a human lineage of teacher-student, etc., whereby there is just a passing of information. This direct learning from the source continues to be available at all times and places, though the help of human teachers is surely a useful, if not essential aid. 

      1.27 The sacred word designating this creative source is the sound OM, called pranava.
      1.27 (tasya vachakah pranavah)

      • tasya = of that

      • vachakah = designator, signifier, indicator, term

      • pranavah = the mantra AUM or OM

      AUM has a vibrational quality along with other meanings, one of which is as a designator or term to denote the pure consciousness referred to in the sutras above. The word pranavah literally translates as "humming."

      1.28 This sound is remembered with deep feeling for the meaning of what it represents.
      1.28 (tat japah tat artha bhavanam)

      • tat = its

      • japah = repeated remembrance

      • tat = its

      • artha = meaning

      • bhavanam = understanding with feeling, absorbing, dwelling upon

      It is important to remember not only the vibration (japa), but also the deep meaning of the mantra, rather than to perform merely parrot-like repetition in the mind.

      1.29 From that remembering comes the realization of the individual Self and the removal of obstacles.
      1.29 (tatah pratyak chetana adhigamah api antaraya abhavash cha)

      • tatah = thence

      • pratyak = individual

      • chetana = consciousness

      • adhigamah = understanding, realization, attainment

      • api = also

      • antaraya = of obstacles or impediments

      • abhavash = absence, disappearance, removal

      • cha = and, also

      Two direct benefits come from the proper practice of the OM mantra:

      1.     Obstacles will be removed (1.30-1.32).

      2.     It is a direct route to Self-realization.


      If one is able to sincerely, devotedly, intensely practice the AUM mantra in the depth of its meaning, it is a complete practice unto itself.


      http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras-12329.htm

      See: 


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      Politics of the past : row in Tamil Nadu and Kerala

      B.S.Harishankar 9 December 2018

      Martin Sabrow, Professor of History at the University of Potsdam, Germany,  warned  in 2009  that,  if the cooperation between politicians and historians is too close, it might be harmful since  the relationship between history and politics can develop into a fatal friendship offering the reward of public attention and moral esteem whilst destroying the radical independence of historical research and its disposition to rethink history.

      Sabrow’s  views have relevance currently, when there is  an orchestrated campaign to establish a  hoax  identity of  the past to raise divisive political and religious   claims  in Kerala and Tamil Nadu .The ongoing manoeuvres to associate the disputed  Pattanam site in Kerala with  Kodumanal, Keezhadi, Porunthal and  other unearthed spots in Tamilnadu, has already  sparked  controversies. But few are aware of  the fact that,  the very integrity of Kerala Council for Historical Research ( KCHR)  which unearthed Pattanam, was seriously  questioned by  the Kerala state government and historians  much before the current  excavations.

      Following serious complaints  on KCHR about "procedural and financial irregularities" and its "approach to the writing of history",  the  former Congress government led by chief minister A.K. Antony decided to dissolve it on  September 22, 2001. Vindicating the government decisionProf M.G.S. Narayanan, former Chairman of the ICHR, charged that,  the formation of the KCHR was "a Marxist party conspiracy to hijack history for its destructive, sectarian purpose of party propaganda" and welcomed the government's move to dissolve it. (Frontline, Oct. 13 - 26, 2001).  

      Left lobbies protested against the Congress government decision to  dismiss the KCHR. On 25th September 2001, the Safdar  Hashmi Memorial Trust (SAHMAT) a left cultural forum, called  upon the Kerala Government  to immediately reinstate the KCHR. It was signed by left historians such as  R.S. Sharma Irfan Habib,  K.M. Shrimali, D.N. Jha,  and  Sumit Sarkar.

      Upholding the state government’s decision, the Kerala high court   dismissed a writ petition challenging the dissolution of KCHR. Justice G Sivarajan held that the petition filed by P. J. Cherian, director of KCHR and its three members was without merits. (The Times of India , Dec. 20, 2001).

      But following immense pressure  jointly launched  by church and left lobbies, the  Congress high command directed Chief Minister A.K.Antony  who was  ultimately forced to reinstate the KCHR.

      The leading patrons  of Pattanam  which was claimed as the  ancient trading port of  Muziris,  were Euro American scholars. Istvan Perczel from Hungary, one of the patrons of Pattanam,  and also a  scholar in Early Christianity and Byzantine history, solicited that it provides much potential for research  as the site where, Apostle Thomas landed in India and established  Indian Christianity (Muziris Heritage Project-- Pattanam excavations, KCHR,  2008 ) . He also  delivered a lecture at KCHR,  on history of Kerala christianity, along with  Bishop Gabriel Mar Gregorios, and theologian Ninan Koshy (The Hindu, Feb.12, 2008).

       The Pontifical Commission  for  Sacred Archaeology and The Pontifical Academy of Archaeology both  at Vatican, functions for the purpose of promoting and directing excavations in the Catacombs of Rome and on other sites of Christian antiquarian interest, and for safeguarding the objects found during such excavations. Consequently,  the Liturgical Research Centre of the Syro Malabar Church invited the KCHR,  for its national seminars in 2005 at Kochi, and in 2011 at Kalyan in Mumbai,  to present papers corroborating  Pattanam, and Christianity.The United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia  based in New York supported Pattanam  excavator P.J.Cherian in his historical studies (The New Indian Express, Feb.17, 2011). Eleven students from University of Georgia  visited  Pattanam to  learn the historical, theological and sociological aspects of the ancient trading port of Muziris and Christianity in the state.  (The Hindu, Dec. 25, 2011).It was a global campaign that an ancient  biblical site has been finally unearthed in India.

      Orthodox churches also  took a genuine interest in Pattanam. Keynote Address by Fr. Dr . K.M. George at the Public meeting of Malankara  Orthodox Church at the  reception for Bishop Catholicos Marthoma Paulose II,  on March 13, 2011, in  Tyaga Raja Stadium New Delhi, lauded Pattanam for  finally establishing the two millennium old history of Apostle Thomas in India.

      Following  escalating   controversies on KCHR and  Pattanam, archaeologists from major Indian institutes and universities kept away from the project. But despite serious charges of fake documentation,  financial irregularities and transforming myth into history,  it was Dr. K.Rajan of Pondicherry University  who  is   one of the foremost patrons of Pattanam. He  associates  Pattanam with   various sites  in  Tamil Nadu,  thus not only collaborating to establish a biblical myth as history,  but also  constructing a larger communal space for the church to raise political claims  in south India . Rajan observed that,  the cultural transformation from the Iron Age to the Early Historic Period discernible at Pattanam was unique to Peninsular India (The Hindu, May,  12,  2009).

      The Pattanam team acknowledges  Rajan’s  guidance  in May, 2012,  for assistance  to the Kongu Region, including Kodumanal, Kangayam, Arachallur and Arasampalayam. Seminars  on Indian Ocean trade of Pattanam conducted by KCHR and British Museum  in August 2013, was hosted by department of history, University of Pondicherry and chaired by Rajan. British Museum which collaborates with Pattanam  is  associated with biblical scholars such as Michael Jursa and Irvin Finkel.  Pattanam Museum in Ernakulam was  inaugurated by Finkel . Oxford which also collaborates with Pattanam,  has a long history in biblical archaeology with scholars such as  Dame Kathleen Kenyon, Roger Moorey, Andrew Sherratt, and Levantine Archaeology Laboratory as well as Ashmolean Museum.

      Mario Seiglie a missionary and columnist  wrote that,  archaeology makes a believer,  and abundance of archaeological evidence in support of the Bible can strengthen faith, and in some cases it has greatly contributed in giving birth to belief, where none existed before. This observation has much relevance in Pattanam and its linked sites in Tamil Nadu, in the Apostle Thomas context.
      .
       K.Rajan and P.J. Cherian jointly propagates  presentations   linking  the Tamil Nadu - Kerala region – in the backdrop of excavations at kodumanal, Thandikudi, Porunthal and Pattanam  (Pattanam  Fifth Season –Field Report, 2011, KCHR).Currently, Rajan is member of the KCHR administration. There are serious allegations that  field reports on  sites such as kodumanal, Thandikudi and Porunthal  are prepared  for  promoting  Pattanam which has much political and religious connotations.
      In this context, we are reminded of what the Bavarian Minister for Education and Cultural affairs, Hans Schemm, declared  in 1933, to lecturers at the University of Munich  that,  it is no longer  their  task to find out if something is true, but if it accords with the beliefs of the national socialist government. In the present context it is the beliefs of the  left government in Kerala and church denominations in India that matters.
      It is not that Prof. Rajan is ignorant of serious financial corruption  and academic forgery accused on Pattanam . The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) identified the unbridled foreign funds received by KCHR and cancelled its license along with Kerala Muslim Educational Association and Kerala United Theological Seminary  under the Foreign Contribution Regulation Act 2010. (The New Indian Express, Dec. 8, 2016).

      Earlier, the Accountant-General detected the irregularities,  in  the KCHR  audit report of 2010-11 (The New Indian Express, July 22, 2012).Later  in 2016, the KCHR was accused in creation of fake government documents, illegal appointments and financial irregularities worth crores. It is also alleged that the KCHR obtained the licence for the Pattanam excavation after submitting fake documents to the Archaeological Survey of India.
      (Read more at:

      Following  serious charges  on Pattanam excavations, and unscientific approaches adopted by the KCHR, a  probe was conducted on the basis of complaints to the Union Minister of State for Culture,  Mahesh Sharma.  Based on the complaints, a meeting of the central advisory panel of the ASI asked the KCHR to temporarily stop the excavation(  Business Standard Jan. 5, 2016).

       Even,  late Iravatham Mahadevan, who earlier  applauded Pattanam as  potentially important  (The Hindu, Mar. 14, 2011),  later declined to make any comments or observation on the site following widespread controversies.
      The Pattanam site has been questioned  not by activists, but by eminent south Asian archaeologists and historians such as Profs. Dilip Chakrabarti,  A.Sundara, Vasant Shinde, MGS Narayanan, R.Nagaswamy and T.Satyamurti. When Rajan ignores serious allegations on Pattanam  by  eminent  scholarship,  it also raises serious doubts on sites in Tamil Nadu  with which he constantly associates Pattanam. Already  the Keezhadi site  has generated enough controversies.
       The recent controversy on Pattanam erupted after R. Sivanantham, deputy director, Tamil Nadu state department of archaeology, officially facilitated a lecture on Pattanam by P.J. Cherian on Oct. 30, 2018. The programme was chaired by T. Udhayachandran, Commissioner, department of archaeology, Tamil Nadu.
       Archaeological Survey of India’s  probe into alleged unscientific approaches adopted by the KCHR at Pattanam, was taken up by  Amarnath Ramakrishna, the then superintendent archaeologist of the ASI, Bengaluru centre (Business Standard, Jan. 5, 2016). His findings are kept in dark, but later Amarnath Ramakrishna also took up the Keezhadi excavation. The CPI(M) which  launched Pattanam has openly supported Amarnath Ramakrishna who supervised Keezhadi (The Hindu, Oct.  6, 2018), which  shows  how  the left  functions in manufacturing cultural data for church lobbies.
       ASI director General,  Rakesh Tewari said Amarnath Ramakrishna should publish a report on the Keezhadi excavation. Then only the  ASI shall give him the  license for the third year because, he has got more than 4,000 artefacts(More excavation only after report,  Frontline , Jan.2, 2017).
       Dating of all  these interlinked sites  including  Pattanam,  have been done  at the same institution at USA. The carbon dating conducted on  Keezhadi, has been  done by Beta Analytic Inc., Florida, USA, (The Hindu, Sept. 30, 2017). The carbon dating at Pattanam was also conducted at Beta Analytic Inc., despite the fact that India has  premier dating laboratories. Accelerator mass spectrometry dating of the paddy from Palani site  excavated by  Prof.Rajan was also  done by Beta Analysis Inc. which assigned the paddy to 490 BCE (Palani excavation triggers fresh debate, The Hindu, Aug.29, 2011). It has also much relevance since, research by Cornell University archaeologists, Sturt Manning and colleagues shows that, commonly accepted radiocarbon dating standards can miss the mark, thus calling historical timelines into question.
       The 21st Annual Tamil Convention of    Federation of the Tamil Sangams of North America (FeTNA) was also held at the Florida .The theme of the three day convention was “Preserve the Tamil Race by protecting the language”. Florida is a major stronghold of FeTNA and the carbon dating of  both Keezhadi and Pattanam  in Florida  raises serious suspicion.
       FeTNA in April 2018, invited Amarnath Ramakrishna to deliver a lecture on the Keezhadi excavations. The ASI denied him permission to participate as guest of honor at this event, possibly because FeTNA publicly supported the cause of ethnic Sri Lankan Tamils in the Sri Lankan civil war. Time and again, the Sri Lanka Guardian has warned that the Catholic Church is heavily involved with the LTTE from the 1970s (Catholic Church, an ally of Tamil Tiger terrorists in Sri Lanka, Guardian, April 4, 2009). The FeTNA has been a major campaigner and fund raiser for the Tamil Chair at the University of California, Berkeley. Prof. George L. Hart, known for his Dravidian politics, was hired for the chair. FeTNA also honoured Jagat Gasper, Catholic propagandist for Christianizing Tamil culture.
       Thillai Kumaran, the  former  President of FetNA represented it  in the vicious 2006 California textbook campaign launched by FOIL, FOSA and many members of the CAG against Hindu groups who were advocating for an equitable treatment of Hinduism vis-a-vis other leading global  religions in sixth grade textbooks. FeTNA’s testimony at the California Curriculum Commission made the dubious claim that the early Tamil texts clearly distinguish between Tamils and Aryans. The  co-founders of FOIL are two  Indian leftists,  Biju Mathew and Vijay Prashad.

       Harvard scholar Michael Witzel has admitted that he and his associates were in contact with FeTNA  in the California textbook campaign.  Thillai Kumaran  representing FeTNA,  in their letter dated  Feb. 19, 2006,  wrote  to Glee Johnson of California State Board of Education, thanking Witzel for the efforts in proposing edits in pursuance of the Colorado evangelical church agenda. Witzel's supporters in the California textbook battle include two evangelical  groups -- Dalit Freedom Network and Dalit Solidarity Forum in the USA . DFN president Joseph D'Souza also patronizes  the All-India Christian Council.
       The left –church syndicate  at Pattanam, and its  current association with Tamil Nadu archaeological  sites  has to be understood in a global context. The fervor shown for propaganda and  for dating them in one institution in America,  has also  generated questions regarding politics of the past  in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

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      Massive controversy breaks out as Social Science text book in Karnataka includes chapters on “How to Islamize country, how to spread Christianity” and force kids to visit Mosques and Churches!



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      This is an addendum to: 

      Sumerian balag.tigi is Meluhha tīga 'string of lute'& adoration of Viśvaksena mūrti in Āgama temple worship traditions, wealth-creating metalwork https://tinyurl.com/y8o6k9g8


      Gomat is a reference to the region of present-day Goa, Konkan coast.

      Goa. An aerial view.

      Gomanta was a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. It was an extension of the kingdom of Yadavas at Dwaraka. It is identified to be the Goa state of India, situated in the western coast. It was the southern most extend of the region, occupied by the Yadava clans, finding explicit mention in Mahabharata...In the Krauncha island, there is a mountain called Maha-krauncha that is a mine of all kinds of gems. There is another mountain called Gomanta that is huge and consists of all kinds of metals. (Mahābhārata, 9,12) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomanta_Kingdom

      See: SOME SUMERO-MARĀTHĪ CORRESPONDENCES R. G. Harshe Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute Vol. 14, No. 

      1 (June 1952), pp. 16-32 Published by: Vice Chancellor, Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute (Deemed University), Pune https://www.jstor.org/stable/42929487


      The monograph posits that Sumerians were Meluhha people from Konkan coastline. This explains the presence of the expression

       balag.tigi to signify a Sumerian lyre. This also explains RG Harshe's demonstration of some 

      Sumero-Marathi correspondences in vocabulary.


      The northern part of the region of present Konkana was known as Aparanta. (p.20)


      "Strabo the Greek geographer has made the first reference to Konkana (another name for this region) with the name of Konkvi. The historians believe that the some groups of Phoenicians settled here around 1775 B.C. Around 1000 B.C., 96 families of Gauda Saraswat Brahmins settled here with the Kundbis, a race migrated from the southern part of India. This settlement is considered to be one of the milestones in the history of Goa." 
      https://historicalindia.wordpress.com/2009/01/15/brief-history-of-goa-gomantaka/

      Romila Thapar conjectures that the place name called Meluhha may be a rendering into Sumerian of a Proto-Dravidian name. (Thapar, 1975:6-7). cited in: Stephan Hillyer Levitt, THE ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAN PLACE NAME “meluḫḫa” (Stephan Hillyer Levitt, 2009, The ancient Mesopotamian place name 'Meluhha', in: Journal Studia Orientalia Electronica, Vol. 107, pp.135 to 173)


      See:  A Possible Identification of Meluḫḫa, Dilmun and Makan Romila Thapar Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient Vol. 18, No. 1 (Jan., 1975), pp. 1-42 https://www.jstor.org/stable/3632219
      Gudea (Sumerian 𒅗𒌣𒀀 Gu3-de2-a) was a ruler (ensi) of the state of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled c. 2144–2124 BC. He probably did not come from the city, but had married Ninalla, daughter of the ruler Ur-Baba (2164–2144 BC) of Lagash, thus gaining entrance to the royal house of Lagash. He was succeeded by his son Ur-Ningirsu. 


      I started looking for historical validation of this narrative related to early Goa history.

      "The first known reference to Goa in India appears in Cuneiform dating to King Gudea's time. Goa is there named Gubio. At the time, Sumerians had established trade contacts with Goa. Many Sumerians settled in Goa and along the Konkan coast. Sumerians are thought to have designed the fields of Goa because as these follow their measure till date. Unlike 0.46 m unit generally prevalent elsewhere in India, it is pointed out that the positioning in Goa agrees with Sumerian 12 cubits to a pole, and 0.495 of a metre to a cubit."


      Gubio is cognate with Gomantaka. गो--मन्त m. pl. N. of a people MBh. vi , 351 (v.l. गोघ्नत).m. N. of a mountain MBh. ii , 618 ; vi , 449 (v.l. °न्द) Hariv. VarBr2S. &c; a multitude of cattle-owners (Monier-Williams) 

      She was known as a patron deity of Lagash, where Gudea built her a temple.
      Nintinugga "
      Bust of a goddess, perhaps Bau, wearing horned cap. Limestone, Neo-Sumerian period (2150-2100 BC). From Telloh, ancient Girsu, Louvre

      "Nintinugga was a Babylonian goddess of healing, the consort of Ninurta. She is identical with the goddess of Akkadian mythology, known as Bau (cuneiform: 𒀭𒁀𒌑 Dba-u2), Baba though it would seem that the two were originally independent. Later as Gula and in medical incantations, Bēlet or Balāti, also as the Azugallatu the "great healer",same as her son Damu. Other names borne by this goddess are Nin-Karrak, Nin Ezen, Ga-tum-dug and Nm-din-dug. Her epithets are "great healer of the land" and "great healer of the black-headed ones", a "herb grower", "the lady who makes the broken up whole again", and "creates life in the land", making her a vegetation/fertility goddess endowed with regenerative power.[1] She was the daughter of An and a wife of Ninurta. She had seven daughters, including Hegir-Nuna (Gangir).https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nintinugga

      Baba (goddess)

      Patron goddess of Girsu and the city-state of Lagaš. Beginning in the second millennium BCE she became known as a healing goddess.

      Functions

      Baba's functions are unclear. Her most prominent role is that of Ningirsu's wife. She is called the "good" or "beautiful woman" and she is often invoked as a protective or guarding spirit (dlama sa6-ga "beautiful guardian"). After her syncretism TT  (see below), she became a healing goddess and continued to be worshipped as such.

      Divine Genealogy and Syncretisms

      During the late third millennium Baba was considered to be a daughter of the god An, but her divine genealogy before then is unclear. She was married to Ningirsu, the main god of the pantheon of the city-state of Lagaš. At the city of Kiš, Baba was considered to be the wife of the god Zababa.
      Baba's and Ningirsu's children were the gods Šulšagana and Igalima (Bauer 1998: 505). According to inscriptions of king Gudea of Lagaš, the "septuplets" of Baba and Ningirsu were also her children, but only three of their names are known thus far (Bauer 1998: 505).
      In the Old Babylonian period Baba was syncretized with various healing goddesses such as NinisinnaGula, and Nintinugga.

      Cult Place

      Baba's main cult place was her temple é-sila-sír-sír in the city of Girsu (Selz 1995: 26; the temple is also referred to as é-tar-sír-sír, see George 1993: 148-149). She is also known to have had a shrine in Nanna's temple at Ur, the Ekišnugal.

      Time Periods Attested

      Baba is first attested in the Early Dynastic period IIIa and IIIb in the city-state of Lagaš, whose capital was Girsu. Her early cult seems to have had some connections to funerary rites (Selz 1995: 32). Some offerings to her were named "bridal gifts," which has led some scholars to infer a connection to a sacred marriage between her and her husband Ningirsu (Sallaberger 1993: 289).
      In the Ur III period, Baba's cult is attested primarily in the city of Girsu, but she is also frequently invoked in personal names. In the Old Babylonian period her cult is attested at the cities of Nippur, Isin, Larsa, and Ur (Richter 2004).
      Only one fragmentary Sumerian hymn in praise of Baba has survived in the record (ETCSL 4.02.1), but several royal hymns were dedicated to her (ETCSL 2.3.1, an adab-song for Baba with prayers for king Lumma; ETCSL 2.3.2, a tigi-song for Baba with prayers for Gudea; ETCSL 2.4.4.1, a bal-bal-e song for Baba mentioning king Šu-Sin; ETCSL 2.5.4.02, an adab-song for Baba mentioning king Išme-Dagan).
      In the first millennium BCE, Baba is mentioned in an Akkadian hymn (Foster 2005: 583-591), in which her aspect as a healing goddess survives. Baba survived into the Neo-Assyrian, Achaemenid, and Seleucid periods, when she is only rarely mentioned in scholarly, religious, and historical texts.

      Iconography

      No images of Baba are attested thus far.

