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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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  • 03/29/18--17:20: Agastyas --S. Srinivas
  • http://www.pragyata.com/mag/agastyas-484

    Agastyas

    Agastya Muni, as well as his lineage, had a tremendous influence on Indic civilization which stretched all the way to Southeast Asia.


    Agastyas

    S. Srinivas is a historian and researcher who has worked for over a decade as a lecturer; assistant editor for Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society as well as a journalist. He was awarded a Ph.D. by Bangalore University for his thesis on the History of Civic Administration in Bangalore(1862-1950). Currently, he is fully engaged in writing on topics pertaining to ancient India.

    Introduction

    Among the rishi families who composed the Rig Vedic hymns, it was the members of the Agastya family who first crossed the Vindhya Mountains and established ashrams in south India. The members of this family acted as preceptors of royal dynasties, propagated Shaivism and played an important role in introducing Hindu religion and culture in south-east Asian countries.

    In ancient Indian literary works there are references to the activities of Agastya in relation with characters appearing in different time frames. This indicates that a single Agastya could not have achieved all these feats single handedly and unaided. He was therefore the progenitor of a large family and founded a long surviving generation of representatives known by the name of Agastya gotra. The originator of this family Agastya was the brother of sage Vasishta. His descendants composed hymns in the Rig Veda of which we find 27 hymns in the first mandala, one each in the fifth and eighth mandala, two hymns in the ninth mandala and four hymns in the tenth mandala.

    Agastya and Lopamudra

    One prominent figure among this family was the one who married Lopamudra and was a contemporary of Alarka, grandson of Pratardana of Kashi. This Alarka was a contemporary of King Dushyanta the father of the famous Paurava ruler Bharata after whom our country is named.

    Agastya of Ramayana

    In Valmiki’s Ramayana, Aranyakanda sarga II describes the beautiful hermitage of Agastya situated at Nasik, a few miles from Dandakaranya where a peaceful atmosphere prevailed. When Rama and Lakshmana visited his ashram, Agastya presented Rama a bow of Vishnu and later Agastya accompanied Rama and his followers on his return journey to Ayodhya from Lanka with Seeta after killing Ravana.

    Exploits of Agastya

    According to K.D. Abhyankar, the Puranic story of the Vindhya mountain trying to compete with the Himalayas in height by becoming taller and taller and sage Agastya ordering the Vindhya mountain to lie prostrated till he returned from the south is an allegory to the actual crossing of the Vindhyas by Agastya, a prominent rishi of north India for the first time in history. In ancient times, it was easier to cross the seas by navigation. But it was quite difficult to traverse the mountainous land covered with thick forests and inhabited by wild animals. Hence it was a great feat on the part of Agastya to cross the Vindhya Mountain. Similarly the story of Agastya drinking the water of the ocean is another allegory of his crossing the sea and as we know sage Agastya is quite popular in Indonesia, the land beyond the Indian Ocean.

    Star Canopus named after Agastya

    The star Canopus is named after Agastya as it was first sighted by him. Around 5000 BCE this star was visible from the south of the Vindhyas, but not from the north of it. As a member of sage Agastya’s family was the first to cross the Vindhyas from the north, he would have been the first northerner to see the star. Hence the star has been named after his family.

    Agastya and Tamil

    There is no clear and specific mention of Agastya and his exploits in any of the early Tamil works and reference to his work on Tamil grammar called Agattiyam first occur in Iraiyanar Agapporul Urai, a work of the 8th or 9thcentury CE. This work mentions Agastya as a member of the first and second Sangams. Just like the Europeans who have written works on Indian languages after learning them, probably a member of the Agastya clan settled in south India, had learnt Tamil and written a grammatical work which probably has now gone into oblivion.

    Founder of Siddha System of Medicine

    A daitya named Ilvala who had a grouse against sages used to invite them for lunch, serve the flesh of a goat (which was actually his brother Vatapi turned into a goat) and later call his brother who used to come out ripping the stomach of the diner. Agastya who had gone to Ilvala to seek financial help was also fed in a similar manner but when Ilvala called him, Vatapi could not come out as Agastya had digested him. This incident is probably an allegory to indicate that Ilvala used to kill sages by serving them with poisoned food. A member of Agastya family who was served with poisoned food came out unharmed as he knew about antidotes for food poisoning and was probably the founder of the Siddha system of medicine.

    Discoverer of River Cauvery

    According to a Tamil work Manimekhalai, Cauvery stream was released by Agastya from his water pot at the request of Chola king Kantan for perennial water. Agastya overturned his pitcher from which Cauvery flowed towards the sea in the east. The Purana also says that Agastya had compressed the River Cauvery and held the water in his water pot and Ganapathi came in the form of a crow and toppled the water pot and got released the river Cauvery. These stories can be interpreted as a member of Agastya family discovering the river Cauvery or naming the discovered river as Cauvery.

    Oversea connections of Agastya

    Members of this family even migrated to distant lands and introduced Shaivism there. A statue of sage Agastya is found in a Shiva temple in a temple complex at Pramban in Java. Similarly at a cave in Kombeng situated to the north of Muara Kaman in east Borneo we find the image of sage Agastya. Indradevi the queen of the ruler of Kambuja Empire, Indra Varman I (877-889 A.D.) is said to have descended from sage Agastya. In the old Javanese literature we have a work Agastya Parva, where Agastya describes to his son Driddasyu the creation of the world in puranic style.

    Cult of Agastya

    Members belonging to the Agastya family became the preceptors of royal dynasties. For instance the Pandya king Sundara Pandya is referred as Agastya Shisya ‘disciple of Agastya’. An inscription of Chalukya Kirtiraja of Lata (Gujarat) says that their spiritual preceptor was Agastya. As a preacher and preceptor of Shaiva religion and guru of many princes, Agastya soon came to be regarded as the object of personal worship and a cult of Agastya was soon formulated and his images consecrated in many temples began to receive the honour of worship. The mode of his worship is laid down in the Skanda Purana and Agni Purana. The Agasteshwara temple at Thodnavada in Chittor district, the Meenakshi Agasteshwara temple at Wadapally in Nalgonda district, the Agasteshwara temple at Guntur district all in Andhra Pradesh, the Agasteshwara temple at T.Narasipura in Mysore district of Karnataka and the Agasteshwara temple at Chennai to name a few are some of the temples dedicated to Agastya.

    Conclusion

    Agastya’s name has often been cited as an example of courage and wisdom which implies that the members of this family were known for their enterprising nature and intelligence. The members of this family played an important role in national integration by synthesizing the culture of north and south India.

    References / Footnotes
    - K.A.Nilakanta Sastri- A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the fall of Vijayanagara
    - K.D.Abhyankar – Folklore and Astronomy: Agastya a Sage and a Star, Current Science, Vol- 89, No. 12, 25th December, 2005
    - R.C.Majumdar- Hindu Colonies in the Far East
    - Swami Parmeshwaranand- Encyclopedic Dictionary of Puranas, Vol-I
    - O.C.Gangoly- The cult of Agastya and the origin of Indian colonial art, Quarterly Journal of Mythic Society, Vol-XVII, No.3, January 1927
    - Shrikant Talageri- The Rig Veda- A Historical Analysis
    - R.N.Saletore-Encyclopedia of Indian Culture

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    Justice J Chelameswar
    JUSTICE J CHELAMESWAR
      29-03-2018




    Lord Bingham in his book, The Rule of Law, said that “there are countries in the world where all judicial decisions find favour with the powers that be, but they are probably not places where any of us would wish to live”. Let us also not live where Bingham loathed to live.
    We, the judges of the Supreme Court of India, are being accused of ceding our independence and our institutional integrity to the executive’s incremental encroachment. The executive is always impatient, and brooks no disobedience even of the judiciary if it can. Attempts were always made to treat the chief justices as the departmental heads in the secretariat. So much for our “independence and preeminence” as a distinct state organ.
    Someone from Bangalore has already beaten us in the race to the bottom. The chief justice of the Karnataka High Court has been more than willing to do the executive bidding, behind our back.
    sc__012318032047_032_032918055017.jpg
    I read with dismay and disbelief the “confidential report” sent to the hon’ble chief justice by Shri Dinesh Maheswari, the chief justice of Karnataka High Court. To begin with, it was unasked for. Second, it is uncalled for. The confidential report blatantly records the impropriety of the executive directly contacting the high court to reassess a collegium recommendation of the Supreme Court.
    It is a moot proposition that any principal and sessions judge is the administrative head of the district he works in. He has to exercise his supervisory, and “disciplinary” power over all other judicial officers in that district.
    From the letter of the hon’ble chief justice, Karnataka, the following facts can be culled out. In 2014, when Shri Krishna Bhat, a district and sessions judge, was working in Belagavi district, he sent to the high court a report concerning the (mis)conduct of Ms MS Shashikala, a judicial magistrate of first-class. The high court registered a vigilance case (HVC) No 93/2014 but did not choose to act upon the same till February 18, 2016. Till that time, Krishna Bhatt had faced no allegations from any quarter, including his subordinates.
    With Shri Krishna Bhatt’s elevation around the corner, Ms MS Shashikala chose to complain against him.
    If such retaliatory complaints are entertained, no career conscious judge would ever risk disciplining his subordinates.
    From the material available on record, it appears that Ms MS Shashikala offered her resignation in April 2016 and withdrew it in June 2016. The then chief justice of Karnataka High Court was asked to provide the details and background of Ms Shashikala’s resignation. The then chief justice, after inquiring into the issue, sent two confidential reports dated October 14, 2016 and November 14, 2016. He asserted that the allegations levelled against Shri P Krishna Bhatt were incorrect and concocted. He has found that Ms MS Shashikala has made her allegations only to malign Shri P Krishna Bhatt.
    In the meanwhile, acting on the recommendations of the Karnataka High Court collegium, we recommended his name, along with five others from the service category, for elevation. At that time we were aware of the allegations, but we consciously and rightly disbelieved them.
    Surprisingly, the government selectively withheld his elevation and accepted that of the remaining five others’, though all the five are juniors to Shri Krishna Bhatt.
    Now comes what is unpredictable and unthinkable. If the government had any reservations or misgivings about Shri Krishna Bhatt’s nomination, it could have sent back the recommendation for our reconsideration - a well-established though long forgotten practice. Instead, it sat  tight on the file. In other words, our recommendation still retained its validity and legitimacy.
    For sometime, our unhappy experience has been that the government’s accepting our recommendations is an exception and sitting on them is the norm. “Inconvenient” but able judges or judges to be are being bypassed through this route.
    I do not think any of us disputes that elevating a person to be a judge of a high court is a constitutional concern involving two authorities: the Supreme Court and the executive. The role of high court ceases with its recommendation. Any correspondence, clarificatory or otherwise, has to be between these two authorities. To my mind, I could recollect no instance from the past of the executive bypassing the Supreme Court, more particularly while its recommendations are pending, and asking the high court, as if it were an interdepartmental matter, to look into the allegations already falsified and conclusively rejected by us. Asking the high court to reevaluate our recommendation in this matter has to be deemed improper and contumacious.
    Now the chief justice of Karnataka High Court informs us that he had received a communication from the Ministry of Law and Justice “to look into the issue.” The chief justice, establishing himself to be more loyal than the king, acts on it, convenes a meeting of the administrative committee, and decides to reinvestigate the issue, thus burying the previous chief justice’s findings on the same issue, given at our asking. He has been gracious enough to inform us, at least now.
    A long time ago, an idealist, without knowing the ways of the world, has said this: the accumulation of all powers legislative, executive and judiciary in the same hands, whether of one, a few or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny. Naïve as it may sound now, that was James Madison in the Federalist Papers No 47.
    We only have to look forward to the time, which may not be far-off if not already here, when the executive directly communicates with the high courts about the pending cases and what orders to be passed. We can be happy that much of our burden is taken away. And an honourable chief justice like Dinesh Maheswari may perhaps be ever willing to do the executive bidding, because good relations with the other branches is a proclaimed constitutional objective.
    We cannot deny Robert H Jackson’s assertion in United States versus Wunderlich that men are more often bribed by their loyalties and ambitions than by money. Let us also not forget that the bonhomie between the judiciary and the government in any state sounds the death knell to democracy. We both are mutual watchdogs, so to say, not mutual admirers, much less constitutional cohorts.
    I am of the opinion that this matter is now ripe for the consideration of the full court on the judicial side, if this institution really is to be any more relevant in the scheme of the Constitution.
    Since we are a precedent-oriented institution, I may be pardoned for quoting a precedent to the master of roster that it was exactly a similar letter written by the then Union law minister which sparked up a judicial debate in SP Gupta.

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    Centre slams SC judge for 'twisting facts' in sexual harassment case

    Dhananjay Mahapatra| TNN | Updated: Mar 30, 2018, 04:37 IST  

    (See full text of SC judge's 'alleged   letter') http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2018/03/full-text-of-chelameswars-letter-to-cji.html

    NEW DELHI: Top Union government functionaries on Thursday slammed Justice J Chelameswar for twisting facts in a sexual harassment case involving Karnatakadistrict judge P Krishna Bhat and said it is 'astonishing' the complainant lady magistrate was neither called to depose in an inquiry nor were the apex court's Vishaka guidelines followed.



    Outlining a sharp and 'no-holds-barred' reaction from the law ministry and department of justice, sources explained why the ministry wrote directly to Karnataka chief justice 
    Dinesh Maheswari to 'look into' the sexual harassment complaint against Bhat by the lady judicial magistrate .

    In a letter to all the judges of the SC, Chelameswar, the senior-most judge, has taken exception to the Centre writing directly to Justice Maheshwari regarding the collegium's recommendation to elevate Bhat to the HC. Chelameswar, who had in January held a press conference to highlight grievances against CJI Dipak Misra, wrote that while five of the recommendations for elevation were accepted by the government, it decided to block Bhat and then wrote directly to Justice Maheshwari instead of taking up the matter with the collegium.

    In his letter to the CJI, also marked to all SC judges, he said the judiciary has lately been accused of yielding to the executive, which has been nixing appointment of 'inconvenient' judges.

    Sources gave a perspective to what "was not mentioned" in the five-page letter by Justice Chelameswar, who has severely criticised the law ministry and Justice Maheswari for acting in league to scuttle appointment of district judge Bhat as HC judge by attempting to reopen a two-year-old sexual harassment complaint of the lady magistrate.

    Chelameswar said then chief justice of Karnataka HC C S K Mukherjee had inquired into the complaint and in his report to the SC collegium termed it "incorrect and concocted" and that the magistrate's allegations were "only to malign Bhat" to nix his appointment as an HC judge.

    Government sources said it is unthinkable that the same SC, which had laid down stringent mandatory guidelines to sternly deal with sexual harassment complaints at workplace, should cursorily brush aside the lady magistrate's sexual harassment charges and brand them "incorrect and concocted' through an "unheard of discrete inquiry process' conducted by then Karnataka CJ S K Mukherjee.

    "It is unheard of also that a sexual harassment complaint by a judicial officer against her superior got decided without the inquiry officer thinking it fit to hear the complainant's version even once. Does this reflect the sensitivity the SC had attached in the Vishaka case to adjudication of sexual harassment complaints? Is this the example being set by the highest citadels of justice by cursorily discarding a magistrate's complaint," said a source.

    "What kind of message is being sent to other subordinate lady judicial officers when sensitive complaints are brushed aside through discrete inquiries by the HC CJ and accepted by the SC collegium? Worse, the person accused of sexual harassment is being persisted for being appointed as a judge in the constitutional co


    When the SC collegium buried the complaint and made the complainant appear a liar, the lady officer complained to the President and the Prime Minister. Despite this, successive CJIs had requested the government to appoint Bhat as HC judge as per the earlier recommendation made after a clean chit to him through 'discrete' inquiry. The PMO forwarded the complaint to the law ministry, which decided to write to the HC CJ, given the earlier stonewalling by the higher judiciary .


    Sources said Chelameswar appears either "blissfully unaware of the facts" or "not bringing them up in his letter" while criticising the Centre for meddling in the affairs of the judiciary. "He would not have taken up the cause of a person against whom a sexual harassment charge has not been inquired as per the SC's laid down guidelines if he was aware of the facts," said a source.




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    Image result for bharatkalyan97 dholavira signboard
    The Signboard was discovered lying on the ground,near the gateway of Dholavira.
    The three-part proclamation message of the Dholavira Signboard transcribed:


    Image result for dholavira signboard bharatkalyan97
    There are three proclamations on the signboard with three segments of messages.
    Sign 391 is the opening statement of each of the three segments of Dholavira signboard message. This is a ligatured hieroglyph. ara 'spoke' rebus: ara 'brass'. era, er-a = eraka =?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.)[Note Sign 391 and its ligatures Signs 392 and 393 may connote a spoked-wheel,nave of the wheel through which the axle passes; cf. ara_, spoke]erka = ekke (Tbh.of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal);crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = anymetal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) Rebus: eraka= copper (Ka.)eruvai =copper (Ta.); ere - a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a= syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.)Vikalpa: ara, arā (RV.) = spokeof wheel  ஆரம்² āram , n. < āra. 1. Spokeof a wheel.See ஆரக்கால்ஆரஞ்சூழ்ந்தவயில்வாய்நேமியொடு (சிறுபாண்253). Rebus: ஆரம் brass; பித்தளை.(அகநி.) pittal is cognate with 'pewter'.

    Segment 1


      a. eraka, arā  b. khuṇṭa  c. loa karaṇika 



    erakaarā 'nave of wheel, spoke' rebus: eraka moltencast,  arā 'brass'
    khuṇṭa 'peg'; khũṭi = pin (Marathi.)  Rebuskuṇṭha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)' (Munda)
    loa'ficus gloomerata' (Santali) Rebus: loh 'copper (metal)' PLUS karaṇika 'ears' rebus: karaṇika engraver, 'writer' (Telugu)

    Thus, segment 1 reads: moltencast brass, hard metal, copper (metal) engraver; 

    Segment 2
    Sign 261 is a variant of Sign 267 kanac (kana, kana kona) mũhã̄ 'corner ingot' rebus: kañcu mũhã̄ 'bell-metal ingot'. Pa. kuṭila— 'bent', n. 'bend'(CDIAL 3231) Rebus: kuṭila 'bronze'. कुटिल  kuṭila, katthīl (8 parts copper, 2 parts tin),
    kana, kanac 'corner' (Santali); kañcu  'bronze' (Telugu) kan- 'copper work' (Tamil).

    Sign 134 is hakaa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article'.


    a. eraka, arā, b. kañcu mũhã̄  kuṭila c. dhakka d. khāṇḍā 
    a. erakaarā 'nave of wheel, spoke' rebus: eraka moltencast,  arā 'brass'
    b. kanac 'corner', mũhã̄ 'bun ingot, lozenge shape',kuṭila— 'bent' Rebus: kañcu mũhã̄  kuṭila 'bell-metal ingot, bronze'

    c. hakaa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article'.


    d. खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' 

    Thus, segment 2 reads: bright blazing moltencast bell-metal ingot, bronze, equipment

    Segment 3

    First two signs a, b.dul eraka, arā c. dhatu
    a, b: erakaarā 'nave of wheel, spoke' rebus: eraka moltencast,  arā 'brass'
    Reading of a pair of 'spoked wheel hieroglyphs as hypertext': dula 'two, pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS erakaarā 'nave of wheel, spoke' rebus: eraka moltencast,  arā 'brass'
    c. ḍato 'claws or pincers (chelae) of crab Rebus: dhatu 'mineral' (Santali) 

    Thus, segment 3 reads together: metalcasting moltencast brass, minerals


    https://tinyurl.com/yblannfg This is an addendum to: Wealth accounting classification ledgers & Arthaśāstra Economics 101 Indus Script dictionary https://tinyurl.com/yctvpzgk With the Indus Script Dictionary made available, some of the 10 'hieroglyphs/hypertexts' of the Dholavira signboard have been read rebus with variant expressions (plain texts).https://tinyurl.com/y8xt9qrk The message of the Signboard of Dholavira is a proclamation of metallurgical competence of the metalsmiths of Dholavira, who produce qualty metal castings, metalware and also engrave on copper (metal).

    Image result for dholavira signboard bharatkalyan97
    Dholavira Signboard inscription of gypsum inlays on wood measures 3 m. long. Each of the 10 signs is 37 cm. high and 25 to 27 cm. wide and made of pieces of white gypsum inlays; the signs were apparently inlaid in a wooden plank. The conjecture is that this wooden plank was mounted on the Northern Gateway as a Signboard. The message is intended to be a proclamation for seafaring merchants to see from across the PErsian Gulf as they approach the Dholavira citadel. 
    Dholavira signboard is a three-part message, each segment starts with a spoked-wheel hieroglyph. 
    Hence, Dholavira Signboard is read from left to right.

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    https://tinyurl.com/yd5psfo9


    kuṭhi, 'smelter', phaḍa, paṭṭaḍa -- metals manufactory; pāṭroṛo pattarపట్ర  paṭra, pāṭan'smith guild, hamlet, maritime port town, market'eraka'moltencast infusion', kharadaखरडें daybook, paṭṭī 'inventory', metalwork catalogues are signified on Indus Script hypertexts. 


    The monograph is organized in the following sections:

    Section 1. phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa, paṭṭaḍa 'metals manufactory'
    Section 2. Pictorial motif 1. Feeding trough with stripes
    Section 3. Pictorial motif 2. Kneeling adorant
    Section 4. Pictorial motif 3. Thorny bush
    Section 5. Etyma (Bhāratīya sprachbund)



    Cobra hoods on either side of eagle h156 Harappa tablet
    Cobra hood. Mohenjo-daro 0492 tablet

    Cobra hood as tail of composite anunal Field Symbol Cde 25
    Harappa tabletNarrative on 'hare' copper tablets

    Three hypertexts in narrative on h478 to h480 tablets

    Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313) phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c.फडी phaḍī f (Dim. of फडा) The expanded hood of Coluber Nága &c paṭṭaḍa फड phaḍa

    Hieroglyph: फड (p. 313) phaḍa m (Commonly फडा) फडा (p. 313)  f m A common term for the joints of Flat-jointed prickly pear.  A root (as of ginger or turmeric) which separates into cloves, a race or sprig. 4 m An end or a fragment of a branch of the Date-tree: also a spike or pinnate leaf of it. 

    pāṭroṛo 'feeding trough' (Sindhi) Variant pronunciations: 


    Ta. pātti bathing tub, watering trough or basin, spout, drain; pattal wooden bucket; pattar id.,  Ka. 

    pāti basin for water round the foot of a tree. Tu. pāti trough or bathing tub, spout, drain. Te. pādi, pādu basin for water round the foot of a tree. (DEDR 4079) patta -- n. ʻ bowl ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ little bowl ʼ, pātĭ̄ -- f.; K. pāthar, dat. °tras m. ʻ vessel, dish ʼ, pôturu m. ʻ pan of a pair of scales ʼ (gahana -- pāth, dat. pöċü f. ʻ jewels and dishes as part of dowry ʼ  Ind.); S. ri f. ʻ large earth or wooden dish ʼ, roo m. ʻwooden troughʼ; P. pātar m. ʻ vessel ʼ, parāt f., parātā m. ʻ large wooden kneading vessel ʼog. pāttar m. ʻbrass or wooden do.ʼ; Ku.gng. pāiʻ wooden potʼ (CDIAL 8055)


    Tiger, etc. in front of the trough: Hieroglyph: pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattharaka 'merchant' pattar ‘guild, goldsmith’.

    battuḍu 'artificer' pattar 'goldsmith guild'

    pāṭroṛo 'feeding trough' (Sindhi) rebus: பத்தர்² pattarn. < T. battuu. A guild or title of goldsmiths.பத்தர்pattar, n. perh. vartaka. Merchants; வியாபாரிகள். (W.)


    Vikalpa rebus readings may be: paṭṭī 'inventory'; పట్ర  para, patta 'village, hamlet, town'


    pattar paṭṭi 'goldsmith guild market, goldsmith guild hamlet'.

    Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop.(DEDR 3865). pathürü f. ʻ level piece of ground, plateau, small village ʼ; S. patharu m. ʻ rug, mat ʼ; Or. athuripathuri ʻ bag and baggage ʼ; M. pāthar f. ʻ flat stone ʼ; OMarw. pātharī ʻ precious stone ʼ.(CDIAL 8857)

    Thorny bush' hieroglyph shown in front of a hare is read in Meluhha lexis (vocabulary) rebus: kaṇḍho 'thorn' rebus: kaṇṭho, ka market town. Together with hare: kharā 'hare' rebus: khār 'blacksmith', the reading of hypertext is: khār kantho 'blacksmith market town'


    See:


    Two artisans from kaṇṭho, karā market town. Indus Script hypertexts kharā 'hare' khār 'blacksmith' kola 'tiger' kolhe 'smelter' https://tinyurl.com/y9rfpj7h


    pāṭroṛo 'feeding trough' (Sindhi) on Indus Script Corpora rebus బత్తుడు battuḍu 'artificer' pattar 'goldsmith guild' 

    Indus Script hieroglyph pāṭroṛo, pattar 'feeding trough' rebus paṭṭī 'inventory'; పట్ర paṭra, patta 'village, hamlet, maritime town' pāṭan 'market'https://tinyurl.com/y6vd6bmu


    Indus Script thorny bush and striped feeding trough hypertexts signify artisan guild hamlet, market town of Sarasvati Civilization 

    https://tinyurl.com/ybg2djbf

    Section 1. phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa, paṭṭaḍa 'metals manufactory'

    phaṭā फटा (Samskrtam), phaḍā फडा (Marathi), paṭam (Tamil. Malayalam), paḍaga (Telugu) (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Ta. paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai anvil, smithy, forge. Ka. paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi anvil, workshop. Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop. Cf. 86 Ta. aṭai. (DEDR 3865) There is also a pun on the word aṭai., aṭi. 'anvil' in a smithy. Rebus: phaḍa फड 'manufactory, company, guild'. Rebus: పట్టడ paṭṭaḍa paṭṭaḍu. [Tel.] n. A smithy, a shop. 

    Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313) phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c.फडी phaḍī f (Dim. of फडा) The expanded hood of Coluber Nága &c paṭṭaḍa फड phaḍa

    A variant pronunciation of paṭṭaḍa workshop is the semantics relatedto public place, factory,manufactory: Rebus: फड phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्या- चा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singingshop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work,--as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊस, वांग्या, मिरच्या, खरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चाल, पड, घाल, मांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणें- राखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 

    Hieroglyph: फड (p. 313) phaḍa m (Commonly फडा) An end or a fragment of a branch of the Date-tree: also a leaf or spike of it.  फडा (p. 313)  f m A common term for the joints of Flat-jointed prickly pear.  A root (as of ginger or turmeric) which separates into cloves, a race or sprig. 4 m An end or a fragment of a branch of the Date-tree: also a spike or pinnate leaf of it. 
    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 
    फडच्या or छ्या (p. 313) phaḍacyā or chyā m Commonly फडशा. फडशा phaḍaśā m ( H) Clearance, settlement, liquidated state (of a debt): settled, performed, or executed state (of an affair or a business): consumption, exhaustion, consumed state (of articles of provision). कर, हो. 
    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 2 fig. Scolding vehemently; paying off. v काढ, घे g. of o. 3 Search of or inquiry at the several फड q.v.; taking the accounts of the several फड (as to arrivals of goods, sales, rates &c.) 4 Altercation or dispute of two फड or companies of तमाशेगीर (showmen or sportmen). 5 Freely. Examining or sifting rigorously. 
    फडणिशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaṇiśī or sī & फडणीस Preferably फडनिशी or सी & फडनीस. फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फड- निशी & फडनीस.  फडनिशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniśī or sī f The office or business of फडनीस. फडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस. 
    फडपूस phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. 

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 eagle sealHarappa seal h156A, h156B. Vats, 1940, Excavations in Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta: Pl. XCI. 255
    eruvai  'eagle' rebus: eruvai 'copper' sena 'hawk' rebus: sena 'thunderbolt'
    फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood'  फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'. 


    Harappa seal impression. h-161a. Eagle glyph.


    Incised eagle from Tepe Yahya (Kohl in Potts 2011: 218, fig. 9.7). Eagle glhyph comparable to the glyph on Harappa seal impression.
    Image result for composite animal bharatkalyan97Image result for composite animal indus scriptA truly fascinating paper by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale on composite Indus creatures and their meaning: Harappa Chimaeras as 'Symbolic Hypertexts'. Some Thoughts on Plato, Chimaera and the Indus Civilization at a.harappa.com/... 
    FS Fig.51FS code 25 associated with सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined animal parts' rebus: samgaha,samgraha 'catalogue' PLUS pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Te.) Rebus: pasra 'smithy' (Santali) PLUS ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS कारणिक investigating.
    The classifier is the cobra hood: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Mohenjo-daro. Sealing.  Surrounded by fishes, lizard and snakes, a horned person sits in 'yoga' on a throne with hoofed legs. One side of a triangular terracotta amulet (Md 013); surface find at Mohenjo-daro in 1936, Dept. of Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. [seated person penance, crocodile?] 

    The classifier is the cobra hood: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Brief memoranda: kamaḍha ‘penance’ Rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner’; kaṇḍo ‘stool, seat’ Rebus: kāṇḍa  ‘metalware’ kaṇḍa  ‘fire-altar’.

    kāru 'crocodile' Rebus: kāru 'artisan'; khar 'blacksmith'
    Hieroglyphs (allographs): 
    kamaḍha 'penance' (Prakriam) 
    kamḍa, khamḍa 'copulation' (Santali)

    kamaṭha crab (Skt.)

    kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.)  kamat.ha = fig leaf, religiosa (Sanskrit) 

    kamaḍha = ficus religiosa (Sanskrit)
    kamāṭhiyo = archer; kāmaṭhum = a bow; kāmaḍ, kāmaḍum = a chip of bamboo (G.) kāmaṭhiyo a bowman; an archer (Sanskrit) 
    Rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Ta.) kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.)  kamaṭa = portable furnace for melting precious metals (Telugu); kampaṭṭam = mint (Tamil)
    eraka 'upraised arm' rebus: eraka 'moltencast copper' arka 'gold'.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 cobra hood
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Text on obverse of the tablet m453A: Text 1629. m453BC Seated in penance, the person is flanked on either side by a kneeling adorant, offering a pot and a hooded serpent rearing up. 

    Glyph: kaṇḍo ‘stool’. Rebus; kaṇḍ ‘furnace’. Vikalpa: kaṇḍ ‘stone (ore) metal’.  Rebus: kamaḍha ‘penance’. Rebus 1: kaṇḍ ‘stone ore’. Rebus 2: kampaṭṭa ‘mint’. Glyph: ‘serpent hood’: paṭa. Rebus: pata ‘sharpness (of knife), tempered (metal). padm ‘tempered iron’ (Ko.) Glyph: rimless pot: baṭa. Rebus: bhaṭa ‘smelter, furnace’. It appears that the message of the glyphics is about a mint  or metal workshop which produces sharpened, tempered iron (stone ore) using a furnace.

    Rebus readings of glyphs on text of inscription:

    koṇḍa bend (Ko.); Tu. Kōḍi  corner; kōṇṭu angle, corner, crook. Nk. Kōnṭa corner (DEDR 2054b)  G. khū̃ṭṛī  f. ʻangleʼRebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’(B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi) koḍ  = place where artisans work (G.) ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or.kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. Kū̃d ’ lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)  

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'.Vikalpa: aṭar ‘a splinter’ (Ma.) aṭaruka ‘to burst, crack, sli off,fly open; aṭarcca ’ splitting, a crack’; aṭarttuka ‘to split, tear off, open (an oyster) (Ma.); aḍaruni ‘to crack’ (Tu.) (DEDR 66) Rebus: aduru ‘native, unsmelted metal’ (Kannada) 

    ã= scales of fish (Santali); rebusaya ‘metal, iron’ (Gujarati.) cf. cognate to amśu 'soma' in Rigveda: ancu 'iron' (Tocharian)
    G.karã̄ n. pl. ‘wristlets, bangles’; S. karāī f. ’wrist’ (CDIAL 2779).  Rebus: khār खार् ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)

    dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’

    Glyph of ‘rim of jar’: kárṇaka m. ʻ projection on the side of a vessel, handle ʼ ŚBr. [kárṇa -- ]Pa. kaṇṇaka -- ʻ having ears or corners ʼ; (CDIAL 2831) kaṇḍa kanka; Rebus: furnace account (scribe). kaṇḍ = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil) khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus: karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu) káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. karaṇa -- n. ʻdoingʼ; NiDoc. karana,  kaṁraṁna ʻworkʼ; Pk. karaṇa -- n. ʻinstrumentʼ(CDIAL 2790)

    The suggested rebus readings indicate that the Indus writing served the purpose of artisans/traders to create metalware, stoneware, mineral catalogs -- products with which they carried on their life-activities in an evolving Bronze Age.
    Jasper Akkadian cylinder seal
    Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm) cylinder Seal with four hieroglyphs and four kneeling persons (with six curls on their hair) holding flagposts, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression). The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. crucible PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing water, 4. fish A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held. 

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'

    If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: قمر ḳamar
    قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See سپوږمي or سپوګمي (Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'.

    kulā hooded snake Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelters'

    koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'


    kamar 'moon' Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'

    arka 'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka 'copper, gold, moltencast, metal infusion'

    lokANDa 'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhaNDa 'metal implements, excellent 

    implements'

    aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

    baTa 'six' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS meDh 'curl' Rebus: meD 'iron'

    clip_image056m0492t clip_image057[4]2835 Pict-99: Person throwing a spear at a bison and placing one foot on the head of the bison; a hooded serpent at left.

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Hieroglyph: kolsa = to kick the foot forward, the foot to come into contact with anything when walking or running; kolsa pasirkedan = I kicked it over (Santali.lex.)mēṛsa = v.a. toss, kick with the foot, hit with the tail (Santali) 
     kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pancaloha’ (Ta.) kolhe (iron-smelter; kolhuyo, jackal) kol, kollan-, kollar = blacksmith (Ta.lex.)•kol‘to kill’ (Ta.)•sal ‘bos gaurus’, bison; rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali)me~ṛhe~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron; kolhe m. iron manufactured by the Kolhes (Santali); meṛed (Mun.d.ari); meḍ (Ho.)(Santali.Bodding)
    nAga 'serpent' Rebus: nAga 'lead'
    Hieroglyph: rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ 

    Rebus: Pk. raṅga 'tin' P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼOr. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅgaada -- m. ʻ borax ʼ lex.Kho. (Lor.) ruṅ ʻ saline ground with white efflorescence, salt in earth ʼ  *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.

    paTa 'hood of serpent' Rebus: padanu 'sharpness of weapon' (Telugu)

    Hieroglyph: kunta1 ʻ spear ʼ. 2. *kōnta -- . [Perh. ← Gk. konto/s ʻ spear ʼ EWA i 229]1. Pk. kuṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; S. kundu m. ʻ spike of a top ʼ, °dī f. ʻ spike at the bottom of a stick ʼ, °diṛī°dirī f. ʻ spike of a spear or stick ʼ; Si. kutu ʻ lance ʼ.
    2. Pa. konta -- m. ʻ standard ʼ; Pk. koṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; H. kõt m. (f.?) ʻ spear, dart ʼ; -- Si. kota ʻ spear, spire, standard ʼ perh. ← Pa.(CDIAL 3289)

    Rebus: kuṇha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)'

    Allograph: कुंठणें [ kuṇṭhaṇēṃ ] v i (कुंठ S) To be stopped, detained, obstructed, arrested in progress (Marathi)
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    C-49 a,b,c
    + hieroglyph in the middle with covering lines around/dots in corners poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite'; dhAv 'strand' rebus: dhAv 'smelter'; Dotted circle: dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ).kulA 'hooded snake' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'; kolmo 'three' koD 'horn' rebus: kolimi 'smithy' koD 'workshop'. tri-dhAtu 'three strands, threefold' rebus: tri-dhAv 'three mineral ores'.

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent tabernae montana
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Cylinder seal with a zebu, scorpion, man, snake and tree. Enstatite.H. 2.6 cm (1 in.); diam. 1.55 cm (5/8 in.). Mesopotamia, Ur, U. 16220. Late 3rd millennium BCE. British Museum. BM 122947

    Gadd seal 6. (cut down into Ur III mausolea from Larsa level; U. 16220), enstatite; Legrain, 1951, No. 632; Collon, 1987, Fig. 611 Cylinder seal; BM 122947;humped bull stands before a palm-tree, a thorny stone(?), tabernae montana (five-petalled fragrant flower); snake; person with long legs; behind the bull a scorpion ... Deciphered Indus writing: pola 'zebu, bos indicus'; pola ‘magnetite ore’ (Munda. Asuri); bichi 'scorpion'; 'hematite ore'; tagaraka 'tabernae montana'; tagara 'tin'; ranga 'thorny'; Rebus: pewter, alloy of tin and antimony;  kankar., kankur. = very tall and thin, large hands and feet; kankar dare = a high tree with few branches (Santali) Rebus: kanka, kanaka = gold (Samskritam); kan = copper (Tamil) nAga 'snake' nAga 'lead' (Samskritam).
    Drum Slab folio 18

    Instep venerated. Amaravati sculptural friezes. Skambha with ayo khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metals mint, coiner, coinage'.
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.5in. by 3ft.0.9in. [WD1061, folio 20]
    Copyright © The British Library Board. (See more examples at 
    All Indus Script hypertexts with phaḍā 'serpent hood' signify metals manufactory public officers 
    https://tinyurl.com/y7a26nhe)


    meD 'step' rebus: meD 'iron' (cf. Santali glosses)
    படம் paṭamn. < pada. Instep; பாதத் தின் முற்பகுதி. படங்குந்திநிற்றல் (சூடா. 9, 53). Rebus: pata ‘sharpness (of knife), tempered (metal). padm ‘tempered iron’ (Ko.)

    फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 cobra hoodBharhut sculptural frieze. 
    nagaraja erapattra bharhut Cobra hood and tree. signify metals manufactory and smelter.
    Related image BMAC artefacts. फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood'  फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'. Shaped like a bag or wallet with handle. dhokra 'wallet, basket' rebus; dhokra 'cire perdue metal caster'.


    Section 2. Pictorial motif 1. Feeding trough with stripes Variant

    Feeding trough (even in front of wild animals) ḍāngra = wooden trough or manger sufficient to feed one animal (Mundari). iṭankār̤i = a capacity measure (Ma.) Rebus: ḍhangar 'blacksmith' (Bi.)  pāṭroṛo m. ʻwooden troughʼ rebus: pattar 'goldsmiths' (Ta.)

    Feeding trough in front of wild animals is a signifier that the 'trough' is a hieroglyph.



     Trough PLUS buffalo/bull
    Other examples of trough as a hieroglyph on Indus writing seals shown in front of animals. 

    Chanhudaro22a ḍhangar ‘bull’. Rebus: ḍhangar‘blacksmith’ pattar ‘trough’. Rebus: pattar (Ta.), battuu (Te.) goldsmith guild (Tamil.Telugu) khōṭ ‘alloyed ingot’;kolmo ‘rice plant’. Rebus: kolami ‘smithy’. koḍi ‘flag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). Rebus: koḍ ‘workshop’ (Kuwi) Vikalpa: baddī = ox (Nahali); bahi = worker in wood and metal (Santali)ḍāngrā = a wooden trough just enough to feed one animal. cf. iankai = a measure of capacity, 20 iankai make a par-r-a (Ma.lex.) angā = small country boat, dug-out canoe (Or.); õgā trough, canoe, ladle (H.)(CDIAL 5568). Rebus: ḍānro  term of contempt for a blacksmith (N.) (CDIAL 5524)
    Stamp seal with a water-buffalo, Mohenjo-daro. “As is usual on Indus Valley seals that show a water buffalo,this animal is standing with upraised head and both hornsclearly visible. (Mackay, 1938b, p. 391). A feeding trough is placed in front of it, and a double row of undecipherable script fills the entire space above. The horns are incised to show the natural growth lines. During the Akkadian period, cylinder seals in Mesopotamia depict water buffaloes in a similar pose that may have been copied from Indus seals (see cat. No.135)(For a Mesopotamian seal with water buffalo, see Parpola1994, p. 252 and Collon 1987, no.529 – Fig. 11).”(JMK –Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Professor of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison) (p.405). 

    ran:gā ‘buffalo’; ran:ga ‘pewter or alloy of tin (ran:ku) sal ‘bos gaurus’ bison; sal ‘workshop’ (Santali)


    ibha ‘elephant’ (Skt.); ib ‘iron’ (Santali) 
    Animal glyph: elephant ‘ibha’. Rebus ibbo, ‘merchant’ (Gujarati).


    bel [Hem. Des. ba-i-lī fr. Skt. balīvarda = a bull] a bull; a bullock; an ox (G.lex.) Rebus:bali bica ‘iron sand ore’ (Mu.)

    பத்தர்¹ pattar , n. 1. See பத்தல், 1, 4, 5. 2. Wooden trough for feeding animals; தொட்டி. பன்றிக் கூழ்ப்பத்தரில் (நாலடி, 257). badhia ‘castrated boar’ (Santali); baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’ (Santali) kol ‘tiger’; Vikalpa rebus: kolhe ‘smelters of iron’.

    m1521Act m1521Bct
    m1523Actm1523Bct
    Sign 342 Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी [p= 257,3] f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karī, 'Supercargo responsible for trading cargo of a vessel'.


    That such a functionary existed in the mature period of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization is evidenced by a remarkable two-sided tablet (m1405) which shows a pattharika, 'merchant' graduating as a karī, 'Supercargo functionary' on a seafaring vessel.


    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Glyph 15) gestured with the left hand. 


    Water-carrier glyph kuṭi ‘water-carrier’ (Telugu); Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) kuṛī f. ‘fireplace’ (H.); krvṛi f. ‘granary (WPah.); kuṛī, kuṛo house, building’(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kuṭi ‘hut made of boughs’ (Skt.) guḍi temple (Telugu) [The bull is shown in front of the trough for drinking; hence the semantics of ‘drinking’.]

    The most frequently occurring glyph -- rim of jar -- ligatured to Glyph 12 becomes Glyph 15 and is thus explained as a kanka, karṇaka: ‘furnace scribe’ and is consistent with the readings of glyphs which occur together with this glyph. Kan-ka may denote an artisan working with copper, ka (Ta.) kaṉṉār ‘coppersmiths, blacksmiths’ (Ta.) Thus, the phrase kaṇḍ karṇaka may be decoded rebus as a brassworker, scribe. karṇaka, karNIka ‘scribe,  accountant’.karNi 'supercargo' 
    Glyph15 variants (Parpola)
    The inscription of this tablet is composed of four glyphs: bison, trough, shoulder (person), ligatured glyph -- Glyph 15(rim-of-jar glyph ligatured to water-carrier glyph). 

    Each glyph can be read rebus in mleccha (meluhhan).

    balad m. ʻox ʼ, gng. bald, (Ku.) barad, id. (Nepali. Tarai) Rebus: bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin)(Punjabi) 

    pattar ‘trough’ (Ta.), rebus paṭṭar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pattar merchants (Ta.); perh. vartaka  (Skt.) pātharī ʻprecious stoneʼ (OMarw.) (CDIAL 8857)


    meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.); rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.); eṛaka 'upraised arm' (Ta.); rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.)   


    Ligature 1 in composite glyph: kan-ka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali), rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ (Pa.); karNi 'supercargo' (Marathi) vikalpa: 1. kāraṇika -- m. ʻarrow-maker’ (Pa.) 2. khanaka ‘miner, digger, excavator’ (Skt.). Ligature 2 in composite glyph: kuṭi ‘water-carrier (Telugu), rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)
    kol 'tiger' Rebus: kole.l 'smithy'; kol 'working in iron'; kolhe 'smelters'; kolle 'blacksmith'.
    .gaṇḍa, kāṇḍā 'rhinoceros' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  

    Were tigers, rhinoceroses, boars domesticated since feeding troughs are shown on Indus Script inscriptions?  Such wild animals were NOT domesticated but were used as hieroglyphs to signify Bronze Age metalwork.


    This rhetorical question is intended to underscore that the Indus Script cipher is a messaging system with hieroglyphs as signifiers. Both the animals and feeding troughs are hieroglyphs. The signified are Bronze Age metal- or mint-work catalogues documenting the merchandise of seafaring merchants who are also Supercargo -- merchant's representatives responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.

    m1405 Pict-97 Reverse: Person standing at the centre pointing with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand pointing to the Sign 15. Obverse: A tiger and a rhinoceros in file. 

     

    The tablet signifies three animals: tiger, rhinoceros, ox: 

     

    kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' .

     

    kāṇḍā 'rhinoceros' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. 

    barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: भरत bharata A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin bel [Hem. Des. ba-i-lī fr. Skt. balīvarda = a bull] a bull; a bullock; an ox (G.lex.) Rebus:bali bica ‘iron sand ore’ (Mu.)

     

    pattar 'trough' Rebus pattar, vartaka 'merchant, goldsmith' paṭṭasmithy, shop'.

     

    कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread', Rebus kañi-āra 'helmsman' karaṇī 'scribe, supercargo', kañi-āra 'helmsman'. 

    eraka 'raised arm' Rebus: eraka 'metal infusion' eraka 'copper'

    Sign 15:  kuhi kaṇḍa kanka ‘smelting furnace account (scribe)’. 

    kuTi 'water-carrier' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' kanda 'pot' rebus: kanda 'fire-altar' kanka, karanika 'rim of jar' rebus: kāraṇika 'smelter producer'. Thus the hieroglyph-multiplex is an expression: kuThi kāraṇika  'smelter-maker.' kuTi karaṇī 'Supercargo smelter' (i.e. Supercargo responsible for trading produce from smelter and carried by seafaring vessel).

    This tablet is a clear and unambiguous example of the fundamental orthographic style of Indus Script inscriptions that: both signs and pictorial motifs are integral components of the message conveyed by the inscriptions. Attempts at 'deciphering' only what is called a 'sign' in the entire Indus Script Corporwill result in an incomplete decoding of the message catalogued on the inscribed object.

     

    barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: भरत (p. 603) [ bharata ] n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.(Marathi)

     

    pattar 'trough'; rebus pattar, vartaka 'merchant, goldsmith' (Tamil) பத்தர்² pattar , n. < T. battuu. A caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்று. 

    The Pali expression usu -- kāraika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ provides the semantics of the word kāraṇika as relatable to a 'maker' of a product. usu-kāraṇika is an arrow-maker. Thus, kuTi kāraṇika can be explained as a smelter-maker. Supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. The Marathi word for Supercargo is: kārī . Thus, it can be suggested that kuTi kāraṇika was an ovrseer of the cargo (from smelter) on a merchantship. In the historical periods, the Supercargo has specific duties "The duties of a supercargo are defined by admiralty law and include managing the cargo owner's trade, selling the merchandise inports to which the vessel is sailing, and buying and receiving goods to be carried on the return voyage...A new supercargo was always appointed for each journey who also had to keep books, notes and ledgers about everything that happened during the voyage and trade matters abroad. He was to present these immediately to the directors of the Company on the ship's return to its headquarters ." 

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercargo While a captain was in charge of navigation, Supercargo was in charge of trade. 

    कारण 1[p= 274,2] a number of scribes or कायस्थs W. instrument , means;that on which an opinion or judgment is founded (a sin, mark; a proof; a legal instrument, document), Mn. MBh.

     

    कारणिक [p= 274,3] mfn. (g. काश्य्-ादि) " investigating , ascertaining the cause " , a judge Pan5cat. a teacher MBh. ii , 167.

     

    B. kerā ʻ clerk ʼ (kerāni ʻ id. ʼ < *kīraka -- karaika<-> ODBL 540): very doubtful. -- Poss. ← Ar. qāri', pl. qurrā' ʻ reader, esp. of Qur'ān ʼ.(CDIAL 3110) कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread', 'rim of jar', 'pericarp of lotus' karaṇī 'scribe, supercargo', kañi-āra 'helmsman'.  kāraṇika m. ʻ teacher ʼ MBh., ʻ judge ʼ Pañcat. [kā- raṇa -- ] Pa. usu -- kāraika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ; Pk. kāraiya -- m. ʻ teacher of Nyāya ʼ; S. kāriī m. ʻ guardian, heir ʼ; N. kārani ʻ abettor in crime ʼ; M. kārī m. ʻ prime minister, supercargo of a ship ʼ, kul -- karī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ.(CDIAL 3058) kāraṇa n. ʻ cause ʼ KātyŚr. [√kr̥1] Pa. kāraa -- n. ʻ deed, cause ʼ; Aś. shah. karaa -- , kāl. top. kālana -- , gir. kāraa -- ʻ purpose ʼ; Pk. kāraa -- n. ʻ cause, means ʼ; Wg. (Lumsden) "kurren" ʻ retaliation ʼ, Paš. kāran IIFL iii 3, 97 with (?); S. kārau m. ʻ cause ʼ; L. kārnā m. ʻ quarrel ʼ; P. kāra m. ʻ cause ʼ, N. A. B. kāran, Or. kāraa; Mth. kāran ʻ reason ʼ, OAw. kārana, H. kāran m., G. kāra n.; Si. karua ʻ cause, object, thing ʼ; -- postpositions from oblique cases: inst.: S. kāraie°i ʻ on account of ʼ, L. awāṇ. , Addenda: kāraṇa -- : Brj. kāran ʻ on account of ʼ.(CDIAL 3057) kiraka m. ʻ scribe ʼ lex. 

    eraka 'raised arm' Rebus: eraka 'metal infusion' (Kannada. Tulu) 

     

    Sign 15:  kuhi kaṇḍa kanka ‘smelting furnace account (scribe)’. 

    Thus, the hieroglyph multiplex on m1405 is read rebus from r.: kuhi kaṇḍa kanka eraka bharata pattar 'goldsmith-merchant guild -- helmsman, smelting furnace account (scribe), molten cast metal infusion, alloy of copper, pewter, tin.' 

     

    Indus inscription on a Mohenjo-daro tablet (m1405) including ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph as component of a ligatured glyph (Sign 15 Mahadevan).

     

    It will be demonstrated in this monograph that this inscribed object is decoded as a professional calling card: a blacksmith-precious-stone-merchant with the professional role of copper-miner-smelter-furnace-scribe-Supecargo.

     

    m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center points with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand points to the ligatured glyph. 

     

    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Sign 15) gestured with the left hand. 

     

     A characteristic feature of Indus writing system unravels from this example: what is orthographically constructed as a pictorial motif can also be deployed as a 'sign' on texts of inscriptions. This is achieved by a stylized reconstruction of the pictorial motif as a 'sign' which occurs with notable frequency on Indus Script Corpora -- with orthographic variants (Signs 12, 13, 14).

    Section 3. Pictorial motif 2. Kneeling adorant

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 cobra hoodGanweriwala tablet. Kneeling adorant.

    kneeling adorant బత్తుడు battuḍu. n. A worshipper.பத்தர்³ pattarn. < bhakta. 1. Devotees, votaries Rebus: பத்தர்² pattarn. < T. battuḍu. A caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்று. பத்தர்&sup5; pattar, n. perh. vartaka. Merchants; வியாபாரிகள். (W.)

     

    బత్తి batti batti. [for. Skt. భక్తి.] n. Faith. బత్తిగల faithful. "అంగనయెంతటి పుణ్యమూర్తివో, బత్తిజనింపనాదుచెర బాపితి." S. iii. 63. See on భక్తి. బత్తుడు battuḍu. n. A worshipper. భక్తుడు. The caste title of all the five castes of artificers as వడ్లబత్తుడు a carpenter. కడుపుబత్తుడు one who makes a god of his belly. L. xvi. 230. பத்தர்³ pattarn. < bhakta. 1. Devotees, votaries; அடியார். பத்தர் சிக்கெனப் பிடித்த செல் வமே (திருவாச. 37, 8). 2. Persons who are loyal to God, king or country; அன்புடையார். தேசபத்தர். 3. A caste of Vīrašaiva vegetarians; வீரசைவரில் புலாலுண்ணாத வகுப்பினர். Loc.

    Section 4. Pictorial motif 3. Thorny bushExamples of incised copper tablets (Hieroglyph-multiplex: hare PLUS thorn/bush):
    m1491Act

    m1491Bct

    m1492Act

    m1492Bct

    m1493Bct
    1706 Hare
    m1494 
    Pict-42
    m1497Act
    Hieroglyph kharā 'hare' (Oriya): *kharabhaka ʻ hare ʼ. [ʻ longeared like a donkey ʼ: khara -- 1?]N. kharāyo ʻ hare ʼ, Or. kharā°riākherihā, Mth. kharehā, H. kharahā m(CDIAL 3823) ``^rabbit'' Sa. kulai `rabbit'.Mu. kulai`rabbit'.
    KW kulai @(M063)  खरगोस (p. 113) kharagōsa m ( P) A hare.  (Marathi)

    Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) 

    Hypertext: leafless tree, treebranch: A person is seated on a branch of a tree: కమ్మ kamma  [Tel.] n. A branch, or bough of any tree of the palm species.  kuṭi 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' (smithy) khōṇḍa 'leafless tree' (Marathi). Rebus: kõdār 'turner' (Bengali). konda 'furnace, fire-altar'  kō̃da कोँद 'furnace for smelting':  payĕn-kō̃da पयन्-कोँद । परिपाककन्दुः f. a kiln (a potter's, a lime-kiln, and brick-kiln, or the like); a furnace (for smelting). -thöji - or -thöjü -; । परिपाक-(द्रावण-)मूषाf. a crucible, a melting-pot. -ʦañĕ -। परिपाकोपयोगिशान्ताङ्गारसमूहः f.pl. a special kind of charcoal (made from deodar and similar wood) used in smelting furnaces. -wôlu -वोलु&below; । धात्वादिद्रावण-इष्टिकादिपरिपाकशिल्पी m. a metal-smelter; a brick-baker. -wān -वान् । द्रावणचुल्ली m. a smelting furnace.


    Hieroglyph: Person seated on a tree: kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' PLUS 

    Hieroglyph: हेर [ hēra ] m (हेरक S through or H) A spy, scout, explorator, an emissary to gather intelligence. 2 f Spying out or spying, surveying narrowly, exploring. (Marathi) *hērati ʻ looks for or at ʼ. 2. hēraka -- , °rika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ lex., hairika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ Hcar., ʻ thief ʼ lex. [J. Bloch FestschrWackernagel 149 ← Drav., Kuiēra ʻ to spy ʼ, Malt. ére ʻ to see ʼ, DED 765]1. Pk. hēraï ʻ looks for or at ʼ (vihīraï ʻ watches for ʼ); K.ḍoḍ. hērūō ʻ was seen ʼ; WPah.bhad. bhal. he_rnū ʻ to look at ʼ (bhal. hirāṇū ʻ to show ʼ), pāḍ. hēraṇ, paṅ. hēṇā, cur. hērnā, Ku. herṇo, N. hernu, A. heriba, B. herā, Or. heribā (caus. herāibā), Mth. herab, OAw. heraï, H. hernā; G. hervũ ʻ to spy ʼ, M. herṇẽ. 2. Pk. hēria -- m. ʻ spy ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) "hériu"ʻ spy ʼ; G. herɔ m. ʻ spy ʼ, herũ n. ʻ spying ʼ. Addenda: *hērati: WPah.kṭg. (Wkc.) hèrnõ, kc. erno ʻ observe ʼ; Garh. hernu ʻ to look' (CDIAL 14165) Ko. er uk- (uky-) to play 'peeping tom'. Kui ēra (ēri-) to spy, scout; n. spying, scouting; pl action ērka (ērki-). ? Kuwi (S.) hēnai to scout; hēri kiyali to see; (Su. P.) hēnḍ- (hēṭ-) id. Kur. ērnā (īryas) to see, look, look at, look after, look for, wait for, examine, try; ērta'ānā to let see, show; ērānakhrnā to look at one another. Malt. ére to see, behold, observe; érye to peep, spy. Cf. 892 Kur. ēthrnā. / Cf. Skt. heraka- spy, Pkt. her- to look at or for, and many NIA verbs; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14165(DEDR 903)

    Rebus: erka = ekke (Tbh.of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal);crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = anymetal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) Rebus: eraka= copper (Ka.)eruvai =copper (Ta.); ere - a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a= syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.) 

    Tiger looking up/back as hieroglyph narrative: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' krammara 'look back' rebus: kamar 'artisan, smith'.

    Pictorial motifs: erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying 

    uprooted trees] thwarted by a person in the middle with outstretched hands. 
     kuṭhi karṇī, 'smelter accountant (supercargo)'dhakka karṇī m. ʻferry accountant (supercargo) at quay, wharfʼ.

    Image result for harappa tablet tree bharatkalyan97Harappa tablet
    h187Ah187B 5282 meṭṭu mound, heap of earth; mēṭu height, eminence, hillock' Rebus: mẽṛhẽt,meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.)  kuṭhi 'mountain' rebus:  kuṭhi 'smelter'  kanka 'rim of jar' rebus:karNI'supercargo' khareDo 'currycomb' rebus: Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.); kharada खरडें daybook, brief memoranda of metalwork. (Products out of) Iron furnace; karaḍā means 'hard alloy of metals such as gold, silver etc.'
    m0478A
    m0478B tablet 

    m0479a
    m0479b
    m0480a
    m0480b
    m0478At m0478Bt 

    Is the pictorial of a tall jar the Sign 342  with a lid? Sign 45 seems to be a

    kneeling adorant offering a pot (Sign 328 ) 2815 Pict-77: Tree, generally

    within a railing or on a platform. 3230 Tree and other hieroglyphs, Harappa tablet h0480a baTa'rimless pot' bhaTa 'worshipper' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS kuṭi 'tree' rebus kuṭhi 'smelter' (Endless knot is: mēḍhā 'twist' rebus med 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic)medhā 'dhana, yajna'. gaNDa 'four' rebus:kanda 'fire-altar'baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'कणिक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread' rebus: कणिक kárṇaka 'helmsman'; dula'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' koDa 'one' rebus: koD'workshop' khareDo 'currycomb' rebus: Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.) kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kaṁsa 'bronze' (Te.) h180b erga 'jungle clearance' (uprooted trees in the hands of two contending persons; a woman with outstretched arms thwarts the contenders) rebus:erako 'moltencast' eraka, arka 'copper, gold' hence agasAle 'goldsmith'.

    kuṭi 'tree'Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' bhaṭa 'worshipper' Rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baTa 'iron' (Gujarati) This hieroglyph is a phonetic deterinant of the 'rimless pot': baṭa = rimless pot (Kannada) Rebus: baṭa = a kind of iron (Gujarati) bhaṭa 'a furnace'.  Hence, the hieroglyph-multiplex of an adorant with rimless pot signifies: 'iron furnace' bhaTa. 


    bAraNe ' an offering of food to a demon' (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi. Bengali) The narrative of a worshipper offering to a tree is thus interpretable as a smelting of three minerals: copper, zinc and tin.


    Numeral four: gaNDa 'four' Rebus: kand 'fire-altar'; Four 'ones': koḍa ‘one’ (Santali) Rebus: koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop'. Thus, the pair of 'four linear strokes PLUS rimless pot' signifies: 'fire-altar (in) artisan's wrkshop'. 


    Circumscript of two linear strokes for 'body' hieroglyph: dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' koḍa ‘one’(Santali) Rebus: koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop'. Thus, the circumscript signifies 'cast metal workshop'. meD 'body' Rebus: meD 'iron'.


    khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ‘turner’ (Gujarati)


    मेढा [ mēḍhā ] 'a curl or snarl; twist in thread' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’. medhā yajña, धन Naigh. ii , 10.

    Thus, metallic ore. Medha ‘yajna, dhanam’ erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying  uprooted trees] thwarted by a person in the middle with outstretched hands Hieroglyph: era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali) Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.) kola ‘tiger, jackal’ (Kon.); rebus: kolworking in iron, blacksmith, ‘alloy of five metals, panchaloha’ (Tamil) kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kolami ‘smithy’ (Telugu)   Inverted V, m478 (lid above rim of narrow-necked jar) The rimmed jar next to the tiger with turned head has a lid. Lid ‘ad.aren’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ karnika 'rim of jar' Rebus: karni 'supercargo' (Marathi) Thus, together, the jar with lid composite hieroglyhph denotes 'native metal supercargo'. karn.aka = handle of a vessel; ka_n.a_, kanna_ = rim, edge; kan.t.u = rim of a vessel; kan.t.ud.iyo = a small earthen vessel; kan.d.a kanka = rim of a water-pot; kan:kha, kankha = rim of a vessel 

    Rebus readings: maṇḍa ‘ some sort of framework (?) ʼ. [In nau - maṇḍḗ n. du. ʻ the two sets of poles rising from the thwarts or the two bamboo covers of a boat (?) ʼ ŚBr. Rebus: M. mã̄ḍ m. ʻ array of instruments &c. ʼ; Si. maḍa -- ya ʻ adornment, ornament ʼ. (CDIAL 9736) kamaḍha 'penance' (Pkt.)Rebus: kampaṭṭam 'mint' (Tamil) battuḍu. n. A worshipper (Telugu) Rebus: pattar merchants (Tamil), perh. Vartaka (Skt.)

    erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying uprooted trees].Aḍaru twig; aḍiri small and thin branch of a tree; aḍari small branches (Ka.); aḍaru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67). Aḍar = splinter (Santali); rebus: aduru = native metal (Ka.) Vikalpa: kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.) Rebus: kuṭhi = furnace (Santali) hakhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' (Maithili) •era, er-a = eraka = ?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.) •era_ = claws of an animal that can do no harm (G.) •era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali) •Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.)  

    heraka = spy (Skt.); eraka, hero = a messenger; a spy (Gujarati); er to look at or for (Pkt.); er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.) Rebus: erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.) eraka ‘copper’ (Kannada) 


    Hieroglyph: Looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali)  kola, ‘tiger, jackal’ (Kon.); rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith, ‘alloy of five metals, panchaloha’ (Tamil) kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kolami ‘smithy’ 
    (Te 
    Hieroglyph: era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali)


    •Reb er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Telugu) hakhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. Glyph: ‘impeding, hindering’: taṭu (Ta.) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Ta. taṭu (-pp-, -tt) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist. (DEDR 3031)


    The rim of jar PLUS lid is read as hypertext rebus as: dhakka karni 'bright metal supercargo'.

    Hypertext: सांगड  sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S)  f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together.
    Rebus: sãgaṛh 'fortification' sangar 'trade' అంగడి  aṅgaḍi angadi. [Drav.] (Gen. అంగటి Loc. అంగట, plu. అంగళ్లు) n. A shop. అంగడిపెట్టు to open a shop. అంగళ్లవాడ range of shops. అంగట పోకార్చి selling in the shop. అంగడివీధి a market place. Ta. aṅkāṭi bazaar, bazaar street. Ma. aṅṅāṭi shop, bazaar. Ko. aŋga·ḍy id. To. ogoḏy bazaar (? < Badaga). Ka. aṅgaḍi shop, stall. Koḍ. aŋgaḍi id. Tu. aṅgaḍi id. Te. aṅgaḍi id. Kol. aŋgaḍi bazaar. Nk. 
    aŋgāṛi id. Nk. (Ch.) aŋgāṛ market. Pa. aŋgoḍ courtyard, compound. / ? Cf. Skt. aṅgaṇa- courtyard. 
    (DEDR 35)

    Section 5. Etyma (Bhāratīya sprachbund)

    Hieroglyph: pāṭroṛo m. ʻwooden troughʼ(Sindhi) pathiyā ʻ basket used as feeding trough for animals  (Maithili): *prasthapattra ʻ seed account ʼ. [prastha -- 2, páttra -- ]K. pathawaturu m. ʻ memorandum showing the area sown ʼ.(CDIAL 8871) prastha2 m.n. ʻ a measure of weight or capacity = 32 palas ʼ MBh.Pa. pattha -- m. ʻ a measure = 1/4 āḷhaka, cooking vessel containing 1 pattha ʼ; NiDoc. prasta ʻ a measure ʼ; Pk. pattha -- , °aya -- m. ʻ a measure of grain ʼ; K. path m. ʻ a measure of land requiring 1 trakh (= 9 1/2 lb.) of seed ʼ; L. patth, (Ju.) path m. ʻ a measure of capacity = 4 boras ʼ; Ku. pātho ʻ a measure = 2 seers ʼ; N. pāthi ʻ a measure of capacity = 1/10 man ʼ; Bi. pathiyā ʻ basket used by sower or for feeding cattle ʼ; Mth. pāthā ʻ large milk pail ʼ, pathiyā ʻ basket used as feeding trough for animals ʼ; H. pāthī f. ʻ measure of corn for a year ʼ; Si. pata ʻ a measure of grain and liquids = 1/4 näliya ʼ.*prasthapattra -- .Addenda: prastha -- 2: WPah.poet. patho m. ʻ a grain measure about 2 seers ʼ (prob. ← Ku. Mth. form) Him.I 110.(CDIAL 8869) Ta. pātti bathing tub, watering trough or basin, spout, drain; pattal wooden bucket; pattar id., wooden trough for feeding animals. Ka. pāti basin for water round the foot of a tree. Tu. pāti trough or bathing tub, spout, drain. Te. pādi, pādu basin for water round the foot of a tree. (DEDR 4079) பத்தல் pattal, n. 1. A wooden bucket; மரத்தாலான நீரிறைக்குங் கருவி. தீம்பிழி யெந்திரம் பத்தல் வருந்த (பதிற்றுப். 19, 23). 2. See பத்தர்¹, 2. 3. See பத்தர்¹, 3. 4. Ditch, depression; குழி. ஆன்வழிப்படுநர் தோண்டிய பத்தல் (நற். 240). 5. A part of the stem of the palmyra leaf, out of which fibre is extracted; நாருரித்தற்கு ஏற்ற பனைமட்டையின் ஓருறுப்பு. (G. Tn. D. I, 221.) பத்தர்¹ pattarn. 1. See பத்தல், 1, 4, 5. 2. Wooden trough for feeding animals; தொட்டி. பன்றிக் கூழ்ப்பத்தரில் (நாலடி, 257). 3. Cocoanut shell or gourd used as a vessel; குடுக்கை. கொடிக்காய்ப்பத்தர் (கல்லா. 40, 3).பாத்திரம்² pāttiram, n. < pātra. 1. Vessel, utensil; கொள்கலம். (பிங்.) 2. Mendicant's bowl; இரப்போர் கலம். (சூடா.)pāˊtra n. ʻ drinking vessel, dish ʼ RV., °aka -- n., pātrīˊ- ʻ vessel ʼ Gr̥ŚrS. [√1]Pa. patta -- n. ʻ bowl ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ little bowl ʼ, pātĭ̄ -- f.; Pk. patta -- n., °tī -- f., amg. pāda -- , pāya -- n., pāī -- f. ʻ vessel ʼ; Sh. păti̯ f. ʻ large long dish ʼ (← Ind.?); K. pāthar, dat. °tras m. ʻ vessel, dish ʼ, pôturu m. ʻ pan of a pair of scales ʼ (gahana -- pāth, dat. pöċü f. ʻ jewels and dishes as part of dowry ʼ ← Ind.); S. pāṭri f. ʻ large earth or wooden dish ʼ, pāṭroṛo m. ʻ wooden trough ʼ; L. pātrī f. ʻ earthen kneading dish ʼ, parāt f. ʻ large open vessel in which bread is kneaded ʼ, awāṇ. pātrī ʻ plate ʼ; P. pātar m. ʻ vessel ʼ, parāt f., parātṛā m. ʻ large wooden kneading vessel ʼ, ḍog. pāttar m. ʻ brass or wooden do. ʼ; Ku.gng. pāiʻ wooden pot ʼ; B. pātil ʻ earthern cooking pot ʼ, °li ʻ small do. ʼ Or. pātiḷa°tuḷi ʻ earthen pot ʼ, (Sambhalpur) sil -- pā ʻ stone mortar and pestle ʼ; Bi. patĭ̄lā ʻ earthen cooking vessel ʼ, patlā ʻ milking vessel ʼ, pailā ʻ small wooden dish for scraps ʼ; H. patīlā m. ʻ copper pot ʼ, patukī f. ʻ small pan ʼ; G. pātrũ n. ʻ wooden bowl ʼ, pātelũ n. ʻ brass cooking pot ʼ, parāt f. ʻ circular dish ʼ (→ M. parāt f. ʻ circular edged metal dish ʼ); Si. paya ʻ vessel ʼ, päya (< pātrīˊ -- ). (CDIAL 8055)

    பத்தர்² pattarn. < T. battuḍu. A caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்று. பத்தர்&sup5; pattar, n. perh. vartaka. Merchants; வியாபாரிகள். (W.)

    Rebus 1: పట్టీ paṭṭī . [Tel.] n. A list or inventory, a roll of names పట్టి paṭṭi  A list. 


    Rebus 2: పట్ర  paṭra . [Tel.] n. A village, a hamlet. పల్లెపట్ర villages and hamlets. H. iv. 108. పట్రవాండ్లు paṭra-vānḍlu. n. plu. A certain caste skin to the Boyas. Also called ఏకరివాండ్లు. பட்டி¹ paṭṭi, n. prob. படு¹-. 1. [K. M. paṭṭi.] Cow-stall; பசுக்கொட்டில். (பிங்.) 2. [K. M. paṭṭi.] Sheep-fold; ஆட்டுக்கிடை. (W.) 3. A measure of land, as sufficient for a sheep-fold; நிலவளவு வகை. (J.) 4. [K. paṭṭi.] Cattle-pound; கொண் டித்தொழ. 5. [T. paṭra, K. paṭṭi.] Hamlet, village; சிற்றூர். (நாமதீப. 486). 6. Place; இடம். (பிங்.) 

    Ta.
     paṭṭi cow-stall, sheepfold, hamlet, village; paṭṭam sleeping place for animals; paṭṭu hamlet, small town or village; paṭṭiṉam maritime town, small town; paṭappu enclosed garden; paṭappai id., backyard, cowstall. Ma. paṭṭi fold for cattle or sheep. Ko. paṭy Badaga village. To. oṭy id. (< Badaga haṭṭi). Ka.paṭṭi pen or fold, abode, hamlet; paṭṭa city, town, village. Tu. paṭṭů nest. Te. paṭṭu abode, dwelling place. / Cf. Turner, CDIAL, no. 7705, paṭṭana-.(DEDR 3868)

     
    paṭṭana n. ʻ town ʼ Kauṭ., °nī -- f. lex. 2. páttana -- n. MBh. [Prob. ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 383 and EWA ii 192 with ṭṭ replaced by IA. tt. But its specific meaning as ʻ ferry ʼ in S. L. P. B. H. does lend support to its derivation by R. A. Hall in Language 12, 133 from *partana -- (√pr̥ ~ Lat. portus, &c.). Poss. MIA. pattana -- , paṭṭana -- ʻ *ferry ʼ has collided with Drav. loanword for ʻ town ʼ]1. Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ city ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ a kind of village ʼ; Pk. paṭṭaṇa -- n. ʻ city ʼ; K. paṭan m. ʻ quarter of a town, name of a village 14 miles NW of Śrinagar ʼ; N. pāṭan ʻ name of a town in the Nepal Valley ʼ; B. pāṭan ʻ town, market ʼ; Or. pāṭaṇā°anā ʻ town, village, hamlet on outskirts of a big village ʼ; Bi. paṭnā ʻ name of a town ʼ; H. pāṭan m. ʻ town ʼ, G. pāṭaṇ n.; M. pāṭaṇ ʻ name of a town ʼ; Si. paṭuna ʻ town ʼ. -- Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ harbour, port ʼ, Pk. paṭṭaṇa -- n.; H. paṭnīpā̆ṭaunīpāṭūnī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ; Si. paṭuna ʻ harbour, seaport ʼ.2. Pk. pattaṇa -- n. ʻ town ʼ, Si. patana. -- S. pataṇu m. ʻ ferry ʼ (whence pātaṇī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ, f. ʻ ferry boat ʼ); L. pattan, (Ju.) pataṇ m. ʻ ferry ʼ; P. pattaṇ ʻ ferry, landing -- place ʼ, pattaṇī°tuṇī m. ʻ ferryman, one who lives near a ferry ʼ; B. pātanī ʻ ferryman ʼ. (CDIAL 7705) பட்டிகை¹ paṭṭikain. cf. id. 1. Raft, float; தெப்பம். (திவா.) 2. Boat, dhoney; தோணி. (யாழ்அக.)
    K. khāra -- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ(CDIAL 9424)  khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -द्वकुरु‍&below; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -; or -güjü -ग&above;जू&below; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü , a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü ; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -। लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü - । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.


    Ta. paṭṭai palmyra timber, rafter; paṭṭiyal lath, reeper. Ma. paṭṭa areca bough. Ka. paṭṭe palmyra timber, rafter, areca bough; paṭṭi piece of timber of door-frame, rafter, joist; paṭṭika board. Tu. pa

    rafter. Te. paṭṭe bar or spar of wood, piece of timber of door-frame; paṭṭi plank; paṭṭika plank, board, bar of wood. Kol. paṭṭe plank. Nk. paṭi id. Pa. peṭṭi (pl.peṭkul) beam, post. Ga. (P.) paṭiya beam. 

    Kui paṭi beam; paṭa board. Kur. paṭṭā beam in oilmill. (DEDR 3875)

    prastha2 m.n. ʻ a measure of weight or capacity = 32 palas ʼ MBh.Pa. pattha -- m. ʻ a measure = 1/4 āhaka, cooking vessel containing 1 pattha ʼ; NiDoc. prasta ʻ a measure ʼ; Pk. pattha -- , °aya -- m. ʻ a measure of grain ʼ; K. path m. ʻ a measure of land requiring 1 trakh (= 9 1/2 lb.) of seed ʼ; L. patth, (Ju.) path m. ʻ a measure of capacity = 4 boras ʼ; Ku. pātho ʻ a measure = 2 seers ʼ; N. pāthi ʻ a measure of capacity = 1/10 man ʼ; Bi. pathiyā ʻ basket used by sower or for feeding cattle ʼ; Mth. pāthā ʻ large milk pail ʼ, pathiyā ʻ basket used as feeding trough for animals ʼ; H. pāthī f. ʻ measure of corn for a year ʼ; Si. pata ʻ a measure of grain and liquids = 1/4 näliya ʼ. *prasthapattra -- .Addenda: prastha -- 2: WPah.poet. patho m. ʻ a grain measure about 2 seers ʼ (prob.  Ku. Mth. 

    ˊtra n. ʻ drinking vessel, dish ʼ RV., °aka -- n., pātrīˊ- ʻ vessel ʼ Gr̥ŚrS. [√1]Pa. patta -- n. ʻ bowl ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ little bowl ʼ, pātĭ̄ -- f.; Pk. patta -- n., °tī -- f., amg. pāda -- , pāya -- n., pāī -- f. ʻ vessel ʼ; Sh. păti̯ f. ʻ large long dish ʼ ( Ind.?); K. pāthar, dat. °trasm. ʻ vessel, dish ʼ, pôturu m. ʻ pan of a pair of scales ʼ (gahana -- pāth, dat. pöċü f. ʻ jewels and dishes as part of dowry ʼ  Ind.); S. ri f. ʻ large earth or wooden dish ʼ, roo m. ʻ wooden trough ʼ; L. pātrī f. ʻ earthen kneading dish ʼ, parāt f. ʻ large open vessel in which bread is kneaded ʼ, awāpātrī ʻ plate ʼ; P. pātar m. ʻ vessel ʼ, parāt f., parātā m. ʻ large wooden kneading vessel ʼ, og. pāttar m. ʻ brass or wooden do. ʼ; Ku.gng. pāi ʻ wooden pot ʼ; B. pātil ʻ earthern cooking pot ʼ, °li ʻ small do. ʼ Or. pātia°tui ʻ earthen pot ʼ, (Sambhalpur) sil -- pā ʻ stone mortar and pestle ʼ; Bi. patĭ̄lā ʻ earthen cooking vessel ʼ, patlā ʻ milking vessel ʼ, pailā ʻ small wooden dish for scraps ʼ; H. patīlā m. ʻ copper pot ʼ, patukī f. ʻ small pan ʼ; G. pātrũ n. ʻ wooden bowl ʼ, pātelũ n. ʻ brass cooking pot ʼ, parāt f. ʻ circular dish ʼ ( M. parāt f. ʻ circular edged metal dish ʼ); Si. paya ʻ vessel ʼ, päya (< pātrīˊ -- ). *kācapātra -- , khagapātra -- , tāmrapātra -- .pāthá -- m. ʻ way, path ʼ Pā.gaa. [pánthā -- ]śabdapātha -- .Addenda: ˊtra -- : S.kcch. pātar f. ʻ round shallow wooden vessel for kneading flour ʼ; WPah.kg. (kc.) pərāt f. (obl. -- i) ʻ large plate for kneading dough ʼ  P.; Md. tilafat ʻ scales ʼ (+ tila < tulāˊ -- )(CDIAL 8055).

    Mth. pāthā ʻ large milk pail ʼ, pathiyā ʻ basket used as feeding trough for animals ʼTu. pāti trough or bathing tub. These variant pronunciations in Maithili and Tulu indicate the possibility that the early word which signified a feeding trough was pattha, patthaya 'measure of grain' (Prakrtam). 

