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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    https://tinyurl.com/y839vua8
    Marble , Sarasvati Civilization ( Photo - )
    Punjabi. mẽḍhā m. 'markhor'.(CDIAL 10310) Rebus: mẽḍh 'iron' (Mu.), med 'copper' (Slavic languages) mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali) Rebus: meḍho 'helper of merchant'. (See embedded text -- Deśīnāmamālā of Hemacandra).
    Deśīnāmamālā Glossary, p. 71 The early meaning of the lexeme meḍh can be traced from the semantics recorded in the following lexemes of Indian linguistic area; as Pischel notes, the word meḍh can be identified as susbtratum semantic for 'helper/assistant of merchant): MBh. [mēṭha -- 1, mēṇḍa -- 3 m. ʻ elephant -- keeper ʼ lex., Pa. hatthimeṇḍa -- m. ʻ elephant -- driver ʼ, Pk. meṁṭha -- , miṁṭha -- , miṁṭhala -- , mahāmettha -- (note final -- th in P. below), metthapurisa -- m. (Pischel PkGr 202) may point to a non -- Aryan word for ʻ elephant -- driver ʼ which became associated with mahāmātra -- : EWA ii 611. -- mahā -- , māˊtrā -- ] (CDIAL 9950). meṇḍa, मेण्ठः मेण्डः An elephant-keeper (Apte. lex.) a groom, elephant -- driver in cpd. hatthi˚ elephants' keeper J iii.431; v.287; vi.489. (Pali). 
    A. semantics 'iron': meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho)meṛed (Mundari);mẽṛed iron; enga meṛed soft iron; sanḍi meṛed hard iron; ispāt meṛed steel; dul meṛed cast iron; i meṛed rusty iron, also the iron of which weights are cast; bica meṛed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meṛed iron extracted from sand ore; meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mu.lex.)

    B. semantics 'ram or markhor': A variety of forms एड, ēḍa, mēḍa, mēṣá -- point to collision with Aryn mḗḍhra (providing a form bhēḍra), Austro-Asiatic mēḍa and Dravidian ēḍa: 

    menda(A) {N} ``^sheep''. *Des.menda(GM) `sheep'. #21810. me~Da o~?-Doi {N} ``^lamb''. |me~Da `^sheep'. @N0747. #6052. gadra me~Da {N} ``^ram, ^male ^sheep''. |me~Da `sheep'. @N0745. #7240. me~Da {N} ``^sheep''. *De. menda (GM). @N0744. #14741.
    me~Da o?~-Doi {N} ``^lamb''. |o~?-Doi `young of an animal'. @N0747. #14750.
    gadra me~Da {N} ``^ram''. |gadra `male of sheep or goat'. @N0745. #14762.
    peti me~Da {N} ``^ewe (without young)''. |peti `young female of sheep or goat'. @N0746. #14772.me~Da o~?-Doi {N} ``^lamb''. |me~Da `^sheep'. @N0747. #6053.peti me~Da {N} ``^ewe (without young)''. |me~Da `sheep'. @N0746. #14773. menda(KMP) {N} ``^sheep [MP], ewe [K], ram, ^wether [P]''. Cf. merom `goat', boda `??'. *O.menda, B.mera, H.merha, Sk.lex, ~medhra, ~mendha, Sa.bheda `ram', ~bhidi `sheep', MuNbhera, MuHbera `ram', Mu., Kh bheri(AB) `sheep', H., O. bhera `ram', H. bhera `sheep'. %21781. #21611.
    menda kOnOn (P) {N} ``^lamb''. | konon `child'. *$Ho mindi hon . %21790. #21620.
    mendi (P) {N} ``^sheep''. *$Mu., Ho, Bh. mindi . %21800. #21630. meram (P),, merom (KMP) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'. %21821. #21651. meram kOnOn (P),, merom kOnOn (P) {N} ``^kid''. | konon `child'. merom (KMP),, meram (P) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'. %21851. #21681. bheri (D),, bheri (AB) {NA} ``^sheep [ABD]; ^bear [D]''. *@. ??VAR. #3251. menda ,, mendi {N} ``^sheep''. @7906. ??M|F masc|fem #19501. menda (B)F {N(M)} ``(male) ^sheep''. Fem. mendi . *Loan. @B21460,N760. #22531.Ju menda (KMP) {N} ``^sheep [MP], ewe [K], ram, ^wether [P]''. Cf. merom `goat', boda `??'. *O. menda , B. mera , H. merha , Sk. lex , ~ medhra , ~ mendha , Sa. bheda `ram', ~ bhidi `sheep', MuN bhera , MuH bera `ram', Mu., Kh. bheri (AB) `sheep', H., O. bhera `ram', H. bhera `sheep'.Ju meram (P),, merom (KMP) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'.Ju merego (P),, mergo (P),, mirigo (M) {N} ``^deer''. *Sa. mirgi jel `a certain kind of deer', H. mrgo `deer', antelope, O. mrgo , Sk. mrga . Ju merom (KMP),, meram (P) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'.Go menda (A) {N} ``^sheep''. *Des. menda (GM) `sheep'.Gu me~Da {N} ``^sheep''. *Des. menda (GM).Re menda (B)F {N(M)} ``(male) ^sheep''. Fem. mendi . *Loan.(Munda etyma. STAMPE-DM--MP.NEW.84, 20-Jun-85 13:32:53, Edit by STAMPE-D Pinnow Versuch and Munda's thesis combined).

    mēṭam (Ta.);[← Austro -- as. J. Przyluski BSL xxx 200: perh. Austro -- as. *mēḍra ~ bhēḍra collides with Aryan mḗḍhra -- 1 in mēṇḍhra -- m. ʻ penis ʼ BhP., ʻ ram ʼ lex. -- See also bhēḍa -- 1, mēṣá -- , ēḍa -- . -- The similarity between bhēḍa -- 1, bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- ʻ ram ʼ and *bhēḍa -- 2 ʻ defective ʼ is paralleled by that between mḗḍhra -- 1, mēṇḍha -- 1 ʻ ram ʼ and *mēṇḍa -- 1, *mēṇḍha -- 2 (s.v. *miḍḍa -- ) ʻ defective ʼ]

    ऐड coming from the sheep एड MBh. viii. इडिक्क [p= 164, Monier-Williams] A wild goat. इडविडा 1 A species of she-goat. mother of कुवेर VP. BhP. [Kuvera, Kubera is king of the yakshas and god of wealth (buried treasure, nidhi]. -2 The bleating of a goat; सो$पि चानुगतः स्त्रैणं कृपणस्तां प्रसादितुम् । कुर्वन्निडविडा- कारं नाशक्नोत्पथि सन्धितुम् ॥ Bhāg.9.19.9. इडा iḍā ला lā 3 An offering, libation (coming between प्रयाज and अनुयाज); अग्निश्चते योनिरिडा च देहः Mb.3.114.28. -4 Refreshing draught. -5 (Hence) Food. -6 (Fig.) Stream or flow of praise or worship personified as the goddess of sacred speech; इडोपहूताः क्रोशन्ति कुञ्जरास्त्वङ्कुशेरिताः Mb.12.98.26.(Apte lex.)

    Ta. yāṭu, āṭu goat, sheep; āṭṭ-āḷ shepherd. Ma. āṭu goat, sheep; āṭṭukāran shepherd. Ko. a·ṛ (obl. a·ṭ-) goat. To. o·ḍ id. Ka. āḍu id. Koḍ. a·ḍï id. Tu. ēḍů id. Te. ēḍika, (B.) ēṭa ram. Go. (Tr. Ph. W.) yēṭī, (Mu. S.) ēṭi she-goat (Voc. 376). Pe. ōḍa goat. Manḍ. ūḍe id. Kui ōḍa id. Kuwi (Mah. p. 110) o'ḍā, (Ḍ.) ōḍa id. Kur. ēṛā she-goat. Malt. éṛe id. Br. hēṭ id. / Cf. Skt. eḍa-, eḍaka-, eḍī- a kind of sheep(DEDR 5152)ēḍa m. ʻ a kind of sheep ʼ KātyŚr., ēḍī -- f., ēḍaka -- 1 m. ʻ a sheep or goat ʼ, aiḍa -- ʻ ovine ʼ MBh., aiḍaká m. ʻ a kind of sheep ʼ ŚBr., iḍikka -- f. ʻ wild goat ʼ lex. [← Drav. EWA i 126 with lit.]Pa. eḷaka -- m. ʻ ram, wild goat ʼ, °akā -- , °ikā -- , °ikī -- f.; Aś. eḍaka -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, °kā -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ, NiDoc. heḍ'i ʻ sheep (?) ʼ Burrow KharDoc 10 (cf. h -- in Brahui hēṭ ʻ she -- goat ʼ); Pk. ēla -- , °aya -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, ēliyā -- f., ēḍayā -- f., ēḍakka -- m., Paš. weg. ēṛāˊ, kuṛ. e_ṛṓ, ar. yeṛó, že° m. ʻ ram ʼ, weg. ēṛī, kuṛ. e_°, ar. ye° f. ʻ ewe ʼ; Shum. yēṛə, yeṛṓlik m. ʻ sheep ʼ, yeṛélik f., Gaw. ēṛa, yē° m., ēṛī, yē° f., Bshk. īr f., Tor. öi f. (less likely < ávi -- ), Mai. "'ī" Barth NTS xviii 123, Sv. yeṛo m., ēṛia f., Phal. yīṛo m., °ṛi f., Sh. jij. ḗṛi; S. eli -- pavharu m. ʻ goatherd ʼ; Si. eḷuvā ʻ goat ʼ; <-> X bhēḍra -- q.v.*kaiḍikā -- .(CDIAL 2512).

    *mēṇḍharūpa ʻ like a ram ʼ. [mēṇḍha -- 2, rūpá -- ]Bi. mẽṛhwā ʻ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's ʼ; M. mẽḍhrū̃ n. ʻ sheep ʼ.(CDIAL 10311)mēṣá m. ʻ ram ʼ, °ṣīˊ -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ RV. 2. mēha -- 2, miha- m. lex. [mēha -- 2 infl. by mḗhati ʻ emits semen ʼ as poss. mēḍhra -- 2 ʻ ram ʼ (~ mēṇḍha -- 2) by mḗḍhra -- 1 ʻ penis ʼ?]1. Pk. mēsa -- m. ʻ sheep ʼ, Ash. mišalá; Kt. məṣe/l ʻ ram ʼ; Pr. məṣé ʻ ram, oorial ʼ; Kal. meṣ, meṣalák ʻ ram ʼ, H. mes m.; -- X bhēḍra -- q.v.2. K. myã̄ -- pūtu m. ʻ the young of sheep or goats ʼ; WPah.bhal. me\i f. ʻ wild goat ʼ; H. meh m. ʻ ram ʼ. (CDIAL 10334)*mēṣakuṭī -- ʻ hut for sheep ʼ [mēṣá -- , kuṭī -- ] or †*mēṣamaṭha -- ʻ fold for sheep ʼ. [mēṣá -- , maṭha -- 1]WPah.kṭg. mhōˋṛ m. ʻ shed for sheep at high altitudes ʼ or poss. rather < maṭha -- (CDIAL 10334a) meṣam (Skt.) miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) miṇḍ ‘ram’ (Pktl.); mẽḍha (G.) cf. mēṣa = goat (Skt.lex.) மேடம்¹ mēṭam, n. < mēṣa. 1. Sheep, ram; ஆடு. (பிங்.) 2. Aries of the zodiac; ராசிமண்டலத்தின் முதற்பகுதி. (பிங்.) 3. The first solar month. See சித்திரை¹, 2. மேடமாமதி (கம்பரா. திருவவதா. 110) ēḍika. [Tel. of Tam ఆడు.] n. A ram (Telugu) मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup. (Marathi) meṇḍa The Ved. (Sk.) word for ram is meṣa] 1. a ram D i.9; J iv.250, 353 (˚visāṇa -- dhanu, a bow consisting of a ram's horn). -- ˚patha Npl. "ram's road" Nd1 155=415. -- ˚yuddha ram fight D i.6. -- मेष [p= 833, Monier-Williams]m. ( √2. मिष्) a ram , sheep (in the older language applied also to a fleece or anything woollen) RV. &c. मेढ्रः [मिह्-ष्ट्रन्], मेढ्रकः mēḍhrakḥ, मेण्ढः mēṇḍhḥ मेण्ढकः mēṇḍhakḥ A ram (Apte.lexicon)bhēḍa1 m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhaiḍaka -- ʻ of sheep ʼ lex. [bhēḍra- X ēḍa -- ?] Ash. biar ʻ she -- goat ʼ, Pr. byär, Bshk. bür; Tor. birāṭh ʻ he -- goat ʼ, Phal. bhīṛo: all with AO viii 300 doubtful. (CDIAL 9604). bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ lex. Ḍ. bēḍa f. ʻ sheep ʼ, K.ḍoḍ. bhĕḍă pl., L. bheḍ̠ f., awāṇ. bheḍ, bhiḍ, P. bheḍ, °ḍī f., °ḍā m.; WPah.bhal. (LSI) ḍhleḍḍ, (S. Varma) bheṛ, pl. °ṛã f. ʻ sheep and goats ʼ, bhad. bheḍḍ, cur. bhraḍḍ, bhēḍḍū, cam. bhēṛ, khaś. bhiḍṛu n. ʻ lamb ʼ; Ku. N. bheṛo ʻ ram ʼ, bheṛi ʻ ewe ʼ; A. bherā, bhẽrā ʻ sheep ʼ; B. bheṛ ʻ ram ʼ, °ṛā ʻ sheep ʼ, °ṛi ʻ ewe ʼ, Or. bheṛā, °ṛi, bhẽṛi; Bi. bhẽṛ ʻ sheep ʼ, °ṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Mth. bhẽṛo, °ṛī; Bhoj. bheṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhẽṛī ʻ sheep ʼ; H. bheṛ, °ṛī f., °ṛā m., G. bheṛi f.; -- X mēṣá -- : Kho. beṣ ʻ young ewe ʼ BelvalkarVol 88. bhēḍra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) bhèṛ m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhèṛi f., J. bheḍ m. (CDIAL 9606) Note: It may not be mere coincidence that a temple of the ram-god was found in Mendes (ca. 4th millennium BCE). The word, Mendes is read as: mend + ayo (ram + fish) rebus: iron (metal) merchant. Worshipping ancestors, the Mendes might have signified the memory of the metalwork and trade in metalwork of ancestors. See more on Mendes: http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/d/b/dbr3/mendes.htmlExcavations at Tel er-Rub'a (Ancient Mendes)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MendesOn the ram deity of Mendes: 'The chief deities of Mendes were the ram deity Banebdjedet (lit. Ba of the Lord of Djedet), who was the Ba of Osiris, and his consort, the fish goddess Hatmehit. With their child Har-pa-khered ("Horus the Child"), they formed the triad of Mendes. The ram deity of Mendes was described by Herodotus in his History[1] as being represented with the head and fleece of a goat: “...whereas anyone with a sanctuary of Mendes or who comes from the province of Mendes, will have nothing to do with (sacrificing) goats, but uses sheep as his sacrificial animals... They say that Heracles’ overriding desire was to see Zeus, but Zeus was refusing to let him do so. Eventually, as a result of Heracles’ pleading, Zeus came up with a plan. He skinned a ram and cut off his head, then he held the head in front of himself, wore the fleece, and showed himself to Heracles like that. That is why the Egyptian statues of Zeus have a ram’s head, is why rams are sacred to the Thebans, and they do not use them as sacrificial animals. However there is just one day of the year—the day of the festival of Zeus--when they chop up a single ram, skin it, dress the statue of Zeus in the way mentioned, and then bring the statue of Heracles up close to the statue of Zeus. Then everyone around the sanctuary mourns the death of the ram and finally they bury it in a sacred tomb.” Presumably following Herodotus' description, the occultist Eliphas Levi in his Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie (1855) called his goat-headed conception of Baphomet the "Baphomet of Mendes"'
    पोळ [pōḷa] 'zebu'पोळ [pōḷa] 'magnetite, ferrite ore';  kāṇḍa 'rhonoceros' rebus:.kāṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware' (Gujarati); mẽḍhā m. 'markhor' Rebus: mẽḍh 'iron' (Mu.), med 'copper' (Slavic languages) mẽṛhẽt 'iron' (Santali), meḍho 'helper of merchant'..

    The bull, the rhinoceros and the chikara (perhaps, wild goat or ram) or large Indian antelope(?) depicted on obelisk, Nimrod. (Sir Austen Henry Layard, 1849, Nineveh and its remains: with an account of a visit to the Chaldaean christians of Kurdistan, and the Yezidis, or devil worshippers, and an enquiry into the manners and arts of the ancient Assyrians, Volume 2, J. Murray, p.435) This remarkable depiction of animals from the Indus script glyphs is a remembered legacy from Meluhha trader interactions.

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    Utsava bera in Mari is proclamation of furnace for ajirda karba, 'very hard iron'. This utsava bera, celebratory procession commemorates the graduation of a baker of confectionary into kō̃da kaḍbā 
    कोँद कडबा an iron worker with smelter. A comparale celebratory procession occurs in Mohenjo-daro.

    Utsava bēra, 'processional display of hieroglyphs' is a trade proclamation, bērīḍzu 'trade account', by Meluhha blacksmith artisans and bēra, m'erchants'.
    m0491Field Symbol FS 58, FS Fig. 94Mari. Procession. 
    Image result for mari procession louvreFrieze of a mosaic panel Circa 2500-2400 BCE Temple of Ishtar, Mari (Tell Hariri), Syria Shell and shale André Parrot excavations, 1934-36 AO 19820

    kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- khasüñü -- खस&above;ञू&below; । कुलालादिकन्दुयथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist. Cf. Śiv. 133, where the causal form of the verb is used. (Kashmiri) *kandukara ʻ worker with pans ʼ. [kándu -- , kará -- 1]K. kã̄darkã̄duru dat. °daris m. ʻ baker ʼ.(CDIAL 2728) kándu f. ʻ iron pot ʼ Suśr., °uka -- m. ʻ saucepan ʼ.Pk. kaṁdu -- , kaṁḍu -- m.f. ʻ cooking pot ʼ; K. kō̃da f. ʻ potter's kiln, lime or brick kiln ʼ; -- ext. with -- ḍa -- : K. kã̄dur m. ʻ oven ʼ. -- Deriv. Pk. kaṁḍua -- ʻ sweetseller ʼ (< *kānduka -- ?); H. kã̄dū m. ʻ a caste that makes sweetmeats ʼ.  (CDIAL 2726) kāndavika m. ʻ baker ʼ Pañcad. [kándu -- ]Pk. kaṁdaviya -- , °dōiya -- , °duia -- (u from kaṁdua -- ) m. ʻ sweetmeat seller ʼ; G. kãdoī m. ʻ confectioner ʼ.Addenda: kāndavika -- : S.kcch. kandhoyo m. ʻ confectioner ʼ.(CDIAL 3734)

    kã̄ḍ 1 काँड् । काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ (Kashmiri)

    M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ.; kaḍambákalamba -- 1, m. ʻ end, point, stalk of a pot- herb ʼ lex. [See kadambá -- ]B. kaṛamba ʻ stalk of greens ʼ; Or. kaṛambā°mā stalks and plants among stubble of a reaped field ʼ; H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.) -- Or. kaḷama ʻ a kind of firm -- stemmed reed from which pens are made ʼ infl. by H. kalam ʻ pen ʼ ← Ar.?(CDIAL 2653) कडबड kaḍabaḍa f The residue of eaten and trodden कडबा; pieces of the mere culm without the blade. कडबा  kaḍabā m The culm or haum of जोंधळा dried for fodder. 2 fig. (Because कडबा is the mere culm without the head.) Refuse, rubbish, worthless stuff.  कडबी  kaḍabī f After-sproutings of जोंधळा. Cut in the hot season as food for cattle. 2 Misused by foreigners of the south and by साहेबलोक for कडबा. (Marathi) 

    Rebus: Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron. is a pronunciation variant of ayas karba 'very hard iron'.Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron.(DEDR 192) Ka. kare blackness; kabbiṇa iron; (PBh.) karipu blackness; (Hav.) karañcu to be scorched; karañcaṭe scorched; (Gowda) kərṇṭi to become charred. Koḍ. kari- (kariv-, kariñj-) to be singed; (karip-, karic-) to singe; kari black. Tu. kari soot, charcoal; kariya black; karṅka state of being burnt or singed; karṅkāḍuni to burn (tr.); karñcuni to be burned to cinders; karñcāvuni to cause to burn to cinders; kardů black; karba iron  (DEDR 1278)

    Field Symbol Codes 1,2; Figs. FS 1 to 9 ( with a frequency of 1164 in M77 Corpus), the most frequent Pictorial Motif of the Corpora


    The hypertext of the young bull खोंड khōṇḍa 'm A young bull, a bullcalf' is of frequent occurrence on Indus Script Corpora. I suggest that  Kondana caves and khōṇḍa 'young bull' signify wealth-creating activities, and are rebus renderings of goldsmith-artisans' work of कोंदण kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems and working with  kundana 'fine gold'.

    कोंदण kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems is the work of a turner on a lathe. Bengali. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Oriya. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295). कुन्द 
    [p= 291,2] a turner's lathe L. (Monier-Williams)

    Such a kū̃d, l'athe' is presented in front of the young bull on many inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora. The gimlet is shown as producing drilled beads, working atop a portable furnace. खोंड khōṇḍa 'm A young bull, a bullcalf' is rebus: kundār ‘turner’.The lathe and gimlet in front of the young bull on many seals are signifiers of a lapidary's instrument to drill holes in beads or to infix or set gems in gold or metal sockets. kunda 'lathe' rebus: कोंदण (p. 102kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems. 2 Beaten or drawn gold used in the operation. 3 The socket of a gem.  Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold. Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold. (DEDR 1725) குந்தனம் kuntaṉam, n. < T. kundanamu. 1. Interspace for enchasing or setting gems in a jewel; இரத்தினம் பதிக்கும் இடம். குந்தனத்தி லழுத்தின . . . ரத்தினங்கள் (திவ். திருநெடுந். 21, வ்யா. பக். 175). 2. Gold, fine gold; தங்கம். (சங். அக.) குந்தனக்காரன் kuntaṉa-k-kāraṉ, n. < T. kundanamu Loc.
    కుందనము (p. 289) kundanamu kundanamu. [Tel.] n. Solid gold, fine gold. అపరంజి.
    குந்தன் kuntaṉn. < Kunda. 1. Viṣṇu; திருமால். வல்வினைமாய்ந்தறச்செய் குந்தன்றன்னை (திவ். திருவாய். 7, 9, 7). 2. Holy person; தூயதன்மை யுடையவன். வண்டீங் கவிசெய்குந்தன் (திவ். திரு வாய். 7, 9, 7).

    kōḍe dūḍa bull calf (Telugu); kōṛe 'young bullock' (Konda) kāru-kōḍe. [Tel.] n. A bull in its prime. खोंड [khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) గోద [ gōda ] gōda. [Tel.] n. An ox. A beast. kine, cattle.(Telugu) 

    kunda 'lathe' Rebus: कोंदण kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems and working with  kundana 'fine gold'. Rebus: कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) 

    Rebus : Bengali. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Oriya. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295). कुन्द [p= 291,2] a turner's lathe L. (Monier-Williams)

    Mudhif and three reed banners
    Figure 15.1. Sealing with representations of reed structures with cows, calves, lambs, and ringed
    bundle “standards” of Inana (drawing by Diane Gurney. After Hamilton 1967, fig. 1)

    Three rings on reed posts are three dotted circles: dāya 'dotted circle' on dhā̆vaḍ priest of 'iron-smelters', signifies tadbhava from Rigveda dhāī ''a strand (Sindhi) (hence, dotted circle shoring cross section of a thread through a perorated bead);rebus: dhāū, dhāv ʻa partic. soft red ores'. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773)
    Cylinder seal impression, Uruk period, Uruk?, 3500-2900 BCE. Note a load of livestock (upper), overlapping greatly (weird representation), and standard 'mudhif' reed house form common to S. Iraq (lower).

    Cattle Byres c.3200-3000 B.C. Late Uruk-Jemdet Nasr period. Magnesite. Cylinder seal. In the lower field of this seal appear three reed cattle byres. Each byre is surmounted by three reed pillars topped by rings, a motif that has been suggested as symbolizing a male god, perhaps Dumuzi. Within the huts calves or vessels appear alternately; from the sides come calves that drink out of a vessel between them. Above each pair of animals another small calf appears. A herd of enormous cattle moves in the upper field. Cattle and cattle byres in Southern Mesopotamia, c. 3500 BCE. Drawing of an impression from a Uruk period cylinder seal. (After Moorey, PRS, 1999, Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries: the archaeological evidence, Eisenbrauns.)
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 mudhifA cow and a stable of reeds with sculpted columns in the background. Fragment of another vase of alabaster (era of Djemet-Nasr) from Uruk, Mesopotamia.

    https://tinyurl.com/yczjracd

    Abstract. Sumerian mudhif signifies Indus Script hypertexts of metalwork 
    -- on Inana standards, Tell al Ubaid temple of Ninhursag
    -- koṭṭhaka variant is signified on Sohgaura copper plate Brāhmī inscription


    In Omur Harmansah article (2012) (embedded for ready reference), a number of images are presented and discusssed in the context of analysing 'temples'.

    These images are reinterpreted in this monograph as Indus Script hypertexts of metalwork.

    What is the language spoken by the artisans, the artists, creators of these images? What meanings of messages do they seek to signify?

    The images presented are analysed in the context of Meluhha lexis of the spoken language of Meluhha artisans who visualised the hieroglyphs and hypertexts in mlecchita vikalpa, 'meluhha coppe workers' alternative representation' of Indus Script cipher.

    I suggest that the cattle pen which is an Indus Script hypertext also occurs in a variant orthographic form as the top line of Sohgaura copper plate which described in Brāhmī inscription as koṭṭhaka 'warehouses' for itinerant artisans/merchants. The same word koṭṭhaka is signified as go, कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen', rebus: kundaṇa 'fine gold' kōṭhā 'warehouse'. See: 

    Harappa Script hieroglyph kui 'tree' rebus kuhi 'smelter' on hundreds of friezes, inscriptions, coins metal work tradition of Bharata http://tinyurl.com/hhfejmj


    Sohgaura tāmra-sāsana with Indus Script hypertexts & Brahmī epigraph to protect metalwork wealth & merchandise of traders https://tinyurl.com/ybdljjzq



    Sohgaura coper plate inscription. ca. 7th cent.BCE Pre-Mauryan.
    खोंड (p. 122khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf. 2 A variety of जोंधळा. जोंधळा (p. 187) jōndhaḷā m A cereal plant or its grain, Holcus sorghum. Eight varieties are reckoned, viz. उता- वळी, निळवा, शाळू, रातडी, पिवळा जोंधळा, खुंडी, काळबोंडी जोंधळा, दूध मोगरा. There are however many others as केळी, अरगडी, डुकरी, बेंदरी, मडगूप &c. Rebus: kundār 'turner'  kunda 'gold, nidhi'  Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold. Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold.(DEDR 1725)

    kāṇḍa 'reeds' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar'. khaṇḍa 'implements' (Santali)
    Image result for mari standardStandard of Mari. The standard-bearer has a shaven face and head. The staff upholding the one-horned young bull is खोंड a variety of jōndhaḷā Holcus sorghum; the hieroglyph signifies  karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron'.

    The standard bearer looks like the priest shown on the Tell al Ubaid temple architectural frieze.
    Figure 15.6. Tell al Ubaid, Temple of Ninhursag. Tridacna shell inlaid architectural frieze with bitumen

    and black shale. Early Dynastic period (ca. 2600 b.c.) (Hall and Woolley 1927)
    Figure 15.5. Tell al Ubaid, Temple of Ninhursag. Tridacna shell-inlaid architectural frieze with bitumen

    and black shale. Early Dynastic period (ca. 2600 b.c.e.) (© The Trustees of the British Museum)

    कोंडी (p. 102) kōṇḍī f (कोंडणें) A confined place gen.; a lockup house, a pen, fold, pound; a receiving apartment or court for Bráhmans gathering for दक्षिणा; a prison at the play of आट्यापाट्या; a dammed up part of a stream &c. &c. कोंडवाड (p. 102) kōṇḍavāḍa n f C (कोंडणें & वाडा) A pen or fold for cattle. कोंडण (p. 102) kōṇḍaṇa f A fold or penकोंडमार (p. 102) kōṇḍamāra or -मारा m (कोंडणें & मारणें) Shutting up in a confined place and beating. Gen. used in the laxer senses of Suffocating or stifling in a close room; pressing hard and distressing (of an opponent) in disputation; straitening and oppressing (of a person) under many troubles or difficulties; कोंडाळें (p. 102) kōṇḍāḷēṃ n (कुंडली S) A ring or circularly inclosed space. 2 fig. A circle made by persons sitting round. कोंड (p. 102) kōṇḍa m C A circular hedge or field-fence. 2 A circle described around a person under adjuration. 3 The circle at marbles. 4 A circular hamlet; a division of a मौजा or village, composed generally of the huts of one caste. 5 Grounds under one occupancy or tenancy. 6 f R A deep part of a river. 7 f (Or कोंडी q. v.) A confined place gen.; a lock-up house &c.

    कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen', Mesopotamia Rebus: kundaṇa 'fine gold'

    Mudhif and three reed banners
    Figure 15.1. Sealing with representations of reed structures with cows, calves, lambs, and ringed
    bundle “standards” of Inana (drawing by Diane Gurney. After Hamilton 1967, fig. 1)

    Three rings on reed posts are three dotted circles: dāya 'dotted circle' on dhā̆vaḍ priest of 'iron-smelters', signifies tadbhava from Rigveda dhāī ''a strand (Sindhi) (hence, dotted circle shoring cross section of a thread through a perorated bead);rebus: dhāū, dhāv ʻa partic. soft red ores'. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773)
    Cylinder seal impression, Uruk period, Uruk?, 3500-2900 BCE. Note a load of livestock (upper), overlapping greatly (weird representation), and standard 'mudhif' reed house form common to S. Iraq (lower).

    Cattle Byres c.3200-3000 B.C. Late Uruk-Jemdet Nasr period. Magnesite. Cylinder seal. In the lower field of this seal appear three reed cattle byres. Each byre is surmounted by three reed pillars topped by rings, a motif that has been suggested as symbolizing a male god, perhaps Dumuzi. Within the huts calves or vessels appear alternately; from the sides come calves that drink out of a vessel between them. Above each pair of animals another small calf appears. A herd of enormous cattle moves in the upper field. Cattle and cattle byres in Southern Mesopotamia, c. 3500 BCE. Drawing of an impression from a Uruk period cylinder seal. (After Moorey, PRS, 1999, Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries: the archaeological evidence, Eisenbrauns.)
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 mudhifA cow and a stable of reeds with sculpted columns in the background. Fragment of another vase of alabaster (era of Djemet-Nasr) from Uruk, Mesopotamia.
    08-02-14/62 Fragment of a stele,...
    • Fragment of a stele, raised standards. From Tello.
    • Hieroglyphs: Quadrupeds exiting the mund (or mudhif) are pasaramu, pasalamu ‘an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped’ (Telugu) పసరము [ pasaramu ] or పసలము pasaramu. [Tel.] n. A beast, an animal. గోమహిషహాతి.
    • A cow and a stable of reeds with sculpted columns in the background. Fragment of another vase of alabaster (era of Djemet-Nasr) from Uruk, Mesopotamia. Limestone 16 X 22.5 cm. AO 8842, Louvre, Departement des Antiquites Orientales, Paris, France. Six circles decorated on the reed post are semantic determinants of Glyphआर [ āra ] A term in the play of इटीदांडू,--the number six. (Marathi) आर [ āra ] A tuft or ring of hair on the body. (Marathi) Rebus:  āra ‘brass’. काँड् । काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ. The rebus reading of the pair of reeds in Sumer standard is: khānḍa ‘tools,  pots  and  pans and metal-ware’. 


    • Rebus: pasra = a smithy, place where a black-smith works, to work as a blacksmith; kamar pasra = a smithy; pasrao lagao akata se ban:? Has the blacksmith begun to work? pasraedae = the blacksmith is at his work (Santali.lex.) 

      pasra meṛed, pasāra meṛed = syn. of koṭe meṛed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari.lex.) పసారము [ pasāramu ] or పసారు pasārdmu. [Tel.] n. A shop. అంగడి
    • Both hieroglyphs together may have read rebus: *kāṇḍāra:  *kāṇḍakara ʻ worker with reeds or arrows ʼ. [kāˊṇḍa -- , kará -- 1] L. kanērā m. ʻ mat -- maker ʼ; H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers ʼ.(CDIAL 3024). Rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar'. khaṇḍa 'implements' (Santali) लोखंड (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍa n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडकाम (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍakāma n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith.  लोखंडी (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍī a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron.
    •  Rebus Meluhha readings: kōṭhā 'warehouse' kuṭhāru 
    • 'armourer, PLUS kole.l'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge' PLUS ḍhāla 'flagstaff'rebus: ḍhālako 'large ingot'. Thus, the message is: armoury, smithy, forge ingots.

    • m0702 Text 2206 showing Sign 39, a glyph which compares with the Sumerian mudhif structure.ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. ढाल [ ḍhāla ] 'flagstaff' rebus: dhalako 'a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati). The mudhif flag on the inscription is read rebus: xolā 'tail' Rebus: kole.l 'smithy, temple'. The structure is  goṭ  'catttle-pen' (Santali) rebus: koṭhaka 'warehouse'. [kōṣṭhāgāra n. ʻ storeroom, store ʼ Mn. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, agāra -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāgāra -- n. ʻ storehouse, granary ʼ; Pk. koṭṭhāgāra -- , koṭṭhāra -- n. ʻ storehouse ʼ; K. kuṭhār m. ʻ wooden granary ʼ, WPah. bhal. kóṭhār m.; A. B. kuṭharī ʻ apartment ʼ, Or. koṭhari; Aw. lakh. koṭhārʻ zemindar's residence ʼ; H. kuṭhiyār ʻ granary ʼ; G. koṭhār m. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ, koṭhāriyũ n. ʻ small do. ʼ; M. koṭhār n., koṭhārẽ n. ʻ large granary ʼ, -- °rī f. ʻ small one ʼ; Si. koṭāra ʻ granary, store ʼ.WPah.kṭg. kəṭhāˊr, kc. kuṭhār m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ, J. kuṭhārkṭhār m.; -- Md. kořāru ʻ storehouse ʼ ← Ind.(CDIAL 3550)] Rebus:  kuṭhāru 'armourer,
      Field symbol is zebu (bos indicus). pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore' [pōlāda]  'steel'.
      Text 1330 (appears with Zebu glyph) showing Sign 39. Pictorial motif: Zebu (Bos indicus) This sign is comparable to the cattle byre of Southern Mesopotamia dated to c. 3000 BCE. Rebus Meluhha readings of gthe inscription are from r. to l.: kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge' PLUS goṭ 'cattle-pen' rebus: koṭṭhāra 'warehouse' PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' PLUS aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS kuṭika— 'bent' MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) PLUS kanka, karṇika कर्णिक 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale'. Read together with the fieldsymbol of the zebu,the message is: magnetite ore smithy, forge, warehouse, iron alloy metal, bronze merchandise (ready for loading as cargo).

      goṭ = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); goṭh (Brj.)(CDIAL 4336). goṣṭha (Skt.); cattle-shed (Or.) koḍ = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) कोठी cattle-shed (Marathi) कोंडी [ kōṇḍī ] A pen or fold for cattle. गोठी [ gōṭhī ] f C (Dim. of गोठा) A pen or fold for calves. (Marathi) koṭṭhaka1 (nt.) "a kind of koṭṭha," the stronghold over a gateway, used as a store -- room for various things, a chamber, treasury, granary Vin ii.153, 210; for the purpose of keeping water in it Vin ii.121=142; 220; treasury J i.230; ii.168; -- store -- room J ii.246; koṭthake pāturahosi appeared at the gateway, i. e. arrived at the mansion Vin i.291.; -- udaka -- k a bath -- room, bath cabinet Vin i.205 (cp. Bdhgh's expln at Vin. Texts ii.57); so also nahāna -- k˚ and piṭṭhi -- k˚, bath -- room behind a hermitage J iii.71; DhA ii.19; a gateway, Vin ii.77; usually in cpd. dvāra -- k˚ "door cavity," i. e. room over the gate: gharaŋ satta -- dvāra -- koṭṭhakapaṭimaṇḍitaŋ "a mansion adorned with seven gateways" J i.227=230, 290; VvA 322. dvāra -- koṭṭhakesu āsanāni paṭṭhapenti "they spread mats in the gateways" VvA 6; esp. with bahi: bahi -- dvārakoṭṭhakā nikkhāmetvā "leading him out in front of the gateway" A iv.206; ˚e thiṭa or nisinna standing or sitting in front of the gateway S i.77; M i.161, 382; A iii.30. -- bala -- k. a line of infantry J i.179. -- koṭṭhaka -- kamma or the occupation connected with a storehouse (or bathroom?) is mentioned as an example of a low occupation at Vin iv.6; Kern, Toev. s. v. "someone who sweeps away dirt." (Pali)

      कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen', Mesopotamia Rebus: kundaṇa 'fine gold'

      One-horned young bulls and calves are shown emerging out of  कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa cattlepens 
    • heralded by Inana standards atop the mudhifs. The Inana standards are reeds with three rings.



    • m0491 The hieroglyphs in the procession are: 1. Scarf carried on a pole (dhatu Rebus: mineral ore); 2. A young bull carried on a stand kõdā Rebus: turner; 3. Portable standard device (Top part: lathe-gimlet; Bottom part: portable furnace sã̄gāḍ Rebus: stone-cutter sangatarāśū ). sanghāḍo (Gujarati) cutting stone, gilding (Gujarati); sangsāru karaṇu = to stone (Sindhi) sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati)  sangataras. संगतराश lit. ‘to collect stonesstone-cutter, mason.’ संगतराश संज्ञा पुं० [फ़ा०] पत्थर काटने या गढ़नेवाला मजदूर । पत्थरकट । २. एक औजार जो पत्थर काटने के काम में आता है । (Dasa, Syamasundara. Hindi sabdasagara. Navina samskarana. 2nd ed. Kasi : Nagari Pracarini Sabha, 1965-1975.) पत्थर या लकडी पर नकाशी करनेवाला, संगतराश, ‘mason’.
                                                                                                                                                                The procession is a celebration of the graduation of a stone-cutter as a metal-turner in a smithy/forge. A sangatarāśū ‘stone-cutter’ or lapidary of neolithic/chalolithic age had graduated into a metal turner’s workshop (koḍ), working with metallic minerals (dhatu) of the bronze age.
      Three professions are described by four standards; three of these standards are three hieroglyphs: scarf, young bull, standard device dhatu kõdāsã̄gāḍī  Rebus words denote: ‘ mineral worker; metals turner-joiner (forge); worker on a lathe’ – associates (guild).
                                                                                                                                                             On this tablet, the standard which is also a hieroglyph on the very front is not clear. It is surmised that this standard, the first hieroglyph of four hieroglyphs carried on the procession may be comparable to the standard shown on Tukulti-Ninurta I altar discovered in the Ashur temple.
      This fourth standard  could be compared with this hieroglyph of the Tukulti-Ninurta altar:
                                                                                                                                              A spoked wheel is shown atop on the standard and the hieroglyph is also reinforced by depicting the hieroglyph on the top of the standard-bearer's head. This Meluhha hieroglyph is read rebus: eraka'knave of wheel' Rebus: 'moltencast copper'; āra 'spokes' Rebus:  āra 'brass'.







    0 0


    A remarkable Mohenjo-daro Indus Script catalogue is presented on a pot kiln apparatus used to make karã̄ ceramic (stoneware) bangles which are badges of responsibility for guild functionaries.
    Balakot, inscribed bangle Inscription: dhatu कारणी or कारणीक [ kāraṇī or kāraṇīka ] 'supercargo of a ship responsible for the cargo of mineral ores'


    The catalogue is presented as a sealing of kō̃da 'young bull' seal affixed on the upper capping of the pot kiln apparatus. 

    The pot kiln apparatus is an innovative design to produce inscribed bangles as dharma saṁjñā'artisan responsibility badges' with Indus Script.

    How were ceramic (stoneware) bangles made? Stoneware bangles are unique because they carry micro-inscriptions. “The term ‘stoneware’ was used by the early excavators to designate artifacts with a highly siliceous, partially sintered, homogeneous ceramic body, usually free from inclusions or voids visible to the naked eye, and characterized by a very low porosisity.”(J.M. Blackman, M. Vidale, 1992, The Production and Distribution of Stoneware Bangles at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa as Monitored by Chemical Charachterization Studies, in: Catherine Jarrige, ed., 1992, South Asian Archaeology 1989, Prehistory Press, p.38) See: https://www.academia.edu/5597400/J.M._Blackman_M._Vidale_The_Production_and_Distribution_of_Stoneware_Bangles_at_Mohenjo-Daro_and_Harappa_as_Monitored_by_Chemical_Charachterization_Studies'

    View of the slag with the coated sub-cylindrical bowl enclosing the stoneware bangles in a pile, in central position, Mohenjodaro. (Massimo Vidale, in: Jansen and Urban, 1987, p. 109)

    Kenoyer has shown that these bangles were formed by throwing clay cylinders on a fast wheel and trimming and burnishing them with sharp pointed tools which left distinctive, fine parallel marks on them. Smalll saggars or firing containers were used to stack these bangles for firing. *saṁgaḍha ʻ collection of forts ʼ. [*gaḍha -- ]L. sãgaṛh m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ.(CDIAL 12845) 
    سنګر sangar, s.m. (2nd) A breastwork of stones, etc., erected to close a pass or road; lines, entrenchments. Pl. سنګرونه sangarūnah. See باره سنګ بر sang-bar or سنګ تراش sang-tarās̱ẖ, s.m. (5th) A stone cutter. Pl. سنګ بران sang barān or تراشان tarās̱ẖān.(Pashto)
    Kiln
    A: Upper capping in clay; B: Oval sealing with imprint of a Indus ‘unicorn’ stamp seal, applied in sets of three around the mouth of the closed saggars before firing; C: Intermediate coating in chaff-tempered clay; D: Pottery semispherical lid; E,F: broken terracotta rings used to support the lid…K: Pile formed by superimposed small saggars. This type of firing container was made by throwing a ceramic mixture very close to the stoneware of the bangles…M: Sets of stoneware bangles, inserted in couples with in each saggar of type K.


     (After Fig.3, 4, 5, 7 in Massimo Vidale,  1986, Stoneware industry of the Indus civilization: an evolutionary dead-end in the history of ceramic technology, in: In: WD Kingery, ed., Vol. V, Ceramics and civilization. The changing roles of ceramics in society: 26000 BP to the present, Westerville, OH, The American Ceramic Society, Inc.)

    Reconstruction of the stoneware bangles' firing apparatus; stoneware bracelets are piled up in five pairs and enclosed in a coated carinated jar. The jar is given red-slipped, chaff-tempered outer coating. The apparatus is mounted on a network of supporting terracotta bangles. A unicorn seal impression is affixed on the upper capping. (Massimo Vidale, in:Jansen and Urban, 1987, p. 111)

    I suggest that this sealing documents the use of a pot as a kiln: kō̃da 'kiln': kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- khasüñü -- खस&above;ञू&below; । कुलालादिकन्दुयथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist. Cf. Śiv. 133, where the causal form of the verb is used. (Kashmiri) *kandukara ʻ worker with pans ʼ. [kándu -- , kará -- 1]K. kã̄darkã̄duru dat. °daris m. ʻ baker ʼ.(CDIAL 2728) kándu f. ʻ iron pot ʼ Suśr., °uka -- m. ʻ saucepan ʼ.Pk. kaṁdu -- , kaṁḍu -- m.f. ʻ cooking pot ʼ; K. kō̃da f. ʻ potter's kiln, lime or brick kiln ʼ; -- ext. with -- ḍa -- : K. kã̄dur m. ʻ oven ʼ. -- Deriv. Pk. kaṁḍua -- ʻ sweetseller ʼ (< *kānduka -- ?); H. kã̄dū m. ʻ a caste that makes sweetmeats ʼ.  (CDIAL 2726) kāndavika m. ʻ baker ʼ Pañcad. [kándu -- ]Pk. kaṁdaviya -- , °dōiya -- , °duia -- (u from kaṁdua -- ) m. ʻ sweetmeat seller ʼ; G. kãdoī m. ʻ confectioner ʼ.Addenda: kāndavika -- : S.kcch. kandhoyo m. ʻ confectioner ʼ.(CDIAL 3734)

    See: Massimo Vidale An article examining the construction of ceramic stoneware in the Indus Valley Civilization with a focus on Mohenjo-daro. 



    kará1 ʻ doing, causing ʼ AV., m. ʻ hand ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. Pk. kara -- m. ʻ hand ʼ; S. karu m. ʻ arm ʼ; Mth. kar m. ʻ hand ʼ (prob. ← Sk.); Si. kara ʻ hand, shoulder ʼ, inscr. karā ʻ to ʼ < karāya. -- Deriv. S. karāī f. ʻ wrist ʼ; G. karã̄ n. pl. ʻ wristlets, bangles ʼ.(CDIAL 2779)



    Rebus: khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -द्वकुरु‍&below; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -ग&above;जि&below; or -güjü -ग&above;जू&below; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू&below;), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü -कूरू‍&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -क&above;टु&below; । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü -क&above;टू&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । -- 48 -- लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.(Kashmiri)


    The artisan preparing ceramic (stoneware) bangles with inscriptions is clearly the standard-bearer for the Indus Writing system which was stunningly uniform across time and space over an extensive contact area on the Vedic Sarasvati river basin and extended along the maritime tin route from Hanoi to Haifa. If such an organizational structure is posited, it is possible to explain the uniformity maintained in the writing system on over 2600 sites of the civilization and also in contact areas where Meluhha merchants had established colonies. As an extended hypothesis, it is suggested that the recipient of the ceramic (stoneware) bangles in the work areas (sites) of the civilization are authorised to be scribed for documenting and archiving the metalwork catalogues.



    The ceramic (stoneware) bangles are of great significance because of the special care taken by the artisans to prepare the artifacts incised before firing. Massimo Vidale and others have done pioneering archaeo-research to reconstruct the processes involved in preparing these written artifacts, almos as data archiving of ancient times during the Bronze Age. 


    The descriptions of the processes provided by Massimo Vidale are gratefully acknowledged.


    Distinction between terracotta bangles and ceramic (stoneware) bangles)






    Excavated Bangle, Harappa. Terracotta bangles are of sizes wearable as wristlets or armlets.


    Harappa. Kot Diji phase streets were filled with debris, including potsherds, charcoal, ash, animal bones, and occasional bangles and steatite beads.





    A distinction has to be made between terracotta bangles and these inscribed ceramic (stoneware) bangles. Most terracotta bangles are uninscribed and are of sizes which are wearable by men and women. The ceramic (stoneware) bangles are of a very small size and NOT meant to be worn but perhaps used as centre-pieces of the fillet band of the type worn by Mohenjo-daro priest king on his forehead and right shoulder, as insignia, as professional titles or functions







    Randall Law and Shamoon excavating a red stoneware bangle in Period 3C levels just below the surface in Trench 43.https://www.harappa.com/indus4/76.html


     


    Red stoneware bangle (H2000-4490/9843-01) with no inscription. The lack of inscription may indicate that this may have been a place where the bangles were stored prior to inscribing them for distribution.







    Many of the terra cotta bangles were originally painted with black or red designs. Such ornaments are found in the thousands and may have been worn, broken and discarded much as glass bangles are used today throughout the subcontinent. (Terracotta bangles were worn.Inscribed stoneware bangles are too small in size and which could have been worn not as bangles as writlets or armlets, but tied with bands like fillets worn by th priest-king of Mohenjo-daro or as pendants on necklaces).







     





    Balakot 06 bangle









    ḍato 'claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs'; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: dhatu 'mineral' (Santali) Vikalpa: erā 'claws'; Rebus: era 'copper'. 



    Variants of Sign 403


    Sign 403 is a duplication of  dula 'pair, duplicated' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS  Sign'oval/lozenge/rhombus' hieoglyph Sign 373. Sign 373 has the shape of oval or lozenge is the shape of a bun ingot.mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced atone time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed likea four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes andformed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt komūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, Sign 373 signifies word, mũhã̄ 'bun ingot'. Thus, hypertext Sign 403 reads: dul mũhã̄ 'metalcast ingot'.




    Sign403: Hypertext:dul mũhã̄ 'metalcast ingot' PLUS bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa 'seafaring vessel'.




     Sign 342 karNI 'rim of jar' rebus: 'supercargo', 'engraver'



    Harappa Terracotta bangle fragmentsTerracotta bangle fragments decorated with red trefoils outlined in white on a green ground from late Period 3C deposits in Trench 43. This image shows both sides of the two fragments (H98-3516/8667-01 & H98-3517/8679-01).

    Detail of terracotta bangle 
    with red and white trefoil on a green background (H98-3516/8667-01 from Trench 43). 
    Trefoil motifs are carved on the robe of the so-called "priest-king" statuette from 
    Mohenjo-daro and are also known from contemporary sites in western Pakistan, 
    Afghanistan, and southern Central Asia. dhā̆va 'smelter' tri-dhAtu,
    '‘three minerals
    h1010bangle  'magnetite ingot' PLUS 'twig' a stalk/twig, sprout (or tree branch) kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Sanskrit)  kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kauśika Sūtra (Bloomsfield’s ed.n, xliv. Cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177). Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelting furnace‘ (Santali) For the 'oval' hieroglyph, see: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/08/decipherment-of-harappa-zebu-figurine.html The reading is: पोळ [pōḷaखोट khōṭa, 'magnetite ingot or wedge'.
    Slide 33. Early Harappan zebu figurine with incised spots from Harappa.पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu' Rebus: magnetite, citizen.(See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/08/zebu-archaeometallurgy-legacy-of-india.html )
     mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali) खोट (p. 212) [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. (Marathi)
    h2576Abangle

     Sign 216


    Sign 221 dhatu PLUS koD 'minerals workshop'

     Sign 229 sanni 'smith's vice' rebus: seni 'guild'
    The sequence of hieroglyphs Sign 221-Sign 229 is comparable to the sequence which occurs on the so-called Pasupati seal:

    Text 2420 on m0304 Sign 216 (Mahadevan). See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/08/indus-script-evidence-pasupati-seal.html ḍato ‘claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs’; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Vikalpa: erā ‘claws’; Rebus: era ‘copper’. Allograph: kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.) kamat.ha = fig leaf, religiosa (Skt.)


    Sign 229. sannī, sannhī = pincers, smith’s vice (P.) śannī f. ʻ small room in a house to keep sheep in ‘ (WPah.) Bshk. šan, Phal.šān ‘roof’ (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12326). seṇi (f.) [Class. Sk. śreṇi in meaning "guild"; Vedic= row] 1. a guild Vin iv.226; J i.267, 314; iv.43; Dāvs ii.124; their number was eighteen J vi.22, 427; VbhA 466. ˚ -- pamukha the head of a guild J ii.12 (text seni -- ). -- 2. a division of an army J vi.583; ratha -- ˚ J vi.81, 49; seṇimokkha the chief of an army J vi.371 (cp. senā and seniya). (Pali) 

    Long linear stroke: 
    Ko. ko·ṛ 
     
    line marked out (DEDR 2200) rebus: koD 'workshop' 
     Ma. koṭṭil cowhouse, shed, workshop, house. (DEDR 2058)
    m1629bangle
    Sign 47 kaśēru ‘the backbone’ (Bengali. Skt.); kaśēruka id. (Skt.) Rebus: kasērāʻ metal worker ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 2988, 2989) baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) +

    gaṇḍa ‘four’ Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’. Thus, Sign 48 reads rebus: bharat kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’, furnace for mixed alloy called bharat(copper, zinc, tin alloy).
    Faience tablet (H2001-5082/2920-02) made from two colors of faience was found eroding from the Trench 54 South workshop area. Identical tablets made from two colors of faience were recovered in Area J, at the south end of Mound AB, in the excavations of Vats during the 1930s. gaNDa 'four' rebus: kanda 'fire-altar' baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'.
    Copper tablet (H2000-4498/9889-01) with raised script found in Trench 43. Harappa. (Source: Slide 351. harappa.com) Eight such tablets have been found (HARP, 2005); these were recovered from circular platforms. This example of a uniquely scripted tablet with raised Indus script glyphs shows that copper tablets were also used in Harappa, while hundreds of copper tablets with indus script inscriptions were found in Mohenjo-daro. See also:http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2011/11/decoding-longest-inscription-of-indus.html The copper tablet with raised script contains a 'backbone' glyph; decoding: kaśēru ‘the backbone’ (Bengali. Skt.); kaśēruka id. (Skt.) Rebus: kasērāʻ metal worker ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 2988, 2989)mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end (Santali). 


    ‘Backbone, spine’ hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone; the back; baraḍo thābaḍavo = lit. to strike on the backbone or back; hence, to encourage; baraḍo bhāre thato = lit. to have a painful backbone, i.e. to do something which will call for a severe beating (Gujarati)bārṇe, bāraṇe = an offering of food to a demon; a meal after fasting, a breakfast (Tulu) barada, barda, birada = a vow (Gujarati)bharaḍo a devotee of S’iva; a man of the bharaḍā caste in the bra_hman.as (Gujarati) baraṛ = name of a caste of jat- around Bhaṭiṇḍa; bararaṇḍā melā = a special fair held in spring (Punjabi) bharāḍ = a religious service or entertainment performed by a bharāḍi_; consisting of singing the praises of some idol or god with playing on the d.aur (drum) and dancing; an order of aṭharā akhād.e = 18 gosāyi_ group; bharād. and bhāratī are two of the 18 orders of gosāyi_ (Marathi).

    Sign 1  कर्णकm. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 , 3 karNaka 'spread legs' rebus: karNaka 'helmsman' karNI 'supercargo', engraver meD 'body' rebus: rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) 
    Sign 249 ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin'
    Sign 87 dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’
    Sign 336 baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: baTa 'iron' bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS Te. garĩṭe, gaṇṭe, geṇṭe spoonladle rebus:  To. köḍm (obl. köḍt-) live coal. Ka. keṇḍa id.; keṇḍavisu to put live coals on (for blasting rocks). Tu. keṇḍa, geṇḍa live coal. (DEDR 1950) 
    Thus, furnace worker, metal casting, tin supercargo helmsman, metal worker are signified.
    m1630bangle 
    Sign 17 bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'
     Sign 342 karNI 'rim of jar' rebus: 'supercargo', 'engraver'
     'magnetite ingot'

    m1631bangle
    Sign 343 karNI kaNDa 'supercargo implements'
      dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter' Sign 180 Hieroglyph: tántu m. ʻ thread, warp ʼ RV. [√tanPa. tantu -- m. ʻ thread, cord ʼ, Pk. taṁtu -- m.; Kho. (Lor.) ton ʻ warp ʼ < *tand (whence tandeni ʻ thread between wings of spinning wheel ʼ); S. tandu f. ʻ gold or silver thread ʼ; L. tand (pl. °dũ) f. ʻ yarn, thread being spun, string of the tongue ʼ; P. tand m. ʻ thread ʼ, tanduā°dūā m. ʻ string of the tongue, frenum of glans penis ʼ; A. tã̄t ʻ warp in the loom, cloth being woven ʼ; B. tã̄t ʻ cord ʼ; M. tã̄tū m. ʻ thread ʼ; Si. tatu°ta ʻ string of a lute ʼ; -- with -- o, -- ā to retain orig. gender: S. tando m. ʻ cord, twine, strand of rope ʼ; N. tã̄do ʻ bowstring ʼ; H. tã̄tā m. ʻ series, line ʼ; G. tã̄tɔ m. ʻ thread ʼ; -- OG. tāṁtaṇaü m. ʻ thread ʼ < *tāṁtaḍaü, G.tã̄tṇɔ m.(CDIAL 5661) Rebus: M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; (CDIAL 6773) धातु  primary element of the earth i.e. metal , mineral, ore (esp. a mineral of a red colour) Mn. MBh. &c element of words i.e. grammatical or verbal root or stem Nir. Pra1t. MBh. &c (with the southern Buddhists धातु means either the 6 elements [see above] Dharmas. xxv ; or the 18 elementary spheres [धातु-लोक] ib. lviii ; or the ashes of the body , relics L. [cf. -गर्भ]) (Monier-Williams. Samskritam). 

    Sign 342 PLUS notch: Sign 342. kaṇḍa kanka 'rim of jar' (Santali): karṇaka rim of jar’(Skt.) Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ (Te.); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) copper fire-altar scribe (account)(Skt.) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) Thus, the 'rim of jar' ligatured glyph is read rebus: fire-altar (furnace) scribe (account) karNI 'supercargo' (Marathi) karNaka 'helmsman' PLUS  खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] 'A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon)' Rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Santali). 

    m1632bangle
    Sign 86 koD 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop'
    Sign 59 ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' fish fins khambhaṛā 'fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint'
    Sign 87 dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’
    m1633bangle
    Sign 1  कर्णकm. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 , 3 karNaka 'spread legs' rebus: karNaka 'helmsman' karNI 'supercargo meD 'body' rebus: rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) 
    Sign 336 baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: baTa 'iron' bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS Te. garĩṭe, gaṇṭe, geṇṭe spoonladle rebus:  To. köḍm (obl. köḍt-) live coal. Ka. keṇḍa id.; keṇḍavisu to put live coals on (for blasting rocks). Tu. keṇḍa, geṇḍa live coal. (DEDR 1950) 
    Sign 86 koD 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' PLUS 'notch': खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] 'A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon)' Rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Santali). Thus, implements workshop, furnace work, helmsman of supercargo signified.
    m1634bangle
     Read from r. to l.: The prefixSign403: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa 'seafaring vessel'.
    Hieroglyph: squirrel (phonetic determinant): खार (p. 205) [ khāra ] A squirrel, Sciurus palmarum. खारी (p. 205) [ khārī ] (Usually खार) A squirrel. (Marathi) 
    A homonymous hieroglyph or allograph: arms with bangles: karã̄ n.pl.ʻwristlets, banglesʼ.(Gujarati)(CDIAL 2779) 
    khār खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b,l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta 'bellows of blacksmith'.
    m1635bangle 
    Sign 244 kolmo 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy' kole.l 'smithy, forge' rebus: kole.l 'temple'
    Sign 86 koD 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' PLUS 'notch': खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] 'A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon)' Rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Santali). Thus, implements workshop, furnace work, helmsman of supercargo signified.

    m1636bangle (Identical to m1635 inscription)
    Sign 244 kolmo 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy' kole.l 'smithy, forge' rebus: kole.l 'temple'
    Sign 86 koD 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' PLUS 'notch': खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] 'A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon)' Rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Santali). Thus, implements workshop, furnace work, helmsman of supercargo signified.
    m1637bangle
    Sign 99 sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign 87 dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’
    m1638bangle
     'magnetite ingot'
    Sign 301 The 'curve' hieroglyph is a splitting of the ellipse. kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. 
    Rebus: कुटिल kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 2984) PLUS खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] 'A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon)' Rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Santali). 
    m1639bangle
    Sign 86 koD 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' PLUS 'notch': खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] 'A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon)' Rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Santali).
    Sign 186 *śrētrī ʻ ladder ʼ. [Cf. śrētr̥ -- ʻ one who has recourse to ʼ MBh. -- See śrití -- . -- √śri]Ash. ċeitr ʻ ladder ʼ (< *ċaitr -- dissim. from ċraitr -- ?).(CDIAL 12720)*śrēṣṭrī2 ʻ line, ladder ʼ. [For mng. ʻ line ʼ conn. with √śriṣ2 cf. śrḗṇi -- ~ √śri. -- See śrití -- . -- √śriṣ2]Pk. sēḍhĭ̄ -- f. ʻ line, row ʼ (cf. pasēḍhi -- f. ʻ id. ʼ. -- < EMIA. *sēṭhī -- sanskritized as śrēḍhī -- , śrēṭī -- , śrēḍī<-> (Col.), śrēdhī -- (W.) f. ʻ a partic. progression of arithmetical figures ʼ); K. hēr, dat. °ri f. ʻ ladder ʼ.(CDIAL 12724) Rebus: śrḗṣṭha ʻ most splendid, best ʼ RV. [śrīˊ -- ]Pa. seṭṭha -- ʻ best ʼ, Aś.shah. man. sreṭha -- , gir. sesṭa -- , kāl. seṭha -- , Dhp. śeṭha -- , Pk. seṭṭha -- , siṭṭha -- ; N. seṭh ʻ great, noble, superior ʼ; Or. seṭha ʻ chief, principal ʼ; Si. seṭa°ṭu ʻ noble, excellent ʼ. śrēṣṭhin m. ʻ distinguished man ʼ AitBr., ʻ foreman of a guild ʼ, °nī -- f. ʻ his wife ʼ Hariv. [śrḗṣṭha -- ]Pa. seṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ, Dhp. śeṭhi, Pk. seṭṭhi -- , siṭṭhi -- m., °iṇī -- f.; S. seṭhi m. ʻ wholesale merchant ʼ; P. seṭh m. ʻ head of a guild, banker ʼ, seṭhaṇ°ṇī f.; Ku.gng. śēṭh ʻ rich man ʼ; N. seṭh ʻ banker ʼ; B. seṭh ʻ head of a guild, merchant ʼ; Or. seṭhi ʻ caste of washermen ʼ; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sēṭhi ʻ merchant, banker ʼ, H. seṭh m., °ṭhan f.; G. śeṭhśeṭhiyɔ m. ʻ wholesale merchant, employer, master ʼ; M. śeṭh°ṭhīśeṭ°ṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ; Si. siṭuhi° ʻ banker, nobleman ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 208 (or < śiṣṭá -- 2?)(CDIAL 12725, 12726)
    Sign 86 koD 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' PLUS 'notch': खााडा [ kāṇḍā ] 'A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon)' Rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Santali). Thus, implements workshop, furnace work, helmsman of supercargo signified.PLUS Sign 99 sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'

    Mahadevan concordance Sign 130 variants. This hieroglyph may signify: tutta 'goad' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter-zinc alloy'


    Allograph: tutta (goad) (Pali) tṓttra n. ʻ goad for cattle or elephants ʼ ŚBr. [√tud]
    Pa. tutta -- n. (with u from tudáti?), Pk. totta -- , tutta<-> n.; Si. tutta ʻ elephant goad ʼ.(CDIAL 5966) It is possible that one of the 500+ 'signs' or hieroglyph-multiplexes of Indus Script Corpora signifies this etymon cluster: tutta 'goad' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter-zinc alloy'.  A crook maybe signified by: मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.)

     Sign 59 ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' fish fins khambhaṛā 'fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint'
    m1640bangle
     Sign 391 Ligatured hieroglyph multiplex. ara 'spoke' rebus: ara 'brass'. era, er-a = eraka =?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.)[Note Sign 391 and its ligatures Signs 392 and 393 may connote a spoked-wheel,nave of the wheel through which the axle passes; cf. ara_, spoke]erka = ekke (Tbh.of arka) aka (Tbh. of arkacopper (metal);crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = anymetal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) Rebus: eraka= copper (Ka.)eruvai =copper (Ta.); ere - a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a= syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.)Vikalpa: ara, arā (RV.) = spokeof wheel  ஆரம்² āram , n. < āra. 1. Spokeof a wheel.See ஆரக்கால்ஆரஞ்சூழ்ந்தவயில்வாய்
    நேமியொடு (சிறுபாண்253). Rebus: ஆரம் brass; பித்தளை.(அகநி.) pittal is cognate with 'pewter'.
    m1641bangle
    Sign 169 kolom 'sprout, rice plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' Thus, ingot smithy Rebus: kol metal (Ta.) kol = pan~calōkam (five metals) (Tamil)  

    kolmo ‘rice plant' (Mu.)  
    kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolmahoṛo = a variety of the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) 
    kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace (Ka.); kolimi furnace (Te.); pit (Te.); kolame a very deep pit (Tu.); kulume kanda_ya a tax on blacksmiths (Ka.); kol, kolla a furnace (Ta.) kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.); konimi blacksmith; kola id. (Ka.); kolleblacksmith (Kod.); kollusa_na_ to mend implements; kolsta_na, kulsa_na_ to forge;ko_lsta_na_ to repair (of plough-shares); kolmi smithy (Go.); kolhali to forge (Go.)(DEDR 2133).] kolimi-titti = bellows used for a furnace (Te.lex.) kollu- to neutralize metallic properties by oxidation (Ta.lex.) kol brass or iron bar nailed across a door or gate; kollu-t-tat.i-y-a_n.i large nail for studding doors or gates to add to their strength (Ta.lex.) kollan--kamma_lai < + karmas'a_la_, kollan--pat.t.arai, kollan-ulai-k-ku_t.am blacksmith's workshop, smithy (Ta.lex.) cf. ulai smith's forge or furnace (Na_lat.i, 298); ulai-k-kal.am smith's forge; ulai-k-kur-at.u smith's tongs; ulai-t-turutti smith's bellows; ulai-y-a_n.i-k-ko_l smith's poker, beak-iron (Ta.lex.) [kollulaive_r-kan.alla_r: nait.ata. na_t.t.up.); mitiyulaikkollan- mur-iot.ir.r.an-n-a: perumpa_)(Ta.lex.) Temple; smithy: kol-l-ulai blacksmith's forge (kollulaik ku_t.attin-a_l : Kumara. Pira. Ni_tiner-i. 14)(Ta.lex.) cf. kolhua_r sugarcane milkl and boiling house (Bi.); kolha_r oil factory (P.)(CDIAL 3537). kulhu ‘a hindu caste, mostly oilmen’ (Santali) kolsa_r = sugarcane mill and boiling house (Bi.)(CDIAL 3538). Alternative reinforcing semantics: 
     pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali) Rebus: pasra 'smithy' 
    m1643bangle
     'magnetite ingot'
     Sign 99 sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign403: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa 'seafaring vessel
    m1641bangle
    Kur. goṭā any seed which forms inside a fruit or shell. Malt. goṭa a seed or berry(DEDR 069) N. goṭo ʻ piece ʼ, goṭi ʻ chess piece ʼ; A. goṭ ʻ a fruit, whole piece ʼ, °ṭā ʻ globular, solid ʼ, guṭi ʻ small ball, seed, kernel ʼ; B. goṭā ʻ seed, bean, whole ʼ; Or. goṭā ʻ whole, undivided ʼ, M. goṭā m. ʻ roundish stone ʼ (CDIAL 4271) <gOTa>(P)  {ADJ} ``^whole''.  {SX} ``^numeral ^intensive suffix''.  *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho<goTA>,B.<goTa> `undivided'; Kh.<goThaG>(P), Sa.<goTAG>,~<gOTe'j>, Mu.<goTo>; Sad.<goT>, O., Bh.<goTa>; cf.Ju.<goTo> `piece', O.<goTa> `one'. %11811.  #11721. <goTa>(BD)  {NI} ``the ^whole''.  *@. #10971. (Munda etyma) Rebus: gota (laterite) 
    Rebus: <gota>  {N} ``^stone''.  @3014. #10171. Note: The stone may be gota, laterite mineral ore stone. khoṭ m. ʻbase, alloyʼ (Punjabi) Rebus: koṭe ‘forging (metal)(Mu.) Rebus: goṭī f. ʻlump of silver' (G.) goṭi = silver (G.) koḍ ‘workshop’ (Gujarati).
    m1646bangle 
    Sign 261 kana, kanac = corner (Santali); Rebus: kañcu = bronze (Telugu).
    m1647bangle
    Sign 87 dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’
     Sign 342 karNI 'rim of jar' rebus: 'supercargo', 'engraver'
    m1659bangle
    Sign 336 baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: baTa 'iron' bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS Te. garĩṭe, gaṇṭe, geṇṭe spoonladle rebus:  To. köḍm (obl. köḍt-) live coal. Ka. keṇḍa id.; keṇḍavisu to put live coals on (for blasting rocks). Tu. keṇḍa, geṇḍa live coal. (DEDR 1950) 

    Sign 17 bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'

     

    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/j7f7f5p 21 stoneware badges with inscriptions signify 21 metalwork responsibilities, each ring signifies vāḍhī, bari, barea 'seafaring metalware merchant' kāraṇī 'helmsman, scribe, supercargo' (Kernunnos) بار برداري bār-bārdārī, s.f. (3rd) Means of conveyance, carriage, beasts of burden. Pl. ئِي aʿīبارداره ښڅه bārdāraʿh ḵ́ẖaḏẕaʿh, s.f. (3rd) A pregnant woman. Pl. يْ eyباري bārī, A beast of burden, carriage, fit for a load. هندو بار hindū bār, A place where Hindūs assemble, Hindūstān.rāh barī, s.f. (3rd) Guiding, conducting, guidance. Pl. ئِي aʿīراه بري کول rāh barī kawul, verb trans. To guide, to conduct, to lead. راه دار rāh-dār, s.m. (5th) A collector of transit duties. Pl. راه داران rāh-dārānراه داري rāh-dārī, s.f. (3rd) Collection of transit duties on roads. Pl.(Pashto) 22 Ceramic stoneware rings (bangles) with Indus Script inscriptions found in Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Balakot have been discussed.  http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/04/dharma-samjna-corporate-badges-of-indus.html The deciphered sharply defined inscriptions on each of the 22 ceramic (stoneware) bangles indicate 22 sharply assigned responsibilities within the guild for metalwork, for e.g. 22 functional allocations of responsibilitie of artisans delineated in a Vedic village:
    1. iron smelting, furnace work (m1659)
    2. metal casting, engraving, documenting supercargo (m1647)
    3. bronze (casting)(m1646)
    4. gota (laterite) (m1641)
    5. Seafaring merchant, magnetite ingot workshop (m1643)
    6. Smithy, forge (m1641)
    7. Moltencast copper, brass (m1640)
    8. Alloy metal mint, weapons, implements workshop, guild master workshop (m1639)
    9. Bronze ingots, implements, magnetite ingots (m1638)
    10. Metalcasting workshop (cire perdue?)(m1637)
    11. Metal implements, weapons, smithy, forge (m1636)
    12. Blacksmith, seafaring merchant (m1634)
    13. Helman for supercargo boat, iron furnace work, metals workshop (m1633)
    14. Metal casting, alloy mixing workshop (m1632)
    15. dhā̆va 'smelter', supercargo of implements (m1631)
    16. Magnetite ingots, furnace work, supercargo engraver (m1630)
    17. Iron furnace work, metal casting of tin, helmsman supercargo of metals, bharat ‘mixed alloys’  metalworker (m1629)
    18. Minerals workshop guild (h2576)
    19. Magnetite ingots, smelter (h1010)
    20. dhā̆va 'smelter' tri-dhAtu, '‘three minerals (H98-3516/8667-01)
    21. Seafaring merchant, supercargo engraver(Blkt-6)
    The ring is: Sign403: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa
     'seafaring vessel'. Thus, bārī is a seafaring merchant.
    An exquisite ceramic toneware badge discovered in Harappa (HARP team) may be worn as a fillet on the forehead and on right shoulder as shown on the 'priest-king' statue of Mohenjo-daro. Such stoneware rings are badges signified on the statue of Kernunnos on Pillar of Boatmen.
    Kernunnos is named in an inscription on the 1st cent. CE Pillar of the Boatmen (French Pilier des nautes) with bas-relief depictions.The cognate word is: कारणी or कारणीक (p. 159) [ kāraṇī or kāraṇīka ] the supercargo of a ship &c. कर्णधार (p. 140) [ karṇadhāra ] m S (A holder of the ear.) A helmsman or steersman.
    बारकश or बारकस (p. 575) [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.(Marathi) 
    The torcs hanging from the horns are such stoneware rings or badges. The horns are twigs: kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/ईAV. v , 19 , 12 Kaus3.ccord. to Kaus3. Sch. = बदरी, "Christ's thorn".(Monier-Williams). Rebus: kuṭhi 
    'smelter furnace' (Santali) Thus, Kernunnos is described by the hieroglyph-multiplexes to be 1. a smelter; and 2. a seafaring merchant.
    A torc held in the right hand of Kernunnos on Gundestrup cauldron may also signify a seafaring merchant. The hood of snake held on the left hand signifies: kulA 'hood of snake' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith'.

     

    Randall Law and Shamoon excavating a red stoneware bangle in Period 3C levels just below the surface in Trench 43.https://www.harappa.com/indus4/76.html
     
    Red stoneware bangle (H2000-4490/9843-01) with no inscription. The lack of inscription may indicate that this may have been a place where the bangles were stored prior to inscribing them for distribution.
     An "eye bead" made of gold with steatite inlay, Harappa. Fired steatite beads appear to have been extremely important to the Indus people because they were incorporated into exquisite ornaments, such as this "eye bead" made of gold with steatite inlay found in 1995 at Harappa [Harappa Phase]. https://www.harappa.com/slide/gold-discThe central ornament worn on the forehead of the famous "priest-king" sculpture from Mohenjo-daro appears to represent an eye bead, possibly made of gold with steatite inlay in the center. https://www.harappa.com/slide/priest-king-forehead
    Cancho Roano is an archaeological site located in the municipality of Zalamea de la Serena, in the province of BadajozSpain550 BCE,. A ring PLUS staff was discovered. A view of Amparo Hernando Grande is that such rings of concentric circles found in some sites, signified warrior shields:  Examples of typical warrior shield engraved in the Southwestern Stelae from the Iberian Peninsula, of which there are presented.https://repositorio.uam.es/handle/10486/616
    Inana's descent to the nether world line 25. The Sumerian has: gi-diš-nindan 2-gana2 za-gin3 šu ba-ni-in-du8 i.e. taken literally the rod would have the length of one nindan (6 cubit = 5.94m) and the eš2-gana2 the surveyor's line - would be ten nindan in length.
    Marduk’s fourth tabletnotes: ‘They rejoiced and they did homage (unto him, saying), ‘Marduk is king’. Next line, line 29 says: ‘They bestowed upon him the scepter, and the throne, and the ring.’ Mr King’s translation in Seven Tablets of Creation, is that ‘the translation of patu as ‘ring’ is provisional; the patu was certainly a symbol of power’.(loc.cit. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/473623 Arthur E Whatham , 1905, 

    The Meaning of the Ring and Rod in Babylonian-Assyrian Sculpture, in: The Journal of Religion. Vol. 26, No. 2, Aug., 1905, pp. 120–123). See: http://www.etana.org/sites/default/files/coretexts/14907.pdf LW King, ed., 1902, The Seven tablets of creation, Or the Babylonian and Assyrian legends concerning the creation of the world and of mankind, Vol. 1),
    Side view of reliefSide view showing the depth of the Burney relief. The relief is a terracotta (fired clayplaque, 50 by 37 centimetres (20 in × 15 in) large, 2 to 3 centimetres (0.79 to 1.18 in) thick, with the head of the figure projecting 4.5 centimetres (1.8 in) from the surface. 
    Approximate red ochre colour scheme of the painted relief. Her necklace is composed of squares (like coins of Nishka). She wears bracelets with three rings. She has flight feathers. Lines on ankles and toes depict scules, with talons on visible toes. She stands atop two lions and flanked by two owls. The sculptural frieze is a hieroglyp-multiplex.
    The goddess of the Burney relief presenting rod-and-ring symbol in each hand. British Museum. Loan 1238 / Registration:2003,0718
    "The Burney Relief (also known as the Queen of the Night relief) is aMesopotamian terracotta plaque in high relief of the Isin-Larsa- or Old-Babylonian period, depicting a winged, nude, goddess-like figure with bird's talons, flanked by owls, and perched upon two lions. The relief is displayed in the British Museum in London, which has dated it between 1800 and 1750 BCE. It originates from southern Iraq, but the exact find-site is unknown. Apart from its distinctive iconography, the piece is noted for its high relief and relatively large size, which suggest that it was used as a cultrelief, making it a very rare survival from the period. However, whether it represents LilituInanna/Ishtar, or Ereshkigal, is under debate."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burney_Relief
    Top part of the Code of Hammurabi, c. 1760 BCE.Hammurabi before the sun-god Shamash. Note the four-tiered, horned headdress, the rod-and-ring symbol and the mountain-range pattern beneath Shamash' feet. Black basalt. Louvre, Sb 8. Rod and ring are apparently insignia of authority or royalty..
    Ishtar. Moulded plaque, Eshnunna, early 2nd. millennium. Louvre, AO 12456 holds a rod and ring mounted staff on her left hand. A reclining lion is at her feet.
    The "Ishtar Vase", early 2nd millennium BCE, Larsa. Note how the schematic depiction of the goddess' feet corresponds to the feet of the birds walking above her. Louvre, AO 1700.Fish and turtle flank Ishtar with a parade of birds above. 
    Vase décoré de déesses nues dit "vase d'Ishtar" Début du IIe millénaire vant J.-C. LarsaTerre cuite, décor incisé, moulé, peint. Fouilles Parrot, 1933, Department des Antiquites orientales.
    The rod and ring symbol "may depict the measuring tools of a builder or architect or a token representation of these tools. It is frequently depicted on cylinder seals and steles, where it is always held by a god – usually either ShamashIshtar, and in later Babylonian images also Marduk– and often extended to a king." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burney_Relief (Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, an Illustrated Dictionary. (illustrations by Tessa Rickards). Austin: University of Texas Press.) 
    Relief image on the Tablet of Shamash, British Library room 55. Found in Sippar (Tell Abu Habbah), in Ancient Babylonia ; it dates from the 9th century BCE and shows the sun god Shamash on the throne, in front of the Babylonian king Nabu-apla-iddina (888-855 BCE) between two interceding deities. The text tells how the king made a new cultic statue for the god and gave privileges to his temple. Image credit: Prioryman – Wikipediahttp://www.messagetoeagle.com/shamash-mesopotamian-god-of-sun-truth-justice-and-healing/#ixzz47NiejlbE
    Shamash holds the insignia of rod and ring in front of arka 'sun' rebus: arka 'gold, copper'.
    Stick or staff ma signify kōla (Old Marathi) rebus:  kola- boat, raft (Prakritam): Ta. kōl stick, staff, branch, arrow. Ma. kōl staff, rod, stick, arrow. Ko. ko·l stick, story of funeral car. To. kw&idieresisside;s̱ stick. Ka. kōl, kōlustick, staff, arrow. Koḍ. ko·lï stick. Tu. kōlů, kōlu stick, staff. Te. kōlaid., arrow; long, oblong; kōlana elongatedness, elongation; kōlani elongated. Kol. (SR.) kolā, (Kin.) kōla stick. Nk. (Ch.) kōl pestle. Pa. kōl shaft of arrow. Go. (A.) kōla id.; kōlā (Tr.) a thin twig or stick, esp. for kindling a fire, (W. Ph.) stick, rod, a blade of grass, straw; (G. Mu. Ma. Ko.) kōla handle of plough, sickle, knife, etc. (Voc. 988); (ASu.) kōlā stick, arrow, slate-pencil; (LuS.) kola the handle of an implement. Konḍa kōl big wooden pestle.Pe. kōl pestle. Manḍ. kūl id. Kui kōḍu (pl. kōṭka) id. Kuwi (F.) kōlū (pl. kōlka), (S. Su.) kōlu (pl. kōlka) id. Cf. 2240 Ta. kōlam (Tu. Te. Go.). / Cf. OMar. (Master) kōla stick.(DEDR 2237) Rebus 1 : Ta. kōl, kōlam 2238 Ta. kōl, kōlam raft, float. Ma. kōlam raft. Ka. kōl raft, float. Te. (B.) kōlamu id. / Cf. Skt., BHS kola- boat, raft, Pali kulla- id. (CDIAL 2238) Rebus 2: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith'.
    Thus, together, the rod and ring signify raft, smelter and merchant.

    0 0


    Select orthographic hypertext devices are deployed in Indus Script Cipher to detail metalwork catalogues:

    Tiger leaps: kol kõdā rebus: kolhe kō̃da कोँद 'smelter kiln' PLUS panja 'claw of beast, feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln' (Semantic determinative).

    Tiger turns back: kol kamra 'tiger (turns) back' rebus: kolhe kamar 'smelter blacksmith'

    Tree is a hypertext:
    FS Fig. 75 FS Fig. 76 tree: kuṭi 'tree''water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'
    Branch of tree: To. kwṛ (obl. kwṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn.(DEDR 2200) Rebus: ko  = artisan’s workshop(Kuwi)
    dhamkara 'leafless tree' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'.
    Bed or plot of tree: Ta. pātti small field. Ma. pātti garden bed. Ka. pāti id. Tu. pāti nursery for plants. Te. pādu, pādi garden bed or plot.(DEDR 4078). Rebus: paṭṭi 'hamlet' paṭra 'town' pāṭan 'maritime town'
    Mohenodaro seal. Pict-103 Horned (female with breasts hanging down?) person with a tail and bovine legs standing near a tree fisting a horned tiger rearing on its hindlegs. 

    FS Fig. 103 Tiger with horns, leaps and looks back kolhe kō̃da कोँद kamar ko
     'smelter kiln blacksmith, artisan’s workshop'.The hieroglyph of dhokaṛa 'an old female with breasts hanging down' and ligatured to the ḍhōṅgā 'buttock' of a bovine is also deployed on this Mohenjo-daro seal (FS Fig. 103); rebus: dhokra.dokra 'cire-perdue lost-wax metal casting artifice' PLUS dhangar'bull' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'; thus, the hypertext signifies: cire-perdue metalcaster smith. On a Mohenjo0daro seal this is reinforced by two hieroglyphs: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter (worker)'. kuhi 'tree' rebus: kuhi 'smelter'.

    m0266FS09 FS Fig. 22 Tiger in front of a feeding trough (with stripes cf. m0266): kol pattar paṭra (pāṭan) 'smelter guild maritime town'

    FS Fig. 110FS Fig. 111

    FS Fig. 112FS Fig. 109Image result for tiger indus scriptImage result for tiger indus scriptTiger with open mouth, with horns, looks back at a spy on a leafless tree branch:

    प्र-सार opening (the mouth)(वोपदेव) rebus: pasar, a trader's shop (नलचम्पू or दमयन्तीकथा)

    tree: kuṭi'tree''water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi'smelter'
    Branch of tree: To. kwṛ (obl. kwṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn.(DEDR 2200) Rebus: ko  = artisan’s workshop(Kuwi)
    dhamkara'leafless tree' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'.
    heraka‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper, molten cast'
    kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'kolhe'smelter'
    krammara'look back' rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'. 

    Thus, kol pasar 'tiger open mouth' rebus: kol pasar iron smelter trader's shop'.
    कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] 'tiger' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter' (Santali) Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village; kolhali to forge (Kuwi)(DEDR 2133)

    B. kũdā, kõdā'to leap'; Or. kudibā ʻ to jump, dance ʼ; Mth. kūdab ʻ to jump ʼ, Aw. lakh. kūdab, H. kūdnā, OMarw. kūdaï, G. kūrda m. ʻ jump ʼ, gūrda -- m. ʻ jump ʼ Kāṭh. [√kūrd] S. kuḍ̠u m. ʻ leap ʼ, N. kud, Or. kuda, °dā, kudā -- kudi ʻ jumping about ʼ. kūˊrdati ʻ leaps, jumps ʼ MBh. [gūˊrdati, khūˊrdatē Dhātup.: prob. ← Drav. (Tam. kuti, Kan. gudi ʻ to spring ʼ) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 375]S. kuḍ̠aṇu ʻ to leap ʼ; L. kuḍ̠aṇ ʻ to leap, frisk, play ʼ; P. kuddṇā ʻ to leap ʼ, Ku. kudṇo, N. kudnu, (CDIAL 3411, 3412) 

    Rebus: kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- khasüñü -- खस&above;ञू&below; । कुलालादिकन्दुयथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist. Cf. Śiv. 133, where the causal form of the verb is used. (Kashmiri)

    క్రమ్మరు krammaru [Tel.] v. n. To turn, return, go back. మరలు. క్రమ్మరించు or క్రమ్మరుచు krammarinṭsu. v. a. To turn, send back, recall. To revoke, annul, rescind. క్రమ్మరజేయు. క్రమ్మర krammara. adv. Again. క్రమ్మరిల్లు or క్రమరబడు Same as క్రమ్మరు. (Telugu) Kho. krəm ʻ back ʼ(CDIAL 3415) *kamra ʻ the back ʼ. Kho. krəm ʻ the back ʼ (NTS ii 262 < *kūrma -- 2 with?). *parikamra -- . Addenda: *kamra -- [Cf. Ir. *kamaka -- or *kamraka -- ʻ back ʼ in Shgh. čůmč ʻ back ʼ, Sar. čomǰ EVSh 26](CDIAL 2776)

    Rebus: kamar 'smith': karmāˊra m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ RV. [EWA i 176 < stem *karmar -- ~ karman -- , but perh. with ODBL 668 ← Drav. cf. Tam. karumā ʻ smith, smelter ʼ whence meaning ʻ smith ʼ was transferred also to karmakāra -- ]Pa. kammāra -- m. ʻ worker in metal ʼ; Pk. kammāra -- , °aya -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, A. kamār, B. kāmār; Or. kamāra ʻ blacksmith, caste of non -- Aryans, caste of fishermen ʼ; Mth. kamār ʻ blacksmith ʼ, Si. kam̆burā.*karmāraśālā -- .Addenda: karmāˊra -- : Md. kan̆buru ʻ blacksmith ʼ. *karmāraśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [karmāˊra -- , śāˊlā -- ]Mth. kamarsārī; -- Bi. kamarsāyar?(CDIAL 2898, 2899) కమ్మరము  kammaramu kammaramu. [Tel.] n. Smith's work, iron work. కమ్మరవాడు, కమ్మరి or కమ్మరీడు kammara-vāḍu. n. An iron-smith or blacksmith. బైటికమ్మరవాడు an itinerant blacksmith. 

    FS Fig. 53 FS Fig. 52FS Fig. 104 Scarfed, lady with markhor horn and twig ligatured to tiger: dhatu 'scarf' rebus: dhatu 'mineral ore' PLUS kola 'lady' rebus: kol 'working in iron' (Semantic determinative) PLUS kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' PLUS miṇḍāl'markhor' rebus: mẽṛhet 'iron' (Santali) med 'copper' (Slavic languages) PLUS  kūdī 'twig'kuṭhi 'smelter'
    Images show a figure strangling two tigers with his bare hands.

    FS Fig. 105 Two tigers leap:dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS Tiger leaps: kol kõdā rebus: kolhe kō̃da कोँद 'smelter kiln' PLUS panja 'claw of beast, feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln' (Semantic determinative). kola 'lady' rebus: kol 'working in iron' The iris of the is plal 'iris of the eye' (Gaw.)(CDIAL 8711) a pronuciation variant is provided by pā̆hār ʻsunshine' in Nepali. If this phonetic form pāhār explains the hieroglyph 'iris of the eye', the rebus reading is: pahārā m. ʻgoldsmith's workshopʼ(Punjabi)(CDIAL 8835).


    FS Fig. 107 kol pasar 'tiger open mouth' rebus: kol pasar iron smelter trader's shop'. dol 'drummer' rebus: dul'metal casting'. ub-set Triplet frequency  12. 

    Sign 103 is hypertext composed of Sign 87  sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' Vikalpa:dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, the pair Sign 103 and Sign 403 signify ingots and metalware.
    Sign 403 is a duplication of  dula 'pair, duplicated' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS  Sign'oval/lozenge/rhombus' hieoglyph Sign 373. Sign 373 has the shape of oval or lozenge is the shape of a bun ingotmũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced atone time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed likea four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes andformed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt komūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, Sign 373 signifies word, mũhã̄ 'bun ingot'. Thus, hypertext Sign 403 reads: dul mũhã̄ 'metalcast ingot'.
    Sign 342 karṇaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebs: karṇī  'scribe, supercargo'.

    FS Fig. 108 kol pasar 'tiger open mouth' rebus: kol pasar iron smelter trader's shop' PLUS battuḍu 'worshipper' rebus: pattar 'goldsmith guild' PLUS  kuṭi 'tree''water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' PLUS dhamkara 'leafless tree' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'.

    FS Fig. 63 FS Fig. 64FS Fig. 65FS Fig. 66 FS 36 FS Figs. 63 to 67 Crocodile  karā 'crocodile' rebus: khār 'blacksmith'

    FS Fig. 68'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas'metal,alloy metal, iron' (R̥gveda). अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]). 
    Pict-87 Standing person with horns and bovine features (hoofed legs and/or tail).
     Harappa tablets. Pict-85, Pict-86 Standing person with horns and bovine features (hoofed legs and/or tail).

    Pict-90: Standing person with horns and bovine features holding a staff or mace on his shoulder.


    FS Fig 83FS Fig. 84FS Fig. 85 FS Fig. 86

    FS Fig. 87FS Fig. 88FS Fig. 89

    FS Fig. 90FS Fig. 91Mohenjo-daro tablets. Standing person with horns and bovine features (hoofed legs and/or tail).

                                                                                                                                                    Person with a bovine body parts (such as tail, hoofs) signifies: *kulla1 ʻ neck, back, buttock ʼ.Pk. kulla -- , kōla -- m. ʻ neck ʼ, kulla -- m.n. ʻ buttock ʼ; L. kullhā m. ʻ that part of a bullock's hump on which yoke rests ʼ; P. kullā m. ʻ hip, buttock ʼ; H. kulā m. ʻ hip, buttock, waist ʼ; G. kulɔ m. ʻ hip, buttock ʼ; M. kulā,kullā°āṇākulhā°āṇā m. ʻ buttock ʼ, kolẽ n. ʻ hump of buffalo ʼ. -- B. kolā ʻ having an inflated throat ʼ? -- Si. kulala ʻ neck ʼ?(CDIAL 3353) Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kollan 'blacksmith'.

    Mohenjo-daro m1431 four-sided tablet. Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

    One side (m1431B) of a four-sided tablet shows a procession of a tiger, an elephant and a rhinoceros (with fishes (or perhaps, crocodile) on top?).
    kāru ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: artisan (Marathi) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri) 
    kola ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol ‘working in iron’. Heraka ‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’. khōṇḍa ‘leafless tree’ (Marathi). Rebus: kõdār’turner’ (Bengali) dhamkara 'leafless tree' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'
    Looking back: krammara ‘look back’ Rebus: kamar ‘smith, artisan’.

    koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Te.)] baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali)


    ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'. kaṇḍa 'arrow' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. ayaskāṇḍa is a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish + arrow may denote metalware tools, pots and pans.kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of 5 metals - pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo 'merchant'; ib ‘iron'.  Alternative: కరటి [ karaṭi ] karaṭi. [Skt.] n. An elephant. ఏనుగు (Telugu) Rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati) kāṇḍa  'rhimpceros'   Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  The text on m0489 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the metalware catalog includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and produce tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar 'smiths, artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha alloys'. పంచలోహము pancha-lōnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz., copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron (Telugu). Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the depiction is of satthiya 'svastika' Rebus: satthiya 'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of copper, zinc, tin, lead and iron.


    Glyph: Animals in procession: खांडा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹ kaṇṭi  Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.

    Hieroglyph: heraka ‘spy’. Rebus: eraka, arka 'copper, gold'; eraka 'moltencast, metal infusion'; era ‘copper’. 

    āra 'spokes' Rebus: āra  'brass'. Hieroglyph: हेर [ hēra ] m (हेरक S through or H) A spy, scout, explorator, an emissary to gather intelligence. 2 f Spying out or spying, surveying narrowly, exploring. (Marathi) *hērati ʻ looks for or at ʼ. 2. hēraka -- , °rika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ lex., hairika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ Hcar., ʻ thief ʼ lex. [J. Bloch FestschrWackernagel 149 ← Drav., Kuiēra ʻ to spy ʼ, Malt. ére ʻ to see ʼ, DED 765]
    1. Pk. hēraï ʻ looks for or at ʼ (vihīraï ʻ watches for ʼ); K.ḍoḍ. hērūō ʻ was seen ʼ; WPah.bhad. bhal. he_rnū ʻ to look at ʼ (bhal. hirāṇū ʻ to show ʼ), pāḍ. hēraṇ, paṅ. hēṇā, cur. hērnā, Ku. herṇo, N. hernu, A. heriba, B. herā, Or. heribā (caus. herāibā), Mth. herab, OAw. heraï, H. hernā; G. hervũ ʻ to spy ʼ, M. herṇẽ. 2. Pk. hēria -- m. ʻ spy ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) "hériu"ʻ spy ʼ; G. herɔ m. ʻ spy ʼ, herũ n. ʻ spying ʼ. Addenda: *hērati: WPah.kṭg. (Wkc.) hèrnõ, kc. erno ʻ observe ʼ; Garh. hernu ʻ to look' (CDIAL 14165) Ko. er uk- (uky-) to play 'peeping tom'. Kui ēra (ēri-) to spy, scout; n. spying, scouting; pl action ērka (ērki-). ? Kuwi (S.) hēnai to scout; hēri kiyali to see; (Su. P.) hēnḍ- (hēṭ-) id. Kur. ērnā (īryas) to see, look, look at, look after, look for, wait for, examine, try; ērta'ānā to let see, show; ērānakhrnā to look at one another. Malt. ére to see, behold, observe; érye to peep, spy. Cf. 892 Kur. ēthrnā. / Cf. Skt. heraka- spy, Pkt. her- to look at or for, and many NIA verbs; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14165(DEDR 903)

    Meluhha examples of processions of hieroglyphs asartisan repertoire lists

    h1966A h1966B 
    h1966A h1966B 1.     Glyph: ‘bull’: ḍhangra ‘bull’. Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’.pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattar 'guild'. dula 'pair, likenes' Rebus: dul 'cast metal. Thus the hieroglyphs denote pattar 'guild' of blacksmiths, casters of metal.
    pasara 'quadrupeds' Rebus: pasra 'smithy' (Santali)

    1. a tiger, a fox on leashes held by a man kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloys' lo ‘fox’ (WPah.) Rebus: lōha ʻmetalʼ (Pali) 

    2. a procession of boars (rhinoceros?) and tiger in two rows kāṇṭā 'rhinoceros. Rebus: āṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Gujarati)

    3. a stalk/twig, sprout (or tree branch) kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelting furnace‘ (Santali)

    h1973B h1974B Two tablets. One side shows a person seated on atree branch, a tiger looking up, a crocodile on the top register andother animals in procession in the bottom register. Obverse side(comparable to h1970, h1971 and h1972) shows an elephant, a person strangling two tigers (jackals orfoxes) and a six-spoked wheel.The glyphic which is common to both set 1 (h1970B, h1971B and h1972B) and set 2: (h1973B andh1974B) is: crocodile on the top register. kar 

    ā ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: khara ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmir 

    i)Set 1: crocodile + person with foot on head of animal + spearing + bison + horned (with twig) seatedperson in penance

    Set 2: crocodile + person seated on branch of tree + tiger looking back and up + rhinoceros + tiger inprocession.


    h1971B Harappa. Three tablets with identical glyphic compositions on bothsides: h1970, h1971 and h1972. Seated figure or deity with reed house orshrine at one side. Left: H95-2524; Right: H95-2487.Harappa. Planoconvex molded tablet found on Mound ET. A. Reverse. a female deity battling two tigers and standing above an elephant and below a six-spoked wheel; b. Obverse. A person spearingwith a barbed spear a buffalo in front of a seated horned deity wearing bangles and with a plumed headdress. The person presses his foot down the buffalo’s head. An alligator  with a narrow snout is onthe top register.“We have found two other broken tablets at Harappa that appear to have been made from the same mold that was used to create the scene of a deity battling two tigers and standing abovean elephant. One was found in a room located on the southern slope of Mount ET in 1996 and another example comes from excavations on Mound F in the 1930s. However, the flat obverse of both of thesebroken tablets does not show the spearing of a buffalo, rather it depicts the more well-known sceneshowing a tiger looking back over its shoulder at a person sitting on the branch of a tree. Several otherflat or twisted rectangular terracotta tablets found at Harappa combine these two narrative scenes of afigure strangling two tigers on one side of a tablet, and the tiger looking back over its shoulder at a figure in a tree on the other side.”


    h1973B h1974B Two tablets. One side shows a person seated on a tree branch, a tiger looking up, a crocodile on the top register and other animals in procession in the bottom register.

     
    1

              Glyph: seven: eae ‘seven’ (Santali); rebus: eh-ku ’steel’ (Ta.)

    खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. Alternative: aṭar ‘a splinter’ (Ma.) aṭaruka ‘to burst, crack, sli off,fly open; aṭarcca ’ splitting, a crack’; aṭarttuka ‘to split, tear off, open (an oyster) (Ma.); aḍaruni ‘to crack’ (Tu.) (DEDR 66) Rebus: aduru ‘native, unsmelted metal’ (Kannada) Alternative: sal ‘splinter’ Rebus: sal ‘artisan’s workshop’.
      
    ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'. kaṇḍa 'arrow' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. ayaskāṇḍa is a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish + arrow may denote metalware tools, pots and pans.

    G. khuṇ f., khū˘ṇɔ m. ʻ corner ʼ.2. S. kuṇḍa f. ʻ corner ʼ; P. kū̃ṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ (← H.). (CDIAL 3898) Phal. Khun ʻ corner ʼ; H. khū̃ṭ m. ʻ corner, direction ʼ (→ P. khũṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ); G. khū̃ṭṛī f. ʻ angle ʼ. Rebus: khū̃ṭ  'guild, community'.
    Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā  me~r.he~t = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each end; kolhe tehen me~r.he~tko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali.lex.)

    Thus the message conveyed by the text is that the metalware -- ayaskāṇḍa -- is of guild, community workshop --  khū̃ṭ sal.
    m1431B
    m1431A, B, C, E and Text 2805 Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

    koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Te.)]baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali) baṭhi furnace for smelting ore (the same as kuṭhi) (Santali) bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace; make an oven, a furnace; iṭa bhaṭa = a brick kiln; kun:kal bhaṭa a potter’s kiln; cun bhaṭa = a lime kiln; cun tehen dobon bhaṭaea = we shall prepare the lime kiln today (Santali); bhaṭṭhā (H.) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā= a barzier, worker in metal; bhaṭ, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Skt.) mẽhẽt bai = iron (Ore) furnaces. [Synonyms are: mẽt = the eye, rebus for: the dotted circle (Santali.lex) baṭha [H. baṭṭhī (Sad.)] any kiln, except a potter’s kiln, which is called coa; there are four kinds of kiln: cunabat.ha, a lime-kin, it.abat.ha, a brick-kiln, ērēbaṭha, a lac kiln, kuilabaṭha, a charcoal kiln; trs. Or intrs., to make a kiln; cuna rapamente ciminaupe baṭhakeda? How many limekilns did you make? Baṭha-sen:gel = the fire of a kiln; baṭi [H. Sad. baṭṭhi, a furnace for distilling) used alone or in the cmpds. arkibuṭi and baṭiora, all meaning a grog-shop; occurs also in ilibaṭi, a (licensed) rice-beer shop (Mundari.lex.) bhaṭi = liquor from mohwa flowers (Santali)
    Pict-97: Person standing at the center pointing with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand pointing to the sign  
    2841  Obverse: A tiger and a rhinoceros in file. Pict-48 A tiger and a rhinoceros in file


    kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of 5 metals - pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo 'merchant'; ib 'iron'. kāṇḍa 'rhimpceros'  Rebus:khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  The text on m0489 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the metalware catalog includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and produce tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar 'smiths, artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha alloys'. పంచలోహము pancha-lōnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz., copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron (Telugu). Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the depiction is of satthiya 'svastika' Rebus: satthiya 'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of copper, zinc, tin, lead and iron.

    Indus inscription on a Mohenjo-daro tablet (m1405) including ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph as component of a ligatured glyph (Sign 15 Mahadevan)This tablet is a clear and unambiguous example of the fundamental orthographic style of Indus Script inscriptions that: both signs and pictorial motifs are integral components of the message conveyed by the inscriptions. Attempts at ‘deciphering’ only what is called a ‘sign’ in Parpola or Mahadevan corpuses will result in an incomplete decoding of the complete message of the inscribed object.

    This inscribed object is decoded as a professional calling card: a blacksmith-precious-stone-merchant with the professional role of copper-miner-smelter-furnace-scribe.

    m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center points with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand points to the ligatured glyph. 


    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Glyph 15) gestured with the left hand. 


    Water-carrier glyph kuṭi ‘water-carrier’ (Telugu); Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) kuṛī f. ‘fireplace’ (H.); krvṛi f. ‘granary (WPah.); kuṛī, kuṛo house, building’(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kuṭi ‘hut made of boughs’ (Skt.) guḍi temple (Telugu) [The bull is shown in front of the trough for drinking; hence the semantics of ‘drinking’.]

    The most frequently occurring glyph -- rim of jar -- ligatured to Glyph 12 becomes Glyph 15 and is thus explained as a kanka, karṇaka: ‘furnace scribe’ and is consistent with the readings of glyphs which occur together with this glyph. Kan-ka may denote an artisan working with copper, ka (Ta.) kaṉṉār ‘coppersmiths, blacksmiths’ (Ta.) Thus, the phrase kaṇḍ karṇaka may be decoded rebus as a brassworker, scribe. karṇaka ‘scribe,  accountant’.
    Glyph15 variants (Parpola)
    The inscription of this tablet is composed of four glyphs: bison, trough, shoulder (person), ligatured glyph -- Glyph 15(rim-of-jar glyph ligatured to water-carrier glyph). 

    Each glyph can be read rebus in mleccha (meluhhan).

    ḍangur m. ʻbullockʼ, rebus: ḍāṅro ’blacksmith’ (N.) *ḍagga -- 3 ʻ cattle ʼ. 2. †*ḍhagga -- 2. [Cf. *ḍaṅgara -- 1, *daṅgara -- ] 1. WPah.kṭg. ḍɔggɔ m. ʻa head of cattleʼ, ḍɔgge m.pl. ʻcattleʼ, sat. (LSI ix 4, 667) ḍōgai ʻ cattle ʼ.2. S.kcch. ḍhago m. ʻ ox ʼ, L(Shahpur) ḍhaggā m. ʻsmall weak oxʼ, ḍhaggī f. ʻ cow ʼ, Garh. ḍhã̄gu ʻ old bull ʼ(CDIAL 5524a)  *ḍaṅgara1 ʻcattleʼ. 2. *daṅgara -- . [Same as ḍaṅ- gara -- 2 s.v. *ḍagga -- 2 as a pejorative term for cattle]1. K. ḍangur m. ʻbullockʼ, L. ḍaṅgur, (Ju.) ḍ̠ãgar m. ʻhorned cattleʼ; P. ḍaṅgar m. ʻcattleʼ, Or. ḍaṅgara; Bi. ḍã̄gar ʻold worn -- out beast, dead cattleʼ, dhūr ḍã̄gar ʻcattle in generalʼ; Bhoj. ḍāṅgar ʻcattleʼ; H. ḍã̄gar, ḍã̄grā m. ʻ horned cattle ʼ. 2. H. dã̄gar m. = prec.(CDIAL 5526) Rebus: N. ḍāṅro ʻ term of contempt for a blacksmithʼ (CDIAL 5524) Vikalpa: sal ‘bos gaurus’; rebus sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) <sayEl>(L)  {N} ``^bison, wild ^buffalo''.  #59041.


    pattar ‘trough’ (Ta.), rebus paṭṭar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pattar merchants (Ta.); perh. vartaka  (Skt.) pātharī ʻprecious stoneʼ (OMarw.) (CDIAL 8857)

    meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.); rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.); eṛaka 'upraised arm' (Ta.); rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.)   


    Ligature 1 in composite glyph: kan-ka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali), rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ (Pa.); vikalpa: 1. kāraṇika -- m. ʻarrow-maker’ (Pa.) 2. khanaka ‘miner, digger, excavator’ (Skt.). Ligature 2 in composite glyph: kuṭi ‘water-carrier (Telugu), rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)

    The composite message is thus: blacksmith, merchant, copper smelter scribe.

    Vikalpa: pattar ‘trough’; rebus pattar, vartaka ‘merchant’. பத்தல் pattal, n. பத்தர்¹ pattar 1. A wooden bucket;மரத்தாலான நீரிறைக்குங் கருவிதீம்பிழி யெந்திரம் பத்தல் வருந்த (பதிற்றுப். 19, 23). பத்தர்² pattar , n. < T. battuḍu. A caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்றுபட்டடை¹ paṭṭaṭai , n. prob. படு¹- +அடை¹-. 1. [T. paṭṭika, K. paṭṭaḍe.] Anvil; அடைகல். (பிங்.) சீரிடங்காணி னெறிதற்குப் பட்ட டை (குறள், 821). 2. [K. paṭṭaḍi.] Smithy, forge; கொல்லன் களரி பத்தல் pattal , n. 1. A wooden bucket; மரத்தாலான நீரிறைக்குங் கருவிதீம்பிழி யெந்திரம் பத்தல் வருந்த (பதிற்றுப். 19, 23). பத்தர்¹ pattar , n. 1. Seeபத்தல், 1, 4, 5. 2. Wooden trough for feeding animals; தொட்டிபன்றிக் கூழ்ப்பத்தரில் (நாலடி, 257).
    paṭṭar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pattar merchants; perh. vartaka  (Skt.)

    Patthara [cp. late Sk. prastara. The ord. meaning of Sk. pr. is "stramentum"]   1. stone, rock S i.32. -- 2. stoneware Miln 2. (Pali) Pa. Pk. patthara -- m. ʻ stone ʼ, S. patharu m., L. (Ju.) pathar m., khet. patthar, P. patthar m. (→ forms of Bi. Mth. Bhoj. H. G. below with atth or ath), WPah.jaun. pātthar; Ku. pāthar m. ʻ slates, stones ʼ, gng. pāth*lr ʻ flat stone ʼ; A. B. pāthar ʻ stone ʼ, Or. pathara; Bi. pāthar, patthar, patthal ʻ hailstone ʼ; Mth. pāthar, pathal ʻ stone ʼ, Bhoj. pathal, Aw.lakh. pāthar, H. pāthar, patthar, pathar, patthal m., G. patthar, pathrɔ m.; M. pāthar f. ʻ flat stone ʼ; Ko. phāttaru ʻ stone ʼ; Si. patura ʻ chip, fragment ʼ; -- S. pathirī f. ʻ stone in the bladder ʼ; P. pathrī f. ʻ small stone ʼ; Ku. patharī ʻ stone cup ʼ; B. pāthri ʻ stone in the bladder, tartar on teeth ʼ; Or. pathurī ʻ stoneware ʼ; H. patthrī f. ʻ grit ʼ, G. pathrī f. *prastarapaṭṭa -- , *prastaramr̥ttikā -- , *prastarāsa -- .Addenda: prastará -- : WPah.kṭg. pátthər m. ʻ stone, rock ʼ; pəthreuṇõ ʻ to stone ʼ; J. pāthar m. ʻ stone ʼ; OMarw. pātharī ʻ precious stone ʼ. (CDIAL 8857)

    paṭṭarai ‘workshop’ (Ta.) pattharika [fr. patthara] a merchant Vin ii.135 (kaŋsa˚).(Pali) cf. Pattharati [pa+tharati] to spread, spread out, extend J i.62; iv.212; vi.279; DhA i.26; iii.61 (so read at J vi.549 in cpd ˚pāda with spreading feet, v. l. patthaṭa˚). -- pp. patthaṭa (q. v.).  பத்தர் pattar, n. perh. vartaka. Merchants; வியாபாரிகள். (W.)   battuḍu. n. The caste title of all the five castes of artificers as vaḍla b*, carpenter. 

    A characteristic style in narration is the use of a procession of animals to denote a professional group. The grouping may connote a smithy-shop of a guild --pasāramu
    Mohenjo-daro seal m417 six heads from a core.śrēṇikā -- f. ʻ tent ʼ lex. and mngs. ʻ house ~ ladder ʼ in *śriṣṭa -- 2, *śrīḍhi -- . -- Words for ʻ ladder ʼ see śrití -- . -- √śri]H. sainī, senī f. ʻ ladder ʼ; Si. hiṇi, hiṇa, iṇi ʻ ladder, stairs ʼ (GS 84 < śrēṇi -- ).(CDIAL 12685). Woṭ. Šen ʻ roof ʼ, Bshk. Šan, Phal. Šān(AO xviii 251) Rebus: seṇi (f.) [Class. Sk. Śreṇi in meaning “guild”; Vedic= row] 1. A guild Vin iv.226; J i.267, 314; iv.43; Dāvs ii.124; their number was eighteen J vi.22, 427; VbhA 466. ˚ -- pamukha the head of a guild J ii.12 (text seni -- ). — 2. A division of an army J vi.583; ratha -- ˚ J vi.81, 49; seṇimokkha the chief of an army J vi.371 (cp. Senā and seniya). (Pali)

    This denotes a mason (artisan) guild -- seni -- of 1. brass-workers; 2. blacksmiths; 3. iron-workers; 4. copper-workers; 5. native metal workers; 6. workers in alloys.

    The core is a glyphic ‘chain’ or ‘ladder’. Glyph: kaḍī a chain; a hook; a link (G.); kaḍum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaḍiyaṇa, kaḍiyeṇa a woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (G.)


    The glyphics are:

    1.     Glyph: ‘one-horned young bull’: kondh ‘heifer’. kũdā‘turner, brass-worker’.

    2.     Glyph: ‘bull’: ḍhangra ‘bull’. Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’.

    3.     Glyph: ‘ram’: meḍh ‘ram’. Rebus: meḍ ‘iron

    4.         Glyph: ‘antelope’: mr̤eka ‘goat’. Rebus: milakkhu ‘copper’. Vikalpa 1: meluhha ‘mleccha’ ‘copper worker’. Vikalpa 2: meṛh ‘helper of merchant’.

    5.         Glyph: ‘zebu’: khũ ‘zebu’. Rebus: khũṭ ‘guild, community’ (Semantic determinant of the ‘jointed animals’ glyphic composition). kūṭa joining, connexion, assembly, crowd, fellowship (DEDR 1882)  Pa. gotta ‘clan’; Pk. gotta, gōya id. (CDIAL 4279) Semantics of Pkt. lexeme gōya is concordant with Hebrew ‘goy’ in ha-goy-im (lit. the-nation-s). Pa. gotta -- n. ʻ clan ʼ, Pk. gotta -- , gutta -- , amg. gōya -- n.; Gau.  ʻ house ʼ (in Kaf. and Dard. several other words for ʻ cowpen ʼ > ʻ house ʼ: gōṣṭhá -- , Pr. gūˊṭu ʻ cow ʼ; S. g̠oṭru m. ʻ parentage ʼ, L. got f. ʻ clan ʼ, P. gotargot f.; Ku. N. got ʻ family ʼ; A. got -- nāti ʻ relatives ʼ; B. got ʻ clan ʼ; Or. gota ʻ family, relative ʼ; Bhoj. H. got m. ʻ family, clan ʼ, G. got n.; M. got ʻ clan, relatives ʼ; -- Si. gota ʻ clan, family ʼ ← Pa. (CDIAL 4279). Alternative: 

    adar ḍangra ‘zebu or humped bull’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.); ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.)
    6.     The sixth animal can only be guessed. Perhaps, a tiger (A reasonable inference, because the glyph ’tiger’ appears in a procession on some Indus script inscriptions. Glyph: ‘tiger?’: kol ‘tiger’.Rebus: kol ’worker in iron’. Vikalpa (alternative): perhaps, rhinocerosgaṇḍa ‘rhinoceros’; rebus:khaṇḍ ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’. Thus, the entire glyphic composition of six animals on the Mohenjodaro seal m417 is semantically a representation of a śrḗṇi, ’guild’, a khũ , ‘community’ of smiths and masons.

    This guild, community of smiths and masons evolves into Harosheth Hagoyim, ‘a smithy of nations’.
    http://www.harappa.com/indus/32.html Seal. Mohenjo-daro. Terracotta sealing from Mohenjo-daro depicting a collection of animals and some script symbols. In the centre is a horned crocodile (gharial) surrounded by other animals including a monkey.
     In these seals of Mohenjo-daro ‘horned crocodile’ hieroglyph is the center-piece surrounded by hieroglyphs of a pair of bullocks, elephant, rhinoceros, tiger looking back and a monkey-like creature.
     m0489a,b,c Mohenjo-daro prism tablet

    A standing human couple mating (a tergo); one side of a prism tablet from Mohenjo-daro (m489b). Other motifs on the inscribed object are: two goats eating leaves on a platform; a cock or hen (?) and a three-headed animal (perhaps antelope, one-horned bull and a short-horned bull).  The leaf pictorial connotes on the goat composition connotes loa; hence, the reading is of this pictorial component is: lohar kamar = a blacksmith, worker in iron, superior to the ordinary kamar (Santali.)] 
    Hieroglhyphs: elephant (ibha), boar/rhinoceros[kāṇḍā mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil)], tiger (kol), tiger face turned (krammara), young bull calf (khōṇḍa) [खोंड m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi)], antelope, ḍangur ʻbullockʼ, melh ‘goat’ (Brahui) 
    Rebus mleccha glosses: Ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'; kāṇḍā, 'tools, pots and pans, metalware'; kol 'worker in iron, smithy'; krammara, kamar 'smith, artisan', kõdā 'lathe-turner' [B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)], khũ ‘guild, community’, ḍāṅro ’blacksmith’ (Nepalese) milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) [Meluhha!] poL 'zebu' Rebus: poLa 'magnetite'.

    Phoneme karba has two hieroglyph components which are semantic determinatives: kari 'elephant' ibha'elephant'

    Hieroglyph: karabha 'trunk of elephant' (Pali) 2803 karin m. ʻ elephant ʼ. [See karabhá -- ]Pa. karin -- m., Pk. kari -- , °iṇa -- m., °iṇī -- , °iṇiyā -- f.; <-> Si. kiriyā ← Pa.(CDIAL 2803)

    Hieroglyph: hand: kará1 ʻ doing, causing ʼ AV., m. ʻ hand ʼ RV. [√kr̥1]
    Pa. Pk. kara -- m. ʻ hand ʼ; S. karu m. ʻ arm ʼ; Mth. kar m. ʻ hand ʼ (prob. ← Sk.); Si. kara ʻ hand, shoulder ʼ, inscr. karā ʻ to ʼ < karāya. -- Deriv. S. karāī f. ʻ wrist ʼ; G. karã̄ n. pl. ʻ wristlets, bangles ʼ.(CDIAL 2779)

    Rebus: karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu) Tu. kari soot, charcoal; kariya black;  karṅka state of being burnt or singed; karṅkāḍuni to burn (tr.); karñcuni to be burned to cinders; karñcāvuni to cause to burn to cinders; kardů black;  karba iron; karvāvuni to burn the down of a fowl by holding it over the fire; karṇṭuni to be scorched; karguḍe a very black man; fem. karguḍi, kargi. Kor. (T.) kardi black. kabbiṇa iron (Kannada) kabïn iron (Toda) karum poṉ iron (Tamil)(DEDR 1278)

    Allograph: pot with narrow neck: Koḍ. karava clay pot with narrow neck. Go. (Ma.) karvi narrow-mouthed earthen vessel for oil or liquor (DEDR 1273A)

    Hieroglyph: ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron' (Santali). kāṇḍā 'rhinoceros' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  karā 'crocodile' Rebus: khar 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) Note: Ib is the name of a station between Howrah and Nagpur. The Railway station is in the iron ore belt.

    kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) కారు mosale ‘wild crocodile or alligator. S. ghaṛyālu m. ʻ long — snouted porpoise ʼ; N. ghaṛiyāl ʻ crocodile’ (Telugu)ʼ; A. B. ghãṛiyāl ʻ alligator ʼ, Or. Ghaṛiāḷa, H. ghaṛyāl, ghariār m. (CDIAL 4422) கரவு² karavu, n. < கரா. Cf. grāha. Alligator; முதலை. கரவார்தடம் (திவ். திருவாய். 8, 9, 9). கரா karā, n. prob. Grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலை. கராவதன் காலினைக்கதுவ (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 3, 9). 2. Male alligator; ஆண்முதலை. (பிங்.) கராம் karām n. prob. Grāha. 1. A species of alligator ; முதலைவகை. முதலையு மிடங்கருங் கராமும் (குறிஞ்சிப். 257). 2. Male alligator; ஆண் முதலை. (திவா.)

    m1431A, B, C, E and Text 2805 Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

    koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Te.)]baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali) baṭhi furnace for smelting ore (the same as kuṭhi) (Santali) bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace; make an oven, a furnace; iṭa bhaṭa = a brick kiln; kun:kal bhaṭa a potter’s kiln; cun bhaṭa = a lime kiln; cun tehen dobon bhaṭaea = we shall prepare the lime kiln today (Santali); bhaṭṭhā (H.) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā = a barzier, worker in metal; bhaṭ, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Skt.) mẽhẽt bai = iron (Ore) furnaces. [Synonyms are: mẽt = the eye, rebus for: the dotted circle (Santali.lex) baṭha [H. baṭṭhī (Sad.)] any kiln, except a potter’s kiln, which is called coa; there are four kinds of kiln: cunabat.ha, a lime-kin, it.abat.ha, a brick-kiln, ērēbaṭha, a lac kiln, kuilabaṭha, a charcoal kiln; trs. Or intrs., to make a kiln; cuna rapamente ciminaupe baṭhakeda? How many limekilns did you make? Baṭha-sen:gel = the fire of a kiln; baṭi [H. Sad. baṭṭhi, a furnace for distilling) used alone or in the cmpds. arkibuṭi and baṭiora, all meaning a grog-shop; occurs also in ilibaṭi, a (licensed) rice-beer shop (Mundari.lex.) bhaṭi = liquor from mohwa flowers (Santali)
    Mohenjo-daro m1431 four-sided tablet. Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

    One side (m1431B) of a four-sided tablet shows a procession of a tiger, an elephant and a rhinoceros (with fishes (or perhaps, crocodile) on top?).

    koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.)कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Te.)] baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali)


    ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'. kaṇḍa 'arrow' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. ayaskāṇḍa is a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish + arrow may denote metalware tools, pots and pans.kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of 5 metals - pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo 'merchant'; ib ‘iron'.  Alternative: కరటి [ karaṭi ] karaṭi. [Skt.] n. An elephant. ఏనుగు (Telugu) Rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati) kāṇḍa  'rhimpceros'   Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  The text on m0489 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the metalware catalog includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and produce tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar 'smiths, artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha alloys'. పంచలోహము pancha-lōnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz., copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron (Telugu). Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the depiction is of satthiya 'svastika' Rebus: satthiya 'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of copper, zinc, tin, lead and iron.


    Glyph: Animals in procession: खांडा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹ kaṇṭi  Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.


    m0489A One side of a prism tablet shows: crocodile + fish glyphic on the top register. Glyphs: crocodile + fish Rebus: ayakāra ‘blacksmith’ (Pali)

    Glyph: Animals in procession: खांडा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹ kaṇṭi  Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.

    It is possible that the broken portions of set 2 (h1973B and h1974B) showed three animals in procession: tiger looking back and up + rhinoceros + tiger.


    Reverse side glyphs:


    eraka ‘nave of wheel’. Rebus: era ‘copper’. 

    āra 'spokes' Rebus: āra  'brass'.

    Animal glyph: elephant ‘ibha’. Rebus ibbo, ‘merchant’ (Gujarati).


    Composition of glyphics: Woman with six locks of hair + one eye + thwarting + two pouncing tigers (jackals)+ nave with six spokes. Rebus: kola ‘woman’ + kaṇga ‘eye’ (Pego.), bhaṭa ‘six’+ dul‘casting (metal)’ + kũdā kol (tiger jumping) or lo ‘fox’ (WPah.) rebus: lōha ʻmetalʼ (Pali) era āra (nave of wheel, six spokes), ibha (elephant). Rebus: era ‘copper’; kũdār dul kol ‘turner, casting, working in iron’;kan ‘brazier, bell-metal worker’; ibbo ‘merchant’.


    The glyphic composition read rebus: copper, iron merchant with taṭu kanḍ kol bhaṭa ‘iron stone (ore) mineral ‘furnace’.


    lōpāka m. ʻa kind of jackalʼ Suśr., lōpākikā -- f. lex. 1. H. lowā m. ʻfoxʼ.2.  Ash.  ẓōkižōkī  ʻfoxʼ, Kt. ŕwēki, Bashg. wrikī, Kal.rumb. lawák: < *raupākya -- NTS ii 228; -- Dm. rɔ̈̄pak ← Ir.? lōpāśá m. ʻfox, jackalʼ RV., lōpāśikā -- f. lex. [Cf. lōpāka -- . -- *lōpi -- ] Wg. liwášälaúša ʻfoxʼ, Paš.kch. lowóċ, ar. lṓeč ʻjackalʼ (→ Shum.  lṓeč NTS xiii 269), kuṛ. lwāinč; K. lośulōhlohulôhu ʻporcupine, foxʼ.1. Kho.  lōw  ʻfoxʼ, Sh.gil. lótilde;i f., pales. lṓi f., lṓo m., WPah.bhal. lōī f.,  lo m.2. Pr. ẓūwī  ʻfoxʼ.(CDIAL 11140-2).Rebus:lōhá ʻred, copper -- colouredʼ ŚrS., ʻmade of copperʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻcopperʼ VS., ʻironʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ] Pa. lōha -- m. ʻmetal, esp. copper or bronzeʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻironʼ, Gy. pal. li°, lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻsteelʼ; Kho. loh ʻcopperʼ; S. lohu m. ʻironʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu, °hā, A. lo, B. lo, no, Or. lohā, luhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. loh, lohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho,  ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md. ratu -- lō ʻ copper lōhá -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻironʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md.  ʻmetalʼ. (CDIAL 11158).


    Glyph: ‘woman’: kola ‘woman’ (Nahali). Rebus kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)

    Glyph: ‘impeding, hindering’: taṭu (Ta.) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Ta. taṭu (-pp-, -tt) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist. (DEDR 3031)


    Allograph: ‘notch’: Marathi: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).

    Glyph: ‘full stretch of one’s arms’: kāḍ 2 काड् । पौरुषम् m. a man's length, the stature of a man (as a measure of length) (Rām. 632, zangan kaḍun kāḍ, to stretch oneself the whole length of one's body. So K. 119). Rebus: kāḍ ‘stone’. Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil) stone (DEDR 1298). mayponḍi kanḍ whetstone;  (Ga.)(DEDR 4628). (खडा) Pebbles or small stones: also stones broken up (as for a road), metal. खडा [ khaḍā ] m A small stone, a pebble. 2 A nodule (of lime &c.): a lump or bit (as of gum, assafœtida, catechu, sugar-candy): the gem or stone of a ring or trinket: a lump of hardened fæces or scybala: a nodule or lump gen. CDIAL 3018 kāṭha m. ʻ rock ʼ lex. [Cf. kānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ lex.] Bshk. kōr ʻ large stone ʼ AO xviii 239. கண்டு³ kaṇṭu , n. < gaṇḍa. 1. Clod, lump; கட்டி. (தைலவ. தைல.99.) 2. Wen; கழலைக்கட்டி. 3. Bead or something like a pendant in an ornament for the neck; ஓர் ஆபரணவுரு. புல்லிகைக்கண்ட நாண் ஒன்றிற் கட்டின கண்டு ஒன்றும் (S.I.I. ii, 429). (CDIAL 3023) kāṇḍa cluster, heap ʼ (in tr̥ṇa -- kāṇḍa -- Pāṇ. Kāś.). [Poss. connexion with gaṇḍa -- 2 makes prob. non -- Aryan origin (not with P. Tedesco Language 22, 190 < kr̥ntáti). Pa. kaṇḍa -- m.n. joint of stalk, lump. काठः A rock, stone. kāṭha m. ʻ rock ʼ lex. [Cf. kānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ lex.]Bshk. kōr ʻ large stone ʼ AO xviii 239.(CDIAL 3018). অয়সঠন [ aẏaskaṭhina ] as hard as iron; extremely hard (Bengali)


    Glyph: ‘one-eyed’: काण a. [कण् निमीलने कर्तरि घञ् Tv.] 1 One-eyed; अक्ष्णा काणः Sk; काणेन चक्षुषा किं वा H. Pr.12; Ms.3.155. -2 Perforated, broken (as a cowrie) <kaNa>(Z)  {ADJ} ``^one-^eyed, ^blind''. Ju<kaNa>(DP),,<kana>(K)  {ADJ} ``^blind, blind in one eye''.   (Munda) Go. (Ma.) kanḍ reppa eyebrow (Voc. 3047(a))(DEDR 5169). Ka. kāṇ (kaṇḍ-) to see; Ko. kaṇ-/ka·ṇ- (kaḍ-) to see; Koḍ. ka·ṇ- (ka·mb-, kaṇḍ-) to see; Ta. kāṇ (kāṇp-, kaṇṭ-) to see; Kol.kanḍt, kanḍakt seen, visible. (DEDR 1443). Ta. kaṇ eye, aperture, orifice, star of a peacock's tail. (DEDR 1159a) Rebus ‘brazier, bell-metal worker’: கன்னான் kaṉṉāṉ , n. < கன்¹. [M. kannān.] Brazier, bell-metal worker, one of the divisions of the Kammāḷa caste; செம்புகொட்டி. (திவா.)  Ta. kaṉ copper work, copper, workmanship;  kaṉṉāṉ brazier. 
    Ma. kannān id.  (DEDR 1402).  கன்¹ kaṉ , n. perh. கன்மம். 1. Workmanship; வேலைப்பாடு. கன்னார் மதில்சூழ் குடந்தை (திவ். திருவாய். 5, 8, 3). 2. Copper work; கன்னார் தொழில். (W.) 3. Copper; செம்பு. (ஈடு, 5, 8, 3.) 4. See கன்னத்தட்டு. (நன். 217, விருத்.) கன்² kaṉ , n. < கல். 1. Stone; கல். (சூடா.) 2. Firmness; உறுதிப்பாடு. (ஈடு, 5, 8, 3.)


    kã̄ḍ 2 काँड् m. a section, part in general; a cluster, bundle, multitude (Śiv. 32). kã̄ḍ 1 काँड् । काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ.

    kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- । कुलालादिकन्दुयथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist.

    kāru ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: artisan (Marathi) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri) kola ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol ‘working in iron’. Heraka ‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’. khōṇḍa ‘leafless tree’ (Marathi). Rebus: kõdār’turner’ (Bengali) 
    Looking back: krammara ‘look back’ Rebus: kamar ‘smith, artisan’.
    Crocodile hieroglyph in combination with other animal hieroglphs also appears on a Mohenjo-daro seal m0489 in the context of an erotic Meluhha hieroglyph: a tergo copulation hieroglyph

    m0489a,b,c Mohenjo-daro prism tablet

    A standing human couple mating (a tergo); one side of a prism tablet from Mohenjo-daro (m489b). Other motifs on the inscribed object are: two goats eating leaves on a platform; a cock or hen (?) and a three-headed animal (perhaps antelope, one-horned bull and a short-horned bull).  The leaf pictorial connotes on the goat composition connotes loa; hence, the reading is of this pictorial component is: lohar kamar = a blacksmith, worker in iron, superior to the ordinary kamar (Santali.)] 
    kāruvu ‘crocodile’ Rebus:  ‘artisan, blacksmith’.  pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Telugu) Thus, the depiction of animals in epigraphs is related to, rebus: pasra = smithy (Santali)

    pisera_ a small deer brown above and black below (H.)(CDIAL 8365).
    ān:gra = wooden trough or manger sufficient to feed one animal (Mundari). iṭan:kārri = a capacity measure (Ma.) Rebus: ḍhan:gar ‘blacksmith’ (Bi.)

    pattar ‘goldsmiths’ (Ta.) patra ‘leaf’ (Skt.) 

    r-an:ku, ran:ku = fornication, adultery (Telugu); rebus: ranku ‘tin’ (Santali)

    Rebus readings of Meluhha hieroglyphs:
    Hieroglhyphs: elephant (ibha), boar/rhinoceros[kāṇḍā mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil)], tiger (kol), tiger face turned (krammara), young bull calf (khōṇḍa) [खोंड m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi)], antelope, ḍangur ʻbullockʼ, melh ‘goat’ (Brahui) 
    Rebus mleccha glosses: Ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'; kāṇḍā, 'tools, pots and pans, metalware'; kol 'worker in iron, smithy'; krammara, kamar 'smith, artisan', kõdā 'lathe-turner' [B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)], khũ ‘guild, community’, ḍāṅro ’blacksmith’ (Nepalese) milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) [Meluhha!]
    Iron (ib), carpenter (badhi), smithy (kol ‘pancaloha’), alloy-smith (kol kamar)

    tam(b)ra copper, milakkhu copper, bali (iron sand ore), native metal (aduru), ḍhangar ‘smith’.

    FS Fig. 106 Two tigers leap:dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS Tiger leaps: kol kõdā rebus: kolhe kō̃da कोँद 'smelter kiln' PLUS panja 'claw of beast, feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln' (Semantic determinative). 

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 dishevelled hairFS Fig. 92 (Fig. 92 and Fig. 106 are h180 A and B (two sides of a tablet with same text of inscription Text 4304 on both sides).
    Text 4304 Text on both sides of the tablet Hieroglyphs read rebus from r. to l.: koDi 'flag' rebus: koD 'workshop' gaNDa 'four' rebus: kanda 'fire-altar' kanda kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: kanda 'fire-altar' karNI 'supercargo' karNika 'scribe' khaNDa 'notch' rebus: khaNDa 'i9mplements' ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smith, forge' kuTi 'water-carrier' rebus: kuThi 'smelter'.
    Two tigers: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'.

    h180A
    h180B 4304 Tablet in bas-relief h180a Pict-106: Nude female figure upside down with thighs drawn apart and  crab (?) issuing from her womb; two tigers standing face to face rearing  on their hindlegs at L.
    h180b
    Pict-92: Man armed with a sickle-shaped weapon on his right hand and a cakra (?) on his left hand, facing a seated woman with disheveled hair and upraised arms.



    A person carrying a sickle-shaped weapon and a wheel on his bands faces a woman with disheveled hair and upraised arm. kuṭhāru ‘armourer’ (Sanskrit) salae sapae = untangled, combed out, hair hanging loose (Santali.lex.) Rebus: sal workshop (Santali) The glyptic composition is decoded as kuṭhāru sal‘armourer workshop.’ eṛaka 'upraised arm' (Tamil). Rebuseraka = copper (Kannada) Thus, the entire composition of these glyphic elements relate to an armourer’s copper workshop. Vikalpa: 

    मेढा A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi). Rebus: mēḍ 'iron' (Munda)

    <raca>(D)  {ADJ} ``^dishevelled'' (Mundarasāṇẽ n. ʻglowing embersʼ (Marathi). rabca ‘dishevelled’ Rebus: రాచrāca (adj.) Pertaining to a stone (ore) (bica).

    The descriptive glyphics indicates that the smelting furnace is for bica, stone (ore). This is distinquished from sand ore.
    The object between the outspread legs of the woman lying upside down is comparable orthography of a crocodile holding fiish in its jaws shown on tablets h705B and h172B. The snout of the crocodile is shown in copulation with the lying-in woman (as seen from the enlarged portion of h180 Harappa tablet).

    kola ‘woman’; rebus: kol ‘iron’. kola ‘blacksmith’ (Ka.); kollë ‘blacksmith’ (Koḍ) kuThi 'vagina' rebus: kuThi 'smnelter' karA 'crocodile' rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' khamDa 'copulation' rebus: kammaTa 'coin, mint'
    The glyphic elements shown on the tablet are: copulation, vagina, crocodile.
    Gyphic: ‘copulation’: kamḍa, khamḍa 'copulation' (Santali) Rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Ta.) kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.) Vikalpa: kaṇḍa ‘stone (ore)’. Glyph: vagina: kuṭhi ‘vagina’; rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelting furnace’. The descriptive glyphics indicates that the smelting furnace is for stone (ore). This is distinquished from sand ore. Glyph: ‘crocodile’: karā ‘crocodile’. Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’. kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) Rebus: kāruvu ‘artisan 

    kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) mosale ‘wild crocodile or alligator. S. ghaṛyālu m. ʻ long — snouted porpoise ʼ; N. ghaṛiyāl ʻ crocodile’ (Telugu)ʼ; A. B. ghãṛiyāl ʻ alligator ʼ, Or. Ghaṛiāḷa, H. ghaṛyāl, ghariār m. (CDIAL 4422)  கரவு² karavu
    n. < கரா. cf. grāha. Alligator; முதலை. கரவார்தடம் (திவ். திருவாய். 8, 9, 9). 
       கரா karā n. prob. grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலை. கராவதன் காலினைக்கதுவ (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 3, 9). 2. Male alligator; ஆண்முதலை. (பிங்.) கராம் karām n. prob. grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலைவகை. முதலையு மிடங்கருங் கராமும் (குறிஞ்சிப். 257). 2. Male alligator; ஆண் முதலை. (திவா.)கரவா karavā , n. A sea-fish of vermilion colour, Upeneus cinnabarinus; கடல்மீன்வகை. Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

    kuhi = pubes. kola ‘foetus’ [Glyph of a foetus emerging from pudendum muliebre on a Harappa tablet.] kuhi = the pubes (lower down than paṇḍe) (Santali) kuhi = the womb, the female sexual organ; sorrege kuhi menaktaea, tale tale gidrakoa lit. her womb is near, she gets children continually (H. kohī, the womb) (Santali.Bodding) kōṣṭha = anyone of the large viscera (MBh.); koṭṭha = stomach (Pali.Pkt.); kuṭṭha (Pkt.); kohī heart, breast (L.); koṭṭhā, kohā belly (P.); koho (G.); kohā (M.)(CDIAL 3545). kottha pertaining to the belly (Pkt.); kothā corpulent (Or.)(CDIAL 3510). koho [Skt. koṣṭha inner part] the stomach, the belly (Gujarat)  kūti = pudendum muliebre (Ta.); posteriors, membrum muliebre (Ma.); ku.0y anus, region of buttocks in general (To.); kūdi = anus, posteriors, membrum muliebre (Tu.)(DEDR 188). kūṭu = hip (Tu.); kua = thigh (Pe.); kue id. (Mand.); kūṭi hip (Kui)(DEDR 1885). gūde prolapsus of the anus (Ka.Tu.); gūda, gudda id. (Te.)(DEDR 1891).

    Glosses: Indian sprachbund
    kāru ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: artisan (Marathi) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri) 
    kola ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol ‘working in iron’. 
    Heraka ‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’. khōṇḍa ‘leafless tree’ (Marathi). Rebus: kõdār’turner’ (Bengali) dhamkara 'leafless tree' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'
    Looking back: krammara ‘look back’ Rebus: kamar ‘smith, artisan’.

    Hieroglyph: koḍiya 'young bull' rebus: koṭiya 'dhow, seafaring vessel'.

    koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Te.)] baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali) 

    koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Te.)]baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali) baṭhi furnace for smelting ore (the same as kuṭhi) (Santali) bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace; make an oven, a furnace; iṭa bhaṭa = a brick kiln; kun:kal bhaṭa a potter’s kiln; cun bhaṭa = a lime kiln; cun tehen dobon bhaṭaea = we shall prepare the lime kiln today (Santali); bhaṭṭhā (H.) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā= a barzier, worker in metal; bhaṭ, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Skt.) mẽhẽt bai = iron (Ore) furnaces. [Synonyms are: mẽt = the eye, rebus for: the dotted circle (Santali.lex) baṭha [H. baṭṭhī (Sad.)] any kiln, except a potter’s kiln, which is called coa; there are four kinds of kiln: cunabat.ha, a lime-kin, it.abat.ha, a brick-kiln, ērēbaṭha, a lac kiln, kuilabaṭha, a charcoal kiln; trs. Or intrs., to make a kiln; cuna rapamente ciminaupe baṭhakeda? How many limekilns did you make? Baṭha-sen:gel = the fire of a kiln; baṭi [H. Sad. baṭṭhi, a furnace for distilling) used alone or in the cmpds. arkibuṭi and baṭiora, all meaning a grog-shop; occurs also in ilibaṭi, a (licensed) rice-beer shop (Mundari.lex.) bhaṭi = liquor from mohwa flowers (Santali)

    ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'. kaṇḍa 'arrow' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. ayaskāṇḍa is a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish + arrow may denote metalware tools, pots and pans.kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of 5 metals - pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo 'merchant'; ib ‘iron'.  Alternative: కరటి [ karaṭi ] karaṭi. [Skt.] n. An elephant. ఏనుగు (Telugu) Rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati) kāṇḍa  'rhimpceros'   Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  The text on h0489 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the metalware catalog includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and produce tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar 'smiths, artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha alloys'. పంచలోహము pancha-lōnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz., copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron (Telugu). Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the depiction is of satthiya 'svastika' Rebus: satthiya 'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of copper, zinc, tin, lead and iron.

    Glyph: Animals in procession: खांडा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹ kaṇṭi  Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.


    Hieroglyph: heraka ‘spy’. Rebus: eraka, arka 'copper, gold'; eraka 'moltencast, metal infusion'; era ‘copper’. 

    āra 'spokes' Rebus: āra  'brass'. Hieroglyph: हेर [ hēra ] m (हेरक S through or H) A spy, scout, explorator, an emissary to gather intelligence. 2 f Spying out or spying, surveying narrowly, exploring. (Marathi) *hērati ʻ looks for or at ʼ. 2. hēraka -- , °rika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ lex., hairika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ Hcar., ʻ thief ʼ lex. [J. Bloch FestschrWackernagel 149 ← Drav., Kuiēra ʻ to spy ʼ, Malt. ére ʻ to see ʼ, DED 765]1. Pk. hēraï ʻ looks for or at ʼ (vihīraï ʻ watches for ʼ); K.ḍoḍ. hērūō ʻ was seen ʼ; WPah.bhad. bhal. he_rnū ʻ to look at ʼ (bhal. hirāṇū ʻ to show ʼ), pāḍ. hēraṇ, paṅ. hēṇā, cur. hērnā, Ku. herṇo, N. hernu, A. heriba, B. herā, Or. heribā (caus. herāibā), Mth. herab, OAw. heraï, H. hernā; G. hervũ ʻ to spy ʼ, M. herṇẽ. 2. Pk. hēria -- m. ʻ spy ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) "hériu"ʻ spy ʼ; G. herɔ m. ʻ spy ʼ, herũ n. ʻ spying ʼ. Addenda: *hērati: WPah.kṭg. (Wkc.) hèrnõ, kc. erno ʻ observe ʼ; Garh. hernu ʻ to look' (CDIAL 14165) Ko. er uk- (uky-) to play 'peeping tom'. Kui ēra (ēri-) to spy, scout; n. spying, scouting; pl action ērka (ērki-). ? Kuwi (S.) hēnai to scout; hēri kiyali to see; (Su. P.) hēnḍ- (hēṭ-) id. Kur. ērnā (īryas) to see, look, look at, look after, look for, wait for, examine, try; ērta'ānā to let see, show; ērānakhrnā to look at one another. Malt. ére to see, behold, observe; érye to peep, spy. Cf. 892 Kur. ēthrnā. / Cf. Skt. heraka- spy, Pkt. her- to look at or for, and many NIA verbs; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14165(DEDR 903)
    కారుమొసలి a wild crocodile or alligator (Telugu).

    Rebus: khār ‘blacksmith’ khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -ग&above;जि&below; or  । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü ), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu; । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü -क&above;टू&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 ; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.

    0 0


    This is an addendum to: 


    Orthographic device of 'tiger with open mouth' in the following examples may also signify:व्यो-कार, व्योकरः bogāṟa 'blacksmith' (Kannada) wuhawān वुहवान् । सिंहगर्जनम् f. the roar of a lion or tiger.(Kashmiri)

    See: 

     


    মহাস্থানগড় Môhasthangôṛ is close to Bogra. What does Bogra mean?

    Bogra means a 'blacksmith', 'engraving chisel'. Cognate words are: व्यो-कार, व्योकरः bogāṟa 'blacksmith' (Kannada)  గుబ్బోగర gubbōgara gub-bōgara. [Tel. గుబ్బ+పోగర.] n. An engraving chisel.  పోగర  pōgara pōgara. [Tel.] n. A graver, or small chisel used by goldsmiths. శలాక, కంసలవాని పనిముట్టు. పోగరపని carved work. గుండుపోగర a rod for making rings. గుబ్బోగర a tapping chisel. 

    The word bogra has metallurgical connotation as evidenced by the following etyma:.

    व्योकरः vyōkarḥ व्योकरः A blacksmith; व्योकाराः शौल्विकास्तथा (Śiva Bhārata by Paramānanda.31.17.)

    व्यो-कार m. (prob.) " making the sound व्यो " , a blacksmith Hcar. (Monier-Williams)

    Select orthographic hypertext devices are deployed in Indus Script Cipher to detail metalwork catalogues:

    m0266FS09 FS Fig. 22 Tiger in front of a feeding trough (with stripes cf. m0266): kol pattar paṭra (pāṭan) 'smelter guild maritime town'

    FS Fig. 110FS Fig. 111

    FS Fig. 112FS Fig. 109Image result for tiger indus scriptImage result for tiger indus scriptTiger with open mouth, with horns, looks back at a spy on a leafless tree branch:

    प्र-सार opening (the mouth)(वोपदेव) rebus: pasar, a trader's shop (नलचम्पू or दमयन्तीकथा)

    tree: kuṭi 'tree''water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'
    Branch of tree: To. kwṛ (obl. kwṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn.(DEDR 2200) Rebus: ko  = artisan’s workshop(Kuwi)
    dhamkara 'leafless tree' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'.
    heraka ‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper, molten cast'
    kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'
    krammara 'look back' rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'. 

    Thus, kol pasar 'tiger open mouth' rebus: kol pasar iron smelter trader's shop'.
    कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] 'tiger' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter' (Santali) Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village; kolhali to forge (Kuwi)(DEDR 2133)

    B. kũdā, kõdā 'to leap'; Or. kudibā ʻ to jump, dance ʼ; Mth. kūdab ʻ to jump ʼ, Aw. lakh. kūdab, H. kūdnā, OMarw. kūdaï, G. kūrda m. ʻ jump ʼ, gūrda -- m. ʻ jump ʼ Kāṭh. [√kūrd] S. kuḍ̠u m. ʻ leap ʼ, N. kud, Or. kuda, °dā, kudā -- kudi ʻ jumping about ʼ. kūˊrdati ʻ leaps, jumps ʼ MBh. [gūˊrdati, khūˊrdatē Dhātup.: prob. ← Drav. (Tam. kuti, Kan. gudi ʻ to spring ʼ) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 375]S. kuḍ̠aṇu ʻ to leap ʼ; L. kuḍ̠aṇ ʻ to leap, frisk, play ʼ; P. kuddṇā ʻ to leap ʼ, Ku. kudṇo, N. kudnu, (CDIAL 3411, 3412) 

    Rebus: kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- khasüñü -- खस&above;ञू&below; । कुलालादिकन्दुयथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist. Cf. Śiv. 133, where the causal form of the verb is used. (Kashmiri)

    క్రమ్మరు krammaru [Tel.] v. n. To turn, return, go back. మరలు. క్రమ్మరించు or క్రమ్మరుచు krammarinṭsu. v. a. To turn, send back, recall. To revoke, annul, rescind. క్రమ్మరజేయు. క్రమ్మర krammara. adv. Again. క్రమ్మరిల్లు or క్రమరబడు Same as క్రమ్మరు. (Telugu) Kho. krəm ʻ back ʼ(CDIAL 3415) *kamra ʻ the back ʼ. Kho. krəm ʻ the back ʼ (NTS ii 262 < *kūrma -- 2 with?). *parikamra -- . Addenda: *kamra -- [Cf. Ir. *kamaka -- or *kamraka -- ʻ back ʼ in Shgh. čůmč ʻ back ʼ, Sar. čomǰ EVSh 26](CDIAL 2776)

    Rebus: kamar 'smith': karmāˊra m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ RV. [EWA i 176 < stem *karmar -- ~ karman -- , but perh. with ODBL 668 ← Drav. cf. Tam. karumā ʻ smith, smelter ʼ whence meaning ʻ smith ʼ was transferred also to karmakāra -- ]Pa. kammāra -- m. ʻ worker in metal ʼ; Pk. kammāra -- , °aya -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, A. kamār, B. kāmār; Or. kamāra ʻ blacksmith, caste of non -- Aryans, caste of fishermen ʼ; Mth. kamār ʻ blacksmith ʼ, Si. kam̆burā.*karmāraśālā -- .Addenda: karmāˊra -- : Md. kan̆buru ʻ blacksmith ʼ. *karmāraśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [karmāˊra -- , śāˊlā -- ]Mth. kamarsārī; -- Bi. kamarsāyar?(CDIAL 2898, 2899) కమ్మరము  kammaramu kammaramu. [Tel.] n. Smith's work, iron work. కమ్మరవాడు, కమ్మరి or కమ్మరీడు kammara-vāḍu. n. An iron-smith or blacksmith. బైటికమ్మరవాడు an itinerant blacksmith. 

    May also explain the Bengali word bāg 'tiger' as a derivate of  bogāra 'blacksmith' व्यो-कार m. (prob.) " making the sound व्यो " , a blacksmith 

    vyāghrá m. ʻ tiger ʼ AV., °rī -- f. MBh. 2. *viyāghra -- .1. Pk. vaggha -- m. ʻ tiger ʼ, °ghī -- f.; Sh. băg -- bĭăṛṷ m. ʻ leopard ʼ (+ biḍāla -- ); S. vāghu m. ʻ tiger ʼ, P. bāgh m., kgr. barāgh m. ʻ leopard ʼ, WPah.bhad. ḍhḷāhg, bhal. ḍḷāg, pāḍ. dlāhg, cur. brāhg, sod. brag, roh. brāg, Ku. bāg (gng. ʻ tiger ʼ); N. bāghbāg ʻ tiger ʼ, A. B. bāgh (B. also bāg), Or. bāgha, Mth. Bhoj. Aw.lakh. H. bāgh m., G. M. vāgh m., Ko. vāgu, Si. vaga; Md. vag ʻ tiger, lion ʼ.2. Pa. vyaggha -- , by° m. ʻ tiger ʼ, viyagghinī -- , bi° f., NiDoc. vyagra F. W. Thomas AO xii 40, Pk. viaggha<-> m.*vyāghrarūpa -- , *vyāghrāmbara -- .Addenda: vyāghrá -- : WPah.kṭg. brággh m., kc. brāghbərāgh ʻ leopard ʼ, J. brāgg m., kṭg. brágghəṇ f.; Garh. bāg ʻ tiger ʼ, Md. vagu.(CDIAL 12193)


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    baḍaga, baḍhi, varāha is venerated, worshipped as Veda puruṣa, yajñapuruṣa. On this Khajuraho monument, the caṣāla , ‘snout’ is signified by the sacred Pratimā of Sarasvatī, embodiment of knowledge system.

    Image result for varaha khajurahoImage result for circular working platform bharatkalyan97
    Circular working platforms: pavements:*prastarapaṭṭa ʻstone slab ʼ. [prastará -- , paṭṭa -- 1]Ku. pathrauī f. ʻ pavement of slates and stones ʼ.(CDIAL 8858)  prastará m. ʻanything strewn, grass to sit on ʼRV., ʻ flat surface ʼMn., ʻ (v.l. prastāra -- ) plain ʼ Hariv., ʻ rock, stone ʼHit. [√str̥]K. pathur°thuru (dat. °tharas°tharis) m. ʻ levelled area, bare floor ʼ, pathürü f. ʻ level piece of ground, plateau, small village ʼ; S. patharu m. ʻ rug, mat ʼ; Or. athuripathuri ʻ bag and baggage ʼ; Bi. pāthar ʻoutside of edge of felly when flat (not bevelled), sowing wide apart ʼ; G. pāthrɔ m. ʻ cut grass lying in a field ʼ; M. pāthrā m. ʻ a line (of plants &c.) set out to dry ʼ; Si. patara ʻanything that spreads itself ʼ (or < prastāra -- ); -- Pa. Pk. patthara -- m. ʻstone ʼ, S. patharu m., L. (Ju.) pathar m., khet. patthar, P. patthar m. ( forms of Bi. Mth. Bhoj. H. G. below with atth or ath), WPah.jaun. pātthar; Ku. pāthar m. ʻslates, stones ʼ, gng. pāth*lr ʻflat stone ʼ; A. B. pāthar ʻstone ʼ, Or. pathara; Bi. pātharpattharpatthal ʻhailstone ʼ; Mth. pātharpathal ʻstone ʼ, Bhoj. pathal, Aw.lakh. pāthar, H. pātharpattharpatharpatthal m., G. pattharpathrɔ m.; M. pāthar f. ʻ flat stone ʼ; Ko. phāttaru ʻstone ʼ; Si. patura ʻchip, fragment ʼ; -- S. pathirī f. ʻ stone in the bladder ʼ; P. pathrī f. ʻ small stone ʼ; Ku. patharī ʻstone cup ʼ; B. pāthri ʻstone in the bladder, tartar on teeth ʼ; Or. pathurī ʻstoneware ʼ; H. patthrī f. ʻ grit ʼ, G. pathrī f.*prastarapaṭṭa -- , *prastaramr̥ttikā -- , *prastarāsa -- .Addenda: prastará -- : WPah.kg. pátthər m. ʻ stone, rock ʼ; pəthreuõ ʻ to stone ʼ; J. pāthar m. ʻ stone ʼ; OMarw. pātharī ʻprecious stone ʼ.(CDIAL 8857)

    Feeding trough in front of cattle (even wild animals)  Ta. paṭṭai painted stripe (as on a temple wall), piebald colour, dapple. Ma. paṭṭa stripe. Ka. paṭṭe, paṭṭi id. Koḍ. paṭṭe striped or spotted (as tiger or leopard); paṭṭati n.pr. of dappled cow. Tu. paṭṭè stripe. Te. paṭṭe stripe or streak of paint; paḍita stripe, streak, wale.(DEDR 3877) Ta. pātti bathing tub, watering trough or basin, spout, drain; pattal wooden bucket; pattar id., wooden trough for feeding animals. Ka. pāti basin for water round the foot of a tree. Tu. pāti trough or bathing tub, spout, drain. Te. pādi, pādu basin for water round the foot of a tree(DEDR 4079)

    Rebus 1: pāṭaṇ maritime town, port: పట్ర paṭra paṭra. [Tel.] n. A village, a hamlet. పల్లెపట్ర villages and hamlets. H. iv. 108. paṭṭana n. ʻ town ʼ Kauṭ., °nī -- f. lex. 2. páttana -- n. MBh. [Prob. ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 383 and EWA ii 192 with ṭṭ replaced by IA. tt. But its specific meaning as ʻ ferry ʼ in S. L. P. B. H. does lend support to its derivation by R. A. Hall in Language 12, 133 from *partana -- (√pr̥ ~ Lat. portus, &c.). Poss. MIA. pattana -- , paṭṭana -- ʻ *ferry ʼ has collided with Drav. loanword for ʻ town ʼ] 1. Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ city ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ a kind of village ʼ; Pk. paṭṭaṇa -- n. ʻ city ʼ; K. paṭan m. ʻ quarter of a town, name of a village 14 miles NW of Śrinagar ʼ; N. pāṭan ʻ name of a town in the Nepal Valley ʼ; B. pāṭan ʻ town, market ʼ; Or. pā̆ṭaṇā°anā ʻ town, village, hamlet on outskirts of a big village ʼ; Bi. paṭnā ʻ name of a town ʼ; H. pāṭan m. ʻ town ʼ, G. pāṭaṇ n.; M. pāṭaṇ ʻ name of a town ʼ; Si. paṭuna ʻ town ʼ. -- Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ harbour, port ʼ, Pk. paṭṭaṇa -- n.; H. paṭnīpā̆ṭaunīpāṭūnī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ; Si. paṭuna ʻ harbour, seaport ʼ.2. Pk. pattaṇa -- n. ʻ town ʼ, Si. patana. -- S. pataṇu m. ʻ ferry ʼ (whence pātaṇī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ, f. ʻ ferry boat ʼ); L. pattan, (Ju.) pataṇ m. ʻ ferry ʼ; P. pattaṇ ʻ ferry, landing -- place ʼ, pattaṇī°tuṇī m. ʻ ferryman, one who lives near a ferry ʼ; B. pātanī ʻ ferryman ʼ.(CDIAL 7705)
    Image result for snake hood bharatkalyan97Chanhudaro seal
    Tail of composite animal sealsImage result for composite animal bharatkalyan97
    Cobra hood. m0492 seal.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Text on obverse of the tablet m453A: Text 1629. m453BC Seated in penance, the person is flanked on either side by a kneeling adorant, offering a pot and a hooded serpent rearing up. See: 

     https://tinyurl.com/y7a26nhe


    Hieroglyph: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. फडी phaḍī f (Dim. of फडा) The expanded hood of Coluber Nága &c. फडी फिंदारणें To expand its hood--the नाग. phaṭa n. ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ MBh. 2. *phēṭṭa -- 2. [Cf. phuṭa -- m., °ṭā -- f., sphuṭa -- m. lex., °ṭā -- f. Pañcat. (Pk. phuḍā -- f.), sphaṭa -- m., °ṭā -- f., sphōṭā -- f. lex. and phaṇa -- 1. Conn. words in Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 386]1. Pk. phaḍa -- m.n. ʻ snake's hood ʼ, °ḍā -- f., M. phaḍā m., °ḍī f.2. A. pheṭphẽṭ.(CDIAL 9040) phaṇa1 m. ʻ expanded hood of snake (esp. of cobra) ʼ MBh.(CDIAL 9042) फडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. 
    Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) 

    Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers. फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or  (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

    Rebus 2: metals manufactory, retail shop, artificer's workshop: फड्या  phaḍyā m ( H) One who sells (grain &c.) in small quantities, a retail-dealer.  फडनीस फडनिविशी or सी phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फड- निशी & फडनीस.  phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस. फडझडती phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 2 fig. Scolding vehemently; paying off. v काढ, घे g. of o. 3 Search of or inquiry at the several फड q.v.; taking the accounts of the several फड (as to arrivals of goods, sales, rates &c.) फडकरी phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). फड phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्या- चा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singingshop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work,--as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊस, वांग्या, मिरच्या, खरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चाल, पड, घाल, मांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणें- राखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. పట్టెడ  A small anvil. దాగలి. Ta. paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai anvil, smithy, forge. Ka. paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi anvil, workshop. Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop. Cf. 86 Ta. aṭai (DEDR 3865) பட்டடை¹ paṭṭaṭai , n. prob. படு¹- + அடை¹-. 1. [T. paṭṭika, K. paṭṭaḍe.] Anvil; அடைகல். (பிங்.) சீரிடங்காணி னெறிதற்குப் பட்ட டை (குறள், 821). 2. [K. paṭṭaḍi.] Smithy, forge; கொல்லன் களரி. 3. Stock, heap, pile, as of straw, firewood or timber; குவியல். (W.)பட்டறை¹ paṭṭaṟai n. < பட்டடை¹. 1. See பட்டடை, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14. 2. Machine; யந்திரம். 3. Rice-hulling machine; நெல்லுக் குத்தும் யந்திரம். Mod. 4. Factory; தொழிற்சாலை. Mod. 5. Beam of a house; வீட்டின் உத்திரம். 6. Wall of the required height from the flooring of a house; வீட்டின் தளத்திலிருந்து எழுப்ப வேண்டும் அளவில் எழுப்பிய சுவர். வீடுகளுக்குப் பட்டறை மட்டம் ஒன்பதடி உயரத்துக்குக் குறை யாமல் (சர்வா. சிற். 48).பட்டறை² paṭṭaṟai, n. < K. paṭṭale. 1. Community; சனக்கூட்டம். 2. Guild, as of workmen; தொழிலாளர் சமுதாயம்.கடைச்சற்காரன் kaṭaiccaṟ-kāraṉ, n. < id. +. Turner; கடைசல்வேலைசெய்வோன். (W.)கடைச்சற்பட்டை kaṭaiccaṟ-paṭṭai, n. < id. +. Turner's lathe; கடைச்சலுளியின் சுற் றுக்கட்டை. (C.E.M.)கடைசற்பட்டரை kaṭaicaṟ-paṭṭarai, n. < id. +. Turner's shop; கடைசல்வேலைசெய்யுஞ் சாலை. Loc.கொல்லன்பட்டரை kollaṉ-paṭṭarai, n. < id. +. Blacksmith's workshop, smithy; கொல்லன் உலைக்கூடம்.

    Rebus 3: shop,exhibit for sale : prásārayati ʻ stretches out, extends ʼ VS. [√sr̥]Pa. pasārēti ʻ extends ʼ, Pk. pasārēi; Gy. rum. prasar<-> ʻ to win ʼ; K. pasārunpạsarun ʻ to beat out a metal plate thin, pare off the edges of a metal plate ʼ; Ku. pasārṇo ʻ to stretch, throw, lay flat ʼ; B. pasārā tr. ʻ to spread out ʼ; Or. pasāribā ʻ to spread out, exhibit for sale ʼ; Mth. Aw. lakh. pasārab ʻ to spread out ʼ, Bhoj. pasāral, H. pasārnā, Marw. pasārṇo, G. prasārvũpas°, M. pasarṇẽ, Si. paharanavā; -- with anal. -- ss -- or ← Centre: S. pasāraṇu tr. ʻ to stretch out ʼ, P. pasārṇā.Addenda: prásārayati: Garh. pasārnu ʻ to spread ʼ.(CDIAL 8838)  prasāra m. ʻ extension ʼ Suśr., ʻ trader's shop ʼ Nalac. [Cf. prasārayati ʻ spreads out for sale ʼ Mn. -- √sr̥]Paš. lāsar ʻ bench -- like flower beds outside the window ʼ IIFL iii 3, 113; K. pasār m. ʻ rest ʼ (semant. cf. prásarati in Ku. N. Aw.); P. puhārā m. ʻ breaking out (of fever, smallpox, &c.) ʼ; Ku. pasāro ʻ extension, bigness, extension of family or property, lineage, family, household ʼ; N. pasār ʻ extension ʼ; B. pasār ʻ extent of practice in business, popularity ʼ, Or. pasāra; H. pasārā m. ʻ stretching out, expansion ʼ (→ P. pasārā m.; S. pasārom. ʻ expansion, crowd ʼ), G. pasār°rɔ m., M. pasārā; -- K. pasôru m. ʻ petty shopkeeper ʼ; P. pahārā m. ʻ goldsmith's workshop ʼ; A. pohār ʻ small shop ʼ; -- ← Centre: S. pasāru m. ʻ spices ʼ; P. pasār -- haṭṭā m. ʻ druggist's shop ʼ; -- X paṇyaśālā -- : Ku. pansārī f. ʻ grocer's shop ʼ.(CDIAL 8835) prasāˊraṇa n. ʻ spreading out ʼ ŚBr. [√sr̥]Pa. pasāraṇa -- n. ʻ stretching out ʼ; Si. pasaraṇa ʻ cloth spread on ground, carpet, lacquer work, enamel ʼ.(CDIAL 8836) prasārin ʻ spreading out ʼ PārGr̥. [prasāra -- ]Ku.gng. pasāri ʻ shopkeeper ʼ, A. pohāri; B. pasāri ʻ druggist, petty trader ʼ; Or. pasāri ʻ druggist, pedlar ʼ, f. °ruṇī, H. M. pasārī m. ʻ seller of spices ʼ (→ S. P. pasārī m.). -- X paṇyaśālā -- : N. pansāri ʻ grocer ʼ, H. pansārīpãs° m. ʻ seller of spices ʼ (→ P. pansārī m.).(CDIAL 8839) *prastarati ʻ spreads out ʼ. [prástr̥ṇōti AV. -- √str̥]Pa. pattharati tr. ʻ spreads out, scatters ʼ, Pk. pattharaï patthuraï; L. (Ju.) patharaṇ ʻ to spread, turn over ʼ; Mth. pathrab intr. ʻ to lie scattered ʼ; G. pātharvũ tr. ʻ to spread ʼ; Si. paturanavā ʻ to spread abroad, proclaim ʼ (whence caus. paturuvanavā and intr. pätirenavā ʻ to be extended ʼ); Md. faturān ʻ to spread out ʼ; -- Pk. pattharia<-> ʻ spread out ʼ; Si. pätali ʻ flat, level, plain ʼ (rather than < pattralá -- ). -- See *prastārayati, *prastr̥ta -- .Addenda: *prastarati: S.kcch. pātharṇū ʻ to spread ʼ; caus. Ko. pātlāytā ʻ spreads out (bed, etc.) ʼ S. M. Katre, Md. faturuvanī tr. ʻ spreads ʼ, feturenī intr. (absol. feturi).(CDIAL 8850)

    బత్తుడు battuḍu. n. A worshipper
    Sign 45Sign 46

     FS Fig. 113FS Fig. 108
    FS Fig. 114 FS Fig. 77

    Hypertexts:  భక్తుడు. maṇḍi 'kneeling position' Rebus: maṇḍā 'warehouse, workshop' (Konkani) māa 'shrine; mandil 'temple' (Santali).

    Rebus: artificer: బత్తుడు battuḍu The caste title of all the five castes of artificers as వడ్లబత్తుడు a carpenter. కడుపుబత్తుడు one who makes a god of his belly. L. xvi. 230.  Five categories of artificers: పాంచాలము pāñcālamu pānchālamu. [Skt.] n. The Punjab. The country north of Delhi, between the foot of the Himalayas and the Chambal. పంజాబుదేశము. పాంచాలి pānchāli. n. The daughter of the king of Pānchāla; a title of Draupadi, the wife of the five Pāndu princes. ద్రౌపది. పాంచాలిక pānchālika. n. A doll or puppet, an image carved on pillars, &c. బొమ్మ, నరమృగాదిరూపము. పాంచాలుడు pānchāluḍu. n. A member of any one of the five castes of artificers, viz., the carpenters, weavers, barbers, washermen, painters. వడ్లవాడు, సాలెవాడు, మంగలవాడు, చాకలవాడు, ముచ్చివాడు, ఈ అయిదు జాతులందు దేనిలోనైనను చేరినవాడు. వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste.  A వడ్లబత్తుడు is a శిల్పి சிற்பன் ciṟpaṉ n. < šilpa. Brahmā, as one skilled in the art of creation; [சிருட்டித் தொழி லில் வல்லவன்] பிரமன். சிற்பனையெலாஞ் சிருட்டித்த (திருமந். 628). சிற்பாசாரி ciṟpācāri n. < id. + ஆசாரி. See சிற்பி. (யாழ். அக.)சிற்பி ciṟpi n. < šilpin. Mechanic, artisan, stone-cutter; கம்மியன். (சூடா.) சிப்பி² cippi, n. prob. šilpin. 1. See சிற்பி. 2. Tailor; தையற்காரன். (சிலப். 5, 32, அடிக்குறிப்பு). శిల్పము śilpamu ṣilpamu. [Skt.] n. An art, any manual or mechanical art. చిత్తరువు వ్రాయడము మొదలైనపని. శిల్పి or శిల్పకారుడు ṣilpi. n. An artist, artisan, artificer, mechanic, handicraftsman. పనివాడు. A painter, ముచ్చి. A carpenter, వడ్లంగి. A weaver, సాలెవాడు. (Usually) a stonecutter, a sculptor, కాసెవాడు. శిల్పిశాస్త్రము ṣilpi-ṣāstramu. n. A mechanical science; the science of Architecture. చిత్రాదికర్మలను గురించిన విధానము. 

    पंचाळ  pañcāḷa m (पांचाल S q. v.) A common term for five castes--सोनार, सुतार, लोहार, कांसार, पाथरवट. These all wear the जानवें.  (Marathi)

    suvárṇa ʻ of bright colour, golden ʼ RV., n. ʻ gold ʼ AV., suvarṇaka -- ʻ golden ʼ Hariv. 2. saúvarṇa- ʻ golden ʼ ŚrS., n. ʻ gold ʼ MBh. -- In many cases it is impossible to distinguish whether a NIA. form is derived from suvárṇa -- or saúvarṇa -- : they are therefore listed below together. [su -- 2, várṇa -- 1]1. Pa. suvaṇṇa -- ʻ of good colour ʼ, n. ʻ gold ʼ, soṇṇa<-> ʻ golden ʼ, n. ʻ gold ʼ; NiDoc. suv́arna ʻ gold ʼ; Pk. su(v)aṇṇa -- , soṇṇa -- n. ʻ gold ʼ, suvaṇṇia -- ʻ golden ʼ.2. Pa. sōvaṇṇa -- , °aya -- ʻ golden ʼ; Pk. sō(v)aṇṇa -- n. ʻ gold ʼ, Ap. sōvaṇa -- n.1 or 2. Gy. gr. sovnakáy, wel. sōnakai, rum. somnakáy m. ʻ gold ʼ, Ḍ. son m.; -- (Kaf. forms ← Ind. NTS ii 276) Ash. sun, Wg. sū̃n, Kt. sun f., Pr. sü; <-> Dm. sōn, Paš.lauṛ. sū˘wan, Gmb. sōʻ n, Gaw. sōṇ, sūṇ, (→ Sv. sonNOPhal 47), Kal. sū̃ṛa, sū̃ŕä, Phal. suāṇ, Sh.gil. so̯n m., koh. sonŭ m., gur. son m., dr. jij. sōṇ m., pales. lēlo swã̄ṛə ʻ gold ʼ, gil. (Lor.) sōno ʻ golden ʼ, koh. gur. sōṇṷ ʻ beautiful ʼ; K. sŏn m. ʻ gold ʼ, rām. sōnu, kash. pog. sŏnn, ḍoḍ. sŏṇṇā, S. sõnu m. ʻ gold ʼ (sõnõ ʻ golden ʼ), L. sonā m., P. sonā, soinā, seonā, siūnā m., WPah.bhad. sunnō, khaś. sɔnnu n., jaun. sūnō, Ku. suno, gng. sun, N. sun, A. xon, xonā, B. sonā, Or. sunā, Mth. son, sonā, Aw.lakh. sonu, Bhoj. H. sonā m., OMarw. sauno, OG. sovana, sonaüṁ n., G. sɔnũ n., M. sonẽ n. (sonā ʻ golden ʼ), OSi. (Brāhmī) sovaṇa, Si. suvan -- na. -- Early ← Sk.: Paš.chil. swāren ʻ gold ʼ, dar. surun, Shum. suárin, Kho. sórum (with -- m from droxum ʻ silver ʼ; → Yid. suwōrum).suvarṇakāra -- , *suvarṇataruka -- , *suvarṇadhara -- , suvarṇamaya -- , suvarṇavarṇa -- ; -- sauvarṇika -- .Addenda: suvárṇa -- . 1. WPah.kṭg. súnnɔ, kc. suno m. ʻ gold ʼ.2. saúvarṇa -- : Garh. sonu ʻ gold ʼ, OMarw. sonaü m. suvarṇakāra m. ʻ goldsmith ʼ Mn. [suvárṇa -- , kāra -- 1]Pa. suvaṇṇakāra -- m. ʻ goldsmith ʼ, NiDoc. suv́arnakara, Pk. suvaṇṇaāra -- , suṇṇaāra -- , °ṇāra -- m., Sh. (Lor.) suniār m., K. sŏnarsŏnuru m., S. sonāro m., L. sunārā m., awāṇ. suniārā, P. suneār°rā m., Ku. N. sunār, A. xonāri, Or. sunāra°ri, Bi. Mth. Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sonār, H. sonārsun° m., G. M. sonār m., Ko. sonāru; -- Si. suvaru < *suvanaru?Addenda: suvarṇakāra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) sənār m. ʻ goldsmith ʼ, Garh. sunār; -- Md. sunāru ← G. M.(CDIAL 13519, 13520)

    sūtradhāra m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [Cf. sūtrakāra -- m. R. -- sūˊtra -- , dhāra -- ]Pk. suttahāra -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, mg. śuttadhālī -- f., S. sūṭahaṛu m., N. sutār, A. xutār, B. chutār, Or. chutāra, (dial.) sutāra; OH. sūtahāra m., H. sutār m. ʻ carpenter, wheelwright, head workman ʼ; OG. sūtahāra m., G.sut(h)ār m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, M. sutār m. sūˊtra n. ʻ thread, cord ʼ AV., sūtraka -- n. Pat.
    Pa. sutta -- , °aka -- n. ʻ thread, string ʼ, Pk. sutta -- n., Wg. sūtr̥sṳ̄tr, Dm. sutr, Kal.rumb. sūtr̥, urt. sūtr; Kho. šutur ʻ thread ʼ, šutra ʻ thread over which spell has been recited for tying round limb of sick person ʼ (š<-> from šimánu ʻ trouser string ʼ < syūˊman -- BelvalkarVol 96 or < šunǰ ʻ needle ʼ < sūcí -- ); Phal. sūtr m. ʻ thread ʼ, K. sathar, dat. satras m., S. suṭru m.; L. sūtar, (Ju.) sutr m. ʻ thread, carpenter's line ʼ (whence kasūtar°trā, mult. kusuttr ʻ out of line, bad ʼ, m. and °trī f. ʻ quarrel ʼ), awāṇ. sūtur ʻ cotton yarn, arrangement ʼ, sūtrā ʻ thread amulet ʼ, kcch. sūtr ʻ cotton ʼ; P. sūtarsūt m. ʻ yarn ʼ, sūtrīsūtṛī f. ʻ cord ʼ; WPah.bhad. sūṭḷ n. ʻ thread ʼ, sūṭḷū n. ʻ amulet ʼ, bhal. sūṭḷū n. ʻ thread used to mark line in sawing ʼ; Ku. sūt ʻ cotton thread ʼ; N. sut ʻ thread, string ʼ; A. xut ʻ string (made of split cane), tendril ʼ, xutā ʻ thread ʼ; B. Or. sutā ʻ thread ʼ, Or. chutaʻ gonorrhoea ʼ (so -- called from the thread -- like pus); Bi. sūtsūtā ʻ thread ʼ, Bhoj. H. sūt m., G. sutar n., M. sūt n., Ko. sūta, Si. huya ʻ thread ʼ (suta ʻ thread, rule ʼ ← Pa.), Md. ui; -- B. chut, B. Or. chutā ʻ pretext, excuse ʼ semant. cf. L. above and sūtrayati. -- Ext. -- l -- : Ku. sutlo ʻ thin shoot ʼ; N. sutli ʻ string ʼ, Or. sutuli (< -- ll -- ), H. sutlī f. (sutlā m. ʻ reins ʼ), G. sutḷī f., M. sutaḷ f. -- Pk. suttia -- ʻ made of thread ʼ, P. sūtī, N. B. suti, H. M. sūtī; G. sutriyɔ m. ʻ seller of thread ʼ.sūtrayati, sautra -- ; *sūtrakara -- , sūtrakāra -- , sūtradhāra -- , *sūtrārā -- ; *suṣūtra -- ; *trisūtrika -- , *viṣusūtra -- , śaṇasūtra --Addenda: sūˊtra -- : Pk. sūa -- m. ʻ thread ʼ; WPah.kṭg. súttər, poet. sutra m. ʻ thread ʼ ← P.; Garh. sūt; A. chutā (phonet. s -- ) ʻ pretext ʼ AFD 216.(CDIAL 13563, 13561)


    lōhakāra m. ʻ iron -- worker ʼ, °rī -- f., °raka -- m. lex., lauhakāra -- m. Hit. [lōhá -- , kāra -- 1]Pa. lōhakāra -- m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷa, Bi.Bhoj. Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohārluh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻ coppersmith ʼ.Addenda: lōhakāra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m. *lōhaśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [lōhá -- , śāˊlā -- ]Bi. lohsārī ʻ smithy ʼ.*lōhahaṭṭika ʻ ironmonger ʼ. [lōhá -- , haṭṭa -- ]P.ludh. lōhṭiyā m. ʻ ironmonger ʼ.*lōhahala -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , halá -- ]WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl ʻ an agricultural instrument ʼ; rather < †*lōhaphāla -- .  lṓhita ʻ red ʼ AV., n. ʻ any red substance ʼ ŚBr., ʻ blood ʼ VS. [< rṓhita -- . -- *rudh -- ]Pa. lōhita -- in cmpds. ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ blood ʼ, °aka -- ʻ red ʼ; Pk. lōhia -- ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ blood ʼ; Gy. eur. lolo ʻ red ʼ, arm. nəxul ʻ blood, wound ʼ, pal. lúḥră ʻ red ʼ, inhīˊr ʻ blood ʼ, as. lur ʻ blood ʼ, lohri ʻ red ʼ Miklosich Mund viii 8; Ḍ. lōya ʻ red ʼ; Ash. leu ʻ blood ʼ, Wg. läi, Kt. lūi, Dm. lōi; Tir. ləwī, (Leech) luhī ʻ red ʼ, lọ̈̄i ʻ blood ʼ; Paš.  f. ʻ blood ʼ, Shum. lúī, Gmb. lūi, Gaw. ; Bshk. lōu ʻ red ʼ (AO xviii 241 < *lohuta -- ); S. lohū m. ʻ blood ʼ, L. lahū m., awāṇ. làū; P. lohī ʻ red ʼ, lohūlahū m. ʻ blood ʼ; WPah.jaun. loī ʻ blood ʼ, Ku. loilwe, B. lau, Or. lohunohula(h)una(h)ulaa, Mth. lehū, OAw. lohū m., H. lohūlahūlehū m., G. lohī n.; OM. lohivā ʻ red ʼ Panse Jñān 536; Si. lehe ʻ blood ʼ, le ʻ red ʼ SigGr ii 460; Md.  ʻ blood ʼ. -- Sh. lēl m. ʻ blood ʼ, lōlyŭ ʻ red ʼ rather < *lōhila -- .
    lōhitaka -- .Addenda: lṓhita -- : Kho. lei ʻ blood ʼ BKhoT 70, WPah.kṭg. lóu m., Garh. loi, Md. leilē  lōhá ʻ red, copper -- coloured ʼ ŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ]Pa. lōha -- m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻ iron ʼ, Gy. pal. li°lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻ steel ʼ; Kho. loh ʻ copper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu°hā, A. lo, B. lono, Or. lohāluhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. lohlohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md. ratu -- lō ʻ copper ʼ.*lōhala -- , *lōhila -- , *lōhiṣṭha -- , lōhī -- , laúha -- ; lōhakāra -- , *lōhaghaṭa -- , *lōhaśālā -- , *lōhahaṭṭika -- , *lōhōpaskara -- ; vartalōha -- .Addenda: lōhá -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻ iron ʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md.  ʻ metal ʼ.†*lōhaphāla -- or †*lōhahala -- . lōhakāra m. ʻ iron -- worker ʼ, °rī -- f., °raka -- m. lex., lauhakāra -- m. Hit. [lōhá -- , kāra -- 1]Pa. lōhakāra -- m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷa, Bi.Bhoj. Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohārluh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻ coppersmith ʼ.Addenda: lōhakāra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m.*lōhaghaṭa ʻ iron pot ʼ. [lōhá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]Bi. lohrā°rī ʻ small iron pan ʼ.*lōhaphāla -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , phāˊla -- 1]WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl m. ʻ an agricultural implement ʼ Him.I 197; -- or < †*lōhahala -- . lōhala ʻ made of iron ʼ W. [lōhá -- ]G. loharlohariyɔ m. ʻ selfwilled and unyielding man ʼ..(CDIAL 11158 to 11163, 11165)

     kāˊṁsya ʻ made of bell -- metal ʼ KātyŚr., n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Yājñ., ʻ cup of bell -- metal ʼ MBh., °aka -- n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ. 2. *kāṁsiya -- . [kaṁsá -- 1]1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. (?) ʻ bronze ʼ, Pk. kaṁsa -- , kāsa -- n. ʻ bell -- metal, drinking vessel, cymbal ʼ; L. (Jukes) kã̄jā adj. ʻ of metal ʼ, awāṇ. kāsā ʻ jar ʼ (← E with -- s -- , not ñj); N. kã̄so ʻ bronze, pewter, white metal ʼ, kas -- kuṭ ʻ metal alloy ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ bell -- metal ʼ, B. kã̄sā, Or. kãsā, Bi. kã̄sā; Bhoj. kã̄s ʻ bell -- metal ʼ, kã̄sā ʻ base metal ʼ; H. kāskã̄sā m. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ, G. kã̄sũ n., M. kã̄sẽ n.; Ko. kã̄śẽ n. ʻ bronze ʼ; Si. kasa ʻ bell -- metal ʼ.2. L. kã̄ihã̄ m. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ, P. kã̄ssīkã̄sī f., H. kã̄sī f.
    *kāṁsyakara -- , kāṁsyakāra -- , *kāṁsyakuṇḍikā -- , kāṁsyatāla -- , *kāṁsyabhāṇḍa -- .Addenda: kāˊṁsya -- : A. kã̄h also ʻ gong ʼ, or < kaṁsá -- .
    *kāṁsyakara ʻ worker in bell -- metal ʼ. [See next: kāˊṁsya -- , kará -- 1]L. awāṇ. kasērā ʻ metal worker ʼ, P. kaserā m. ʻ worker in pewter ʼ (both ← E with -- s -- ); N. kasero ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; Bi. H. kaserā m. ʻ worker in pewter ʼ.kāṁsyakāra m. ʻ worker in bell -- metal or brass ʼ Yājñ. com., kaṁsakāra -- m. BrahmavP. [kāˊṁsya -- , kāra -- 1]N. kasār ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; A. kãhār ʻ worker in bell -- metal ʼ; B. kã̄sāri ʻ pewterer, brazier, coppersmith ʼ, Or. kãsārī; H. kasārī m. ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; G. kãsārɔkas° m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ; M. kã̄sārkās° m. ʻ worker in white metal ʼ, kāsārḍā m. ʻ contemptuous term for the same ʼ. *kāṁsyakuṇḍikā ʻ bell -- metal pot ʼ. [kāˊṁsya -- , kuṇḍa -- 1]N. kasaũṛi ʻ cooking pot ʼ. kāṁsyatāla m. ʻ cymbal ʼ Rājat. [kāˊṁsya -- , tāla -- 1]Pa. kaṁsatāla -- m. ʻ gong ʼ; Pk. kaṁsālā -- , °liyā -- f. ʻ cymbal ʼ, OB. kaśālā, Or. kãsāḷa; G. kã̄sāḷũ n. ʻ large bell -- metal cymbals ʼ with ã̄ after kã̄sũ ʻ bell -- metal ʼ; M. kã̄sāḷ f. ʻ large cymbal ʼ; -- Si. kastalaya ʻ metal gong ʼ (EGS 40) is Si. cmpd. or more prob. ← Pa. *kāṁsyabhāṇḍa ʻ bell -- metal pot ʼ. [kāˊṁsya -- , bhāṇḍa -- 1]Pa. kaṁsabhaṇḍa -- n. ʻ brass ware ʼ; M. kāsã̄ḍī°sãḍī f. ʻ metal vessel of a partic. kind ʼ.(CDIAL 2987 to 2992)  కంచరవాడు  kañcaravāḍu or కంచరి kanṭsara-vaḍu. [Tel.] n. A brazier, a coppersmith. కంచుపని చేయువాడు. కంచరది a woman of that caste. కంచరిపురుగు kanṭsari-purugu. n. A kind of beetle called the death watch. కంచు kanṭsu. n. Bell metal. కంచుకుండ a bowl or vessel or bell metal. కంచువాద్యము a cymbal made of bell metal. కంచుతీసినట్లు as bright or dazzling as the glitter of polished metal. Sunbright. ఆమె కంచుగీచినట్లు పలికె she spoke shrilly or with a voice as clear as a bell.  కంసర ( kaṃsara or కంసలల kamsara. [Tel.] n. Smithery; working in gold: adj. Of the goldsmith caste. కంసలది a woman of that caste. కంసలపని the business of a gold-smith. కంసము kaṃsamu kamsamu. [Skt.] n. Bell metal.కంచు.  
    కాంస్యము kāṃsyamu kāmsyamu. [Skt.] n. Bell metal. కంచు.


    பஞ்சகம்மாளர் pañca-kammāḷarn. < pañcantaṭṭāṉ, kaṉṉāṉ, ciṟpaṉ, taccaṉ, kollaṉ; தட்டான், கன்னான், சிற்பன், தச்சன் கொல்லன் என்ற ஐவகைப் பட்ட கம்மாளர். (சங். அக.) அஞ்சுபஞ்சலத்தார் añcu-pañcalattār

    n. < அஞ்சு + பஞ்சாளத்தார். Pañca-kammāḷar, the five artisan classes; பஞ்சகம்மாளர். (I. M. P. Cg. 371.)

    கன்னான் kaṉṉāṉn. < கன்¹. [M. kannān.] Brazier, bell-metal worker, one of the divisions of the Kammāḷa caste; செம்புகொட்டி. (திவா.)

    தச்சன் taccaṉ n. < takṣa. 1. Carpenter; மரத்தில் வேலை செய்பவன். மரங்கொஃ றச்சரும் (மணி. 28, 37). 2. Person of carpenter caste; தச்சுவேலைசெய்யும் சாதியான். 3. The 14th nakṣatra, as pertaining to Višvakarma; [விசுவ கர்மாவுக் குரியது] சித்திரை நாள். (பிங்.)

    கொல்லன் kollaṉ , n. < கொல்². [M. kollan.] Blacksmith; கருமான். மென்றோன் மிதியுலைக் கொல்லன் (பெரும்பாண். 207). பொன்செய்கொல்லன் poṉ-cey-kollaṉ , n. < id. + செய்- +. Goldsmith; தட்டான். பொன் செய் கொல்லனி னினிய தெளிர்ப்ப (நற். 394). கொற்றன் koṟṟaṉ, n. < கொற்று¹. Mason, bricklayer; கொத்தன். (நன். 130, மயிலை.) கருங்கொல்லன் karu-ṅ-kollaṉ, n. < id. +. Blacksmith; கருமான். இரும்புக்கொல்லன் irumpu-k-kollaṉ
    n. < id. +. Blacksmith; கருங்கொல்லன். கொல்லன்கம்மாலை kollaṉ-kammālai, n. < கொல்லன் + karma-šālā. See கொல்லன்பட் டரை. (J.)

    கம்மியன் kammiyaṉ, n. < karmaṇya. 1. Servant, labourer; தொழிலாளி. கம்மியரு மூர்வர் களிறு (சீவக. 495). 2. Smith, artisan; கம்மாளன். (திவா.) 3. Weaver; நெய்பவன். கம்மியர் குழீஇ (மதுரைக். 521).

    காருகன்¹ kārukaṉ, n. < kāruka. 1. Weaver; நெய்வோன். கட்டுநுண்வினைக் காருக ரிருக்கை யும் (சிலப். 5, 17). 2. Washerman; வண்ணான். (சூடா.) 3. Painter; ஓவியன். (யாழ். அக.) கோடிகர் kōṭikar , n. < கோடிகம். Weaver; 
    ஆடைநெய்வோர். கோடிகர் வரைப்பினும் (பெருங். இலாவாண. 8, 67).

    சாலியன் cāliyaṉ, n. < šālika. [M. cāli- yan.] 1. A caste of weavers; நெசவுச் சாதிவகை யான். பட்டுச்சாலிய ரிருக்கு மிடங்களும் (சிலப். 5, 17, உரை). 2. Member of a caste of cinnamon peelers; இலவங்கப்பட்டையை உரிக்கும் யாழ்ப்பாணத் துச் சாதியான். (J.)

    *அம்பட்டன் ampaṭṭaṉ, n. < ambaṣṭha. Barber; நாவிதன். ஏனாதி² ēṉāti, n. cf. T. ēnādi. 1. Barber; நாவிதன். (பிங்.) 2. Name of a division among Shāṇāns; சாணாரில் ஒரு வகுப்பு. Tj.ఏనాది (p. 198) ēnādi or యానాది ē-nādi. [Tel.] adj. Savage, belonging to a certain tribe. ఏనాదివారు the people of a certain hill tribe; the Yānādis. ఏనాదిమాటలు the hill dialect. 

    ముచ్చి  mucci or ముచ్చివాడు muchchi. [H.] n. A painter. చిత్రకారుడు. 

    கல்லாசாரி kal-l-ācāri, n. < id. +. [M. kallācāri.] 1. Stone-mason; கற்றச்சன். Colloq. 2. Master mason, architect; கற்றச்சர் தலைவன். (W.)

    ஓடாவி ōṭāvi, n. prob. ஓடம்¹ + ஆள்வி. 1. Shipwright, boat builder; மரக்கலஞ்செய்வோன். (W.) 2. Carpenter; தச்சன். தச்சன் taccaṉ, n. < takṣa. 1. Carpenter; மரத்தில் வேலை செய்பவன். மரங்கொஃ றச்சரும் (மணி. 28, 37). 2. Person of carpenter caste; தச்சுவேலைசெய்யும் சாதியான்.

    Jasper Akkadian cylinder seal
    Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm) cylinder Seal with four hieroglyphs and four kneeling persons (with six curls on their hair) holding flagposts, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression). The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. crucible PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing water, 4. fish A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held. 

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'

    If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: قمر ḳamar
    قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See سپوږمي or سپوګمي (Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'.

    kulā hooded snake Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelters'

    koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'



    kamar 'moon' Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'

    arka 'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka 'copper, gold, moltencast, metal infusion'

    lokANDa 'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhaNDa 'metal implements, excellent 

    implements'

    aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

    baTa 'six' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS meDh 'curl' Rebus: meD 'iron'

    clip_image056m0492Ct clip_image057[4]2835 Pict-99: Person throwing a spear at a bison and placing one foot on the head of the bison; a hooded serpent at left.

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.


    Hieroglyph: kolsa = to kick the foot forward, the foot to come into contact with anything when walking or running; kolsa pasirkedan = I kicked it over (Santali.lex.)mēṛsa = v.a. toss, kick with the foot, hit with the tail (Santali) 
     kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pancaloha’ (Ta.) kolhe (iron-smelter; kolhuyo, jackal) kol, kollan-, kollar = blacksmith (Ta.lex.)•kol‘to kill’ (Ta.)•sal ‘bos gaurus’, bison; rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali)me~ṛhe~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron; kolhe m. iron manufactured by the Kolhes (Santali); meṛed (Mun.d.ari); meḍ (Ho.)(Santali.Bodding)
    nAga 'serpent' Rebus: nAga 'lead'
    Hieroglyph: rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ 

    Rebus: Pk. raṅga 'tin' P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼOr. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅgaada -- m. ʻ borax ʼ lex.Kho. (Lor.) ruṅ ʻ saline ground with white efflorescence, salt in earth ʼ  *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.

    paTa 'hood of serpent' Rebus: padanu 'sharpness of weapon' (Telugu)

    Hieroglyph: kunta1 ʻ spear ʼ. 2. *kōnta -- . [Perh. ← Gk. konto/s ʻ spear ʼ EWA i 229]1. Pk. kuṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; S. kundu m. ʻ spike of a top ʼ, °dī f. ʻ spike at the bottom of a stick ʼ, °diṛī°dirī f. ʻ spike of a spear or stick ʼ; Si. kutu ʻ lance ʼ.
    2. Pa. konta -- m. ʻ standard ʼ; Pk. koṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; H. kõt m. (f.?) ʻ spear, dart ʼ; -- Si. kota ʻ spear, spire, standard ʼ perh. ← Pa.(CDIAL 3289)

    Rebus: kuṇha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)'

    Allograph: कुंठणें [ kuṇṭhaṇēṃ ] v i (कुंठ S) To be stopped, detained, obstructed, arrested in progress (Marathi)
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    C-49 a,b,c
    + hieroglyph in the middle with covering lines around/dots in corners poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite'; dhAv 'strand' rebus: dhAv 'smelter'; kulA 'hooded snake' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'; kolmo 'three' koD 'horn' rebus: kolimi 'smithy' koD 'workshop'. tri-dhAtu 'three strands, threefold' rebus: tri-dhAv 'three mineral ores'.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent tabernae montana
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Cylinder seal with a zebu, scorpion, man, snake and tree. Enstatite.H. 2.6 cm (1 in.); diam. 1.55 cm (5/8 in.). Mesopotamia, Ur, U. 16220. Late 3rd millennium BCE. British Museum. BM 122947.
    Image result for indus script boar tiger hunter seal

    Oslo Museum. Unprovenanced cylinder seal (from Afghanistan?)
    baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood, iron’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.
    kamaḍha 'archer' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'
    kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'

     baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood'  వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు (p. 1126) vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh] Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā.(CDIAL 11375)

    baḍaga is a takṣa, divine tvaṣṭr̥ of R̥gveda, he is a yajña puruṣa as evidenced in Khajuraho monumental varāha sculpture.. He is the very embodiment of the Veda, Veda puruṣa.  त्वष्टृ m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृAV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/इ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम् अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/अ-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुi , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv.स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv.545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस् or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा TBr. S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23 ; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर् आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. ).

    Text of inscription: 
    Sign 121       70 Read as a variant of Sign 112: Four count, three times: gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar' khaṇḍa 'implements, metalware' PLUS
    ||| Number three reads: kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus,the hypertext of Sign 104 reads: kolami khaṇḍa 'smithy/forge (for) implements.'

    Duplicated 'bows', Variant of Sign 307Sign 307       69 Arrow PLUS bow: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Rebus: khaṇḍa, khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. kanda 'fire-altar' PLUS  kamaṭha m. ʻ bamboo ʼ lex. 2. *kāmaṭha -- . 3. *kāmāṭṭha -- . 4. *kammaṭha -- . 5. *kammaṭṭha -- . 6. *kambāṭha -- . 7. *kambiṭṭha -- . [Cf. kambi -- ʻ shoot of bamboo ʼ, kārmuka -- 2 n. ʻ bow ʼ Mn., ʻ bamboo ʼ lex. which may therefore belong here rather than to kr̥múka -- . Certainly ← Austro -- as. PMWS 33 with lit. -- See kāca -- 31. Pk. kamaḍha -- , °aya -- m. ʻ bamboo ʼ; Bhoj. kōro ʻ bamboo poles ʼ.2. N. kāmro ʻ bamboo, lath, piece of wood ʼ, OAw. kāṁvari ʻ bamboo pole with slings at each end for carrying things ʼ, H. kã̄waṛ°arkāwaṛ°ar f., G. kāvaṛ f., M. kāvaḍ f.; -- deriv. Pk. kāvaḍia -- , kavvāḍia -- m. ʻ one who carries a yoke ʼ, H. kã̄waṛī°ṛiyā m., G. kāvaṛiyɔ m.3. S. kāvāṭhī f. ʻ carrying pole ʼ, kāvāṭhyo m. ʻ the man who carries it ʼ.4. Or. kāmaṛā°muṛā ʻ rafters of a thatched house ʼ;G. kāmṛũ n., °ṛī f. ʻ chip of bamboo ʼ, kāmaṛ -- koṭiyũ n. ʻ bamboo hut ʼ. 5. B. kāmṭhā ʻ bow ʼ, G. kāmṭhũ n., °ṭhī f. ʻ bow ʼ; M. kamṭhā°ṭā m. ʻ bow of bamboo or horn ʼ; -- deriv. G. kāmṭhiyɔ m. ʻ archer ʼ. 6. A. kabāri ʻ flat piece of bamboo used in smoothing an earthen image ʼ.7. M. kã̄bīṭ°baṭ°bṭīkāmīṭ°maṭ°mṭīkāmṭhīkāmāṭhī f. ʻ split piece of bamboo &c., lath ʼ.(CDIAL 2760)This evokes another word:  kamaḍha 'archer' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner' . Thus, Sign 307 is read as bow and arrow rebus: khaṇḍa kammaṭa 'equipment mint' (See Sign 281)Thus, kã̄bīṭ 'bow' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting',  i.e. dul kammaṭa 'metalcasting mint'

    This is a hypertext composed of 'body' (of standing person) 
    Sign 1 hieroglyph: me 'body' rebus: meḍ,med 'iron, copper'
    PLUS 'lid' hieroglyph: ḍhaṁkaṇa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article'.
    PLUS Sign 402 'flag' hieroglyph. Sign 402 'flag' hieroglyph. Ciphertext koḍi ‘flag’ (Ta.)(DEDR 2049). In the context of metalwork guilds, the flag is the compound expression: dhvajapaṭa ʻflagʼ  PLUS dhvajapaṭa
     m. ʻ flag ʼ Kāv. [dhvajá -- , paṭa -- ]Pk. dhayavaḍa -- m. ʻ flag ʼ, OG. dhayavaḍa m. Rebus: Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic (CDIAL 6773)  
     The hypertext reads: kolami khaṇḍa dhakka meḍ dhā̆vaḍ ' smithy/forge equipment, smelter producing blazing, bright iron'.
    Sign 211 kaṇḍa ‘arrow’; Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali) khaṇḍa 'implements' (Santali)
    The inscription reads: 

    kol badhoe kammaṭa kolami khaṇḍa dhakka meḍ dhā̆vaḍ 
    'working in iron, wood, mint, smithy.forge equipment, smelter producing blazing iron implements.'
    Image result for ; boar and bull in procession; terminal: plant; heavily pittedLate Uruk and Jemdet Nasr seal; ca. 3200-3000 BCE; serpentine; cat.1; boar and bull in procession; terminal: plant; heavily pitted surface beyond plant.  Indus Script hieroglyphs read rebus: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’ Hieroglyph: dhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman (cargo boat).

    Indus Script Hieroglyph: barāh, baḍhi ‘boar’ Rebus: vāḍhī, bari, barea ‘merchant’ 

    baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’ Together with an anthropomorph of copper/bronze with the curved horns of a ‘ram’, the hypertext signifies: meḍh ‘ram’ rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ PLUS baḍhi ‘boar’ rebus: baḍhoria, ‘expert in working in wood’PLUS khondar‘young bull’ rebus: konda ‘furnace’ kundaṇa ‘fine gold’ Thus, the anthropomorph is a professional calling card of a worker with furnace, worker in iron, fine gold and wood. It is not mere coincidence that Varāha signifies an ancient gold coin. Another anthropomorph rplaces the young bull frieze on the chest of the ram with a ‘fish’ hieroglyph. ayo ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘alloy metal’.

    ஓடாவி ōṭāvin. prob. ஓடம்¹ + ஆள்வி. 1. Shipwright, boat builder; மரக்கலஞ் செய்வோன். (W.) 2. Carpenter; தச்சன்.ōṭam, n. < ஓடு-. cf. hōḍa. [T. K. Tu. oḍa, M. ōḍam.] 1. Boat, ferry-boat; தோணி. (திவா.) 2. Raft, float, vessel of any kind; மிதவை. (W.) 3. The tenth nakṣatra; மகநாள். (இராசவைத்) 4. Weavers' shuttle; நெசவுநாடா. (யாழ். அக.) 5. A song in the boatman's tune; ஓடப்பாட்டு.ōṭa-p-pāṭṭu , n. < ஓடம்¹ +. Boat song; கப்பற்பாட்டு. Ta. ōṭam boat, raft, float, vessel; ōṭāvi shipwright, boatbuilder. Ma. ōṭam boat; ōṭāyi shipbuilders; ōṭi a large seaboat (long and narrow, chiefly from the Laccadives). Ka. ōḍa boat. Tu. ōḍa id. Te. ōḍa ship, vessel. Pa. ōḍa boat, trough. Go. (M.) ōḍa, (Ko. S.) ōṛa boat (Voc. 437); (Pat.) oda (i.e. ōḍa) donga. / Cf. Skt. hoḍa- boat, raft; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14174. The IA words are probably < Dr.; Parpola 1977-78, pp. 243 ff. (DEDR 1039) hōḍa m. ʻ raft, boat ʼ lex. [← Drav., Kan. ōḍa., &c. DED 876]H. hoṛī f., holā m. ʻ canoe, raft ʼ; G. hoṛī f. ʻ boat ʼ; M. hoḍī f. ʻ canoe made of hollowed log ʼ. -- See uḍupa -- .Addenda: hōḍa -- : Md. oḍi ʻ large kind of boat ʼ ← Drav.(CDIAL 14174) ōḍra1 m. ʻ a tribe of Śūdras ʼ Mn., ʻ name of a people ʼ MBh., uḍra -- , auḍ°. 2. *auḍrika -- ʻ of that people ʼ. [S. Lévi JA 1923, 20 ff., EWA i 132]1. Pk. oḍḍa -- , uḍ° m. ʻ the land of Utkala ʼ, uḍḍa -- m. ʻ a caste of well -- diggers ʼ; S. oḍru m. ʻ a caste that make mud walls, blockhead ʼ, L. oḍ̠ m.; P. oḍ m. ʻ a tribe that clear out watercourses or build houses ʼ; Ku. oṛwoṛ ʻ mason ʼ, N. oṛ; Or. oṛa ʻ an aboriginal inhabitant of Orissa ʼ; G. oḍ m. ʻ a caste of Hindus who dig and carry earth and build mud houses ʼ.2. oḍḍia -- ʻ pertaining to Utkala ʼ; B. oṛiyāuṛ° ʻ an inhabitant of Orissa ʼ, Or. oṛiā, Bhoj. oṛiyā; EH. (Chattisgarh) oṛiyā m. ʻ navvy ʼ.ōḍradēśa -- .Addenda: ōḍra -- 1 ʻ a tribe of Śūdras ʼ Mn.: WPak.kṭg. ōḍ m. ʻ carpenter, name of a caste ʼ; Garh. oḍ ʻ mason ʼ.(CDIAL 2549) ōḍradēśa ʻ land of the Oḍras ʼ MW. [ōḍra -- 1, dēśá --] Or. oṛisā ʻ Orissa ʼ, H. uṛīsā m.(CDIAL 2551) [Note: the seafaring Bharatam Janam of ōḍradēśa are the seafarers who celebrate Baliyatra every year on Karthik Purnima day in memory of their contributions to Hinduised states of the Far East (pace George Coedes' wok in French Les états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient. These are the ancient dharma-dhamma savants who spread Bauddham in Sri Lanka and in the Ancient Far East.]

    Hieroglyph: dhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'.

    See: 

     https://tinyurl.com/y84vj7ff 


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    https://tinyurl.com/yaltpp7e

    Indus Script hypertexts of copper alloy anthropomorphs of Sarasvati Civilization are highlighted by the reports of Sanjay Manjul and Naman Ahuja of two anthropomorphs with Varāha, 'boar's head'. These are profound Vedic cultural markers.

    A brilliant exposition on the etymology of the word  Varāha is provided by वाचस्पत्यम् Vācaspatyam: वराय अभीष्ठाय मुस्तादिलाभाय आहन्ति खनति भूमिम्  To represent a boon, (to obtain) wished, desired products (including species of grass) mined from the earth, by striking, hitting. Thus, Varāha is a hieroglyph metaphor to represent, signify mining for minerals. The copper alloy anthropomorphs are dhamma samjñā,
    'responsibility badges' carried by metalsmiths as professional calling cards.

    This is an addendum to  బత్తుడు battuḍu 'worshipper'బత్తుడు battuḍu, baḍaga 'a professional title of five artificers' of Sarasvati Civilization presented on Indus Script Corpora

    Artisans of the world, unite! Indus Script is veneration of Varāha.

    Oxford English Dictionary defines anthropomorphic: "a. treating the deity as anthropomorphous, or as having a human form and character; b. attributing a human personality to anything impersonal or irrational."

    The hieroglyhs/hypertexts of the anthropomorphs are a remarkable archaeological evidence attesting to the evidence of an ancient Samskritam text, Baudhāyana śrautasūtra.Baudhāyana śrautasūtra 18.44 which documents migrations of Āyu and Amavasu from a Vedic River Sarasvati basin:
    pran Ayuh pravavraja. tasyaite Kuru-Pancalah Kasi-Videha ity. etad Ayavam pravrajam. pratyan amavasus. tasyaite Gandharvarayas Parsavo ‘ratta ity. etad Amavasavam
    Trans. Ayu went east, his is the Yamuna-Ganga region (Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha). Amavasu went west, his is Gandhara, Parsu and Araṭṭa.
    Ayu went east from Kurukshetra to Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha. The  migratory path of Meluhha artisand in the lineage of Ayu of the Rigvedic tradition, to Kasi-Videha certainly included the very ancient temple town of Sheorajpur of Dist. Etawah (Kanpur), Uttar Pradesh.

    Copper alloy anthropomorphs are metalwork catalogues, Indus Script hypertexts: 
    Image result for sanjay manjul anthropomorph bharatkalyan97Image result for sanjay manjul anthropomorph bharatkalyan97Seated position of anthropomorph, Signifies kamaḍha 'penance' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.Related imageA facsimile of an inscription made on a copper alloy anthropomorph (plate) recording a land grant made by Rāja Purushottam Deb, king of Orissa, in the fifth year of his reign (1483)Anthropomorphic figures, formed from copper/bronze. Northern India, Doab region, circa 1500.-1200 BCE. Anthropomorph is a signature tune of copper hoard culture.
    Composite copper alloy anthropomorphic Meluhha hieroglyphs of Haryana and Sheorajpur: fish, markhor, crocodile, one-horned young bull

    File:Anthropomorphic figures, chalcolithic,Yamuna-Ganga.BKB.jpgChalcolitique du bassin Gange-Yamuna. 2800 - 1500 avant notre ère. Provenance : Bisauli (212 km de New Delhi), district de Badaun, Uttar Pradesh. Bharat Kala Bhavan, Varanasi. Inv. n° 94620 et 94621
    Anthropomorphic figures, formed from copper/bronze. Northern India, Doab region, circa 1500.-1200 BCE. Anthropomorph is a signature tune of copper hoard culture.

    Paul Yule has demonstrated(See Annex) that unique anthropomorph tradition dates back to the mature period of Sarasvati Civilization. He has documented evidence of early Bronze Age anthropomorphs (Type I) from Lothal, Persian Gulf sites and also from sites of Ahar-Banas coppedrhoard culture. 


    From Yule,Paul Plate A (opcit.) Type I: कर्णक 'm. du. the two legs spread out (AV. xx , 133 , 3); PLUS mẽḍhā 'curved horn', miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī), meḍho a ram, a sheep, mē̃ḍh 'ram' rebus: mẽṛhet iron'; Rebus: कर्णिक 'steersman'; कारणी or कारणीक  kāraṇī or kāraṇīka 'prime minister of a state, the supercargo of a ship &c' (Marathi) PLUS  मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Skt.Santali.Mu.Ho.), Медь [Med']  'copper'(Russian, Slavic).

    With curved horns, the ’anthropomorph’ is a ligature of a mountain goat or markhor (makara) and a fish incised between the horns. Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards.  At Sheorajpur, three anthropomorphs in metal were found. (Sheorajpur, Dt. Kanpur. Three anthropomorphic figures of copper. AI, 7, 1951, pp. 20, 29).
    One anthropomorph had fish hieroglyph incised on the chest of  the copper object, Sheorajpur, upper Ganges valley,   ca. 2nd millennium BCE,   4 kg; 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. State Museum,   Lucknow (O.37) Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards. Type II: कर्णक'm. du. the two legs spread out (AV. xx , 133 , 3); PLUS mẽhā 'curved horn', miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī),meho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120), mē̃h 'ram' meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) rebus: mẽhet iron'; Rebus: कर्णिक'steersman'; कारणी or कारणीक  kāraī or kāraīka 'prime minister of a state, the supercargo of a ship &c' (Marathi) PLUS  मृदु mdu, mẽhẽt, me'iron' (Skt.Santali.Mu.Ho.), Медь [Med']  'copper'(Russian, Slavic). PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron', ayas 'alloy metal', thus together, rebus: ayo meh 'metal merchant' ayo mēdhā 'metal expert'. Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) (See Etyma in Annex B).

    A remarkable legacy of the civilization occurs in the use of ‘fish‘ sign on a copper anthropomorph found in a copper hoard. This is an apparent link of the ‘fish’ broadly with the profession of ‘metal-work’. The ‘fish’ sign is apparently related to the copper object which seems to depict a ‘fighting ram’ symbolized by its in-curving horns. The ‘fish’ sign may relate to a copper furnace. The underlying imagery defined by the style of the copper casting is the pair of curving horns of a fighting ram ligatured into the outspread legs (of a warrior).

    The center-piece of the makara symbolism is that it is a big jhasa, big fish, but with ligatured components (alligator snout, elephant trunk, elephant legs and antelope face). Each of these components can be explained (alligator: manger; elephant trunk: sunda; elephant: ibha; antelope: ranku; rebus: mangar ‘smith’; sunda ‘furnace’; ib ‘iron’; ranku ‘tin’); thus the makara jhasa or the big composite fish is a complex of metallurgical repertoire.)

    One nidhi was makara (syn. Kohl, antimony); the second was makara (or, jhasa, fish) [bed.a hako (ayo)(syn. bhed.a ‘furnace’; med. ‘iron’; ayas ‘metal’)]; the third was kharva (syn. karba, iron).
    Many bronze artifacts are also venerated in the temple.

    Could this be the work of dhokra kamar? this is an amazing structure by any standards as a ceiling of a S'iva temple called Kereshwar in Shivrajpur, a village on the banks of Ganga.
    Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology found this at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005
    Naman Ahuja's find. Type III: कर्णक'm. du. the two legs spread out (AV. xx , 133 , 3); PLUS mẽhā 'curved horn', miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī), meho a ram, a sheep, mē̃h 'ram' rebus: mẽhet iron'; Rebus: कर्णिक'steersman'; कारणी or कारणीक  kāraī or kāraīka 'prime minister of a state, the supercargo of a ship &c' (Marathi) PLUS  मृदु mdu, mht, me'iron' (Skt.Santali.Mu.Ho.), Медь [Med']  'copper'(Russian, Slavic). PLUS barāh, bahi 'boar', bahia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus 1: bahi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood',  bahoe 'a carpenter, worker in wood', bahoria, 'expert in working in wood' , bahai (Garhwali); bāaï'carpenter' (Bengali) rebus 2: hī, bari, barea 'merchant' PLUS koiyum heifer