      Name and Spellings

      The reading of Baba's name has been subject to some controversy (Marchesi 2002). Her name is spelled dba-Ú, which can be read dba-ú or dba-ba6. It has been suggested that the pronunciation behind this writing was something like Bawu, but this argument has recently been refuted on the basis of phonological evidence (Rubio 2010) as well as comparative evidence from other divine names (e.g., dab-ba6, see Richter 2004: 118-9 n.526).
      Written forms:
      dba-Ú, dba-ú, dba-ba6dba-ba (?), dba-bu (?)
      Normalized forms:
      Baba, Bawu, Bau.

      Baba in Online Corpora

      Further Reading

      http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/baba/

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gudea Citation for this field measure comes from: S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava, 2006, Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Goa, Volume 7, p.19, excerpted below:



      45. From the country of Gubin
      46. the land of the ghaluku trees
      Source: http://www.mesopotamiangods.com/inscription-on-statue-a-of-the-louvre-gudea/

      Inscription on Statues A-H, Etc. of the Louvre (Gudea) Records of the Past, 2nd series, Vol. II, ed. by A. H. Sayce, [1888], at sacred-texts.com

      Gudea Statue D Colum IV refers to Magan, Gubi and reads (Records of the Past, 2nd series, Vol. II, ed. by A. H. Sayce, [1888], at sacred-texts.comhttp://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/rp/rp202/rp20221.htm:

      1.     he has constructed.
      2. By the power of the goddess Ninâ,
      3. by the power of the god Nin-girsu,
      4. to Gudea
      5. who has endowed with the sceptre
      6. the god Nin-girsu,
      7. the country of Mâgan1
      8. the country of Melughgha,
      9. the country of Gubi
      2
      10. and the country of Nituk
      3
      11. which possess every kind of tree,
      12. vessels laden with trees of all sorts
      13. into Shirpurla
      14. have sent.
      15. From the mountains of the land of Mâgan
      16. a rare stone he has caused to come;
      17. for his statue


      The inscriptions on the many (22) statues of Gudea and on two large cylinders, are a remarkable source of information on commodities exchanged across the interaction area. Here are some examples related to transactions with Meluhha involving gold, diorite (obtained also from Magan), Magan, Meluhha, Gubin and the Land Tilmun – supplying him with wood, describing himself as a sea-farer dealing with materials of the bronze-age including, gold, silver, bronze, copper, tin and stones such as diorite (carnelian from Meluhha) and varieties of wood. It is thus, not unreasonable to read rebus the hieroglyph of the overflowing vase and fishes on Statue N. As related to ayo ‘metal (alloy), lo ‘copper’ and tools, pots and pans made of metal (kāṇḍā): He (Gudea) brought alabaster blocks from Tidanum, the mountain range of the Martu, using them to make... (for Ningirsu), and he mounted them in the Houseas 'skull-crashers.' In Abulāt, on the mountain range of Kimaṣ, he mined copper, and he (used it to) make for him the ‘Mace-unbearable-for-the-regions.’ From the land of Meluhha he brought down diorite, used it to build <…> (for Ningirsu), he brought down blocks of hulālu stone, and he (used them to) make for him the ‘Mace-with-a-three-headed-lion.’ He brought down gold in its fore from the land of Meluhha, ad he (used it to) make a quiver for (Ningirsu). He brought down…; be brought down halub wood from Gubin, the halub mountain, and he (used it to) make for him the bird(?) ‘Mow-down-a-myriad’. He brought down a myriad(?) of talents of bitumen from Madga, the mountain range of the Ordeal river(?), and he (used it for) building the retaining wall of the Eninnu...He defeated the cities of Anṣ an and Elam and brought the booty therefrom to Ningirsu in his Eninnu...For this statue nobody was supposed to use silver or lapis lazuli, neither should copper or tin or bronze be a working (material). It is (exclusively) of diorite; let it stand at the libation place. Nobody will forcibly damage (the stone). O statue, your eye is that of Ningirsu; He who removes from the Eninnu the statue of Gudea, the ruler of Lagaṣ, who had build Ningirsu’s Eninnu; who rubs off the inscription thereon; who destroys (the statue); who disregards my judgment after – at the beginning of a prosperous New Year – his god Ningirsu, my master, had (directly) addressed him within the crowd, as my god (addressed me);…He brought down diorite from the mountain of Magan and fashioned it into a statue of himself…He constructed for (Ningirsu) his beloved boat (named) ‘Having set sail from the Lofty Quay’, and he moored it for him at the ‘Lapis Lazuli Quay’ of Kasurra. He enrolled for (Ningirsu) the sailors and their captain, donating them for the House of his master…Magan, Meluhha, Gubin and the Land Tilmun – supplying him with wood---let their imber cargoes (sail) to Lagaṣ. He brought down diorite from the mountain range of Magan, and he fashioned it into a statue of his…The fierce halo (of the House) reaches upto heaven, great fear of my House hovers over all the lands, and all (these) lands will gather on its behalf from as far as where heaven ends – (even) Magan and Meluhha will descend from their mountains…The Elamites came to him from Elam, the Susians from Susa. Magan and Meluhha, (coming down) from their mountain, loaded wood on their shoulders for him, and in order to build Ningirsu’s House they all joined Gudea (on their way) to his city Girsu. (Ningirsu) ordered Nin-zaga, and he brought to Gudea, the builder of the House, his copper as (much as) if it were huge quantities of grain. (Ningirsu) ordered Ninsikila, and she brought to the ruler who build the Eninnu great halub logs, ebony wood along with ‘wood of the sea’. The lord Ningirsu cleared the way for Gudea to the impenetrable cedar mountain…Silver from its mountain is being brought down to Gudea, light carnelian from Meluhha spreads before him, alabaster from the alabaster mountain they are bringing down to him. When building the House with silver, the shepherd sat with the silversmith, when building the Eninnu with precious stones, he sat with the jeweler, and when building it with copper and tin, then Nintu-kalama directed before him the chief of the smiths. (pp.34-36, p.39, p.41, p.42, p.75, p.78, p.79)

      The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
      See: 

      The Topography of the Gudea Inscriptions Ira Maurice Price Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 43 (1923), pp. 41-48 Published by: American Oriental Society DOI: 10.2307/593296 https://www.jstor.org/stable/593296: The mountain Gubi, mountain of hulupu-wood

      'Gudea of Lagash': The Inscription
      The inscription extends over part of the right shoulder and onto the left side of the robe. The upper part, the cartouche, gives the name of the ruler, while the lower, main text speaks of the reasons for the creation of this particular statue. The cartouche translates as follows:
      Gudea, city ruler of Lagash, the man who built the temple of Ningishzida and the temple of Geshtinanna.
      The text reads:
      Gudea, city ruler of Lagash, built to Geshtinanna, the queen a-azi-mu-a, the beloved wife of Ningishzida, his queen, her temple in Girsu. He created for her [this] statue. "She granted the prayer," he gave it a name for her and brought it into her temple. http://faculty.txwes.edu/csmeller/human-experience/ExpData09/01AncMed/AncMedPICs/MesPICs/Gudea/mesP_GudeaInscription.htm
      http://books.google.co.in/books?id=0guVA19YUVoC&lpg=PA68&pg=PA55#v=onepage&q&f=false

      Gudea and His Dynasty  By Dietz Otto Edzard University of Toronto Press, 1997 


      Statues built to Geshtinanna: Statue M and Statue N. The inscriptions (pp.55-57)


      Statue N (pp. 56-57)


      The inscriptions on the many (22) statues of Gudea and on two large cylinders, are a remarkable source of information on commodities exchanged across the interaction area. Here are some examples related to transactions with Meluhha involving gold, diorite (obtained also from Magan), Magan, Meluhha, Gubin and the Land Tilmun – supplying him with wood, describing himself as a sea-farer dealing with materials of the bronze-age including, gold, silver, bronze, copper, tin and stones such as diorite (carnelian from Meluhha) and varieties of wood. It is thus, not unreasonable to read rebus the hieroglyph of the overflowing vase and fishes on Statue N. As related to ayo ‘metal (alloy), lo ‘copper’ and tools, pots and pans made of metal (kāṇḍā): He (Gudea) brought alabaster blocks from Tidanum, the mountain range of the Martu, using them to make... (for Ningirsu), and he mounted them in the Houseas 'skull-crashers.' In Abulāt, on the mountain range of Kimaṣ, he mined copper, and he (used it to) make for him the ‘Mace-unbearable-for-the-regions.’ From the land of Meluhha he brought down diorite, used it to build <…> (for Ningirsu), he brought down blocks of hulālu stone, and he (used them to) make for him the ‘Mace-with-a-three-headed-lion.’ He brought down gold in its fore from the land of Meluhha, ad he (used it to) make a quiver for (Ningirsu). He brought down…; be brought down halub wood from Gubin, the halub mountain, and he (used it to) make for him the bird(?) ‘Mow-down-a-myriad’. He brought down a myriad(?) of talents of bitumen from Madga, the mountain range of the Ordeal river(?), and he (used it for) building the retaining wall of the Eninnu...He defeated the cities of Anṣ an and Elam and brought the booty therefrom to Ningirsu in his Eninnu...For this statue nobody was supposed to use silver or lapis lazuli, neither should copper or tin or bronze be a working (material). It is (exclusively) of diorite; let it stand at the libation place. Nobody will forcibly damage (the stone). O statue, your eye is that of Ningirsu; He who removes from the Eninnu the statue of Gudea, the ruler of Lagaṣ, who had build Ningirsu’s Eninnu; who rubs off the inscription thereon; who destroys (the statue); who disregards my judgment after – at the beginning of a prosperous New Year – his god Ningirsu, my master, had (directly) addressed him within the crowd, as my god (addressed me);…He brought down diorite from the mountain of Magan and fashioned it into a statue of himself…He constructed for (Ningirsu) his beloved boat (named) ‘Having set sail from the Lofty Quay’, and he moored it for him at the ‘Lapis Lazuli Quay’ of Kasurra. He enrolled for (Ningirsu) the sailors and their captain, donating them for the House of his master…Magan, Meluhha, Gubin and the Land Tilmun – supplying him with wood---let their imber cargoes (sail) to Lagaṣ. He brought down diorite from the mountain range of Magan, and he fashioned it into a statue of his…The fierce halo (of the House) reaches upto heaven, great fear of my House hovers over all the lands, and all (these) lands will gather on its behalf from as far as where heaven ends – (even) Magan and Meluhha will descend from their mountains…The Elamites came to him from Elam, the Susians from Susa. Magan and Meluhha, (coming down) from their mountain, loaded wood on their shoulders for him, and in order to build Ningirsu’s House they all joined Gudea (on their way) to his city Girsu. (Ningirsu) ordered Nin-zaga, and he brought to Gudea, the builder of the House, his copper as (much as) if it were huge quantities of grain. (Ningirsu) ordered Ninsikila, and she brought to the ruler who build the Eninnu great halub logs, ebony wood along with ‘wood of the sea’. The lord Ningirsu cleared the way for Gudea to the impenetrable cedar mountain…Silver from its mountain is being brought down to Gudea, light carnelian from Meluhha spreads before him, alabaster from the alabaster mountain they are bringing down to him. When building the House with silver, the shepherd sat with the silversmith, when building the Eninnu with precious stones, he sat with the jeweler, and when building it with copper and tin, then Nintu-kalama directed before him the chief of the smiths. (pp.34-36, p.39, p.41, p.42, p.75, p.78, p.79)


      http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section2/b217.htm

      http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section2/tr217.htm The building of Ningirsu´s temple: translation of Cylinders A and B.

      http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/cylinders-gudea Cylinders of Gudea, Louvre Museum.

      Music stele: tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tambra 'copper' (Santali) ḍangar ‘bull’; rebusḍangar‘blacksmith’ (Hindi)


      Bull head, probably affixed to the sound-chest of a lyre. Copper, mother-of-pearl and lapis lazuli, found in Telloh, ancient Girsu. Louvre Museum, Accession number AO 2676, Excavated by Ernest de Sarzec; gift of Sultan Abdul Hamid, 1896

      Second dynasty of Lagash, reign of Gudea, c. 2120 BC
      Tello (ancient Girsu)
      Limestone
      H. 1.20 m; W. 0.63 m; D. 0.25 m
      E. de Sarzec excavations, 1881
      AO 52 
      The stele of music shows the foundation rites - performed to the sound of the lyre - of the temple built by Prince Gudea (c. 2100 BC) at his capital of Telloh (ancient Girsu), for Ningirsu, god of the state of Lagash in the Land of Sumer. The stele thus accords with the tradition of Neo-Sumerian art, which unlike that of the preceding period that focused on the warlike exploits of the rulers of Akkad, tends to show the king engaged in pious activities.

      The building of Ningirsu's temple

      In the Neo-Sumerian Period (c. 2100 BC), the rulers Gudea and Ur-Nammu had themselves depicted taking part in the foundation rites of temples, notably on steles, as statues, and as figurines. On the stele of music, Gudea, carrying a peg and cord and followed by figures probably representing his princely heir and two priests, prepares to lay out the plan of Ningirsu's sanctuary. The ceremony is punctuated by music, which accompanies the chanting or singing of liturgical poems. Behind the cantor, a musician plays on a lyre whose sound box is decorated with a bull. The deep tones of the instrument evoked the bellowing of a bull, and by poetic identification, within the temple of Ningirsu "the room of the lyre was a noisily breathing bull." The making of the god's lyre gave its name to the third year of Gudea's reign, called "the year in which was made the lyre [called] Ushumgalkalamma [the dragon of the land of Sumer]."

      Music in temple foundation ceremonies

      The spirit embodied by the lyre played a part in the events leading to the building of the temple, for it appears in the dream in which the god reveals to Gudea the task he is to accomplish (Gudea Cylinders, Louvre, MNB 1512 and MNB 1511): "When, together with Ushumgalkalamma, his well-beloved lyre, that renowned instrument, his counselor, you bring him gifts [...] the heart of Ningirsu will be appeased, he will reveal the plans of his temple."
      When the work was complete, Ushumgalkalamma went before Gudea, leading all the musical instruments, to mark the arrival of the god in his new abode. Ushumgalkalamma is the god's counselor because its song calms the emotions that disturb the spirit, allowing the return of the reason indispensable to good judgement. Among the divine servants of Ningirsu, it is the lyre's duty to charm his master, a god of changeable mood. It is assisted by the spirit of another lyre that brings consolation in times of darkness: "So that the sweet-toned tigi-drum should play, so that the instruments algar and miritum should resound for Ningirsu, [...] his beloved musician Ushumgalkalamma accomplished his duties to the lord Ningirsu. To soothe the heart and calm the liver [the seat of thought], to dry the tears of weeping eyes, to banish grief from the grieving heart, to cast away the sadness in the heart of the god that rises like the waves of the sea, spreads wide like the Euphrates, and drowns like the flood of the storm, his lyre Lugaligihush accomplished his duties to his lord Ningirsu."

      Representations of musicians in Mesopotamia

      Representations of musicians are not uncommon in Near-Eastern iconography. They are found from the early 3rd millennium BC in the banquet scenes that appear on perforated plaques and cylinder seals. Early in the next millennium, they would appear on molded terracotta plaques, such as the example with the harpist in the Louvre (AO 12454). Very few examples of musical instruments have survived until today (among them the lyres from the royal tombs of Ur, c. 2550 BC); these representations are therefore particularly valuable.

      Bibliography

      André-Salvini Béatrice, "Stèle de la musique", in Musiques au Louvre, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994, pp. 10-11.
      Parrot André, Tello, vingt campagnes de fouilles, 1877-1933, Paris, Albin Michel, 1948, pp. 174-176, pl. 20a.
      Rutten Marguerite-Maggie, "Scènes de musique et de danse", in Revue des arts asiatiques, Paris, École française d'Extrême-Orient, 1935, p. 220, fig. 8.
      Sarzec Édouard de, Découvertes en Chaldée, Paris, Leroux, 1884-1912, pp. 36 et 219-221, pl. 23.
      Sillamy Jean-Claude, La Musique dans l'ancien Orient ou la théorie musicale suméro-babylonienne, Villeneuve d'Ascq, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 1998, p. 160. http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/stele-music
      "Goa - Early Recorded History

      Goan history dates back to antiquity. Rock carvings and rock engravings founds at various places in Goa, indicate that Stone Age people had settled in this ancient land around 10000 - 8000 BC. These people were hunters and gatherers.

      In modern recorded history, the first written mention of the land of Goa is on the cuneiform writings of the Sumerian era around 2200 BC. Goa is referred to as Gubio, by the King Gudea, the ruler of the kingdom of Lagash. In support of this theory, interestingly, the agricultural fields in Goa follow the Sumerian measure of 12 cubits to a pole or 0.495 of a metre to a cubit. This is different from the 0.46 unit found in most areas of India.

      There is also some evidence to suggest that around 1775 BC, the Phoenicians, who were expert seafarers settled in the areas around Goa.

      The Vedic Period

      Goa is then referred to as Gomantak (in Sanskrit meaning the fertile land with plentiful water) around the period 1000 - 500 BC. This is considered to be the time when the epics of Mahabharat were written.

      In this epic of Hindu mythology, the migration of Saraswat Brahmins from the north to the present day area of Goa is woven around the legend of Parashuram, the sixth incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Goa finds its first mention as Gomantak in the Harivamsha part of the epic Mahabharat.

      In this southward migration, the Saraswat Brahmins who first went to Bengal, are supposed to have settled in the Konkan area around the year 1000 BC. The indigenous locals of the area, the Kunbi tribals, worked together with the Brahmin families to create a fertile stretch of land between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats.

      The Aryan Conquest

      The oldest archaeological evidence of Goa's ancient history date back from this period. Excavations have unearthed copper plates, stone inscriptions, coins, manuscripts and temple inscriptions which throw some light on the history of this period. The Girnar rock-edict of the Mauryan King Ashok mentions the people of Goa as Peitinikas, Rashtrikas and Bhojas.

      The history of the mighty Mauryan dynasty finds the next instance of a historical reference to Goa. At this time during the period between 321 to 184 BC, Goa was under an administrative region by the name Kuntala. However with the death of the legendary Ashoka the Great in 232 BC, the Maurya empire fell into a rapid decline and Goa soon changed hands.

      Incidentally, Buddhism is thought to have reached Goa around this period under the Mauryas, as did Jainism as evidenced by the ruins of Jain temples which have been discovered at Kudnem.

      The Marathas from the neighbouring areas took control of Goa from the Mauryas, only to be shortly ousted by the strong Anand Chuttus who ruled for a short while themselves. Then came the rule of the Satavahanas, who already controlled a large area on the western coast of India.

      They administered the Konkan areas directly and appointed the Bhojas, related to them matrimonially, as their feudatories in the Goa. Goa flourished during the Satavahana period, becoming an international business trading centre having relations with Africa, the Middle East and even the Roman empire.

      An important book entitled Geography, from the era of Roman Emperor Augustus (27 BC -14 AD), written by Strabo the Greek geographer, makes a reference to Konkan with the name of Komkvi describing it as a unique province of India."

      http://www.goatourism.gov.in/history/early-history


      Gudea portrait on statue. http://sumerianshakespeare.com/44701.html


      King Judea of Lagash calls Goa, Gubio

      "In 2200 B.C., the first written reference to Goa appears to have been in Cuneiform, in Sumerian times when the King Judea of Lagash called it Gubio.  Sumerians had established trade contacts with Goa and many Sumerians settled in Goa and along the Konkan coast. Sumerians are believed to have modified many local customs and introduce their own systems such as their style of temple architecture, the Devadasi system; the Sumerians also influenced the language, caste system, and the kinship practices to some extent. Sumerian influence in Goa can also be seen in the entertainment and games of the region. Even before any king ruled the territory, oligarchic democracy in the form of Gavkari existed in Goa. Gavkari System’s main idea was that village land must belong to the village god or goddess. It consisted of definite boundaries of land from village to village with its topographic detail, its management and social, religious and cultural interaction." https://magicpin.in/blog/history-goa/


      "Indus Valley Civilization may have been as Old as 7380 BC

      A new discovery has thrown new light on the age of Indus Valley Civilization making it older by another 2,000 years. This makes the Indian civilization older than that of Egypt and Babylon. The current findings revealed at the “International Conference on Harappan Archaeology”, organised by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in Chandigarh place the date of the origin of the Indus Valley Civilisation at 6,000 years before Christ. The discovery puts at dispute the ongoing theory that settlements came up at an approximate of 3750 BC.
      In connection with the current research, BR Mani, ASI joint Director General, and KN Dikshit, former ASI Joint Director General said,”The preliminary results of the data from early sites of the Indo-Pak subcontinent suggest that the Indian civilisation emerged in the 8th millennium BC in the Ghaggar-Hakra and Baluchistan area. On the basis of radio-metric dates from Bhirrana (Haryana), the cultural remains of the pre-early Harappan horizon go back to 7380 BC to 6201 BC.”
      The current excavations have been carried out at two sites in Pakistan and Bhirrana, Kunal, Rakhigarhi and Baror in India. The previous set of excavations done in 1920 at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro showed Indus Valley Civilisation to be almost as old as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia."

      http://transmissionsmedia.com/indus-valley-civilization-may-have-been-as-old-as-7380-bc/

















      Ancient Mesopotamian Place Name Meluhha (Stephan Hillyer Levitt) by Anonymous

      0 0

      14088 *hiṇḍa ʻ moving about ʼ. [√hiṇḍ] Ko. hī˜ḍuĩḍ ʻ flock ʼ FOK 168.14089 híṇḍatē ʻ moves, wanders ʼ Dhātup. [√hiṇḍ]Pa. hiṇḍati ʻ roams ʼ; Pk. hiṁḍaï ʻ goes, wanders, strolls ʼ; WPah. (Joshi) hĩḍṇē, hinṇē m.pl. ʻ legs of a quadruped ʼ; N. hĩṛnu ʻ to walk ʼ; Or. hiṇḍibā ʻ to move about, wander ʼ; H. hĩḍnā ʻ to move, walk ʼ, OG. hīṁḍaï, G. hĩḍvũ, M. hĩḍṇẽ.   14090 *hiṇḍāla ʻ wandering ʼ. [√hiṇḍ]Dm. iṇḍṓl ʻ bachelor ʼ; Kal. hiṇḍāˊu (st. ˚ḍāl -- ) ʻ bachelor ʼ, hiṇḍau ʻ barren woman ʼ; Kho. hiṇḍāl ʻ bachelor, spinster, widow ʼ, adj. ʻ childless, barren (of women and animals) ʼ; -- N. hĩṛālnu ʻ to make move ʼ.ʼ.(CDIAL 14088 to 14090)

      परि-व्राजक m. ( f(इका). ; ifc. f(अका).) a wandering religious mendicant Ma1lav. Pan5c. Hit.

      0 0

      https://tinyurl.com/y7bbvag5

      A standard device (so-called cult object) is shown in front of  1) young bull on over 1200 inscriptions, is also shown in front of 2) Urus; 3) Rhino. 

      This device is an Indus Script hypertext to signify: sangaa'joined parts' rebus: samgaha'catalogue' PLUS kammata'portable furnace' rebus: kammaa'mint' PLUS the dotted circle which signifies Sindhi. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres' Hindi. dhāv 'throw of dice' rebus: dhāū, dhāv 'mineral' धाव (p. 250) dhāva m f A certain soft, red stone. Baboons are said to draw it from the bottom of brooks, and to besmear their faces with it.  धवड (p. 249) dhavaḍa m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of ironधावड (p. 250) dhāvaḍa m A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of iron. धावडी (p. 250) dhāvaḍī a Relating to the class धावड. Hence 2 Composed of or relating to iron PLUS वृत्त [p= 1009,2] mfn. turned , set in motion (as a wheel) RV.; a circle; vr̥ttá ʻ turned ʼ RV., ʻ rounded ʼ ŚBr. 2. ʻ completed ʼ MaitrUp., ʻ passed, elapsed (of time) ʼ KauṣUp. 3. n. ʻ conduct, matter ʼ ŚBr., ʻ livelihood ʼ Hariv. [√vr̥t11. Pa. vaṭṭa -- ʻ round ʼ, n. ʻ circle ʼ; Pk. vaṭṭa -- , vatta -- , vitta -- , vutta -- ʻ round ʼ; L. (Ju.) vaṭ m. ʻ anything twisted ʼ; Si. vaṭa ʻ round ʼ, vaṭa -- ya ʻ circle, girth (esp. of trees) ʼ; Md. va'ʻ round ʼ GS 58; -- Paš.ar. waṭṭəwīˊkwaḍḍawik ʻ kidney ʼ ( -- wĭ̄k vr̥kká -- ) IIFL iii 3, 192?(CDIAL 12069) வட்டம்போர் vaṭṭam-pōr, n. < வட்டு +. Dice-play; சூதுபோர். (தொல். எழுத். 418, இளம்பூ.)வட்டச்சொச்சவியாபாரம் vaṭṭa-c-cocca-viyāpāram, n. < id. + சொச்சம் +. Money-changer's trade; நாணயமாற்று முதலிய தொழில். Pond. வட்டமணியம் vaṭṭa-maṇiyam, n. < வட் டம் +. The office of revenue collection in a division; வட்டத்து ஊர்களில் வரிவசூலிக்கும் வேலை. (R. T.) వట్ట (p. 1123) vaṭṭa vaṭṭa. [Tel.] n. The bar that turns the centre post of a sugar mill. చెరుకుగానుగ రోటినడిమిరోకలికివేయు అడ్డమాను. వట్టకాయలు or వట్టలు vaṭṭa-kāyalu. n. plu. The testicles. వృషణములు, బీజములు. వట్టలుకొట్టు to castrate. lit: to strike the (bullock's) stones, (which are crushed with a mallet, not cut out.) వట్ర (p. 1123) vaṭra or వట్రన vaṭra. [from Skt. వర్తులము.] n. Roundness. నర్తులము, గుండ్రన. వట్ర. వట్రని or వట్రముగానుండే adj. Round. గుండ్రని.Rebus: dhāvaḍa 'iron (mineral) smelter'.

      See the dotted circle hieroglyph on the bottom of the sacred device, sangaḍa




       
      m0352 cdef

      The + glyph of Sibri evidence is comparable to the large-sized 'dot', dotted circles and + glyph shown on this Mohenjo-daro seal m0352 with dotted circles repeated on 5 sides A to F. Mohenjo-daro Seal m0352 shows dotted circles in the four corners of a fire-altar and at the centre of the altar together with four raised 'bun' ingot-type rounded features.

      यूपेषु ग्राम्यान् पशून् तान् युञ्जति। Domestic animals are tied on the Yupas. आरोकेष्वारण्यान् धारयति। Wild animals are held in the spaces in between the Yupas. पशूनां व्यावृत्यै। To separate the animals. 

      आग्राम्यान् पशून्  लभेत् The domestic animals are 'sacrificed' (translation of Mrugendra Vinod). प्रारण्यान् सृजति। The wild are released. The expression लभेत् has to be interpreted as 'wealth-acquisition' using metal resources and the processes of working with sacred fire in fire-altars such as śyenaciti to create metalwork artifacts of utility and exchange value during the Tin-Bronze Revolution from 5th millennium BCE.

        अश्वस्तूपरो गोमृग इति प्रजापत्याः तान् अग्निष्ठ आलभेत    'the aśva sacred post nearest the fire for the lords of creatures is for aśva, hornless, ox-antelope'. 






      Disagreeing with this interpretation, Mrugendra VInod notes that the gomr̥ga of Veda tradition is Urus. A brilliant insight presented by him is that the Urus is called usra in the Veda and calls is bos namadicus which is the Indian aurochs. Note: Alternative interpretation of the yajña process: “Ashva, Hornless (goat) and Gomriga (urus) are offered in toto (without any remnants). (For all the offerings, only some part is thrown in Fire. Remaining is variously used in after procedure.)” (Mrugendra Vinod) Comment: The statement about the release of all wild animals is inconsistent with the averment of 'sacrifice in toto' of the aśva, goat and urus. From the decipherment of Indus Script inscriptions, it is clear that the hieroglyphs of animals such as zebu, young bull, goat, ram are rendered rebus to signify metals such as ferrite/magnetite ore, gold, copper, iron (ferrite) ore. For example:

      A scorpion signifies bica 'haematite, ferrite ore'; karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'. meho 'ram' rebus: meḍ 'iron'. ranku 'antelope' rebus; ranku 'tin' rango 'buffalo' rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1]Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ. (CDIAL 10562)  kāraṇḍava m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ MBh. [Cf. kāraṇḍa- m. ʻ id. ʼ R., karēṭu -- m. ʻ Numidian crane ʼ lex.: see karaṭa -- 1]Pa. kāraṇḍava -- m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ; Pk. kāraṁḍa -- , ˚ḍaga -- , ˚ḍava -- m. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ; S. kānero m. ʻ a partic. kind of water bird ʼ(CDIAL 3059)rebus: karaa 'hard alloy'.करडा  karaḍā Hard from alloy--iron, silver &38;c. (Marathi)

      यष्टि 'pillar, flag, staff, support' rebus: यष्टृ यष्ट्/ऋ or य्/अष्टृ, mf(ट्री A1pS3r. Sch.)n. worshipping , a worshipper RV. &c &c; यष्टि the blade of a sword (» असि-य्°). I submit that the yūpas, together with domesticated and wild animals (including snakes, cobrhoods, scorpions, ants, aquatic bird) are metaphors of a rebus rendering of the metallurgical vocabulary, as evidenced by the rebus renderings of over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions. I submit that it is an error to translate the expression labh as 'sacrifice'; the root signifies, wealth-acquisition. लभ् (cf. √ रभ्cl.1 A1. ( Dha1tup. xxiii , 6लभते (ep. also °ति 
      and लम्भते ; pf. लेभ्/ , ep. also ललाभ ; aor. अलब्ध , अलप्सत Br. Prec. लप्सीय Pa1n2. 8-2 , 504 Sch. ; fut. लब्धा Gr.लप्स्यते,ति Br. &c लभिष्यति Ka1v. inf. लब्धुम् MBh. ind.p. लब्ध्व्/आ AV. &c -लभ्य,-लम्भम् Br. &c लाभम् Pa1n2. 7-1 , 69) , to take , seize , catch  ; to gain possession of , obtain , receive , conceive , get , receive (" from " abl. ; " as " acc.) , recover ib. (with गर्भम् , " to conceive an embryo " , " become pregnant " ; with पदम् , to obtain a footing)to gain the power of (doing anything) , succeed in , be permitted or allowed to (inf. or dat. e.g. लभते द्रष्टुम् , or दर्शनाय , " he is able or allowed to see ") ChUp. MBh. &c  ; to possess , have Sa1h. Ma1rkP.  ; to perceive , know , understand , learn , find out Katha1s. Kull. : Pass. लभ्य्/ते (ep. also °ति ; aor. अलाभि or अलम्भि , with prep. only अलम्भि ; cf. Pa1n2. 7-1 , 69Ka1s3. ) , to be taken or caught or met with or found or got or obtained Br. &c ; to be allowed or permitted (inf. sometimes with pass. sense e.g. ना*धर्मो लभ्यते कर्तुम् , " injustice ought not to be done " , cf. above ) Katha1s.  ; to follow , result Sa1h. Sarvad.  ; to be comprehended by (abl.) Bha1sha1p. : 
      Caus. लम्भयति , °ते (aor. अललम्भत्) , to cause to take or receive or obtain , give , bestow (generally with two acc. ; rarely with acc. and instr. = to present with ; in Kir. ii , 55 with two acc. and instr. ; cf. Va1m. v , 2 , 10) MBh. Ka1v. &c  ; to get , procure (cf. लम्भित)  ; to find out , discover Mn. viii , 109  ; to cause to suffer MW.  ; Desid. ल्/इप्सते (mc. also °ति TBr. लीप्सते) , to wish to seize or take or catch or obtain or receive (with acc. or gen. ; " from  abl.) TBr. &c &c : Intens. लालभ्यते , लालम्भीति or लालब्धि Gr. 
      ([Gk. Î»Î¬Ï†-υρον , Î»Î±Î¼Î²-άνω ; Lat. labor ; Lith. la4bas , ल्/ओबिस्.])

      An array of Indus Script hieroglyphs to signify mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron (metal)’ (Munda), med 'copper (metal)' (Slavic) are used in Indus Script Corpora. 

      Hieroglyph-multiplexes also signify expressions to specify 'iron or copper (metal) castings or implements'.

      Examples of such expressions in Santali, a Meluhha language of Indian sprachbund are as follows:
      .med 'copper' (Slavic languages)

      Hieroglyphs to signify mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron (metal)’ (Munda), med 'copper (metal)' (Slavic)


      Sign 1 Variants and decipherment are presented on Seal m0304 of a seated person surrounded by tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, buffalor AND 'body' Sign 1 hieroglyph.

      Hieroglyph: mē̃d, mēd 'body, womb, back'

      Ta. mēṉi body, shape, colour, beauty; mēl body. Ma. mēni body, shape, beauty, excellence; mēl body. Koḍ. me·lï body. Te. mēnuid.; mēni brilliancy, lustre; belonging to the body, bodily, personal. Kol. me·n (pl. me·nḍl) body. Nk. mēn (pl. mēnuḷ) id. Nk. (Ch.) mēn id. Pa. mēn (pl. mēnul) id. Ga. (S.) mēnu (pl. mēngil), (P.) mēn id. Go. (Tr.) mēndur (obl. mēnduḍ-), (A. Y. W. M.) mēndul, (L.)meṇḍū˘l, (SR.) meṇḍol id. (Voc. 2963). Konḍa mēndol human body. Kur. mē̃d, mēd body, womb, back. Malt. méth body. Cf. 5073 Ta.mey. (DEDR 5099)

      meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā ʻ post, forked stake ʼ; meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ (See the rope tied to a tiger on Kalibangan terracotta cake found in a fire-altar; kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'; kohle 'smelters'.)

      Image result for bijnor octagonal brickBinjor octagonal brick as a skambha, pillar mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts ʼ AV., °thī -- f. KātyŚr.com., mēdhī -- f. Divyāv. 2. mēṭhī -- f. PañcavBr.com., mēḍhī -- , mēṭī -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, N. meh(e), mihomiyo, B. mei, Or. maï -- dāṇḍi, Bi. mẽhmẽhā ʻ the post ʼ, (SMunger) mehā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. mehmehā ʻ the post ʼ, (SBhagalpur)mīhã̄ ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, (SETirhut) mẽhi bāṭi ʻ vessel with a projecting base ʼ.2. Pk. mēḍhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, mēḍhaka<-> ʻ small stick ʼ; K. mīrmīrü f. ʻ larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts ʼ (for semantic relation of ʻ post -- hole ʼ see kūpa -- 2); L. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ; P. mehṛ f., mehaṛ m. ʻ oxen on threshing floor, crowd ʼ; OA meṛhamehra ʻ a circular construction, mound ʼ; Or. meṛhī,meri ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ; Bi. mẽṛ ʻ raised bank between irrigated beds ʼ, (Camparam) mẽṛhā ʻ bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. (SETirhut) mẽṛhā ʻ id. ʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.mēthika -- ; mēthiṣṭhá -- . mēthika m. ʻ 17th or lowest cubit from top of sacrificial post ʼ lex. [mēthí -- ]Bi. mẽhiyā ʻ the bullock next the post on threshing floor ʼ.mēthiṣṭhá ʻ standing at the post ʼ TS. [mēthí -- , stha -- ] Bi. (Patna) mĕhṭhā ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, (Gaya) mehṭāmẽhṭā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ.(CDIAL 10317 to, 10319)

      Identifying the Ritual Expected by All the Scholars Working on the Harappan Seals and Tablets (Sept.09, 2018) Embedded.

      उस्रा f. ( Un2. ii , 13) morning light , daybreak , brightness RV.; (personified as a red cow); a cow RV. AV. xii , 3 , 73 MBh. xiii Nir. &c; उस्र m. an ox , bull RV. vi , 12 , 4 VS. iv , 33; m. N. of the अश्विन्RV. ii , 39 , 3 ; iv , 62 , 1 ; vii , 74 , 1; m. a ray of light RV. i , 87 , 1 Ragh. Kir. &c

       लभ्   labh लभ् 1 Ā. (लभते, लेभे, अलब्ध, लप्स्यते, लब्धुम्, लब्ध) 1 To get, obtain, gain, acquire; लभेत सिकतासु तैलमपि यत्नतः पीडयन् Bh.2.5; चिराय याथार्थ्यमलम्भि दिग्गजैः Śi.1. 64. -2To have, possess, be in possession of. -3 To take, receive. -4 To catch, take or catch hold of; प्रांशु- लभ्ये फले लोभादुद्बाहुरिव वामनः R.1.3. -5 To find, meet with; यत्किंचिल्लभते पथि. -6 To recover, regain. -7 To know, learn, perceive, understand; भ्रमणं ..... गमनादेव लभ्यते Bhāsā. P.6; सत्यमलभमानः Kull. on Ms.8.19. -8 To be able or be permitted (to do a thing) (with inf.); मर्तुमपि न लभ्यते; नाधर्मो लभ्यते कर्तुं लोके वैद्याधरे. (The senses of लभ् are modified according to the noun with which it is used; i. e. गर्भं लभ् to conceive, become pregnant; पदं or आस्पदं लभ् to gain a footing, take a hold on; see under पद; अन्तरं लभ् to get a footing, enter into; लेभे$न्तरं चेतसि नोपदेशः R.6.66 'was not impressed on the mind;'चेतनां-संज्ञां लभ् to regain one's consciousness; जन्म लभ् to be born; Ki.5.43; स्वास्थ्यं लभ् to enjoy ease, be at ease; दर्शनं लभ् to get an audience of &c.). -Caus. (लम्भयति-ते) 1 To cause to get or receive, cause to take; मधुरै रवशानि लम्भयन्नपि तिर्यञ्चि शमं निरीक्षितैः Ki.2.55. -2 To give, confer or bestow upon; मोदकशरावं माणवकं लम्भय V.3. -3 To cause to suffer. -4 To obtain, receive. -5 To find out, discover. -Desid. (लिप्सते) To wish to get, long for; अलब्धं चैव लिप्सेत H.2.8.(Apte)
       लाभ   lâbh-a finding, meeting; obtainment, acquirement (of, g., --°); gain, advantage, profit; object acquired, acquisition; capture; apprehension, knowledge: -lipsâ, f. desire of gain, covetousness; -vat, a. having gained advantage; having got possession of (--°); -̮alâbha, m. du. & n. sg. gain and loss.(Macdonell)

      तूपरः tūparḥ तूपरः Ved. A hornless beast, particularly a goat; तमसा ये च तूपरा अथो बस्ताभिवासिनः Av.11.9.22.(Apte)
      Image result for bos namadicus
      Indian aurochs, bos namadicus "The Indian aurochs (Bos primigenius namadicus) was a subspecies of the extinct aurochs. It is considered as the ancestor of the zebu cattle, which is mainly found in the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced in many other parts of the world, like Africa and South America. In contrast, the taurine cattle breeds, which are native to Europe, the Near East, and other parts of the world, are descendants of the Eurasian aurochs (Bos primigenuis primigenius). According to IUCN, the Indian aurochs disappeared sometime until the 13th century AD, when the only subspecies standing was the Bos primigenius primigeniushttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_aurochs

      21 Yūpa


      RV 1.162.18 The four-and-thirty ribs of the Swift Charger, kin to the Gods, the slayer's hatchet pierces.


      Cut ye with skill, so that the parts be flawless, and piece by piece declaring them dissect them. (trans. Griffith)

      An exposition by Sadhashiv A Dange: “the yūpa is described as being the emblem of the sacrifice (RV III.8.8 yajñasya ketu). Though it is fixed on the terrestrial plane at the sacrifice, it is expected to reach the path of the gods. Thus, about the many sacrificial poles (fixed in the Paśubandha, or at the Horse-sacrifice) it is said that they actually provide the path for reaching the gods (ib., 9 devānām api yanti pāthah). They are invoked to carry the oferings to the gods (ib., 7 te no vyantu vāryam devatrā), which is the prerogative of the fire-god who is acclaiemd as ‘messenger’ (dūta); cf. RV I.12.1 agrim dūtam vṛṇimahe). In what way is the yūpa expected to carry the chosen offering to the gods? It is when the victim is tied to the sacrificial pole. The prallelism between the sacrificial fire and the yūpa is clear. The fire carries it through the smoke and flames; the yūpa is believed to carry it before that, when the victim is tied to it, as its upper end is believed to touch heaven. A more vivid picture obtains at the yajapeya. Here the yūpa is eight-angled, corresponding to the eight qurters. (śat. Br. V.2.1.5 aṣṭāśrir yūpo bhavati; the reason given is that the metre Gayatri has eight letters in one foot; not applicable here, as it is just hackneyed. At Taitt.Sam. I.7.9.1, in this context a four-angled yūpa is prescribed.) The one yūpa is conceived as touching three worlds: Heaven, Earth and the nether subterranean. The portion that is above the caṣāla (ring) made of wheat-dough (cf.śat. Br. V.2.1.6 gaudhūmam caṣālam bhavati) represents Heaven. This is clear from the rite of ascending to the caṣālamade of wheat-dough, in the Vajapeya sacrifice. The sarificer ascends to it with the help of a ladder (niśrayaṇī); and, while doing so, calls upon his wife, ‘Wife, come; let us ascend to Heaven’.  As soon as he ascends and touches the caṣāla, he utters,  ‘We have reached Heavven, O gods’ (ib., 12). According to Sāyaṇa on the Taiit.Sam. I.7.9.1, the sacrificer stretches his hands upwards when he reaches the  caṣāla and says, ‘We have reached the gods that stay in heaven’ (udgṛhītābhyām bāhubhyām). Even out of the context of the Vajapeya, when the yūpa is erected (say in the Paśubandha), it is addressed, ‘For the earth you, for the mid-region you, for heaven you (do we hoist you)’ (Taitt. Sam. I.3.6.1-3; cf. śat. Br. III.7.1.5-6). The chiselled portion of the  yūpa is above the earth. So, from the earth to heaven, through the mid-region the yūpa represents the three-regions. The un-chiselled portion of the yūpa is fixed in the pit (avaṭa) and the avaṭa, which represents the subterranean regions, is the region of the ancestors (ib.4).The yūpa, thus, is theaxis mundi…Then, it gave rise to various myths, one of them being that of the stūpa of Varuṇa, developing further into Aśvattha tree, which is nothing but a symbol of a tree standing with roots in the sun conceived as the horse (aśva-stha = aśvattha), a symbol obtaining at varius places in the Hindu tradition. It further developed into the myth of the churning staff of the mountain (Amṛta-manthana); and yet further, into the myth of Vasu Uparicara, whom Indra is said to have given his yaṣṭi (Mb.Adi. 6y3.12-19). This myth of the yaṣṭi was perpetuated in the ritual of the Indra-dhvaja in the secular practice (Brhatsamhita, Chapter XLII), while in the s’rauta practice the original concept of the axis mundi was transformed into the yūpa that reached all regions, including the under-earth. There is another important angle to theyūpa. As the axis mundi it stands erect to the east of the Uttaravedi and indicates the upward move to heaven. This position is unique. If one takes into account the position of the Gārhapatya and the āhavaniya fireplaces, it gets clear that the march is from the earth to heaven; because, the Gārhapatya is associated with this earth and it is the household fire (cf. gṛhā vai gārhapatyah, a very common saying in the ritual texts), and the seat of the sacrificer’s wife is just near it, along with the wives of the gods, conceptually. From this fire a portion is led to the east, in the quarter of the rising sun (which is in tune with such expressions as prāñcam yajñam pra nayatā sahāyah, RV X.101.2); where the Ahavaniya fireplace is structured. As the offerings for the gods are cast in the Ahavaniya, this fire is the very gate of heaven. And, here stands, the yūpa to its east taking a rise heavenwards. This is, by far, the upward rise. But, on the horizontal plane, the yūpa is posted half-inside, half-outside the altar. The reason is, that thereby it controls the sacred region and also the secular, i.e. both heaven and earth, a belief attested by the ritual texts. (Tait. Sam. VI.6.4.1; Mait. Sam. III.9.4).”(Dange, SA, 2002, Gleanings from Vedic to Puranic age, New Delhi, Aryan Books International, pp. 20-24).

      The Sukta RV X.101 reads, explaining the entire yajña as a metaphor of golden-tinted soma poured into a wooden bowl, a smelting process yielding weapons of war and transport and implements of daily life:

      10101a10101b

      10.101.01 Awake, friends, being all agreed; many in number, abiding in  one dwelling, kindle Agni. I invoke you, Dadhikra, Agni, and the divine Us.as, who are associated with Indra, for our protection. [In one dwelling: lit., in one nest; in one hall].
      10.101.02 Construct exhilarating (hymns), spread forth praises, construct the ship which is propelled by oars, prepare your weapons, make ready, lead forth, O friends, the herald, the adorable (Agni).
      10.101.03 Harness the ploughs, fit on the yokes, now that the womb of earth is ready, sow the seed therein, and through our praise may there be abundant food; may (the grain) fall ripe towards the sickle. [Through our praise: sow the seed with praise, with a prayer of the Veda; s’rus.t.i = rice and other different kinds of food].
      10.101.04 The wise (priests) harness the ploughs, they lay the yokes apart, firmly devoted through the desire of happiness. [Happiness: sumnaya_ =  to give pleasure to the gods].
      10.101.05 Set up the cattle-troughs, bind the straps to it; let us pour out (the water of) the well, which is full of water, fit to be poured out, and not easily exhausted.
      10.101.06 I pour out (the water of) the well, whose cattle troughs are prepared, well fitted with straps, fit to be poured out, full of water, inexhaustible.
      10.101.07 Satisfy the horses, accomplish the good work (of ploughing), equip a car laden with good fortune, pour out (the water of) the well, having wooden cattle-troughs having a stone rim, having a receptable like armour, fit for the drinking of men.
      10.101.08 Construct the cow-stall, for that is the drinking place of your leaders (the gods), fabricate armour, manifold and ample; make cities of metal and impregnable; let not the ladle leak, make it strong.
      10.101.09 I attract, O gods, for my protection, your adorable, divine mine, which is deserving of sacrifice and worship here; may it milk forth for us, like a large cow with milk, giving a thousand strreams, (having eaten) fodder and returned.
      10.101.10 Pour out the golden-tinted Soma into the bowl of the wooden cup, fabricate it with the stone axes, gird it with ten bands, harness the beast of burden to the two poles (of the cart).
      10.101.11 The beast of burden pressed with the two cart-poles, moves as if on the womb of sacrifice having two wives. Place the chariot in the wood, without digging store up the Soma.
      10.101.12 Indra, you leaders, is the giver of happiness; excite the giver of happiness, stimulate him, sport with him for the acquisition of food, bring down here, O priests, Indra, the son of Nis.t.igri_, to drink the Soma. [Nis.t.igri_ = a name of Aditi: nis.t.im ditim svasapatni_m girati_ti nis.t.igri_raditih].
      Related image
      Related image

      Image result for bairat kota rajasthan yupa
      Shapes of Yupa: A. Commemorative stone yupa, Isapur – from Vogel, 1910-11, plate 23; drawing based on Vedic texts – from Madeleine Biardeau, 1988, 108, fig. 1; cf. 1989, fig. 2); C. Miniature wooden yupa and caSAla from Vaidika Samsodana Mandala Museum of Vedic sacrificial utensils – from Dharmadhikari 1989, 70) (After Fig. 5 in Alf Hiltebeitel, 1988, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, Univ. of Chicago Press, p.22)

      The insights provided by Dr. Satya Prakash in the JRIHR article (1968) are emphatic that the Yupa inscriptions record the performance of Vedic Yajnas.

       “No other state of India has yielded as many Yajastambhas as the present united State of Rajasthan. All these pillars are dated in Krita era (Malava era) and are interesting from several points of view. The existence of these pillars in Kotah, Jaipur, Udaipur, Tonk and Bharatpur areas of Rajasthan is a definite proof of the performance of Vedic sacrifices in these areas in the early centuries of the Christian era, to which period these belong on the bsis of the times mentioned in them in the corresponding Malava Samvat. These inscriptional religious pillars were set p immediately after the performance of Vedic sacrifices. All these pillars are indicative of the performance of Vedic sacrifices (Vedic Yajnas) in various areas of Rajasthan and are inscribed in the Brahmi script and in Sanskrit language and belong to the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Christian era, but we can trace the tradition of putting up inscribed pillars to pre-christian era, to which period belong the pillars and Incribed rock edict of Asoka at Bairat, which was, then a stronghold of Buddhist faith. The inscription (Dr. R. Sahni mentions in his excation report on Bairat that the Yupa devices were also found used on the Yaudheya coins of about the beginning of the Christian era) from Ghoshundi, near Nagri the old Madhyamika Nagri (in the present Cchittorgarah ditrict) of the days of Patanjali's Mahabhashya mentioning the performance of a horse sacrifice is also very interesting. This is s a proof of the fact that Nagri and its vicinity was not only the centre of Buddhist activities and Greek incursions but it was also a stronghold of Brahminical faith and horse sacrifices were performed there.It was also the centre of Samkarshana Vasudeva worship in whose honour a stone enclosure (Silaprakara) was constructed there...An inscriptional reference to the performance of Vajapeya sacrifice is also available from an epigraph of the 4th century AD to which period belongs a Yupa pillar also. A terracotta seal found by Col. Hendley at Sambhar during excavations by him was studied by DR Sahni and he interprets the principal impression as displaying a sacrificial post (Yupa) surrounded by a railing. The upper portion of the post is bent down to about the middle of the shaft taken by Sahni to display the mystic symbol Swastika while the sixth one as showing a triangular pattern with five cross bars. This last device appears to represent the ladder by which the sacrificer and his wife ascended to the top of the Yupa and looking in the different directions silently enchanted prayers and offered by Prajapati 17 pieces of salt tied up to Pippala leaves. The setting up of Yupas in the celebration of Yajnas stands recorded in the Atharva Veda. Several ancient inscriptions on stone and other monumental evidences show the performance of such sacrifices done I the 5th or the 6th centuries AD also. Let us now discuss the details of the Yupa pillar inscriptions.”
      Source: 


      Mrugendra Vinod (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dqKOtc2gKTs 26:01) notes that the wild animals recognized in the aśvamedha yajña are: gaur 'bison', mahiṣa 'buffalo', khaḍga 'rhino' and vyāghra 'tiger'. In fact, there are over 200 animals and insects recognized in the texts. The list includes all the animals signified as hieroglyphs on Indus Script inscriptions.
      Image result for samudragupta gold coin
      Samudragupta, gold dinar, c. 335-375 CE Weight: 7.46 gm, Diameter: 21 mm. Sacrificial horse standing left, yupa (sacrificial post) before, 
           circular Brāhmī legend around and si (for siddham) below horse /Queen standing left, holding towel in left hand, flywhisk in right over her shoulder
           needle before, Brāhmī legend at right: Ashvamedhaparākrama
      Samudragupta, gold dinar, c. 335-375 CE Weight: 7.37 gm, Diameter: 23 mm. Sacrificial horse standing left, yupa (sacrificial post) before, 
           circular Brāhmī legend around and si (for siddham) below horse / Queen standing left, holding towel in left hand, flywhisk in right over her shoulder
           needle before, Brāhmī legend at right: Hayamedhaparākrama 
      A unique coin in which the reverse legend reads Hayamedhaparākrama instead of the usual AshvamedhaparākramaHaya is another Sanskrit word that means "horse."
      Samudragupta's gold coin s
      hows aśva in front of sacred post 
      Noting that the aśvamedha central yūpa has 239 svarus according to the Hiranyakeśi version, Mrugendra Vinod suggests that the standard device generally shown in front of the young bull is comparable to a yūpa as described in the texts with three distinctly identifiable iconographic elements as shown below:
      चषाल mn. (g. अर्धर्चा*दि) a wooden ring on the top of a sacrificial post RV. i , 162 , 6 TS. vi Ka1t2h. xxvi , 4 (चशाल) S3Br. &c; m. a hive; n. the snout of a hog MaitrS. i , 6 , 3 (Monier-Williams)
      स्वरु m. (of doubtful derivation) a large piece of wood cut from the trunk of a tree , stake , (esp.) sacrificial post or a strip of wood from it RV.AV. Br. Ka1tyS3r.; a thunderbolt; arrow; a kind of scorpion; sunshine; yajña.
      यूप m. (prob. fr. √ युप् ; but according to Un2. iii , 27 , fr. √2. यु) a post , beam , pillar , (esp.) a smooth post or stake to which the sacrificial victim is fastened , any sacrificial post or stake (usually made of bamboos or खदिर wood ; in R. i , 13 , 24 ; 25, where the horse sacrifice is described , 21 of these posts are set up , 6 made of बिल्व , 6 of खदिर , 6 of पलाश , one of उडुम्बर , one of श्लेष्मातक , and one of देव-दारुRV. &c; a column erected in honour of victory , a trophy (= जय-स्तम्भ); N. of a partic. conjunction of the class आकृति-योग (i.e. when all the planets are situated in the 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th houses) VarBr2S.

      नि- √ युज् P. A1. -युनक्ति , -युङ्क्ते , to bind on , tie or fasten to (loc.AV. S3Br. MBh. &c; (with धुरि) to tie to the pole of a carriage i.e. yoke , harness R.  (met.) to place in front i.e. employ in the hardest work ib. (also गुरु-धूर्षु MBh. )

      अरोक   arōka अरोक a. [न. ब.] 1 Without holes (अच्छिद्र). -2 Without splendour, obscured, dim. -Comp. -दत्, -दन्त a. [विभाषाश्यावारोकाभ्याम् P.V.4.144] 1 having black teeth. -2 having thickset teeth (निबिडदन्त). धारय mfn. holding , bearing &c ( Pa1n2. 3-1 , 138)

       स्तूप्   stūp स्तूप् 4 P. 1 U. (स्तूप्यति, स्तूपयति-ते) 1 To heap up, accumulate, pile, collect. -2 To erect, raise.

         स्तूपः   stūpḥ स्तूपः 1 A heap, pile, mound (of earth &c.); ब़टुभिरुपहृतानां बर्हिषां स्तूपमेतत् Mu.3.15;  -पृष्ठः a turtle, tortoise.

      गो--मृग m. (= 2. गवय्/अ q.v.) the Gayal VS. xxiv TS. ii S3Br. xiii Ka1tyS3r. = गवय m. the Gayal (a species of ox , Bos gavaeus , erroneously classed by Hindu writers as a species of deer ; cf. गो-मृग्/अRV. iv , 21 , 8 VS. S3Br. AitBr. &c
       गो   gō गो -मृगः a kind of ox (गवय). (Apte)

      प्रजा--पत्य w.r. for प्राजापत्यप्राजापत्या f. N. of a verse addressed to प्रजा-पति , A1pGr2.; प्राजापत्य m. a descendant of प्रजा-पति (patr. of पतं-ग , of प्रजावत् , of यक्ष्म-नाशन , of यज्ञ , of विमद , of विष्णु , of संवरण , of हिरण्य-गर्भRAnukr.;  प्रजा--पति (°जा-m. " lord of creatures " , N. of सवितृ , सोम , अग्नि , इन्द्र &c RV. AV.; (°जा-) a divinity presiding over procreation , protector of life ib. VS. Mn. Sus3r. BhP.; (°जा-) lord of creatures , creator RV. &c &c (N. of a supreme god above or among the Vedic deities [ RV. (only x , 21 , 10AV. VS. Br. ] but in later times also applied to विष्णु , शिव , Time personified , the sun , fire , &c , and to various progenitors , esp. to the 10 lords of created beings first created by ब्रह्मा ,viz. मरीचि , अत्रि , अङ्गिरस् , पुलस्त्य , पुलक , क्रतु , वसिष्ठ , प्रचेतस् or दक्ष , भृगु , नारद [ Mn. i , 34 ; cf. IW. 206 n. 1] , of whom some authorities count only the first 7 , others the last 3)

      अग्नि--ष्ठ mfn. placed in , or over , near the fire; m. (in the अश्वमेध sacrifice) the eleventh यूप or sacrificial post , which (of all the twenty-one) is nearest the fire S3Br.; अग्नि--ष्ठा f. that corner of the sacrificial post which (of all the eight) is nearest the fire S3Br.

      Taurine cattle with one-horn in profile

      The hut of a Toda Tribe of Nilgiris, India. Note the decoration of the front wall, and the very small door.
       Rebus Meluhha readings: kōṭhā 'warehouse' kuṭhāru 'armourer, PLUS kole.l'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge' PLUS ḍhāla 'flagstaff' rebus: ḍhālako 'large ingot'. Thus, the message is: armoury, smithy, forge ingots.

      m0702 Text 2206 showing Sign 39, a glyph which compares with the Sumerian mudhif structure.
      ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. 
      ढाल [ ḍhāla ] 'flagstaff' rebus: dhalako 'a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati). The mudhif flag on the inscription is read rebus: xolā 'tail' Rebus: kole.l 'smithy, temple'. The structure is  goṭ  'catttle-pen' (Santali) rebus: koṭhaka 'warehouse'. [kōṣṭhāgāra n. ʻ storeroom, store ʼ Mn. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, agāra -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāgāra -- n. ʻ storehouse, granary ʼ; Pk. koṭṭhāgāra -- , koṭṭhāra -- n. ʻ storehouse ʼ; K. kuṭhār m. ʻ wooden granary ʼ, WPah. bhal. kóṭhār m.; A. B. kuṭharī ʻ apartment ʼ, Or. koṭhari; Aw. lakh. koṭhārʻ zemindar's residence ʼ; H. kuṭhiyār ʻ granary ʼ; G. koṭhār m. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ, koṭhāriyũ n. ʻ small do. ʼ; M. koṭhār n., koṭhārẽ n. ʻ large granary ʼ, -- °rī f. ʻ small one ʼ; Si. koṭāra ʻ granary, store ʼ.WPah.kṭg. kəṭhāˊr, kc. kuṭhār m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ, J. kuṭhārkṭhār m.; -- Md. kořāru ʻ storehouse ʼ ← Ind.(CDIAL 3550)] Rebus:  kuṭhāru 'armourer,

      Field symbol is zebu (bos indicus). pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore' [pōlāda]  'steel'.
      Text 1330 (appears with Zebu glyph) showing Sign 39. Pictorial motif: Zebu (Bos indicus) This sign is comparable to the cattle byre of Southern Mesopotamia dated to c. 3000 BCE. Rebus Meluhha readings of gthe inscription are from r. to l.: kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge' PLUS goṭ 'cattle-pen' rebus: koṭṭhāra 'warehouse' PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' PLUS aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS kuṭika— 'bent' MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) PLUS kanka, karṇika कर्णिक 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale'. Read together with the fieldsymbol of the zebu,the message is: magnetite ore smithy, forge, warehouse, iron alloy metal, bronze merchandise (ready for loading as cargo).

      goṭ = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); goṭh (Brj.)(CDIAL 4336). goṣṭha (Skt.); cattle-shed (Or.) koḍ = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) कोठी cattle-shed (Marathi) कोंडी [ kōṇḍī ] A pen or fold for cattle. गोठी [ gōṭhī ] f C (Dim. of गोठा) A pen or fold for calves. (Marathi) 

      koṭṭhaka1 (nt.) "a kind of koṭṭha," the stronghold over a gateway, used as a store -- room for various things, a chamber, treasury, granary Vin ii.153, 210; for the purpose of keeping water in it Vin ii.121=142; 220; treasury J i.230; ii.168; -- store -- room J ii.246; koṭthake pāturahosi appeared at the gateway, i. e. arrived at the mansion Vin i.291.; -- udaka -- k a bath -- room, bath cabinet Vin i.205 (cp. Bdhgh's expln at Vin. Texts ii.57); so also nahāna -- k˚ and piṭṭhi -- k˚, bath -- room behind a hermitage J iii.71; DhA ii.19; a gateway, Vin ii.77; usually in cpd. dvāra -- k˚ "door cavity," i. e. room over the gate: gharaŋ satta -- dvāra -- koṭṭhakapaṭimaṇḍitaŋ "a mansion adorned with seven gateways" J i.227=230, 290; VvA 322. dvāra -- koṭṭhakesu āsanāni paṭṭhapenti "they spread mats in the gateways" VvA 6; esp. with bahi: bahi -- dvārakoṭṭhakā nikkhāmetvā "leading him out in front of the gateway" A iv.206; ˚e thiṭa or nisinna standing or sitting in front of the gateway S i.77; M i.161, 382; A iii.30. -- bala -- k. a line of infantry J i.179. -- koṭṭhaka -- kamma or the occupation connected with a storehouse (or bathroom?) is mentioned as an example of a low occupation at Vin iv.6; Kern, Toev. s. v. "someone who sweeps away dirt." (Pali)

      कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen', Mesopotamia Rebus: kundaṇa 'fine gold'

      One-horned young bulls and calves are shown emerging out of  कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa cattlepens heralded by Inana standards atop the mudhifs. The Inana standards are reeds with three rings. The reed standard is the same which is signified on Warka vase c. 3200–3000 BCE.
      Reed PLUS ring on Inanna standard on Warka vase.
      Scarf on the reeds:  dhaṭu 'scarf' Rebus: dhatu 'mineral' (Santali) *dhaṭa2dhaṭī -- f. ʻ old cloth, loincloth ʼ lex. [Drav., Kan. daṭṭi ʻ waistband ʼ etc., DED 2465]Ku. dhaṛo ʻ piece of cloth ʼ, N. dharo, B. dhaṛā; Or. dhaṛā ʻ rag, loincloth ʼ, dhaṛi ʻ rag ʼ; Mth. dhariā ʻ child's narrow loincloth ʼ.Addenda: *dhaṭa-- 2. 2. †*dhaṭṭa -- : WPah.kṭg. dhàṭṭu m. ʻ woman's headgear, kerchief ʼ, kc. dhaṭu m. (also dhaṭhu m. ʻ scarf ʼ, J. dhāṭ(h)u m. Him.I 105).(CDIAL 6707)

      Hypertexts of goat and tiger atop fire-altars (with ore pellets) mlekh 'goat' rebus: milakkhu, mleccha'copper' kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'. Products (offerings) carried by worshippers in baskets and large storage jars and dedicated to Divinity Inanna clearly include metal ingots, as signified by the Indus Script hypertexts: copper ingots, iron (smelted) ingots. 

      One etyma cluster refers to 'iron' exemplified by meD (Ho.). The alternative suggestion for the origin of the gloss med 'copper' in Uralic languages may be explained by the word me (Ho.) of Munda family of Meluhha language stream. It is significant that the word med in Slavic languages signifies copper.
      Sa. <i>mE~R~hE~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mE~RhE~d</i>(M). Ma. <i>mErhE'd</i> `iron'.Mu. <i>mERE'd</i> `iron'.~ <i>mE~R~E~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mENhEd</i>(M).Ho <i>meD</i> `iron'.Bj. <i>merhd</i>(Hunter) `iron'.KW <i>mENhEd</i>@(V168,M080)   http://www.ling.hawaii.edu/austroasiatic/AA/Munda/ETYM/Pinnow&Munda
      Image result for sumerian cylinder mudhif
      A Sumerian reed hut, or mudhif, as depicted on a stone trough of about 3000 BCE.
      Image result for bharatkalyan97 mudhifA cow and a stable of reeds with sculpted columns in the background. Fragment of another vase of alabaster (era of Djemet-Nasr) from Uruk, Mesopotamia.
      Image result for sumerian cylinder mudhif
      Figure 15.1. Sealing with representations of reed structures with cows, calves, lambs, and ringed
      bundle “standards” of Inana (drawing by Diane Gurney. After Hamilton 1967, fig. 1) 

      Three rings on reed posts are three dotted circles: dāya 'dotted circle' on dhā̆vaḍ priest of 'iron-smelters', signifies tadbhava from Rigveda dhāī ''a strand (Sindhi) (hence, dotted circle shoring cross section of a thread through a perorated bead);rebus: dhāū, dhāv ʻa partic. soft red ores'. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773)
      Cylinder seal impression, Uruk period, Uruk?, 3500-2900 BCE. Note a load of livestock (upper), overlapping greatly (weird representation), and standard 'mudhif' reed house form common to S. Iraq (lower).

      Cattle Byres c.3200-3000 B.C. Late Uruk-Jemdet Nasr period. Magnesite. Cylinder seal. In the lower field of this seal appear three reed cattle byres. Each byre is surmounted by three reed pillars topped by rings, a motif that has been suggested as symbolizing a male god, perhaps Dumuzi. Within the huts calves or vessels appear alternately; from the sides come calves that drink out of a vessel between them. Above each pair of animals another small calf appears. A herd of enormous cattle moves in the upper field. Cattle and cattle byres in Southern Mesopotamia, c. 3500 BCE. Drawing of an impression from a Uruk period cylinder seal. (After Moorey, PRS, 1999, Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries: the archaeological evidence, Eisenbrauns.)

      Image result for sumerian cylinder mudhif

      Further to the discussion of chimeras, among the first unicorn seals found by John Marshall at Mohenjo-daro in the 1920's was this one. He wrote: "The animal most often represented on the seals is the apparently single-horned beast ... There is a possibility, I think, that the artist intended to represent one horn behind the other. In other animals, however, the two horns are shown quite distinctly. In some respects the body of this beast, which is always a male, resembles that of an antelope of heavy build, such as the eland or oryx, and in others that of an ox. The long tuffed tail may belong to either class. The horn is sometimes smooth ... sometimes it has transverse ridges. In the latter case, 
       m0233 Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.Urus

      Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.).

      (Note: In this, the animal young bull is shown with two curved horns) Signifier; dula ‘duplicated’ rebus; dul ‘metalcasting’

      Ficus glomerate leaf atop a hill. mēṭu 'height, eminence, hillock' rebus:  meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) PLUS loa 'ficus glomerata' Rebus: loha 'copper, iron'.   PLUS karṇī‘ears’ rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe, helmsman'
      Urus
      m02322234 'Unicorn' with  two horns! "Bull with two long horns  (otherwise resembling the 'unicorn')", generally facing the standard. That it is the typical ‘one-horned bull’ is surmised from two ligatures: the pannier on the shoulder and the ring on the neck.

      Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.

      Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.).

      baṭa