    Ta. paṭṭi cow-stall, sheepfold, hamlet, village; paṭṭam sleeping place for animals; paṭṭu hamlet, small town or village; paṭṭiṉam maritime town, small town; paṭappu enclosed garden; paṭappai id., backyard, cowstall. Ma. paṭṭi fold for cattle or sheep. Ko. paṭy Badaga village. To. oṭy id. (< Badaga haṭṭi). Ka. paṭṭi pen or fold, abode, hamlet; paṭṭa city, town, village. Tu. paṭṭů nest. Te. paṭṭu abode, dwelling place. / Cf. Turner, CDIAL, no. 7705, paṭṭana-(DEDR 3868) paṭṭana n. ʻ town ʼ Kauṭ., °nī -- f. lex. 2. páttana -- n. MBh. [Prob.  Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 383 and EWA ii 192 with ṭṭ replaced by IA. tt. But its specific meaning as ʻ ferry ʼ in S. L. P. B. H. does lend support to its derivation by R. A. Hall in Language 12, 133 from *partana -- (√pr̥ ~ Lat. portus, &c.). Poss. MIA. pattana -- , paṭṭana -- ʻ *ferry ʼ has collided with Drav. loanword for ʻ town ʼ]

    1. Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ city ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ a kind of village ʼ; Pk. paṭṭaa -- n. ʻ city ʼ; K. paan m. ʻ quarter of a town, name of a village 14 miles NW of Śrinagar ʼ; N. an ʻ name of a town in the Nepal Valley ʼ; B. an ʻ town, market ʼ; Or. pā̆aā°anā ʻ town, village, hamlet on outskirts of a big village ʼ; Bi. pa ʻ name of a town ʼ; H. an m. ʻ town ʼ, G. an.; M. a ʻ name of a town ʼ; Si. pauna ʻ town ʼ. -- Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ harbour, port ʼ, Pk. paṭṭaa -- n.; H. papā̆aunīūnī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ; Si. pauna ʻ harbour, seaport ʼ. 2. Pk. pattaa -- n. ʻ town ʼ, Si. patana. -- S. patau m. ʻ ferry ʼ (whence pātaī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ, f. ʻ ferry boat ʼ); L. pattan, (Ju.) pata m. ʻ ferry ʼ; P. patta ʻ ferry, landing -- place ʼ, pattaī°tuī m. ʻ ferryman, one who lives near a ferry ʼ; B. pātanī ʻ ferryman ʼ.(CDIAL 7705)

    paṣṭha 8015 *paṣṭha ʻ young animal ʼ. 2. *pāṣṭha -- . [Connexion with paṣṭhaváh -- ʻ four or five year old bull ʼ VS. (ND 374 a 21, EWA ii 241) very doubtful: and in absence of other evidence for -- ṣṭh -- orig. rather *paṭṭha -- , *ṭṭha<-> ~ *ḍḍa -- q.v.] 1. S. paha f. ʻ kid of 8 or 9 months ʼ; L. paṭṭhpaṭṭhī f., pahōrā m., °rī f. ʻ kid ʼ, paṭṭ m., ° f. ʻ young donkey ʼ; P. paṭṭh f. ʻ young she -- goat not yet giving milk, pullet ʼ, paṭṭ m. ʻ young he -- goat or cock or man or grass ʼ, paṭṭ f. ʻ young girl before puberty ʼ, pahor°rī f., °rā m. ʻ young goat ʼ; WPah. bhal. pahe_r m.f. ʻ well -- developed lamb ʼ; Ku. ho m.,° f. ʻ kid, lamb ʼ, paṭṭ ʻ young man ʼ, pahaaro ʻ young she -- goat ʼ, gng. h m., pyeh f. ʻ kid ʼ; N. ho m., °hi f. ʻ kid ʼ; A. pa ʻ full -- grown uncastrated goat ʼ,  ʻ she -- goat ʼ; B. ̄(h)ā ʻ he -- goat, young ram ʼ, ̄hi ʻ young she -- goat, any young female animal ʼ; Or. peṇṭ m., ° f. ʻ kid, lamb ʼ; Bi.  m., °pahiyā f. ʻ kid ʼ, Bhoj. ,paṭṭ; H. paṭṭpah m. ʻ young full grown animal ʼ, pahiyā f. ʻ young she -- goat ʼ; M. (h) f. ʻ kid ʼ; Si. avāiyā ʻ young of any animal, young person ʼ, -- ext. kk -- : Sh. faikĕr m.f. ʻ foal ʼ; Si. ikkī ʻ girl ʼ.
    2. K.pog. h ʻ kid ʼ; S. hohuru m. ʻ 10 or 12 months old kid ʼ; P.  m. ʻ young elephant ʼ; H.  f. ʻ young buffalo ʼ (or < *ḍḍa -- ?).
    *paṣṭharūpa -- ; *ajapaṣṭha -- , *avipaṣṭha -- .
    Addenda: *paṣṭha -- : S.kcch. paṭṭh m. ʻ young goat ʼ.

    paṣṭharūpa 8016 *paṣṭharūpa ʻ young animal ʼ. [*paṣṭha -- , rūpá -- ] Bi. pahrū ʻ kid, lamb ʼ; Bhoj. paharū ʻ buffalo calf ʼ699 paṭṭa1 m. ʻ slab, tablet ʼ MBh., °aka -- m., °ikā -- f. Kathās. [Derivation as MIA. form of páttra -- (EWA ii 192), though very doubtful, does receive support from Dard. *paṭṭa -- ʻ leaf ʼ and meaning ʻ metal plate ʼ of several NIA. forms of páttra -- ] Pa. paṭṭa -- m. ʻ slab, tablet ʼ; Pk. paṭṭa -- , °aya -- m., °iyā<-> f. ʻ slab of stone, board ʼ; NiDoc. paami loc. sg., pai ʻ tablet ʼ; K. paa m. ʻ slab, tablet, metal plate ʼ, pou m. ʻ flat board, leaf of door, etc. ʼ, ü f. ʻ plank ʼ, paürü f. ʻ 

    plank over a watercourse ʼ (< -- aikā -- ); S. pao m. ʻ strip of paper ʼ, °i f. ʻ boat's landing plank ʼ, °ī f. ʻ board to write on, rafter ʼ; L.paṭṭ m. ʻ thigh ʼ, f. ʻ beam ʼ, paṭṭā m. ʻ lease ʼ, °ī f. ʻ narrow strip of level ground ʼ; P. paṭṭ m. ʻ sandy plain ʼ, °ā m. ʻ board, title deed to land ʼ, °ī f. ʻ writing board ʼ; WPah.bhal. paṭṭ m. ʻ thigh ʼ, °o m. ʻ central beam of house ʼ; Ku. o ʻ millstone ʼ, °ī ʻ board, writing board ʼ; N. o ʻ strip, plot of land, side ʼ, °i ʻ tablet, slate, inn ʼ; A.  ʻ board ʼ, paā ʻ stone slab for grinding on ʼ; B. °ā ʻ board, bench, stool, throne ʼ, °i ʻ anything flat, rafter ʼ; Or. a ʻ plain, throne ʼ, °ipaā ʻ wooden plank, metal plate ʼ; Bi.  ʻ wedge fixing beam to body of plough, washing board ʼ, °ī ʻ side -- piece of bed, stone to grind spices on ʼ, (Gaya) paṭṭā ʻ wedge ʼ; Mth.  ʻ end of handle of mattock projecting beyond blade ʼ, °ā ʻ wedge for beam of plough ʼ; OAw. a m. ʻ plank, seat ʼ; H. °ā m. ʻ slab, plank ʼ, °ī ʻ side -- piece of bed ʼ, paṭṭā m. ʻ board on which to sit while eating ʼ; OMarw. ī f. ʻ plank ʼ; OG.īu n. ʻ plank ʼ, alaü m. ʻ dining stool ʼ; G.  f., lɔ m. ʻ bench ʼ, 

    ɔ m. ʻ grinding stone ʼ, °iyũ n. ʻ plank ʼ, °ṭṛɔ m., °ṭṛī f. ʻ beam ʼ; M.  m. ʻ bench ʼ, °ā m. ʻ grinding stone, tableland ʼ, °ī f. ʻ writing board ʼ; Si. paa ʻ metal plate, slab ʼ. -- Deriv.: N. paāunu ʻ to spread out ʼ; H.  ʻ to roof ʼ.


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    This is an addendum to 

     

    https://tinyurl.com/yd5psfo9 wherein the hare + thorny bush is read rebus: kaṇḍho 'thorn' rebus: kaṇṭho, ka market town. Together with hare: kharā 'hare' rebus: khār 'blacksmith', the reading of hypertext is: khār kantho 'blacksmith market town'.

    It is also possible to read the hypertext on the following copper tablets as: Thorny bush: kaṇḍiru ʻ, kã̄ṭīkāˊṇḍ rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'. Thus, hare + thorny bush is read a hypertext: khāra 'blacksmith' + khaṇḍa 'implements' + 

    kantho 'market town', i.e. blacksmith implements town.

    کنديَ kandaey, s.m. (1st) A division, a district, a parish, a ward, a quarter of a town or city. Pl. يِ ī. (S کهنڐه‍).(Pashto) cf.Bundelkhand 'mountain region' (Madhya Pradesh, India) Thus, 

    khār khaṇḍa means 'blacksmith quarter of a town'.


    Thorny bushExamples of incised copper tablets (Hieroglyph-multiplex: hare PLUS thorn/bush):
    m1491Act

    m1491Bct

    m1492Act

    m1492Bct

    m1493Bct
    1706 Hare






    pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus:pasra 'smithy, forge' (Santali) kūṭī kūdī, 'a stalk/twig, sprout (or tree branch)' kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Sanskrit) + Rebus: kuṭhi‘smelting furnace‘ (Santali) Thus, pasra kuṭhi 'smithy, smelter'
    Sign 183. ranku 'antelope' + koḍa 'one' rebus: koḍ 'workshop' rebus: + Rebus: rango ‘pewter’. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).  Hieroglyhph: buffalo: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku -- ?).(CDIAL 10538, 10559) Rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567). Thus, ranku koḍ  'tin workshop'.
     Sign 407 is inclined stroke infixed + Sign 403. Sign 403 is a duplication of  dula 'pair, duplicated' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS  Sign'oval/lozenge/rhombus' hieoglyph Sign 373. Sign 373 has the shape of oval or lozenge is the shape of a bun ingotmũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced atone time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed likea four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes andformed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt komūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, Sign 373 signifies word, mũhã̄ 'bun ingot'. Thus, hypertext Sign 403 reads: dul mũhã̄ 'metalcast ingot'. Inclined stroke is a semantic determinant to signify ingot: ḍhāḷ = a slope; the inclination of a plane (G.) Rebus: : ḍhāḷako = a large metal ingot (G.). Thus, the Sign 407 hypertext reads: dul mũhã̄ ḍhāḷako  metal casting large ingot.
     Sign 89 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'.
     Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328  baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'. The hypertext reads: mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'

    Sign 65 is a hypertext composed ofSign 59 and 'lid of pot' hieroglyph.Sign 134 ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS dhakka 'lid of pot' rebus: dhakka 'bright' Thus, ayo dhakka, 'bright alloy metal.' Thus, Sign 65 hypertext reads: ayo dhakka 'bright alloy metal'.

    The reading of incription on 'hare' copper plate is with the following hypertexts to signify metalwork catalogue of a blacksmith:

    khāra'blacksmith' + khaṇḍa 'implements' + 

    kantho 'market town', i.e. blacksmith implements town.

    +
    ayo dhakka'bright alloy metal'
    mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'
    kolami 'smithy, forge'
    dul mũhã̄ ḍhāḷako  metal casting large ingot. + pasra kuṭhi 'smithy, smelter'
    ranku koḍ  'tin workshop'
    pasra kuṭhi 'smithy, smelter'


    m1494 
    Pict-42
    m1497Act
    Hieroglyph kharā 'hare' (Oriya): *kharabhaka ʻ hare ʼ. [ʻ longeared like a donkey ʼ: khara -- 1?]N. kharāyo ʻ hare ʼ, Or. kharā°riākherihā, Mth. kharehā, H. kharahā m(CDIAL 3823) ``^rabbit'' Sa. kulai `rabbit'.Mu. kulai`rabbit'.
    KW kulai @(M063)  खरगोस (p. 113) kharagōsa m ( P) A hare.  (Marathi)

    Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) 


    Thorny bush: kaṇḍiru ʻ, kã̄ṭīkāˊṇḍ:

     kaṇṭin ʻ *thorny ʼ (ʻ name of various plants ʼ). [kaṇṭa -- 1]Pk. kaṁṭiya -- ʻ thorny ʼ; S. kaṇḍī f. ʻ thorn bush ʼ; N. kã̄ṛe ʻ thorny ʼ; A. kã̄ṭi ʻ point of an oxgoad ʼ, kã̄iṭīyā ʻ thorny ʼ; H. kã̄ṭī f. ʻ thorn bush ʼ; G. kã̄ṭī f. ʻ a kind of fish ʼ; M. kã̄ṭīkāṭī f. ʻ thorn bush ʼ. -- Ext. with -- la -- : S. kaṇḍiru ʻ thorny, bony ʼ; -- with -- lla -- : Gy. pal. ḳăndīˊla ʻ prickly pear ʼ; H. kãṭīlākaṭ° ʻ thorny ʼ.(CDIAL 2679)kāˊṇḍa (kāṇḍá -- TS.) m.n. ʻ single joint of a plant ʼ AV,  ʻ cluster, heap ʼ (in tr̥ṇa -- kāṇḍa -- Pāṇ. Kāś.). [Poss. connexion with gaṇḍa -- 2makes prob. non -- Aryan origin (not with P. Tedesco Language 22, 190 < kr̥ntáti). Prob. ← Drav., cf. Tam. kaṇ ʻ joint of bamboo or sugarcane ʼ EWA i 197]Pa. kaṇḍa -- m.n. ʻ joint of stalk, stalk, arrow, lump ʼ; Pk. kaṁḍa -- , °aya -- m.n. ʻ knot of bough, bough, stick ʼ; Gaw. kāṇḍkāṇ; Kho. kan ʻ tree, large bush ʼ; kōṇ; K. kã̄ḍ m. ʻ stalk of a reed, straw ʼ, °no m. ʻ reed ʼ, °nī f. ʻ topmost joint of the reed Sara, reed pen, stalk, straw, porcupine's quill ʼ; L. kānã̄ m. ʻ stalk of the reed Sara ʼ, °nī˜ f. ʻ pen, small spear ʼ; P. kānnā m. ʻ the reed Saccharum munja, reed in a weaver's warp ʼ,  Bi. kã̄ṛā ʻ stem of muñja grass (used for thatching) ʼ; Mth. kã̄ṛ ʻ stack of stalks of large millet ʼ, kã̄ṛī ʻ wooden milkpail ʼ; Bhoj. kaṇḍā ʻ reeds ʼ; H. kaṇḍā m. ʻ reed, bush ʼ (← EP.?); G. kã̄ḍ m. ʻ joint, bough, arrow S.kcch. kāṇḍī f. ʻ lucifer match ʼ? (CDIAL 3023)Gaw. khaṇḍa ʻ hill pasture H. khaṇḍar ʻ broken ʼ, m. ʻ hole, pit ʼ, khãṛar ʻ dilapidated ʼ, m. ʻ broken ground, chasm, hole ʼ (see also *khaṇḍaghara -- ).As ʻ hill, mountain pass ʼ (< ʻ *rock ʼ < ʻ piece ʼ or < ʻ *pass ʼ < ʻ gap ʼ and perh. X skandhá -- : cf. IIFL i 265, iii 3, 104, AO xviii 240): Gaw. khaṇḍa ʻ hill pasture ʼ (see ab.); Bshk. khan m. ʻ hill ʼ, Tor. khān, (Grierson) khaṇḍ, Mai. khān, Chil. Gau. kān, Phal. khã̄ṇ; Sh. koh. khŭṇ m., gur. khonn, pales. khōṇə, jij. khɔ̈̄ṇ ʻ mountain ʼ, gil. (Lor.) kh*ln m. ʻ mountain pass ʼ.ʼ(CDIAL 3792)
    Rebus:  khaṇḍa ‘implements’



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    https://tinyurl.com/yb4zaoaa

    The al-Sabah Collection contains almost two thousand items of metalwork ranging from elaborately worked vessels inlaid with precious metals to simply cast bronze finials in the form of animals. Islamic metalworkers, whether in Cairo or Herat, often fashioned relatively simple forms covered the surface in dazzling engraved or precious metal-inlaid patterns of arabesque interlace, processions of animals or long benedictory inscriptions. Objects with calligraphy as decoration occur more frequently in metalwork than any other medium used for objects of utility. These range from benedictory inscriptions to verses from the Qur’an to lines of poetry, and sometimes include the signatures of the artists.

    The ancient Near East has a long history of working in copper alloy and bronzes and brasses (copper alloyed with other metals) became the most important material in the mediaeval period. Objects are almost invariably sculpturally powerful, and examples of everyday objects such as oil lamps or incense burners became works of art. Brass was especially popular in the Mamluk domains. In the later period, especially in Iran and India, steel was used for decorative purposes; despite its hardness, it could be cut in openwork patterns, such as arabesques and calligraphic compositions as delicate as lace. View some of the collections at: http://darmuseum.org.kw/dai/the-collections/metals/


    A gold disc is now in al-Sabah collection of Dar al-Atharal-Islamiyyah (Kuwait National Museum). This gold disc is a veritable metalwork catalogue, consistent with the entire Indus Script Corpora as catalogus catalogorum of metalwork.  The uniqueness of the collection of hieroglyph-multiplexs on this gold disc is that a large number of metalwork catalogue items (more than 12) have been presented on a circular space with 9.6 cm diameter validating the Maritime Tin Route which linked Hanoi to Haifa through the Persian Gulf. I assume that this disc may date to 3rd millennium BCE as evidenced by archaeological data of contacts between Sarasvati Civilization and the Persian Gulf Bronze Age sites.

    "Gold disc. al-Sabah Collection, Kuwait National Museum. 9.6 cm diameter, which was obviously from the Indus Valley period in  India. Typical of that period, it depicts zebu, bulls, human attendants, ibex, fish, partridges, bees, pipal free an animal-headed standard." Benoy K. Behl Source: https://www.facebook.com/BenoyKBehlArtCulture

    सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined animal', rebus: sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'arranger, manager''catalogue, list'.


    Top register (Left) next to markhor. Pajhar 's[rpit'; rebus: pasra 'smithy' कूदी f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/ईAV. v , 19 , 12 Kaus3.ccord. to Kaus3. Sch. = बदरी, "Christ's thorn".(Monier-Williams) kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'smelter furnace' (Santali)

    The central circles embedded with a copper plate signifies: dhātu, dhāv 'strands' rebus: 'dhātu, dhāv 'mineral'  PLUS cicles: vaa 'circle'  Read together as: धावड dhāvaḍa'red ferrite ore smelter'

    In the context of the bronze-age, the hieroglyphs are read rebus in Meluhha (mleccha) speech as metalware catalogs. 
    The hieroglyphs on the Kuwait Museum gold disc can be read rebus:

    Why are animals shown in pairs? The pair or mirror image signifies: dula‘pair’ (Kashmiri); rebus: dul‘cast metal,metal casting’ (Mu.)

    1. A pair of tabernae montana flowers tagara 'tabernae montana' flower; rebus: tagara 'tin'

    2. A pair of rams tagara 'ram'; rebus: damgar 'merchant' (Akkadian)

    3. Ficus religiosa leaves on a tree branch (5) loa 'ficus leaf'; rebus: loh 'metal'. kol in Tamil means pancaloha 'alloy of five metals'.

    4. A pair of bulls tethered to the tree branch:  ḍhangar 'bull'; rebus ḍhangar 'blacksmith' Bulls tied to post: 

    mēṭhī -- f. PañcavBr.com., mēḍhī -- , mēṭī -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ
    Rebus: meḍ‘iron’ (Ho.)
    Two persons touch the two bulls: meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.) Rebus: meḍ‘iron’ (Ho.) Thus, the hieroglyph composition denotes ironsmiths.

    5. A pair of antelopes looking back: krammara 'look back'; rebus: kamar 'smith' (Santali); ranku 'antelope' rebus: ranku 'tin'. Vikalpa: tagara 'antelope'; rebus: damgar 'merchant' (Akkadian)

    6. A pair of antelopes mē̃ḍh 'antelope, ram'; rebus: mē̃ḍ 'iron' (Mu.) 

    miṇḍāl 'markhor' rebus: mẽṛhet  mē̃ḍ 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.)
    7. A pair of combs kã̄gsī f. ʻcombʼ (Gujarati); rebus 1: kangar ‘portable furnace’ (Kashmiri); rebus 2: kamsa 'bronze'.

    8. A pair of fishes ayo 'fish' (Mu.); rebus: ayo 'metal, iron' (Gujarati); ayas 'iron, alloy metal' (Sanskrit)steel L. ; ([ayas अयस् cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) (Monier-Williams)
    9.A pair of buffaloes tethered to a post-standard: ran:gā ‘buffalo’; ran:ga ‘pewter or alloy of tin (ran:ku), lead (nāga) and antimony (añjana)’(Santali) AN.NAKU 'tin' (Akkadian) 
    10. A pair of birds  पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large.''Zebu,bos indicus' rebus: पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'magnetite ferrite ore' . पोलाद [ pōlāda ] 'black drongo' Rebus: n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. .

    Vikalpa: కారండవము [ kāraṇḍavamu ] n. A sort of duck. కారండవము [ kāraṇḍavamu ] kāraṇḍavamu. [Skt.] n. A sort of duck. कारंडव [kāraṇḍava ] m S A drake or sort of duck. कारंडवी f S The female. karandava [ kârandava ] m. kind of duck. कारण्ड a sort of duck R. vii , 31 , 21 கரண்டம் karaṇṭam, n. Alternative: कोळी kōḷī 'an aquatic bird' (Marathi) Rebus: kol 'working in iron' (Tamil) Hieroglyph 1: kōḍi. [Tel.] n. A fowl, a bird. (Telugu) Rebus: khōṭ ‘alloyed ingots’. Rebus 2: kol ‘the name of a bird, the Indian cuckoo’ (Santali) kol 'iron, smithy, forge'. Rebus 3: baṭa = quail (Santali) Rebus: baṭa = furnace, kiln (Santali) bhrāṣṭra = furnace (Skt.) baṭa = a kind of iron (G.) bhaṭa ‘furnace’ (G.) 

    11.A post-standard with curved horns on top of a stylized 'eye' with one-horn on either side of two faces. The orthography indicates the depiction of eyebrows:भ्रू--कुटी f. contraction of the brows , a frown (also -कुटि Pa1n2. 6-3 , 61 Va1rtt. 3 Pat. , and कुटिक mfn. ifc. L. MBh. R. &c
    [L=153775]acc. with √कृ or बन्ध् , to knit the eyebrows bhr̥kuṭi f. ʻ frown ʼ MBh., bhrakuṭi -- Yaśast. [bhr̥ -- and bhra -- (though the latter is given by Pāṇ. as the form of bhrūˊ -- in cmpds.)
    were orig. independent of bhrūˊ -- and may be of Austro -- as. and Mu. origin (cf. esp.
    Sant. kuṭi<-> ʻ brows ʼ); though later replaced in bhrū˘kuṭi -- MBh., Pa. bhūkuṭi -- . --
    EWA ii 517 with lit.]
    Pa. bhakuṭi -- f. ʻ frown ʼ, Pk. bhiuḍi -- f.; OG. bhayaḍi<-> f. ʻ eyebrow  (CDIAL 9575) भुंवई (p. 361) bhuṃvī f An eyebrow. See phrases under भंवई. 
    Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'

    A segment from the bottom register of the gold disc which creates a stylized 'eye' atop a stand or flagstaff with two ligatured 'faces' back-to-back and adorned by curling horns (of a ram or markhor). The stand is flanked by two buffaloes and two birds.

    mũh‘face’; rebus: mũh‘ingot’ (Mu.) 

    ṭhaṭera ‘buffalo horns’. ṭhaṭerā   ‘brass worker’ (Punjabi) 
    dol ‘eye’; Rebus: dul ‘to cast metal in a mould’ (Santali)
    kandi ‘hole, opening’ (Ka.)[Note the eye shown as a dotted circle on many Dilmun seals.]; kan‘eye’ (Ka.); rebus: kandi (pl. –l) necklace, beads (Pa.);kaṇḍ 'stone ore'  Vikalpa: கண்வட்டம் kaṇ-vaṭṭamn. < id. +. 1. Range of vision, eye-sweep, full reach of one's observation; கண்பார்வைக்குட்பட்ட இடம். தங்கள் கண்வட்டத்திலே உண்டுடுத்துத்திரிகிற (ஈடு, 3, 5, 2). Rebus: கண்வட்டம் kaṇ-vaṭṭamn. < id. +. 1. Range of vision, eye-sweep, full reach of one's observation; கண்பார்வைக்குட்பட்ட இடம். தங்கள் . Mint; நாணயசாலை. கண்வட்டக்கள்ளன் (ஈடு.). Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236)

    khuṇḍ ʻtethering peg or post' (Western Pahari) Rebus: kūṭa‘workshop’; kuṭi= smelter furnace (Santali); Rebus 2: kuṇḍ 'fire-altar' Rebus 3: khoṭā 'alloy of metal'.H کهوٿا खोटा khoṭā 'to alloy' goṭā edging of gold lace (Hindi) 

    In this perspective, the hieroglyphs on the Kuwait Museum gold disc can be read rebus:

    1. A pair of tabernae montana flowers tagara 'tabernae montana' flower; rebus: tagara 'tin'

    2. A pair of rams meḍh: 'ram' rebus:meḍh 'helper ofmerchant'.

    Vikalpa: tagara 'ram'; rebus: damgar 'merchant' (Akkadian) Next to one ram: kuTi 'tree' Rebus: kuThi 'smelter' Alternative: kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'.

    3. Ficus religiosa leaves on a tree branch (5) loa 'ficus leaf'; rebus: loh 'metal'. kol in Tamil means pancaloha'alloy of five metals'. PLUS flanking pair of lotus flowers: tAmarasa 'lotus' Rebus: tAmra 'copper' dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' thus, denoting copper castings. : The Meluhha gloss for 'five' is: taṭṭal Homonym is: ṭhaṭṭha brass (i.e. alloy of copper + zinc). Thus,five leaves signify: ṭhaṭṭha 'copper alloy, brass'(with sattva 'zinc').

    4. A pair of bulls tethered to the tree branch: barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: bharata 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin' (Marathi) PLUS kola 'man' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kur.i 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron' Alternative: ḍhangar 'bull'; rebus ḍhangar 'blacksmith' poLa 'zebu' Rebus: poLa 'magnetite'.

    Two persons touch the two bulls: meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) Thus, the hieroglyph composition denotes ironsmiths.

    5. A pair of antelopes looking back: krammara 'look back'; rebus: kamar 'smith' (Santali); tagara 'antelope'; rebus: damgar 'merchant' (Akkadian) Alternative: melh, mr..eka 'goat' (Brahui. Telugu) Rebus: milakkhu 'copper' (Pali), mleccha-mukha 'copper' (Samskritam)

    6. A pair of antelopes mē̃ḍh 'antelope, ram'; rebus: mē̃ḍ 'iron' (Mu.) 

    7. A pair of combs  khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: kharaḍāखरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'.Vikalpa: kāṅga 'comb' Rebus: kanga 'brazier, fireplace'


    Phal. kāṅga ʻ combing ʼ in ṣiṣ k° dūm ʻI comb my hairʼ  khyḗṅgiakēṅgī f.;
    kaṅghā m. ʻ large comb (Punjabi) káṅkata m. ʻ comb ʼ AV., n. lex., °tī -- , °tikã -- f. lex. 2. *kaṅkaṭa -- 2. 3. *kaṅkaśa -- . [Of doubtful IE. origin WP i 335, EWA i 137: aberrant -- uta -- as well as -- aśa -- replacing -- ata -- in MIA. and NIA.]1. Pk. kaṁkaya -- m. ʻ comb ʼ, kaṁkaya -- , °kaï -- m. ʻ name of a tree ʼ; Gy. eur. kangli f.; Wg. kuṇi -- přũ ʻ man's comb ʼ (for kuṇi -- cf. kuṇälík beside kuṅälíks.v. kr̥muka -- ; -- přũ see prapavaṇa -- ); Bshk. kēṅg ʻ comb ʼ, Gaw. khēṅgīˊ, Sv. khḗṅgiāTor. kyäṅg ʻ comb ʼ (Dard. forms, esp. Gaw., Sv., Phal. but not Sh., prob. ← L. P. type < *kaṅgahiā -- , see 3 below); Sh. kōṅyi̯ f. (→ Ḍ. k*lṅi f.), gil. (Lor.) kōĩ f. ʻ man's comb ʼ, kōũ m. ʻ woman's comb ʼ, pales. kōgō m. ʻ comb ʼ; K. kanguwu m. ʻ man's comb ʼ, kangañ f. ʻ woman's ʼ; WPah. bhad. kãˊkei ʻ a comb -- like fern ʼ, bhal. kãkei f. ʻ comb, plant with comb -- like leaves ʼ; N. kāṅiyokāĩyo ʻ comb ʼ, A. kã̄kai, B. kã̄kui; Or. kaṅkāikaṅkuā ʻ comb ʼ, kakuā ʻ ladder -- like bier for carrying corpse to the burning -- ghat ʼ; Bi. kakwā ʻ comb ʼ, kaka°hī, Mth. kakwā, Aw. lakh. kakawā, Bhoj. kakahī f.; H. kakaiyā ʻ shaped like a comb (of a brick) ʼ; G. (non -- Aryan tribes of Dharampur)kākhāī f. ʻ comb ʼ; M. kaṅkvā m. ʻ comb ʼ, kã̄kaī f. ʻ a partic. shell fish and its shell ʼ; -- S. kaṅgu m. ʻ a partic. kind of small fish ʼ < *kaṅkuta -- ? -- Ext. with --l -- in Ku. kã̄gilokāĩlo ʻ comb ʼ.2. G. (Soraṭh) kã̄gaṛ m. ʻ a weaver's instrument ʼ?3. L. kaṅghī f. ʻ comb, a fish of the perch family ʼ, awāṇ. kaghī ʻ comb ʼ; P. kaṅghā m. ʻ large comb ʼ, °ghī f. ʻ small comb for men, large one for women ʼ (→ H. kaṅghā m. ʻ man's comb ʼ, °gahī°ghī f. ʻ woman's ʼ, kaṅghuā m. ʻ rake or harrow ʼ; Bi. kãga ʻ comb ʼ, Or. kaṅgei, M. kaṅgvā); -- G. kã̄gsī f. ʻ comb ʼ, with metath. kã̄sko m., °kī f.; WPah. khaś. kāgśī, śeu. kāśkī ʻ a comblike fern ʼ or < *kaṅkataśikha -- .WPah.kṭg. kaṅgi f. ʻ comb ʼ; J. kāṅgṛu m. ʻ small comb ʼ.(CDIAL 2598)

    Rebus: large furnace, fireplace: kang कंग् । आवसथ्यो &1;ग्निः m. the fire-receptacle or fire-place, kept burning in former times in the courtyard of a Kāshmīrī house for the benefit of guests, etc., and distinct from the three religious domestic fires of a Hindū; (at the present day) a fire-place or brazier lit in the open air on mountain sides, etc., for the sake of warmth or for keeping off wild beasts. nāra-kang, a fire-receptacle; hence, met. a shower of sparks (falling on a person) (Rām. 182). kan:gar `portable furnace' (Kashmiri)Cf. kã̄gürü, which is the fem. of this word in a dim. sense (Gr.Gr. 33, 7). kã̄gürü काँग्् or 
    kã̄gürü काँग or kã̄gar काँग््र्् । हसब्तिका f. (sg. dat. kã̄grĕ काँग्र्य or kã̄garĕ काँगर्य, abl. kã̄gri काँग्रि), the portable brazier, or kāngrī, much used in Kashmīr (K.Pr. kángár, 129, 131, 178; káṅgrí, 5, 128, 129). For particulars see El. s.v. kángri; L. 7, 25, kangar;and K.Pr. 129. The word is a fem. dim. of kang, q.v. (Gr.Gr. 37). kã̄gri-khŏphürükã̄gri-khŏphürü काँग्रि-ख्वफ््&above;रू&below; । भग्ना काष्ठाङ्गारिका f. a worn-out brazier. -khôru -खोरु&below; । काष्ठाङ्गारिका<-> र्धभागः m. the outer half (made of woven twigs) of a brazier, remaining after the inner earthenware bowl has been broken or removed; see khôru. -kŏnḍolu -क्वंड । हसन्तिकापात्रम् m. the circular earthenware bowl of a brazier, which contains the burning fuel. -köñü -का&above;ञू&below; । हसन्तिकालता f. the covering of woven twigs outside the earthenware bowl of a brazier.

    It is an archaeometallurgical challenge to trace the Maritime Tin Route from the tin belt of the world on Mekong River delta in the Far East and trace the contributions made by seafaring merchants of Meluhha in reaching the tin mineral resource to sustain the Tin-Bronze Age which was a revolution unleashed ca. 5th millennium BCE. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/08/indus-script-corpora-as-catalogus.html

    8. A pair of fishes ayo 'fish' (Mu.); rebus: ayo 'metal, iron' (Gujarati); ayas 'metal' (Sanskrit)

    9.A pair of buffaloes tethered to a post-standard kāṛā ‘buffalo’ கண்டி kaṇṭi buffalo bull (Tamil); rebus: kaṇḍ 'stone ore'; kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’; kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar, consecrated fire’.

    10. A pair of birds Rebus 1: 
    kōḍi. [Tel.] n. A fowl, a bird. (Telugu) Rebus: khōṭ ‘alloyed ingots’. Rebus 2: kol ‘the name of a bird, the Indian cuckoo’ (Santali) kol 'iron, smithy, forge'. Rebus 3: baṭa = quail (Santali) Rebus: baṭa = furnace, kiln (Santali) bhrāṣṭra = furnace (Skt.) baṭa = a kind of iron (G.) bhaṭa ‘furnace’ (Gujarati) 

    11. The buffaloes, birds flank a post-standard with curved horns on top of a stylized 'eye' PLUS 'eyebrows' with one-horn on either side of two faces

    mũh ‘face’; rebus: mũh ‘ingot’ (Mu.) 

    ṭhaṭera ‘buffalo horns’. ṭhaṭerā   ‘brass worker’ (Punjabi) 

    Pe. kaṇga (pl. -ŋ, kaṇku) eye.  Rebus: kanga ' large portable brazier, fire-place' (Kashmiri).
    Thus the stylized standard is read rebus: Hieroglyph components:kanga ṭhaṭerā 'one eye + buffalo horn' Rebus: kanga 'large portable barzier' (Kashmiri) +  ṭhaṭerā   ‘brass worker’ (Punjabi) 

     Ta. kaṇ eye, aperture, orifice, star of a peacock's tail. Ma. kaṇ, kaṇṇu eye, nipple, star in peacock's tail, bud. Ko. kaṇ eye. To. koṇ eye, loop in string.Ka. kaṇ eye, small hole, orifice. Koḍ. kaṇṇï id. Tu. kaṇṇů eye, nipple, star in peacock's feather, rent, tear. Te. kanu, kannu eye, small hole, orifice, mesh of net, eye in peacock's feather. Kol. kan (pl. kanḍl) eye, small hole in ground, cave. Nk. kan (pl. kanḍḷ) eye, spot in peacock's tail. Nk. (Ch.) kan (pl. -l) eye. Pa.(S. only) kan (pl. kanul) eye. Ga. (Oll.) kaṇ (pl. kaṇkul) id.; kaṇul maṭṭa eyebrow; kaṇa (pl. kaṇul) hole; (S.) kanu (pl. kankul) eye. Go. (Tr.) kan (pl.kank) id.; (A.) kaṛ (pl. kaṛk) id. Konḍa kaṇ id. Pe. kaṇga (pl. -ŋ, kaṇku) id. Manḍ. kan (pl. -ke) id. Kui kanu (pl. kan-ga), (K.) kanu (pl. kaṛka) id. Kuwi(F.) kannū (pl. kar&nangle;ka), (S.) kannu (pl. kanka), (Su. P. Isr.) kanu (pl. kaṇka) id. Kur. xann eye, eye of tuber; xannērnā (of newly born babies or animals) to begin to see, have the use of one's eyesight (for ērnā, see 903). Malt. qanu eye. Br. xan id., bud. (DEDR 1159) kāṇá ʻ one -- eyed ʼ RV. Pa. Pk. kāṇa -- ʻ blind of one eye, blind ʼ; Ash. kã̄ṛa°ṛī f. ʻ blind ʼ, Kt. kãŕ, Wg. kŕãmacrdotdot;, Pr. k&schwatildemacr;, Tir. kāˊna, Kho. kāṇu NTS ii 260,kánu BelvalkarVol 91; K. kônu ʻ one -- eyed ʼ, S. kāṇo, L. P. kāṇã̄; WPah. rudh. śeu. kāṇā ʻ blind ʼ; Ku. kāṇo, gng. kã̄&rtodtilde; ʻ blind of one eye ʼ, N. kānu;A. kanā ʻ blind ʼ; B. kāṇā ʻ one -- eyed, blind ʼ; Or. kaṇā, f. kāṇī ʻ one -- eyed ʼ, Mth. kān°nākanahā, Bhoj. kān, f. °nikanwā m. ʻ one -- eyed man ʼ, H. kān,°nā, G. kāṇũ; M. kāṇā ʻ one -- eyed, squint -- eyed ʼ; Si. kaṇa ʻ one -- eyed, blind ʼ. -- Pk. kāṇa -- ʻ full of holes ʼ, G. kāṇũ ʻ full of holes ʼ, n. ʻ hole ʼ (< ʻ empty eyehole ʼ? Cf. ã̄dhḷũ n. ʻ hole ʼ < andhala -- ).S.kcch. kāṇī f.adj. ʻ one -- eyed ʼ; WPah.kṭg. kaṇɔ ʻ blind in one eye ʼ, J. kāṇā; Md. kanu ʻ blind ʼ.(CDIAL 3019) Ko. kāṇso ʻ squint -- eyed ʼ.(Konkani)

    Paš. ainċ -- gánik ʻ eyelid ʼ(CDIAL 3999) Phonetic reinforcement of the gloss: Pe. kaṇga (pl. -ŋ, kaṇku) eye. 

    See also: nimišta kanag 'to write' (SBal): *nipēśayati ʻ writes ʼ. [√piś] Very doubtful: Kal.rumb. Kho. nivḗš -- ʻ to write ʼ more prob. ← EPers. Morgenstierne BSOS viii 659. <-> Ir. pres. st. *nipaiš -- (for *nipais -- after past *nipišta -- ) in Yid. nuviš -- , Mj. nuvuš -- , Sang. Wkh. nəviš -- ; -- Aś. nipista<-> ← Ir. *nipista -- (for *nipišta -- after pres. *nipais -- ) in SBal. novīsta or nimišta kanag ʻ to write ʼ.(CDIAL 7220)

    Alternative: dol ‘eye’; Rebus: dul ‘to cast metal in a mould’ (Santali)Alternative: kandi  ‘hole, opening’ (Ka.)[Note the eye shown as a dotted circle on many Dilmun seals.]kan ‘eye’ (Ka.); rebus: kandi (pl. –l) necklace, beads (Pa.);kaṇḍ 'stone ore' Alternative: kã̄gsī f. ʻcombʼ (Gujarati); rebus 1: kangar ‘portable furnace’ (Kashmiri); rebus 2: kamsa 'bronze'.

    khuṇḍ ʻtethering peg or post' (Western Pahari) Rebus: kūṭa ‘workshop’; kuṭi= smelter furnace (Santali); Rebus 2: kuṇḍ 'fire-altar'

    Why are animals shown in pairs?

    dula ‘pair’ (Kashmiri); rebus: dul ‘cast metal’ (Mu.)

    Thus, all the hieroglyphs on the gold disc can be read as Indus writing related to one bronze-age artifact category: metalware catalog entries.





    Gold cylinder seal depicting complex mythological scenes. Possibly southeastern Iran, mid 3rd millennium BCE. Ht. 2.21 cm. dia. 2.74 cm. Fabricated from gold sheet with chased decoration. Inv. No. LNS 4517J

    http://darmuseum.org.kw/dai/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Splendour-Exhibition-Brochure.pdf
    On this gold cylinder seal Indus Script hieroglyphs are embossed and engraved.
    Gold cylinder seal. Hieroglyphs are in fine chasing. Compare with hieroglyphs on chlorite vessels of Bactria-Margiana, Jiroft, Tepe Yahya, Gulf. 

    There are two scenes on the gold cylinder seal of al-sabah collection in Kuwait: 

    1. The first scene has bull-headed person with huge inward curving horns, large ears, massive biceps and a long beard faces forward with an eight-petal rosette between the horns. Human-headed birds, on both sides, walk towards the bull-headed person. The birds' heads face away. Open-mouthed, undulating snakes and scorpions flank both birds. 
    Hieroglyphs: bull, eight-petal flower (safflower), bird, snake, scorpion

    Hieroglyph: करडी [ karaḍī ] f (See करडई) Safflower: also its seed. Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy' of arka 'copper'. Rebus: fire-god: @B27990.  #16671. Remo <karandi>E155  {N} ``^fire-^god''.(Munda).

    Hieroglyph: karaṛa -- ḍhī˜gu m. ʻ a very large aquatic bird ʼ (Sindhi) (CDIAL 2787).Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy' of arka 'copper'. 

    Hieroglyph: kulā 'hooded snake' Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'

    Hieroglyph: bicha 'scorpion' (Assamese) Rebus: bica 'stone ore' as in:  meṛed-bica = 'iron stone ore', in contrast tobali-bica, 'iron sand ore' (Munda). 

    Hieroglyph: barad, balad 'ox': balivárda (balīv° ŚBr.) m. ʻ ox, bull ʼ TBr., balivanda- m. Kāṭh., barivarda -- m. lex. [Poss. a cmpd. of balín -- (cf. *balilla -- ) and a non -- Aryan word for ʻ ox ʼ (cf. esp. Nahālī baddī and poss. IA. forms like Sik. pāḍō ʻ bull < *pāḍḍa -- : EWA ii 419 with lit.)]
    Pa. balivadda -- m. ʻ ox ʼ, Pk. balĭ̄vadda -- , balidda -- , baladda -- m. (cf. balaya -- m. < *balaka -- ?); L. baledā, mult. baled m. ʻ herd of bullocks ʼ (→ S.ḇaledo m.); P. baldbaldhbalhd m. ʻ ox ʼ, baledbaledā m. ʻ herd of oxen ʼ, ludh. bahldbalēd m. ʻ ox ʼ; Ku. balad m. ʻ ox ʼ, gng. bald, N. (Tarai) barad, A.balad(h), B. balad, Or. baḷada, Bi. barad(h), Mth. barad (hyper -- hindiism baṛad), Bhoj. baradh, Aw.lakh. bardhu, H. baladbarad(h), bardhā m. (whencebaladnā ʻ to bull a cow ʼ), G. baḷad m. balivárda -- [Cf. Ap. valivaṇḍa -- ʻ mighty ʼ, OP. balavaṇḍā]: WPah.kc. bɔḷəd m., kṭg. bɔḷd m. (LNH 30 bŏḷd), J. bald m., Garh. baḷda ʻ bullock ʼ.(CDIAL 9176) Rebus: भरत bharat 'alloy' bhāraṇ = to bring out from a kiln (G.)  bāraṇiyo = one whose profession it is to sift ashes or dust in a goldsmith’s workshop (G.lex.) In the Punjab, the mixed alloys were generally called, bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin). In Bengal, an alloy called bharan or toul was created by adding some brass or zinc into pure bronze. bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (G.lex.) Bengali. ভরন [ bharana ] n an inferior metal obtained from an alloy of coper, zinc and tin. baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi)

    2. The second scene is around a vegetation female with long hair. She is bare-chested, wears a flounced skirt. She sits with her legs tucked under her skirt on the backs of two addorsed ibexes that turn back to look at each other. 

    Between the rumps of the ibexes below the female is a pile of lozenges perhaps representing a mountain. 

    Heavy foliage of branches and leaves springs from her sides and fills the upper register. To her upper left is a crescent moon.

    Hieroglyphs: woman, pair of ibexes with turned heads, mountain range, twigs, crucible (crescent)

    Hieroglyph: miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) Alternatives: mr̤eka, melh 'goat' (Telugu. Brahui) Rebus: melukkha 'milakkha, copper'.  ranku 'antelope' Rebus: ranku 'tin'

    Hieroglyph: turned head: క్రమ్మరు [ krammaru ] krammaru. [Tel.] v. n. To turn, return, go back. మరలుక్రమ్మరించు or క్రమ్మరుచు krammarinṭsu. v. a. To turn, send back, recall. To revoke, annul, rescind. క్రమ్మరజేయుక్రమ్మర krammara. adv. Again. క్రమ్మరిల్లు or క్రమర
    బడు Same as క్రమ్మరుkrammara 'look back' (Telugu) Rebus: kamar 'metalsmith, artisan'.

    Hieroglyph: mountain: khãṛar ʻ dilapidated ʼ, m. ʻ broken ground, chasm, hole ʼ (see also *khaṇḍaghara -- ).As ʻ hill, mountain pass ʼ (< ʻ *rock ʼ < ʻ piece ʼ or < ʻ *pass ʼ < ʻ gap ʼ and perh. X skandhá -- : cf. IIFL i 265, iii 3, 104, AO xviii 240): Gaw. khaṇḍa ʻ hill pasture ʼ (see ab.); Bshk. khan m. ʻ hill ʼ, Tor. khān, (Grierson) khaṇḍ, Mai. khān, Chil. Gau. kān, Phal. khã̄ṇ; Sh. koh. khŭṇ m., gur. khonn, pales. khōṇə, jij.khɔ̈̄ṇ ʻ mountain ʼ, gil. (Lor.) kh*ln m. ʻ mountain pass ʼ.(CDIAL 3792) Rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements', Thus, mẽṛhẽt or meḍ khaṇḍa 'metal implements' (Santali)
    The bunch of twigs = kūdi_, kūṭī  (Skt.lex.) kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kauśika Sūtra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).
    कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/ई) AV. v , 19 , 12 Kaus3.accord. to Kaus3. Sch. = बदरी, "Christ's thorn". (Monier-Williams) Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' (Santali) 

    kuire bica duljad.ko talkena, ‘they were feeding the furnace with ore’. (Santali) This use of bica in the context of feeding a smelter clearly defines bica as ‘stone ore, mineral’, in general.

    kuṭhi  ‘vagina’; rebus: kuṭhi  ‘smelting furnace bichā 'scorpion' (Assamese). Rebus: bica 'stone ore' as in meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mu.lex.) dul 'pair, likeness' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' (Santali) Thus the hieroglyphs connote a smelter for smelting and casting metal stone ore. Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Mu.) khŏḍ m. ‘pit’, khö̆ḍü f. ‘small pit’ (Kashmiri. CDIAL 3947), Rebus: kuhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore to smelt iron’; kolheko kuhieda koles smelt iron (Santali) kuhi, kui (Or.; Sad. kohi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kuire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of ēkui has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kuhi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari) kuhi = a factory; lil kuhi = an indigo factory (kohi - Hindi) (Santali.Bodding) kuhi = an earthen furnace for smelting iron; make do., smelt iron; kolheko do kuhi benaokate baliko dhukana, the Kolhes build an earthen furnace and smelt iron-ore, blowing the bellows; tehen:ko kuhi yet kana, they are working (or building) the furnace to-day (H. kohī ) (Santali. Bodding)  kuṭṭhita = hot, sweltering; molten (of tamba, cp. uttatta)(Pali.lex.) uttatta (ut + tapta) = heated, of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure (Pali.lex.) kuṭṭakam, kuṭṭukam  = cauldron (Ma.); kuṭṭuva = big copper pot for heating water (Kod.)(DEDR 1668). gudgā to blaze; gud.va flame (Man.d); gudva, gūdūvwa, guduwa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715). dāntar-kuha = fireplace (Sv.); kōti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kōlhā house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kuhī factory (A.); kohābrick-built house (B.); kuhī bank, granary (B.); koho jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse (G.); kohīlare earthen jar, factory (G.); kuhī granary, factory (M.)(CDIAL 3546). koho = a warehouse; a revenue office, in which dues are paid and collected; kohī a store-room; a factory (Gujarat) ko = the place where artisans work (Gujarati) 

    Hieroglyph:  kohAri 'crucible Rebus: kōṣṭhāgārika m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ BHSk. [Cf. kōṣṭhā- gārin -- m. ʻ wasp ʼ Suśr.: kōṣṭhāg1āra -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāgārika -- m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ; S. koṭhārī m. ʻ one who in a body of faqirs looks after the provision store ʼ; Or. koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ; Bhoj. koṭhārī ʻ storekeeper ʼ, H. kuṭhiyārī m.Addenda: kōṣṭhāgārika -- : G. koṭhārī m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ.(CDIAL 3551)



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    https://tinyurl.com/yc7ra4p2

    This is an addendum to Kuwait gold disc, gold seal Indus Script hypertexts, metalwork catalogues, repertoire of Meluhha metalworkers https://tinyurl.com/yb4zaoaa 


    A modified rebus reading is suggested for the 'eye', 'eyebrow' and 'iris of the eye' signified by the hypertext on Kuwait gold disc.


    The iris of the is plal 'iris of the eye' (Gaw.)(CDIAL 8711) a pronuciation variant is provided by pā̆hār ʻsunshine' in Nepali. If this phonetic form pā̆hār explains the hieroglyph 'iris of the eye', the rebus reading is: pahārā m. ʻ goldsmith's workshop ʼ(Punjabi)(CDIAL 8835).. The 'iris of the eye' hieroglyph is adorned with the horns of a markhor. The markhor is read rebus: miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ(Tor.): mēṇḍha2 m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- , mēṇḍa -- 4miṇḍha -- 2°aka -- , mēṭha -- 2mēṇḍhra -- , mēḍhra -- 2°aka -- m. lex. 2. *mēṇṭha- (mēṭha -- m. lex.). 3. *mējjha -- . [r -- forms (which are not attested in NIA.) are due to further sanskritization of a loan -- word prob. of Austro -- as. origin (EWA ii 682 with lit.) and perh. related to the group s.v. bhēḍra -- ]
    1. Pa. meṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- ʻ made of a ram's horn (e.g. a bow) ʼ; Pk. meḍḍha -- , meṁḍha -- (°ḍhī -- f.), °ṁḍa -- , miṁḍha -- (°dhiā -- f.), °aga -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, Dm. Gaw. miṇ Kal.rumb. amŕn/aŕə ʻ sheep ʼ (a -- ?); Bshk. mināˊl ʻ ram ʼ; Tor. miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ; Chil. mindh*ll ʻ ram ʼ AO xviii 244 (dh!), Sv. yēṛo -- miṇ; Phal. miṇḍmiṇ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍṓl m. ʻ yearling lamb, gimmer ʼ; P. mẽḍhā m., °ḍhī f., ludh. mīḍḍhāmī˜ḍhā m.; N. meṛhomeṛo ʻ ram for sacrifice ʼ; A. mersāg ʻ ram ʼ ( -- sāg < *chāgya -- ?), B. meṛā m., °ṛi f., Or. meṇḍhā°ḍā m., °ḍhi f., H. meṛhmeṛhāmẽḍhā m., G. mẽḍhɔ, M. mẽḍhā m., Si. mäḍayā.
    2. Pk. meṁṭhī -- f. ʻ sheep ʼ; H. meṭhā m. ʻ ram ʼ.3. H. mejhukā m. ʻ ram ʼ.*mēṇḍharūpa -- , mēḍhraśr̥ṅgī -- .Addenda: mēṇḍha -- 2: A. also mer (phonet. mer) ʻ ram ʼ(CDIAL 10310) Rebus:meḍ 'iron'. mẽṛhet 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.).

    Thus, the iris of the eye + markhor (horns) is a hypertext which signifies: meḍ mẽṛhet pahārā m. ʻgoldsmith's, ironsmith's workshopʼ 

    *prabhāla ʻ light ʼ. [Cf. bhāla -- 3 n. ʻ splendour ʼ Inscr. -- prabhāˊ -- : √ bhā]Dm. pral ʻ light ʼ; Gaw. plalplɔl ʻ light, iris of eye ʼ, adj. ʻ light, bright ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) pralik, rumb. prelík ʻ light ʼ, Bshk. čālčäl, Chil. čulo; Sv. plal adj. ʻ light, bright ʼ; Gau. čou sb., Phal. prāl; Sh. c̣alō m. ʻ lighted torch ʼ (on ac. of a and ō perh. rather < *pralōka -- ); N. pālā ʻ lamp ʼ AO xviii 230.(CDIAL 8711) N. pā̆hār ʻ sunshine, sunny place ʼ, A. pohar ʻ light ʼ; -- M. pahāṭ f. ʻ period before sunrise, dawn ʼ (+?).prabhāˊ f. ʻ light ʼ Mn. [√bhā]Pa. Pk. pabhā -- f. ʻ light ʼ, Pk. pahā -- f.; K. prawa f. pl. ʻ rays of light, sunshine ʼ; S. piriha f. ʻ dawn ʼ; L. pôh f. ʻ dawn ʼ, (Ju.) pau f., mult. parah f., P. pauhpaih°hi f., ḍog. pao f.; OA. puhā, A. puwā ʻ sunrise, morning time ʼ; H. pahpohpau f. ʻ dawn ʼ; OM. pāhe f. ʻ dawn, next day ʼ; Si. paha ʻ fire ʼ, pähä ʻ light, brilliance ʼ (or < prakāśá -- ), paba ʻ light, brightness (← Pa.?); -- ext. -- ḍa<->(CDIA 8705)

    M. pasārā; -- K. pasôru m. ʻ petty shopkeeper ʼ; P. pahārā m. ʻ goldsmith's workshop ʼ; A. pohār ʻ small shop ʼ; -- ← Centre: S. pasāru m. ʻ spices ʼ; P. pasār -- haṭṭā m. ʻ druggist's shop ʼ; -- X paṇyaśālā -- : Ku. pansārī f. ʻ grocer's shop ʼ.prasāra m. ʻ extension ʼ Suśr., ʻ trader's shop ʼ Nalac. [Cf. prasārayati ʻ spreads out for sale ʼ Mn. -- √sr̥]Paš. lāsar ʻ bench -- like flower beds outside the window ʼ IIFL iii 3, 113; K. pasār m. ʻ rest ʼ (semant. cf. prásarati in Ku. N. Aw.); P. puhārā m. ʻ breaking out (of fever, smallpox, &c.) ʼ; Ku. pasāro ʻ extension, bigness, extension of family or property, lineage, family, household ʼ; N. pasār ʻ extension ʼ; B. pasār ʻ extent of practice in business, popularity ʼ, Or. pasāra; H. pasārā m. ʻ stretching out, expansion ʼ (→ P. pasārā m.; S. pasārom. ʻ expansion, crowd ʼ), G. pasār°rɔ m., (CDIAL 8835)

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    Abstract

    Interpreting Indus Seals by deploying the literary sources, social and cultural practices that prevailed in those times, unearths information hidden in the seals. Some of the Indus seals show a peculiar picture of a man merging with a tiger. The man is adorned with the animal skin and has long matted hair depicted horizontally like a snake. His head is decorated with a turban on which are the decorations of twigs and flowers. The extended portion of the turban is held in the left hand. The merging with animal body is depicted with the front two feet like human and the back ones like tiger’s. The arms are serrated and depicted to be holding a long Stick, Shula or lance in the right hand. These characters correlate closely with the Rig Vedic description of a group of ascetics of tribal origin termed Vratyas or Kesins who are described in the 10th mandala (Hymns of Rig Veda, 10.136.1-7 (Griffith, 1973). Since the depiction of vratyas is seen in the Indus seals, as described in Vedas, one can say that Vratyas lived either before or during the time of Indus civilisation.
    This paper attempts to trace the term Vratyas described in Vedas and how well the vratyas and Vratya pati – Rudra is mirrored in the Indus seals. My analysis of the 4 seals here, show a strong correlation to Vedic practices that were followed in Indus period.

    Type and Theme of Indus Seals

    A brief Description of Seals:

    The Indus / Harappan Seals, many as tiny as 3cms / 3.5cms, and weighing nine to ten grams approximately were discovered in the vast expanse of Indus civilization sites of Harappa – Mohenjo-Daro and north Western parts of India, were unearthed in the excavations of 1927-1931. These seals with finely executed carvings are the archaeological proof of the civilization that existed around 2300 B.C.E. Most of the Indus Seals are made of a type of Soft Stone called Steatite, a type of white or greenish rock, composed of talc and resistant to high temperatures. The softness of this variety of soap stone when freshly cut probably made it popular for carving artefacts, seals with pictures and Symbols.
    The scholars are more inclined to accept the date of C-14 test and have fixed the lower date to be 1500 B.C.E. It is also interesting to note that the date of Rig Veda and the other three Vedas is said to be compiled approximately in 1400 B.C.E. in its evolved form. The Indus seals can be thus considered as the archaeological proof of the civilization of Vedic period. Some seals depict the Symbols of bird altar as well as the three sacrificial altars as Symbols inscribed that looks like Script, Support the view that the information contained in the Seals are related to fire altars of yajna. The social pattern of life and Vedic rituals that were in vogue during the Vedic and post Vedic period could be considered as the primary tools to the study of seals. An insight into the Vedic rituals appears essential for a proper understanding of Vedic as well as Indus civilisation that existed at least 3000 years ago.
    The social order and the concept of God, their role as protectors and giver of wealth, the rituals adopted to please these deities, the abode of dead Pitrus (fore fathers), the demons who bothered humans in many ways, all aspects that were probably part of the pre-Rig Veda civilisation, got expressed in Rig Veda in a poetic form. Many seals depicted like an action tableau can be related to the legends and episodes of the Vedas. The social life pattern of the ancient Vedic civilisation can be seen depicted in the Indus seals in which the information is documented in Symbol form for reasons – the script of language had not yet evolved. The contents of the literary creations were translated as archaeological proofs of seals over a period in the post Vedic period. The seals reflect the spirit of an age in which the intellectual activity was concentrated on the yajna and sacrifices.

    The Two Types of Seals – Vidhi and Arthavada:

    The Indus Seals are mainly of two types. Firstly, the ones with a single horned bull or an animal representation like rhino, bull or an elephant along with five to ten Symbols inscribed. Secondly, some are the pictorial presentation of an episode with human figures with or without Symbols inscribed. The reason for the difference in representation could be understood when the two types of explanations of the rituals, as explained in the post Vedic literature, the Brahmana text are considered.
    According to Arthur A Macdonell in “History of Sanskrit Literature”, “The period in which the Vedic Samhitas arose was followed by one which produced a different type of literature, a theological treatise called Brahmanas.” Brahmanas are the ritual text-books on the details of sacrifice or Yajna, explained in a prose order for easy understanding. In other words, the name ‘Brahmana’ means the explanation of a ritual by a learned priest for those who were familiar with the sacrifice procedures. The description, though not exhaustive gave the outlines. Another Set of Work regarded as auxiliary and the six limbs of the Vedas called Vedangas were made in the post Vedic period to help in the proper phonetical and ritual understanding of Vedas. One of the Vedangas was the Kalpa, which also dealt with the procedural percept associated with performance like how and when the rituals of sacrifices are performed. The figures and the inscriptions on the seals when analyzed appeared to have the contents of Brahmana texts; hence, may belong to a period later to Brahmana text compilation. An attempt was made in seals for the brief coded form of contents of Vedas. Though the Brahmana texts deal with the following six topics, the first two were considered as the main type of explaining a ritual. The Six Categories were — Vidhi, Arthavada, Ninda, Prashansha, Purakalpa and Parakriti. Vidhi-dealt with the rules and injunctions of a yajna ritual Arthavada — dealt with explicatory System.
    The Vidhi type of explanations usually come with the picture of a single horned bull or an animal along with 5-6 symbols in a seal. This part sets forth the various details relating to a sacrifice like proper time, the place for sacrifice, the rite of initiation, the priests, the sacred fires, the divinities, the oblations offered to them, the utensils and other materials used and the procedure of reciting Mantras and the metre of it, the Chandas. The other details were conveyed symbolically in the inscription part. The Vidhi consists of a rule of ritualistic procedure, or commandment- a sacred precept. (This type of seals is not a part of this article, but are discussed in my E book “Symbolography in Indus Seals”, Rekha Rao).
    Arthavada comprises the numerous explanatory remarks on the meaning of Mantras of particular rites and are more to illustrate the vidhi – the rules of a Sacrifice and picturise a Sacrifice. In Arthavada, the ancient legends, most of which had the conflicts between Gods and demons as their central theme and narrate how Gods became powerful enough to vanquish the demons. Such topics got picturised in the arthavada set of Seals.
    Arthavada seals also depict the variations in costume and the ornaments that adorn the figures because they were the faithful representation of the descriptions given in Vedas. The figures of tribal origin wearing the costume of an animal skin around the waist and an elaborate head dress are shown in contrast to the hair style, tied into a bun of the priestly class. The depictions of human and animal form, Complete in physical structure, are full of action and expression, presented like a perfect picture in two-inch square seals. The thoughts have precision in their execution. In addition, the tools used being sophisticated contributed to the precision and complexity of the seals. The caliber of narration of episodes with illustrations in the Indus seals can be compared to miniature paintings in its Sophistication. The Symbols and motifs have been used extensively to convey the vast information of rituals.

    Who were Vratyas?

    Regarding the literary evidences for vratyas, the Rig Veda, generally, employs the term Vratya or Kesins to denote breakaway group or an inimical horde, living in temporary settlements. Satha Rudriya of YajurVeda, the Vratya Kanda (15th kanda) of AtharvaVeda, Tandya (24-18) and Jaiminiya Brahmana (2:222) introduces Vratyas as nomadic ascetics roaming about themselves in an intoxicated State. The Tandya; however, addresses them as divine – Vratyas (Daiva Vai Vratyah). The Vajasaneyi Samhita refers to them as physicians and as guardians of truth. They seem to have been a community of ascetics living under a set of Strange religious vows called Vrata, and hence the name Vratya.
    Indus Seals with VratyasFig.1 and 2: Indus Seals with Vratya Figures
    The Vratyas worshipped elements of nature like Agni, Vayu, and Varuna; however, Rudra was their preferred deity. Some of them lived alone and some in groups, away from populated areas, following their own cult-rules and practises. They were the Wandering Seekers, drifted everywhere; roamed from the Indus valley to banks of the Ganga. They were non-conformists and rejected the validity of the Vedas and their rituals. They were an atrociously heterogeneous Community; and moved like rebels in a group of thirty-three, with a leader. The amazing community of the Vratyas included talented ones like magicians, medicine men, singers, mystics, materialists, mendicants, roaming warriors, mercenaries, poison eaters, libidinous pleasure seekers and wandering Swarm of austere ascetics. Some of them were violent and some others were refined and austere.

    The Dress Code of Vratyas:

    The Vratyas were wanderers (indicated in the Seal by a fearless animal, attached to human body). RigVeda (10.136.1-7) explains about the ascetics called Kesins-(the other term for vratyas) who were wearers of long loose hair or locks of hair that were matted. Etymologically Kesin mean – a lion, is from the root word Keshara-meaning the mane of a lion, with luxuriant hair, also described as the best, excellent or prominent of a class. They were Muni or ascetics, who worshiped elements of nature like Sun, air, moisture and so on. They always loved to be in a state of ecstasy and never wore any girdle on waist or Yajnopavita like a dvija or brahmin class. They were the sons and descendants of Sage Vata Rashana – which meant wind girdled or moving like wind in life style, following their own vratas and hence, called Vratyas. Rig Veda (Griffith) 10.136.1-7says about Vratyas:
    “He (Kesins) with the long loose locks supports Agni and moisture, has all sky to look upon (meaning free) with long hair that is called this light
    The munis girdled with wind, wore garments Soiled of yellow hue (means the skin of animals). They following the wind’s Swift course go where the Gods have gone before.
    Transported with munihood mortal men, behold our natural bodies and no more (were naked).The steed of Vata, Vayu’s friend, the Muni, by God’s impelled, in both the oceans hath his home in eastern and in Western Sea.”
    The address of sea may be indicative of the mighty rivers Ganga and Sindhu.
    Vratyas were distinguished by their black turbans (Krishnam Ushnisham Dharayanti) worn in a slanting manner, displaying long matted hair (Kesi). This is depicted in seals as long Snake like head decoration. Atop was the buds of plants attached; a set of round ornaments for the ears (Pravartau). Varieties of neck ornaments were hanging by the neck across the chest with rows of long necklaces of Strange beads (mani) Swinging. Two (dvi) deer-skins were tied together for lower garment, (displayed as a long piece of skin tied around the waist, that was extracted from the animal), and sandals for the feet (Upanahau). They carried a lance called Pra-toda. A white blanket was thrown across the shoulders.
    The Vratyas spoke the dialect of Prachya, the source of the languages of ancient Eastern India. It is also said; the Vratyas also spoke the language of the initiated (Dikshita – vac), though not themselves initiated (Adikshita), however, also used that which is easy to utter (a- durukta) and difficult to utter. (Panchavinsa Brahmana 17.1.9). This may mean that the Vratyas were familiar and comfortable both in Sanskrit and in Prakrit. Vratyas did not use refined Vedic dialect in their speech nor hired a priest of evolved class to guide their rituals. They lived alone or in groups, away from populated areas. They followed their own Cult rules and practises.

    Lifestyle of Vratyas:

    Vratyas observed their own set of rituals, different from the Vedic prescriptions Vratya Sukta of Atharvaveda (15th Kanda), provide graphic descriptions of these Magis. The Vratyas used a rickety cart that was in bad condition called Vipatha, which was difficult to drive and driven by a mule. The Indus figurines of a rickety cart, hitherto classified as a toy for children may be the cart of Vratyas. These descriptions put together project a truly impressive, Colourful and awe-inspiring image of the Wandering Vratyas.
    Panchavinsh Brahmana 17.1.9-15 further states that the Vratya leader wore a turban (usinisha), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyadroda, also called Pinaka), was clothed in a black (Krsnasa) garment and two skins (Ajina), black and white (Krishna-Valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Vipatha) covered with planks (Phalakastirna). The others, followers of the group or subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (Valukantani Dam Atusam). They did not consider either the rituals or for initiations, and not at all for celibacy (Na Hi Brahmacharyam Charanthi). They did not engage themselves in agriculture (Na Krishim) or in trade (Na Vanijyam). They behaved as if they were possessed (Gandharva Grithaha) or drunk or just mad. The Scholars generally believe, what has come down to us, as Tantra is, in fact, a residue of the Cult-practises of the Vratyas. The Tantra, event this day, is considered non-Vedic, if not anti-Vedic.
    The Atharvaveda mentions that Vratyas were also a set of talented composers and singers. Their preferred deity Rudra who was associated with wind. Vratyas knew the art and effect of controlled breathing and used it in their music. They found they could sing a lot better – and probably hold the notes longer – when they practised what they called Pranayama, a type of breath control and learn to live in harmony with nature. There is, therefore, a school of thought, which asserts, what came to be known as Yoga in the later periods had its roots in the ascetic and ecstatic practises of the Vratyas. The vratyas who could imitate the sounds of nature in their singing methods, influenced the evolved divijas to chant the samans of Samaveda in a melodious form. The Vratyas were, therefore said to be the precursors of the later evolved ascetics and yogis.
    The Vratyas roamed about near the furrowed lands of sacrificial arena and probably consumed the germinating plants. The two sets of 6 furrows inscribed in the seal Fig. 1, probably indicates the furrowed land where, the orthodox Brahmins ploughed the land (in sets of six furrows for the six seasons) and they were sowing the seeds as a perpetual source of food. Vratyas consumed these foods and hence were called unevolved.
    The Vratyas did not observe the orthodox Yajna of offering Soma juice to Indra. They crushed Soma and drank it by themselves without observing any ritual procedure. The pounding Stone Ashman, one Span long, narrower at upper end has been indicated as the first four symbols of the inscription of the seal, Fig.2. The pressing stones, generally four in number were used for pounding grains, or pounding of Soma twig. The Putika, replacement of Soma is indicated in the seal as the last Symbol of figure-2, which were crushed with stones and consumed by a Vratyas. The Symbol of Soma twig and Ashman stones indicates the Vratyas crushed out Soma juice and drank it without getting into rituals of offering it to Indra before.

    The Geographical Migration of Vratyas:

    The Atharvaveda 15.2 makes a very ambiguous statement: “Of him in the eastern quarter, faith is the harlot, Mitra the Magadha, discrimination is the garment, etc”. Probably, it is taken to mean that the Magadha tribes (The area of present day Bihar, South of Ganges) were friends, advisers, and thunder (strong Supporters) of the Vratyas. The implication of this is rather interesting. The breakaway group, the Vratyas from among the Vedic people, left their main land of the basin of Indus river and moved away eastwards.
    Vratyas are also described to be pre Vedic people, but associated more with nature and declined the formalism of Vedic seers. They were not accepted by Vedic followers; hence, Vratyas moved away from them. They roamed over to the East; and ultimately settled in the regions of Magadha and Anga where they found friends and supporters. (Magadha and Anga is mostly, in the regions to the East and North-west of the Madhyadesha – the mid part of Ganga Valley, the present day Uttar Pradesh). The reason for that friendly reception appears to be that the Magadha tribes in Eastern India were not in good terms with the Vedic people in the Indus basin; and saw no difficulty in accommodating the Vratyas. In addition, more importantly, the Magadha did not follow or approve the Vedic religion; and they, too, like the Vratyas, Were against the rites, rituals, and sacrifices of the evolved Vedic community.

    Depiction of Vratyas and Vratya Stoma, A Ritual of Proselytization (attempt to convert) in the Harappan Seal of Kalibangan:

    Interpreting Indus seals by deploying the literary sources, social and cultural practices that prevailed in those times brings out the information hidden in the seals. The seal, analysed here, show a strong correlation to Social practices that were followed in Vedic period.
    The Seal of Kalibangan (Fig. 3), with four male figures, show three types of dress Code of men. The last and fourth figure is a peculiar picture of a man merging with a tiger. The human part has feet as human legs but the other two back legs are like that of goat and a tail of tiger. This seal is the Symbolic representation that vratyas were forceful fighters, skilled hunters, lonely and fearless like tiger or some lived in groups like goats. This idea is also conveyed through both man and animal forms with the same animal skin.
    Vratyas in Indus Seals - KalibanganFig 3. Harappan Seal of Kalibangan
    The man is adorned with the animal skin, serrated arms (Vajra bahu) and has long matted hair. Their head is decorated with twigs or flowers, long matted hair is depicted horizontally like a Snake and a long turban that adorns his head is well displayed. Of the first three figures, the middle one is a vratya without the head decorations or matted hair but still with the turban. He is wearing animal skin but feet are like human. The two taller figures on either side hold the point of the long lance to the shoulder region. They have hair tied into a bun, wearing woven cloth and not wearing animal skin (may be the evolved dwija status) Vratyas were an unorthodox group who detested the practices of Worship of Indra that was followed by the orthodox evolved class of people called Aryans and hence were not included in the Aryan group.
    Katyayana Shrauta Sutra (22.4, 1-28) also says that by performing vratya Stoma, Vratyas lose their vratya Status and become eligible for social life with the followers of dharma. Vratya stoma is the rite of adoption of a group of four Ekaha (Soma Sacrifice of one day duration) adopted by Vratyas so that they can renounce Vratyahood and then become socially eligible and accepted as orthodox Brahmin class- dvija. It is a remarkable rite and the only proselytization (attempt to convert) in Vedic rituals. Vratyas were considered divine by some Scholars as they belonged to Sage Vata Rashana and were called followers who moved swiftly like Vayu – the wind. The Seal (Fig.3) depicts two figures holding a long lance, the Weapon of Vratyas-the Shula that is pointing to the shoulder where Yajnopavita is worn and the Vratya man is standing in between them. The fourth figure shows a combination of man and animal depicted as though they are one, which depicts the Vratya in original form.
    This seal is informative about how Vratyas had an option to convert themselves to the Dvija – orthodox Brahmin class by performance of four Agnistoma Ekaha as an expiatory ritual, after which they wore the Yajnopavita, the sacred thread on their left shoulder. They also changed their dress Code from animal skin to clothes that Orthodox class Wore. The person who intended a conversion had to come with animal skin in black and white colours and a pair of shoes shaped like ears and other accessories they often sported. All these articles were donated to another Vratya (the fourth human figure) who had not undergone conversion or donated to a Brahmin of Magadha region, a place that was not strictly Brahmanical. After the ritual, the aspirant Vratya ceased to have the characteristic objects, changed their dress code to woven cloth, tied their hair, and gained full membership to Brahmanical Society in pursuit of learning the evolved form of the sacred language. (Vratyas, though spoke Sanskrit did not use the refined Vedic dialect). The fact that Vratyas attempted for their conversion to the Dvija – Brahmanical, has been depicted in the seal through the depiction of two types of costume representation – the orthodox and Vratya style of dress code and hair do.

    Depiction of Rudra-the Vratyapati, Shooting the Arrow at Tripurasura:

    The Vratyas worshipped elements of nature and Rudra was their preferred deity. The figure of Rudra shooting with his special type of String-less bow Jyadroda, depicts an episode of the fight between Devas and demons. The seal looking like a frozen action tableau, with man and animals in action is associated with the episode of the conflict between the Devas and the demon Tripurasura, as described in Yajur Veda. Yajurveda (The Veda of The Black Yajus School, A. B. Keith), Kanda 4.5.3 Says about Rudra, his bow and arrows:
    “Homage to the turbaned wanderer on the mountains to the lord of pluckers, homage to the bearer of arrows, and to you the bow man, homage to that string(the bow), homage to you that bend (the bow), and to you that let go the arrows, homage’.
    Vratyas in Indus Seals - Rudra as VratyapatiFig. 4: Rudra as Vratyapati with his Bow Pinaka, also called Jyadroda
    The seal depicting an episode is a good example of arthavada type of explanation as prescribed in Brahmana texts (Fig. 4). The first half of the seal has one human figure, shooting arrow at a wild boar and a dog is also chasing the animal. Some Symbols are inscribed on the other half of the Seal to convey some information about the episode depicted. Since the hunter wears a turban, holds a strong bow, it can be linked to the epithet of Rudra as Tripurantaka, that is described in Yajurveda.
    Of the several epithets of Rudra in Shatha Rudriya of Yajurveda celebrates the glory of one-hundred-and-eight forms of Rudra. Some are relevant to the picture of Rudra in the seal Fig. 4. He is called Vratya pati-the leader of vratyas, Pinaki-the holder of the mighty bow Pinaka which is also called Jyadroda, Usnishi – the turbaned wanderer, Tripurantaka-killer of tripurasura demon, Swapatibhyascha -keeper of hounds/dog, and So on.
    Looking like a Warrior in a heroic posture he is shooting an arrow at an animal the wild boar, which is a representation of demon Tripurasura. Regarding the story part, (The Veda of The Black Yajus School, AB Keith) Kanda-6, Prapatika 2 and 3 says:
    “The Gods and Asuras were in conflict. The Gods in fear entered Agni- (meaning seek protection). Therefore, they say Agni is all the Gods. Asuras had three citadels, the lowest was of iron, and the middle of silver and the topmost was of gold. The Gods could not conquer the 3 citadels; hence, sought to conquer them by siege. They made ready an arrow with Agni as the point, Soma as the socket (Bow) and Visnu as the shaft of the bow. They said: Who should shoot the arrow? “Rudra’, they said, as Rudra is Cruel, let him shoot it. Rudra Said “let me choose a boon. Let me be the overlord of cattle.”
    Therefore, Rudra became the overlord of animals. “Rudra let it go’, it cleft the three citadels and drove the Asuras away from the three Worlds.
    The details of the episode is that the demons when they turned out stronger, occupied all the three worlds and built citadels of iron, silver and gold. Gods decide to wage a war against them and chose Rudra because only he was the owner of the bow and physically strong enough to shoot arrows that would cross the three Worlds. The arrows used by Rudra for his Pinaka bow was unique. Agni Settles as the head of the arrow as he could move in upward direction. Vishnu (also called rays of Sun) settled in the shaft as he had the capacity to cover all three worlds. Goddess Saraswati settled at the tip of the arrow as Mantras or knowledge. The demon Tripurasura gets defeated when a powerful arrow was shot and runs out of the citadel. Rudra was hence called Tripurantaka-the destroyer of demon.

    The Symbols:

    Regarding the Symbols, they indicate the deity involved, period of the episode and the yajna to be performed as per the “Vidhi’ ways of explaining a ritual.
    Symbol.1. The Arrow
    Agnishikha is a fearsome fire arrow (like a rocket). According to the legend of Yajurveda 6.2.3, the Gods and Asuras (demons) were in conflict. The Gods in fear entered Agni. The arrow, designed by Devatas, has Agni in the triangular part (the Symbol of eternally moving upwards), and Sarasvati – the goddess of Mantra being installed at the tip of the arrow and Vishnu in the shaft to cover space. The upward triangle is the Symbol of Agni, the eternally upward moving element, and fire is revered as Agni. Agni and Brihaspati, indicative of the heat and light aspects of fire are Symbolised by arrow and read according to the theme presented in a Seal.
    Symbol.2. The Citadel of Gold (called Brahmapuri)
    The Symbol has the representation of the citadel that looks like the Structure of a house above the arrow. Asuras had three citadels, the lowest was of iron, and the middle of silver and the topmost was of gold (called Brahmapuri). The Gods could not conquer the three citadels; hence, they sought to conquer them by siege. Rudra shot the arrow from his mighty bow Pinaka, drove the Asuras away from the three Worlds and recovered the citadels. The demon called Tripurasura is represented as wild boar, running away. The arrow is depicted as crossing the two Worlds and the citadel can be seen like a house in the top part of the arrow.
    Symbol 3. The Solstice day
    The third Symbol that is inscribed has three sections. A circle indicative of the period of one year is cut here into two halves. The first arc is the first six-month of the year, and similarly the second arc Vratyas in Indus Seals 113 represents the other half of the year. The middle part is the Visuvat day. The Symbol of two half circles, crossing at the middle part and creating a space may be the indication the Visuvat, the autumn Solstice where the day part is shortest. The halves of the year, (two arcs in opposite direction) are his right and left halves. The two solstice’s days are indicated as two lines adjoining the side of the arcs.
    Visuvat is the central auspicious day that divides the Gavamayana Sattra, the Sacrificial Session lasting one year into two equal parts. The two-intersecting bow / curve indicate the travelling of the Sunrays between the Dakshinayana and the Uttarayana path of Sun’s rays. The central day of the solstice is the auspicious Vishuvat day on which the Gods won wealth from the daemons, and hence, celebrated by chanting of Samans of Ekavimshatistoma on this day (AP. SR 21.15-16, as quoted by Sen).
    Symbol 4. The 12 Day Sacrificial Ritual
    The last Symbol of twelve strokes also indicates the celebration of victory of Devas by the performance of “sattra”-the eleven or twelve-day sacrificial session, a type of. When it extends to one year, it is called Gavamayana satra or SamvatSarika.
    The 12 day sacrifice called Dvadasha ratra is performed for long life. By performing the eleven and twelve day sacrifices, one can create, win, procure, and possess offspring. This may indicate that one must not only procure offspring, but also should be able to live harmoniously with them.

    Conclusion:

    One of the significant type of Seals under Vratyas, describing the Social aspects of this group of ascetics, are very well depicted in the four seals that are described in this text. The highlight of this research is an extraordinary correlation to the social and ritual practices that were followed in those times. In a way, these seals depict the life and practices of Vratyas to the Vedic practices in a precise manner.
    The fact that Vratyas who were followers of Rudra did not accept Indra as their deity, might have been the cause for clashes with the evolved Aryans forcing vratyas to migrate to the Gangetic plains where they got accepted.
    This paper is an independent research on Vratyas may prove as the first step in the new approach of understanding what these set of seals Communicate.
    Reference:
    • Bloomfield, Maurice (translator):1897b, Hymns of the Atharvaveda, http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/sbe42/
    • Eggeling, Julius (translator):1894,The Satapatha – Brahmana – According to the text of the Madhyandina School, Clarendon Press, Oxford
    • Gangeswarananda, Swami: 1959,The Satapatha Brahmana, Volume 2 Vijnanabhasya, Atlantic Publishers and Distri.
    • Griffith, Ralph T. H.: 1973 (revised) (reprint 2004),The Hymns of the Rigveda, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi
    • Keith, A. B.: 2007, The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, Motilal Banarasidass, New Delhi
    • Keith, Arthur Berriedale (translator), : 1914 (accessed in 2014), The Veda of the Black Yajus School (Taittiriya Sanhita), http://sacredtexts.com/hin/Yajurveda/index.htm,
    • Macdonell, Arthur A.: 1899, A History of Sanskrit Literature, Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi
    • Radhakrishnan,S.: 1989, Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Oxford University Press, New Delhi
    • Rao, Rekha :Symbolography in Indus Seals by via Amazon at: http://amzn.com/B016OOKBOE Vratyas in Indus Seals 115
    • Sen, Chitrabhanu: 1978 (reprint 2001), A Dictionary of the Vedic Rituals, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi
    • Cultural Heritage of India – Volume 1-5, Published by Swami Prabhananda, Secretary, The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Calcutta, 2000
    • Shatarudriya,www.swami-krishnananda.org/invoC/in_Sata.html
    The article first appeared in Arnava Vol VI No 1 (2017) and has been republished with permission.

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    https://tinyurl.com/y84vj7ff

    Thanks to Rekha Rao for focussing attention on tiger representations on Indus Script seals: Kalibangan cylinder seal, Kalibangan stamp seal, Mohenjo-daro ligatured tiger seal and a seal of Schoyen collection which shows a hunter, a boar and a tiger together with Indus Script inscription. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2018/03/vratyas-in-indus-seals-rekha-rao-2017.html

    At the outset, reference to Vrātya is not necessary to decipher the hieroglyphs/hypertexts of the seals referred to by Rekha Rao. This monograph deciphers hypertexts of Indus Script Cipher on these and other inscriptions/artifacts of Sarasvati Civilization, as rebus representations of metalwork catalogues, in the context of wealth creation by Meluhha metalworkers and seafaring merchants of the Bronze Age.
    Kalibangan050Ligatured to a tiger. Scarf, markhor horn, twig. Same as on Kalibangan cylinder seal. PLUS Shape of markhor horn: Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.)
    gaNDa 'four' rebus: kaNDa 'implements''fire-altar' (Santali)
    pon ‘four’ (Santali); pon ‘metal’ (Ta.)

    kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.)
      

    The bunch of twigs = kūdī, kūṭī (Skt.lex.) kūdī (also written as kūṭīin manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kauśika Sūtra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss anBohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).
      
    kuṭhi 'smelting furnace‘; koṭe ‘forged metal’ (Santali)


    maṇḍa 
       = a branch; a twig; a twig with leaves on it (Te.)
    maṇḍā 
      
     = warehouse, workshop (Kon.)

    aaru twig; ad.iri small and thin branch of a treeaari small branches  (Ka.); aaru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67).adar = splinter (Santali); rebus: adaru = native metal (Ka.)

    kolom ‘three’ (Mu.) kolmo ‘rice plant' (Mu.)  
      
     kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolma hoṛo = a variety of the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) 
    kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace (Ka.); kolimi furnace (Te.); pit (Te.); kolame a very deep pit (Tu.); kulume kanda_ya a tax on blacksmiths (Ka.);kol, kolla a furnace (Ta.) kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.); konimi blacksmith; kola id. (Ka.); kolle blacksmith (Kod.); kollusa_na_ to mend implements; kolsta_na, kulsa_na_ to forge; ko_lsta_na_ to repair (of plough-shares); kolmismithy (Go.); kolhali to forge (Go.)(DEDR 2133).] kolimi-titti = bellows used for a furnace (Te.lex.) kollu- to neutralize metallic properties by oxidation (Ta.lex.) kol brass or iron bar nailed across a door or gate; kollu-t-tat.i-y-a_n.i large nail for studding doors or gates to add to their strength (Ta.lex.)kollan--kamma_lai < + karmas'a_la_, kollan--pat.t.arai, kollan-ulai-k-ku_t.am blacksmith's workshop, smithy (Ta.lex.) cf. ulai smith's forge or furnace (Na_lat.i, 298); ulai-k-kal.am smith's forge; ulai-k-kur-at.u smith's tongs; ulai-t-turutti smith's bellows; ulai-y-a_n.i-k-ko_l smith's poker, beak-iron (Ta.lex.) [kollulaive_r-kan.alla_r: nait.ata. na_t.t.up.); mitiyulaikkollan- mur-iot.ir.r.an-n-a: perumpa_)(Ta.lex.) Temple; smithy: kol-l-ulai blacksmith's forge (kollulaik ku_t.attin-a_l : Kumara. Pira. Ni_tiner-i. 14)(Ta.lex.) cf. kolhua_r sugarcane milkl and boiling house (Bi.); kolha_r oil factory (P.)(CDIAL 3537). kulhu ‘a hindu caste, mostly oilmen’ (Santali) kolsa_r = sugarcane mill and boiling house (Bi.)(CDIAL 3538).

    Together with kol 'tiger, woman'; the ligatured glyph composition with twig as head-dress connotes: metal alloy furnace-smelter/workshop.

    kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.); kol = tiger (Santali) kōla = woman (Nahali)
    Rebus: kol metal (Ta.) kol = pan~calōkam (five metals) (Ta.lex.)  

    There are leaf-less branches of tree in the background of the entire pictorial composition of the Kalibangan cylinder seal.




    Pk. ḍhaṁkhara -- m.n. ʻ branch without leaves or fruit ʼ (CDIAL 5524)





    Rebus: 
      
     ḍān:ro = a term of contempt for a blacksmith (N.)(CDIAL 5524).   ṭhākur = blacksmith (Mth.) (CDIAL 5488). 
    m0311 The composite hieroglyph shows a 'tiger + woman' ligatured to a scarf as a pigtail, ram's horns and a twig on the head.m0311 The composite hieroglyph shows a 'tiger + woman' ligatured to a scarf as a pigtail, ram's horns and a twig on the head. Text message: 

    dāntā 'tooth, tusk' rebus: dhāˊtu 'ore of red colour' (ferrite ores, copper ores). dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'. Thus, workshop for metal castings of mineral ores.


    koi 'flag' Rebus: ko 'workshop'.Oval shape: Rebus: mũhe, muhã 'ingot' muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.PLUS' खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or ...ʻswordʼ Rebus: khāṇḍa, khaṇḍa. 'implements'. 


    kola 'woman'; kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, blacksmith'.


    dhau  m.  (also dhahu)  m. scarf  (WPah.) 


    Rebus: dhatu 'mineral' 


    Ligatured to a tiger. Scarf, markhor horn, twig. Same as on Kalibangan cylinder seal narrated above. PLUS Shape of markhor horn: Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: me (Ho.); mhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.)

    Ram's horns: tagara 'ram' Rebus: tagara 'merchant'; tagara 'tin'. 


    kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.) Rebus: kuhi = (smelter) furnace (Santali) The narrative is that of a (smelter) furnace for iron, merchant tin mineral.


    karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, ̆angles (Gujarati)(CDIAL 2779)  rebus: khāखार् 'blacksmith'.

    मेढा (p. 665) [ mēhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. Rebus: medhā, 'yajña'.'dhanam'. 




    Image result for tiger woman indus script
    Kalibangan065 Cylinder seal impression. Note the scarf of the person ligatured to a tiger.




    dhaṭu
      m.  (also dhaṭhu)  m. ‘scarf’  (WPah.) (CDIAL 6707); 



    Rebus: dhātu ‘mineral (Pali).

    kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'

    kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.)The bunch of twigs = kūdī, kūṭī(Skt.lex.) kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda(AV 5.19.12) and KauśikaSūtra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield,American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss anBohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace‘; koṭe ‘forged metal’ (Santali)

    kuṭi 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace‘; koṭe ‘forged metal’ (Santali)(Phonetic determinant of the twig on the horns of the woman ligatured to the tiger'

    Part of Kalibangan cylinder seal narrative. Ligatured to a tiger. Scarf, markhor horn, twig, next to tree. Rice-plant. dhatu 'scarf' Rebus: dhatu 'mineral' mũh 'face' Rebus mũhã̄ 'iron furnace output' kōḍu horn rebus: koD 'workshop' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'.

    kou 'horn' Rebus: ko 'workshop'

    kolmo 'three' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'
    tagaraka, tabernae montana 'flower', 'hair fragrance' Rebus: tagara 'tin'
    Two fencers: dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS
    karaṭi, karuṭi, keruṭi fencing, school or gymnasium where wrestling and fencing are taught (Ta.); garaḍi, garuḍi fencing school (Ka.); garaḍi, garoḍi (Tu.); gariḍi, gariḍī id., fencing (Te.)(DEDR 1262). 
    Rebus 1: करडा [ karaḍā ] Hard fromalloy--iron, silver &c. Rebus 2: kharādī = turner (G.) Rebus 3:  kharaḍa, brief memoranda of metalwork Rebus: karaṇḍi 'fire-god' (Remo)Remo <karandi>E155 {N} ``^fire-^god''.(Munda). 
    Hieroglyph: karã̄ n. pl. ʻ wristlets, bangles ʼ (Gujarati) Rebus: khār 'blacksmith' kola 'woman' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kolimi 'smithy, forge'.kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'.
    Hieroglyph: kunta1 ʻ spear ʼ. 2. *kōnta -- . [Perh. ← Gk. konto/s ʻ spear ʼ EWA i 229]1. Pk. kuṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; S. kundu m. ʻ spike of a top ʼ, °dī f. ʻ spike at the bottom of a stick ʼ, °diṛī°dirī f. ʻ spike of a spear or stick ʼ; Si. kutu ʻ lance ʼ.2. Pa. konta -- m. ʻ standard ʼ; Pk. koṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; H. kõt m. (f.?) ʻ spear, dart ʼ; -- Si. kota ʻ spear, spire, standard ʼ perh. ← Pa.(CDIAL 3289) Rebus: kuṇha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)' Allograph: कुंठणें [ kuṇṭhaṇēṃ ] v i (कुंठ S) To be stopped, detained, obstructed, arrested in progress (Marathi) Rebus: kundār 'turner'. Thus,the spears used by the fencers and the fencing are senantic determinatives of 'turner's work': kundār 'turner' synonym: khara_di_ = turner. 

    Tiger, tied by a rope and led by an archer

    An extraordinary hypertext from Kalibangan is on a terracotta cake which signifies a tiger tied to and dragged by a rope and an archer.

    चतुर्श्रि, अष्टाश्रि quadrangular, octagonal yupa skambha or pillars are attested ca. 2500 BCE, archaeologically in Kalibangan and Binjor respectively, both on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati. Hieroglyphs skambha, stambha signify tã̄bā 'copper', and hieroglyph garland signifies dhāu 'red ore'. (perhaps hematite, ferrite ore). 


    Kalibangan Yajnakunda with square pillar. Terracotta cake with Indus Script inscription of a tiger tied to a rope. 

    kamāṭhiyo 'archer, hunter? rebus: kammaṭa 'coiner, mint' 


    It is unclear if the horned person is an archer. If an archer, the reading is: kamaDha 'archer' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.

    bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'
    koD 'horn' rebus: koD 'workshop'

    kola 'tiger' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith', kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron'

    The tiger is being pulled to be tied to a post, pillar. Hieroglyph: Ka. kunda a pillar of bricks, etc. Tu. kunda pillar, post. Te. kunda id. Malt. kunda block, log. ? Cf. Ta. kantu pillar, post. (DEDR 1723) Rebus: (agni)kuNDA 'fire-altar, vedi'.
    Hieriglyph: meṛh rope tying to post, pillar: mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts ʼ AV., °thī -- f. KātyŚr.com., mēdhī -- f. Divyāv. 2. mēṭhī -- f. PañcavBr.com., mēḍhī -- , mēṭī -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, N. meh(e), mihomiyo, B. mei, Or. maï -- dāṇḍi, Bi. mẽhmẽhā ʻ the post ʼ, (SMunger) mehā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. mehmehā ʻ the post ʼ, (SBhagalpur)mīhã̄ ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, (SETirhut) mẽhi bāṭi ʻ vessel with a projecting base ʼ.2. Pk. mēḍhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, mēḍhaka<-> ʻ small stick ʼ; K. mīrmīrü f. ʻ larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts ʼ (for semantic relation of ʻ post -- hole ʼ see kūpa -- 2); L. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ; P. mehṛ f., mehaṛ m. ʻ oxen on threshing floor, crowd ʼ; OA meṛhamehra ʻ a circular construction, mound ʼ; Or. meṛhī,meri ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ; Bi. mẽṛ ʻ raised bank between irrigated beds ʼ, (Camparam) mẽṛhā ʻ bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. (SETirhut) mẽṛhā ʻ id. ʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.mēthika -- ; mēthiṣṭhá -- . mēthika m. ʻ 17th or lowest cubit from top of sacrificial post ʼ lex. [mēthí -- ]Bi. mẽhiyā ʻ the bullock next the post on threshing floor ʼ.mēthiṣṭhá ʻ standing at the post ʼ TS. [mēthí -- , stha -- ] Bi. (Patna) mĕhṭhā ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, (Gaya) mehṭāmẽhṭā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ.(CDIAL 10317 to, 10319) Rebus: meD 'iron' (Ho.); med 'copper' (Slavic).

    The narrative is  set of hieroglyphs read rebus. Rebus readings connote that the cylinder seal impressions on the proto-cuneiform tablet relate to the smelting furnace for metalware: 


    pasara 'quadrupeds' Rebus: pasra 'smithy' (Santali)

    1. a tiger, a fox on leashes held by a man kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloys' lo ‘fox’ (WPah.) Rebus: lōha ʻmetalʼ (Pali) 

    2. a procession of boars (rhinoceros?) and tiger in two rows kāṇṭā 'rhinoceros. Rebus: āṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Gujarati)

    3. a stalk/twig, sprout (or tree branch) kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelting furnace‘ (Santali)

    Thanks to Abdallah Kahil for the line drawing which clearly demonstrates that the narrative is NOT 'a hunting with dogs or herding boars in a marsh environment.' Traces of hieroglyphs are found on both sides of the tablet which also contains a proto-cuneiform inscription. It is noteworthy that cuneiform evolved TOGETHER WITH the use of Indus writing hieroglyphs on tablets, cylinder seals and other artifacts. I wish every success for efforts at decoding proto-elamite script using Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) System (see below).
    Fig. 24 Line drawing showing the seal impression on this tablet. Illustration by Abdallah Kahil. Proto-Cuneiform tablet with seal impressions. Jemdet Nasr period, ca. 3100-2900 BCE. Mesopotamia. Clay H. 5.5 cm; W.7 cm.  The blurb of Metropolitan Museum of Art says "The seal impression depicts a male figure guiding two dogs on a leash and hunting or herding boars in a marsh environment."

    The imagery of the cylinder seal records information. A male figure is guiding dogs (?Tigers) and herding boars in a reed marsh. Both tiger and boar are Indus writing hieroglyphs, together with the imagery of a grain stalk. All these hieroglyphs are read rebus in Meluhha (mleccha),of Indian sprachbund in the context of metalware catalogs of bronze age. kola 'tiger'; rebus: kol 'iron'; kāṇḍa 'rhino'; rebus: kāṇḍa 'metalware tools, pots and pans'. Ka. (Hav.) aḍaru twig; (Bark.) aḍïrï small and thin branch of a tree; (Gowda) aḍəri small branches. Tu. aḍaru twig.(DEDR 67) Rebus: aduru gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhānti Subrahmaṇya’ Śastri’s new interpretation of the AmarakoŚa, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p.330) Alternative rebus: If the imagery of stalk connoted a palm-frond, the rebus readings could have been: 

    Ku. N. tāmo (pl. ʻ young bamboo shoots ʼ), A. tām, B. tã̄bā, tāmā, Or. tambā, Bi tã̄bā, Mth. tām, tāmā, Bhoj. tāmā, H. tām in cmpds., tã̄bā, tāmā m. (CDIAL 5779) Rebus: tāmrá ʻ dark red, copper -- coloured ʼ VS., n. ʻ copper ʼ Kauś., tāmraka -- n. Yājñ. [Cf. tamrá -- . -- √tam?] Pa. tamba -- ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ copper ʼ, Pk. taṁba -- adj. and n.; Dm. trāmba -- ʻ red ʼ (in trāmba -- lac̣uk ʻ raspberry ʼ NTS xii 192); Bshk. lām ʻ copper, piece of bad pine -- wood (< ʻ *red wood ʼ?); Phal. tāmba ʻ copper ʼ (→ Sh.koh. tāmbā), K. trām m. (→ Sh.gil. gur. trām m.), S. ṭrāmo m., L. trāmā, (Ju.) tarāmã̄ m., P. tāmbā m., WPah. bhad. ṭḷām n., kiũth. cāmbā, sod. cambo, jaun. tã̄bō (CDIAL 5779) tabāshīr तबाशीर् । त्वक््क्षीरी f. the sugar of the bamboo, bamboo-manna (a siliceous deposit on the joints of the bamboo) (Kashmiri)


    Source:  Kim Benzel, Sarah B. Graff, Yelena Rakic and Edith W. Watts, 2010, Art of the Ancient Near East, a resource for educators, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 
    http://www.metmuseum.org/~/media/Files/Learn/For%20Educators/Publications%20for%20Educators/Art%20of%20the%20Ancient%20Near%20East.pdf

    Schoyen Collection
    Introduction
    Schoyen Collection of manuscripts (MS) in Oslo, Norway, list the
    following eight Indus seals (all carrying inscriptions composed of
    hieroglyphs which can be read rebus in mleccha).
    This URL contains pictures of some manuscripts from the Schoyen
    collection which comprises most types of manuscripts from the whole
    world spanning over 5000 years. It is the largest private manuscript
    collection formed in the 20th century. The whole collection MSS 1-
    5245, comprises 13,010 manuscript items, including 2,172 volumes.
    6,510 manuscript items are from the ancient period, 3300 BCE - 500
    CE. Included in this manuscript collection are some epigraphs closely
    associated with the script of the Sarasvati-Sindhu (Indus)
    civilization.
    * MS 4602 Indus Valley, ca. 3000 BC
    * MS 5062 Indus Valley, 2200-1800 BC
    * MS 5065 Indus Valley, ca. 1800 BC
    * MS 2645, Afghanistan, 23rd-21st c. BC
    * MS 4617, Indus Valley, ca. 2200-2000 BC
    * MS 4619, Mohenjo-Daro, ca. 2200-1800 BC
    * MS 5059, Indus Valley, 2200-1800 BC
    * MS 5061, Indus Valley, 2200-1800 BC
    ..It is remarkable that almost all the hieroglyphs used on the two
    seals --MS 5059 and MS 2645 -- relate to the repertoire of a
    turner/smith artisan of the civilization and provenance from Meluhha
    (mleccha) -- using mlecchita vikalpa (alternative form of
    cryptographic writing) on Indus script. The annex details many
    lexemes cognate with these rebus readings. These lexemes are from the
    Indian linguistic area and are relatable to the hieroglyphs of the
    Indus script.
    ..In the context of a typical Indus script glyph -- crocodile - an exquisite Bastar bronze
    statue depicting a mother and a crocodile clinging to her breasts has been reviewed. The 'crocodile' glyph is also seen on a Seal of the
    Schoyen collection: MS 5059.The Schoyen collection also includes MS 2645 (Indus cylinder seal) and MS 2814 (Cuneiform inscription) which
    clearly point to the possible interactions between Meluhha and Mesopotamia. ..That these glyphs read rebus point to a legacy of stone-workers,
    turners is consistent with the archaeological evidence of the artefacts associated with the Indus script seal finds. 

    D 

    This is a bronze sculpture attributed to Bastar artisans. I found this statue shown in a blog post. This description claims the bronze to be from Bastar (Orissa). But, a blurb on a slide showing the same statue on a school ppt links it to Indus civilization reads: "Small sculptures in stone, terra cotta, and bronze appear to represent priestly or governmental officials, dancing girls, and perhaps mother goddesses." http://www.leon.k12.fl.us/
    Location of Bastar (southern Chattisgarh, close to Orissa border)

    I think the artist is trying to convey something important through the use of the motifs. In my usual penchant for rebus reading, I thought this could refer to a cowherd woman, goi; also meaning 'lizard, crocodile' in Oriya language. I think we have to refer this to some Bastar tribespeople and investigate further. Conjecture 1: Could this be a method used by the Bastar artisan to denote the Oriya lexeme, goi?

    Or. goi ʻ female of cowherd caste ʼ (CDIAL 4289)
    N. gohi, guhi ʻ crocodile ʼ; A. gũi ʻ iguana ʼ,Or. gohi, goi, gui; Mth. gohi ʻ alligator ʼ (CDIAL 4286).

    Conjecture 2: Is there any significance for the motif of lizard/crocodile clinging to the body of the exquisite brass statue? The bronze sculpture is a legacy of the metaphors of Indus civilization which used glyphs to denote lexemes - in particular, the repertoire of artisans.

    Bastar is in a rich mineral belt of India; a veritble of mine or rich iron ore resources (see news report annexed).

    Consistent with my reading rebus of many bizarre Indus glyphs, I think this bronze statue (made using the cire perdue technique) is to be read as ligatured glyph using lexemes from Indian linguistic area.

    The lexemes which match the orthography of the sculpture are as follows:

    கரா karā , n. prob. grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலை. கராவதன் காலினைக்கதுவ (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 3, 9). 2. Male alligator; ஆண்முதலை. (பிங்.)(Tamil lexicon)

    கராம் karām, n. prob. grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலைவகை. முதலையு மிடங்கருங் கராமும் (குறிஞ்சிப். 257). 2. Male alligator; ஆண் முதலை. (திவா.)(Tamil lexicon)

    kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) ayakāra ‘blacksmith’ (Pali) kāruvu = mechanic, artisan, Viśvakarma, the celestial artisan (Te.)

    kōla = woman (Nahali) Rebus: kol ‘metal; working in iron’ (Ta.)

    dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]
    Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si. dā ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)

    da'tu-kui(B),datu-kui(B),da'ti-kui(B),,dati-kui(B),,Datu=kwi>(F)``^breast, ^teat; breast-^milk''. Pl. -le. |-kui,-kwi `woman'. E.g. da'ti-kui sop'- `to hold the breast (a form of courtship)'. @B15260,N51. #6882.

    ``^big-headed'':
    Sa. DaDu ~ DaTu `big-headed'.Mu. DaDu `big-headed'.KW DaDu@(M068)

    So, I read the sculpture as denoting:
    DaTu kola kaaru: DaTu 'big head'; kola 'woman'; rebus: dhatu 'mineral'; kola 'metal'; kaaru 'crocodile'; rebus: kaaru 'artisan'. Thus, the sculpture denotes the mineral, metal artisan.

    Mineral resources of Bastar

    Chhattisgarh spots four new iron ore deposits
    Monday, April 23rd 2007
    Chhattisgarh has located four new iron ore deposits with an estimated 71 million metric tonnes of finest quality reserves.
    The state’s mineral department conducted a widespread survey for a year and located iron ore reserves of over 40 million metric tonnes in Iklama and Sindhari areas in Kawardha district, an official release said Monday.
    ‘Besides Kawardha, 15 million metric tonne iron ore reserves were located in Rowghat area in hilly Bastar district, 11 million metric tonnes in forested Aridongri region in Kanker district and about five million metric tonnes in Dantewada district’s Bailadila pockets,’ the release added.
    Officials claim that Chhattisgarh’s hilly chain, beginning from Dalli Rajhara in Durg district to Bailadila, has two billion tonnes of iron ore stocks that alone account for India’s 18.55 percent of total iron ore reserves.
    Chhattisgarh, ranked second in the country in mineral production, has 20 percent of India’s iron ore deposits.
    The state’s Bailadila hilly region, divided into 14 deposits, is one of the world’s largest and finest quality iron ore stocks where public sector National Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (NMDC) has major iron ore facilities since 1967 for large domestic supply and exports to China and Japan.
    The state government signed a deal in July 2006 with the NMDC to set up a joint venture for opening up a deposit no-13 in Bailadila – with 35 million metric tones reserves.
    Information from: IANS via in.news.yahoo.com

    Chattisgarh

    Among India's most mineral-rich states, producing 28 major minerals, including coal and iron ore.

    Produces approximately 16% of India’s coal, 10% of iron ore, 5% bauxite, 5% limestone and 88% tin.

    Fifth largest contributor to the value of minerals produced; generating Rs 5049 crore in 2004-05.

    Mining contributes 12% to the state's GDP

    About 90,000 ha of land is under mining.

    44% of the state's land area is under forests (12% of the country's forested area); most of the dense forests are in the mineral-rich districts.

    Ranks 2nd in terms of total forest land diverted for mining in India.

    Tribals comprise 31% of the state's total population - Dantewada, Bastar, Surguja are most mined districts.

    About 40.5% of the state's population lives below the poverty line. Despite large-scale mining projects, six of the seven key mining districts are listed in the 150 most backward districts in India.

    The state is witnessing increased industrial activity in recent years. This has been accompanied by protests in different parts of the states – Bastar, Korba, and Dantewada districts, in particular.

    DANTEWADA

    Has rich reserves of iron ore, tin and corrandum. Around 2010 ha of land in the district is already under mining with leading steel companies envisaging interest in the district.

    Rich forest reserves with 64% of its land under forest cover and almost 79% tribal population. Although rich in natural wealth, the district has not seen much development - only 30% of the population is literate; about a half of the state's population has access to clean drinking water; and less than 25% population has access to electricity. The district ranks seventh among the 150 backward districts of the country.
    .
    Essar Steel acquired land for its steel plant in the tribal villages of Dhurli and Bhansi, despite widespread local opposition. Many suspect that the company, in cahoots with the government, used coercion to obtain special permission from the Gram Sabha to acquire land in this Schedule V area.

    Dantewada and the neighbouring district of Bastar is affected by naxalism. Maoists are against transfer of land to the companies and have threatened to disrupt mining operations. In a recent attack, some villagers who had handed over their land to Essar Steel, were killed.
    BAILADILA

    The hills are rich with dense deciduous forests - an ecological hotspot; its vast reserves of high quality iron ore also places the area's biodiversity under serious threat from mining.

    Mining and industrialisation have devastated the region, especially places like Kirandul, Bacheli and Bhansi.

    The Shankhini and Dankini rivers, which flow through the region are among the most polluted in India. Shankhini is often referred to as 'lal pani' (red waters); people from about 100 villages are dependant on this water source.

    Iron ore tailings from National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC)’s Bailadila mines have polluted the river and also damaged 35,000 ha of agricultural and forest land. On account of this, state government directed the company to dig 200 wells in 65 villages affected along the river.

    Most of the drinking water wells are dry.


    BASTAR (on the right bank of Indravati river)

    Government here too has helped private mining companies to acquire land in Schedule V villages of Bastar. The companies are Tata’s plant at Lohinduga and NDMC’s plant at Nagarnar.

    Nagarnar has witnessed a long-drawn conflict between the locals and the state over land allotment to the public sector NMDC. The struggle also turned violent when activists protesting against the project were apprehended and shot at by the police; 45 people, mostly women, were injured and around 250 people were jailed.

    An inquiry conducted by the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (NCSCST) concluded that the acquisition process violated the constitutional mandate for scheduled areas and therefore was null and void.

    Inspite of the NCSCST findings and protests by locals, the state government still went ahead with the land acquisition process.

    Nagarnar steel plant is yet to start functioning because of technological failures in using iron filling waste from the Bailadila mines.

    Conclusion

    Clearly, the statue has to be meaningful for the artisan who made this exquisite bronze using the cire perdue technique of bronze casting which harks back to the days of Indus-Sarasvati civilization. Similar technique is used for bronze casting in Swamimalai on the banks of River Kaveri in Tamil Nadu.

    Further investigations are needed to unravel the metallurgical traditions of Bastar and their roots which perhaps may lie in Sarasvati metallurgical heritage.

    The rebus reading of the glyptics of the sculpture (woman, breasts, crocodile)is relatable to the Indian linguistic area. The reading is suggested as a calling card of a smith of Bastar: mineral, metal, artisan: dhatu kola kaaru. It is significant that the lexeme khar means 'blacksmith' in Kashmiri; kaaru denotes a crocodile in Telugu language. kola means 'woman' in Nahali language. kol means 'metal' in Tamil. dhatu means 'mineral' in Prakrit language; datu also means woman's breast in Munda language. I suggest that these lexemes relate to the Indian linguistic area from the days of Indus-Sarasvati civilization and the practice of using hieroglyphs decoded as connoting, rebus, the repertoire of artisans.

    Yes, there is a time gap of millennia between the possible date of this Bastar bronze and the Indus-Sarasvati metallurgical, sculpturl tradition exemplified by the 'dancing girl' bronze wearing the same types of bangles and anklets as shown on this Bastar bronze. Yes, the Hindu civilization has an abiding presence and continuum in the Indian linguistic area - as evidenced by the use of metaphors of Indus script glyphs which continued into the punch-marked and cast coins of the historical periods. One early coin showed a crocodile catching a fish as note by Theobald. W. Theobald, Symbols on punch-marked coins of Hindustan (1890, 1901). This glyptic combination is a unique metaphor of Sarasvati hieroglyphs evidenced in Indus script inscriptions. This metaphor of fish + crocodile read rebus: aya kaara 'metal smith'.


    It is not clear if the crocodile metaphor has any link with Egyptian Sobek.

    Sobek (Sebek)

    He who causes to be fertile

    Symbols: Crocodiles

    Depiction: The male deity Sobek was depicted as a crocodile or as a man with the head of a crocodile.

    Mythology: As told in the Book of the Dead, Horus the Elder enlisted the help of Sobek to kill his uncle Seth. Sobek helped Horus on another occasion when he rescued Horus’ four sons from the waters of Nun. Sobek was the god of crocodiles. Ancient Egyptians, who lived in cities that depended on water, worshipped him to placate the crocodiles. For instance, the people of Crocodilopolis (Arsinoe) would husband crocodiles in pools and adorn them with jewels. The importance of crocodiles to ancient Egyptian culture is demonstrated by the numerous mummified crocs that have been found in tombs.

    MS 5059 Schoyen Collection. For large image of the seal and an impression go to the Schoyen Collection:

    http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/5/5.6/ The third glyph from the left is a lizard/crocodile.










    Image result for indus script boar tiger hunter seal

    Oslo Museum. Unprovenanced cylinder seal (from Afghanistan?)
    baḍhoe‘a carpenter, worker in wood, iron’; badhoria‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.
    kamaḍha'archer' Rebus: kammaṭa'mint, coiner, coinage'
    kola'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'kolhe'smelter'kolle'blacksmith'

     baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood'  వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు (p. 1126) vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh] Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā.(CDIAL 11375)





    baḍaga is a takṣa, divine tvaṣṭr̥ of R̥gveda, he is a yajña puruṣa as evidenced in Khajuraho monumental varāha sculpture.. He is the very embodiment of the Veda, Veda puruṣa.  त्वष्टृ m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृAV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/इ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम् अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/अ-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुi , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv.स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv.545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस् or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा TBr. S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23 ; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर् आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. ).

    Text of inscription: 
    Sign 121       70 Read as a variant of Sign 112: Four count, three times: gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar' khaṇḍa 'implements, metalware' PLUS
    ||| Number three reads: kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus,the hypertext of Sign 104 reads: kolami khaṇḍa 'smithy/forge (for) implements.'

    Duplicated 'bows', Variant of Sign 307Sign 307       69 Arrow PLUS bow: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Rebus: khaṇḍa, khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. kanda 'fire-altar' PLUS  kamaṭha m. ʻ bamboo ʼ lex. 2. *kāmaṭha -- . 3. *kāmāṭṭha -- . 4. *kammaṭha -- . 5. *kammaṭṭha -- . 6. *kambāṭha -- . 7. *kambiṭṭha -- . [Cf. kambi -- ʻ shoot of bamboo ʼ, kārmuka -- 2 n. ʻ bow ʼ Mn., ʻ bamboo ʼ lex. which may therefore belong here rather than to kr̥múka -- . Certainly ← Austro -- as. PMWS 33 with lit. -- See kāca -- 31. Pk. kamaḍha -- , °aya -- m. ʻ bamboo ʼ; Bhoj. kōro ʻ bamboo poles ʼ.2. N. kāmro ʻ bamboo, lath, piece of wood ʼ, OAw. kāṁvari ʻ bamboo pole with slings at each end for carrying things ʼ, H. kã̄waṛ°arkāwaṛ°ar f., G. kāvaṛ f., M. kāvaḍ f.; -- deriv. Pk. kāvaḍia -- , kavvāḍia -- m. ʻ one who carries a yoke ʼ, H. kã̄waṛī°ṛiyā m., G. kāvaṛiyɔ m.3. S. kāvāṭhī f. ʻ carrying pole ʼ, kāvāṭhyo m. ʻ the man who carries it ʼ.4. Or. kāmaṛā°muṛā ʻ rafters of a thatched house ʼ;G. kāmṛũ n., °ṛī f. ʻ chip of bamboo ʼ, kāmaṛ -- koṭiyũ n. ʻ bamboo hut ʼ. 5. B. kāmṭhā ʻ bow ʼ, G. kāmṭhũ n., °ṭhī f. ʻ bow ʼ; M. kamṭhā°ṭā m. ʻ bow of bamboo or horn ʼ; -- deriv. G. kāmṭhiyɔ m. ʻ archer ʼ. 6. A. kabāri ʻ flat piece of bamboo used in smoothing an earthen image ʼ.7. M. kã̄bīṭ°baṭ°bṭīkāmīṭ°maṭ°mṭīkāmṭhīkāmāṭhī f. ʻ split piece of bamboo &c., lath ʼ.(CDIAL 2760)This evokes another word:  kamaḍha 'archer' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner' . Thus, Sign 307 is read as bow and arrow rebus: khaṇḍa kammaṭa 'equipment mint' (See Sign 281)Thus, kã̄bīṭ 'bow' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting',  i.e. dul kammaṭa 'metalcasting mint'

    This is a hypertext composed of 'body' (of standing person) 
    Sign 1 hieroglyph: me 'body' rebus: meḍ,med'iron, copper'
    PLUS 'lid' hieroglyph: ḍhaṁkaṇa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article'.
    PLUS Sign 402 'flag' hieroglyph. Sign 402 'flag' hieroglyph. Ciphertext koḍi ‘flag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). In the context of metalwork guilds, the flag is the compound expression: dhvajapaṭa ʻflagʼ  PLUS dhvajapaṭa
     m. ʻ flag ʼ Kāv. [dhvajá -- , paṭa -- ]Pk. dhayavaḍa -- m. ʻ flag ʼ, OG. dhayavaḍa m. Rebus: Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic (CDIAL 6773)  
     The hypertext reads: kolami khaṇḍa dhakka meḍ dhā̆vaḍ ' smithy/forge equipment, smelter producing blazing, bright iron'.
    Sign 211 kaṇḍa ‘arrow’; Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali) khaṇḍa 'implements' (Santali)
    The inscription reads: 

    kol badhoe kammaṭa kolami khaṇḍa dhakka meḍ dhā̆vaḍ 
    'working in iron, wood, mint, smithy.forge equipment, smelter producing blazing iron implements.'
    Image result for ; boar and bull in procession; terminal: plant; heavily pittedLate Uruk and Jemdet Nasr seal; ca. 3200-3000 BCE; serpentine; cat.1; boar and bull in procession; terminal: plant; heavily pitted surface beyond plant.  Indus Script hieroglyphs read rebus: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’ Hieroglyph: dhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman (cargo boat).

    Indus Script Hieroglyph: barāh, baḍhi ‘boar’ Rebus: vāḍhī, bari, barea ‘merchant’ 

    baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’ Together with an anthropomorph of copper/bronze with the curved horns of a ‘ram’, the hypertext signifies: meḍh ‘ram’ rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ PLUS baḍhi ‘boar’ rebus: baḍhoria, ‘expert in working in wood’PLUS khondar‘young bull’ rebus: konda ‘furnace’ kundaṇa ‘fine gold’ Thus, the anthropomorph is a professional calling card of a worker with furnace, worker in iron, fine gold and wood. It is not mere coincidence that Varāha signifies an ancient gold coin. Another anthropomorph rplaces the young bull frieze on the chest of the ram with a ‘fish’ hieroglyph. ayo ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘alloy metal’.

    ஓடாவி ōṭāvin. prob. ஓடம்¹ + ஆள்வி. 1. Shipwright, boat builder; மரக்கலஞ் செய்வோன். (W.) 2. Carpenter; தச்சன்.ōṭam, n. < ஓடு-. cf. hōḍa. [T. K. Tu. oḍa, M. ōḍam.] 1. Boat, ferry-boat; தோணி. (திவா.) 2. Raft, float, vessel of any kind; மிதவை. (W.) 3. The tenth nakṣatra; மகநாள். (இராசவைத்) 4. Weavers' shuttle; நெசவுநாடா. (யாழ். அக.) 5. A song in the boatman's tune; ஓடப்பாட்டு.ōṭa-p-pāṭṭu , n. < ஓடம்¹ +. Boat song; கப்பற்பாட்டு. Ta. ōṭam boat, raft, float, vessel; ōṭāvi shipwright, boatbuilder. Ma. ōṭam boat; ōṭāyi shipbuilders; ōṭi a large seaboat (long and narrow, chiefly from the Laccadives). Ka. ōḍa boat. Tu. ōḍa id. Te. ōḍa ship, vessel. Pa. ōḍa boat, trough. Go. (M.) ōḍa, (Ko. S.) ōṛa boat (Voc. 437); (Pat.) oda (i.e. ōḍa) donga. / Cf. Skt. hoḍa- boat, raft; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14174. The IA words are probably < Dr.; Parpola 1977-78, pp. 243 ff. (DEDR 1039) hōḍa m. ʻ raft, boat ʼ lex. [← Drav., Kan. ōḍa., &c. DED 876]H. hoṛī f., holā m. ʻ canoe, raft ʼ; G. hoṛī f. ʻ boat ʼ; M. hoḍī f. ʻ canoe made of hollowed log ʼ. -- See uḍupa -- .Addenda: hōḍa -- : Md. oḍi ʻ large kind of boat ʼ ← Drav.(CDIAL 14174) ōḍra1 m. ʻ a tribe of Śūdras ʼ Mn., ʻ name of a people ʼ MBh., uḍra -- , auḍ°. 2. *auḍrika -- ʻ of that people ʼ. [S. Lévi JA 1923, 20 ff., EWA i 132]1. Pk. oḍḍa -- , uḍ° m. ʻ the land of Utkala ʼ, uḍḍa -- m. ʻ a caste of well -- diggers ʼ; S. oḍru m. ʻ a caste that make mud walls, blockhead ʼ, L. oḍ̠ m.; P. oḍ m. ʻ a tribe that clear out watercourses or build houses ʼ; Ku. oṛwoṛ ʻ mason ʼ, N. oṛ; Or. oṛa ʻ an aboriginal inhabitant of Orissa ʼ; G. oḍ m. ʻ a caste of Hindus who dig and carry earth and build mud houses ʼ.2. oḍḍia -- ʻ pertaining to Utkala ʼ; B. oṛiyāuṛ° ʻ an inhabitant of Orissa ʼ, Or. oṛiā, Bhoj. oṛiyā; EH. (Chattisgarh) oṛiyā m. ʻ navvy ʼ.ōḍradēśa -- .Addenda: ōḍra -- 1 ʻ a tribe of Śūdras ʼ Mn.: WPak.kṭg. ōḍ m. ʻ carpenter, name of a caste ʼ; Garh. oḍ ʻ mason ʼ.(CDIAL 2549) ōḍradēśa ʻ land of the Oḍras ʼ MW. [ōḍra -- 1, dēśá --] Or. oṛisā ʻ Orissa ʼ, H. uṛīsā m.(CDIAL 2551) [Note: the seafaring Bharatam Janam of ōḍradēśa are the seafarers who celebrate Baliyatra every year on Karthik Purnima day in memory of their contributions to Hinduised states of the Far East (pace George Coedes' wok in French Les états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient. These are the ancient dharma-dhamma savants who spread Bauddham in Sri Lanka and in the Ancient Far East.]

    Hieroglyph: dhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' 









    m1540Act

    m1540b
    A line drawing rendering of the hieroglyph as Pict-89 pictorial motif on Mahadevan concordance.
    kammaṭa 'coiner, mint' signified by hieroglyph: kamāṭhiyo 'archer' evolves as an iconic metaphor of the aniconic ekamukhalinga on Batesvar sculptural frieze shown atop a smelter together with a tree in the background: kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter', thus reinforcing the association of Yupa Skambha as a fiery pillar of light as a metaphor for the smelting processes transmuting mere earth and stone into metal heralding the inexorable processes of creation, destruction and rebirth exemplified by the Supreme divine -- a transformation from Being tio Becoming exemplified by the Cosmic Dancer emerging out of the Sivalinga. The process is mentioned as gangga sudhi on Candi Sukuh inscription on a linga signifying sudhi, 'purification' by kanga 'brazier'.
    kuṭa°ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ  Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'. kuṭa, °ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ lex., °ṭaka -- m. ʻ a kind of tree ʼ Kauś.Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ, dar. kaṛék ʻ tree, oak ʼ ~ Par. kōṛ ʻ stick ʼ IIFL iii 3, 98. (CDIAL 3228). 

    Boar
    oḍ m. ʻ a caste of Hindus who dig and carry earth and build mud houses ʼ(Gujarati)(CDIAL 2549).This etymon is relatable to baḍhi,bāṛaï 'carpenter', baea 'worker in wood and iron; merchant' signified by the hieroglyph: baḍhia,বরাহ barāha 'boar', In Telugu, the pronunciation variant is వడ్రంగివడ్లంగివడ్లవాడు (p. 1133) [ vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu ] or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. Cf. vardhaki ‘carpenter’ (Samskrtam) The semantics of 'digging' indicate the possibility that baḍhi,bāṛaï was also a miner digging out minerals from the earth and hence the association in the metaphors related to Bhudevi and her rescue from the ocean.

     

    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/gvxn2un

    A boar as an artistic signifier of professional titles of the Bronze Age occurs on a Jemdet Nasr seal impression ca. 3200-3000 BCE. On this seal, kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' is followed by badhi 'boar' rebus: badhi 'carpenter, worke in iron' and dhangar 'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.


    Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr seal; ca. 3200-3000 BCE; serpentine; cat.1; boar and bull in procession; terminal: plant; heavily pitted surface beyond plant.  Indus Script hieroglyphs read rebus: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’ Hieroglyph: dhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman (cargo boat)

    ஓடாவி ōṭāvin. prob. ஓடம்¹ + ஆள்வி. 1. Shipwright, boat builder; மரக்கலஞ் செய்வோன். (W.) 2. Carpenter; தச்சன்.ōṭam, n. < ஓடு-. cf. hōḍa. [T. K. Tu. oḍa, M. ōḍam.] 1. Boat, ferry-boat; தோணி. (திவா.) 2. Raft, float, vessel of any kind; மிதவை. (W.) 3. The tenth nakṣatra; மகநாள். (இராசவைத்) 4. Weavers' shuttle; நெசவுநாடா. (யாழ். அக.) 5. A song in the boatman's tune; ஓடப்பாட்டு.ōṭa-p-pāṭṭu , n. < ஓடம்¹ +. Boat song; கப்பற்பாட்டு. Ta. ōṭam boat, raft, float, vessel; ōṭāvi shipwright, boatbuilder. Ma. ōṭam boat; ōṭāyi shipbuilders; ōṭi a large seaboat (long and narrow, chiefly from the Laccadives). Ka. ōḍa boat. Tu. ōḍa id. Te. ōḍa ship, vessel. Pa. ōḍa boat, trough. Go. (M.) ōḍa, (Ko. S.) ōṛa boat (Voc. 437); (Pat.) oda (i.e. ōḍa) donga. / Cf. Skt. hoḍa- boat, raft; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14174. The IA words are probably < Dr.; Parpola 1977-78, pp. 243 ff. (DEDR 1039) hōḍa m. ʻ raft, boat ʼ lex. [← Drav., Kan. ōḍa., &c. DED 876]H. hoṛī f., holā m. ʻ canoe, raft ʼ; G. hoṛī f. ʻ boat ʼ; M. hoḍī f. ʻ canoe made of hollowed log ʼ. -- See uḍupa -- .Addenda: hōḍa -- : Md. oḍi ʻ large kind of boat ʼ ← Drav.(CDIAL 14174) ōḍra1 m. ʻ a tribe of Śūdras ʼ Mn., ʻ name of a people ʼ MBh., uḍra -- , auḍ°. 2. *auḍrika -- ʻ of that people ʼ. [S. Lévi JA 1923, 20 ff., EWA i 132]1. Pk. oḍḍa -- , uḍ° m. ʻ the land of Utkala ʼ, uḍḍa -- m. ʻ a caste of well -- diggers ʼ; S. oḍru m. ʻ a caste that make mud walls, blockhead ʼ, L. oḍ̠ m.; P. oḍ m. ʻ a tribe that clear out watercourses or build houses ʼ; Ku. oṛwoṛ ʻ mason ʼ, N. oṛ; Or. oṛa ʻ an aboriginal inhabitant of Orissa ʼ; G. oḍ m. ʻ a caste of Hindus who dig and carry earth and build mud houses ʼ.2. oḍḍia -- ʻ pertaining to Utkala ʼ; B. oṛiyāuṛ° ʻ an inhabitant of Orissa ʼ, Or. oṛiā, Bhoj. oṛiyā; EH. (Chattisgarh) oṛiyā m. ʻ navvy ʼ.ōḍradēśa -- .Addenda: ōḍra -- 1 ʻ a tribe of Śūdras ʼ Mn.: WPak.kṭg. ōḍ m. ʻ carpenter, name of a caste ʼ; Garh. oḍ ʻ mason ʼ.(CDIAL 2549) ōḍradēśa ʻ land of the Oḍras ʼ MW. [ōḍra -- 1, dēśá --] Or. oṛisā ʻ Orissa ʼ, H. uṛīsā m.(CDIAL 2551) [Note: the seafaring Bharatam Janam of ōḍradēśa are the seafarers who celebrate Baliyatra every year on Karthik Purnima day in memory of their contributions to Hinduised states of the Far East (pace George Coedes' wok in French Les états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient. These are the ancient dharma-dhamma savants who spread Bauddham in Sri Lanka and in the Ancient Far East.]

    Hieroglyph: dhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'


    See: 
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/04/varaha-in-indus-script-reinforces-vedic.html

    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/04/body-with-spread-legs-hypertexts-48-two.html

    Gold sheet and silver, Late 3rd/early 2nd millennium B.C.E.

      L. 12.68 cm. Ceremonial Axe Bactria,Northern Afghanistan http://www.lessingimages.com/search.asp?a=L&lc=202020207EE6&ln=Collection+George+Ortiz%2C+Geneva%2C+Switzerland&p=1 "The whole cast by the lost wax process. The boar covered with a sheet of gold annealed and hammered on, some 3/10-6/10 mm in thickness, almost all the joins covered up with silver. At the base of the mane between the shoulders an oval motif with irregular indents. The lion and the boar hammered, elaborately chased and polished. A shaft opening - 22 holes around its edge laced with gold wire some 7/10-8/10 mm in diameter - centred under the lion's shoulder; between these a hole (diam: some 6.5 mm) front and back for insertion of a dowel to hold the shaft in place, both now missing.
    08-02-14/21 Lessing, Erich, photographer. Ceremonial axe of ki...Ceremonial axe (inscribed with name) of king Untash-Napirisha, from his capital Tchoga Zambil. Back of the axe adorned with an electrum boar; the blade issues from a lion's mouth. Silver and electrum, H: 5,9 cm Sb 3973 Louvre, Departement des Antiquites Orientales, Paris, France



    File:Bactrian axe BM 123628.jpg
    Cast axe-head; tin bronze inlaid with silver; shows a boar attacking a tiger which is attacking an ibex.ca. 2500 -2000 BCE Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. Length: 17.8 cm (7 in). Weight: 675.5 g (23.82 oz). British Museum.ME 123628 (1913,0314.11913,0314.1) R. Maxwell-Hyslop, 'British Museum “axe” no. 123628: a Bactrian bronze', Bulletin of the Asia Institute, NS I (1987), pp. 17-26
    Curator's comments: See RL file 6616 (29/6/1995); also Research Lab file 4992 of 12/09/1983 where XRF analysis of surface indicates composition as tin bronze with approx 10% tin and traces of arsenic, nickel, silver and lead. Dalton's inclusion in the 'Catalogue of the Oxus Treasure' among a small group of comparative items has unfortunately led to recurrent confusion over the date and provenance of this piece. It was first believed to be Achaemenid in date (Dalton, 'Catalogue of the Oxus Treasure', p. 48), labelled as such in 1975 in the former Iranian Room and thus suggested to be an Achaemenid scabbard chape (P R S Moorey CORRES 1975, based on an example said to have been excavated by P. Bernard at Ai Khanoum or seen by him in Kabul Bazaar, cf. P. Bernard CORRES 1976). It has also been assigned a 4th-5th century AD Sasanian date (P. Amiet, 1967, in 'Revue du Louvre' 17, pp. 281-82). However, its considerably earlier - late 3rd mill. BC Bronze Age - date has now been clearly demonstrated following the discovery of large numbers of objects of related form in south-east Iran and Bactria, and it has since been recognised and/or cited as such, for instance by H. Pittmann (hence archaeometallurgical analysis in 1983; R. Maxwell-Hyslop, 1988a, "British Museum axe no. 123628: a Bactrian bronze", 'Bulletin of the Asia Institute' 1 (NS), pp. 17-26; F. Hiebert & C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky 1992a, "Central Asia and the Indo-Iranian Borderlands",' Iran' 30, p. 5; B. Brentjes, 1991a, "Ein tierkampfszene in bronze", 'Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran' 24 (NS), p. 1, taf. 1). 
    http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=367862&partId=1


    Decipherment: There are three hieroglyphs: ram (markhor), tiger, boar. The rebus renderings are: coppersmith (merchant's helper), smelter, worker in wood and iron.

    Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) Thus, coppersmith, helper of merchant.

    kola 'tiger' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith', kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron'. Thus, a smelter.

    badhi 'boar' rebus: badhi 'carpenter, worke in iron' and dhangar 'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.


    Eagle incised on a ceremonial axe made of chlorite. Tepe Yahya. (After Fig. 9.6 in Philip H. Kohl, 2001, opcit.)
    Bactrian bronze axe headBactrian bronze axe-head

    The narrow blade decorated with incised chevrons, cut-away socket with banded edges, the shaft decorated with two squatting figures each wearing short tunic, one wrestling a seated feline the other with arms around the feline and a standing quadruped (perhaps bull). Rebus readings: kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' dhangar 'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'.

    2nd Millennium BCE

    L. 6 3/4 in. (17.2 cm.)

    Ex London art market, late 1990s.

    Published: J. Eisenberg, Art of the Ancient World, 2012, no. 251.

    http://www.royalathena.com/PAGES/NearEasternCatalog/Bronze/CLT168.html

    Shaft-hole axe head double-headed eagle anthropomorph, boar, and winged tiger ca. late 3rd–early 2nd millennium B.C.E Silver, gold foil L. 15 cm. 

    Anthropomorph (human body) is represented twice, once on each side of the axe, and consequently appears to have two heads. On one side, he grasps the boar by the belly and on the other, by the tusks. 

    The composite animal (feline, tiger body) has folded and staggered wings, and the talons of a bird of prey in the place of his front paws. Its single horn has been broken off and lost.

    http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/329076

    Rebus readings are: eruvai 'kite' rebus: eruvai 'copper' PLUS kambha 'shoulder, wing' rebus: kammaTa 'mint'; thus, copper mint.

    kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' PLUS kambha 'wing' rebus: kammaTa 'min'; thus, iron smelter's mint.

    badhi 'boar' rebus: badhi 'carpenter, worke in iron' and dhangar 'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.

    The hieroglyph-multiplexes on Ancient Near East artifacts include hieroglyph components: tiger, rhinoceros, eagle, kid (goat), bull/ox. All are metalwork cipher texts. These are in addition to a boar: বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï 
    'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman. The dominant role played by the merchantman vessel steered by a helmsman explains the presence of a pair of boars on one of the frames of hieroglyph-multiplexes on the Gundestrup Cauldron:



    See:
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/04/karani-helmsman-scribe-supercargo-of.html

    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/09/indus-script-corpora-hieroglyphs-link.html

    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/09/farmana-indus-script-seal-deciphered.html

    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/01/celtic-meluhha-contacts-during-early.html

    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/01/did-indians-migrate-to-europe-as-early.html

    kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'smithy, temple' kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'pancaloha alloy'

    eruvai 'a kite, eagle' Rebus: eruvai 'copper' எருவை eruvai A kind of kite, a kite whose head is white and whose body is brown; தலைவெளுத்து உடல்சிவந்திருக்கும் பருந்து. விசும்பா டெருவை பசுந்தடி தடுப்ப (புறநா. 64, 4). 4. Eagle; கழுகு. எருவை குருதி பிணங்க வருந் தோற்றம் (களவழி. 20). 5.


    kANDa 'rhinoceros' Rebus: kANDa 'metal implements'

    karaDU 'kid (goat)' Rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy'

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'

    dhangar 'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' barad 'ox' Rebus: bharata 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'
    kul ‘tiger’ (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. Kolhuya -- , kulha — m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ, °lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā, °lā m. krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu — m. Pāṇ. [√kruś] Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka — and kotthu -- , °uka — m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. Koṭṭhu — m.; Si. Koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42 (CDIAL 3615). कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pañcaloha’ (Ta.) Allograph: kōla = woman (Nahali) 

    Rebus: kol , n. < கொல்-. Working in iron; கொற்றொழில். 4. Blacksmith; கொல்லன். கொல்லன் kollaṉ, n. < கொல்². [M. kollan.] Blacksmith; கருமான்மென்றோன் மிதியுலைக் கொல்லன் (பெரும்பாண். 207). கொற்றுறை koṟṟuṟai , n. < கொல்² + துறை. Blacksmith's workshop, smithyகொல்லன் பட் டடை.கொற்றுறைக் குற்றில (புறநா. 95). கொற்று¹ koṟṟu , n. prob. கொல்-. 1. Masonry, brickwork;கொற்றுவேலைகொற்றுள விவரில் (திரு வாலவா. 30, 23). 2. Mason, bricklayer; கொத் தன்Colloq. 3. The measure of work turned out by a mason; ஒரு கொத்தன் செய்யும் வேலை யளவு.இந்தச் சுவர் கட்ட எத்தனை கொற்றுச் செல்லும்?

     See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/04/varaha-in-indus-script-reinforces-vedic.html

    Vessel in the form of a boar

    Period:
    Proto-Elamite
    Date:
    ca. 3100–2900 B.C.
    Geography:
    Southwestern Iran
    Culture: