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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    See: Footsteps as indus script hypertext in the following monographs:

    1. Footstep in Indus Script hypertext cipher, on Varāha pratimā signifies meḍ 'foot' meḍ 'iron', paṭṭaḍa फड phaḍa, 'manufactory' 
    https://tinyurl.com/y7boygm6

    2. Footsole or dance-step is an Indus Script hypertext, signifies 'iron work'. “The human foot is a masterpiece of engineering and a work of art.” -- Leonardo da Vinci  https://tinyurl.com/yb8md9uq

    Footsteps as hypertext are also signified on a Bharhut sculptural frieze.See:


    3Metalwork metaphors of Harappa script & language ca 2500 BCE on ancient sculptures inscriptions, ancient coins  http://tinyurl.com/jxkfh3h


    Bharhut sculptural frieze with Indus Script hypertexts

    Stupa of Bharhut. Staircase superimposed with a tree in railing surrounded by worshippers. A second foot-step at the bottom of the staircse. A foot-step at the top  and also at the bottom of the staircase, may signify a footstep in descent. The footstep is a hieroglyph inscribed with spoked wheel. This is a narrative of the descent of sacredness, divine. The vedika is decorated with square coins. Footstep with spoked wheel is a hypertext which signifies wealth creation: meḍ 'step' rebus: meḍ 'iron' PLUS arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass', eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper'. Thus, metalworkers working with iron and copper are signified by the footsteps down the stair. The staircase is: śrēṣṭrī'ladder' Rebus: seṭhʻ head of a guild. Thus, the hypertext signifiers are of iron, copper and brass metalworkers' guild. The tree in a worshipful presentation signifies: kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi'smelter'. The metalworkers also work with production of hard alloys as signified on the writing slab which is rebus 'daybook' by karadī 'safflowers' rebus: kharaḍa 'hard alloys'. The ladder with rows signifies a  sēṇi 'guild':  śrḗṇi (metr. often śrayaṇi -- ) f. ʻ line, row, troop ʼ RV. [Same as *śrayaṇī -- (for ʻ line ~ ladder ʼ cf. *śrēṣṭrī -- 2)? -- √śri]Pa. sēṇi -- f. ʻ guild, division of army ʼ; Pk. sēṇi -- f. ʻ row, collection ʼ; S. sīṇa f. ʻ the threads of the loom between which the warp runs ʼ; Or. seṇi ʻ row of rafters in a thatched roof, the wooden plates on which the rafters are put crosswise ʼ; Bi. senī ʻ the broad flat metal plates in a tobacconist's shop ʼ.(CDIAL 12718) 

    ஏணி¹ ēṇin. < எண்-. cf. šrēṇi. 1. Number; எண். ஏணிபோகிய கீழ்நிலைப்படலமும் (ஞானா. 54, 1). 2. Tier; அடுக்கு. அண்டத்தேணியின் பரப்பும் (கந்தபு. சூரன்வதை. 485). 3. [K. M. Tu. ēṇi.] cf.niššrēṇī. Ladder; ஏறுதற்கருவி. மண்டலத்தூ டேற்றிவைத் தேணிவாங்கி (திவ். பெரியாழ். 4, 9, 3). 4. Limit, boundary; எல்லை. நளியிரு முந்நீரேணி யாக (புறநா. 35, 1). 5. Country, territory; நாடு. (திவா.)

    Field Symbol Fig. 49 ஏணி² ēṇin. < ēṇī. 1. Deer, antelope; மான். (சூடா.) 2. Young deer, fawn; மான் கன்று. (திவா.) On the nose of the antelope, a tusk is signified: danta 'tooth' rebus: dhatu 'mineral ore'..The inclined or sloped linein front of the antelope: ḍhāḷ = a slope; the inclination of a plane (G.) Rebus: : ḍhāḷako = a large metal ingot (Gujarati.). The body is decorated with dotted circles: dhāv'strand' PLUS vaṭa'circle' rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter'. Thus, sēṇi 'guild' producing mineral ore ingots.   The two hypertexts of the text on inscription are: dula 'two' rebus; dul 'metal casting' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'; thus, metal casting smithy; PLUS kanka, karnaka 'rim of jar' rebus: karnika, karnaka 'scribe, supercargo, helmsman'. 

    Hieroglyph: two foot steps:            

     Two footsteps on the stairs of the ladder, Bharhut sculptural frieze are signified with spoked wheels. 

    These hypertexts signifykunda, a nidhi of Kubera (which will be semantically explained in this monograph based on the hieroglyph evidence in Harappa Script tradition). A spoked wheel is ligatured to each foot. In Bauddham tradition, this is dhamma cakka. A pun on the word 'dhamma' is dhmA 'smelter-blower', dhmAtr 'blower of a smelter furnace'. The ladder signifies seṭh 'head of an artisan guild'. Hieroglyph: dāvaṇi 'upper garment worn by worshippers' is dāvaṇi 'an assemblage' signified by the group of worshippers on the sculptural frieze. The venerated object is the tree-in-vedika (railing): kuThi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter'. 


    Below the vedika 'platform' of the tree a slab signifies writing with hieroglyphs: daLa 'petals' rebus: dhALako 'ingots'. The flowers on the slab signified as hieroglyphs are: karadI 'safflowers' rebus: karai 'hard alloys'.

    I suggest that the slab with writing signifies karaḍā, 'daybook' of operations on the smelter, i.e. documenting the metalwork products taken out of the smelteer in the day book.
    Indus Script hieroglph which signifies  khareḍo'a currycomb' (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍāखरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati).


    kund opening in the nave or hub of a wheel to admit the axle (Santali) Rebus: kundam, kund a sacrificial fire-pit (Skt.) kunda ‘turner’ kundār turner. eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus erako 'moltencast'eraka, arka 'copper, gold' arA 'spoke of wheel' rebus: Ara 'brass'. 
    Hieroglyph: step: meṭṭu to tread, trample, crush under foot, tread or place the foot upon (Te.); meṭṭu step (Ga.); mettunga steps (Ga.). maye to trample, tread (Malt.)(DEDR 5057) మెట్టు (p. 1027) [ meṭṭu ] meṭṭu. [Tel.] v. a. &n. To step, walk, tread. అడుగుపెట్టునడుచుత్రొక్కు. "మెల్ల మెల్లన మెట్టుచుదొలగిఅల్లనల్లనతలుపులండకు జేరి." BD iv. 1523. To tread on, to trample on. To kick, to thrust with the foot.మెట్టిక meṭṭika. n. A step , మెట్టుసోపానము(Telugu) me 'step' (Santali) Rebus: mẽht, me 'iron' (Mu.Ho.).

    Hieroglyph: tree: kuṭa, °ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ lex., °ṭaka -- m. ʻ a kind of tree ʼ Kauś.Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ, dar. kaṛék ʻ tree, oak ʼ ~ Par. kōṛ ʻ stick ʼ IIFL iii 3, 98. (CDIAL 3228).  kuṭa°ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ  Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'. 
    Hieroglyph: rope: dāvaṇi 'assemblage, tie-rope' Both meanings of the vocable are signified on the Bharhut sculptural frieze. The assemblage of worshippers are shown wearing dāvaṇi 'tie-rope' upon upper garments. The vedika is ornamented with square coins.
    Hieroglyph: śrēṣṭrī 'ladder' Rebus: seṭh ʻ head of a guild, Members of the guild (working with a furnace) are: blacksmith, turner, smelter, coppersmith, ironsmith (magnetite ore). 
    The assemblage denotes a mason (artisan) guild -- seni -- of 1. brass-workers; 2. blacksmiths; 3. iron-workers; 4. copper-workers; 5. native metal workers; 6. workers in alloys.
    Some distinguished persons are identified and indus script hieroglyphs associated are deciphered as śrēṣṭhin, 'guild master and dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter'’of tri-dhAtu,'three

    minerals'.


    The weltanschauung, 'world perception' of artisans in a Vedic village was governed by 1. dharma, assigned responsibilities and 2. the metaphor of a kole.l 'smithy-forge' as a kole.l
    'temple'.

    Hieroglyph: ladder: 

    Sign 186 *śrētrī ʻ ladder ʼ. [Cf. śrētr̥ -- ʻ one who has recourse to ʼ MBh. -- See śrití -- . -- √śri]Ash. ċeitr ʻ ladder ʼ (< *ċaitr -- dissim. from ċraitr -- ?).(CDIAL 12720)*śrēṣṭrī2 ʻ line, ladder ʼ. [For mng. ʻ line ʼ conn. with √śriṣ2 cf. śrḗṇi -- ~ √śri. -- See śrití -- . -- √śriṣ2]Pk. sēḍhĭ̄ -- f. ʻ line, row ʼ (cf. pasēḍhi -- f. ʻ id. ʼ. -- < EMIA. *sēṭhī -- sanskritized as śrēḍhī -- , śrēṭī -- , śrēḍī<-> (Col.), śrēdhī -- (W.) f. ʻ a partic. progression of arithmetical figures ʼ); K. hēr, dat. °ri f. ʻ ladder ʼ.(CDIAL 12724) Rebus: śrḗṣṭha ʻ most splendid, best ʼ RV. [śrīˊ -- ]Pa. seṭṭha -- ʻ best ʼ, Aś.shah. man. sreṭha -- , gir. sesṭa -- , kāl. seṭha -- , Dhp. śeṭha -- , Pk. seṭṭha -- , siṭṭha -- ; N. seṭh ʻ great, noble, superior ʼ; Or. seṭha ʻ chief, principal ʼ; Si. seṭa°ṭu ʻ noble, excellent ʼ. śrēṣṭhin m. ʻ distinguished man ʼ AitBr., ʻ foreman of a guild ʼ, °nī -- f. ʻ his wife ʼ Hariv. [śrḗṣṭha -- ]Pa. seṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ, Dhp. śeṭhi, Pk. seṭṭhi -- , siṭṭhi -- m., °iṇī -- f.; S. seṭhi m. ʻ wholesale merchant ʼ; P. seṭh m. ʻ head of a guild, banker ʼ, seṭhaṇ°ṇī f.; Ku.gng. śēṭh ʻ rich man ʼ; N. seṭh ʻ banker ʼ; B. seṭh ʻ head of a guild, merchant ʼ; Or. seṭhi ʻ caste of washermen ʼ; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sēṭhi ʻ merchant, banker ʼ, H. seṭh m., °ṭhan f.; G. śeṭhśeṭhiyɔ m. ʻ wholesale merchant, employer, master ʼ; M. śeṭh°ṭhīśeṭ°ṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ; Si. siṭuhi° ʻ banker, nobleman ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 208 (or < śiṣṭá -- 2?)(CDIAL 12725, 12726)

    Rebus: సెట్టి [ seṭṭi ] or శెట్టి seṭṭi. [from Skt. శ్రేష్ఠీ.] n. A merchant, వర్తకుడు. A title assumed by all members of the Bēri Komati, or Balija caste who are merchants. செட்டி¹ ceṭṭin. < Pkt. sēṭṭišrēṣṭhin. [M. ceṭṭi.] 1. Vaišya or mercantile caste; வைசியன். முட்டில் வாழ்க்கைச் செட்டியார் பெருமகன் (பெரு இலாவாண. 20, 126). 2. Title of traders; வியாபாரிகளின் பட்டப்பெயர். 3. Skanda; முருகன். கடற்சூர் தடிந்திட்ட செட்டி (தேவா. 742, 10). செட்டிச்சி ceṭṭicci, n. Fem. of செட்டி. [K. seṭṭiti, M. ceṭṭicci.] Woman of Vaišya caste; வைசியகுலப்பெண். Colloq.காசுக்காரச்செட்டிkācu-k-kāra-c-ceṭṭi , n. < id. +. A sub-division of the Tamil chetti caste who are by profession money-changers, dealers in coins, gold, silver and gems; செட்டி களுள் ஒரு பிரிவினராகிய பொன்வாணிகர்.

    காசு³ kācu , n. prob. kāš. cf. kāca. [M. kāšu.] 1. Gold; பொன். (ஆ. நி.) 2. Necklace of gold coins; அச்சுத்தாலி.காசும் பிறப்புங் கலகலப்ப (திவ். திருப்பா. 7). 3. An ancient gold coin = 28 gr. troy; ஒரு பழையபொன்னாணயம். (Insc.) 4. A small copper coin; சிறுசெப்புக்காசு. நெஞ்சே யுனையோர் காசாமதியேன் (தாயு. உடல்பொய். 72). 5. Coin, cash, money; ரொக்கம். எப்பேர்ப்பட்ட பல காசாயங்களும் (S.I.I. i, 89). 6. Gem, crystal bead; மணி. நாண்வழிக் காசுபோலவும் (இறை. 2, உரை, பக். 29). 7. Girdle strung with gems; மேகலாபர ணம். பட்டுடை சூழ்ந்த காசு (சீவக. 468). 8. (Pros.) A formula of a foot of two nēr acaiveṇpā; வெண்பாவின் இறுதிச்சீர்வாய்பாட்டுள் ஒன்று. (காரிகை,செய். 7.) 9. The hollow in the centre of each row of pallāṅkuḻi; பல்லாங்குழி யாட்டத்திற் காய்கள்சேர்தற்குரிய நடுக்குழிகள்.




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    The acounting system classification of wealth categories are: furnace products, lapidary products, smithy products; thus, harosheth hagoyim, 'smithy of nations' is explained in three wealth categories: furnace, mint, smithy.


    Archaeological evidence for the expression Haosheth hagoyim, smithy of nations (Hebrew) is achieved through goya, gotra'guilds' formed of khārकर्मार blacksmith artisans of Sarasvati Civilization evidenced on Epigraphia Indus Script which now total over 8000 inscriptions.

    Standard device has अग्नि--कुण्ड agni-kuṇḍa signified on the pan with coals; combined with kunda, 'lathe' a सांगड sāṅgaḍa, 'joined parts' is signified. Another word for 'pan with coals' is kammaṭa 'portable furnace'. Rebus reading is:kammaṭa 'mint'. The word सांगड  sāṅgaḍa, also means 'a lathe'. This monograph demonstrates how three major wealth categories and accounting classification clusters (major heads of account) were innovated in Sarasvati Civilization: 1. furnace categories of wealth, 2. mint categories of wealth, 3. smithy/forge categories of wealth. Thus, the accounting classification system has three major heads iof account: 1. furnace wealth; 2. mint wealth; 3. smithy/forge wealth

    Indus Script, thus, introduces the world's first accounting classification ledger system sã̄gah 'catalogue' or wealth clusters.

    Indus Script is a remarkable accounting system introduced to account for wealth in distinctr classification categories. This pattern is revealed in the clustering of 'signs' and 'pictorial motifs'in Indus Script Corpora. 

    sã̄gah'catalogue' is the brilliant invention. This cataloguing system expanded into identifying distinct wealth categories and wealth clusters signified on the Indus Script through 'signs' and 'pictorial motifs' and combinations of these pictographs to provide descriptive characteristics of the wealth created. This Meluhha word sã̄gah 'catalogue' is represented by the following artifacts on the Indus Script Writing System, in a brilliant crypto-engineering device:

    A word sounding similar to sã̄gah 'catalogue' is सांगड  sāṅgaḍa सांगडी  sāṅgaḍī 'joined animal parts or objects' (i.e. joined parts of hieroglyphs). 

    Two types of सांगड  sāṅgaḍa सांगडी  sāṅgaḍī 'joined animal parts' or 'joined parts of equipment' are indicated in the following most frequently used hypertexts on the Corpora.

    The two types signify two wealth accounting categories: 1. furnace categories of wealth, 2. mint categories of wealth, 

    The 'one-horned young bull' is a joining of: 1. young bull, aurochs indicus; 2. one horn; 3. pannier; 4. rings on neck.

    Similarly, the 'standard device' often shown in front of the 'one-horned young bull' hypertext is a सांगड  sāṅgaḍa सांगडी  sāṅgaḍī 'joined parts or objects' (i.e. joined parts of hieroglyphs which signify 'a pan with live coals' as the bottrom register' and 'a lathe on the top register). These objects signified in the hypertext of 'standard device' are: 1. कुण्ड n. a pan with live coals; and 2. सांगड  sāṅgaḍa 'a lathe'.

    The wods signifying these animal parts are: konda'young bull', ko'horn',  khōṇḍī 'pannier sack'खोंडी (p. 216) [ khōṇḍī ] f An outspread shovelform sack (as formed temporarily out of a कांबळा ; koḍiya 'rings on neck', The rebus readings of these expressions signified by the pictograph components are: kundaa'fine gold'konda'furnace'. kŏnḍ क्वंड् or kŏnḍa क्वंड । कुण्ड m. a kind of large bowl or basin made of metal or earthenware (Gr.Gr. 145); a deep still spring (El., Gr.Gr. 145); (amongst Hindūs) a hole dug in the ground for receiving consecrated fire; cf. ạgana-kŏnḍ (p. 16b, l. 34) (Rām. 631). (Kashmiri). अग्नि--कुण्ड n. a pan with live coals R.; a hole or enclosed space for the consecrated fire (कथासरित्सागर); कुण्ड a vessel for coals R. v , 10 , 16 &c; a round hole in the ground (for receiving and preserving water or fire cf. अग्नि-कुण्ड) , pit , well , spring or basin of water (especially consecrated to some holy purpose or person) MBh. R. &c; n. [अस् m. L. ] , a bowl-shaped vessel , basin , bowl , pitcher , pot , water-pot कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्रMBh. &c.) (Monier-Williams). Thus, kŏnḍa 
    furnace, sacred fire-altar, is identified as a wealth-producing category. This is also represented in the lower register of the 'standard device' normally shown in front of the 'one-horned young bull'. That it is अग्नि--कुण्ड is reinforced by the smoke shown as emanating from the bowl shown on the bottom register of the 'standard device' hypertext. The dotted circles shown on the  अग्नि--कुण्ड pan with live coals, signify the dhāv 'strand' rebus: dhāv, dhātu 'mineral ores' smelted on the pan (as on a crucible steel production device). The top portion of the 'standard device' is representation of सांगड  sāṅgaḍa 'a lathe'; hence,  sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati); rebus: sã̄gah 'catalogue' 

    Thus, two classifications of sã̄gah 'catalogue' are identified: 

    1. sã̄gah 'catalogue' for  kundaa 'fine gold' konda 'furnace'; this signifies goldsmith's, blacksmith's work
    2. sã̄gah 'catalogue' for सांगड  sāṅgaḍa 'a lathe'; hence,  sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati); this signified lapidary work working with precious jewels, for e.g. to create perforated beads or to infix gems into gold or other precious metal ornaments or jewellery.

    The two accounting clusters, wealth accounting classification categories have been identified with these hypertexts: 1. gold and other wealth-yielding metal products; 2. turner's work creating jewellery and other wealth-yielding artifacts.

    m0008 
    1. सांगड sãgaḍ 'a composite formed of two parts' 
    2. kunda 'lathe'3. kammaṭa 'portable furnace'.
    Line drawingskunda 'lathe'kammaṭa 'portable furnace'. The dotted circle on the;crucible of the portable furnace is also a hypertext. A dotted circle hieroglyph is a cross-section of a strand of rope: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) धवड [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of iron (Marathi).

    Thus, the hypertext of the 'standard device' has three signifiers: 

    1. सांगड sãgaḍ 'a composite formed of two parts'; 
    2. kunda 'lathe' 
    3. kammaṭa 'portable furnace'.

    In accordance with the semantic design feature Indus Script cipher, the Meluhha rebus readings are: 

    1. Hieroglyph:  सांगड sãgaḍ 'a composite formed of two parts'Rebus: sã̄gah 'catalogue' 
    2. Hieroglyph: kunda 'lathe' कुन्द  'a turner's lathe L.' Rebus: कुन्द kunda  'one of कुबेर's nine treasures (N. of a गुह्यक Gal. L.''the number " nine " W.' कुन्द--कर 'a turner'.
    3.Hieroglyph: kammaṭa 'portable furnace'Rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236)


    A third wealth accounting category is products produced in a smithy/forge yielding a third accounting category: smithy/forge categories of wealth..

    A third type of सांगड  sāṅgaḍa सांगडी  sāṅgaḍī is 'joined animal parts' which is signified in the following  hypertexts on the Corpora with high frequency of occurrence. Examples are:

    a. Hypertext of composite animal
    b. Hypertext of bovine body ligatured with two or three heads of animals
    c. Hypertext of animal heads joined together from a central core 
    d. Hypertext of animals shown in a procession

    a. Hypertext of composite animal




















    b. Hypertext of bovine body ligatured with two or three heads of animalsImage result for bharatkalyan97 young bull rim of jar ficusSeal. National Museum, Delhi. No.135 konda 'young bull' rebus: konda 'smelter furnace' kundana 'fine gold' kunda 'a nidhi of Kubera'. barat, barad, 'ox' rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi). Text of inscription: ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' aya 'iron' (Gujarati) PLUS khambhaṛā 'fin' (Lahnda) Rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint. Ka. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236). Thus, the message is: Products from mint: fine gold and mixed alloys. The goods from the smelter are documented for invoicing on jangaḍ 'approval basis'.

    c. Hypertext of animal heads joined together from a central core
    Mohenjo-daro seal m417 six heads from a core.śrēṇikā -- f. ʻ tent ʼ lex. and mngs. ʻ house ~ ladder ʼ in *śriṣṭa -- 2, *śrīḍhi -- . -- Words for ʻ ladder ʼ see śrití -- . -- √śri]H. sainī, senī f. ʻ ladder . The animals are quadrupeds: pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Te.)Rebus: pasra ‘smithy’ (Santali) Allograph: panǰā́r‘ladder, stairs’(Bshk.)(CDIAL 7760). This ladder is signified on this hypertext composite. Thus the composite animal connotes a smithy. Details of the smithy are described orthographically by the glyphic elements of the composition.

    1.     Glyph: ‘one-horned young bull’: kondh ‘heifer’. kũdā‘turner, brass-worker’.
    2.     Glyph: ‘bull’: ḍhangra ‘bull’. Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’.
    3.     Glyph: ‘ram’: meḍh ‘ram’. Rebus: meḍ ‘iron
    4.         Glyph: ‘antelope’: mr̤eka ‘goat’. Rebus: milakkhu ‘copper’. Vikalpa 1: meluhha ‘mleccha’ ‘copper worker’. Vikalpa 2: meṛh ‘helper of merchant’.
    5.         Glyph: ‘zebu’: khũ ‘zebu’. Rebus: khũṭ ‘guild, community’ (Semantic determinant of the ‘jointed animals’ glyphic composition). kūṭa joining, connexion, assembly, crowd, fellowship (DEDR 1882)  Pa. gotta ‘clan’; Pk. gotta, gōya id. (CDIAL 4279) Semantics of Pkt. lexeme gōya is concordant with Hebrew ‘goy’ in ha-goy-im (lit. the-nation-s). Pa. gotta -- n. ʻ clan ʼ, Pk. gotta -- , gutta -- , amg. gōya -- n.; Gau.  ʻ house ʼ (in Kaf. and Dard. several other words for ʻ cowpen ʼ > ʻ house ʼ: gōṣṭhá -- , Pr. gūˊṭu ʻ cow ʼ; S. g̠oṭru m. ʻ parentage ʼ, L. got f. ʻ clan ʼ, P. gotargot f.; Ku. N. got ʻ family ʼ; A. got -- nāti ʻ relatives ʼ; B. got ʻ clan ʼ; Or. gota ʻ family, relative ʼ; Bhoj. H. got m. ʻ family, clan ʼ, G. got n.; M. got ʻ clan, relatives ʼ; -- Si. gota ʻ clan, family ʼ ← Pa. (CDIAL 4279). Alternative: adar ḍangra ‘zebu or humped bull’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.); ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.)
    6.     The sixth animal can only be guessed. Perhaps, a tiger (A reasonable inference, because the glyph ’tiger’ appears in a procession on some Indus script inscriptions. Glyph: ‘tiger?’: kol ‘tiger’.Rebus: kol ’worker in iron’. Vikalpa (alternative): perhaps, rhinocerosgaṇḍa ‘rhinoceros’; rebus:khaṇḍ ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’. Thus, the entire glyphic composition of six animals on the Mohenjodaro seal m417 is semantically a representation of a śrḗṇi, ’guild’, a khũ , ‘community’ of smiths and masons.
    d. Hypertext of animals shown in a procession
    This guild, community of smiths and masons evolves into Harosheth Hagoyim, ‘a smithy of nations’. Harosheth is cognate with Kharoṣṭhī which expresses an early syllabic writing system. 
    The -goyim in the Hebrew expression is cognate with: goyāguĩyā bhai ʻ very close friend ʼ(Nepali) in: gōtrin m. ʻ relative ʼ Vet., gōtrika -- ʻ relating to a family ʼ Jain. [gōtrá -- ] Pk. gotti -- , °ia -- , guttiya -- m. ʻ kinsman ʼ; S. g̠oṭrī ʻ related ʼ, P. gotī; N. gotigotiyā bhai ʻ kinsman ʼ, Or. goti; H. gotī ʻ belonging to the same clan ʼ, G. gotrī, M. gotī; -- N. goyāguĩyā bhai ʻ very close friend ʼ, H. goiyã̄guiyā m.f. ʻ companion ʼ (cf. Pk. amg. gōya -- < gōtrá -- )? (CDIAL 4281).
    Thus, harosheth hagoyim can be demonstrated as cognate with Meluhha expression: Kharoṣṭhī goya 'blacksmith lip (expression), relating to a family, gotra, hence a nation of kinsmen.
    The word Kharoṣṭhī  खरोष्टी f. a kind of written character or alphabet Lalit. x , 29; °रोट्ठि Jain. (Monier-Williamks  lit. means and as a compound expression, cognate with 'khār or कर्मार ओष्ठ 'lit. blacksmith lip'.

    khār 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) < कर्मार m. an artisan , mechanic , artificer; a blacksmith &c RV. x , 72 , 2 AV. iii , 5 , 6 VS. Mn. iv , 215 &c

    ओष्ठ' m. (etym. doubtful ; √उष् Un2. ii , 4) the lip (generally du.RV. ii , 39 , 6 AV. x , 9 , 14 ; xx , 127 , 4 VS. S3Br. Mn. &c; f. (in a compound the ओ of ओष्ठ forms with a preceding अ either वृद्धि औ , or गुण ओ Ka1ty. on Pa1n2. 6-1 , 94) ; ([cf. Zd. aoshtra ; O. Pruss. austa , " mouth " ; O. Slav. usta , " mouth. "]) Rebus ओष्ठ'the forepart of an अग्निकुण्ड q.v. Hcat. 
    A cylinder seal showing hieroglyphs of crocodile, elephant and rhinoceros was found in Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. This is an example of Meluhha writing using hieroglyphs to denote the competence of kāru ‘artisan -- kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi) He was also ibbo 'merchant' (Hieroglyph: ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron') and maker of metal artifacts: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’ (kāṇḍā mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil).
    Tell AsmarCylinder seal modern impression [elephant, rhinoceros and gharial (alligator) on the upper register] bibliography and image source: Frankfort, Henri: Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region. Oriental Institute Publications 72. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, no. 642. Museum Number: IM14674 3.4 cm. high. Glazed steatite. ca. 2250 - 2200 BCE. ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron'. kāṇḍā 'rhinoceros' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  karā 'crocodile' Rebus: khar 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)
    Glazed steatite . Cylinder seal. 3.4cm high; imported from Indus valley. Rhinoceros, elephant, crocodile (lizard? ).Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. IM 14674; Frankfort, 1955, No. 642; Collon, 1987, Fig. 610. ibha‘elephant’Rebus: ibbo ‘merchant’, ib ‘iron’காண்டாமிருகம் kāṇṭā-mirukam , n. [M. kāṇṭāmṛgam.] Rhinoceros; கல்யானை. Rebus: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’.kāru ‘crocodile’ Rebus:   kāru  ‘artisan’. Alternative: araṇe ‘lizard’ Rebus: airaṇ ‘anvil’.

    kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) కారు mosale ‘wild crocodile or alligator. S. ghaṛyālu m. ʻ long — snouted porpoise ʼ; N. ghaṛiyāl ʻ crocodile’ (Telugu)ʼ; A. B. ghãṛiyāl ʻ alligator ʼ, Or. Ghaṛiāḷa, H. ghaṛyāl, ghariār m. (CDIAL 4422) கரவு² karavu, n. < கரா. Cf. grāha. Alligator; முதலை. கரவார்தடம் (திவ். திருவாய். 8, 9, 9). கரா karā, n. prob. Grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலை. கராவதன் காலினைக்கதுவ (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 3, 9). 2. Male alligator; ஆண்முதலை. (பிங்.) கராம் karām n. prob. Grāha. 1. A species of alligator ; முதலைவகை. முதலையு மிடங்கருங் கராமும் (குறிஞ்சிப். 257). 2. Male alligator; ஆண் முதலை. (திவா.)


    karuvu n. Melting: what is melted (Te.)कारु [ kāru ] m (S) An artificer or artisan. 2 A common term for the twelve बलुतेदार q. v. Also कारुनारु m pl q. v. in नारुकारु. (Marathi) कारिगर, कारिगार, कारागीर, कारेगार, कारागार [ kārigara, kārigāra, kārāgīra, kārēgāra, kārāgāra ] m ( P) A good workman, a clever artificer or artisan. 2 Affixed as an honorary designation to the names of Barbers, and sometimes of सुतार, गवंडी, & चितारी. 3 Used laxly as adj and in the sense of Effectual, availing, effective of the end. बलुतें [ balutēṃ ] n A share of the corn and garden-produce assigned for the subsistence of the twelve public servants of a village, for whom see below. 2 In some districts. A share of the dues of the hereditary officers of a village, such as पाटील, कुळकरणी &c. बलुतेदार or बलुता [ balutēdāra or balutā ] or त्या m (बलुतें &c.) A public servant of a village entitled to बलुतें. There are twelve distinct from the regular Governmentofficers पाटील, कुळकरणी &c.; viz. सुतार, लोहार, महार, मांग (These four constitute पहिली or थोरली कास or वळ the first division. Of three of them each is entitled to चार पाचुंदे, twenty bundles of Holcus or the thrashed corn, and the महार to आठ पाचुंदे); कुंभार, चाम्हार, परीट, न्हावी constitute दुसरी orमधली कास or वळ, and are entitled, each, to तीन पाचुंदे; भट, मुलाणा, गुरव, कोळी form तिसरी or धाकटी कास or वळ, and have, each, दोन पाचुंदे. Likewise there are twelve अलुते or supernumerary public claimants, viz. तेली, तांबोळी, साळी, माळी, जंगम, कळवांत, डवऱ्या, ठाकर, घडशी, तराळ, सोनार, चौगुला. Of these the allowance of corn is not settled. The learner must be prepared to meet with other enumerations of the बलुतेदार (e. g. पाटील, कुळ- करणी, चौधरी, पोतदार, देशपांड्या, न्हावी, परीट, गुरव, सुतार, कुंभार, वेसकर, जोशी; also सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, कुंभार as constituting the first-class and claiming the largest division of बलुतें; next न्हावी, परीट, कोळी, गुरव as constituting the middle class and claiming a subdivision of बलुतें; lastly, भट, मुलाणा, सोनार, मांग; and, in the Konkan̤, yet another list); and with other accounts of the assignments of corn; for this and many similar matters, originally determined diversely, have undergone the usual influence of time, place, and ignorance. Of the बलुतेदार in the Indápúr pergunnah the list and description stands thus:--First class, सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, महार; Second, परीट, कुंभार, न्हावी, मांग; Third, सोनार, मुलाणा, गुरव, जोशी, कोळी, रामोशी; in all fourteen, but in no one village are the whole fourteen to be found or traced. In the Panḍharpúr districts the order is:--पहिली or थोरली वळ (1st class); महार, सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, दुसरी or मधली वळ(2nd class); परीट, कुंभार, न्हावी, मांग, तिसरी or धाकटी वळ (3rd class); कुळकरणी, जोशी, गुरव, पोतदार; twelve बलुते and of अलुते there are eighteen. According to Grant Duff, the बलतेदार are सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, मांग, कुंभार, न्हावी, परीट, गुरव, जोशी, भाट, मुलाणा; and the अलुते are सोनार, जंगम, शिंपी, कोळी, तराळ or वेसकर, माळी, डवऱ्यागोसावी, घडशी, रामोशी, तेली, तांबोळी, गोंधळी. In many villages of Northern Dakhan̤ the महार receives the बलुतें of the first, second, and third classes; and, consequently, besides the महार, there are but nine बलुतेदार. The following are the only अलुतेदार or नारू now to be found;--सोनार, मांग, शिंपी, भट गोंधळी, कोर- गू, कोतवाल, तराळ, but of the अलुतेदार & बलुते- दार there is much confused intermixture, the अलुतेदार of one district being the बलुतेदार of another, and vice lls. (The word कास used above, in पहिली कास, मध्यम कास, तिसरी कास requires explanation. It means Udder; and, as the बलुतेदार are, in the phraseology of endearment or fondling, termed वासरें (calves), their allotments or divisions are figured by successive bodies of calves drawing at the कास or under of the गांव under the figure of a गाय or cow.) (Marathi)kruciji ‘smith’ (Old Church Slavic) 

    This Accounting Classification System is elaborated on this monograph in continuation of the cluster analyses provided in the following monographs:


    1. Decipherment of 31 triplet clusters of Indus Script Hypertexts as metalwork catalogues & of accounting system for ledgers of wealth categories 


    2. Indus Script Scribes kāraṇikā कारणिका document in HTTP the world's first accounting system on 8000+ inscriptions to create wealth of a nation https://tinyurl.com/y9h44pbh


    3. Evolution of hieroglyphs on ancient Bhāratīya Monetary System of coinage from Indus Script writing system  https://tinyurl.com/y8p2pvl7


    4. Semantic design feature of Indus Script cipher. Wealth accounting ledger sã̄gah, 'catalogue' categories: kunda, 'nidhi', kammaṭa, 'mint' https://tinyurl.com/y946sjg5

    (The corpora of inscriptions have now increased to about 7000 inscriptions in Indus Script corpora mainly due to discoveries of Persian Gulf seals and discoveries in Sumer/Elam/Mesopotamia).

    1. Dotted circles appear on all sides of a seal or tablet (for e.g., M-352, M-1256, M-1260, H-128) or get inscribed on the ‘cult object’. Three dotted circles appear on the robe of the sculpture in the round of ‘robed priest’. A dotted circle is also depicted as the eye of a fish or hare (Fish: H-329, H-330 and Hare: H-335).

    The monograph Evolution of hieroglyphs on ancient Bhāratīya Monetary System of coinage from Indus Script writing system  https://tinyurl.com/y8p2pvl7 hasdemonsratedd that 'dotted circle' signifies धवड [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it, smelters of iron (Marathi).


    2. Decipherment of all the following 'signs' of the civilization have been deciphered as related to metalwork wealth creation activities:

     




     


     

     
     Repetitive pairs or duplicated signs in inscriptions
    The following are examples of repetititve occurrence of the same sign in the same inscription. Some of these signs are also ligatured to other signs. A pair of same signs signifies: dula'pair' rebus; dul 'metal casting' A tripletof same sign signifies: kolom'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' A quartet (or four) of same sign signifies: gaṇḍ 'four'. kaṇḍ 'bit'. Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar'; Rebus: khaṇḍa 'equipment'  Triple or quadruple repetitions may be numerical interpretations.

    There are stable pairs of signs in inscriptions. The following seven pairs have between 93 and 291 occurrences in the inscriptions.

    There are pairs with between 65 and 87 occurrences in the inscriptions.
    A characteristic feature of the use of graphemes in the inscriptions is ‘ligaturing’ resulting in expanatory messaging of metallurgical processes involved such as cire perdue casting, bun-ingot production, large ingot production (such as ox-hide types), 

    kharaḍā 'currycomb' rebus:kharaḍā खरड़ा '

    daybook' ledger entries for wealth-accounting.


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    Harosheth hagoyim < kharoṣṭhī goya = khār 'blacksmith' PLUS ओष्ठी f. (in a compound the  of ओष्ठ forms with a preceding  either वृद्धि  , or गुण  Ka1ty. on Pa1n2. 6-1 , 94) ; ([cf. Zd. aoshtra ; O. Pruss. austa , " mouth " ; O. Slav. usta , " mouth. "])PLUS goya 'gotra, kinsman, guild', thus, 'blacksmith speech guild'. This blacksmith speech guild are Meluhha speakers as demonstrated in the decipherment of 8000 Indus Script inscriptions.

    "Harosheth-hagoyim was the home of general Sisera, who was killed by Jael during the war of Naphtali and Zebulunagainst Jabin, king of Hazor in Canaan (Judges 4:2). The lead players of this war on the side of Israel were the general Barak and the judge DeborahThe name Harosheth-hagoyim occurs three times in the fourth chapter of Judges (Judges 4:2, 4:13 and 4:16).http://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Harosheth.html#.WrR6FYhubIU The expression harosheth hagoyim is interpreted as 'smithy of nations'.

    I suggest that the cognate expression kharoṣṭhī goya links the 'smithy of nations' to Meluhha metalwork artisans. I suggest that harosheth hagoyim is derived from  kharoṣṭhī goya, which signifies 'blacksmith seech community' 


    Woman on the chariot lynchpin is Meluhha lady, the bronze act is the work of Meluhha smiths of Harosheth Hagoyim. Dr. S.Kalyanaraman See my book published on Amazon for detailed arguments and evidences of comparable images.

    The woman on the lynchpin is an Indus Script hypertext: kola 'woman' rebus: kol 'working in iron'kolle'blacksmith'kolhe'smelter'.  Thus, the product from a smelter by a Meluhha blacksmith, ironsmith.

    *skabha ʻ post, peg ʼ. [√skambh]Kal. Kho. iskow ʻ peg ʼ BelvalkarVol 86 with (?).(CDIAL 13638) Rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. Thus, the pin signifies: kolhe kammaṭa 'smelter mint' (product)

    See:https://tinyurl.com/y7pkysnf  Archaeology of harosheth hagoyim. सांगड sāṅgaḍa in Indus Script signifies three major wealth categories in the world's first accounting system classification
    Inline image
    Published by Editor at 10:49 am under Press ReleasesArchaeological mystery solved
    Jul 10, 2010
    A 3,200-year-old round bronze tablet with a carved face of a woman, found at the El-ahwat excavation site near Katzir in central Israel, is part of a linchpin that held the wheel of a battle chariot in place. This was revealed by scientist Oren Cohen of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa. “Such an identification reinforces the claim that a high-ranking Egyptian or local ruler was based at this location, and is likely to support the theory that the site is Harosheth Haggoyim, the home town of Sisera, as mentioned in Judges 4-5,” says Prof. Zertal.
    The El-ahwat site, near Nahal ‘Iron, was exposed by a cooperative delegation excavating there during 1993-2000 from the Universities of Haifa and Cagliari (Sardinia), headed by Prof. Zertal. The excavated city has been dated back to the end of the Bronze Age and early Iron Age (13th-12th centuries B.C.E.). The city’s uniqueness - its fortifications, passageways in the walls, and rounded huts - made it foreign amidst the Canaanite landscape. Prof. Zertal has proposed that based on these unusual features, the site may have been home to the Shardana tribe of the Sea-Peoples, who, according to some researchers, lived in Harosheth Haggoyim, Sisera’s capital city. The city is mentioned in the Bible’s narratives as Sisera’s capital, and it was from there that the army of chariots set out to fight the Israelites, who were being led by Deborah the prophetess and Barak, son of Avinoam. The full excavation and its conclusions have been summarized in Prof. Zertal’s book “Sisera’s Secret, A Journey following the Sea-Peoples and the Song of Deborah” (Dvir, Tel Aviv, 2010 [Hebrew]).
    One of the objects uncovered at the site remained masked in mystery. The round, bronze tablet, about 2 cm. in diameter and 5 mm. thick, was found in a structure identified as the “Governor’s House”. The object features a carved face of a woman wearing a cap and earrings shaped as chariot wheels. When uncovered in 1997, it was already clear that the tablet was the broken end of an elongated object, but Mr. Cohen, who included the tablet in the final report of the excavations, did not manage to find its parallel in any other archaeological discoveries.
    Now, 13 years later, the mystery has been solved. When carrying out a scrutinizing study of ancient Egyptian reliefs depicting chariot battles, Mr. Cohen discerned a unique decoration: the bronze linchpins fastening the chariot wheels were decorated with people’s faces - of captives, foreigners and enemies of Egypt. He also noticed that these decorations characterized those chariots that were used by royalty and distinguished people.
    “This identification enhances the historical and archaeological value of the site and proves that chariots belonging to high-ranking individuals were found there. It provides support for the possibility, which has not yet been definitively established, that this was Sisera’s city of residence and that it was from there that the chariots set out on their way to the battle against the Israelite tribes, located between the ancient sites of Taanach and Megiddo,” Prof. Zertal concludes.
    Photos:
    Above (click to enlarge): Chariot linchpin (Moshe Einav)
    Below (click to enlarge): Egyptian reliefs showing battle chariots and engraved linchpins

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    https://tinyurl.com/y7msyhko

    This monograph posits that Brāhmī is a syllabic script and is NOT derived from logo-graphic catalogue system of Indus Script.

    However, the following excerpts from a monograph by Subhash Kak are presented for a contra view. 

    Subhash Kak claims to have identified the 'signs' used in Indus Script Corpora to signify the numerals 5 and 10 and also to have identified parallels in orthography between Brāhmī 'syllabary' for consonants and 10 Indus 'signs'. 

    Surprisingly some of the glyphs, like the fish, looked similar in Brāhmī and in Indus Script. Such striking similarity is noticed in about 5 glyphs. "Kak also sees a particular Prakrit feature in the Indus script which is not found in Elamite and Dravidian. This particular feature — the gentive case marker — is used to specify ownership which could mean that the seals were used for trading purposes. Frequency analysis of the Indus script found that one of the signs is a representation of the numeral 5. The Nagari script, used since 8 CE, also uses the same sign; in Brāhmī, this sign means ‘pa’ – the first letter of ‘pancha’. Brāhmī.inscriptions found in Sohagaura on copper plates and caskets in Batthiprolu shows various compound signs, like in the Indus.http://varnam.nationalinterest.in/2009/11/the-indus-script-decipherments/

    Further suggestions from Kak's studies (see Sources listed at the end) are that the Indus Script is based on underlying Indo-Aryan language (since Brāhmī. syllabary was used to write Indo-Aryan language) and that Brāhmī writing system is derived from the Indus Writing System.

    Excerpts:


    After Table 3. Kak (1988)Ten most common consonants in decreasing frequency

    Hunter, G.R.1934. The Script of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and Its Connection with Other Scripts, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.

  • Witney, W.D. 1888. Sanskrit Grammar, Reprint, 1983, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

  • "Since our objective, in this study, is to determine what letters the most likely Indus signs could represent, and then validate this on morphological grounds, we only indicate the most likely 10 consonants in decreasing frequency: t, r, v, n, m, y, s, d, p, k The frequency of each one of these consonants is greater than 1.99 percent. The next most frequent sounds are s (palatal sh) and s (lingual sh) with frequencies of 1.57 and 1.45  respectively. It is conceivable that like Prakrit, early Indo-Aryan could have often  substituted s for s and s. If this were to have been the case the total frequency of s could be close to that of t...
  • Numerals. 
  • Consider numerals now. Frequency considerations suggest thatshould be the symbol for the number 5. This is seen in Figure 3b which shows that there is large probability that will appear together with symbols for 2, 3, and 4. The frequency of with 1 is 7 and with itself is 10 which do not, therefore, show up in Figure 3b. Presumably, the lower frequency for is because 6 is also written as six vertical strokes. It also appears that 10 is represented both as as well as one of the other signs. The identification of as 5 means that Mitchiner’s assumption that it might stand for 100 is invalid. considerations suggest that should be the symbol for the number 5. This is seen in Figure 3b which shows that there is large probability that will appear together with symbols for 2, 3, and 4. The frequency of with 1 is 7 and with itself is 10 which do not, therefore, show up in Figure 3b. Presumably, the lower frequency for is because 6 is also written as six vertical strokes. It also appears that 10 is represented both as as well as one of the other signs. The identification of as 5 means that Mitchiner’s assumption that it might stand for 100 is invalid. It is noteworthy that the later Nagari sign for 5 is this with a stylized tail added to it. Also Brāhmī pa is , which looks very close to this sign. Note further that the symbol for 5 in Brāhmī comes from the first syllable of panca. The fact that the same symbol was used by the Harappans indicates that their word for 5 started with pa as well. This is further evidence against the theory of Dravidian origin of the Indus language since 5 in Tamil is aindu, in Telugu aidu. It reinforces our identification of the Indus language as being Indo-Aryan. Conclusions. The frequency analysis of the most common Brāhmī and Indus signs confirms the hypothesis that the two scripts are related. The case-ending evidence suggests that the language of the inscriptions is Indo-Aryan. The inference that the language is Indo- Aryan is strengthened by the observation that the words that follow the formulae “ , which Hunter has argued should be proper names, indeed read as plausible Indo-Aryan names at several places. But an analysis of the case-endings alone has its limitations. It cannot, by itself, establish conclusively that the language is Indo-Aryan. That will have to await a full decipherment of the Indus texts. In any event, the demonstration that Brāhmī is derived from Indus, and the indubitable relationship between Brāhmī and the Phoenician script indicates that the theories of the rise of early writing systems require a complete revision."
    After Table 2. Frequencies of various sounds of the Sanskrit alphabet (Source : Whitney [9]).
    Sources: Subhash Kak, 1988, A FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF THE INDUS SCRIPT 

  • July 1988 
  • Cryptologia 12(3):129-143

  • Two related papers of Subhash Kak are:
    Subhash C. Kak, “INDUS – AND – BRAHMI – FURTHER – CONNECTIONS” Cryptologia 14, no. 2 (1990): 169.
    Subhash C. Kak, “AN – INDUS-SARASVATI SIGNBOARD,” Cryptologia 20, no. 3 (1996): 275.

    KharosthiKharoṣṭhī

    The Kharosthi, or Kharoṣṭhī, script was invented sometime during the 3rd century BCE and was possibly derived from the Aramaic script. It was used in Gandhara, an ancient kingdom in what is now the northwest of Pakistan, and the Jalalabad district of Afghanistan. Kharosthi texts have also been found along the Silk Road in Bactria, Kushan, Sogdia, and in parts of China.
    By the 4th century AD the script was no longer used in Gandhara, but may have been used until the 7th centuries in places such as Khotan / Hotan (和田), in what is now Xinjiang in the northeast of China.
    Unlike the Brāhmī script, which was invented at around the same time and spawned many of the modern scripts of India and South East Asia, Kharosthi had no descendants.
    Kharoshti was deciphered during the 19th century by James Prinsep, Christian Lassen, C.L. Grotefend and Edwin Norris. Bilingual inscriptions in Gandhari and Greek on coins helped with the decipherment. Since then further material has been found and the script is now better understood.

    Notable features

    • Type of writing system: syllabic alphabet or abugida - each letter has an inherent vowel /a/. Other vowels are indicated using diacritics.
    • Direction of writing: right to left in horizontal lines.

    Kharoṣṭhī a syllabic writing system used to write

    Gandhari, of Gāndhārī, a Prakrit language used in inscriptions in the Kharoṣṭhī  script between the 3rd century BCE and the 4th century CE, and possibly until the 7th century CE.
    Sanskrit (संस्कृतम्), a classical language of India, which is still used as a religious and ceremonial language, and as a spoken language to some extent.
    Pali (पालि), the classical language of Theravada Buddhism that was first used in Sri Lanka during the 1st century BCE.
    I tried to see if the following ten consonants identified by Subhash Kak had cognates in Kharoṣṭhī 

    t, r, v, n, m, y, s, d, p, k 

    The 'signs' of Kharoṣṭhī  for ten consonants are listed below. 

    Ten Kharoṣṭhī consonants for ten frequent consonants of Indo-Aryan languages identified by Subhash Kak:

    I do NOT find any parallel between Kharoṣṭhī consonant glyphs and Brāhmī. I do NOT find any hieroglyphs of Indus Script which parallel the ten Kharoṣṭhī consonants.

    I have not attempted to compare the consonants of Kharoṣṭhī with Aramaic or other scripts of the Ancient Near East.
     ta
      ra
     va
       na
     ma
    ya
    śa
     da
    pa
     ka
      10

     ba

     ṣa
     za

    I have no comments to offer on the underlying assumption of Subhash Kak that the writing system is a syllabic system comparable to Brāhmī. 

    My conjecture is that  kharoṣṭhī writing system was necessitated by the imperative of syllabic representation of syllables in names of people and in writing down words related to philosophical topics such as Samghāta Sutra which is a compilation cognate with the words: samgraha, samgaha ‘catalogue’. This conjecture may explain the reality of early cast coins which bore both Indus Script hieroglyphs and also kharoṣṭhīand Brāhmī syllables to signify ‘names’. 

    Based on clusteranalyses of 'signs' and 'pictorial motifs', the writing system is seen to be logo-graphic and each hieroglyph component is read as a word in Meluhha to compile catalogues of metalwork accounting ledgers. Meluhha of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union) links Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Munda streams of speech forms to signify the Harosheth (smithy) cognate Kharoṣṭhī which has been explained as an expression to signify: 'blacksmith speech'. See: 

    https://tinyurl.com/yc3zndc6


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    Thanks to Dr. Vipin Kumar for the following link and posts related to aṣṭāśri yupa, caṣāla.
    Yaillaka - Yajna  ( words like Yaksha, Yakshma, Yaju, Yajna etc. )
    Yajna - Yajnopaveeta (Yajna, Yajnaansha, Yajnopaveeta etc.)      
    Yajnopeta - Yamadanshtra (Yati, Yadu, Yantra, Yama etc.)
    Yamadandadharaa - Yashti  (Yamunaa/Yamuna, Yayaati, Yava, Yasha/fame, Yashodaa, Yashti etc.)
    Yaaga - Yuddha  (Yaajnavalkya, Yaatudhaana, Yaatraa/travel, Yaama, Yuga, Yuddha/war etc. )
    Yudha - Yogamaayaa (Yudhishthira, Yuvanaashva, Yuupa, Yoga, Yoganidra etc.)
    Yogalakshmi - Raja  (Yogini, Yogi, Yoni/womb, Rakta/blood, Raktabeeja etc. )
    यूपस्थापनस्य अयं चित्रं गार्गेयपुरम्, कर्नूलनगर मध्ये माघ शुक्ल तृतीया, विक्रम संवत् २०७१ काले ज्योतिष्टोम अप्तोर्याम सोमयागतः गृहीतं भवति ।
    राजस्थानस्य बिंजौर स्थाने भारतीय पुरातत्त्व विभागेन खननमध्ये प्राप्तं  हडप्पासभ्यताकालिक यागस्य  दृश्यं। यूपस्य अवयवभूता अष्टाश्रि इष्टिका द्रष्टव्यं अस्ति। चित्रस्य स्रोतं -
    यूपः
    १. अमुष्मै ( द्युलोकाय ) यूपः ( मीयते ) ! काठ २५१०क ४०४१३ ।।
    २. अष्टाश्रिः ( यूपः ) कार्यःतस्मात् पर्णमयः, - - - तस्मात् खादिरः- - -तस्माद् बैल्वो ब्रह्मवर्चसकामेन कार्यः । मै ३३ (तु. माश )।
    ३. खल उत्तरवेदिरत्र हि स रसः समवैति सरसं एव यज्ञं करोति। खलेवाली यूपो भवत्येतया हि तं रसमुत्कृषन्ति । तां १६१३ ।
    ४. खादिरो यूपो भवति । माश ,,,१२ ।।
    ५. गर्तन्वान्यूपो ऽतीक्ष्णाग्रो भवति । माश  ।
    ६. तं ( देवाः ) वै ( यज्ञम् ) यूपेनैवायोपयंस्तद्यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । ऐ , ।
    पशुश्च वै यूपश्च । - - - - -यथा हैवायं द्विपात्पुरुष उच्छ्रित एवं हैव द्विपाद उच्छ्रिताश्चेरुः। ततो देवा एतं वज्रं ददृशुः । यद्यूपं – माश. ३.७.३.१
    ७. तस्माद्यूप ऽ एव पशुमालभन्ते नऽर्ते यूपात्कदाचन । माश  ।
    ८. ते ( देवाः) ऽकामयन्तेमं नो ( स्वर्गम् ) लोकमन्यो नानुप्रजानीयादितिते दिशो ऽयोपयन् यद्दिशो ऽयोपयंस्तद् यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । काठ २६क ४१,४ ।
    ९. देवानां ऊर्ध्वम्̇ रशनाया आ चषालाद् इन्द्रस्य चषालम्̇ साध्यानाम् अतिरिक्तम्̇  वा एष सर्व देवत्यो यद् यूपो यद् यूपम् मिनोति सर्वा एव देवताः प्रीणाति - - - ते ( देवाः ) यूपेन योपयित्वा सुवर्गं लोकमायन् तमृषयो यूपेनैवानु प्राजानन् । तद्यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । तैस 
    १० पशवे वै यूपमुच्छ्रयन्ति । माश  ।।
    ११. बैल्वो वा खादिरो वा पालाशो वा रौहीतको वा सौम्यस्याध्वरस्य यूपः स्यात् । औदुम्बरो यूपो भवति । खादिरे बध्नाति,पालाशे बध्नातिरौहीतके बध्नाति । काठसंक १३७ :९-१२ ।
    १२. यूपस्थापनाभिधानम् - ऊर्ग् वै रशना यजमानेन यूपः संमितः यजमानम् एवोर्जा समर्धयति । तैसं 
    १३. यज्ञेन वै देवा: स्वर्गं लोकमायं स्तेऽमन्यन्ताऽनेन वै नोऽन्ये लोकमन्वारोक्ष्यन्तीतितं यूपेनायोपयं स्तद् यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । मै ३,,
    १४. यदनेन (यूपेन देवा यज्ञम् ) अयोपयंस्तस्माद्यूपो नाम । माश ,,,,,,,,२ ।।
    १५. यूपस् (चतुर्द्धाविभक्तस्य वज्रस्य) तृतीयं (तृतीयोंऽशः) वा यावद्वा । माश ,, ।
    ततो द्वाभ्यां ब्राह्मणा यज्ञे चरन्ति द्वाभ्यां राजन्यबन्धवः संव्याधे यूपेन च स्फ्येन च ब्राह्मणा – माश १.२.४.२
    १६. अग्निर्वा अश्वः श्वेतो यूप स्थाणुः(कद्रू – सुपर्णी आख्यानम्) । माश ,६ २,
    १७. यूपाद्वै देवाः स्वर्गं लोकमायन् । क ४१,२ ।।
    १८. वज्रो वा एष यद्यूपः सोऽष्टाश्रि कर्तव्योऽष्टाश्रिर्वै वज्र । ऐ ,:
    वज्रो वा एष यद्यूपः – ऐ २.३कौ १०,ष ४,४ (तु. मै ३,,काठ २९क ४१,माश ३,,१९) ।।
    १९. अथ यूपशकलमादत्ते - - - -वज्रो वै यूपशकलः वज्रः शासो वज्र आज्यं । माश ,,, :
    २०. यूपस्थापनाभिधानम् - वैष्णवो वै देवतया यूपः । तैसं ,,, (तु. काठ ३४,१५माश ३,,१) ।
    २१. यूपं व्रक्ष्यन्वैष्णव्यर्चा जुहोति । वैष्णवो हि (वै [काठ.] ) यूपः । मै ३,,काठ २६,क ४१माश ,,,
    २२. शिखा (हृदयं [ते.J) यूपः । मै ४,,तैआ १०६४,१ ।
    २३. सप्तदशारत्निर्यूपो भवति । तै ,, ।।
    २४. सर्वदेवत्यो (+वै [मै.J) यूपः । मै ३.९,काठ २६,क ४१,४ ।।
    २५. स वा एष सर्वदेवत्यो यद् यूपः । तैसं ६,,७ ।
    २६. स्तुप एवास्य (हविर्धानस्य) यूपः । बाहू एवास्याग्नीध्रीयश्च मार्जालीयश्च -  माश ,,, ॥
    असौ वा अस्य (अग्निहोत्रस्य कर्तुः) आदित्यो यूपः पृथिवी वेदिरोषधयो बर्हिर्वनस्पतय इध्मा आपः प्रोक्षण्यो दिशः परिधयो – ऐ. ५.२८
    अग्निहोत्रम् - वनस्पतय इध्मः । दिशः परिधयः । आदित्यो यूपः।यजमानः पशुः – तै.ब्रा. २.१.५.२
    यूपेन वा आहुतयः स्वर्गं लोकं यन्ति – मै.सं. ४.८.८
    गायत्रो हि यूपः मै. ३.९.३
    तेजो वै यूपः – मै. ३.९.३
    यथा वै नासिकैवं यूपः तस्मादिमे अभितो नासिकां चक्षुषी – माश. ४.२.१.२५
    एष वै यजमानो यद्यूपः – तै.ब्रा. १.३.७.३
    यूपोच्छ्रयणम् - यजमानो वा एष निदानेन यद्यूपः – मा.श. ३.७.१.११
    यजमानो वै यूपः यजमानमेवैतत्तेजसा च ब्रह्मवर्चसेन चोभयतः परिधत्तः – काठ. २९.८, ऐ. २.३, मा.श. १३.२.६.९
    यजमानो यूपः – मै. १.८.७, काठ. ६.६, क. ४१.४
    अश्वमेधः - होता च ब्रह्मा च ब्रह्मोद्यं वदतः  - - - - - यूपमभितो वदतः। यजमानदेवत्यो वै यूपः – तै.ब्रा. ३.९.५.२
    यथा उ वै पशुः। एवं यूपः।तद्यदेतं सौत्रामणिकं यूपमेतौ यूपावभितो भवतः। तस्मादिमावात्मानमभितो बाहू॥ - माश.१२.९.३.१६

    The references cited above are remarkable documentation of archaeometallurgical processes of Veda times.

    वज्रो वा एष यद्यूपः सोऽष्टाश्रि कर्तव्योऽष्टाश्रिर्वै वज्र । ऐ ,:
    देवानां ऊर्ध्वम्̇ रशनाया आ चषालाद् इन्द्रस्य चषालम्̇ साध्यानाम् अतिरिक्तम्̇  वा एष सर्व देवत्यो यद् यूपो यद् यूपम् मिनोति सर्वा एव देवताः प्रीणाति - - - ते ( देवाः ) यूपेन योपयित्वा सुवर्गं लोकमायन् तमृषयो यूपेनैवानु प्राजानन् । तद्यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । तैस 

    Yupa made of woods (tree trunks) are to oxidise impure metals and in calcination processes to create lead litharge to realize silver: बैल्वो वा खादिरो वा पालाशो वा रौहीतको वा सौम्यस्याध्वरस्य यूपः स्यात् । औदुम्बरो यूपो भवति । खादिरे बध्नाति,पालाशे बध्नातिरौहीतके बध्नाति । काठसंक १३७ :९-१२ ।
    I think Yupa and caṣāla are devices central to the Soma Samsthā yajña to infuse through carburization process, angāra 'carbon element' through godhuma fumes into molten metal in the yajñakuṇḍa to create kharaḍā, 'hard alloy'. It appears ayas meant 'iron', also 'alloy metal' in Veda times. This archaeometallurgical process is central to the creation of wealth. It is instructive that caṣāla has the following meanings:1.godhuma, 2.vajra; 3. snout of varāha. Sarasvati as signifier of Veda knowledge system adorns the snout of Varāha in the Khajuraho monumental signifier of yajñs puruṣa in over 700 pratimā of Veda devatā and R̥ṣi-s on  the body. I have explained the significance of the cobra and a pair of feet close to the feet of the boar. Footstep in Indus Script hypertext cipher, on Varāha pratimā signifies meḍ 'foot' meḍ 'iron', paṭṭaḍa फड phaḍa, 'manufactory'

    Inline image
    Together, the message of the Binjor Seal with inscribed text is a proclamation, a metalwork catalogue (of)  'metallic iron alloy implements, hard alloy w
    orkshop' .konda 'young bull' kundaṇa 'finegold' kunda 'a nidhi', kō̃da   'fire-altar' (Kashmiri) payĕn-kō̃da पयन्-कोँद । परिपाककन्दुः f. a kiln (a potter's, a lime-kiln, and brick-kiln, or the like); a furnace (for smelting). 

    An exposition by Sadhashiv A Dange: "the yūpa is described as being the emblem of the sacrifice (RV III.8.8 yajñasya ketu). Though it is fixed on the terrestrial plane at the sacrifice, it is expected to reach the path of the gods. Thus, about the many sacrificial poles (fixed in the Paśubandha, or at the Horse-sacrifice) it is said that they actually provide the path for reaching the gods (ib., 9 devānām api yanti pāthah). They are invoked to carry the oferings to the gods (ib., 7 te no vyantu vāryam devatrā), which is the prerogative of the fire-god who is acclaiemd as 'messenger' (dūta); cf. RV I.12.1 agrim dūtam vṛṇimahe). In what way is the yūpa expected to carry the chosen offering to the gods? It is when the victim is tied to the sacrificial pole. The prallelism between the sacrificial fire and the yūpa is clear. The fire carries it through the smoke and flames; the yūpa is believed to carry it before that, when the victim is tied to it, as its upper end is believed to touch heaven. A more vivid picture obtains at the vajapeya. Here the yūpa is eight-angled, corresponding to the eight quarters. (śat. Br. V.2.1.5 aṣṭāśrir yūpo bhavati; the reason given is that the metre Gayatri has eight letters in one foot; not applicable here, as it is just hackneyed. At Taitt.Sam. I.7.9.1, in this context a four-angled yūpa is prescribed.) The one yūpa is conceived as touching three worlds: Heaven, Earth and the nether subterranean. The portion that is above the caṣāla (ring) made of wheat-dough (cf.śat. Br. V.2.1.6 gaudhūmam caṣālam bhavati) represents Heaven. This is clear from the rite of ascending to the caṣālamade of wheat-dough, in the Vajapeya sacrifice. The sarificer ascends to it with the help of a ladder (niśrayaṇī); and, while doing so, calls upon his wife, 'Wife, come; let us ascend to Heaven'.  As soon as he ascends and touches the caṣāla, he utters,  'We have reached Heaven, O gods' (ib., 12). According to Sāyaṇa on the Taiit.Sam. I.7.9.1, the sacrificer stretches his hands upwards when he reaches the  caṣāla and says, 'We have reached the gods that stay in heaven' (udgṛhītābhyām bāhubhyām). Even out of the context of the Vajapeya, when the yūpa is erected (say in the Paśubandha), it is addressed, 'For the earth you, for the mid-region you, for heaven you (do we hoist you)' (Taitt. Sam. I.3.6.1-3; cf. śat. Br. III.7.1.5-6). The chiselled portion of the  yūpa is above the earth. So, from the earth to heaven, through the mid-region the yūpa represents the three-regions. The un-chiselled portion of the yūpa is fixed in the pit (avaṭa) and the avaṭa, which represents the subterranean regions, is the region of the ancestors (ib.4).The yūpa, thus, is the axis mundi...Then, it gave rise to various myths, one of them being that of the stūpa of Varuṇa, developing further into Aśvattha tree, which is nothing but a symbol of a tree standing with roots in the sun conceived as the horse (aśva-stha = aśvattha), a symbol obtaining at varius places in the Hindu tradition. It further developed into the myth of the churning staff of the mountain (Amṛta-manthana); and yet further, into the myth of Vasu Uparicara, whom Indra is said to have given his yaṣṭi (Mb.Adi. 6y3.12-19). This myth of the yaṣṭi was perpetuated in the ritual of the Indra-dhvaja in the secular practice (Brhatsamhita, Chapter XLII), while in the s'rauta practice the original concept of the axis mundi was transformed into the yūpa that reached all regions, including the under-earth. There is another important angle to the yūpa. As the axis mundi it stands erect to the east of the Uttaravedi and indicates the upward move to heaven. This position is unique. If one takes into account the position of the Gārhapatya and the āhavaniya fireplaces, it gets clear that the march is from the earth to heaven; because, the Gārhapatya is associated with this earth and it is the household fire (cf. gṛhā vai gārhapatyah, a very common saying in the ritual texts), and the seat of the sacrificer's wife is just near it, along with the wives of the gods, conceptually. From this fire a portion is led to the east, in the quarter of the rising sun (which is in tune with such expressions as prāñcam yajñam pra nayatā sahāyah, RV X.101.2); where the Ahavaniya fireplace is structured. As the offerings for the gods are cast in the Ahavaniya, this fire is the very gate of heaven. And, here stands, the yūpa to its east taking a rise heavenwards. This is, by far, the upward rise. But, on the horizontal plane, the yūpa is posted half-inside, half-outside the altar. The reason is, that thereby it controls the sacred region and also the secular, i.e. both heaven and earth, a belief attested by the ritual texts. (Tait. Sam. VI.6.4.1; Mait. Sam. III.9.4)."(Dange, SA, 2002, Gleanings from Vedic to Puranic age, New Delhi, Aryan Books International, pp. 20-24).

    The Sukta RV X.101 reads, explaining the entire yajña as a metaphor of golden-tinted soma poured into a wooden bowl, a smelting process yielding weapons of war and transport and implements of daily life.

    Kalibangan & Binjor evidence for Vājapeya सोमः संस्था यज्ञ, yajña yūpa, related Indus Script inscriptions, linga, skambha
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    https://tinyurl.com/yasc8ghs

    This monograph presents evidence for iron/steel in Sarasvati Civilization mature phase of 3rd millennium BCE, with the tin-bronze revolution making it truly a Metals Age of ancient India.
    miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tor.wali)(CDIAL 10310)meḍho 'a ram, a sheep' (G.)(CDIAL 10120)mēṇḍhaʻramʼ(CDIAL 9606).मेंढा [mēṇḍhā] m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup. मेंढका or क्या [ mēṇḍhakā or kyā ] a (मेंढा) A shepherd (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.)   Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.) mēṇḍh 'gold' as in: मेंढसर [ mēṇḍhasara ] m A bracelet of gold thread. (Marathi) xolā 'tail' of antelope' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolimi'smithy, forge'. Thus, iron/metalwork smelter catalogue. Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus 1:meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) 
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 polad pola nausharoLarge painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat. No. 8.
    Hieroglyphs पोळ pōḷa 'zebu'& pōlaḍu 'black drongo' signify polad 'steel

    Evidence is presented from Gufkral (Burzahom) neolithic sitelinked with final Harappa phase of Sarasvati Civilization, Ganga basin iron working dated to ca. 1800 BCE and scores of megalithis sites in South India. These evidences match with textual references and Indus Script decipherment of metalwork cataogues.
    King Puru and Alexander the Great. ca. 330 BCE. Painting in the guesthouse of the largest R&D steel laboratory in the world, the Steel Authority of India, Ranchi. "After King Puru was defeated by Alexander the Great in battle, the King gave, as a token of respect, his sword to Alexander, and behind the King his aide is carrying an additional gift, a gold container within which is a cake of Indian wootz. At the time, this steel was more prized than gold. In a more recent period, the Russian poet, Alexander Pushkin immortalized 'bulat' with a similar comparison when he wrote in 1830 the following poem: All is mine, said gold;all is mine said bulat; all I can buy said gold, all I will take, said bulat. The exact procedures used by the ancient blacksmiths in making the surface markings on genuine Damascus steel swords (it is termed 'genuine' because it is made from a single ultrahigh carbon composition casting) have been the source of much speculation."

    Gregory Possehl and Praveena Gullampalli provide evidence of iron artifacts of Sarasvati-Sindhu (Hindu) Civilization, though there is no evidence of iron smelters in the archaeological sites of the civilization. (Possehl, Gregory L., and Praveena Gullampalli, 1999. The Early Iron Age in South Asia. pp. 153–175 in: Pigott, Vincent C. (ed.), The archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. (MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, University Museum Monograph, volume 16.) Philadelphia: The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.) 

    Iron appears in the greater Punjab by 1000 BCE (Possehl & Gullampali, 1999) and earlier in 2nd millennium BCE in eastern N India and Northern Deccan (Hallur, c. 1200 BCE).  Atharvaveda has references to metals:  11.3.7 -8 śyāma ayas (iron), lohita (copper) , trapu (lead), harita (gold) = Paippalada version 16.53.12-13. 

    The archaeological term "Iron Age" began to be commonly applied to Indian prehistory in the 1960s (N. R. Banerjee, The Iron Age in India, 1965). Note that the use of "Iron Age" for the Kali Yuga is earlier but unrelated, referencing references the mythological "Ages of Man" of HesiodIn the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture. 

    There is evidence of ironworking in Burzahom (Gufkral) dated to 2000 BCE. I suggest that this site is integral to Sarasvati Civilization and explains the use of 'iron' expressions in early texts such as R̥gveda which uses the word 'ayas' to signify both iron and alloy metal.



    Three sites of Kasshmir Neolithic are: Burzahom, Gufkral (Gofkral) and Kanishkapura (Kanispur).



    Atharva Veda refers to Iron as a metal:
    Atharva Veda: 11.3.5, 6, 7
    ashvaa kanaa gaavastandulaa mashakaastushaah ||5||
    kabru faleekaranaah sharo'bhram ||6||
    shyaamamayo'sya maamsaani lohitamasya lohitam || 7||

    Horses are the grains, oxen the winnowed ricegrains, gnats the husks. (5)
    Kabru is the husked grain, the rain cloud is the reed. (6)
    Grey iron is its flesh, copper its blood. (7)

    The above hymn is in glorification of Odana or the boiled rice, a staple diet for most Indians even now. It glorifies Odana metaphorically in many ways by saying that Brihaspati is its head, Brahma the mouth, Heaven and Earth are the ears, the Sun and Moon are the eyes, the seven Rishis.
     are the vital airs inhaled and exhaled, and so on.
    Bronze Age India and the State in History
    Metal work in Bronze Age India
    See also: 
    Bronze Age and Iron Age artifacts unearthed in Myanmar
    The Bronze Age of Southeast AsiaThe Bronze Age of Southeast Asia By Charles Higham
    Bronze age stone urns in Assam, Sulawesi, Laos: migrations over millennia from northern India through SE Asia to Indonesia
    Recreating an ancient trade route

    Bronze age indus quarries of Rohri hills and Ongar in Sindh



















    Source:

     By Charles Higham, 1996, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, p. 295
    http://www.ling.hawaii.edu/austroasiatic/AA/pinnow-map-small.jpg 


    Location map of Austro-speakers and location map of mineral resources
    evidence a remarkable overlap,suggesting a hypothesis that mleccha
    speakers were the inventors of bronze-age alloying and also of Indus script.

    Gregory Possehl and Praveen Gullapalli date the iron artifacts from Gufkral neolithic site to 2195 BCE to 1885 BCE dates.
    Image result for gufkral gullapalli

    BR Mani refers to the following  r̥ca-s as indicative of link between Soma and water-buffalo:

    RV 9.87.7
    Trans. Griffith: RV 9.87. 7 This Soma, pressed into the cleansing filter, hath run as it were a host let loose, the Courser;
    Like a strong bull (buffalo) who whets his horns kpenpointed-, like a brave warrior in the fray for cattle.

    RV 9.92.6
    Trans. Griffith: RV 9.92.6 As the priest seeks the station rich in cattle, like a true King who goes to great assemblies,
    Soma hath sought the beakers while they cleansed him, and like a wild bull (buffalo), in the wood hath
    settled.

    Indus Script hypertexts

    ṭhaṭera 'buffalo horns'. Rebus: ṭhaṭerā 'brass worker'
    meḍha 'polar star' (Marathi). Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.)

    Indus Script decipherment has the following reading for buffalo linking it with an alloy metal (alloy of copper, tin,pewter, spelter): 
    The text link of buffalo with soma indicates that soma also perhaps indicated some type of alloy metal, e.g. electrum,assem, compound of silver and gold.
    Buffalo on pottery (Indus Script hypertexts)


    A man lifts a bull. A buffalo-man fights lions. After Amiet 1980: no. 586
    Hieroglyph: rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ 

    Rebus: Pk. raṅga 'tin' P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼOr. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅgaada -- m. ʻ borax ʼ lex.Kho. (Lor.) ruṅ ʻ saline ground with white efflorescence, salt in earth ʼ  *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.


    Proto-Elamite seal impressions, Susa. Seated bulls in penance posture. (After Amiet 1980: nos. 581, 582).
    Hieroglyph: kamaDha 'penance' (Prakritam) Rebus: kammaTTa 'coiner, mint'

    Hieroglyph: dhanga 'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'
    Hieroglyph: rango 'buffalo' Rebus: rango 'pewter'.

    Mohenjo-daro. Square seal depicting a nude male deity with three faces, seated in yogic position on a throne, wearing bangles on both arms and an elaborate headdress. Five symbols of the Indus script appear on either side of the headdress which is made of two outward projecting buffalo style curved horns, with two upward projecting points. A single branch with three pipal leaves rises from the middle of the headdress. 

    Seven bangles are depicted on the left arm and six on the right, with the hands resting on the knees. The heels are pressed together under the groin and the feet project beyond the edge of the throne. The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals. The seal may not have been fired, but the stone is very hard. A grooved and perforated boss is present on the back of the seal.
    Material: tan steatite Dimensions: 2.65 x 2.7 cm, 0.83 to 0.86 thickness Mohenjo-daro, DK 12050
    Islamabad Museum, NMP 50.296 Mackay 1938: 335, pl. LXXXVII, 222 
    kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit)  Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/ईAV. v , 19 , 12 Kaus3.ccord. to Kaus3. Sch. = बदरी, "Christ's thorn".(Monier-Williams)
    Hieroglyph: kamaḍha ‘penance’ (Pkt.) Rebus 1: kampaṭṭa  ‘mint’ (Ma.) kamaṭa = portable furnace for melting precious metals (Te.);Rebus 2: kaṇḍa ‘fire-altar' (Santali); kan ‘copper’ (Ta.)  

    Hieroglyph: karã̄ n. pl. ʻwristlets, bangles ʼ (Gujarati); kara 'hand' (Rigveda) Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) 
    The bunch of twigs = ku_di_, ku_t.i_ (Skt.lex.) ku_di_ (also written as ku_t.i_ in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kaus’ika Su_tra (Bloomsfield’s ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk,98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badari_, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).[Note the twig adoring the head-dress of a horned, standing person]

    Mahadevan concordance Field Symbol 83: Person wearing a diadem or tall
    head-dress standing within an ornamented arch; there are two stars on either


    Hieroglyph multiplexes of the hypertext of the cylinder seal from a Near Eastern Source can be identified: aquatic bird, rhinoceros, buffalo, buffalo horn, crucible, markhor, antelope, hoofed stool, fish, tree, tree branch, twig, roundish stone, tiger, rice plant.

    Hieroglyph components on the head-gear of the person on cylinder seal impression are: twig, crucible, buffalo horns: kuThI 'badari ziziphus jojoba' twig Rebus: kuThi 'smelter'; koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer'; tattAru 'buffalo horn' Rebus: ṭhã̄ṭhāro 'brassworker'.

    Image result for jujube twigZiziphur Jojoba, badari twig

    kūdī ‘twig’ Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter’. The two ibexes + twig hieroglyhs, thus, connote a metal merchant/artisan with a smelter. The bunch of twigs = kūdi_, kūṭī  (Skt.lex.) kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kauśika Sūtra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177). Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)

    After Table 2 in BR Mani, 2006, opcit.

    The Burzahom archaeological site is located in the Kashmir Valley of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Archaeological excavations have revealed four phases of cultural significance between 3000 BC and 1000 BCE. Neolithic Burzahom also had textile industry. "The Burzahom site revealed the transition from the subterranean and ground level housing features of the Neolithic people to the mudbrick structures of the Megalithic people. The large cache of tools and implements made of bone and stone found at the site shows that the inhabitants were hunting and farming. The unearthed Antiquities (of art, architecture, customs and rituals) indicate that the prehistoric people of the Burzahom established contact with Central Asia and South West Asia and also had links to the Gangetic plains and peninsular India. The interaction of local and foreign influences is demonstrated by the art, architecture, customs, rituals and language demonstrated by some engravings on pottery and other artifacts...Gufkral represents another related site in the area, near the town of Tral. Also, Hariparigam, and Awantipura, in the same area, are related."
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burzahom_archaeological_site
    Image result for burzahom br mani
    Location of Burzahom in relation to Sarasvati Civilization sites.

    In an insightful monograph,BR Mani establishes a link between Burzahom (Kashmir Neolithic) and 'Ear;u Harappan' phase of Sarasvati Civilization': http://archaeology.up.nic.in/doc/kneh_brm.pdf

    (Paper presented in the International seminar on the "First Farmers in Global Perspective', Lucknow, India, 18-20 January, 2006.)

    R. Tewari (2003) radiocarbon dated iron artefacts in Uttar Pradesh, including furnaces, tuyeres and slag between 

    c. 1800 and 1000 BCE. Iron using and iron working was prevalent in the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas from the early second millennium BCE.

    The earliest Iron Age Megalithis sites in South India are HallurKarnataka and AdichanallurTamil Nadu at around 1000 BCE..



    Praveena Gullapalli, 2009, Early Metal in South India: Copper and Iron in Megalithic Contexts 
    • in: 
    • Journal of World Prehistory 22(4) Decaember 2009, 22(4), pp.439-459 Abstract. 
    In South India early metal artifacts, usually associated with megalithic sites, include both copper and iron. Although in some cases copper artifacts predate those made of iron, there is no evidence of an extensive metallurgical tradition based on copper and its alloys. Typological studies have had limited success in explaining the megalithic sites and the production and consumption of metal, while other approaches have not explicitly addressed the social contexts of metal production. While there emerge some suggestive patterns from the archaeometallurgical evidence to date, understanding the role of metal production and consumption in megalithic contexts means reevaluating traditional paradigms about the nature of these sites and about how metal technologies develop.
    Praveen Gullapalli, 2014, Chapter 25 Early Metal in South India: Copper and Iron in Megalithic contexts in: Benjamin W. Roberts, Christopher P. Thornton, eds., Archaeometallurgy in Global Perspective: Methods and Syntheses, Springer Science & Business Media, pp. 729-753.

    https://www.academia.edu/7346972/Early_ironworking_in_Iron_Age_South_India_New_evidence_for_the_social_organization_of_production_from_northern_Karnataka Peter G. Johansen, Early iron working in Iron Age South India, new evidence for social organization of production from northern Karnataka.


    While there is evidence of ironworking in megalithic sites of South India, Iron smelting predates the emergence of the Iron Age proper isdated to an earlier period by several centuries."the date of the beginning of iron smelting in India may well be placed as early as the sixteenth century BC [...] by about the early decade of thirteenth century BCE iron smelting was definitely known in India on a bigger scale" (Rakesh Tewari (2003), The origins of Iron-working in India: New evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas. Archaeology Online.) http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/iron-ore.html Abstract. Recent excavations in Uttar Pradesh have turned up iron artefacts, furnaces, tuyeres and slag in layers radiocarbon dated between c. BCE 1800 and 1000. This raises again the question of whether iron working was brought in to India during supposed immigrations of the second millennium BCE, or developed independently.
    table
    Table 1. Dates* for early iron-use from Indian sitesThese dates are calibrated by Dr B. Sekar, BSIP, Lucknow. References for datasets used: Stuiver, et al. 1998a. 537
    table
    Table 2. New 14C dates for early iron-use from the Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas
    map
    Map showing locations of the Early Iron Age sites in the Central Ganga Plain, the Eastern Vindhyas, and different regions of India.

    Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II, Raja Nala-ka-tila, Dist. Sonbhadra
     Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
    Damaged circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyeres and other waste materials stuck with its body, exposed at lohsanwa mound, Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
    Highly corroded iron arrowhead, Period I, Dadupur, Dist. Lucknow.


    Hundreds of inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora attest the hieroglyph: ayo 'fish'. 

    This word has many cognate phonetic variants.


    Mohenjo-daro Seal m1118 and Kalibangan Seal 032, glyphs used are: 

    Zebu (bos taurus indicus), fish, four-strokes (allograph: arrow).ayo ‘fish’ (Mu.) + 

    kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pā.ga) aya = iron (G.); 

    ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.) gaṆḌa, ‘four’ (Santali); Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’, ‘furnace’), 

    arrow read rebus in mleccha (Meluhhan) as a reference to a guild of artisans working 

    with ayaskāṇḍa ‘excellent quantity of iron’ (Pāini) is consistent with the primacy of 

    economic activities which resulted in the invention of a writing system, now referred 

    to as Indus Writing.

    poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'

    Allographs काण्डः kāṇḍḥ ण्डम् ṇḍam The portion of a plant from one knot to another. 

    काण्डात्काण्ड- त्प्ररोहन्तीMahānār.4.3. A stem, stock, branch; लीलोत्खातमृणालकाण्डकवलच्छेदे U.3.16; 

    Amaru.95; Ms. 1.46,48, Māl.3.34. 

    కాండము [ kāṇḍamu ] kānamu. [Skt.] n. Water. నీళ్లు (Telugu) kaṇṭhá -- : (b) 

    ʻ water -- channel ʼ: Paš. kaāˊ ʻ irrigation channel ʼ, Shum. xãṭṭä. (CDIAL 14349).

    lokhã ‘overflowing pot’ Rebus:  ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ (Gujarati)

    काण्ड an arrow MBh. xiii , 265 Hit. (Monier-Williams, p. 269) Rebus: काण्ड abundance; 

    a multitude , heap , quantity (ifc.) Pa1n2. 4-2 , 51 Ka1s3.

    Munda etyma related to ayo, ayu:

    bea hako (ayo) ‘fish’ (Santali); bea ‘either of the sides of a hearth’ (G.) 

    Munda: So. ayo `fish'. Go. ayu `fish'. Go <ayu> (Z), <ayu?u> (Z),, 

    <ayu?> (A) {N} ``^fish''. Kh. kaDOG `fish'. Sa. Hako `fish'. 

    Mu. hai (H) ~ haku(N) ~ haikO(M) `fish'. Ho haku `fish'. Bj. hai `fish'. 

    Bh.haku `fish'. KW haiku ~ hakO |Analyzed hai-kO, ha-kO (RDM). 

    Ku. Kaku`fish'.@(V064,M106) Mu. ha-i, haku `fish' (HJP). @(V341) ayu>(Z), <ayu?u> (Z)  

    <ayu?>(A) {N} ``^fish''. #1370. <yO>\\<AyO>(L) {N} ``^fish''. #3612. 

    <kukkulEyO>,,<kukkuli-yO>(LMD) {N} ``prawn''. !Serango dialect. #32612. 

    <sArjAjyO>,,<sArjAj>(D) {N} ``prawn''. #32622. 

    <magur-yO>(ZL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish''. *Or.<>. #32632. 

    <ur+GOl-Da-yO>(LL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish''. #32642.

    <bal.bal-yO>(DL) {N} ``smoked fish''. #15163.


    Glyph: meD 'to dance' (F.)[reduplicated from me-]; me id. (M.) in Remo (Munda)(Source: D. Stampe's Munda etyma) meṭṭu to tread, trample, crush under foot, tread or place the foot upon (Te.); meṭṭu step (Ga.); mettunga steps (Ga.). maḍye to trample, tread (Malt.)(DEDR 5057) మెట్టు (p. 1027) [ meṭṭu ] meṭṭu. [Tel.] v. a. &n. To step, walk, tread. అడుగుపెట్టు, నడుచు, త్రొక్కు. "మెల్ల మెల్లన మెట్టుచుదొలగి అల్లనల్లనతలుపులండకు జేరి." BD iv. 1523. To tread on, to trample on. To kick, to thrust with the foot.మెట్టిక meṭṭika. n. A step , మెట్టు, సోపానము (Telugu)
    Rebus: meD 'iron' (Mundari. Remo.)



    Tepe Yahya. Seal impressions of two sides of a seal. Six-legged lizard and opposing footprints shown on opposing sides of a double-sided steatite stamp seal perforated along the lateral axis. Lamberg- Karlovsky 1971: fig. 2C Shahr-i-Soktha Stamp seal shaped like a foot.

    Glyph: aṭi foot, footprint (Tamil) Rebus: aḍe, aḍa, aḍi the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to operate upon, a support (Kannada)


    Glyph: araṇe 'lizard' (Tulu) eraṇi f. ʻ anvil ʼ (Gujarati); aheraṇ, ahiraṇ, airaṇ, airṇī, haraṇ f. (Marathi) அரணை Ta. araṇai typical lizard, Lacertidae; smooth streaked lizard, Lacerta interpunctula. Ma. araṇa green house lizard, L. interpunctula. Ka. araṇe, rāṇe, rāṇi greenish kind of lizard which is said to poison by licking, L. interpunctula. Tu. araṇe id. (DEDR 204).

    Glyph: bhaṭa ‘six’ (G.) rebus: baṭa = kiln (Santali) baṭa = a kind of iron (Gujarati)  [Note: six legs shown on the lizard glyph]

    The rebus readings are: aḍi 'anvil' airaṇ 'anvil' (for use in) baṭa 'iron working' or kiln/furnace-work.

    See:

     

    Harappa seal h166A, h166B. Vats, 1940, Excavations in Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta: Pl. XCI. 255   

    फडा (p. 313phaā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paam id. Ka. pee id. Te. paaga id. Go. (S.) page, (Mu.) baak, (Ma.) baki, (F-H.) biki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaa-, sphaā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    dhanga 'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'      
    kanda.’fire-altar’.khamba ‘wing’ rebus: kammaTa ‘mint’. gaṇḍa ‘four’ Rebus: khaṇḍa ‘metal implements.  Together with cognate ancu ‘iron’ the message is: native metal implements mint.

    श्येन [p= 1095,2] m. a hawk , falcon , eagle , any bird of prey (esp. the eagle that brings down सोम to man) RV. &c; firewood laid in the shape of an eagle Śulbas. (Monier-Williams) śyēná m. ʻ hawk, falcon, eagle ʼ RV. Pa. sēna -- , °aka -- m. ʻ hawk ʼ, Pk. a -- m.; WPah.bhad. śe ʻ kite ʼ; A. xen ʻ falcon, hawk ʼ, Or. seā, H. sensẽ m., M. śen m., śenī f. (< MIA. *senna -- ); Si. sen ʻ falcon, eagle, kite ʼ.(CDIAL 12674) Rebus: sena 'thunderbolt' (Sinhala): 

    aśáni f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ RV., °nī -- f. ŚBr. [Cf. áśan -- m. ʻ sling -- stone ʼ RV.] Pa. asanī -- f. ʻ thunderbolt, lightning ʼ, asana -- n. ʻ stone ʼ; Pk. asai -- m.f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ; Ash. ašĩˊ ʻ hail ʼ, Wg. ašē˜ˊ, Pr. īšĩ, Bashg. "azhir", Dm. ašin, Paš. ášen, Shum. äˊšin, Gaw. išín, Bshk. ašun, Savi išin, Phal. ã̄šun, L. (Jukes) ahin, awā. &circmacrepsilon;n (both with n, not ), P. āhi, f., āhaaiha m.f., WPah. bhad. ã̄ṇhii f., N. asino, pl. °nā; Si. senahea ʻ thunderbolt ʼ Geiger GS 34, but the expected form would be *ā̤n; -- Sh. aĩyĕˊr f. ʻ hail ʼ (X ?). -- For ʻ stone ʼ> ʻ hailstone ʼ cf. upala -- and A. xil s.v.śilāˊ -- . (CDIAL 910) vajrāśani m. ʻ Indra's thunderbolt ʼ R. [vájra -- , aśáni -- ]Aw. bajāsani m. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ prob. ← Sk.(CDIAL 11207)


    Vikalpa: Ta. eruvai a kind of kite whose head is white and whose body is brown; eagle. Ma. eruva eagle, kite.(DEDR 818). Rebus: eruvai ‘copper’ (Tamil).

    eṟaka ‘wing’ (Telugu) Rebus: erako ‘molten cast’ (Tulu) loa ‘ficus’; rebus: loh ‘copper’. Pajhar ‘eagle’; rebus: pasra ‘smithy’.
    Yaillaka - Yajna  ( words like Yaksha, Yakshma, Yaju, Yajna etc. )
    Yajna - Yajnopaveeta (Yajna, Yajnaansha, Yajnopaveeta etc.)      
    Yajnopeta - Yamadanshtra (Yati, Yadu, Yantra, Yama etc.)
    Yamadandadharaa - Yashti  (Yamunaa/Yamuna, Yayaati, Yava, Yasha/fame, Yashodaa, Yashti etc.)
    Yaaga - Yuddha  (Yaajnavalkya, Yaatudhaana, Yaatraa/travel, Yaama, Yuga, Yuddha/war etc. )
    Yudha - Yogamaayaa (Yudhishthira, Yuvanaashva, Yuupa, Yoga, Yoganidra etc.)
    Yogalakshmi - Raja  (Yogini, Yogi, Yoni/womb, Rakta/blood, Raktabeeja etc. )
    यूपस्थापनस्य अयं चित्रं गार्गेयपुरम्, कर्नूलनगर मध्ये माघ शुक्ल तृतीया, विक्रम संवत् २०७१ काले ज्योतिष्टोम अप्तोर्याम सोमयागतः गृहीतं भवति ।
    राजस्थानस्य बिंजौर स्थाने भारतीय पुरातत्त्व विभागेन खननमध्ये प्राप्तं  हडप्पासभ्यताकालिक यागस्य  दृश्यं। यूपस्य अवयवभूता अष्टाश्रि इष्टिका द्रष्टव्यं अस्ति। चित्रस्य स्रोतं -
    यूपः
    १. अमुष्मै ( द्युलोकाय ) यूपः ( मीयते ) ! काठ २५१०क ४०४१३ ।।
    २. अष्टाश्रिः ( यूपः ) कार्यःतस्मात् पर्णमयः, - - - तस्मात् खादिरः- - -तस्माद् बैल्वो ब्रह्मवर्चसकामेन कार्यः । मै ३३ (तु. माश )।
    ३. खल उत्तरवेदिरत्र हि स रसः समवैति सरसं एव यज्ञं करोति। खलेवाली यूपो भवत्येतया हि तं रसमुत्कृषन्ति । तां १६१३ ।
    ४. खादिरो यूपो भवति । माश ,,,१२ ।।
    ५. गर्तन्वान्यूपो ऽतीक्ष्णाग्रो भवति । माश  ।
    ६. तं ( देवाः ) वै ( यज्ञम् ) यूपेनैवायोपयंस्तद्यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । ऐ , ।
    पशुश्च वै यूपश्च । - - - - -यथा हैवायं द्विपात्पुरुष उच्छ्रित एवं हैव द्विपाद उच्छ्रिताश्चेरुः। ततो देवा एतं वज्रं ददृशुः । यद्यूपं – माश. ३.७.३.१
    ७. तस्माद्यूप ऽ एव पशुमालभन्ते नऽर्ते यूपात्कदाचन । माश  ।
    ८. ते ( देवाः) ऽकामयन्तेमं नो ( स्वर्गम् ) लोकमन्यो नानुप्रजानीयादितिते दिशो ऽयोपयन् यद्दिशो ऽयोपयंस्तद् यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । काठ २६क ४१,४ ।
    ९. देवानां ऊर्ध्वम्̇ रशनाया आ चषालाद् इन्द्रस्य चषालम्̇ साध्यानाम् अतिरिक्तम्̇  वा एष सर्व देवत्यो यद् यूपो यद् यूपम् मिनोति सर्वा एव देवताः प्रीणाति - - - ते ( देवाः ) यूपेन योपयित्वा सुवर्गं लोकमायन् तमृषयो यूपेनैवानु प्राजानन् । तद्यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । तैस 
    १० पशवे वै यूपमुच्छ्रयन्ति । माश  ।।
    ११. बैल्वो वा खादिरो वा पालाशो वा रौहीतको वा सौम्यस्याध्वरस्य यूपः स्यात् । औदुम्बरो यूपो भवति । खादिरे बध्नाति,पालाशे बध्नातिरौहीतके बध्नाति । काठसंक १३७ :९-१२ ।
    १२. यूपस्थापनाभिधानम् - ऊर्ग् वै रशना यजमानेन यूपः संमितः यजमानम् एवोर्जा समर्धयति । तैसं 
    १३. यज्ञेन वै देवा: स्वर्गं लोकमायं स्तेऽमन्यन्ताऽनेन वै नोऽन्ये लोकमन्वारोक्ष्यन्तीतितं यूपेनायोपयं स्तद् यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । मै ३,,
    १४. यदनेन (यूपेन देवा यज्ञम् ) अयोपयंस्तस्माद्यूपो नाम । माश ,,,,,,,,२ ।।
    १५. यूपस् (चतुर्द्धाविभक्तस्य वज्रस्य) तृतीयं (तृतीयोंऽशः) वा यावद्वा । माश ,, ।
    ततो द्वाभ्यां ब्राह्मणा यज्ञे चरन्ति द्वाभ्यां राजन्यबन्धवः संव्याधे यूपेन च स्फ्येन च ब्राह्मणा – माश १.२.४.२
    १६. अग्निर्वा अश्वः श्वेतो यूप स्थाणुः(कद्रू – सुपर्णी आख्यानम्) । माश ,६ २,
    १७. यूपाद्वै देवाः स्वर्गं लोकमायन् । क ४१,२ ।।
    १८. वज्रो वा एष यद्यूपः सोऽष्टाश्रि कर्तव्योऽष्टाश्रिर्वै वज्र । ऐ ,:
    वज्रो वा एष यद्यूपः – ऐ २.३कौ १०,ष ४,४ (तु. मै ३,,काठ २९क ४१,माश ३,,१९) ।।
    १९. अथ यूपशकलमादत्ते - - - -वज्रो वै यूपशकलः वज्रः शासो वज्र आज्यं । माश ,,, :
    २०. यूपस्थापनाभिधानम् - वैष्णवो वै देवतया यूपः । तैसं ,,, (तु. काठ ३४,१५माश ३,,१) ।
    २१. यूपं व्रक्ष्यन्वैष्णव्यर्चा जुहोति । वैष्णवो हि (वै [काठ.] ) यूपः । मै ३,,काठ २६,क ४१माश ,,,
    २२. शिखा (हृदयं [ते.J) यूपः । मै ४,,तैआ १०६४,१ ।
    २३. सप्तदशारत्निर्यूपो भवति । तै ,, ।।
    २४. सर्वदेवत्यो (+वै [मै.J) यूपः । मै ३.९,काठ २६,क ४१,४ ।।
    २५. स वा एष सर्वदेवत्यो यद् यूपः । तैसं ६,,७ ।
    २६. स्तुप एवास्य (हविर्धानस्य) यूपः । बाहू एवास्याग्नीध्रीयश्च मार्जालीयश्च -  माश ,,, ॥
    असौ वा अस्य (अग्निहोत्रस्य कर्तुः) आदित्यो यूपः पृथिवी वेदिरोषधयो बर्हिर्वनस्पतय इध्मा आपः प्रोक्षण्यो दिशः परिधयो – ऐ. ५.२८
    अग्निहोत्रम् - वनस्पतय इध्मः । दिशः परिधयः । आदित्यो यूपः।यजमानः पशुः – तै.ब्रा. २.१.५.२
    यूपेन वा आहुतयः स्वर्गं लोकं यन्ति – मै.सं. ४.८.८
    गायत्रो हि यूपः मै. ३.९.३
    तेजो वै यूपः – मै. ३.९.३
    यथा वै नासिकैवं यूपः तस्मादिमे अभितो नासिकां चक्षुषी – माश. ४.२.१.२५
    एष वै यजमानो यद्यूपः – तै.ब्रा. १.३.७.३
    यूपोच्छ्रयणम् - यजमानो वा एष निदानेन यद्यूपः – मा.श. ३.७.१.११
    यजमानो वै यूपः यजमानमेवैतत्तेजसा च ब्रह्मवर्चसेन चोभयतः परिधत्तः – काठ. २९.८, ऐ. २.३, मा.श. १३.२.६.९
    यजमानो यूपः – मै. १.८.७, काठ. ६.६, क. ४१.४
    अश्वमेधः - होता च ब्रह्मा च ब्रह्मोद्यं वदतः  - - - - - यूपमभितो वदतः। यजमानदेवत्यो वै यूपः – तै.ब्रा. ३.९.५.२
    यथा उ वै पशुः। एवं यूपः।तद्यदेतं सौत्रामणिकं यूपमेतौ यूपावभितो भवतः। तस्मादिमावात्मानमभितो बाहू॥ - माश.१२.९.३.१६

    The references cited above are remarkable documentation of archaeometallurgical processes of Veda times.
    वज्रो वा एष यद्यूपः सोऽष्टाश्रि कर्तव्योऽष्टाश्रिर्वै वज्र । ऐ ,:
    देवानां ऊर्ध्वम्̇ रशनाया आ चषालाद् इन्द्रस्य चषालम्̇ साध्यानाम् अतिरिक्तम्̇  वा एष सर्व देवत्यो यद् यूपो यद् यूपम् मिनोति सर्वा एव देवताः प्रीणाति - - - ते ( देवाः ) यूपेन योपयित्वा सुवर्गं लोकमायन् तमृषयो यूपेनैवानु प्राजानन् । तद्यूपस्य यूपत्वम् । तैस 

    Yupa made of woods (tree trunks) are to oxidise impure metals and in calcination processes to create lead litharge to realize silver: बैल्वो वा खादिरो वा पालाशो वा रौहीतको वा सौम्यस्याध्वरस्य यूपः स्यात् । औदुम्बरो यूपो भवति । खादिरे बध्नाति,पालाशे बध्नातिरौहीतके बध्नाति । काठसंक १३७ :९-१२ ।
    I think Yupa and caṣāla are devices central to the Soma Samsthā yajña to infuse through carburization process, angāra 'carbon element' through godhuma fumes into molten metal in the yajñakuṇḍa to create kharaḍā, 'hard alloy'. It appears ayas meant 'iron', also 'alloy metal' in Veda times. This archaeometallurgical process is central to the creation of wealth. It is instructive that caṣāla has the following meanings:1.godhuma, 2.vajra; 3. snout of varāha. Sarasvati as signifier of Veda knowledge system adorns the snout of Varāha in the Khajuraho monumental signifier of yajñs puruṣa in over 700 pratimā of Veda devatā and R̥ṣi-s on  the body. I have explained the significance of the cobra and a pair of feet close to the feet of the boar. Footstep in Indus Script hypertext cipher, on Varāha pratimā signifies meḍ 'foot' meḍ 'iron', paṭṭaḍa फड phaḍa, 'manufactory'

    Inline image
    Together, the message of the Binjor Seal with inscribed text is a proclamation, a metalwork catalogue (of)  'metallic iron alloy implements, hard alloy w
    orkshop' .konda 'young bull' kundaṇa 'finegold' kunda 'a nidhi', kō̃da   'fire-altar' (Kashmiri) payĕn-kō̃da पयन्-कोँद । परिपाककन्दुः f. a kiln (a potter's, a lime-kiln, and brick-kiln, or the like); a furnace (for smelting). 

    Binjor Seal inscription, on performing a soma yajña, given the signature stake of an octagonal brick which is अष्टाश्रि 'having eight corners' (Vedic) yupa conveys a message similar to Mulavarman's yupa inscription message  यष्ट्वा बहुसुवर्णकम्  performing a soma yajña : 'mint, metallic iron alloy implements, (of) hard alloy workshop' for shipment on dhow seafaring vessel koTiya from fortification. The metalwork catalogue signified by the Binjor seal is indeed बहुसुवर्णकम्bestowing wealth to the artisans of Binjor. 

    The expression यष्ट्वा बहुसुवर्णकम्  in Mulavarman's first yupa inscription refers to a soma yajña. yaṣṭṛ यष्टृ m. [यज्-तृच्] is 'a worshipper, sacrificer.' The yupa is erected by Mulavarman to commemorate the performance of the soma yajña called बहुसुवर्णकम्

    Binjor seal 
    Binjor Seal Pictorial motif and Text.

    खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.) कोंद kōnda 

    ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) fire-altar. कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. khōṇḍī'pannier sack'खोंडी (Marathi) Rebus: kunda ‘nidhi’ kundaṇa ‘fine gold’ PLUS ko 'horn' rebus: koḍ'workshop' kō̃da पयन्-कोँद । परिपाककन्दुः f. a kiln (a potter's, a lime-kiln, and brick-kiln, or the like); a furnace (for smelting). 
    sã̄gāḍ ‘lathe, portable furnace’ rebus: samgaha,samgraha, 'catalogue, list', sangara ‘proclamation, trade’ kamaṭa ‘portable furnace’ rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner, coinage’.

    The accent is on the fin of fish: khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus:kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'
    PLUS aya 'fish' rebus: ayas 'iron, alloy metal'

    Vikalpa: Fish + scales, aya ã̄s (amśu) ‘metallic stalks of stone ore’. Vikalpa: badho ‘a species of fish with many bones’ (Santali) Rebus: bahoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali)  

    gaṇḍa 'four' Rebus: khaṇḍa 'metal implements' Together with cognate ancu 'iron' the message is: native metal implements. 

     ḍhāla 'flagḍhālako 'ingot' 
    pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel' 

    An exposition by Sadhashiv A Dange: "the yūpa is described as being the emblem of the sacrifice (RV III.8.8 yajñasya ketu). Though it is fixed on the terrestrial plane at the sacrifice, it is expected to reach the path of the gods. Thus, about the many sacrificial poles (fixed in the Paśubandha, or at the Horse-sacrifice) it is said that they actually provide the path for reaching the gods (ib., 9 devānām api yanti pāthah). They are invoked to carry the oferings to the gods (ib., 7 te no vyantu vāryam devatrā), which is the prerogative of the fire-god who is acclaiemd as 'messenger' (dūta); cf. RV I.12.1 agrim dūtam vṛṇimahe). In what way is the yūpa expected to carry the chosen offering to the gods? It is when the victim is tied to the sacrificial pole. The prallelism between the sacrificial fire and the yūpa is clear. The fire carries it through the smoke and flames; the yūpa is believed to carry it before that, when the victim is tied to it, as its upper end is believed to touch heaven. A more vivid picture obtains at the vajapeya. Here the yūpa is eight-angled, corresponding to the eight quarters. (śat. Br. V.2.1.5 aṣṭāśrir yūpo bhavati; the reason given is that the metre Gayatri has eight letters in one foot; not applicable here, as it is just hackneyed. At Taitt.Sam. I.7.9.1, in this context a four-angled yūpa is prescribed.) The one yūpa is conceived as touching three worlds: Heaven, Earth and the nether subterranean. The portion that is above the caṣāla (ring) made of wheat-dough (cf.śat. Br. V.2.1.6 gaudhūmam caṣālam bhavati) represents Heaven. This is clear from the rite of ascending to the caṣālamade of wheat-dough, in the Vajapeya sacrifice. The sarificer ascends to it with the help of a ladder (niśrayaṇī); and, while doing so, calls upon his wife, 'Wife, come; let us ascend to Heaven'.  As soon as he ascends and touches the caṣāla, he utters,  'We have reached Heaven, O gods' (ib., 12). According to Sāyaṇa on the Taiit.Sam. I.7.9.1, the sacrificer stretches his hands upwards when he reaches the  caṣāla and says, 'We have reached the gods that stay in heaven' (udgṛhītābhyām bāhubhyām). Even out of the context of the Vajapeya, when the yūpa is erected (say in the Paśubandha), it is addressed, 'For the earth you, for the mid-region you, for heaven you (do we hoist you)' (Taitt. Sam. I.3.6.1-3; cf. śat. Br. III.7.1.5-6). The chiselled portion of the  yūpa is above the earth. So, from the earth to heaven, through the mid-region the yūpa represents the three-regions. The un-chiselled portion of the yūpa is fixed in the pit (avaṭa) and the avaṭa, which represents the subterranean regions, is the region of the ancestors (ib.4).The yūpa, thus, is the axis mundi...Then, it gave rise to various myths, one of them being that of the stūpa of Varuṇa, developing further into Aśvattha tree, which is nothing but a symbol of a tree standing with roots in the sun conceived as the horse (aśva-stha = aśvattha), a symbol obtaining at varius places in the Hindu tradition. It further developed into the myth of the churning staff of the mountain (Amṛta-manthana); and yet further, into the myth of Vasu Uparicara, whom Indra is said to have given his yaṣṭi (Mb.Adi. 6y3.12-19). This myth of the yaṣṭi was perpetuated in the ritual of the Indra-dhvaja in the secular practice (Brhatsamhita, Chapter XLII), while in the s'rauta practice the original concept of the axis mundi was transformed into the yūpa that reached all regions, including the under-earth. There is another important angle to the yūpa. As the axis mundi it stands erect to the east of the Uttaravedi and indicates the upward move to heaven. This position is unique. If one takes into account the position of the Gārhapatya and the āhavaniya fireplaces, it gets clear that the march is from the earth to heaven; because, the Gārhapatya is associated with this earth and it is the household fire (cf. gṛhā vai gārhapatyah, a very common saying in the ritual texts), and the seat of the sacrificer's wife is just near it, along with the wives of the gods, conceptually. From this fire a portion is led to the east, in the quarter of the rising sun (which is in tune with such expressions as prāñcam yajñam pra nayatā sahāyah, RV X.101.2); where the Ahavaniya fireplace is structured. As the offerings for the gods are cast in the Ahavaniya, this fire is the very gate of heaven. And, here stands, the yūpa to its east taking a rise heavenwards. This is, by far, the upward rise. But, on the horizontal plane, the yūpa is posted half-inside, half-outside the altar. The reason is, that thereby it controls the sacred region and also the secular, i.e. both heaven and earth, a belief attested by the ritual texts. (Tait. Sam. VI.6.4.1; Mait. Sam. III.9.4)."(Dange, SA, 2002, Gleanings from Vedic to Puranic age, New Delhi, Aryan Books International, pp. 20-24).

    The Sukta RV X.101 reads, explaining the entire yajña as a metaphor of golden-tinted soma poured into a wooden bowl, a smelting process yielding weapons of war and transport and implements of daily life.

    Kalibangan & Binjor evidence for Vājapeya सोमः संस्था यज्ञ, yajña yūpa, related Indus Script inscriptions, linga, skambha
    Inline image

    10101a10101b

    10.101.01 Awake, friends, being all agreed; many in number, abiding in  one dwelling, kindle Agni. I invoke you, Dadhikra, Agni, and the divine Us.as, who are associated with Indra, for our protection. [In one dwelling: lit., in one nest; in one hall]. 
    10.101.02 Construct exhilarating (hymns), spread forth praises, construct the ship which is propelled by oars, prepare your weapons, make ready, lead forth, O friends, the herald, the adorable (Agni). 
    10.101.03 Harness the ploughs, fit on the yokes, now that the womb of earth is ready, sow the seed therein, and through our praise may there be abundant food; may (the grain) fall ripe towards the sickle. [Through our praise: sow the seed with praise, with a prayer of the Veda; s'rus.t.i = rice and other different kinds of food]. 
    10.101.04 The wise (priests) harness the ploughs, they lay the yokes apart, firmly devoted through the desire of happiness. [Happiness: sumnaya_ =  to give pleasure to the gods]. 
    10.101.05 Set up the cattle-troughs, bind the straps to it; let us pour out (the water of) the well, which is full of water, fit to be poured out, and not easily exhausted. 
    10.101.06 I pour out (the water of) the well, whose cattle troughs are prepared, well fitted with straps, fit to be poured out, full of water, inexhaustible. 
    10.101.07 Satisfy the horses, accomplish the good work (of ploughing), equip a car laden with good fortune, pour out (the water of) the well, having wooden cattle-troughs having a stone rim, having a receptable like armour, fit for the drinking of men. 
    10.101.08 Construct the cow-stall, for that is the drinking place of your leaders (the gods), fabricate armour, manifold and ample; make cities of metal and impregnable; let not the ladle leak, make it strong. 
    10.101.09 I attract, O gods, for my protection, your adorable, divine mine, which is deserving of sacrifice and worship here; may it milk forth for us, like a large cow with milk, giving a thousand strreams, (having eaten) fodder and returned. 
    10.101.10 Pour out the golden-tinted Soma into the bowl of the wooden cup, fabricate it with the stone axes, gird it with ten bands, harness the beast of burden to the two poles (of the cart). 
    10.101.11 The beast of burden pressed with the two cart-poles, moves as if on the womb of sacrifice having two wives. Place the chariot in the wood, without digging store up the Soma. 
    10.101.12 Indra, you leaders, is the giver of happiness; excite the giver of happiness, stimulate him, sport with him for the acquisition of food, bring down here, O priests, Indra, the son of Nis.t.igri_, to drink the Soma. [Nis.t.igri_ = a name of Aditi: nis.t.im ditim svasapatni_m girati_ti nis.t.igri_raditih].

     http://tinyurl.com/oe5sx3v

    Naga worshippers of fiery pillar, Amaravati stup  Smithy is the temple of Bronze Age: stambha, thãbharā fiery pillar of light, Sivalinga. Rebus-metonymy layered Indus script cipher signifies: tamba, tã̄bṛā, tambira 'copper' 
    Railing crossbar with monks worshiping a fiery pillar, a symbol of the Buddha, , Great Stupa of Amaravati

    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/05/smithy-is-temple-of-bronze-age-stambha_14.html
    Railing crossbar with monks worshiping a fiery pillar, a symbol of the Buddha,

    Relief with Ekamukha linga. Mathura. 1st cent. CE (Fig. 6.2). This is the most emphatic representation of linga as a pillar of fire. The pillar is embedded within a brick-kiln with an angular roof and is ligatured to a tree. Hieroglyph: kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter'. In this composition, the artists is depicting the smelter used for smelting to create mũh 'face' (Hindi) rebus: mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) of mēḍha 'stake' rebus: meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho. Munda)मेड (p. 662) [ mēḍa ] f (Usually मेढ q. v.) मेडका m A stake, esp. as bifurcated. मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] f A forked stake. Used as a post. Hence a short post generally whether forked or not. मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. 2 A dense arrangement of stakes, a palisade, a paling. मेढी (p. 665) [ mēḍhī ] f (Dim. of मेढ) A small bifurcated stake: also a small stake, with or without furcation, used as a post to support a cross piece. मेढ्या (p. 665) [ mēḍhyā ] a (मेढ Stake or post.) A term for a person considered as the pillar, prop, or support (of a household, army, or other body), the staff or stay. मेढेजोशी (p. 665) [ mēḍhējōśī ] m A stake-जोशी; a जोशी who keeps account of the तिथि &c., by driving stakes into the ground: also a class, or an individual of it, of fortune-tellers, diviners, presagers, seasonannouncers, almanack-makers &c. They are Shúdras and followers of the मेढेमत q. v. 2 Jocosely. The hereditary or settled (quasi fixed as a stake) जोशी of a village.मेंधला (p. 665) [ mēndhalā ] m In architecture. A common term for the two upper arms of a double चौकठ (door-frame) connecting the two. Called also मेंढरी & घोडा. It answers to छिली the name of the two lower arms or connections. (Marathi)
    मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end rebus: meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho. Munda) 

    Image result for pillar of fire bhuteshwar
    A hieroglyph-multiplex, iconogrpahic enquiry of archaeometallurgy and Indus Script Corpora parallels the extraordinary adhyatmika enquiry in Atharvaveda Skambha Sukta unraveling the purification processes signified by the sivalinga. It is a metaphor for the axis mundi linking earth and heaven as the artisans are awestruck by the mere earth dhatugarbha, dagoba yielding metal implements. The veneration of a linga documented with a purificatory inscrition links the Dong Son Bronze drum hieroglyphs, Sarasvati-Sindhu artefacts of sivalinga and Eurasian evidences of veneration of pitr-s, ancestors. This is a celebration of dharma-dhamma continuum venerated in a Darasuram temple frieze of siva emerging out of the linga with Brahma as hamsa searching in the heavens and Vishnu digging into the earth to find the endless, beginningless form of the Skambha, the pillar of light, the pillar of fire, sivalinga embedded in every fire-altar of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization by Bharatam Janam, the metalcasters of the Bronze Age.

    A stunning explanation for the Bronze Age principal life-activity metaphor as sivalinga appears in Candi Sukuh temple. This temple has a sivalinga and an inscription. The inscription explains the raison d'etrefor the linga which is iconographically unique with four round balls on the tip of the skambha, pillar 6 feet tall. The inscribed hieroglyphs are: 4 round balls, a sword; and inscription in Javanese, referring to 'inauguration of the holy ganggasudhi...' The round balls are khāṇḍā. The pillar is lo 'loha, copper'; together, lokhāṇḍā 'metal implements'. The phonetic reinforcer is sword: khaṇḍa 'sword'. Ganggasudhi is a veneration of the ancestors.


    This note sees an essential unity among the Sit Shamshi bronze, the Dong Son bronze drum tympanum with Indus Script hieroglyphs and the sivalingas found in Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization of ca. 3rd millennium BCE in the context of the sivalinga as a metaphor of metalwork life-activities of the Bronze Age.


    With the iconographic reinforcement of Candi Sukuh, Swami Vivekananda's inspired explanation for Atharva Veda Skambha Sukta as a representation of Yupa-Skambha gets validated. The skambha, the cosmic dance of creation explains the processes of purification which result in the metalforms arsing out of earth impregnated in fire of the furnace or crucible. The demonstration of the cosmic dance of creation occurs in the temple, the smithy, kole.l
    Image result for fin bharatkalyan97

    Hundreds of inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora attest the hieroglyph: ayo 'fish'. This word has many cognate phonetic variants.



    See: 



    अयस् [p= 85,1] n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10; gold Naigh.; steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ.Eisen.]) कृष्णा* यस [p= 308,1] n. id. ChUp. MBh. Sus3r. (cf. काला*य्° and कार्ष्णा*य्°.) n. black or crude iron , iron VarBr2S. Sus3r. ChUp. vi , 1 , 6 Sch. कार्ष्णा* यस
     [p= 277,1]mf()n. (fr. कृष्णा*यस्) , made of black iron ChUp. vi , 1 , 6 Mn. xi , 133 MBh. &c; iron (Monier-Williams)

    Āyasa (adj.) [Sk. āyasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S ii. 182; A iii.58; Dh 345; J iv.416; v.81; Vv 845 (an˚? cp. the rather strange expln. at VvA 335).(Pali)

    அயம்&sup6; ayam n. < ayas. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. (பிங்.) 2. Iron filings; அரப்பொடி. (தைலவதைல. 6.); அயசு ayacu, n. < ayas. Iron; இரும்பு. (சிசி.. 4, 8, சிவாக்.)(Tamil)

    అయస్కాంతము (p. 76) ayaskāntamu ayas-kāntamu. [Skt.] n. The load-stone, a magnet. సూదంటురాయి అయస్కారుడు ayaskāruḍu. n. A black smith, one who works in iron. కమ్మరి. అయస్సు ayassu. n. Iron. ఇనుము. (Telugu)

    ayaścūra n. ʻ powder prepared from iron as a vermifuge ʼ Suśr. [áyas -- , cūrṇa -- ]Si. yahuu ʻ iron filings ʼ; -- perh. rather a Si. cmpd.áyas n. ʻ metal, iron ʼ RV.Pa. ayō nom. sg. n. and m., aya -- n. ʻ iron ʼ, Pk. aya -- n., Si. ya.ayaścūrṇa -- , ayaskāṇḍa -- , *ayaskūṭa -- .Addenda: áyas -- : Md. da ʻ iron ʼ, dafat ʻ piece of iron ʼ. ayaskāṇḍa m.n. ʻ a quantity of iron, excellent iron ʼ Pāṇ. gaṇ. [áyas -- , kāˊṇḍa -- ]Si. yakaa ʻ iron ʼ.*ayaskūa ʻ iron hammer ʼ. [áyas -- , kūˊṭa -- 1](CDIAL 589 to 592)


    अयोगूः ayōgūḥ A blacksmith; Vāj.3.5. अयस् ayas a. [इ-गतौ-असुन्] Going, moving; nimble. n. (-यः) 1 Iron (एति चलति अयस्कान्तसंनिकर्षं इति तथात्वम्; नायसोल्लिख्यते रत्नम् Śukra 4.169. अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43. -2 Steel. -3 Gold. -4 A metal in general. -5 Aloe wood. -6 An iron instrument; यदयोनिधनं याति सो$स्य धर्मः सनातनः Mb.6.17.11. -7 Going. m. Fire. [cf. L. aes, aeris; Goth. ais, eisarn; Ger. eisin]. -Comp. -अग्रम्, -अग्रकम् a hammer, a mace or club tipped with iron; a pestle for cleaning grain. -अपाष्टि a. Ved. furnished with iron claws or heels. -कंसः, -सम् an iron goblet. -कणपम् A kind of weapon, which throws out iron-balls; अयःकणपचक्राश्म- भुशुण्डयुक्तबाहवः Mb.1.227.25. -काण्डः 1 an iron-arrow. -2 excellent iron. -3 a large quantity of iron. -कान्तः (अयस्कान्तः) 1 'beloved of iron', a magnet, load-stone; शम्भोर्यतध्वमाक्रष्टुमयस्कान्तेन लोहवत् Ku.2.59; स चकर्ष परस्मा- त्तदयस्कान्त इवायसम् R.17.63; U.4.21. अयस्कान्तमयः संक्रामति M. Bh. on P.III.1.7. -2 a precious stone; ˚मणिः a loadstone; अयस्कान्तमणिशलाकेव लोहधातुमन्तः- करणमाकृष्टवती Māl.1. -कारः 1 an iron-smith, blacksmith. -2 the upper part of the thigh. -किट्टम्, -कीजम् rust of iron. -कुम्भः an iron vessel, boiler &c.; so ˚पात्रम्. -कुशा a rope partly consisting of iron. -कृतिः f.a preparation of iron; one of the ways of curing leprosy (महाकुष्ठचिकि- त्साभेदः). -गः an iron hammer. -गुडः 1 a pill; one made of some preparation of iron. -2 an iron ball; दीप्तशूलष्टर्ययोगुडान् Ms.3.133. -3 A kind of weapon con- sisting of iron balls; लगुडायोगुडाश्मानः Mb.7.3.16. -घनः [अयो हन्यते अनेन इति P.III.3.82] an iron hammer, forge hammer; गदापरिघनिस्त्रिंशपट्टिशायोघनोपलैः Mb. 7.25.58. अयोघनेनाय इवाभितप्तम्R.14.33. -चूर्णम् iron filings. -जाल a. having iron nets; of impenetrable guiles. (-लम्) an iron net-work; अयोजालानि निर्मथ्य भित्त्वा रत्नगृहं वरम् Rām.3.35.35. -ताप a. making iron red-hot. -दत्, -दंष्ट्र a. Ved. iron-toothed, having iron rims (as chariots); having iron weapons; पश्यन् हिरण्यचक्रान- योदंष्ट्रान् विधोवतो वराहून् Rv.1.88.5. -दती a. proper name; (स्त्रियां संज्ञायाम् P.V.4.143). -दण्डः an iron club, K.76. -धातुः iron metal; अयोधातुं यद्वत्परिलघुरयस्कान्त- शकलः U.4.21. -पानम् (अयःपानम्) N. of a hell (where redhot iron is forced down the throats of those who are condemned to it). -पिण्डः A canon-ball. -प्रतिमा (अयःप्रतिमा) an iron image. -बाहुः Name of a son of Dhṛitarāṣṭra. -मलम्rust of iron; so ˚रजः, ˚रसः. -मुख a. (-खी f.1 having an iron mouth, face, or beak. -2 tipped or pointed with iron; भूमिं भूमिशयांश्चैव हन्ति काष्ठमयोमुखम् Ms.1.84. (-खः) an arrow (iron- pointed); भेत्स्यत्यजः कुम्भमयोमुखेन R.5.55. -शङ्कुः 1 an iron spear; -2 an iron nail, pointed iron spike, अयःशङ्कुचितां रक्षः शतघ्नीमथ शत्रवे R.12.95. -शय a. lying in, made of iron, (said of fire). -शूलम् 1 an iron lance. -2 a forcible means, a violent proceeding (तीक्ष्णः उपायः Sk.); (cf. आयःशूलिक; also K. P.1; अयःशूलेन अन्विच्छतीत्यायःशूलिकः). -स्थूण a. 1 (अय˚ or यः˚) having iron pillars or stakes. हिरण्यरूपमुषसो व्युष्टावयः- स्थूणमुदिता सूर्यस्य Rv.5.62.8. -2 Name of a Ṛiṣi Śat. Br. -हतa. Ved. embossed in iron-work, made by a priest who wears a golden ring on his finger (B. and R.); रक्षोहा विश्वचर्षणिरभि योनिमयोहतम् Rv.9.1.2. -हृदय a. iron-hearted, stern, cruel, unrelenting; सुहृदयोहृदयः प्रतिगर्जताम् R.9.9.अयस्मय ayasmaya (अयोमय ayōmaya)अयस्मय (अयोमय) a. (-यी f.) Ved. Made of iron or of any metal. -यी N. of one of the three habita- tions of Asuras.अयोच्छिष्टम् Rust of iron.

    अयस ayasa (At the end of comp.) See कार्ष्णायसकालायस &c. (Apte)
    Vishal Agarwal questions Wilhelm Rau's observation about 'muteness' of Vedic archaeology. (Vishal Agarwal, 2001, What is the Aryan Migration Theory?http://vishalagarwal.bharatvani.org/articles/indhistory/whatisamt/index.htm) "The scarcity of material culture of the Vedic tribes is evident, though Vedic archaeology is still 'not impossible'. But to make this phantom acquire a real shape, it is necessary to know where one has to look for its 'flesh', and what it might be like.Rau stresses that the Vedic archaeology should not have any hopes to find Vedic dwellings made of stone or of bricks and that the graves and altars found in a certain chronological layer can be identified as Vedic only a happy exception. Dwellings of Vedic Aryans were kind of huts made of wood (First of all bamboo), thatch, skins of beasts, that is of materials of very short duration. Carriages that were playing such a prominent part in the life of Vedic Aryans were also made of wood, and only war chariots had metallic ornaments and rims of the wheels. But metallic things (at least those made of gold, silver and copper) were usually smelted anew. Vedic graves are not known as a rule, if not to take into consideration some rare and ambiguous cases. Therefore, archaeologists have to limit the Vedic heritage with rather a few things: pits of bearing posts and pits for baking of pots, cavities for smelting of copper and forms for moulding, clay crocks and imprints of tracts of cattle on clay in places where it was kept in enclosures; small things made of stone, baked clay, and partly also of metal could remain in principle as well."


    The main problem with Wilhelm Rau's observation is that he assumes that Vedic culture is a chronological sequence which follows the Indus (Sarasvati_Sindhu) Civilization. It is possible that Veda culture pre-dates the civilization by at least two millennia since the date of the early Veda texts.is ca. 5th millennium BCE based on archaeo-astronomical analyses.


    In another context of refuting the observation of Witzel that Śatapatha Brāhma
    a belongs to the full-blown Iron Age, Vishal Agarwal questions the assumptions of Wilhelm Rau relied upon by Witzel. (A Reply to Michael Witzel’s ‘Ein Fremdling im Rgveda’ 1 (Journal of Indo-European Studies, Vol. 31, No.1-2: pp.107-185, 2003) by Vishal Agarwal 11 August 2003 http://www.jies.org/Discussion/MichaelWitzel.pdf). Vishal Agarwal refutes the underlying assumptions of Wilhelm Rau and Witzel that since ayas meant 'iron', the Veda texts should be iron-age texts, i.e. ca. 2nd millennium. I cite the relevant excerpts with citations provided by Vishal Agarwal:


    [quote]
    Archaeometallurgy and Vedic texts: One of the arguments made by Kazanas to suggest that Vedic texts could date to 3000 BC or earlier is that the astronomical data in these texts in indicates stellar positions from that period. In ancient times, it was almost impossible to backcalculate the positions of various constellations etc. over a period of 1000 years, and therefore, the astronomical data in these texts represents actual astronomical observations by the composers of the Vedic texts. Witzel counters this by arguing that Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa belongs to a 'full-blown Iron age’ (page 174), i.e., to a period slightly before 500 BC. This seems to be incorrect. Referring the Vaidik Padanukramakosha (Vedic Word Concordance) of Pandit Vishvabandhu, the following occurrences of words syaamam, syaamaayas etc., can be noted in the Satapatha Brahmana ñ Satapatha Brahmana 5.1.3.7; 5.1.3.9; 5.2.5.8; 5.3.1.9; 5.4.1.2; 6.2.2.2; 13.2.2.6; 14.9.4.15 Let us examine the occurrences of these words in the Satapatha Brahmana ñ 5.1.3.7: Here, the word syaama does not refer to any metal. Rather, it refers to the color 17 victims for Prajapati, which have to have a color that is a combination of white and black, i.e., dark grey (Eggelingís translation), or a mixture of black and white (as Sayana explains). 5.1.3.9: This passage actually explains that syaama is a combination of light color and black. 5.2.5.8: Here, syaama is the color of the bull, that is the fee for a ritual. 5.3.1.9: Here again, the word is used as a epithet for a bull. 5.4.1.2: This text states that ëlohaayasaí or red metal (=copper?) is neither gold nor syaamam. This text merely contrasts the red metal with a bright, and a dark metal. Again, no clear evidence that iron is meant. The contrast could very well have been with bronze and gold. 6.2.2.2: Here, the word syaama is an adjective for a goat meant for sacrifice to Prajapati. The text clearly says (Eggelingís translation) ñ ìIt is a dark grey one; for the grey has two kinds of hair, the white and the black...î 13.2.2.6: This, and other occurrences in the vicinity also deal with characteristics of sacrificial animals. Again, no connection with any metal. Assuming that Vishvabandhu missed 1 or 2 genuine occurrences of 'black metal' in his concordance, we still have at the most 3 occurrences (and just one in the locations pointed above by the Concordance) in this large text. Just three! And none compels us to accept the meaning of the word as 'iron'.. So Witzel's claim that the Satapatha Brahmana is an iron-age text through and through is a pure bluff, and his entire argument for dismissing the archaeoastronomical evidence collapses. Witzel alleges that Kazanasí interpretation of syaamaayasa as bronze or something different from iron is based on some discussions in Internet lists (page 175, fn. 112). Kazanas does not have to do so. The Vedic Index (Volume II, page 398) says that syaamaayasa in the Atharvaveda Samhita denotes iron ëin all probabilityí, which clearly indicates that it was a conjecture made by the authors of the Index14. In a study on gold in Vedic texts, even Jan GONDA [GONDA, Jan. 1991. The Functions and Significance of Gold in the Veda. Leiden/New York: E. J. Brill] treats the equation ësyaamasa = ironí with reservation, and in fact, suggests that the word could mean bronze. Finally, Witzel's pet-hate K. D. Sethna [SETHNA, K. D. 1992. The Problem of Aryan Origins. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, pp.235-236] has already discussed the question in detail and has argued that there is no compelling reason to believe that syaamaayasa has to mean iron. Kazanas is well aware of this book. Witzelís frequent appeal to the authority of Wilhelm RAU [RAU, Willhelm. 1974. Metalle und Metallgeraete im vedischen Indien. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Mainz, Abhandlungen der Geistes-u. sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 1973, No. 8. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, pages 649-682 ] is of no avail ñ there is simply no evidence to prove the assumption firmly that syaamaayasa or syaamam denotes iron. Witzel does not stop at this. He bluffs (pages 174-175, fn. 112) that iron that is occasionally found in India and surroundings before 1200/100 BCE is meteoric iron. In reality, there are no available chemical analysis results showing that this is indeed the case.15 In fact, POSSEHL [POSSEHL, Gregory. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Walnut Creek (California): Alta Mira Press, p. 93] notes very clearly that the iron artifacts predating 1000 BCE from various sites in South Asia have not been analyzed to ascertain whether it is meteoric iron or not. While Witzel derives all his knowledge of metallurgy from the works of Rau, he forgets to see the aforementioned reference, which mentions in the next page [POSSEHL, Gregory. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Walnut Creek (California): Alta Mira Press ,p.94] that iron can be produced as a by-product during the smelting of copper, and that this is, in all likelihood, the source of Harappan artifacts made from iron. What this means then, is that unless Witzel can show a very widespread use of iron from Samhitas and Brahmanas, none of these texts can be dated to the ëiron-ageí. In any case, even if the Satapatha Brahmana mentions iron, the text has no information on whether it was meteoric or terrestrial, a fact that is accepted even by Edwin Bryant in his own comment to Kazanasí article in JIES 2002. (Vishal Agarwal, 2003, opcit., pp.10-11.) loc.cit. KAZANAS, N. 2002. Indigenous Indo-Aryans and the Rigveda. Pages 275-334 in JIES, vol. 30, Nos. 3&4  2002a. Rgvedic Town and Ocean, Witzel Vs. Frawley. Available online at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/bharatvani/files/pursarasvati.pdf. 2003. Final Reply. Pages 187-240 in JIES, vol. 31, No.1&2.
    [unquote]
    Rau, Wilhelm. 1974. Metalle und Metallgeräte im vedischen Indien. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literature. Abhandlungen der Geisten- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse, no. 8. Wiesbaden: Steiner.



    Review by: Oskar von Hinüber
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/43373511

    "The earliest literary evidence for metals and metallurgy has been collected by Wilhelm Rau (1974) in his important study of metals and metal objects in Vedic India. Unfortunately, although it provides a wealth of information about metal objects and weapons, it tells us little about how metal was extracted from the ground, about the technologies of mining. The sole reference to a mine is in the rather late text, the Maitrāyaṇīya Upaniṣad 6.28 (Rau 1974: 26), which uses the term avaṭa for a mine. 2 In describing the passage of a person along the path to Brahman, the text gives the example “as a miner in search of minerals enters a mine” (avaṭaivāvaṭakd dhātukāmaḥ saṃviśaty evam)...If mining requires digging into the ground, as it generally does, then khani, derived from the verbal root √khan to ‘dig’, would seem to be the obvious choice... The most common term for mine in the classical texts is ākara (from the verb ā √kṝ), meaning something like a place of scattering, or a place where things are scattered or lying around...Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra...Looking at the work of the ākarādhyakṣa, we get a clear picture of what an ākara produced: gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, iron, Vaikr̥nta metal, and finally gems... The definition of khani given at Arthaśāstra 2.6.4 refers to similar products: suvarṇa-rajata-vajra-maṇi-muktā-pravāla-śaṅkha-loha-lavaṇa-bhūmi-prastara-rasa-dhātavaḥ khaniḥ | Gold, silver, diamonds, gems, pearls, coral, conchs, metals, salt, and ores in the earth, rocks, and liquids—(these constitute) khani...We get an interesting insight into the semantic development of khani within the Arthaśāstra in a one-sentence description of the khanyadhyakṣa, the superintendent of khani, at 2.12.27: khanyadhyakṣaḥ śaṅkha-vajra-maṇi-muktā-pravāla-kṣāra-karmāntān kārayet paṇanavyavahāraṃ ca | The superintendent of khani should establish factories for conch shells, diamonds, gems, pearls, corals, and alkali, as well as the trade in them...Another interesting piece of information is provided by a comment at Arthaśāstra 2.28.5–6: śaṅkha-muktā-grāhiṇo nauhāṭakaṃ dadyuḥ svanāvair vā tareyuḥ | adhyakṣaś caiṣāṃ khanyadhyakṣeṇa vyākhyātaḥ | Conch and pearl fishermen should pay the boat-fee or travel in their own boats. What pertains to the superintendent of these, furthermore, has been explained under the superintendent of khani...Pāṇini at 3.1.145, however, gives a useful hint when he provides a rule for the formation of an agent noun in the case of a craftsman (śilpin) by adding the suffix aka: śilpini ṣvun. Patañjali, commenting on this sūtra, lists three kinds of śilpins: actors, miners, and dyers:nr̥tikhanirañjibhyaḥ. Thus we get from khani the term for miner: khanaka. This is the earliest attestation, besides the Arthaśāstra, I have been able to find for khani...Yet, it is certain that khani is the older of the two terms for a mine. A brief look at R. L. Turner’s dictionary shows that derivatives from this term are found in Prakrit and in numerous modern Indian languages: Assamese khani, Hindi khan, Marathi khaṇ (fasc. 3, §3813). No modern Indian formation from ākara is recorded. There is, however, the Pāli equivalent ākara, but only in compounds such as ratnākara and only in some late texts such as the Theragāthā and the Jātakas, which may have been influenced by the Classical Sanskrit usage of the term...Varāhamihira’s Bhatsaṃhitā....srotaḥ khaniḥ prakīrṇakam ity ākarasaṃbhavas trividhaḥ. What [i.e., diamonds] originates from ākaras is threefold: river, mine, and miscellaneous (80.10). So here we have khani as one kind of ākara, which appears now to be extended to mean any source of gems and possibly of other minerals. This passage parallels a statement of the Arthaśāstra (2.11.38): khaniḥ srotaḥ prakīrṇakaṃ ca yonayaḥ 'mine, river, and miscellaneous are the sources (of diamonds)...'The superintendent of mines—who is either proficient in geometry, 11 metallurgy, smelting, and coloring gems or assisted by one so proficient, and who is provided with workers skilled at such tasks along with suitable equipment—should inspect abandoned mines revealed by dross, crucibles, coal, and ashes, or new mines with ore-bearing earth, rocks, or liquids that have a strong color, exceptional weight, and acrid smell and taste.' (Arthaśāstra 2.12.1). Kauṭilya goes on to provide information about the characteristics of liquids, rocks, and earth that contain metal: 'Gold-bearing liquids are those that flow in the interior of hollows, caves, valleys, rock-cuts, or covert excavations on mountains in recognized regions; liquids that have the color of roseapple, mango, palmyra nut, slice of ripe turmeric, jaggery, orpiment, red arsenic, honey, vermilion, white lotus, or feathers of a parrot or peacock; that have water and plants of the same color in the vicinity; and that are viscous, limpid, and heavy. If they spread like oil when thrown in water and soak up mud and dirt, they are capable of infusing copper and silver over a hundredfold.' What is similar to them but with an acrid smell and taste should be identified as bitumen.Ores from earth and rocks that have a yellow, copper, or coppery-yellow color; that contain blue streaks or have the color of Mudga bean, Māṣa bean, or Ksara porridge when they are split; that are speckled as if with drops or globs of curd; that have the color of turmeric, myrobalan, a lotus leaf, moss, liver, spleen, or saffron;14 that contain lines, dots, or svastikas of fine sand when they are split; that have nodules and are lustrous; and that do not split but do produce a lot of foam and smoke when they are heated—they are the ones that are gold ore. When used as an admixture, they are capable of infusing copper and silver. 15 Those that have the color of conch, camphor, crystal, fresh butter, a dove, a pigeon, a Vimalaka gem, or a peacock’s neck; or the color of Sasyaka gem, Gomedaka gem, 16 jaggery, or raw sugar; or the color of the flowers of Kovidāra, lotus, Pāṭalī, Kalāya, flax, or linseed; those that contain lead or antimony; that smell like raw flesh; that are black with a white sheen, white with a black sheen, or all speckled with lines or dots; that are soft and, when smelted, do not split but produce a lot of foam and smoke—they are the ones that are silver ores. In the case of all ores, as their weight increases so does their metal content. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.2–7).Although, without a better grasp of ancient Indian metallurgy, it is difficult to fully understand the above passage, this is probably the most detailed account of metal geology that we have from ancient India. The text goes on to note the characteristics of rocks and earth that contain base metals and gems: When ore from rocks or an area of earth is heavy, oily, and soft—it is copper ore if it is yellow, green, pale red, or blood red; it is lead ore if it is black like a crow, or has the color of a pigeon or yellow bile, or is studded with white lines, and smells like raw flesh; it is tin ore if it is variegated like saline soil or has the color of baked clay; it is iron ore if it is orange, 17 pale red, or the color of Sinduvāra flower; it is Vaikntaka 18 ore if it is colored like a Kākāṇḍa 19 or a birch leaf; it is gem20 ore if it is clear, smooth, gleaming, sonorous, cool, and with a very intense color. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.12–17) Mines and mining were probably state monopolies in ancient India. Yet, the private sector may have had a hand in mining. Kauṭilya advises the king to lease mines that are difficult to work or that require a lot of initial capital: When a mine becomes too onerous because of the expenses or effort required, he should lease it for a share of the proceeds or rent it out; he should operate by himself ones that are easy to manage. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.22)." (Patrick Oliville, opcit., p.23-29)  http://liberalarts.utexas.edu/_files/olivelle/2012_Material_Culture.pdf Patrick Olivelle,, 2012, Material Culture and Philology: Semantics of Mining in Ancient India, in:  Journal of the American Oriental Society 132.1 (2012) loc.cit. Shamasastry, R., tr. 1961. Kautilīya’s Arthaśāstra. 7th ed. Mysore: Mysore Print and Publishing House)


    Links


    • The Iron Pillar at Delhi, T.R.Anantharaman, Iron and Steel Heritage of India
    http://eprints.nmlindia.org/5796/1/1-28.pdf
    • Indian Sword Revealed as Master-Crafted, NewHistorian
    http://newhistorian.com/indian-sword-revealed-master-crafted/2954/
    • Meeting the blacksmiths in bullcok carts of Rajasthan, N.W. India. - A Dying culture
    https://steemit.com/travel/@ganpati23/meeting-the-blacksmiths-in-bullcok-carts-of-rajasthan-n-w-india-a-dying-culture-part-1
     Lost Nomads (National Geographic). India’s 80 million wanderers are torn—clinging to centuries-old traditions while the modern world strips their identities away.
    http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2010/02/nomads/lancaster-text
     Agaria (Social group)
    http://peoplegroupsindia.com/profiles/agaria/
     The Ethnographic Narration of Gadulia Lohar Tribe of Udaipur, Rajasthan: With the Special Reference to the Ethnoarchaeological Perspective and Traditional Iron Tool Technology
    http://ancient-asia-journal.com/articles/10.5334/aa.12321/
    A note on ancient zinc-smelting in India and China, Vijaya Deshpande,
    Indian Journal of History of Science.
    http://new1.dli.ernet.in/data1/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b5f_275.pdf
    • Characterization of rust on ancient Indian iron, R.Balasubramaniam et al.
    Current Science, Dec. 2003.
    http://home.iitk.ac.in/~bala/journalpaper/journal/journalpaper_41.pdf
    • Aspects of Powder Technology in Ancient and Medieval India. By R. K. Dube.
    Powder Metallurgy 2013; 33(2), 119-125.
    http://maneyonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/pom.1990.33.2.119
    • Ancient metal-mirror making in South India, by S. G. K. Pillai, R. M. Pillai,
    A. D. Damodaran.
    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03222791?LI=true
    • History of Metallurgy and Mining in India, Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
    https://zum.de/whkmla/sp/0910/florida/florida1.html
    • History of metallurgy in South Asia (Wikipedia)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_metallurgy_in_South_Asia
    • Ancient Indian Metallurgy (IGNCA)
    http://ignca.nic.in/vedic_heritage_present_metallurgy.htm
    • The Metallurgical Heritage of India (IISC)
    http://materials.iisc.ernet.in/~wootz/heritage/Ind-heritage.html
    • History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent
    https://revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=History%20of%20metallurgy%20in
    %20the%20Indian%20subcontinent&item_type=topic
    • The Rise and Fall of Ancient India’s Iron and Steel Metallurgy
    http://ghadar.in/gjh_html/?q=content/rise-and-fall-ancient-india
    %E2%80%99s-iron-and-steel-metallurgy
    • A Brief History of Materials: 1. Metallurgical Heritage of India
    https://materialiaindica.wordpress.com/2009/02/16/a-brief-history-
    of-materials1metallurgical-heritage-of-india/
    • A Model for Understanding Ancient Indian Iron Metallurgy, K. T. M. Hegde
    https://jstor.org/stable/2800318
    • The origins of Iron-working in India, Rakesh Tewari
    New evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas
    http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/iron-ore
    • The Lost-Wax Casting of Icons, Utensils, Bells, and Other Items in South India
    http://tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0210/Pillai-0210.html
    • Archaeo-metallurgy of Indus civilisation (Book review, The Hindu)
    http://thehindu.com/books/archaeometallurgy-of-indus-civilisation/article2913312.ece
    • Mystery behind the Iron Pillar of Qutab Minar
    http://speakingtree.in/allslides/mystery-behind-the-iron-pillar-of-qutab-minar
    • India’s Magical Ancient Pillar. The Delhi Pillar Is a Genuine Out-of-Place Artifact
    http://atlantisrisingmagazine.com/article/indias-magical-ancient-pillar/
    • India’s legendary wootz steel—An advanced material of the ancient world
    Sharada Srinivasan and Srinivasa Ranganathan (Orient BlackSwan)
    http://orientblackswan.com/BookDescription?isbn=978-81-7371-721-5&id=32&t=c
    • Metallurgy (Ancient Indians)
    https://ancientindians.in/technology/ancient-indian-metallurgy/
    • Two thousand years of iron smelting in the Khasi hills, Pawel Prokop and Ireneusz Suliga
    http://cherrapunjee.com/cherrapunjee-rain/two-thousand-years-of-iron-smelting-in-the-khasi-hills/
    • Ancient Gold Mining Activities in India - An Overview, A.K. Grover and M.K. Pandit,
    Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences http://ijes.mshdiau.ac.ir/article_522929.html
    • Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India
    Sharada Srinivasan
    http://pia-journal.co.uk/article/download/pia.60/142/
    • Copper in Ancient India, Panchanan Neogi, The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (1918)
    http://arxiv.iacs.res.in:8080/jspui/handle/10821/917
    • Metallurgy of Iron and Steel Making and Blacksmithy in Ancient India,
    B. Prakash, Indian Journal of History of Science, 26(4), 1991.
    • ANCIENT INDIAN IRON AND STEEL : AN ARCHAEOMETALLURGICAL STUDY,
    B PRAKASH, Indian Journal of History of Science, 46.3 (2011)
    http://insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol46_3_1_BPrakash.pdf
    • The Primacy of India in ancient brass and zinc metallurgy, Arun K. Biswas,
    Indian Journal of History of Science, 28(4), 1993.

    The referenced website is:


    This reproduces, Possehl, Gregory L., and Gullapalli, Praveena, 1999, The early iron age in South Asia. In Vincent Pigott, editor, The 
    Archaeometallurgy of the Asian Old World. University Museum Monograph 89, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, Volume 16.
    Philadelphia: The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, pp. 153-175.


    I have cited another reference, that which was accepted on 30 April 2003 by Antiquity. Click on files in Indiancivilization .
    Click on tewari.pdf File name: Origins of iron-working in India: Rakesh Tewari (2003).

    The report is at: http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/tewari/tewari.pdf paged 536-545. This report is significant because recent excavations

    have produced clear evidence of iron-working at Malhar, Dist. Chandali -- Lat. 24deg.-59'-16"N; Long. 83deg.-15'-46" where a

    damaged circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyeres and other waste materials stuck with its body in a stratigraphically

    dated location. (See Figure 6, page 542). "As discussed elsewhere (Tewari et al. 2000) the sites at Malhar, the Baba Wali Pahari, and

    the Valley are archaeologically linked to the area of Geruwarwa Pahar which appears to have been a major source of iron ore. The Geruwarwa

    Pahar situated to the southeast of the Baba Wali Pahari, is full of hematite. Villagers reported (as a tradition passed down from several

    generations), that the agarias (a particular tribe known for their iron smelting skills) from Robertsganj side, used to come in this

    area to procure iron by smelting the hematite...The presence of  tuyeres, slags, finished iron artefacts, above-mentioned clay

    structures with burnt internal surface and arms, revealed at Malhar, suggest a large scale activity related to manufacture of iron tools."

    (p. 542). Malhar is located on river Karamnasa which joins River Ganga at Varanasi. Two radiocarbon dates recorded at this site range

    around 1800 cal. BCE (Table 2, p. 540) -- precise dates are: 1882 and 2012 BCE. Rakesh Tewari provides the following summary of the evidence from

    Malhar and other Central Ganga Plain and Eastern Vindhya sites:  Quote

    Discussion

    These results indicate that iron using and iron working was prevalent in the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas from the early

    second millennium BC. The dates obtained so far group into three: three dates between c. 1200-900 cal BC, three between c. 1400-1200

    cal BC, and five between c. 1800-1500 cal BC. The types and shapes of the associated pottery are comparable to those to be generally

    considered as the characteristics of the Chalcolithic Period and placed in early to late second millennium BC. Taking all this

    evidence together it may be concluded that knowledge of iron smelting and manufacturing of iron artefacts was well known in the Eastern

    Vindhyas and iron had been in use in the Central Ganga Plain, at least from the early second millennium BC. The quantity and types of

    iron artefacts, and the level of technical advancement indicate that the introduction of iron working took place even earlier. The

    beginning of the use of iron has been traditionally associated with the eastward migration of the later Vedic people, who are also

    considered as an agency which revolutionised material culture particularly in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar (Sharma 1983:

    117-131). The new finds and their dates suggest that a fresh review is needed. Further, the evidence corroborates the early use of iron

    in other areas of the country, and attests that India was indeed an independent centre for the development of the working of iron.

    [unquote](pp. 543-544).


    Thus, both the Gufkral evidence evaluated by Possehl and Gullapalli and the evidence from Malhar and other Central Ganga Plain and

    Eastern Vindhya sites discussed by Rakesh Tewari point to an indigenous evolution of iron-working in India dated to early 2nd

    millennium BCE.  The evidence leads to a reasonable hypothesis that the metal-workers of the chalcolithic periods of Sarasvati Civilization moved into the

    Ganga and Eastern Vindhya iron-age sites to continue the tradition of metal-working, exemplified by the asur-s of Mundarica tradition. No

    wonder, the Sarasvati hieroglyphs have a significant number of homonyms from the Mundarica tradition to represent metal-working

    artefacts such as furnaces and minerals used to produce metal products.   The cultural continuity and the indigenous origins of metal-working

    are areas for further research as excavations proceed on over 2000 Sarasvati River basin sites.


    A particular reference has to be made to the contributions made by B. Prakash:


    http://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol26_4_1_BPrakash.pdf B. Prakash, 1991, Metallurgy of iron and steel making and blacksmithy in ancient India, IJHS, 26(4), 1991,pp. 351 to 371

    http://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol46_3_1_BPrakash.pdf B. Prakash, 2010, Ancient Indian iron and steel: an archaeometallurgical study, IJHS, 46.3, 2011, pp. 381 to 410













    Origins of iron-working in India: Rakesh Tewari (2003). The report is at: http://antiquity.ac....wari/tewari.pdf paged 536-545. This report is significant because recent excavations have produced clear evidence of iron-working at Malhar, Dist. Chandali -- Lat. 24deg.-59'-16"N; Long. 83deg.-15'-46" where a damaged circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyeres and other waste materials stuck with its body in a stratigraphically dated location. (See Figure 6, page 542). "As discussed elsewhere (Tewari et al. 2000) the sites at Malhar, the Baba Wali Pahari, and the Valley are archaeologically linked to the area of Geruwarwa Pahar which appears to have been a major source of iron ore. The Geruwarwa Pahar situated to the southeast of the Baba Wali Pahari, is full of hematite. Villagers reported (as a tradition passed down from several generations), that the agarias (a particular tribe known for their iron smelting skills) from Robertsganj side, used to come in this area to procure iron by smelting the hematite...The presence of tuyeres, slags, finished iron artefacts, above-mentioned clay structures with burnt internal surface and arms, revealed at Malhar, suggest a large scale activity related to manufacture of iron tools." (p. 542). Malhar is located on river Karamnasa which joins River Ganga at Varanasi. Two radiocarbon dates recorded at this site range around 1800 cal. BCE (Table 2, p. 540) -- precise dates are: 1882 and 2012 BCE.  Rakesh Tewari provides the following summary of the evidence from Malhar and other Central Ganga Plain and Eastern Vindhya sites: [Quote]Discussion These results indicate that iron using and iron working was prevalent in the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas from the early second millennium BC. The dates obtained so far group into three:three dates between c. 1200-900 cal BC, three between c. 1400-1200 cal BC, and five between c. 1800-1500 cal BC. The types and shapes of the associated pottery are comparable to those to be generally considered as the characteristics of the Chalcolithic Period and placed in early to late second millennium BC. Taking all this evidence together it may be concluded that knowledge of iron smelting and manufacturing of iron artefacts was well known in the EasternVindhyas and iron had been in use in the Central Ganga Plain, at least from the early second millennium BC. The quantity and types of iron artefacts, and the level of technical advancement indicate that the introduction of iron working took place even earlier. The beginning of the use of iron has been traditionally associated with the eastward migration of the later Vedic people, who are also considered as an agency which revolutionised material culture particularly in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar (Sharma 1983: 117-131). The new finds and their dates suggest that a fresh review is needed. Further, the evidence corroborates the early use of iron in other areas of the country, and attests that India was indeed an independent centre for the development of the working of iron.[unquote](pp. 543-544). 

    Thus, both the Gufkral evidence evaluated by Possehl and Gullampalli and the evidence from Malhar and other Central Ganga Plain and Eastern Vindhya sites discussed by Rakesh Tewari point to an indigenous evolution of iron-working in India dated to early 2nd millennium BCE.

    The evidence leads to a reasonable hypothesis that the metal-workers of the chalcolithic periods of Sarasvati Civilization moved into the Ganga and Eastern Vindhya iron-age sites to continue the tradition of metal-working, exemplified by the asur-s of Mundarica tradition. No wonder, the Sarasvati hieroglyphs have a significant number of homonyms from the Mundarica tradition to represent metal-working artefacts such as furnaces and minerals used to produce metal products.

    The cultural continuity and the indigenous origins of metal-working are areas for further research as excavations proceed on over 2000 Sarasvati River basin sites.

    See: http://tinyurl.com/p8qn4bt Meluhha glosses on Indus Script Corpora: bichi  (hematite) meḍ  ‘iron’ meṛed -bica 'iron stone ore'. Tracing Assur metalworkers into the mists of Bronze Age

       
    1

     

     Santali glosses:...
    b

    G. Posssehl & P. Gullampalli  on The Early Iron Age in South  Asia

















    http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~witzel/Possehl_Gullampalli.htm
    See: https://www.academia.edu/8214398/Indian_iron_and_steel_with_special_reference_to_southern_India_  Sharada Srinivasan, Indian iron and steel, with special reference to southern India (pp.83-90)

    D. K. Chakrabarti (1992) argued: "It should be clear that any controversy regarding the meaning of ayas in the Rgveda or the problem of the Rgvedic familiarity or unfamiliarity with iron is pointless. There is no positive evidence either way. It can mean both copper-bronze and iron and, strictly on the basis of the contexts, there is no reason to choose between the two.""The Atharva Veda and the Satapatha Brahmana refer to krsna ayas ("black metal"), which could be iron (but possibly also iron ore and iron items not made of smelted iron). There is also some controversy if the term syamayas ("black metal) refers to iron or not. In later texts the term refers to iron. In earlier texts, it could possibly also refer to darker-than-copper bronze, an alloy of copper and tin...Chakrabarti (1976) has identified six early iron-using centres in India: Baluchistan, the Northwest, the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Gangetic valley, eastern India, Malwa and Berar in central India and the megalithic south India.The central Indian region seems to be the earliest iron-using centre. According to Tewari, iron using and iron "was prevalent in the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas from the early 2nd millennium BC." The earliest evidence for smelted iron in India dates to 1300 to 1000 BCE. These early findings also occur in places like the Deccan and the earliest evidence for smelted iron occurs in Central India, not in north-western India.Moreover, the dates for iron in India are not later than in those of Central Asia, and according to some scholars (e.g. Koshelenko 1986) the dates for smelted iron may actually be earlier in India than in Central Asia and Iran.The Iron Age did however not necessary imply a major social transformation, and Gregory Possehl wrote that 'the Iron Age is more of a continuation of the past then a break with it'...Recent excavations in Middle Ganges Valley conducted by archaeologist Rakesh Tewari show iron working in India may have begun as early as 1800 BCE. Archaeological sites in India, such as Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila and Lahuradewa in the state of Uttar Pradesh show iron implements in the period between 1800 BCE-1200 BCE. Sahi (1979: 366) concluded that by the early 13th century BCE, iron smelting was definitely practiced on a bigger scale in India, suggesting that the date the technology's early period may well be placed as early as the 16th century BCE.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_metallurgy_in_the_Indian_subcontinent

    While there is to date no proven evidence for smelted iron in the Indus Valley Civilizationiron ore and iron items have been unearthed in eight Indus Valley sites, some of them dating to before 2600 BCE. (Edwin Bryant (2001). The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate. Oxford University Press, p.339)

    Crucible steel and a historic Indian sword of 18th century made of ukku, 'steel' (Telugu) an ancient product of nanotechnology get validated in the context of Indus Script Corpora.

    I have demonstrated that all hieroglyphs from Indus Script Corpora and rebus-metonymy Meluhha glosses are relatable to metalwork by ancient Bhāratam Janam.

    The monograph discusses, in this context, that the following hieroglyphs are relatable to three categories of ferrous metal: magnetite, hematite and laterite. The findings date the Iron Age of Bhāratam Janam to ca. 3rd millennium BCE.

    The Meluhha (mleccha) glosses related to these ferrous minerals are:
    poL 'magnetite'; bichi, bicha 'hematite'; goTa 'laterite'. 

    The hieroglyphs of Indus Script corpora which signify these ferrous minerals are:

    poL 'zebu'; bichi, bicha 'scorpion'; goTa 'something round'. 

    The hieroglyph which is a glyphic of 'something round' also occurs -- together with composite hieroglyph of trefoil -- on the shawl of the priest-guild-master sculpture, the so-called 'Priest King' of Mohenjo-daro.

    Specific ieroglyphs are also relatable to adamantine glue, perhaps cementite of carbon nanotubes recognized in crucible steel ingots from ancient Indian metalworks: 

    One is sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'.(Gujarati) and another is सांगड [ sāṅgaḍa ] m f (संघट्ट S)  f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together (Marathi). Both the hieroglyphs are rebus-metonymy layered cipher which provide the plain text: sanghAta, jangaDa 'combination (of articles); adamantine glue; fortification'.
     The 'lathe' is the top portion; the 'portable furnace' is the bottom portion. Dotted circles denote the beads pierced by the gimlet of the lathe. kandi 'bead' (Pargi) Rebus: kanda 'furnace' (Santali). Pa. kandi (pl. -l) necklace, beads. Ga. (P.) kandi (pl. -l) bead, (pl.) necklace; (S.2) kandiṭ bead.(DEDR 1215)

    sangaDa 'lathe' (Gujarati) Rebus: sanghAta 'collection, adamentine glue' (Prakritam); jangaDa 'fortification' (Pushto) 

    Indus seals showing 'lathe' hieroglyph.
    Three
    Seal. m1171. Mohenjodaro.Square seal with multiple headed animal depicting three important totemic animals: the bull, the unicorn, and the antelope. All three animals are seen individually on other seals along with script, but this seal has no script.

    Material: gray brown steatite
    Dimensions: 2.4 x 2.4 cm, 0.53 cm thickness
    Mohenjo-daro, DK 7734
    Islamabad Museum, NMP 50.289
    Mackay 1938: pl. XCVI, 494

    Impression of an Indus-style cylinder seal of unknown Near Eastern origin. Two water-buffalos flanks a hieroglyph: something round, like a seed. Hieroglyph: ranga 'buffalo' Rebus: ranga 'pewter'. What does the hieroglyph 'something round' signify? I suggest that it signifies goTa 'laterite (ferrous ore)'.
    Related imageImage result for leaf-shaped two bulls seal harappa
    This unique mold-made faience tablet or standard (H2000-4483/2342-01) was found in the eroded levels west of the tablet workshop in Trench 54. On one side is a short inscription under a rectangular box filled with 24 dots. The reverse has a narrative scene with two bulls fighting under a thorny tree.

    Rebus: gota, laterite.

    Hieroglyphs: Ka. gōṭu state of being full-grown, but hard; (also gōṭ-aḍike) a hard, inferior kind of areca-nut. Koḍ. go·ṭ-aḍake full grown, tough areca-nut. Tu. gōṇṭu dried (as the kernel of a coconut), (BRR, also gōṭu) state of being full-grown, dried and hard. Te. goṇṭu-pō̃ka, (B. also) gōṭu-pōka an inferior kind of areca-nut.(DEDR 2202)

    (a) Ta. kōṭṭai fort, castle; kōṭu stronghold. Ma. kōṭṭa fort, residence; kōṭu fort. Ko. ko·ṭ castle, palatial mansion. To. kwa·ṭ bungalow. Ka. kōṭe fort, rampart; (PBh.) kōṇṭe fort. Koḍ. ko·ṭe palace. Tu. kōṭè fort. Te. kōṭa, (Inscr.) koṭṭamu id. Kuwi (S.) kōṭa palace, fort. / Cf. Skt. koṭṭa-, koṭa- fort, stronghold. (b) Ko. go·ṛ (obl. go·ṭ-) wall. Ka. gōḍe id. Tu. gōḍè id. Te. gōḍa id. Kol. (SR.) goḍā id. Kuwi (S.) kōḍa wall, prison; (Isr.) kōḍa wall.(DEDR 2207)

    *gōṭṭa ʻ something round ʼ. [Cf. guḍá -- 1. -- In sense ʻ fruit, kernel ʼ cert. ← Drav., cf. Tam. koṭṭai ʻ nut, kernel ʼ, Kan. goṟaṭe &c. listed DED 1722]

    K. goṭh f., dat. °ṭi f. ʻ chequer or chess or dice board ʼ; S. g̠oṭu m. ʻ large ball of tobacco ready for hookah ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ small do. ʼ; P. goṭ f. ʻ spool on which gold or silver wire is wound, piece on a chequer board ʼ; N. goṭo ʻ piece ʼ, goṭi ʻ chess piece ʼ; A. goṭ ʻ a fruit, whole piece ʼ, °ṭā ʻ globular, solid ʼ, guṭi ʻ small ball, seed, kernel ʼ; B. goṭā ʻ seed, bean, whole ʼ; Or. goṭā ʻ whole, undivided ʼ, goṭi ʻ small ball, cocoon ʼ, goṭāli ʻ small round piece of chalk ʼ; Bi. goṭā ʻ seed ʼ; Mth. goṭa ʻ numerative particle ʼ; H. goṭ f. ʻ piece (at chess &c.) ʼ; G. goṭ m. ʻ cloud of smoke ʼ, °ṭɔ m. ʻ kernel of coconut, nosegay ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ lump of silver, clot of blood ʼ, °ṭilɔ m. ʻ hard ball of cloth ʼ; M. goṭā m. ʻ roundish stone ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ a marble ʼ, goṭuḷā ʻ spherical ʼ; Si. guṭiya ʻ lump, ball ʼ; -- prob. also P. goṭṭā ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ, H. goṭā m. ʻ edging of such ʼ (→ K. goṭa m. ʻ edging of gold braid ʼ, S. goṭo m. ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ); M. goṭ ʻ hem of a garment, metal wristlet ʼ. Ko. gōṭu ʻ silver or gold braid ʼ.(CDIAL 4271)
    The gloss used by Meluhha speakers for laterite iron ores is gota.
    P. goṭṭā ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ, H. goṭā m. ʻ edging of such ʼ (→ K. goṭa m. ʻ edging of gold braid ʼ, S. goṭo m. ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ); M. goṭ ʻ hem of a garment, metal wristlet ʼ(CDIAL 4271)



    Kur. goṭā any seed which forms inside a fruit or shell. Malt. goṭa a seed or berry(DEDR 069) N. goṭo ʻ piece ʼ, goṭi ʻ chess piece ʼ; A. goṭ ʻ a fruit, whole piece ʼ, °ṭā ʻ globular, solid ʼ, guṭi ʻ small ball, seed, kernel ʼ; B. goṭā ʻ seed, bean, whole ʼ; Or. goṭā ʻ whole, undivided ʼ, M. goṭā m. ʻ roundish stone ʼ (CDIAL 4271) <gOTa>(P)  {ADJ} ``^whole''.  {SX} ``^numeral ^intensive suffix''.  *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho<goTA>,B.<goTa> `undivided'; Kh.<goThaG>(P), Sa.<goTAG>,~<gOTe'j>, Mu.<goTo>; Sad.<goT>, O., Bh.<goTa>; cf.Ju.<goTo> `piece', O.<goTa> `one'. %11811.  #11721. <goTa>(BD)  {NI} ``the ^whole''.  *@. #10971. (Munda etyma)

    Rebus: <gota>  {N} ``^stone''.  @3014. #10171. Note: The stone may be gota, laterite mineral ore stone. khoṭ m. ʻbase, alloyʼ (Punjabi) Rebus: koṭe ‘forging (metal)(Mu.) Rebus: goṭī f. ʻlump of silver' (G.) goṭi = silver (G.) koḍ ‘workshop’ (Gujarati).


    पोळ [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. 


    Hump


    पोळी [ pōḷī ] dewlap. Rebus: Russian gloss, bulat is cognate pola 'magnetite' iron in Asuri (Meluhha). Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring igneous and metamorphic rocks with black or brownish-black with a metallic luster. These magnetite ore stones could have been identified as pola iron by Meluhha speakers. Kannada gloss pola meaning 'point of the compass' may link with the characteristic of magnetite iron used to create a compass.pŏlāduwu made of steel; pŏlād प्वलाद् or phōlād फोलाद्  मृदुलोहविशेषः ] m. steel (Gr.M.; Rām. 431, 635, phōlād). pŏlödi  pōlödi phōlödi लोहविशेषमयः 
    adj. c.g. of steel, steel (Kashmiri) urukku what is melted, fused metal, steel.(Malayalam); ukk 'steel' (Telugu)(DEDR 661) This is cognate with famed 'wootz'steel. "Polad, Faulad" for steel in late Indian languages is traceable to Pokkhalavat, Polahvad. Pokkhalavat is the name of Pushkalavati, capital of Gandhara famed for iron and steel products.



    Allograph: पोळें [ pōḷēṃ ] ‘honeycomb’ (shown as a pictorial motif on Lothal Seal 51).




    Allograph: పొల [ pola ] or పొలసు pola. పొలుసు [ polusu ][Telugu] A scale of a fish. చేపమీది పొలుసుTu. poḍasů scales of fish. Te. pola, polasu, polusu id. Kui plōkosi id. (DEDR 4480). పొలుపు [ polupu ] or పొల్పు polupu. [Telugu] Firmness,స్థైర్యము. "పొలుపుమీరిన నెలవంకిబొమలు జూచి, రమణదళుకొత్తు బింబాధరంబుజూచి." Rukmang. i. 158

    H. muḍḍhā m. ʻ shoulder ʼ, mū̃ḍhā m. ʻ lump, hump, shoulder ʼ Or. muṇḍā ʻ lump ʼ.(CDIAL 10189) Rebus: muṇḍa ‘iron’ (Sanskrit) mRdu, 'soft', kuṇha, 'hard', kadāra 'brittle' are three varieties of muṇḍa loha(Vagbhata, 
    Rasaratnasamuccaya69-74). muṇḍitam, muṇḍa loham 'iron'; muṇḍajam 'steel' (Sanskrit) Thus, zebu reads rebus: kuṇha munda (loha), a type of iron native metal(Vagbhata, Rasaratnasamuccaya, 69-74). 

    pola (magnetite), gota (laterite), bichi (hematite).


    Seal. Lothal 51

    Mohenjo-daro seal.Zebu, bos indicus. Hieroglyphs on the pictorial motif of this seal are: 1. Zebu; 2. Hump; 3. Dewlap.

    A type of hard native metal, ferrous oxide – kuṇha munda (loha)  is denoted by khũṭ  'zebu'/ mū̃ḍhā 'hump'  hieroglyphs.

    pola, ‘magnetite’  is denoted by pōḷī, ‘dewlap, honeycomb’ hieroglyphs.


    goṭi, ‘silver, laterite’ are denoted by goṭa, ‘seed’ hieroglyph.



    bichi , ‘hematite’ is denoted by hieroglyph bicha ‘scorpion’ (Assamese) Rebus: bica ‘stone ore’ (Santali).





    This boatman, Cernunnos is the boatman from Meluhha shown on a Mohenjo-daro seal

    त्रि--शिरस् [p= 460,3] mfn. n. कुबेर L.; three-pointed MBh. xiii R. iv; three-headed (त्वाष्ट्र , author of RV. x , 8.) Ta1n2d2yaBr. xvii Br2ih. KaushUp. MBh. Ka1m. (Monier-Williams)

    tvāṣṭra त्वाष्ट्र 'copper' This meaning is significant if tvaṣṭṛ remembered as Cernunnos as a boatman from Meluhha. The seafaring boatman from Meluhha was a metalworker, worker in copper. He was also a chariot-maker celebrated in harosheth haggoyim'smithy of nations' (Old Bible. The Judges).
    The author of Sukta RV 10.8 and 10.9 is tvaṣṭṛ त्वष्टृ m. [त्वक्ष्-तृच्] 1 A carpenter, builder, workman, त्वष्ट्रेव विहितं यन्त्रम् Mb.12.33.22. -2 Viśvakarman, the architect of the gods. [Tvaṣtṛi is the Vulcan of the Hindu mythology. He had a son named Triśiras and a daughter called संज्ञा, who was given in marriage to the sun. But she was unable to bear the severe light of her husband, and therefore Tvaṣtṛi mounted the sun upon his lathe, and carefully trimmed off a part of his bright disc; cf. आरोप्य चक्रभ्रमिमुष्णतेजास्त्वष्ट्रेव यत्नो- ल्लिखितो विभाति R.6.32. The part trimmed off is said to have been used by him in forming the discus of Viṣṇu, the Triśūla of Śiva, and some other weapons of the gods.] पर्वतं चापि जग्राह क्रुद्धस्त्वष्टा महाबलः Mb.1.227. 34. -3 Prajāpati (the creator); यां चकार स्वयं त्वष्टा रामस्य महिषीं प्रियाम् Mb.3.274.9. -4 Āditya, a form of the sun; निर्भिन्ने अक्षिणी त्वष्टा लोकपालो$विशद्विभोः Bhāg.3.6.15.
    tvāṣṭra
    त्वाष्ट्र a. Belonging or coming from त्वष्टृ; त्वाष्ट्रं यद् दस्रावपिकक्ष्यं वाम् Rv.1.117.22. -ष्ट्रः Vṛitra; येनावृता इमे लोकास्तमसा त्वाष्ट्रमूर्तिना । स वै वृत्र इति प्रोक्तः पापः परमदारुणः ॥ Bhāg.6.9.18;11.12.5. -ष्ट्री 1 The asterism Chitra. -2 A small car. -ष्ट्रम् 1 Creative power; तपःसारमयं त्वाष्ट्रं वृत्रो येन विपाटितः Bhāg.8.11.35. -2 Copper.

    r.s.i: tris'ira_ tvas.t.ra; devata_: agni, 7-9 indra; chanda: tris.t.up
    RV 10.8

    10.008.01 Agni traverses heaven and earth with a vast banner; he roars (like) a bull; he spreads aloft over the remote and proximate (regions) of the sky; mighty, he increases in the lap of the water. [Agni traverses: as the lightning in the firmament].
    10.008.02 THe embryo (of heaven and earth), the showerer (of benefits), the glorious, rejoices; the excellent child (of morn and eve), the celebrator of holy rites calls aloud; assiduous in exertions at the worship of the gods, he moves chief in his own abodes.
    10.008.03 They have placed in the sacrifice the radiance of the powerful Agni, who seizes hold of the forehead of his parents, gratifying his cherished, radiant, and expanding limbs, in their course, in their chamber of sacrifice. [His parents: the parents are either heaven or earth, or the two pieces of touchwood; gratifying...of sacrifice: as'vabudhna_h = vya_ptamu_la_H, with outspread bases, i.e., broad at the bottom and tapering to the top, the usual shape of a fire; in his fight the dawns, drawn by horses, rejoice their bodies in the source of truth (i.e., the sun)].
    10.008.04 Opulent Agni, you precede dawn after dawn. You are the illuminator of the twin (day and night); engendering Mitra from your own person, you retain seven places for sacrifice. [Mitra: the sun; seven places: the seven altars for the fire: dhisn.ya_ etc.]
    10.008.05 You are the eye, the protector of the great sacrifice; when you proceed to the rite, you are Varun.a; you are the grandson of the waters, Ja_tavedas; you are the messenger (of him) whose oblation you enjoy.
    10.008.06 You are the leader of the sacrifice and sacrificial water to the place in which you are associated with the auspicious steeds of the wind; you sustain the all-enjoying (sun) as chief in heaven; you, Agni, make your tongue the bearer of the oblation. [The place: i.e., the firmament; you sustain in heaven: you raise your glorious head in heaven; you make...oblation: yada_; when, Agni, you have so done, you are the leader...; you are the leader of the sacrifice and of water (rain) in the firmament and in heaven (Yajus. 13.15)].
    10.008.07 Trita by (his own), desiring a share (of the sacrifice), for the sake of taking part in the exploit of the supreme protector (of the world), chose (Indra as his friend); attended (by the priests) in the proximity of the parental heaven and earth, and reciting appropriate praise, he takes up his weapons.  [Legend: Indra said to Trita, 'You are skiled in the weapons of all; aid me in killing Tris'iras the son of Tvas.t.a_'. Trita agreed on condition of having a share in the sacrifices offered to Indra. Indra gave him water to wash his hands with and a share in the sacrifice, whereby Trita's strength increased; seven-rayed: i.e., seven-tongued, seven-rayed, like the sun, or seven-handed].
    10.008.08 He, the son of the waters, incited by Indra, skilled in his paternal weapons, fought against (the enemy), and slew the seven-rayed, three-headed (asura); then Trita set free the cows of the son of Tvas.t.a_.
    10.008.09 Indra, the protector of the virtuous, crushed the arrogant (foe), attaining vast strenth; shouting, he cut off the three heads of the multiform son of Tvas.t.a_ (the lord) of cattle. [Shouting: s'abdam kurvan; gona_m acakra_n.ah, appropriating the cattle].

    r.s.i: tris'ira_ tvas.t.ra or sindhudvi_pa a_mbari_s.a; devata_: a_po devata_ (jalam); chanda: ga_yatri_, 5 vardhama_na_ ga_yatri_, 7 pratis.t.ha_ ga_yatri_, 7-9 anus.t.up
    RV 10.9
    10.009.01 Since, waters, you are the sources of happiness, grant to us to enjoy abundance, and great and delightful perception. [Great and delightful perception: mahe ran.a_ya caks.ase = samyajn~a_nam, perfect knowledge of brahman; the r.ca solicits happiness both in this world and in the next; the rapturous sight of the supreme god; to behold great joy].
    10.009.02 Give us to partake in this world of your most auspicious Soma, like affectionate mothers.
    10.009.03 Let us quickly have recourse to you, for that your (faculty) of removing (sin) by which you gladden us; waters, bestow upon us progeny. [Let us go to you at once for him to whose house you are hastening; waters, reinvogorate us; faculty of removing sin: ks.aya = niva_sa, abode; aram = parya_ptim, sufficiency; perhaps a recommendation to be regular in practising ablution].
    10.009.04 May the divine water be propitious to our worship, (may they be good) for our drinking; may they flow round us, and be our health and safety. [This and previous three r.cas are repeated at the daily ablutions of the bra_hman.as].
    10.009.05 Waters, sovereigns of precious (treasures), granters of habitations to men, I solicit of you medicine (for my infirmities). [Precious: va_rya_n.a_m = va_riprabhava_na_m vri_hiyava_dina_m, the products of the water, rice, barley etc.; bhes.ajam = happiness driving away sin].
    10.009.06 Soma has declared to me; all medicaments, as well as Agni, the benefactor of the universe, are in the waters. [This and the following r.cas of the su_kta are repetitions from RV.1. 23, 20-23; in man.d.ala 1, Soma speaks to Kan.va; in this present man.d.ala, Soma speaks to A_mbari_s.a Sindhudvi_pa, a ra_ja_].
    10.009.07 Waters, bring to perfection, all disease-dispelling medicaments for the good of my body, that I may behold the Sun.
    10.009.08 Waters, take away whatever sin has been (found) in me, whether I have (knowingly) done wrong, or have pronounced imprecations (against holy men), or have spoken untruth.
    10.009.09 I have this day entered into the waters; we have mingled with their essence. Agni, abiding in the waters approach, and fill me (thus bathed) with vigour. ["I invoke for protection the divine (waters) of excellent wisdom, discharging their functions (tadapasah), flowing by day and flowing by night": supplementary khila 1.2.3: sasrus'is tada_paso diva_ naktam ca sasrus'ih! varen.yakratur ahama devir avase huve].

    त्रिस् [p=461,3] ind. ( Pa1n2. 5-4 , 18) thrice , 3 times RV. (सप्त्/अ , 3 x 7 , i , iv , vii ff. ; /अह्नस् or /अहन् , " thrice a day " , i , iii f. , ix f. ; cf. Pa1n2. 2-3 , 64) S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. (अब्दस्य , " thrice a year " , iii , xi) &c before gutturals and palatals ([cf. RV. viii , 91 , 7]) ः may be substituted by ष् Pa1n2. 8-3 , 43.



    m 304. Mohenjo-daro seal. DK 5175, now in the National Museum of India, New Delhi. Seated person with buffalo horns. 
    Head gear: Hieroglyph: taTThAr 'buffalo horn' Rebus: taTTAr 'brass worker'; Hieroglyph: goṇḍe ʻ cluster ʼ (Kannada) Rebus: kuṇḍi-a = village headman; leader of a village (Prakritam)

    mũh 'face'; rebus: metal ingot (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each end; kolhe tehen me~ṛhe~t mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali.lex.) 



    Shoggy hair; tiger’s mane. sodo bodo, sodro bodro adj. adv. rough, hairy, shoggy, hirsute, uneven; sodo [Persian. sodā, dealing] trade; traffic; merchandise; marketing; a bargain; the purchase or sale of goods; buying and selling; mercantile dealings (G.lex.) sodagor = a merchant, trader; sodāgor (P.B.) (Santali.lex.) The face is depicted with bristles of hair, representing a tiger’s mane. cūḍā, cūlā, cūliyā tiger’s mane (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4883).Rebus: cūḷai 'furnace, kiln, funeral pile' (Te.)(CDIAL 4879; DEDR 2709). Thus the composite glyphic composition: 'bristled (tiger's mane) face' is read rebus as: sodagor mũh cūḷa 'furnace (of) ingot merchant'.



    kamarasāla = waist-zone, waist-band, belt (Te.) karmāraśāla = workshop of blacksmith (Skt.) kamar ‘blacksmith’ (Santali) 



    The person on platform is seated in penance: kamaḍha 'penance' (Pkt.) Rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner’ (Malayalam) 



    Hieroglyph: arms with bangles: karã̄ n.pl.ʻwristlets, banglesʼ.(Gujarati)(CDIAL 2779) Rebus: khār खार्  'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)



    khār खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b,l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta
    khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -द्वकुरु‍&below; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -ग&above;जि&below; or -güjü -ग&above;जू&below; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू&below;), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü -कूरू‍&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -क&above;टु&below; । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü -क&above;टू&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.(Kashmiri)

    Kur. kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali.lex.) kuntam 'haystack' (Te.)(DEDR 1236) Rebus: kuṇḍamu 'a pit for receiving and preserving consecrated fire' (Te.)

    A pair of hayricks, a pair of antelopes: kundavum = manger, a hayrick (G.) Rebus: kundār turner (A.); kũdār, kũdāri (B.); kundāru (Or.); kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase; kundau dhiri = a hewn stone; kundau murhut = a graven image (Santali) kunda a turner's lathe (Skt.)(CDIAL 3295) 
    Decoding a pair: dula दुल । युग्मम् m. a pair, a couple, esp. of two similar things (Rām. 966) (Kashmiri); dol ‘likeness, picture, form’ (Santali) Rebus: dul ‘to cast metal in a mould’ (Santali) dul meṛeḍ cast iron (Mundari. Santali)
    Antelope: miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120); rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)

    Glyph: krammara ‘look back’ (Te.); Rebus: kamar ‘smith’ (Santali) Vikalpa 1: mlekh ‘antelope’(Br.); milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) Vikalpa 2: kala stag, buck (Ma.) Rebus: kallan mason (Ma.); kalla glass beads (Ma.); kalu stone (Kond.a); xal id., boulder (Br.)(DEDR 1298). Rebus: kallan ‘stone-bead-maker’.

    Thus, together, the glyphs on the base of the platform are decoded rebus:meḍ kamar dul meṛeḍ kũdār,'iron(metal)smith, casting (and) turner'. 
    Animal glyphs around the seated person: buffalo, boar (rhinoceros), elephant, tiger (jumping).

     ran:gā ‘buffalo’; ran:ga ‘pewter or alloy of tin (ran:ku), lead (nāga) and antimony (añjana)’(Santali)
    kANDa 'rhinoceros' Rebus: khaNDa 'metal implements'
    ibha ‘elephant’ (Skt.); rebus: ib ‘iron’ (Santali) karibha ‘trunk of elephant’ (Pali); rebus: karb ‘iron’ (Ka.)
    kolo, koleā 'jackal' (Kon.Santali); kola kukur 'white tiger' (A.); dāṭu ‘leap’ (Te.); rebus: kol pañcaloha 'five metals'(Ta.); kol 'furnace, forge' (Kuwi) dāṭu 'jump' (Te.). Rebus: dhātu ‘mineral’ (Skt.) Vikalpa: puṭi 'to jump'; puṭa 'calcining of metals'. Thus the glyph 'jumping tiger' read rebus: 'furnace for calcining of metals'.

    Decoding the text of the inscription
    Text 2420 on m0304

    Line 2 (bottom): 'body' glyph. mēd ‘body’ (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)

    Line 1 (top):

    'Body' glyph plus ligature of 'splinter' shown between the legs: mēd ‘body’ (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) sal ‘splinter’; Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) Thus, the ligatured glyph is read rebus as: meḍ sal 'iron (metal) workshop'.

    Sign 216 (Mahadevan). ḍato ‘claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs’; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Vikalpa: erā ‘claws’; Rebus: era ‘copper’. Allograph: kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.) kamat.ha = fig leaf, religiosa (Skt.)

    Sign 229. sannī, sannhī = pincers, smith’s vice (P.) śannī f. ʻ small room in a house to keep sheep in ‘ (WPah.) Bshk. šan, Phal.šān ‘roof’ (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12326). seṇi (f.) [Class. Sk. śreṇi in meaning "guild"; Vedic= row] 1. a guild Vin iv.226; J i.267, 314; iv.43; Dāvs ii.124; their number was eighteen J vi.22, 427; VbhA 466. ˚ -- pamukha the head of a guild J ii.12 (text seni -- ). -- 2. a division of an army J vi.583; ratha -- ˚ J vi.81, 49; seṇimokkha the chief of an army J vi.371 (cp. senā and seniya). (Pali)

    Sign 342. kaṇḍa kanka 'rim of jar' (Santali): karṇaka rim of jar’(Skt.) Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ (Te.); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) copper fire-altar scribe (account)(Skt.) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) Thus, the 'rim of jar' ligatured glyph is read rebus: fire-altar (furnace) scribe (account) karNI 'supercargo' (Marathi)

    Sign 344. Ligatured glyph: 'rim of jar' ligature + splinter (infixed); 'rim of jar' ligature is read rebus: kaṇḍa karṇaka 'furnace scribe (account)'. 

    sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) *ஆலை³ ālai, n. < šālā. 1. Apartment, hall; சாலை. ஆலைசேர் வேள்வி (தேவா. 844. 7). 2. Elephant stable or stall; யானைக்கூடம். களிறு சேர்ந் தல்கிய வழுங்க லாலை (புறநா. 220, 3).ஆலைக்குழி ālai-k-kuḻi, n. < ஆலை¹ +. Receptacle for the juice underneath a sugar-cane press; கரும்பாலையிற் சாறேற்கும் அடிக்கலம்.*ஆலைத்தொட்டி ālai-t-toṭṭi, n. < id. +. Cauldron for boiling sugar-cane juice; கருப்பஞ் சாறு காய்ச்சும் சால்.ஆலைபாய்-தல் ālai-pāy-, v. intr. < id. +. 1. To work a sugar-cane mill; ஆலையாட்டுதல். ஆலைபாயோதை (சேதுபு. நாட்டு. 93). 2. To move, toss, as a ship; அலைவுறுதல். (R.) 3. To be undecided, vacillating; மனஞ் சுழலுதல். நெஞ்ச மாலைபாய்ந் துள்ள மழிகின்றேன் (அருட்பா,) Vikalpa: sal ‘splinter’; rebus: workshop (sal)’ ālai ‘workshop’ (Ta.) *ஆலை³ ālai, n. < šālā. 1. Apartment, hall; சாலை. ஆலைசேர் வேள்வி (தேவா. 844. 7). 2. Elephant stable or stall; யானைக்கூடம். களிறு சேர்ந் தல்கிய வழுங்க லாலை (புறநா. 220, 3).ஆலைக்குழி ālai-k-kuḻi, n. < ஆலை¹ +. Receptacle for the juice underneath a sugar-cane press; கரும்பாலையிற் சாறேற்கும் அடிக்கலம்.*ஆலைத்தொட்டி ālai-t-toṭṭi, n. < id. +. Cauldron for boiling sugar-cane juice; கருப்பஞ் சாறு காய்ச்சும் சால்.ஆலைபாய்-தல் ālai-pāy-, v. intr. < id. +. 1. To work a sugar-cane mill; ஆலையாட்டுதல். ஆலைபாயோதை (சேதுபு. நாட்டு. 93) Thus, together with the 'splinter' glyph, the entire ligature 'rim of jar + splinter/splice' is read rebus as: furnace scribe (account workshop). Sign 59. ayo, hako 'fish'; a~s = scales of fish (Santali); rebus: aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.) Sign 342. kaṇḍa karṇaka 'rim of jar'; rebus: 'furnace scribe (account)'. Thus the inscription reads rebus: iron, iron (metal) workshop, copper (mineral) guild, fire-altar (furnace) scribe (account workshop), metal furnace scribe (account) As the decoding of m0304 seal demonstrates, the Indus hieroglyphs are the professional repertoire of an artisan (miners'/metalworkers') guild detailing the stone/mineral/metal resources/furnaces/smelters of workshops (smithy/forge/turners' shops).

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 Cylinder seal; BM 122947; U. 16220Cylinder seal; BM 122947; U. 16220; humped bull stands before a palm-tree, feeding froun a round manger or a bundle of fodder; behind the bull is a scorpion and two snakes; above the whole a human figure, placed horizontally, with fantastically long arms and legs, and rays about his head.

    Hieroglyph: Bi. mẽṛhwā ʻ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's ʼ; M. mẽḍhrū̃ n. ʻ sheep ʼ.(CDIAL 10311) mēṇḍha2 m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- , mēṇḍa -- 4, miṇḍha -- 2, °aka -- , mēṭha -- 2,mēṇḍhra -- , mēḍhra -- 2, °aka -- m. lex. 2. *mēṇṭha- (mēṭha -- m. lex.). 3. *mējjha -- . [r-- forms (which are not attested in NIA.) are due to further sanskritization of a loan -- word prob. of Austro -- as. origin (EWA ii 682 with lit.) and perh. related to the group s.v. bhēḍra -- ] Pa. meṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- ʻ made of a ram's horn (e.g. a bow) ʼ; Pk. meḍḍha -- ,meṁḍha -- (°ḍhī -- f.), °ṁḍa -- , miṁḍha -- (°dhiā -- f.), °aga -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, Dm. Gaw. miṇKal.rumb. amŕn/aŕə ʻ sheep ʼ (a -- ?); Bshk. mināˊl ʻ ram ʼ; Tor. miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ; Chil. mindh*ll ʻ ram ʼ AO xviii 244 (dh!), Sv. yēṛo -- miṇ; Phal. miṇḍmiṇ ʻ ram ʼ,miṇḍṓl m. ʻ yearling lamb, gimmer ʼ; P. mẽḍhā m., °ḍhī f., ludh. mīḍḍhāmī˜ḍhā m.; N. meṛho,meṛo ʻ ram for sacrifice ʼ; A. mersāg ʻ ram ʼ ( -- sāg < *chāgya -- ?), B. meṛā m., °ṛi f., Or.meṇḍhā°ḍā m., °ḍhi f.,H. meṛhmeṛhāmẽḍhā m., G. mẽḍhɔ, M. mẽḍhā m., Si. mäḍayā.2. Pk. meṁṭhī -- f. ʻ sheep ʼ; H. meṭhā m. ʻ ram ʼ.3. H. mejhukā m. ʻ ram ʼ.(CDIAL 10310) <menDa>(A) {N} ``^sheep''. *Des.<meNDa>(GM) `sheep'. #21810<meD>(:)  <arij=meD>(Z),,<ari?=me?n>(A)  {N} ``^female ^kid''.  ^goat.  #3022.<kin=meD>(Z)  {N} ``^male ^goat, billy goat''.  |<kin> `prefix used in names of male animals'.  #17072. <auG kinme?n>(A)  {N} ``^nanny ^goat''.  |<auG> `mother'.  #3729.(Gorum)
    Sa. <i>mE~R~hE~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mE~RhE~d</i>(M).

    Ma. <i>mErhE'd</i> `iron'.

    Mu. <i>mERE'd</i> `iron'.

      ~ <i>mE~R~E~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mENhEd</i>(M).

    Ho <i>meD</i> `iron'.

    Bj. <i>merhd</i>(Hunter) `iron'.

    KW <i>mENhEd</i>

    @(V168,M080)


    — Slavic glosses for 'copper'

    Мед [Med]Bulgarian

    Bakar Bosnian

    Медзь [medz']Belarusian

    Měď Czech

    Bakar Croatian

    KòperKashubian

    Бакар [Bakar]Macedonian

    Miedź Polish

    Медь [Med']Russian

    Meď Slovak

    BakerSlovenian

    Бакар [Bakar]Serbian

    Мідь [mid'] Ukrainian[unquote]

    Miedź, med' (Northern Slavic, Altaic) 'copper'.  


    One suggestion is that corruptions from the German "Schmied", "Geschmeide" = jewelry. Schmied, a smith (of tin, gold, silver, or other metal)(German) result in med ‘copper’.


    Hieroglyph of a worshipper kneeling: Konḍa (BB) meḍa, meṇḍa id. Pe. menḍa id. 
    Manḍ. menḍe id. Kui menḍa id. Kuwi (F.) menda, (S. Su. P.) menḍa, (Isr.) meṇḍa id.
    Ta. maṇṭi kneeling, kneeling on one knee as an archer. Ma.maṇṭuka to be seated on the heels. Ka. maṇḍi what is bent, the knee. Tu. maṇḍi knee. Te. maṇḍĭ̄ kneeling on one knee. Pa.maḍtel knee; maḍi kuḍtel kneeling position. Go. (L.) meṇḍā, (G. Mu. Ma.)  Cf. 4645 Ta.maṭaṅku (maṇi-forms). / ? Cf. Skt. maṇḍūkī- (DEDR 4677)

    See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2014/09/catalogs-of-pola-kuntha-gota-bichi.html

    Catalogs of polakuṇhagoṭabichi native metalwork in Meluhha Indus script hieroglyphs 

    Magnetite exposed on the ground. The mineral is black and irregularly smooth. Individual chunks jut at angles characteristic of the crystal habit.Magnetite and pyrite from, Piedmont, Italy.
    A man is cutting laterite into brickstones in Angadipuram, India.Laterite, Angadipuram, India.
    Hematite ore, Michigan.

    Wootz was extracted from raw iron ore (hematite) and formed as steel using a crucible to melt, burn away impurities and adding ingredients (i.e., high carbon content of 1.5% by weight); this was made in southern and central India and Sri Lanka ca. 300 BCE. High carbon content results in the sharpness of the edge and durability. Too little carbon results in wrought iron and too much carbon results in cast iron. 


    a. Damascus sword; b. Wavy pattern on the sword.


    HRTEM images of remnants from dissolution of a sample of genuine Damascus sabre in hydrochloric acid. a,b. MWCNTs with the characteristic distance of d = 0.34 nm. In b, the tubes are bent like a rope. c. Remnants of cementite nanowires encapsulated by CNTs, which prevent wires from dissolving in acid. Scale bars: 5 nm (a) and (c) and 10 nm (b) Reproduced from Reibold et al with permission from P. Paufler.

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is the name of ultra thin carbon fibre with nanometre-size diameter and micrometer-size length. "Iijima obtained only multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and that is indeed a milestone in the study of different forms of carbon...CNTs have been recognized as the quintessential nanomaterial and have acquired the status of one of the most active fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The MWCNT is composed of 2 to 30 concentric graphite layers, th diameters of which range from 10 to 50 nm and length to more than 10 microm...In Arabic, 'dams' refers to the surface pattern of moire ripples, which resemble turbulent water, and this is also found in some Damascus swords. These swords have been made during the period CE 900 to the early CE 1800. Some of the swords are kept in museums like the Berne Historical Museum, Switzerland. It is claimed that a Damascus steel blade could cut a piece of silk in half as it fell to the ground. The beautiful Damascus sword has a wavy pattern on its surface and looks like wood grain. Damascus swords are much valued because of their mechanical strength, flexibility and sharpness. In the production of steel, if iron is loaded up with up to 2% carbon, hard and brittle steel will be produced, while soft and malleable steel is obtained by the addition of about 0.5% CARBON. The Damascus steel is both hard and malleable. These features are important -- hard to hold an edge once sharpened, but malleable so that it would not break when hitting other metal in combat. The blades of these swords can be bent about 90 degrees. It is learnt that the swords were prepared by forging small cakes of steel called wootz steel manufactured in south India and exported to other countries...In the Indian method of preparation of wootz steel cake, it is believed that particular ingredients were essential, like wood from Cassia auriculata and leaves ofCalotropis giganteam and ores from particular mines. The production of this type of steel almost vanished possibly because of the depletion of the particular ores. The smiths repeatedly heated and hammered the cake till it was streched and flattened into a blade. During this process the way pattern was formed on the surface of the blade. Verhoeven found that the swords contained a band of iron carbide particles, Fe3C, known as cementite. It is a mystery how the inherent brittleness of cementite was overcome by Indians in their preparation of wootz steel. Success eluded the hands of European swordsmiths to produce steel similar to wootz. Recently, Vorhoeven produced a steel which when forged into a blade had all the characteristics of the Damascus blade. Their recipe includes iron, carbon and other elements in trace amounts such as vanadium and molybdenum (which are referred to as impurity elements) in addition to rare-earth elements. The high mechanical properties and flexibility features of Damascus blades resemble those of CNTs. These characteristics probably motivated Reibold et al to probe whether a genuine Damascus sabre contains CNTs, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)......The presence of CNTs in these swords is not surprising as it is now well known that CNTs can be produced from carbon at high temperature -- the laser ablation and arc-discharge methods involve high temperature. The repeated heating and hammering (forging) results in band formation from segregation at a microscopic level of some impurity elements. It is quite possible that these elements may be responsible for the growth of CNTs, which in turn initiate formation of cementite nanowires and coarse cementite particles. Are the high mechanical strength and flexibility of Damascus blade due to the presence of CNTs? Further detailed studies may provide an answer to this question. However, even 400 years ago Indians were aware of the importance of wootz steel and Damascus swords, which are now proved to contain carbon nanostructures. " (pp.279-280)

    In carbon steels and cast irons that are slowly cooled a portion of the elements is in the form of cementite. Cementite, also known as iron carbide, is a chemical compound of iron and carbon, with the formula Fe3C. It is a hard and brittle material, essentially a ceramic. Cementite appears as crystallized forms (called nanotubes or nanowire structure) in Damascus (Indian crucible steel) swords.

    Analysis of the nanotube structure of Damascus steel. The swords forged in Damascus had a surface pattern of moiré ripples, which resemble turbulent water, with a wavy pattern on its surface which looks like wood grain. Details: (a). A Damascus sword; (b). the wavy pattern in the sword; (c-d). the nanowire structure of the steel in the blade. (Source: C. SrinivasanDamascus Sword - An Ancient Product of Nanotechnology).

    See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/02/vajra-sanghata-binding-together.html  

    A possible reference to the properties of cementite occurs in VarAhamihira's Brhatsamhita which uses the phrase:


    Vajra Sanghāta 'binding together': Hieroglyph: sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'.(Gujarati). Purport of Indus Script corporaVajra Sanghāta 'binding together': Mixture of 8 lead, 2 bell-metal, 1 iron rust constitute adamantine glue. 

    In Indus Script Corpora, the gloss sanghāta 'binding together' is signified by the hieroglyph: sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'. (Gujarati). It is possible that the gloss sanghāta was meant to refer to alloys of minerals and formation of cementite such as Vajra Sanghāta on metal crystalline formations.

    The samasa used by Varahamihira is Vajra sanghāta, an adamantine glue. In this context, the meaning of the word is: 'alloying, mixing, binding together' (to achieve metallic cementing.

    I am grateful to Prof. Subbarayappa Bidare for leading me to this citation from Varahamira and presenting the context of metallic cementing.

    VarAhamihira's Brhatsamhita explains Vajra sanghAta as Mixture of 8 lead, 2 bell-metal, 1 iron rust constitute adamantine glue
    The samāsa, 'compound expression' used by Varahamihira is vajrasanghAta, an adamantine glue.

    The proportions of metals mentioned makes the use of the word sanghAta a rebus reading of the hieroglyph: sanghADo 'lathe' (Gujarati). Given the emphatic evidence of almost ALL pictorial motifs and signs of the Indus Script are related to metalwork, it is apposite to treat the gloss sanghAta as related to a metal alloy. 

    In the context of SanghATa Sutra dharma paryAya, the narration by Shakyamuni (Gautama) is related to the combinations constituting the cumulative, knowledge of dharma (arrived by churning in thought). So, sangADo 'lathe' is evocative of circular churning motion to drill or perforate; while the homonym, sanghAta as indicated by Varahamiri may connote a 'mixing or combination (of metals)', as a second meaning. First meaning is: sanghAta 'collection of words (reading hieroglyphs as words)'; the second meaning is: 'collection of materials (indicated by hieroglyphs read as words)'.


    "Wootz was produced from carburisation of wrought iron which was heated in closed crucibles with dry wood chips, stems and leaves of plants over charcoal fire maintained by blowing air with large bellows. The operation took 4-5 hours to complete. Steels so obtained was heated again so that the excess carbon was burnt off...This gives credence to the use of crucible process in early periods, as Ray believes, that this process was the continuation of the original process which was acquired by the ancient smiths even before the beginning of the Common era....Prakash has also quoted from Rasaratnasamucchaya which gives a detailed description of composition of a crucible and of classifications of iron and steel." [Bhatia, SK, 1994, Carburisation of iron in Ancient India, in: Indian Journal of History of Science, 29(3), pp.353-359].

    "The iron...produced was classified into two main categories, viz., (i) wrought iron (kAntalohA) and (ii) carbon steel (tIkshNalohA) and the third category was (iii) cast iron (MundalohA0 which was considered undesirable till its refining technique was developed to convert it into 'wootz' steel..."(p.354) "VarAhamihira (c. 550 CE) has mentioned the following processes for carburizing and hardening of iron swords: (i) making a paste with the juice of the plant arka (calotropis gigantea), the gelatin from the sheep's horn and pigeon's and mouse dung, applying this paste to the steel after rubbing it with sesame oil, heating the swod in the fire and when it is red hot sprinkling on it water or mil of mares (camel or goat) or ghee (clarified butter) or blood or fat or bile and then sharpening on the lathe; (ii) plunging the steel red hot into a solution of plantain ashes in whey, keeping it standing for twenty four hours, and then sharpening on the lathe (VarAhamihira Khargalakshanam, Chap. XVIX, Slokas 23-26)...Wootz...The first process consisted of carburization of soft iron or wrought iron by packing it with chips of wood and leaves of specific plants, e.g. avaram (cassia auriculata), etc. about 1/10th in weight of the iron and then the mouth of the crucible was sealed with clay...In the second process of steel making, a pool of highly oxidizing molten slag was prepared from magnetite sand and quartz which has a melting point of 1205 degrees C and it was used for refining cast iron by oxidation of carbon and other impurities. For this process, a specially designed compartmentalised pit furnace was made below the ground level and cast iron (rejected from the bloomery furnace) was added in the molten oxidizing slag in the form of red hot small shots. During the process of steel making, the surface of the cast iron reacted with FeO to decarbonise and dephosphorise the iron which became molten steel and got collected at the bottom..."(p.360-363) "VarAhamihira has mentioned that the hardening of the sword was done by plunging it in whey in a mixture of water and plantain ashed or oil. Another way of achieving the hard edge on the sword was to run fast on a horse holding the red hot sword with its sharp edge in the front. The typical hardening treatment was given by quenching the red hot high carbon steel in water or oil for a few seconds and then withdrawing to observe as the tempering was achieved due to the flow of heat from the body of the tool... "(p.369)(Prakash, B., 1991, Metallurgy of iron and steel making and blacksmithy in ancient India, IJHS, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 351-371)  http://www.new1.dli.ernet.in/data1/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005ac0_351.pdf

    "Swords made of crucible steel have also been excavated from 3rd-4th century CE burials in the Russian Northern Caucasus. One of these blades has aligned spheroidal cementite, the metallograhic feature that produces the visible pattern. This is the earliest known crucible Damascus blade." (Ann Feuerbach, Crucible Damascus steel: a fascination for almost 2000 years in JOM, May 2006).

    https://www.academia.edu/397355/Crucible_Damascus_Steel_A_Fascination_for_Almost_2_000_Years


    An iron smelting furnace of the Agarias.  http://www.dli.gov.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005afd_33.pdf

    http://www.ias.ac.in/resonance/Volumes/11/06/0067-0077.pdf A tale of wootz steel by S. Ranganathan and Sharada Srinivasan in: Resonance, June, 2006
    See: S. Ranganathan and Sharada Srinivasan:
    1. http://www.sanskritimagazine.com/history/tale-crucible-wootz-steel-ancient-india/ A tale of crucible (wootz) steel from Ancient India
    2. http://greaterancestors.com/steel-from-ancient-india-wootz-steel/ Steel from Ancient India (Wootz steel):  An advanced material of the ancient world
    Mirror: http://materials.iisc.ernet.in/~wootz/heritage/WOOTZ.htm

    https://www.scribd.com/doc/268638164/Metallurgy-of-Iron-and-Steel-Making-and-Blacksmithy-in-Ancient-India-B-Prakash-1991

    High-quality steel has been produced in South India since ancient times. The technique used to manufacture it was later on called the crucible technique. Pure wrought iron was first put together with glass and charcoal in a container and was heated till the metal melted and absorbed the carbon.  http://www.mazhalaigal.com/gk/inventors/201210nbs_indian-inventions.php


    Crucibles next to the furnace room at Abbeydale, Sheffield. The shapes of the crucibles compare with those found in India.

    Nanotubes are said to explain the sword's sharpness.

    Real 18 c. Wootz (Damascus) Steel Ingot right out of the crucible and ready to be forged. http://www.oriental-arms.co.il/item.php?id=1411

    Historic Indian sword was masterfully crafted

    Italian, UK researchers use non-destructive techniques and show the secrets of forging methods
    New York | Heidelberg, 10 February 2015
    The master craftsmanship behind Indian swords was highlighted when scientists and conservationists from Italy and the UK joined forces to study a curved single-edged sword called a shamsheer. The study, led by Eliza Barzagli of the Institute for Complex Systems and the University of Florence in Italy, is published in Springer’s journal Applied Physics A - Materials Science & Processing.
    The 75-centimeter-long sword from the Wallace Collection in London was made in India in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. The design is of Persian origin, from where it spread across Asia and eventually gave rise to a family of similar weapons called scimitars being forged in various Southeast Asian countries.
    Two different approaches were used to examine the shamsheer: the classical one (metallography) and a non-destructive technique (neutron diffraction). This allowed the researchers to test the differences and complementarities of the two techniques.
    The sword in question first underwent metallographic tests at the laboratories of the Wallace Collection to ascertain its composition. Samples to be viewed under the microscope were collected from already damaged sections of the weapon. The sword was then sent to the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. Two non-invasive neutron diffraction techniques not damaging to artefacts were used to further shed light on the processes and materials behind its forging.
    “Ancient objects are scarce, and the most interesting ones are usually in an excellent state of conservation. Because it is unthinkable to apply techniques with a destructive approach, neutron diffraction techniques provide an ideal solution to characterize archaeological specimens made from metal when we cannot or do not want to sample the object,” said Barzagli, explaining why different methods were used.
    It was established that the steel used is quite pure. Its high carbon content of at least one percent shows it is made of wootz steel. This type of crucible steel was historically used in India and Central Asia to make high-quality swords and other prestige objects. Its band-like pattern is caused when a mixture of iron and carbon crystalizes into cementite. This forms when craftsmen allow cast pieces of metal (called ingots) to cool down very slowly, before being forged carefully at low temperatures. Barzagli’s team reckons that the craftsman of this particular sword allowed the blade to cool in the air, rather than plunging it into a liquid of some sort. Results explaining the item’s composition also lead the researchers to presume that the particular sword was probably used in battle.
    Craftsmen often enhanced the characteristic “watered silk” pattern of wootz steel by doing micro-etching on the surface. Barzagli explains that through overcleaning some of these original ‘watered’ surfaces have since been obscured, or removed entirely. “A non-destructive method able to identify which of the shiny surface blades are actually of wootz steel is very welcome from a conservative point of view,” she added.
    Reference: Barzagli E. et al (2015). Characterization of an Indian sword: classic and noninvasive methods of investigation in comparison, Applied Physics A - Materials Science & Processing. DOI 10.1007/s00339-014-8968-0
    © Alan WilliamsCaption: 75-centimeter-long shamsheer from the late 18th or early 19th century made in India (Wallace Collection, London)
    Credit: Dr. Alan Williams/Wallace Collection

    18th century Indian sword was masterfully crafted

    Researchers have shed light on the processes and materials used to forge a 75cm long Indian sword, made in the late 18th or early 19th century, which was probably used in battle.

    Scientists and conservationists from Italy and the UK joined forces to study a curved single-edged sword called a shamsheer.

    The sword from the Wallace Collection in London was made in India in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century.

    The design is of Persian origin, from where it spread across Asia and eventually gave rise to a family of similar weapons called scimitars being forged in various Southeast Asian countries.

    Two different approaches were used to examine the shamsheer: the classical one (metallography) and a non-destructive technique (neutron diffraction).

    The sword first underwent metallographic tests at the laboratories of the Wallace Collection to ascertain its composition. Samples to be viewed under the microscope were collected from already damaged sections of the weapon.

    The sword was then sent to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. Two non-invasive neutron diffraction techniques not damaging to artifacts were used to further shed light on the processes and materials behind its forging.

    "Ancient objects are scarce, and the most interesting ones are usually in an excellent state of conservation," said Eliza Barzagli, from the Institute for Complex Systems and the University of Florence in Italy, who led the study.

    "Because it is unthinkable to apply techniques with a destructive approach, neutron diffraction techniques provide an ideal solution to characterise archaeological specimens made from metal when we cannot or do not want to sample the object," said Barzagli.

    The research established that the steel used is quite pure. The high carbon content of at least one per cent shows it is made of wootz steel. This type of crucible steel was historically used in India and Central Asia to make high-quality swords and other prestige objects.

    Its band-like pattern is caused when a mixture of iron and carbon crystallises into cementite. This forms when craftsmen allow cast pieces of metal (called ingots) to cool down very slowly, before being forged carefully at low temperatures.

    Barzagli's team believes that the craftsman of this particular sword allowed the blade to cool in the air, rather than plunging it into a liquid of some sort.

    Results explaining the item's composition also lead the researchers to presume that the particular sword was probably used in battle.

    Craftsmen often enhanced the characteristic "watered silk" pattern of wootz steel by doing micro-etching on the surface.

    Barzagli said that through overcleaning some of these original 'watered' surfaces have since been obscured, or removed entirely.

    The study is published in Springer's journal Applied Physics A - Materials Science & Processing.

    Revealed: Secrets of craftsmanship behind ancient Indian sword (Single-edged called Shamsheer)

    • Vanita Srivastava, Hindustan Times, New Delhi
    •  |  
    • Updated: Feb 12, 2015 16:39 IST
    •  

    • The 75-cm ‘shamsheer’ was made in India in the late 18th or early 19th century. (Photo: Dr Alan Williams/Wallace Collection, London)







    The master craftsmanship behind Indian swords was highlighted when scientists and conservationists from Italy and the UK joined forces to study a curved single-edged sword called shamsheer.

    The study, led by Eliza Barzagli of the Institute for Complex Systems and the University of Florence in Italy, is published in Springer’s journal Applied Physics A-Materials Science & Processing.
    The 75-cm sword from the Wallace Collection in London was made in India in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. The design is of Persian origin, from where it spread across Asia and eventually gave rise to a family of similar weapons, called scimitars, forged in various Southeast Asian countries.
    Two different approaches were used to examine the shamsheer — metallography and a non-destructive technique, neutron diffraction — allowing researchers to test the differences and complementarities of the techniques.
    “Ancient objects are scarce. The most interesting ones are usually in an excellent state of conservation. Because it is unthinkable to apply techniques with a destructive approach, neutron diffraction techniques provide an ideal solution to characterise archaeological specimens made from metal when we cannot or do not want to sample the object,” said Barzagli.
    The sword’s high carbon content — of at least one percent — shows it is made of wootz steel. This type of crucible steel was historically used in India and Central Asia to make high-quality swords and other prestige objects.  Its band-like pattern is caused when a mixture of iron and carbon crystalises into cementite. This forms when craftsmen allow cast pieces of metal to cool down slowly, before being forged at low temperatures.
    http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/secrets-of-ancient-indian-sword-revealed/article1-1315957.aspx

    A sword maker from damascus, ca. 1900

    A carbide-banding phenomenon produced by the microsegregation of minor amounts of carbide-forming elements present in the wootz ingots aid the process of forging Damascus sabre blade with sharp edges. 


    A beautiful example of a Damascus steel knife. Notice the dark patterns—similar to both soot and the cave paintings.  https://www.flickr.com/photos/jasleen_kaur/4211340481/

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11837-998-0419-y#page-1 Verhoeven, JD, AH Pendray, WE Dauksch, The key role of impurities in ancient damascus steel blades in: JOM, 1998, Vol. 50, Issue 9, pp. 58-64.

    Crucible steel samples from Bharatam which result in Damascus swords are the earliest carbon nanotubes on record. The carbon nanotubes might have contributed to the formation of iron carbide nanowires.

    Reference https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/damascus-steel-and-carbon-nanotubes.144911/

    Boukhvalov, DW, MI Katsnelson, Yu.N. Gornostyrev in: Effect of impurities on growth and morphology of cementite nanowires. The authors examined the role of several realistic impurities (Si, Mn, V, P and S) in the formation energies of the cementite nanowires with different sizes and morphologies. It is shown that the presence of the impurities decreases the formation energy and can switch the preferable axis of the cementite nanowire growth. http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1201/1201.5327.pdf

    Nature 444, 286 (16 November 2006) | doi:10.1038/444286a; Received 24 July 2006; Accepted 25 October 2006; Published online 15 November 2006

    Materials: Carbon nanotubes in an ancient Damascus sabre

    M. Reibold1,2, P. Paufler1, A. A. Levin1, W. Kochmann1, N. Pätzke1 & D. C. Meyer1
    Top
    The steel of Damascus blades, which were first encountered by the Crusaders when fighting against Muslims, had features not found in European steels — a characteristic wavy banding pattern known as damask, extraordinary mechanical properties, and an exceptionally sharp cutting edge. Here we use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to examine a sample of Damascus sabre steel from the seventeenth century and find that it contains carbon nanotubes as well as cementite nanowires. This microstructure may offer insight into the beautiful banding pattern of the ultrahigh-carbon steel created from an ancient recipe that was lost long ago.

    "Damascus blades featured two qualities not found in European steels at that time: an attractive wavy-like banding, known today as Damast, an extremely sharp edge (according to the legend a sword could slice through a silk handkerchief floating in the air)...The formation of the (Damast) pattern depends on the formation of cementite (Fe3C) particles of a certain size, shape and spatial distribution...How was genuine Damascus steel done? It is generally agreed that those ingots of crucible steel were made in ancient India ('wootz') and Central Asia ('bulad'), then sold to the Near East and to Europe for forging. Details of the blade production were kept secret. At the end of the 18th century the ability to produce this type of steel got lost. Numerous attempts have been made since that time to reproduce this quality...a pronounced structuring of the material at nanoscale has been observed. One component of this is the appearance of wire-like objects of cementite structure...Their spacing is of the order of 100nm...Taking ancient recipes of wootz-technology into account, we have speculated that organic additions with the aid of catalysts might have given rise to this carbon nanotube formation..."
    Fig. 1. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image of cementite nanowires in a Damascus sabre. Left panel: The dark stripes indicate wires of several nanometers in length. Right panel: View showing an almost circular fross section (dotted)



    Legendary Swords' Sharpness, Strength From Nanotubes, Study Says

    Mason Inman
    for National Geographic News
    November 16, 2006
    Sabre #10, Berne Historical Museum, Switzerland, Assad Ullah in the 17th Century. - Peter Paufler (c) 2006
    New studies of Damascus swords are revealing that the legendary blades contain nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and other extremely small, intricate structures that might explain their unique features.
    Damascus swords, first made in the eighth century A.D., are renowned for their complex surface patterns and sharpness. According to legend, the blades can cut a piece of silk in half as it falls to the ground and maintain their edge after cleaving through stone, metal, or even other swords.
    But since the techniques for making these swords have been lost for hundreds of years, no one is sure exactly why these swords are so exceptional.
    Now studies of the swords' molecular structure are uncovering the tiny structures that may explain these properties.
    Peter Paufler, a crystallographer at Technical University in Dresden, Germany, and his colleagues had previously found tiny nanowires and nanotubes when they used an electron microscope to examine samples from a Damascus blade made in the 17th century.
    Today in the journal Nature, the teams reports that it has also discovered carbon nanotubes in the sword—the first nanotubes ever found in steel, Paufler says.
    The nanotubes, which are remarkably strong, run through the blade's softer steel, likely making it more resilient. (Related: "Nano-Switches Could Yield Even Smaller Gadgets"[August 16, 2005].)
    "It is a general principle of nature," Paufler said. "Materials that are softer, you can strengthen by including harder wires."
    Secret Techniques
    Some of the nanowires Paufler and his team had previously found were made of an extremely hard iron-based mineral called cementite.
    In the new research, the team discovered that carbon nanotubes encase some cementite nanowires, protecting them.
    These nanotube-nanowire bundles may give the swords their special properties, Paufler says.
    The bundles run parallel to the blade's surface and may help larger particles of cementite arrange in layers. These hard layers, which have softer steel in between, could help explain how the steel remains strong yet flexible.
    This combination of strength and flexibility makes the steel ideal for forging swords.
    The blades were generally made from metal ingots prepared in India using special recipes, which probably put just the right amount of carbon and other impurities into the iron (India map).
    By following these recipes and following specific forging techniques, "craftsmen ended up making nanotubes more than 400 years ago," Paufler and his colleagues write.
    When these blades were nearly finished, blacksmiths would etch them with acid. This brought out the wavy light and dark lines that make Damascus swords easy to recognize.
    But it could also give the swords their sharpness, Paufler says. Because carbon nanotubes are resistant to acid, they would protect the nanowires, he theorizes.
    After etching, many of these nanostructures could stick out from the blade's edge, giving it tiny saw-like teeth.
    Skeptical Smiths
    The techniques for making the steel were lost around A.D. 1700. But many researchers are studying how to recreate the blades—even though metallurgical experts warn that the blades, though exceptional for their time, are far outperformed by modern steels.
    While some scientists have claimed success, others dispute that the reproductions are truly the same as the originals.
    And many experts doubt that the new findings will clear things up.
    John Verhoeven, a metallurgist at Iowa State University at Ames who has worked on reproducing the Damascus sword-making techniques, is skeptical that Paufler and his colleagues have cracked the secret of Damascus blades.
    "I don't think that [the nanowires] are anything unusual," Verhoeven said. "I think those structures would be found in normal steels."
    The Damascus sword is also an example of how unexpected nanosize structures can show up in materials—and sometimes give them surprising properties, experts say.
    But not all these nanoproperties are good. Asbestos, for example, comes in needle-like particles that cause severe lung disease. Break these particles into shorter pieces, and they much less harmful.
    Because of nanomaterials' unpredictable behavior, several researchers asked in an article published today in Nature for more studies of these materials and their potential side effects.


    Srinivasan, C., Do Damascus swords reveal India's mastery of nanotechnology? in: Current Science, Vol. 92, No. 3, 10 February 2007, pp. 279-280
    Close-up of an 18th-century Persian-forged Damascus steel sword

    Carbon nanotubes

    Carbon nanotubes are long chains of carbon held together by the strongest bond in all chemistry, the sacred sp2 bond, even stronger than the sp3 bonds that hold together diamond. Carbon nanotubes have numerous remarkable physical properties, including ballistic electron transport (making them ideal for electronics) and so much tensile strength that they are the only substance that could be used to build a space elevator. The specific strength of carbon nanotubes is 48,000 kN·m/kg, the best of known materials, compared to high-carbon steel’s 154 kN·/kg. That’s 300 times stronger than steel. You could build towers hundreds of kilometers high with it.

    From Arab Seafaring by George F. Hourani:





    http://www.muslimheritage.com/article/filling-gap-history-pre-modern-industry-1000-years-missing-islamic-industry


    The origins of Iron-working in India


    New evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas

    By Rakesh Tewari
    [Director, U.P. State Archaeological Department, Roshan-ud-daula Kothi,
    Kaisarbagh, Lucknow 226 001 (U.P.) India (Email: rakeshlko@rediffmail.com)]

    Recent excavations in Uttar Pradesh have turned up iron artefacts, furnaces, tuyeres and slag in layers radiocarbon dated between c. BCE 1800 and 1000. This raises again the question of whether iron working was brought in to India during supposed immigrations of the second millennium BCE, or developed independently.

    Introduction
    The date and origin of the introduction of iron artefacts and iron working into India has remained a much debated research problem, not unconnected with the equally debatable question of its association with the supposed arrival, in the second millennium BCE, of immigrants from the west, as often suggested on the basis of the Rigveda. Around the middle of the last century, iron-working origins in India were dated to c. 700-600 BCE (Gordon 1950; Wheeler 1959). Subsequently, a combination of an association with Painted Grey Ware (PGW) and the advent of radiocarbon dating began to push this date back towards the second millennium BCE, a period which had in fact favoured by some scholars earlier in the early twentieth century (Chakrabarti 1992: 10-12).
    Considering the radiocarbon dates for the iron bearing deposits at Ataranjikhera in Uttar Pradesh (Table 1) and Hallur in Karnataka, and stratigraphic position of iron in the lower levels mainly at Kausambi near Allahabad, Jakhera in district Etah in the Ganga Valley, and Nagda and Eran in central India, dates around 1000 BCE were suggested (Subramanyam 1964; Banarjee 1965; Chakrabarti 1974; Nagarajarao 1974). At the same time Chakrabarti (1974: 354) challenged the view of a western origin, stating “there is no logical basis to connect the beginning of iron in India with any diffusion from the west, from Iran and beyond”, and further (1976: 122) “that India was a separate and possibly independent centre of manufacture of early iron.”
    Since then there has been fresh evidence for even earlier iron-working in India. Technical studies on materials dated c. 1000 BCE at Komaranhalli (Karnataka) showed that the smiths of this site could deal with large artefacts, implying that they had already been experimenting for centuries (Agrawal et al. 1985: 228-29). Sahi (1979: 366) drew attention to the presence of iron in Chalcolithic deposits at Ahar, and suggested that “the date of the beginning of iron smelting in India may well be placed as early as the sixteenth century BCE” and “by about the early decade of thirteenth century BCE iron smelting was definitely known in India on a bigger scale”. On the basis of four radiocarbon measurements, ranging between 3790 + 110 BP and 3570 + 100 BP, available for the Megalithic period (without iron) Sharma (1992: 64, 67) has proposed a range of 1550-1300 BCE (uncalibrated) for the subsequent iron bearing period at Gufkral (Jammu & Kashmir).
    On the basis of this evidence a date of around 1300/1200 BCE has been suggested for the beginning of iron in India and c. 800 BCE for the mid Ganga Valley (Allchin & Allchin 1982: 345; Prakash & Tripathi 1986: 568; Gaur 1997: 240). Chakrabarti (1992: 68, 164; 1999: 333) has observed that at Ahar it would be the first quarter of the second millennium BCE and in Malwa soon after the middle of the second millennium BCE. However, the early dates for iron at Ahar are refuted on the grounds of uncertain stratigraphy (Gaur 1997: 244). As far as Komaranhalli is concerned, it is stated that the TL dates have large errors and hence uncertain (Agrawala 2000: 197, 200).
    Table 1. Dates* for early iron-use from Indian sites
    table

    * These dates are calibrated by Dr B. Sekar, BSIP, Lucknow. References for datasets used: Stuiver, et al. 1998a. 537
    More recently, early contexts containing iron at Jhusi, located on the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna in district Allahabad, have been dated to 1107-844 cal BCE (Tewari et al. 2000: 93). Komaranhalli (Karnataka) has given TL dates in the twelfth – fifteenth century BCE, while the radiocarbon dates for early Iron Age sites of Veerapuram and Ramapuram (Andhra Pradesh) are sixteenth – eleventh century cal BCE (Table 1) (Deo 1991: 193; Moorti 1994: 122-23) while in Vidarbha region (Maharastra), contexts containing iron have given radiocarbon dates between the fourteenth and tenth centuries cal BCE (Table 1).
    Recent Findings in Uttar Pradesh
    This paper briefly reports the results of some recent excavations conducted by the Uttar Pradesh State Archaeological Department under the leadership of the present author and their implications for understanding the beginning of iron-working in the Central Ganga Plain and the adjacent part of the Vindhyas.
    map
    Map showing locations of the Early Iron Age sites in the Central Ganga Plain, the Eastern Vindhyas, and different regions of India.
    pottery shardsPainted black-and-red ware shards, from early iron bearing deposits of Period II, Raja Nala-ka-tila, Dist. Sonbhadra.
    This has further implications in defining the beginning of iron in the subcontinent as a whole. The excavated sites are Raja Nala-ka-tila (199698), Malhar (1998-99), Dadupur (1999-2001) and Lahuradewa or Lohradewa (2001-2002) (Figure 1) Raja Nala-ka-tila (Lat. 24°41’ 55” N.; Log. 83°19’ E.) is located in the upper reaches of the Karamnasa within its loop like meander in district Sonbhadra. The excavations revealed a sequence which has been divided into four periods (Tewari & Research Srivastava 1997; 1998).
    iron artifacts Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II, Raja Nala-ka-tila, Dist. Sonbhadra.
    In Period I, no metal was fund and is stratigraphically continuous into Period II. Period III is characterised by the presence of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). Period IV is defined as a Gupta/ post Gupta phase. Iron was found in pre-NBPW deposits (1.5 to 2.00m thick) of Period II in association of the pottery hitherto supposed to be the characteristics of the Chalcolithic period, placed between early to late second millennium BCE, in the area concerned.
    The main associated ceramic industries were plain and painted black-and-red black slipped and red wares, in forms which included footed bowl, legged bowl with perforated base, pedestal bowl and button-based goblet. Some sherds also showed cord impressions. Evidence for iron-working included slag and iron artefacts such as a nail, arrowhead, knife and a chisel Radiocarbon dates for the iron bearing deposits range between 1400 and 800 cal BCE.

    Table 2. New 14C dates for early iron-use from the Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas

    table

    * These dates are calibrated by Dr B. Sekar, BSIP, Lucknow. References for datasets used: Stuiver, et al. 1998a.
    Since the date for the introduction of iron in the middle and lower Ganga Valley was being considered as c. 800 BCE (above), its appearance in c. 1400/1300 cal BCE at Raja Nala-ka-tila posed new questions. Realising that this should not be the only site with such early evidence and that there should be examples of experimental iron-smelting which were earlier still, we started a new search. These efforts were rewarded in locating a potential site near a village called Malhar.
    iron artefacts Iron artefacts, from the lower and middle levels of Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
    Malhar (district Chandauli; Lat. 24°59’ 16” N.; Long. 83°15’ 46” E.) is on the bank of the Karamnasa which at this point flows through a rocky, haematite-rich terrain before joining the Ganga near Banaras. The excavations carried out at this site also revealed a sequence of four periods: defined as Period I: Pre Iron; Period II: Early Iron; Period III: NBPW; Period IV: BCE 200 to 300 AD (Tewari et al. 2000: 69-98). There is no stratigraphic interval between the layers of Period I and Period II. Iron is present in all the layers of Period II,and identified finds include a nail, clamp, spear-head, arrow-head, awl, knife, bangle, sickle and plough share. As well as iron slag, there were tuyeres and several elongated clay structures, with a burnt internal surface. The ceramic industries of this period are represented by mainly red, black-and-red, black slipped, and grey wares. Red ware and black-and-red ware sherds bearing cord impressions on their exterior were found in greater number in the lower levels. The presence of the coarse variety of corded potsherds implies that the iron appeared earlier here than in Period II at Raja Nala-ka-tila. This assumption was endorsed by two radiocarbon dates ranging around 1800 cal. BCE (Table 2).
    Naugarh kot iron
    Important cultural components of the early iron Naugarh kot suggest that large-scale iron bearing deposits, showing corded ware sherds, iron artefact, slag, smelting activities continued at these sites tuyere, stone and bone artefacts, painted and incised potsherds, for a long time. stone and terracotta beads. Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
    The area around Malhar may have been something of a centre of iron production. A small mound, of a kind known locally as lohsan or lohsanwa, about 500m south to the main site of Malhar, which looks like a heap of iron slag, on excavation revealed two damaged clay furnaces, one of them is illustrated here as Figure 6, filled with iron slag along with a few sherds of the red, grey, and black slipped wares, an axe, and tuyeres. Survey revealed several lohsanwa sites near Musakhand village, the site known as Phakkada Baba located within the Musakhand dam, to the north-west of Malhar, on Baba Wali Pahari (Tewari et al. 2000) and near Naugarh kot (Singh et al. 2000: 143). Plans of damaged clay furnaces within heaps of iron slag along with tuyeres stuck with smelted iron, and potsherds of the grey, black slipped, NBP and red wares were found at these sites. The pottery assemblage at Phakkada Baba also included examples of dish or bowl-on-stand and other forms, comparable to those from Malhar Period II, in red ware, and black-and-red ware. This extraordinary concentration of iron-slag heaps on Baba Wali Pahari and Naugarh kot suggests that large-scale iron smelting continued at these sites for a long time.
    excavation Damaged circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyeres and other waste materials stuck with its body, exposed at lohsanwa mound, Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.
    As discussed elsewhere (Tewari et al. 2000) the sites at Malhar, the Baba Wali Pahari, and the Valley are archaeologically linked to the area of Geruwatwa Pahar which appears to have been a major source of iron ore. The Geruwatwa Pahar situated to the southeast of the Baba Wali Pahari, is full of hematite. Villagers reported (as a tradition passed down from several generations), that the agarias (a particular tribe known for their iron smelting skills) from Robertsganj side, used to come in this area to procure iron by smelting the hematite. Probably hematite was being primarily smelted at the Baba Wali Pahari and carried over to the valley sites (situated at a distance of about 6-8 km) for secondary smelting. The presence of tuyeres, slags, finished iron artefacts, above-mentioned clay structures with burnt internal surfaces and arms, revealed at Malhar, suggest a large scale activity related to manufacture of iron tools. It appears that smelted iron was being carried to this site to manufacture the artefacts and the clay structures were used as the furnaces for forging purposes. Thus this part of the Karamnasa Valley would have been a regional centre for iron production and the Malhar a workshop-site for the manufacturing of the iron artefacts.
    iron arrowhead Highly corroded iron arrowhead, Period I, Dadupur, Dist. Lucknow.
    Dadupur (26°42’ N: 80°49’ E) is in the valley of the Sai, a minor Gangatributary near Lucknow. It is the earliest dated site (Tewari et al. 2002:111) between the Gomati and the Sai rivers. The excavations at this site have revealed a sequence divided into three periods. The cultural material of Period-I consists of iron artefacts such as the arrowheadm shown in Figure 7. Red ware dominates the pottery assemblage of this period, while the black-and-red ware is nominally represented. Three radiocarbon dates lie between the eighteenth and sixteenth centuries BCE (Table 2). Period II and III are characterised respectively by the presence of Painted Grey Ware (PGW) and NBP ware.
    Lahuradewa (district Sant Kabir Nagar; 26°46’ N; 82°-57’E) is in the trans-Sarayu plain, the Sarayu being a major tributary of the Ganga. The excavations have revealed new information regarding the early farming cultures of the Sarayupar region, including evidence for the domestication of rice (Oryza sativa) in Period I, radiocarbon dated to c. sixth and fifth millennium BCE. Associated ceramics include mostly plain and corded, hand made red, and black-and-red, besides, some grey, and black ware sherds. Period II is marked by the appearance of copper. Pottery of the preceding period continued and a new type of pottery, i.e. black slipped ware is added, and the forms include pedestal bowl, and dish or bowl-on-stand. Iron artefacts appear in Period III in the form of corroded nails and other objects. Other components of the assemblage, however, are the same as in Period II. A radiocarbon date obtained for this level was thirteenth – twelfth century BCE (Tewari et al. 2002a: 57) (Table 2).
    As per K.S. Saraswat’s observations (pers.comm.), the carbonised material dated from the sites mentioned above included the branches of some trees, such as Acacia sp., Madhuca indica, Dalbergia sissoo, Treura nudiflora, Boswellia serrata, Aegle marmelos, Syzygium sp., Tectona grandis, Butea monosperma, Logerstroemia sp., Bambusaa sp., etc., and the shrubs like Zixiphus sp., Capparis saparia, Carissa opaca. The above species are in mixed content, with the carbonised remains of leaves, stems and seeds of a number of seasonal herbs and grasses. These tropical vegetations referred to above have generally 60-70 yrs of average life span in case of trees and the shrubs and herbs survive hardly from two to three months to the maximum period of a year or two.
    There are other observations on the assemblages from these four sites which might be significant. Copper has been found in a lesser proportion in comparison to iron; presence of burnt clay chunks bearing reed and straw marks and postholes are indicative of wattle and daub houses and thatched huts; associated finds include mainly bone arrowheads, terracotta, stone and steatite (?) beads; some storage bins are dug into the surface and bases of the large earthen storage vessels are represented at Lahuradeawa and Raja Nala-ka-tila; a large quantity of faunal and carbonised archaeo-botanical remains have been recovered at all the sites. As a whole the assemblage is suggestive of well equipped and permanent settlements.
    Discussion
    These results indicate that iron using and iron working was prevalent in the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas from the early second millennium BCE. The dates obtained so far group into three: three dates between c. 1200-900 cal BCE, three between c. 1400-1200 cal BCE, and five between c. 1800-1500 cal BCE. The types and shapes of the associated pottery are comparable to those to be generally considered as the characteristics of the Chalcolithic Period and placed in early to late second millennium BCE. Taking all this evidence together it may be concluded that knowledge of iron smelting and manufacturing of iron artefacts was well known in the Eastern Vindhyas and iron had been in use in the Central Ganga Plain, at least from the early second millennium BCE. The quantity and types of iron artefacts, and the level of technical advancement indicate that the introduction of iron working took place even earlier. The beginning of the use of iron has been traditionally associated with the eastward migration of the later Vedic people, who are also considered as an agency which revolutionised material culture particularly in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar (Sharma 1983: 117-131). The new finds and their dates suggest that a fresh review is needed. Further, the evidence corroborates the early use of iron in other areas of the country, and attests that India was indeed an independent centre for the development of the working of iron.
    Acknowledgements
    I am thankful to Dr Rajagopalan and Dr B.Sekar, Birbal Sahni Institute for Palaeobotany, Lucknow for the determination of 14C dates, to Dr Sekar for the calibration of most of the 14C dates, to Dr KS. Saraswat – a renowned archaeobotanist of the same institution – for the observations regarding the material radiocarbon dated, to Dr P.C. Pant and the Editor, Antiquity for the input to improve the manuscript and to Shri Ram Gopal Mishra and Shri Manmohan Dimri for the figures which illustrate this paper.
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    SHARMA, R.S. 1983. Material Culture and Social Formations in Ancient India. Delhi: Macmillan.
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    SUBRAMANYAM, B.R. 1964. Appearance and Spread of Iron in India – An Appraisal of Archaeological Data, Journal of the Oriental institute, Baroda 13: 349-59.
    TEWARI, R., & R. K. SRIVASTAVA 1997. Excavations at Raja Nala-ka-tila (1995-96), District Sonbhadra (U.P.): Preliminary observations, Pragdhara 7: 77
    95.
    –1998. Excavations at Raja Nala-ka-tila (1996-97) District Sonbhadra (U.P.): Preliminary Observations, Pragdhara 8: 99-105.
    TEWARI, R., R.K. SRIVASTAVA, K.S. SARASWAT & K.K. SINGH 2000. Excavations at Malhar, District Chandauli (U.P.) 1999: A Preliminary Report, Pragdhara 10: 69-98.
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    Close-up of an 18th-century Iranian crucible-forged Damascus steel sword. The sword was made of wootz steel, a process said to have started in 300 BCE. [K. Kris Hirst Damascus Steel. Nanotechnology and SwordMaking. Archaeology.about.com (2010-06-10)] 


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    How is the Meluhha expression कर्मार kamar'blacksmith' ( RV x.72.2) written on Indus Script Corpora of metalwork wealth-cluster catalogues? 

    One is miṇḍāl 'markhor' rebus: mẽṛhet 'iron'

    The other is kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Thus, both are कर्मार kamar 'ironsmiths, smelters.'  The fine distinction is that kola'tiger' is often associated with a spy on the tree branch: Hypertext: spy on the tree: heraka'spy' Rebus: eraka 'copper, molten cast'.. Hence, such a tiger turning or look back is, a metalcasting ironsmith,  a cire perdue caster.  Ko. er uk- (uky-) to play 'peeping tom'. Kui ēra (ēri-) to spy, scout; n. spying, scouting; pl action ērka (ērki-). ? Kuwi (S.) hēnai to scout; hēri kiyali to see; (Su. P.) hēnḍ- (hēṭ-) id. Kur. ērnā (īryas) to see, look, look at, look after, look for, wait for, examine, try; ērta'ānā to let see, show; ērānakhrnā to look at one another. Malt. ére to see, behold, observe; érye to peep, spy. Cf. 892 Kur. ēthrnā. / Cf. Skt. heraka- spy, Pkt. her- to look at or for, and many NIA verbs; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14165.(DEDR 903)*hērati ʻ looks for or at ʼ. 2. hēraka -- , °rika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ lex., hairika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ Hcar., ʻ thief ʼ lex. [J. Bloch FestschrWackernagel 149 ← Drav., Kui ēra ʻ to spy ʼ, Malt. ére ʻ to see ʼ, DED 765]
    1. Pk. hēraï ʻ looks for or at ʼ (vihīraï ʻ watches for ʼ); K.ḍoḍ. hērūō ʻ was seen ʼ; WPah.bhad. bhal. he_rnū ʻ to look at ʼ (bhal. hirāṇū ʻ to show ʼ), pāḍ. hēraṇ, paṅ. hēṇā, cur. hērnā, Ku. herṇo, N. hernu, A. heriba, B. herā, Or. heribā (caus. herāibā), Mth. herab, OAw. heraï, H. hernā; G. hervũ ʻ to spy ʼ, M. herṇẽ.2. Pk. hēria -- m. ʻ spy ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) "hériu"ʻ spy ʼ; G. herɔ m. ʻ spy ʼ, herũ n. ʻ spying ʼ.(CDIAL 14165) Rebus: Ta. eṟṟu (eṟṟi-) to throw out (as water from a vessel); iṟai (-v-, -nt-) to scatter (intr.), disperse; (-pp-, -tt-) to splash (tr.), spatter, scatter, strew, draw and pour out water, irrigate, bale out, squander; iṟaivaireceptacle for drawing water for irrigation; iṟaṭṭu (iṟaṭṭi-) to sprinkle, splash. Ma. iṟekka to bale out; iṟayuka id., scatter, disperse; iṟava basket for drawing water; eṟiccil rainwater blown in by the wind. To.eṟ- (eṟQ-) to scoop up (water with vessel). Ka. eṟe to pour any liquids, cast (as metal); n. pouring; eṟacu, ercu to scoop, sprinkle, scatter, strew, sow; eṟaka, eraka any metal infusion; molten state, fusion. Tu.eraka molten, cast (as metal); eraguni to melt. Kur. ecchnā to dash a liquid out or over (by scooping, splashing, besprinkling). Cf. 840 Kur. elkhnā (Pfeiffer). (DEDR 866)
    In the Indus Script Corpora, there are only two hypertexts -- markhor and tiger -- which signify, kammara 'looking back' rebus: कर्मार kamar'blacksmith' ( RV x.72.2) Hypertext/hieroglyph: క్రమ్మరు krammaru krammaru. [Tel.] v. n. To turn, return, go back. మరలు. క్రమ్మరించు or క్రమ్మరుచు krammarinṭsu. v. a. To turn, send back, recall. To revoke, annul, rescind. క్రమ్మరజేయు. క్రమ్మర krammara. adv. Again. క్రమ్మరిల్లు or క్రమరబడు Same as క్రమ్మరు. Rebus;కమ్మరము kammaramu kammaramu. [Tel.] n. Smith's work, iron work. కమ్మరవాడు, కమ్మరి or కమ్మరీడు kammara-vāḍu. n. An iron-smith or blacksmith. బైటికమ్మరవాడు an itinerant blacksmith. కమ్మటము (p. 247) kammaṭamu Same as కమటము. కమ్మటీడు kammaṭīḍu. [Tel.] A man of the goldsmith caste.  karmāˊra m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ RV. [EWA i 176 < stem *karmar -- ~ karman -- , but perh. with ODBL 668 ← Drav. cf. Tam. karumā ʻ smith, smelter ʼ whence meaning ʻ smith ʼ was transferred also to karmakāra -- ] Pa. kammāra -- m. ʻ worker in metal ʼ; Pk. kammāra -- , °aya -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, A. kamār, B. kāmār; Or. kamāra ʻ blacksmith, caste of non -- Aryans, caste of fishermen ʼ; Mth. kamār ʻ blacksmith ʼ, Si. kam̆burā.*karmāraśālā -- .Addenda: karmāˊra -- : Md. kan̆buru ʻ blacksmith ʼ.(CDIAL 2898)*karmāraśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [karmāˊra -- , śāˊlā -- ]Mth. kamarsārī; -- Bi. kamarsāyar?(CDIAL 2899) karmaśālā f. ʻ workshop ʼ MBh. [kárman -- 1, śāˊlā -- ]Pk. kammasālā -- f.; L. kamhāl f. ʻ hole in the ground for a weaver's feet ʼ; Si. kamhala ʻ workshop ʼ, kammala ʻ smithy ʼ.(CDIAL 2896)
     Trans. Griffith: RV x.72.2 2 These Brahmanaspati produced with blast and smelting, like a Smith,
    Existence, in an earlier age of Gods, from Nonexistence- sprang.
    Brahmanaspati is also called Gaṇeśa who signifies leader of gaṇa of dwarfs,kharva, engaged in production of kharva 'nidhi' rebus: karba 'iron'.
    The कर्मार kamar 'blacksmith' ( RV x.72.2) mentioned in the R̥ca is a 'smelter' and also works with bellows dhmakara, dhamaka. (Hieroglyph: makara)
    Thus,two smelters of iron are called कर्मार kamar 'blacksmith' and signifie by markhor and tiger looking back.






    miṇḍāl'markhor' (Tor.wali)(CDIAL 10310) 
    meḍho 'a ram, a sheep' (G.)(CDIAL 10120) mēṇḍhaʻramʼ(CDIAL 9606).मेंढा [mēṇḍhā] m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup. मेंढका or क्या [ mēṇḍhakā or kyā ] a (मेंढा) A shepherd (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.)   Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.) mēṇḍh 'gold' as in: मेंढसर [ mēṇḍhasara ] m A bracelet of gold thread. (Marathi) xolā 'tail' of antelope' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolimi'smithy, forge'. Thus, iron/metalwork smelter catalogue. Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus 1:meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Santali.Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) 
    Related imagekul 'tiger' (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'. kol ‘pañcalōha’ (Ta.)கொல் kol, n. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. மின் வெள்ளி பொன் கொல்லெனச் சொல்லும் (தக்கயாகப். 550). 2. Metal; உலோகம். (நாமதீப. 318.) கொல்லன் kollaṉ, n. < T. golla. Custodian of treasure; கஜானாக்காரன். (P. T. L.) கொல்லிச்சி kollicci, n. Fem. of கொல்லன். Woman of the blacksmith caste; கொல்லச் சாதிப் பெண். (யாழ். அக.) The gloss kollicci is notable. It clearly evidences that kol was a blacksmith. kola ‘blacksmith’ (Ka.); Koḍ. kollë blacksmith (DEDR 2133). Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge (DEDR 2133) கொல்² kol Working in iron; கொற்றொழில். Blacksmith; கொல்லன். (Tamil)

    Hypertext: leafless tree, treebranch: A person is seated on a branch of a tree: కమ్మ kamma  [Tel.] n. A branch, or bough of any tree of the palm species.  kuṭi'tree' Rebus: kuṭhi'smelter' (smithy) khōṇḍa'leafless tree' (Marathi). Rebus: kõdār 'turner' (Bengali). konda 'furnace, fire-altar'  kō̃da कोँद 'furnace for smelting':  payĕn-kō̃da पयन्-कोँद । परिपाककन्दुः f. a kiln (a potter's, a lime-kiln, and brick-kiln, or the like); a furnace (for smelting). -thöji - or -thöjü -; । परिपाक-(द्रावण-)मूषाf. a crucible, a melting-pot. -ʦañĕ -। परिपाकोपयोगिशान्ताङ्गारसमूहः f.pl. a special kind of charcoal (made from deodar and similar wood) used in smelting furnaces. -wôlu -वोलु&below; । धात्वादिद्रावण-इष्टिकादिपरिपाकशिल्पी m. a metal-smelter; a brick-baker. -wān -वान् । द्रावणचुल्ली m. a smelting furnace.

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    https://tinyurl.com/y84faccqFrequently occurring pairs of 'signs' on Corpora (M77) are also linked with Field Symbols to identify lapidary clusters of metals manufactory (phaa, paaa) recorded on daybooks of metalwork catalogues. 


    Source: Sundar Ganesan, Chandrasekhar Subramanian, GC Suresh Babu, and Iravatham Mahadevan, 2009, "The Indus Script: text and context, a statistical-positional analysis of significant text segments" -- (Research monograph of Indus Research Centre, Roja Muthiah Research Library, Chennai. 
    (Products) Investigated daybook 179 final position; 90 on miniature tablets कारणिक investigating; khareḍo'a currycomb' rebus: kharada खरडें daybook 
    (Products out of) Iron furnace 111 solus; 63 on miniature tablets kolom'three' rebus:Ta. kol working in iron, lacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë. blacksmithbaṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron', bhaṭa 'furnace'.
    (Products out of) Equipment furnace50 solus; 45 on miniature tablets gaṇḍa'four' Rebus: kaṇḍa'eqipment, furnace, fire-altar' (Santali); baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron', bhaṭa'furnace'.
    (Products out of) Metalcasting furnace 74 solus; 38 on miniature tablets dula'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'; baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron', bhaṭa 'furnace'.
    (Products from smelter) Bharat alloy (copper, zinc, tin) investigated52 initial position, 8 solus; 43 on miniature tablets baraḍo =spinebackbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat'mixed alloys' (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) ;कारणिक investigating Associatedwith FS 83: Dotted circledhāvaḍ 'smelter'(Products out of) Metalcasting smithy investigated 88 final position;16 miniature tablets dula'pair' rebus: dul'metal casting'PLUS kolmo'riceplant' rebus:Ta. kol working in iron, lacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë. blacksmithकारणिक investigating(Silver/gold braid products of furnace) Investigated daybookFSFig. 123 (FS 85) associated with  (Freq. 11) bhaṭa 'warrior' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'कारणिक investigating; khareḍo 'a currycomb' rebus: kharada खरडें daybook. M. goṭā m. ʻ roundish stone ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ a marble ʼ, goṭuḷā ʻ spherical ʼ; Si. guṭiya ʻ lump, ball ʼ rebus: P. goṭṭā ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ,H. goā m. ʻ edging of such ʼ (→ K. goa m. ʻ edging of gold braid ʼ, S. goo m. ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ); M. go ʻ hem of a garment, metal wristlet ʼ.*gōḍḍ -- ʻ dig ʼ see *khōdd -- .Addenda: *gōṭṭa -- : also Ko. u ʻ silver or gold braid ʼ.(CDIAL 4271) Artisans' workshop products from smelter investigated
     
     FS Fig.75 to 77 FS Code 44 associated with(Freq. 6) kōḍi corner; kōṇṭu angle, corner, crook. Nk. kōnṭa corner (DEDR 2054b) G. khū̃ṭṛī f. ʻangleʼ Rebus: kõdā 'to turn in a lathe'(B.) कोंद kōnda 'engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems' (Marathi) koḍ 'artisan's workshop' (Kuwi) koḍ = place where artisans work (G.); ingot smelter; kuṭi 'water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'; कारणिक investigating.

    Alloy metal iron metalcasting ingots investigated

    FS Fig. 68 FS Code 37 associated with  aya'fish' rebus: ayas'alloy metal, iron'aya'iron' (Gujarati); dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'; mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'; कारणिक investigating.

    Tinsmith panja smeltering tin-bronze


    FS Fig. 63 to 67FS Code 36 associated with  aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS karā 'crocodile' rebus: khār 'blacksmith', thus aya-kara 'metalsmith; 
    Triplet 1: aya 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal, iron' PLUS ranku 'antelope' rebus: ranku 'tin' PLUS kuṭi 'curve; rebus: कुटिल kuṭila, katthīl (8 parts copper, 2 parts tin)
    Triplet 2: ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' PLUS  pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra 'smithy, forge' (Santali) panja 'smelter' PLUS कारणिक investigating.
    Triplet 3 ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS कारणिक investigating.

    Tinsmith working in smithy/forge, producing tin-bronze

    FS Fig.51FS code 25 associated with सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined animal parts' rebus: samgaha,samgraha 'catalogue' PLUS pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Te.) Rebus: pasra'smithy' (Santali) PLUS ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS कारणिक investigating.

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    Pasaramu'cattle' పసరము pasaramu or పసలము pasaramu. [Tel.] n. A beast, an animal. గోమహిషహాతి.  rebus: pajhar'smelter, smithy', rebus: పసారము pasāramu or పసారు pasārdmu. [Tel.] n. A shop. associated triplets of hypertext clusters. Thus, clusters of animals (expanded also as a composite animal or animals shown in procession) are wealth-accounting classifiers of distinct metalwork categories related to a smelter or a smithy.  prasara m. ʻ advance, extension ʼ Kālid. [√sr̥]Pk. pasara -- m. ʻ extension ʼ; Ku. pasar ʻ extension of family, lineage, family, household ʼ; N. pasal ʻ booth, shop ʼ; B. Or. pasarā ʻ tray of goods for sale ʼ; M. pasar m. ʻ extension ʼ; -- N. pasar ʻ the two hands placed together to receive something, one hand so held out ʼ, H. pasar m. ʻ hollowed palm of hand ʼ: rather < prasr̥ta -- .(CDIAL 8824) prasāra m. ʻ extension ʼ Suśr., ʻ trader's shop ʼ Nalac. [Cf. prasārayati ʻ spreads out for sale ʼ Mn. -- √sr̥Paš. lāsar ʻ bench -- like flower beds outside the window ʼ IIFL iii 3, 113; K. pasār m. ʻ rest ʼ (semant. cf. prásarati in Ku. N. Aw.); P. puhārā m. ʻ breaking out (of fever, smallpox, &c.) ʼ; Ku. pasāro ʻ extension, bigness, extension of family or property, lineage, family, household ʼ; N. pasār ʻ extension ʼ; B. pasār ʻ extent of practice in business, popularity ʼ, Or. pasāra; H. pasārā m. ʻ stretching out, expansion ʼ (→ P. pasārā m.; S. pasāro m. ʻ expansion, crowd ʼ), G. pasār°rɔ m., M. pasārā; -- K. pasôru m. ʻ petty shopkeeper ʼ; P. pahārā m. ʻ goldsmith's workshop ʼ; A. pohār ʻ small shop ʼ; -- ← Centre: S. pasāru m. ʻ spices ʼ; P. pasār -- haṭṭā m. ʻ druggist's shop ʼ; -- X paṇyaśālā -- : Ku. pansārī f. ʻ grocer's shop ʼ.(CDIAL 8835)

    Sign 15 reads: Sign 12 kuṭi 'water-carrier' (Telugu) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS