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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    https://tinyurl.com/ybvog2h6

    This monograph posits a Metals Age Region of Eurasia from ca.5th millennium BCE, of which Sarasvati Civilization with over 2000 archaeological sites (80% of the civilization sites) on the Sarasvati River basin was the central link providing maritime trade through a riverine waterway of Sarasvati River.

    I submit that the strong evidence for this role of Rakhigarhi are the scores of professional calling cards of metalworkers and seafaring merchants which are the Bronze Anthropomorphs.


    Sarasvati civilization is viewed as a set of five regions of Vedic Sarasvati River basin with the capitals of Dholavira, Mohenjo-daro, Ganweriwala, Harappa and Rakhigarhi. 
    GullyinthemiddleseparatestwovillagesRakhiKhaasandRakhi Shahpur.BoththevillagesarelocatedonRGR-4,themainmound atRakhigarhi,...
    Rakhigarhi was the capital of both 1. the Drishadvati Sarasvati tributary region and 2. the Yamuna-Ganga-Brahmaputra metals age cultures.

    I suggest that Rakhigarhi was not only a capital city of the Drishadvati Sarasvati tributary region, but also 1. the Ochre Coloured Pottery (OCP) and Copperhoard culture region of the upper reaches of Yamuna river, 2. the iron ore culture of Ganga Basin, and 3. Tin-bronze copper age cultures of Brahmaputra Basin. The table of dates for early iron use in Ganga basin and other parts of India has been provided (Table 1 and Table 2); these are coterminus with the dates of Sarasvati Civilization in all the phases transiting from the Copper age into the Age of metals alloys.

    Since the Himalayan rivers constituted riverine waterways, there was a seamless extention into the maritime trade regions of the Indian Ocean Rim, Persian Gulf, Tigris-Euphrates doab and Mediterrarean ocean, creating an interlinked Metals Age region of Eurasia extending from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel). 

    Seafaring merchants and artisans of Meluhha have provided the evidence of over 8000 Indus Script Inscriptions which constitute wealth accounting ledgers and metalwork catalogues as documentary evidence for this Metals Age of Eurasia.

    The Himalayan riverine waterways united the OCP and Copper hoard region, iron ore region of Ganga basin (cf. iron smelters) and bronze age cultures of Brahmaputra basin (cf. Karatoya river on map) with the Sarasvati Civilization.

    The following maps and tables are presented to posit the Metals Age region of Eurasia:

    Fig. 1. Iron working sites of Ancient India
    Fig. 2. Table 1. Dates* for early iron-use from Indian sites
    Fig. 3. Table 2. 14C dates for early iron-use from the Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas
    Fig. 4. Sites of Ochre coloured pottery and copper hoard tools

    Fig. 5. Bronze Age sites, North East India and Ancient Far East: Bronze Age sites of eastern Bha_rata and neighbouring areas: 1. Koldihwa; 2. Khairdih; 3. Chirand; 4. Mahisadal; 5. Pandu Rajar Dhibi; 6. Mehrgarh; 7. Harappa; 8. Mohenjo-daro; 9. Ahar; 10.Kayatha; 11. Navdatoli; 12. Inamgaon; 13. Non Pa Wai; 14. Nong Nor; 15. Ban Na Di and Ban Chiang; 16. Non Nok Tha; 17. Thanh Den; 18. Shizhaishan; 19. Ban Don Ta Phet [After Fig. 8.1 in: Charles Higham, 1996, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press].

    Fig. 6. Austro-asiatic speakers, Pinnow map
    Fig. 7. Karatoya river, Brahmaputra-Ganga Basins
    Fig. 8. Largest tin belt of the globe, Ancient Far East
    Fig. 9 National Waterways of India which facilitated the trade interactions during the Metals Age
    Fig. 10 Himalayan river waterways of Ancient Far East
    Image result for iron smelters ganga
    Fig. 1 Iron working sites of Ancient India
    table
    Fig. 2 Table 1. Dates* for early iron-use from Indian sites
    table
    Fig. 3 Table 2. 14C dates for early iron-use from the Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas




    http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/36863/5/chapter%204.pdf
    Fig. 4 Sites of Ochre coloured pottery and copper hoard tools
    YAMUNA INDUS CHENAB JHELUM RAVI SATLUJ BEAS DRYBED OFG HAG G AR DRYBED OFCHAUTANG PALAEO-YAMUNA OLD BED OFBEAS 30 0 29 0 7...
    Fig. 4 Sites of Ochre coloured pottery and copper hoard tools
    Image result for bronze age sites northeast india
    Fig. 5 Bronze Age sites, North East India and Ancient Far East: Bronze Age sites of eastern Bha_rata and neighbouring areas: 1. Koldihwa; 2. Khairdih; 3. Chirand; 4. Mahisadal; 5. Pandu Rajar Dhibi; 6. Mehrgarh; 7. Harappa; 8. Mohenjo-daro; 9. Ahar; 10.Kayatha; 11. Navdatoli; 12. Inamgaon; 13. Non Pa Wai; 14. Nong Nor; 15. Ban Na Di and Ban Chiang; 16. Non Nok Tha; 17. Thanh Den; 18. Shizhaishan; 19. Ban Don Ta Phet [After Fig. 8.1 in: Charles Higham, 1996, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press].
    Fig. 6 Austro-asiatic speakers, Pinnow map
    Fig. 7 Karatoya river, Brahmaputra-Ganga Basins
    Fig. 8 Largest tin belt of the globe, Ancient Far East

    Fig. 9 National Waterways of India which facilitated the trade interactions during the Metals Age

    Fig. 10 Himalayan river waterways of Ancient Far East

    Note on OCP theories


    “B.B.Lal (1969:7) states, ‘Then there is the problem of Ochre Coloured Ware, is it late Harappan? Or, is it an altogether different industry dominating the Ganga Valley, there being, however, interactions between these wares and the Harappan? There is another and I dare say, a no less important aspect of the problem of the Ochre Colour Ware. At a number of placessuch asBahadrabad, Nasirpur, Jhinjhana, Hastinapur, Noh, Ahichchhatra, Atranjikhera, etc., these wares have been noticed to occur sporadically. Otherwiseclean plain, which imperceptivity merge into natural soil. Indications are that these deposits may be water-laid. Are we then faced here with a huge deluge covering hundreds of miles of the Ganga-Yamuna basin? Chronologically, this deluge may have to be placed some time about the middle of the second millennium B.C. Again, though there is a strong circumstantial evidence that this ware may have associated with the Copper-Hoards.”

    may have associated with the Copper-Hoards.” The evidences indicate that the Upper Ganga plains were no doubt originally inhabited by the Late Harappansand Ochre Coloured Pottery using people immediately before the beginning of the 1st millennium B.C. The excavations at Saipai (Lal and Wahal,1971) and at many other sites by other scholars demonstrate that this culture was associated with Copper-Hoards. About the cultural association of the Hoards with O.C.P., however, three major theories are common among the scholars, which are: (i) They represent the traces of Vedic Aryans (ii) Theywere Harappan refugees on the move to the Upper Ganga Valley (iii) They are the original inhabitants of the Upper Ganga Valley.”(opcit.,pp  67-67)





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    Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene
    Will Steffena,b,1, Johan Rockströma, Katherine Richardsonc, Timothy M. Lentond, Carl Folkea,e, Diana Livermanf, Colin P. Summerhayesg, Anthony D. Barnoskyh, Sarah E. Cornella, Michel Crucifixi,j, Jonathan F. Dongesa,k,
    Ingo Fetzer
    a, Steven J. Ladea,b, Marten Schefferl, Ricarda Winkelmannk,m, and Hans Joachim Schellnhubera,k,m,1

    Edited by William C. Clark, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and approved July 6, 2018 (received for review June 19, 2018)

    We explore the risk that self-reinforcing feedbacks could push the Earth System toward a planetary threshold that, if crossed, could prevent stabilization of the climate at intermediate temperature rises and cause continued warming on a Hothouse Earth” pathway even as human emissions are reduced. Crossing the threshold would lead to a much higher global average temperature than any interglacial in the past 1.2 million years and to sea levels significantly higher than at any time in the Holocene. We examine the evidence that such a threshold might exist and where it might be. If the threshold is crossed, the resulting trajectory would likely cause serious disruptions to ecosystems, society, and economies. Col- lective human action is required to steer the Earth System away from a potential threshold and stabilize it in a habitable interglacial-like state. Such action entails stewardship of the entire Earth Systembiosphere, climate, and societiesand could include decarbonization of the global economy, enhancement of biosphere carbon sinks, behavioral changes, technological innovations, new governance arrangements, and trans- formed social values. 


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    https://tinyurl.com/y9dz7cmq

    Bronze anthropomorphs and torcs (bronze rings) have been found from ca. 3rd millennium BCE to 2nd millennium BCE in an extensive area from copperhoard sites of Ganga-Yamuna doab in Ancient India to Lothal to Tin-Bronze sites of Persian Gulf. Finds of anthropomorph fragments from Lothal and Persian Gulf sites takes the hypertext to ca. 3rd millennium BCE of Sarasvati Civilization.


    ASI archives. Anthropomorph with boar's head (in addition to ram's horns, spread legs and one-horned young bull inscribed on the chest)
    Madarpur anthropomorphs. One has upraised hand, spread legs, ram's horns.
    Sheorajpur anthropomorph has 'fish' inscribed on the chest (in addition to ram's horns and spread legs) 

    Indus Script hypertexts on the anthropomorphs and torcs are read rebus in Meluhha:

    Torcs as signifiers of furnace workers, iron workers

    karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, bangles Rebus: khār 'blacksmith, iron worker'. The torcs signify: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa 'seafaring vessel.  Consistent with the archaeological evidence of stoneware bangles as responsibility signifiers, the torc can also be read as a round stone: *varta3 ʻ round stone ʼ. 2. *vārta -- . [Cf. Kurd. bard ʻ stone ʼ. -- √vr̥t1]1. Gy. eur. bar, SEeur. bai̦ ʻ stone ʼ, pal. wăṭwŭṭ ʻ stone, cliff ʼ; Ḍ. boṭ m. ʻ stone ʼ, Ash. Wg. wāṭ, Kt. woṭ, Dm. bɔ̈̄', Tir. baṭ, Niṅg. bōt, Woṭ. baṭ m., Gmb. wāṭ; Gaw. wāṭ ʻ stone, millstone ʼ; Kal.rumb. bat ʻ stone ʼ (bad -- váṣ ʻ hail ʼ), Kho. bort, Bshk. baṭ, Tor. bāṭ, Mai. (Barth) "bhāt" NTS xviii 125, Sv. bāṭ, Phal. bā̆ṭ; Sh.gil. băṭ m. ʻ stone ʼ, koh.băṭṭ m., jij. baṭ, pales. baṭ ʻ millstone ʼ; K. waṭh, dat. °ṭas m. ʻ round stone ʼ, vüṭü f. ʻ small do. ʼ; L. vaṭṭā m. ʻ stone ʼ, khet. vaṭ ʻ rock ʼ; P. baṭṭ m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ, vaṭṭāba°m. ʻ stone ʼ, vaṭṭī f. ʻ pebble ʼ; WPah.bhal. baṭṭ m. ʻ small round stone ʼ; Or. bāṭi ʻ stone ʼ; Bi. baṭṭā ʻ stone roller for spices, grindstone ʼ. -- With unexpl. -- ṭṭh -- : Sh.gur. baṭṭhm. ʻ stone ʼ, gil. baṭhāˊ m. ʻ avalanche of stones ʼ, baṭhúi f. ʻ pebble ʼ (suggesting also an orig. *vartuka -- which Morgenstierne sees in Kho. place -- name bortuili, cf. *vartu -- , vartula -- ).2. Paš.lauṛ. wāṛ, kuṛ.  ʻ stone ʼ, Shum. wāṛ.(CDIAL 11348) Rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'.

    Anthropomorphs (with variant Indus Script Hypertexts/hieroglyphs) as signifiers of metalworkers, seafaring merchants

    khoṇḍ, kõda 'young bull-calf' Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi)  kõda'kiln, furnace'

    baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’; baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) Rebus: bari'merchant'.barea 'merchant' (Santali)বরাহ barāha'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali)

    eraka 'upraised hand' rebus: eraka 'copper'.

    ayo'fish' Rebus: ayo 'iron, metal' (Gujarati)  khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'

    miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.) med 'body' rebus: med 'iron' (Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) 

    karNaka 'spread legs' rebus:karNI 'supercargo'. sangaDa 'joined parts of animals' rebus: sAngaDa 'double-canoe' sangarh 'fortification'

    With the discovery of 31 anthropomorphs in Madarpur, Uttar Pradesh, the total number of such anthropomorphs in India and in Sultanate of Oman has crossed 46 artefacts.   

    Four of these anthropomorphs have been found in Lothal, Haryana, Bihar and Oman. Most artefacts which belong to the prehistoric copper hoard culture dated to earlier than ca. 2nd millennium BCE, have been found in the Ganga-Sarasvati doab.The significance of these anthropomorphs has been debated (See Anthropomorph Bibliography appended).  

    TypeI Type II (Indus Script 'fish' hieroglyph)Type III (Seated,with right arm upraised) Type IV (Indus Script 'boar' ligature & 'yong bull' hieroglyh inscribed)                  

    Paul Yule had identified TYpe I and Type II artefacts from among the Copper Hoard Culture finds as anthropomorph types based on orthographic features. With the discovery of new artefacts of the Copper Hoard Culture, the typology can now be extended to four types of anthropomorphs. The types are: Type I semi-circular headed, curved arms signifying ram's horns, standing with pread legs; Type II similar to Type I but with Indus script incription of 'fish' hieroglyph; Type III similar to Type I but with variants of 'seated posture' and one right arm lift upwards; and Type IV similar to Type I but with Indus Script inscriptions/ligatures of boar's head and hieroglyph of one-horned young bull. 

    The findspot of Type II anthropomorph (with 'fish' hieroglyph) is Sheorajpur where an ancient Shiva temple has been discovered. The temple ceiling is decorated with metalwork plates of sculptural friezes attesting to the metalwork tradition of the site during the Bronze Age (See appended note with photographs: About a temple in Sheorajpur with metal ceiling).

    Apart from the insribed or ligatured anthropomorphs with Indus Script hieroglyphs, the link to Indus Script tradition is validated by the finds of anthropomorphs in Sultanate of Oman dated to ca. 1900 BCe and to the find of an anthropomorph in Lothal (2500 BCE?). Thus, the Copper Hoard Culture can be seen as a continuum of the Bronze Age Revolution evidenced by the Indus Script Corpora of over 7000 inscriptions, all related to metalwork catalogues or data archives.

    It is submitted, that the anthropomorphs of Copper Hoard Culture are a reinforcement of the Indus Script decipherent as metalwork cataloguing in Prāktam (Indian sprachbund), a cipher system mentioned by Vatsyayana as mlecchita vikalpa 'lit.cipher of mleccha/meluhha, 'copper workers').
    While many anthropomorph examples are of small size which led Paul Yule to infer that they did not have utilitarian value as 'metal', some examples ahve been reported from Metmuseum of anthropomorphs of  sizes 4 1/2 x 3 15/16 in. and 6 1/8 x 4 7/8 in. which have led to their identification as axe-heads or ax celts or copper ingots.

    I suggest that all the anthropomorphs and rings (torcs) are orthographic form hieroglyphs of Indus Script to signify metalwork dharma saṁjñā 'signifiers of resonsibilities (in guild -- as artisans/seafaring merchants) or professional calling cards'. karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, bangles Rebus: khār'blacksmith, iron worker'.

    The torcs signify: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa 'seafaring vessel
    Image result for tvastar torcKernunnos is named in an inscription on the 1st cent. CE Pillar of the Boatmen (French Pilier des nautes) with bas-relief depictions.The cognate word is: कारणी or कारणीक (p. 159) [ kāraṇī or kāraṇīka ] the supercargo of a ship &c. कर्णधार (p. 140) [ karṇadhāra ] m S (A holder of the ear.) A helmsman or steersman.
    बारकश or बारकस (p. 575) [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.(Marathi) 
    The torcs hanging from the horns are such stoneware rings or badges. The horns are twigs: kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/ई) AV. v , 19 , 12 Kaus3.ccord. to Kaus3. Sch. = बदरी, "Christ's thorn".(Monier-Williams). Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) Thus, Kernunnos is described by the hieroglyph-multiplexes to be 1. a smelter; and 2. a seafaring merchant.
    A torc held in the right hand of Kernunnos on Gundestrup cauldron may also signify a seafaring merchant. The hood of snake held on the left hand signifies: kulA 'hood of snake' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith'.Compare with stoneware bangles are torcs as professional calling cards on 1. Kernunnos of Gundestrup cauldron and 2. Kernunnos on Pilier des nautes (Note:Comparable to the 'stoneware bangles' as calling cards are the torcs shown on 1. Kernunnos of Gundestrup cauldron and 2. Pilier des nautes which names Kernunnos in an inscription on the 1st cent. CE Pillar of the Boatmen (French Pilier des nautes) with bas-relief depictions. These evidences are presented in Section 4.) 

    Kernunno or Cernunnos is cognate with kārṇī m. ʻ prime minister, supercargo of a ship ʼ (supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.), kul -- karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ (Marathi) kāraṇika m. ʻ teacher ʼ MBh., ʻ judge ʼ Pañcat. [kā- raṇa -- ]Pa. usu -- kāraṇika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ; Pk. kāraṇiya -- m. ʻ teacher of Nyāya ʼ; S. kāriṇī m. ʻ guardian, heir ʼ; N. kārani ʻ abettor in crime ʼ(CDIAL 3058)   karṇadhāra m. ʻ helmsman ʼ Suśr. [kárṇa -- , dhāra -- 1]Pa. kaṇṇadhāra -- m. ʻ helmsman ʼ; Pk. kaṇṇahāra -- m. ʻ helmsman, sailor ʼ; H. kanahār m. ʻ helmsman, fisherman ʼ.(CDIAL 2836). 
    A remarkable Mohenjo-daro Indus Script catalogue is presented on a pot kiln apparatus used to make karã̄ ceramic (stoneware) bangles which are badges of responsibility for guild functionaries.Kiln
    A: Upper capping in clay; B: Oval sealing with imprint of a Indus ‘unicorn’ stamp seal, applied in sets of three around the mouth of the closed saggars before firing; C: Intermediate coating in chaff-tempered clay; D: Pottery semispherical lid; E,F: broken terracotta rings used to support the lid…K: Pile formed by superimposed small saggars. This type of firing container was made by throwing a ceramic mixture very close to the stoneware of the bangles…M: Sets of stoneware bangles, inserted in couples with in each saggar of type K.


     (After Fig.3, 4, 5, 7 in Massimo Vidale,  1986, Stoneware industry of the Indus civilization: an evolutionary dead-end in the history of ceramic technology, in: In: WD Kingery, ed., Vol. V, Ceramics and civilization. The changing roles of ceramics in society: 26000 BP to the present, Westerville, OH, The American Ceramic Society, Inc.)
    Balakot, inscribed bangle Inscription: dhatu कारणी or कारणीक [ kāraṇī or kāraṇīka ] 'supercargo of a ship responsible for the cargo of mineral ores'. 
     
    Balakot 06 bangle

    ḍato 'claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs'; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: dhatu 'mineral' (Santali) Vikalpa: erā 'claws'; Rebus: era 'copper'. 
    m1643bangle
     'magnetite ingot'
     Sign 99 sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign403: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa 'seafaring vessel

    Such  dharma saṁjñā may have been disseminated as badges to herald or proclaim the holders' professional competence in metalwork.


    RV 1.10.1 indicates 'worshippers held aloft as it were (on) a pole’ during Indra dhvaja festivals. It is possible that such anthropomorphs were held aloft on poles as exhibits during festivals to proclaim to the people, the new competence in metalwork.


    Anthropomorph, c. 1500 - 1300 BC

    copper, Overall: 23.5 x 36.5 x 0.5 cm (9 1/4 x 14 5/16 x 3/16 in.). Norman O. Stone and Ella A. Stone Memorial Fund 2004.31

    Oxford English Dictionary defines anthropomorphic: "a. treating the deity as anthropomorphous, or as having a human form and character; b. attributing a human personality to anything impersonal or irrational."
    Image result for anthropomorphic persian gulfAnthropomorphic stele, Arabian peninsula, Fourth millennium BCE, Sandstone. Anthropomorphic stele, El-Maakir-Qaryat al-kaafa near Ha’il, Saudi Arabia, 4th millennium B.C.E. (4000-3000 B.C.E.), sandstone, 92 x 21 cm (National Museum, Riyadh) (Image: artnews.comhttps://smarthistory.org/anthropomorphic-steleA stele is a vertical stone monument or marker often inscribed with text or relief carving.

    An anthropomorphic stele from Ha’il

    This stele is tall, measuring approximately three feet high. But it is not just vertical height that makes this free-standing stone sculpture appear human, or anthropomorphic.
    Three anthropomorphic stelae dating to the 4th millennium B.C.E. found in northwest Saudi Arabia, near Ha’il and in Tayma (photo: © Haupt & Binder)
    Three anthropomorphic stelae dating to the 4th millennium B.C.E. found in northwest Saudi Arabia, near Ha’il and in Tayma (photo: © Haupt & Binder)
    While both sides are sculpted, emphasis is on the front, particularly the face, chest, and waist: a trapezoidal head rests directly on squared shoulders with the outline of a face framing two closely-spaced eyes and a flattened nose; on the robed figure’s torso a necklace hangs with two cords diagonally crossing the body with an awl (a small pointed tool) attached; and at the waist, a double-bladed dagger hangs from a wide belt that continues around to the back. The sculpture is simple, even abstract, but clearly represents a human figure. 
    Found in a small village near Ha’il in northwest Saudi Arabia, this anthropomorphic (human-like) stele was one of three discovered in the region. The trio join a corpus of more than sixty low-relief sculptures in human form dating to the fourth millennium B.C.E. and discovered across the Arabian Peninsula in the last four decades. Despite the vast territory in which they were found (some 2,300 kilometers, stretching from Jordan in the north to Yemen in the south) these stelae (the plural of stele or in Latin, stela) share certain features and characteristics. How can this be?
    Map of the Arabian Penninsula
    Map of the Arabian Peninsula
    What is just as interesting as this common visual repertoire is the shared anthropomorphism: each stele represents an upright male figure carved in stone—remarkable, for it is figural representation in a land thought for so long to have none. Indeed, for many, the history of the Arabian Peninsula began with the rise of Islam in the seventh century C.E. when artistic expression was focused on the written word and human form was largely absent. But what the Ha’il stele reveals—what the full corpus of anthropomorphic stelae show us—is the existence of a pre-Islamic Arabia in which the human figure dominates.
    Image result for anthropomorphic persian gulfAnthropomorphic stone stelae or statue of menhirs, located in Yamna secondary graves. Yamna Culture. Late Copper Age - Early Bronze Age.
    Image result for anthropomorphic persian gulfThe Guennol, is described as an Elamite anthropomorphic lioness-woman. In 1931, a New York art dealer reported it was discovered at a site near Baghdad and sold it to a Mr. Martin. A trustee of the Brooklyn Museum, he placed it on long term loan until 2007 when it sold at auction to a anonymous buyer for $57.2 million and has dropped out of sight. There really is nothing like it and I was surprised when a museum did not buy it. ca. 3000 BCE, Mesopotamian. 
    https://www.pinterest.com/pin/229402174743883906/?lp=true

    Anthropomorphic being, zoomorphic being, a being combined with human and animal traits, an animated symbol of a deity?

    Interpreting Ancient FigurinesContext, Comparison, and Prehistoric Art

    Front Cover

    Cambridge University Press21-Feb-2011 "This book examines ancient figurines from several world areas to address recurring challenges in the interpretation of prehistoric art. Sometimes figurines from one context are perceived to resemble those from another. Richard G. Lesure asks whether such resemblances play a role in our interpretations. Early interpreters seized on the idea that figurines were recurringly female and constructed the fanciful myth of a primordial Neolithic Goddess. Contemporary practice instead rejects interpretive leaps across contexts. Dr Lesure offers a middle path: a new framework for assessing the relevance of particular comparisons. He develops the argument in case studies that consider figurines from Paleolithic Europe, the Neolithic Near East and Formative Mesoamerica."Richard Lesure provides some interesting examples of anthropomorphs from Ancient Near East.



    Copperhoard sites (OCW culture)

    Bisauli.  “Among the four copper objects found here, two were ‘anthropomorhic’ figures and a harpoon and a celt  (Ancient India No. 7, Fig V)” (loc.cit. p.133)

    Baharia “the more noteworthy finds, obtained from Baharia during the course of digging for preparing bricks, were two copper implements, a harpoon and a sword. The harpoon, measuring 27.5 cm. in present form, is well preserved and is a fine specimen of the type and has a prominent medial rib and tapering blade. The sword measures 45.48 cm. in length (Sharma 1972:43)”. Loc.cit.(p.145)

    Saipai. …a harpoon was found at a depth of 45 cm. below the surface and a red ware was found there in the associated soil-deposit. Mny sherds of this pottery left an ochrous-colour on the finger at the time of handling, as was the case of pottery from Hastinapur, Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu etc. (p.145)

    Kausambi. This site was discovered by Sir Alexander Cunningham in the year 1892. A small copper celt with narrow cutting edge and tapering, butt-end measuring 12.5 cm. in length, 0.56 cm. in width near the tip and 2.26 cm. at the base, was discovered at Kausambi. It is lodged in the British Museum, London (Smith 1905:232) (o.152)


    Mudarpur ( On a bowl and goblet some letters of Harappan script were found..154)



    The list of OCP and Copper Hoard Sites in Upper Ganga Valle includes over 120 sites: Adinga, Aghiana, Ahar, Ahichchatra, Akrabas, Alipura, Ambkheri, Angaikhera, Anwarpur Baroli Asanwali, Atranjikhera, Badal Kaithwada, Badhaikalan, Bahadarabad, Baharia, Baherakhurd, Bahupura, Bakaraka Mound, Balua, Banti Khera,  Bundki, Bazidpur, Bhatpura, Bhedki, Bholni, Bithur, Budha Khera Ahir, Chandan, Chandausi, Chhajpura, Chhapar Heri, Chilhera, Chunehti Shekh, Daudpur, Daulatpur, Deoti, Dhaka, Dungar, Fatehgarh, Fatehpur, Fatehpur Jat, Fatehpur Saharanpur,  Gandhauli, Ghana Khandi, Gulariya, Hardi, Hastinapura, Hussinpur Bopada, Huzur Nagar, Indilapur, Jainer, Jainpur, Jahkera, Jaula, Jhal, Jhinjhana, Kabirpur, Kailaspur, Kamalapur, Kamalapur Hardoi, Kannauj, Kaul Heri, Kauriaganj, Kausambi, Khanjahanpur, Khatauli, Kheda Jat Kiratapur, Kolkikalan, Kridhni, Kudana, Kulheri, Ladava, Lakhmanti Kalan, Lal Qila, Madanpur, Mahmoodpur, Majhadpur, Mandla, Mandowala, Mathura, Matki Jhrauli Mohuiuddinpur, Mujahidpur, Mulaheri, Nakarahiya, Nala, Nasirpur Saharanpur, Niorai, Nirpalpur, Pajrana, Pariar, Piki, Pinjaura, Pipalsa Pur BalianRafiabbad, Rajdhana, Reri Malakpur, Sadabad, Saipai, Saket Colony, Salepur Bhokri, Sarkari Kumar, Sarkari Sheikh, Sarthauli, Saruppur Taga, Shahabad, Shamli-Shamla, Sheorajpur, Sherpur, Shikarpur, Shukartal,, Sikra Saharanpur, Singauli Taga, Sirsa There, Tahirpur, Tauli, Toda (pp.155 to 173)


    “Copperhoard tools were reported from a number of states viz., Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, WestBengal and Orissa.As most of these objects were recoveredin hoards, hence, these are called as ‘copper hoard tools’.The tools recovered from time to time consist of flat and bar celts, parashu, rings, anthropomorphic figure, harpoon, antennae sword, hooked spearhead etc.”(p.174)

    “The hooked swod has been found associated with other diagnostic types, e.g. anthropomorphic figure, the antenna sword and the harpoon at Sathauli, Bahadarabad, Fatehgarh and Niorai.”(p.176)


    “Anthropomorphic figure. The most distinctive and enigmatic type is the anthropomorphic figure or anthropomorph. In  most of the cases the head portion of this human like figure is thickened by hammering from the top, hind limbs are plain and arms are generally incurved and sharpened externally. They appear to have been cut from a plain sheet. Since these heavy artefacts look like human figures, they are often identified as ritualistic objects. Their length varies from 23 to 30 cm. and breadth is between 30 and 43 cm. Their average weight is 5 kg. Recently a hoard of such anthropomorphic figures has been discovered at Madarpur in Moradabad district of U.P. They have been hammered and chiseled on either side and the sides are thickened. They are on display at the National Museum at Delhi and it has been claimed that they were found associated with OCP. In one case, one of the arm curved upward, which appears to be an interesting feature. An oblong copper object from the Harappan level of Lothal with a convex end and two broken side-legs is included by some in the anthropomorph category. It is plain section and does not have hammered head like the doab ones. In fact, in the entire Harappan repertoire, this is the only object, which compares with the Copper Hoards.”(pp.177 to 178)


















    (Paul Yule, opcit.)
    Indian Copper hoard artefact from Rewari, Haryana Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_Hoard_Culture
    Anthropomorphic figures. Chalcolithic, Ganges-Yamuna basin, 2800-1500 BCE. Provenance: Bisauli (212 km from New Delhi), Badaun district, Uttar Pradesh
    Pl. 4.11. Copper Hoard Tool. Shouldered axe from Hastinapur













    This is an addendum to:

    https://tinyurl.com/ybvog2h6 This monograph posited a Metals Age Region of Eurasia from ca.5th millennium BCE, of which Sarasvati Civilization with over 2000 archaeological sites (80% of the civilization sites) on the Sarasvati River basin was the central link providing maritime trade through a riverine waterway of Sarasvati River.

    I submit that the strong evidence for this role of Rakhigarhi are the scores of professional calling cards of metalworkers and seafaring merchants which are the Bronze Anthropomorphs.


    Sarasvati civilization is viewed as a set of five regions of Vedic Sarasvati River basin with the capitals of Dholavira, Mohenjo-daro, Ganweriwala, Harappa and Rakhigarhi. 
    GullyinthemiddleseparatestwovillagesRakhiKhaasandRakhi Shahpur.BoththevillagesarelocatedonRGR-4,themainmound atRakhigarhi,...
    Rakhigarhi was the capital of both 1. the Drishadvati Sarasvati tributary region and 2. the Yamuna-Ganga-Brahmaputra metals age cultures.

    I suggest that Rakhigarhi was not only a capital city of the Drishadvati Sarasvati tributary region, but also 1. the Ochre Coloured Pottery (OCP) and Copperhoard culture region of the upper reaches of Yamuna river, 2. the iron ore culture of Ganga Basin, and 3. Tin-bronze copper age cultures of Brahmaputra Basin. The table of dates for early iron use in Ganga basin and other parts of India has been provided (Table 1 and Table 2); these are coterminus with the dates of Sarasvati Civilization in all the phases transiting from the Copper age into the Age of metals alloys.

    Since the Himalayan rivers constituted riverine waterways, there was a seamless extention into the maritime trade regions of the Indian Ocean Rim, Persian Gulf, Tigris-Euphrates doab and Mediterrarean ocean, creating an interlinked Metals Age region of Eurasia extending from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel). 

    Seafaring merchants and artisans of Meluhha have provided the evidence of over 8000 Indus Script Inscriptions which constitute wealth accounting ledgers and metalwork catalogues as documentary evidence for this Metals Age of Eurasia.

    The Himalayan riverine waterways united the OCP and Copper hoard region, iron ore region of Ganga basin (cf. iron smelters) and bronze age cultures of Brahmaputra basin (cf. Karatoya river on map) with the Sarasvati Civilization.

    The following maps and tables are presented to posit the Metals Age region of Eurasia:

    Fig. 1. Iron working sites of Ancient India
    Fig. 2. Table 1. Dates* for early iron-use from Indian sites
    Fig. 3. Table 2. 14C dates for early iron-use from the Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas
    Fig. 4. Sites of Ochre coloured pottery and copper hoard tools

    Fig. 5. Bronze Age sites, North East India and Ancient Far East: Bronze Age sites of eastern Bha_rata and neighbouring areas: 1. Koldihwa; 2. Khairdih; 3. Chirand; 4. Mahisadal; 5. Pandu Rajar Dhibi; 6. Mehrgarh; 7. Harappa; 8. Mohenjo-daro; 9. Ahar; 10.Kayatha; 11. Navdatoli; 12. Inamgaon; 13. Non Pa Wai; 14. Nong Nor; 15. Ban Na Di and Ban Chiang; 16. Non Nok Tha; 17. Thanh Den; 18. Shizhaishan; 19. Ban Don Ta Phet [After Fig. 8.1 in: Charles Higham, 1996, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press].

    Fig. 6. Austro-asiatic speakers, Pinnow map
    Fig. 7. Karatoya river, Brahmaputra-Ganga Basins
    Fig. 8. Largest tin belt of the globe, Ancient Far East
    Fig. 9 National Waterways of India which facilitated the trade interactions during the Metals Age
    Fig. 10 Himalayan river waterways of Ancient Far East
    Image result for iron smelters ganga
    Fig. 1 Iron working sites of Ancient India
    table
    Fig. 2 Table 1. Dates* for early iron-use from Indian sites
    table
    Fig. 3 Table 2. 14C dates for early iron-use from the Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas




    http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/36863/5/chapter%204.pdf
    Fig. 4 Sites of Ochre coloured pottery and copper hoard tools
    YAMUNA INDUS CHENAB JHELUM RAVI SATLUJ BEAS DRYBED OFG HAG G AR DRYBED OFCHAUTANG PALAEO-YAMUNA OLD BED OFBEAS 30 0 29 0 7...
    Fig. 4 Sites of Ochre coloured pottery and copper hoard tools
    Image result for bronze age sites northeast india
    Fig. 5 Bronze Age sites, North East India and Ancient Far East: Bronze Age sites of eastern Bha_rata and neighbouring areas: 1. Koldihwa; 2. Khairdih; 3. Chirand; 4. Mahisadal; 5. Pandu Rajar Dhibi; 6. Mehrgarh; 7. Harappa; 8. Mohenjo-daro; 9. Ahar; 10.Kayatha; 11. Navdatoli; 12. Inamgaon; 13. Non Pa Wai; 14. Nong Nor; 15. Ban Na Di and Ban Chiang; 16. Non Nok Tha; 17. Thanh Den; 18. Shizhaishan; 19. Ban Don Ta Phet [After Fig. 8.1 in: Charles Higham, 1996, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, Cambridge University Press].
    Fig. 6 Austro-asiatic speakers, Pinnow map
    Fig. 7 Karatoya river, Brahmaputra-Ganga Basins
    Fig. 8 Largest tin belt of the globe, Ancient Far East

    Fig. 9 National Waterways of India which facilitated the trade interactions during the Metals Age

    Fig. 10 Himalayan river waterways of Ancient Far East

    Note on OCP theories


    “B.B.Lal (1969:7) states, ‘Then there is the problem of Ochre Coloured Ware, is it late Harappan? Or, is it an altogether different industry dominating the Ganga Valley, there being, however, interactions between these wares and the Harappan? There is another and I dare say, a no less important aspect of the problem of the Ochre Colour Ware. At a number of placessuch asBahadrabad, Nasirpur, Jhinjhana, Hastinapur, Noh, Ahichchhatra, Atranjikhera, etc., these wares have been noticed to occur sporadically. Otherwiseclean plain, which imperceptivity merge into natural soil. Indications are that these deposits may be water-laid. Are we then faced here with a huge deluge covering hundreds of miles of the Ganga-Yamuna basin? Chronologically, this deluge may have to be placed some time about the middle of the second millennium B.C. Again, though there is a strong circumstantial evidence that this ware may have associated with the Copper-Hoards.”

    may have associated with the Copper-Hoards.” The evidences indicate that the Upper Ganga plains were no doubt originally inhabited by the Late Harappansand Ochre Coloured Pottery using people immediately before the beginning of the 1st millennium B.C. The excavations at Saipai (Lal and Wahal,1971) and at many other sites by other scholars demonstrate that this culture was associated with Copper-Hoards. About the cultural association of the Hoards with O.C.P., however, three major theories are common among the scholars, which are: (i) They represent the traces of Vedic Aryans (ii) Theywere Harappan refugees on the move to the Upper Ganga Valley (iii) They are the original inhabitants of the Upper Ganga Valley.”(opcit.,pp  67-67)


    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/jfhcb63 

    This is an addendum to http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/07/anthropomorphs-with-indus-script.html Anthropomorphs with Indus Script hieroglyphs (as orthographic forms) are dharma sajñā, signifiers of corporate metalwork responsibilities of boatmen, the holders of the metal tokens 

    Axe in Anthropomorphic Shape


    Date:
    1500–500 B.C.
    Culture:
    India
    Medium:
    Copper
    Dimensions:
    4 1/2 x 3 15/16 in. (11.4 x 10.0 cm)
    Classification:
    Metalwork
    Credit Line:
    Samuel Eilenberg Collection, Bequest of Samuel Eilenberg, 1998
    Accession Number:
    2001.433.8
    http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/50575


    Anthropomorphic Celt

    Date:
    1500–500 B.C.
    Culture:
    India
    Medium:
    Copper
    Dimensions:
    6 1/8 x 4 7/8 in. (15.6 x 12.4 cm)
    Classification:
    Metalwork
    Credit Line:
    Samuel Eilenberg Collection, Bequest of Samuel Eilenberg, 1998
    Accession Number:
    2001.433.76 http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/56620


    See: http://www.jorhsa.com/Edition_2015/Copper.pdf

    Anthropomorphic figures of Type I (Left: from Bisauli; right: unknown provenance; scale 1:3; drawn by Petra Thalmeier after Yule 1985, pl. 11, No. 239 and Yule 1989, Fig. 10, No. 1123)(After Fig. 1 in Jürgen W. Frembgen, 1996, 0p. 178)

    Fish sign incised on  copper anthropomorph, Sheorajpur, upper Ganges valley,   ca. 2nd millennium BCE,   4 kg; 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. State Museum,   Lucknow (O.37) Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards. Sheorajpur anthropomorph with 'fish' hieroglyph and 'markhor' horns hieroglyph. ayo'fish' Rebus: ayo 'iron, metal' (Gujarati)  khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.

    miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.) med 'body' rebus: med 'iron' (Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) karNaka 'spread legs' rebus:karNI 'supercargo'. sangaDa 'joined parts of animals' rebus: sAngaDa 'double-canoe'

    Anthropomorphic figure of Type II from Sheorajpur (Inv. No. O 37a, State Museum of Lucknow). The remarkable feature of this type is that a 'fish' hieroglyph of Indus Script is incised on the chest of the anthropomorph which stands with spread legs. ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS karNaka 'spread legs' (Atharvaveda) rebus: karNI 'supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.) The shape of all three types is patterned like the horns of a ram: miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic)  

    miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Meluhha glosses are annexed which indicate association with cire perdue (or lost wax) method of casting metals using beeswax, particularly in the glosses for miedź, med'  'copper' in Northern Slavic and Altaic languages. 

    Markhor (Capra falconeri)Punjabi. mẽḍhā m. 'markhor'.(CDIAL 10310)Rebus: mẽḍh 'iron' (Mu.) An exact rebus match is provided in two lexemic groups denoting a 'ram', and 'iron'. It is notable that 'ram' is a vividly orthographed Indus script glyph with wavy horns: 


    [Allographs: 1. Or. meṭṭā ʻ hillock ʼ. 2. Or. meṇḍā ʻ lump, clot ʼ.(CDIAL 10308)M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.(CDIAL 10317) S. mī˜ḍhī f., °ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ, L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔ, miḍ° m. ʻ braid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ; M. meḍhā m. ʻ curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread ʼ.मेढा [ mēḍhā ] meṇḍa A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) (CDIAL 10312). meḍhi, miḍhī, meṇḍhī = a plait in a woman’s hair; a plaited or twisted strand of hair (P.)(CDIAL 10312)]. 

    A. semantics 'iron': meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho)meṛed (Mundari);mẽṛed iron; enga meṛed soft iron; sanḍi meṛed hard iron; ispāt meṛed steel; dul meṛed cast iron; i meṛed rusty iron, also the iron of which weights are cast; bica meṛed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meṛed iron extracted from sand ore; meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mu.lex.)

    B. semantics 'ram or markhor': A variety of forms एड, ēḍa, mēḍa, mēṣá -- point to collision with Aryn mḗḍhra (providing a form bhēḍra), Austro-Asiatic mēḍa and Dravidian ēḍa: 

    menda(A) {N} ``^sheep''. *Des.menda(GM) `sheep'. #21810. me~Da o~?-Doi {N} ``^lamb''. |me~Da `^sheep'. @N0747. #6052. gadra me~Da {N} ``^ram, ^male ^sheep''. |me~Da `sheep'. @N0745. #7240. me~Da {N} ``^sheep''. *De. menda (GM). @N0744. #14741.
    me~Da o?~-Doi {N} ``^lamb''. |o~?-Doi `young of an animal'. @N0747. #14750.
    gadra me~Da {N} ``^ram''. |gadra `male of sheep or goat'. @N0745. #14762.
    peti me~Da {N} ``^ewe (without young)''. |peti `young female of sheep or goat'. @N0746. #14772.me~Da o~?-Doi {N} ``^lamb''. |me~Da `^sheep'. @N0747. #6053.peti me~Da {N} ``^ewe (without young)''. |me~Da `sheep'. @N0746. #14773. menda(KMP) {N} ``^sheep [MP], ewe [K], ram, ^wether [P]''. Cf. merom `goat', boda `??'. *O.menda, B.mera, H.merha, Sk.lex, ~medhra, ~mendha, Sa.bheda `ram', ~bhidi `sheep', MuNbhera, MuHbera `ram', Mu., Kh bheri(AB) `sheep', H., O. bhera `ram', H. bhera `sheep'. %21781. #21611.
    menda kOnOn (P) {N} ``^lamb''. | konon `child'. *$Ho mindi hon . %21790. #21620.
    mendi (P) {N} ``^sheep''. *$Mu., Ho, Bh. mindi . %21800. #21630. meram (P),, merom (KMP) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'. %21821. #21651. meram kOnOn (P),, merom kOnOn (P) {N} ``^kid''. | konon `child'. merom (KMP),, meram (P) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'. %21851. #21681. bheri (D),, bheri (AB) {NA} ``^sheep [ABD]; ^bear [D]''. *@. ??VAR. #3251. menda ,, mendi {N} ``^sheep''. @7906. ??M|F masc|fem #19501. menda (B)F {N(M)} ``(male) ^sheep''. Fem. mendi . *Loan. @B21460,N760. #22531.Ju menda (KMP) {N} ``^sheep [MP], ewe [K], ram, ^wether [P]''. Cf. merom `goat', boda `??'. *O. menda , B. mera , H. merha , Sk. lex , ~ medhra , ~ mendha , Sa. bheda `ram', ~ bhidi `sheep', MuN bhera , MuH bera `ram', Mu., Kh. bheri (AB) `sheep', H., O. bhera `ram', H. bhera `sheep'.Ju meram (P),, merom (KMP) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'.Ju merego (P),, mergo (P),, mirigo (M) {N} ``^deer''. *Sa. mirgi jel `a certain kind of deer', H. mrgo `deer', antelope, O. mrgo , Sk. mrga . Ju merom (KMP),, meram (P) {N} ``^goat [MP], she-goat [K]''. Cf. menda `sheep'. *Kh., Sa., Mu., Ho merom , So. k+mmEd/-mEd , Nic. me ; cf. O., Bh. mera `goat'.Go menda (A) {N} ``^sheep''. *Des. menda (GM) `sheep'.Gu me~Da {N} ``^sheep''. *Des. menda (GM).Re menda (B)F {N(M)} ``(male) ^sheep''. Fem. mendi . *Loan.(Munda etyma. STAMPE-DM--MP.NEW.84, 20-Jun-85 13:32:53, Edit by STAMPE-D Pinnow Versuch and Munda's thesis combined).

    mēṭam (Ta.);[← Austro -- as. J. Przyluski BSL xxx 200: perh. Austro -- as. *mēḍra ~ bhēḍra collides with Aryan mḗḍhra -- 1 in mēṇḍhra -- m. ʻ penis ʼ BhP., ʻ ram ʼ lex. -- See also bhēḍa -- 1, mēṣá -- , ēḍa -- . -- The similarity between bhēḍa -- 1, bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- ʻ ram ʼ and *bhēḍa -- 2 ʻ defective ʼ is paralleled by that between mḗḍhra -- 1, mēṇḍha -- 1 ʻ ram ʼ and *mēṇḍa -- 1, *mēṇḍha -- 2 (s.v. *miḍḍa -- ) ʻ defective ʼ]

    ऐड coming from the sheep एड MBh. viii. इडिक्क [p= 164, Monier-Williams] A wild goat. इडविडा 1 A species of she-goat. mother of कुवेर VP. BhP. [Kuvera, Kubera is king of the yakshas and god of wealth (buried treasure, nidhi]. -2 The bleating of a goat; सो$पि चानुगतः स्त्रैणं कृपणस्तां प्रसादितुम् । कुर्वन्निडविडा- कारं नाशक्नोत्पथि सन्धितुम् ॥ Bhāg.9.19.9. इडा iḍā ला lā 3 An offering, libation (coming between प्रयाज and अनुयाज); अग्निश्चते योनिरिडा च देहः Mb.3.114.28. -4 Refreshing draught. -5 (Hence) Food. -6 (Fig.) Stream or flow of praise or worship personified as the goddess of sacred speech; इडोपहूताः क्रोशन्ति कुञ्जरास्त्वङ्कुशेरिताः Mb.12.98.26.(Apte lex.)

    Ta. yāṭu, āṭu goat, sheep; āṭṭ-āḷ shepherd. Ma. āṭu goat, sheep; āṭṭukāran shepherd. Ko. a·ṛ (obl. a·ṭ-) goat. To. o·ḍ id. Ka. āḍu id. Koḍ. a·ḍï id. Tu. ēḍů id. Te. ēḍika, (B.) ēṭa ram. Go. (Tr. Ph. W.) yēṭī, (Mu. S.) ēṭi she-goat (Voc. 376). Pe. ōḍa goat. Manḍ. ūḍe id. Kui ōḍa id. Kuwi (Mah. p. 110) o'ḍā, (Ḍ.) ōḍa id. Kur. ēṛā she-goat. Malt. éṛe id. Br. hēṭ id. / Cf. Skt. eḍa-, eḍaka-, eḍī- a kind of sheep(DEDR 5152)ēḍa m. ʻ a kind of sheep ʼ KātyŚr., ēḍī -- f., ēḍaka -- 1 m. ʻ a sheep or goat ʼ, aiḍa -- ʻ ovine ʼ MBh., aiḍaká m. ʻ a kind of sheep ʼ ŚBr., iḍikka -- f. ʻ wild goat ʼ lex. [← Drav. EWA i 126 with lit.]Pa. eḷaka -- m. ʻ ram, wild goat ʼ, °akā -- , °ikā -- , °ikī -- f.; Aś. eḍaka -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, °kā -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ, NiDoc. heḍ'i ʻ sheep (?) ʼ Burrow KharDoc 10 (cf. h -- in Brahui hēṭ ʻ she -- goat ʼ); Pk. ēla -- , °aya -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, ēliyā -- f., ēḍayā -- f., ēḍakka -- m., Paš. weg. ēṛāˊ, kuṛ. e_ṛṓ, ar. yeṛó, že° m. ʻ ram ʼ, weg. ēṛī, kuṛ. e_°, ar. ye° f. ʻ ewe ʼ; Shum. yēṛə, yeṛṓlik m. ʻ sheep ʼ, yeṛélik f., Gaw. ēṛa, yē° m., ēṛī, yē° f., Bshk. īr f., Tor. öi f. (less likely < ávi -- ), Mai. "'ī" Barth NTS xviii 123, Sv. yeṛo m., ēṛia f., Phal. yīṛo m., °ṛi f., Sh. jij. ḗṛi; S. eli -- pavharu m. ʻ goatherd ʼ; Si. eḷuvā ʻ goat ʼ; <-> X bhēḍra -- q.v.*kaiḍikā -- .(CDIAL 2512).

    *mēṇḍharūpa ʻ like a ram ʼ. [mēṇḍha -- 2, rūpá -- ]Bi. mẽṛhwā ʻ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's ʼ; M. mẽḍhrū̃ n. ʻ sheep ʼ.(CDIAL 10311)mēṣá m. ʻ ram ʼ, °ṣīˊ -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ RV. 2. mēha -- 2, miha- m. lex. [mēha -- 2 infl. by mḗhati ʻ emits semen ʼ as poss. mēḍhra -- 2 ʻ ram ʼ (~ mēṇḍha -- 2) by mḗḍhra -- 1 ʻ penis ʼ?]1. Pk. mēsa -- m. ʻ sheep ʼ, Ash. mišalá; Kt. məṣe/l ʻ ram ʼ; Pr. məṣé ʻ ram, oorial ʼ; Kal. meṣ, meṣalák ʻ ram ʼ, H. mes m.; -- X bhēḍra -- q.v.2. K. myã̄ -- pūtu m. ʻ the young of sheep or goats ʼ; WPah.bhal. me\i f. ʻ wild goat ʼ; H. meh m. ʻ ram ʼ. (CDIAL 10334)*mēṣakuṭī -- ʻ hut for sheep ʼ [mēṣá -- , kuṭī -- ] or †*mēṣamaṭha -- ʻ fold for sheep ʼ. [mēṣá -- , maṭha -- 1]WPah.kṭg. mhōˋṛ m. ʻ shed for sheep at high altitudes ʼ or poss. rather < maṭha -- (CDIAL 10334a) meṣam (Skt.) miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) miṇḍ ‘ram’ (Pktl.); mẽḍha (G.) cf. mēṣa = goat (Skt.lex.) மேடம்¹ mēṭam, n. < mēṣa. 1. Sheep, ram; ஆடு. (பிங்.) 2. Aries of the zodiac; ராசிமண்டலத்தின் முதற்பகுதி. (பிங்.) 3. The first solar month. See சித்திரை¹, 2. மேடமாமதி (கம்பரா. திருவவதா. 110) ēḍika. [Tel. of Tam ఆడు.] n. A ram (Telugu) मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup. (Marathi) meṇḍa The Ved. (Sk.) word for ram is meṣa] 1. a ram D i.9; J iv.250, 353 (˚visāṇa -- dhanu, a bow consisting of a ram's horn). -- ˚patha Npl. "ram's road" Nd1 155=415. -- ˚yuddha ram fight D i.6. -- मेष [p= 833, Monier-Williams]m. ( √2. मिष्) a ram , sheep (in the older language applied also to a fleece or anything woollen) RV. &c. मेढ्रः [मिह्-ष्ट्रन्], मेढ्रकः mēḍhrakḥ, मेण्ढः mēṇḍhḥ मेण्ढकः mēṇḍhakḥ A ram (Apte.lexicon)bhēḍa1 m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhaiḍaka -- ʻ of sheep ʼ lex. [bhēḍra- X ēḍa -- ?] Ash. biar ʻ she -- goat ʼ, Pr. byär, Bshk. bür; Tor. birāṭh ʻ he -- goat ʼ, Phal. bhīṛo: all with AO viii 300 doubtful. (CDIAL 9604). bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ lex. Ḍ. bēḍa f. ʻ sheep ʼ, K.ḍoḍ. bhĕḍă pl., L. bheḍ̠ f., awāṇ. bheḍ, bhiḍ, P. bheḍ, °ḍī f., °ḍā m.; WPah.bhal. (LSI) ḍhleḍḍ, (S. Varma) bheṛ, pl. °ṛã f. ʻ sheep and goats ʼ, bhad. bheḍḍ, cur. bhraḍḍ, bhēḍḍū, cam. bhēṛ, khaś. bhiḍṛu n. ʻ lamb ʼ; Ku. N. bheṛo ʻ ram ʼ, bheṛi ʻ ewe ʼ; A. bherā, bhẽrā ʻ sheep ʼ; B. bheṛ ʻ ram ʼ, °ṛā ʻ sheep ʼ, °ṛi ʻ ewe ʼ, Or. bheṛā, °ṛi, bhẽṛi; Bi. bhẽṛ ʻ sheep ʼ, °ṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Mth. bhẽṛo, °ṛī; Bhoj. bheṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhẽṛī ʻ sheep ʼ; H. bheṛ, °ṛī f., °ṛā m., G. bheṛi f.; -- X mēṣá -- : Kho. beṣ ʻ young ewe ʼ BelvalkarVol 88. bhēḍra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) bhèṛ m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhèṛi f., J. bheḍ m. (CDIAL 9606) Note: It may not be mere coincidence that a temple of the ram-god was found in Mendes (ca. 4th millennium BCE). The word, Mendes is read as: mend + ayo (ram + fish) rebus: iron (metal) merchant. Worshipping ancestors, the Mendes might have signified the memory of the metalwork and trade in metalwork of ancestors. See more on Mendes:http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/d/b/dbr3/mendes.html

    A third type which may be called Type III is found from the hoard of 31 anthropomorphs discovered in Madarpur. This type shows the anthropomorph in a seated posture (NOT standing with spread legs). One of these 31 artifacts also has a variant shape of 'arms'; the right arm in one artifacts is lifted upwards which is also an Indus Script hieroglyph: eraka'upraised hand' rebus: eraka'copper'.
    Six of the 31 anthropormphs discovered in Madarpur, Uttr Pradesh. The artefact on the left on the top line may be seen as Type III anthropomorph since it has a seated posture and has its rightg arm upraised.

    20 of the 31 anthropomorphs discovered in Madarpur, Uttar Pradesh.

    A fourth type Type IV anthropomorph has been reported from Haryana (unprovenanced). It is an anthropomorph which extends the Indus script hieroglyph mode seen on Sheorajpur anthropomorph to ligature the head of the anthropomorph with the head of a boar PLUS incise a hieroglyph of one-horned young bull on the chest. Two examples of this Type IV anthropomorph have been cited.
    L. Anthropomorph reported by Art Curator,Naman Ahuja in 2014. R. Anthropomorph reported by Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology, Delhi Museum, ASI in August 2015. "A composite copper Anthropomorphic figure along with a copper sword was found by the speaker at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005. This composite copper Anthropomorph is a solitary example in the copper hoard depicting a Varah head. The Anthropomorphic figure, its inscription and animal motif that it bears, illustrate the continuity between the Harappan and Early Historical period.An animal-headed anthropomorph http://www.business-standard.com/article/specials/naman-ahuja-is-mastering-the-art-of-reaching-out-114092501180_1.html                            http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/05/composite-copper-alloy-anthropomorphic.html “These are very abstract figures, which were published in various articles, have common characteristics, namely a semicircular head directly restingon the shoulders, volute-like scrolled arms on both sides, and pointed open legs. Paul Yule distinguishes two types: Type I has thinner legs, which are extremely spread: ‘Fashioned from thick metal sheeting, these artifacts have stocky proportion and are patterned on both sides with elongated gouges or dents which usually are lengthwise oriented. Type II anthropomorphs are proportionately longer than those of type I and show a curious and distinctive thickening of the metal on the upper margin of the ‘head’. In section the ‘arms’are triangular, the most acute angle being outward. The ‘legs’ and ‘trunk’ are rectangular in cross section […] The artifacts are morphologically homogenous except for No…. (Yule, 1985: 52.)’”

    In an ethnological interpretation, Jurgen W. Frembigen suggested: “To sum up the hypothesis, one can say that – in the light of comparative ethnographical and ethological data – the North Indian copper age anthropomorphs most probably represent fmale fertility figures of a specific dominnt and provocative type.” (Jürgen W. Frembgen, 1996, On Copper Age Anthropomorphic Figures from North India An Ethnological Interpretation, in: East and West
    Vol. 46, No. 1/2 (June 1996), pp. 177-182, p.181) Published by: Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente (IsIAO)
    Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/29757261.

    About a temple in Sheorajpur with metal ceiling 

    Could this be the work of dhokra kamar? this is an amazing structure by any standards as a ceiling of a S'iva temple called Kereshwar in Shivrajpur, a village on the banks of Ganga.
    Many bronze artifacts are also venerated in the temple.

    I hope some researcher will find out the sources for these bronze/brass marvels which echoe the anthropomorph of ancient India?
    Sheorajpur anthropomorph with 'fish' hieroglyph and 'markhor' horns hieroglyph. ayo'fish' Rebus: ayo 'iron, metal' (Gujarati) miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.)

    Prima facie, it appears that these are products of dhokra kamar 
    metalworkers

    NB: Some historical notes:
    Pratihara emperor, Mihir Bhoja, has ruled in nearby Kanpur since nearby Kannuaj was the capital of Parihar. At Shivrajpur, 20 km from the Kanpur Central railway station, there is an ancient temple built by Chandel Raja Sati Prasad. The history of the temple and architecture needs further investigations and researches.


    Fish-fin incised on the chest of the anthropomorph from Sheorajpur. Two types of inscribed anthropomorphs with hieroglyphs have been discovered in the copperwork areas of Bharatam, in particular the regions classified as copper complexes such as Ahar-Banas region of Rajasthan (close to the Khetri copper belt). 


    A brilliant exposition on the etymology of the word  Varāha is provided by वाचस्पत्यम् Vācaspatyam: वराय अभीष्ठाय मुस्तादिलाभाय आहन्ति खनति भूमिम्  To represent a boon, (to obtain) wished, desired products (including species of grass) mined from the earth, by striking, hitting. Thus, Varāha is a hieroglyph metaphor to represent, signify mining for minerals.


    Both anthropomorphs are shaped like a standing person with spread legs and with the horns of a markhor or ram. 

    Type 1 Anthropomorph: metalworker (mintworker), merchant

    On one type of anthropomorph, an additional hieroglyph is incised. That of 'fish with fins'. The reading of hieroglyphs in Indus Script cipher: ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayo, 'iron', ayas ‘metal. Thus, together read rebus: ayo meḍh  ‘iron stone ore, metal merchant.’ Hieroglyph: Spread legs: कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 'spread legs'; (semantic determinant) Rebus: karNa 'helmsman', karNI 'scribe, account''supercargo'. Thus, the hieroglyphs on the anthropomorph Type 2 signify a helmsman, engraver who works with alloys of metals to produce supercargo of mined products.

    Type 2 Anthropomorph: miner (worker in wood and iron), merchant

    On the second type of anthropomorph, a Varāha head is ligatured to the top of the anthropomorph and an additional hieroglyph is incised on the chest: That of a 'one-horned young bull' which accounts for nearly 80% of pictorial motifs on Indus Script seals. miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) Hieorglyph of one-horned bull inscribed on chest: khoṇḍ, kõda 'young bull-calf' Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) 

    A composite copper Anthropomorphic figure along with a copper sword was found by Dr. Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005. This composite copper Anthropomorph is a solitary example in the copper hoard depicting aVarah head. The Anthropomorphic figure, its inscription and animal motif that it bears, illustrate the continuity between the Harappan and Early Historical period
    File:Anthropomorphic figures, chalcolithic,Yamuna-Ganga.BKB.jpgChalcolitique du bassin Gange-Yamuna. 2800 - 1500 avant notre ère. Provenance : Bisauli (212 km de New Delhi), district de Badaun, Uttar Pradesh. Bharat Kala Bhavan, Varanasi. Inv. n° 94620 et 94621
    Anthropomorphic figures, formed from copper/bronze. Northern India, Doab region, circa 1500.-1200 BCE. Anthropomorph is a signature tune of copper hoard culture.
    Composite copper alloy anthropomorphic Meluhha hieroglyphs of Haryana and Sheorajpur: fish, markhor, boar, one-horned young bull


    Oxford English Dictionary defines anthropomorphic: "a. treating the deity as anthropomorphous, or as having a human form and character; b. attributing a human personality to anything impersonal or irrational."

    The copper anthropomorph of Haryana is comparable to and an elaboration of a copper anthropomorph of Sheorajpur, Uttar Pradesh. Both deploy Meluhha hieroglyphs using rebus-metonymy layered cipher of Indus writing. 
    The hieroglyhs of the anthropomorphs are a remarkable archaeological evidence attesting to the evidence of an ancient Samskritam text, Baudhāyana śrautasūtra.
    Baudhāyana śrautasūtra 18.44 which documents migrations of Āyu and Amavasu from a central region:
    pran Ayuh pravavraja. tasyaite Kuru-Pancalah Kasi-Videha ity. etad Ayavam pravrajam. pratyan amavasus. tasyaite Gandharvarayas Parsavo ‘ratta ity. etad Amavasavam
    Trans. Ayu went east, his is the Yamuna-Ganga region (Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha). Amavasu went west, his is Gandhara, Parsu and Araṭṭa.
    Ayu went east from Kurukshetra to Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha. The  migratory path of Meluhha artisand in the lineage of Ayu of the Rigvedic tradition, to Kasi-Videha certainly included the very ancient temple town of Sheorajpur of Dist. Etawah (Kanpur), Uttar Pradesh.
    Haryana anthropormorph (in the Kurukshetra region on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati) deploys hieroglyphs of markhor (horns), boar and one-horned young bull together with an inscription text using Indus Script hieroglyphs. The Sheorajpur anthropomorph deploys hieroglyphs of markhor (horns) and fish. The astonishing continuity of archaeo-metallurgical tradition of Sarasvati-Sindhu (Hindu) civilization is evident from a temple in Sheorajpur on the banks of Sacred River Ganga. This temple dedicated to Siva has metalwork ceilings !!!
    Both anthropomorph artefacts in copper alloy are metalwork catalogs of dhokara kamar 'cire perdue(lost-wax) metal casters'.
    Hieroglyhph: eraka 'wing' Rebus: eraka, arka 'copper'.In 2003, Paul Yule wrote a remarkable article on metallic anthropomorphic figures derived from Magan/Makkan, i.e. from an Umm an-Nar period context in al-Aqir/Bahla' in the south-western piedmont of the western Hajjar chain. "These artefacts are compared with those from northern Indian in terms of their origin and/or dating. They are particularly interesting owing to a secure provenance in middle Oman...The anthropomorphic artefacts dealt with...are all the more interesting as documents of an ever-growing body of information on prehistoric international contact/influence bridging the void between south-eastern Arabia and South Asia...Gerd Weisgerber recounts that in winter of 1983/4...al-Aqir near Bahla' in the al-Zahirah Wilaya delivered prehistoric planoconvex 'bun' ingots and other metallic artefacts from the same find complex..." 
    In the following plate, Figs. 1 to 5 are anthropomorphs, with 'winged' attributes. The metal finds from the al-Aqir wall include ingots, figures, an axe blade, a hoe, and a cleaver (see fig. 1, 1-8), all in copper alloy.
    Title / Object: anthropomorphic sheorajpur
    Fund context: Saipai, Dist. Kanpur
    Time of admission: 1981
    Pool: SAI South Asian Archaeology
    Image ID: 213 101
    Copyright: Dr Paul Yule, Heidelberg
    Photo credit: Yule, Metalwork of the Bronze in India, Pl 23 348 (dwg)
    Saipal, Dist. Etawah, UP. Anthropomorph, type I. 24.1x27.04x0.76 cm., 1270 gm., both sides show a chevron patterning, left arm broken off (Pl. 22, 337). Purana Qila Coll. Delhi (74.12/4) -- Lal, BB, 1972, 285 fig. 2d pl. 43d
    http://katalog.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/cgi-bin/titel.cgi?katkey=900213101

    Fig. 1: Prehistoric metallic artefacts from the Sultanate of Oman: 1-8  al-Aqir/Bahla'; 9 Ra's al-Jins 2, building vii, room 2, period 3 (DA 11961) "The cleaver no. 8 is unparalleled in the prehistory of the entire Near East. Its form resembles an iron coco-nut knife from a reportedly subrecent context in Gudevella (near Kharligarh, Dist. Balangir, Orissa) which the author examined some years ago in India...The dating of the figures, which command our immediate attention, depends on two strands of thought. First, the Umm an-Nar Period/Culture dating mentioned above, en-compasses a time-space from 2500 to 1800 BC. In any case, the presence of “bun“ ingots among the finds by nomeans contradicts a dating for the anthropomorphic figures toward the end of the second millennium BC. Since these are a product of a simple form of copper production, they existed with the beginning of smelting in Oman. The earliest dated examples predate this, i.e. the Umm an-NarPeriod. Thereafter, copper continues to be produced intothe medieval period. Anthropomorphic figures from the Ganges-Yamuna Doab which resemble significantly the al-Aqir artefacts (fig. 2,10-15) form a second line of evidence for the dating. To date, some 21 anthropomorphs from northern India have been published." (p. 539; cf. Yule, 1985, 128: Yule et al. 1989 (1992) 274: Yule et al 2002. More are known to exist, particularly from a large hoard deriving from Madarpur.)






    Fig. 2: Anthropomorphic figures from the Indian Subcontinent. 10 type I, Saipai, Dist. Etawah, U.P.; 11 type I, Lothal, Dist. Ahmedabad,Guj.; 12 type I variant, Madarpur, Dist. Moradabad, U.P.; 13 type II, Sheorajpur, Dist. Kanpur, U.P.; 14 miscellaneous type, Fathgarh,Dist. Farrukhabad, U.P.; 15 miscellaneous type, Dist. Manbhum, Bihar.


    The anthropomorph from Lothal/Gujarat (fig. 2,11), from a layer which its excavator dates to the 19 th century BCE. Lothal, phase 4 of period A, type 1. Some anthropomorphs were found stratified together with Ochre-Coloured Pottery, dated to ca. 2nd millennium BCE. Anthropomorph of Ra's al-Jins (Fig. 1,9) clearly reinforces the fact that South Asians travelled to and stayed at the site of Ra's al-Jins. "The excavators date the context from which the Ra’s al-Jins copper artefact derived to their period III, i.e. 2300-2200 BCE (Cleuziou & Tosi 1997, 57), which falls within thesame time as at least some of the copper ingots which are represented at al-Aqir, and for example also in contextfrom al-Maysar site M01...the Franco-Italian teamhas emphasized the presence of a settled Harappan-Peri-od population and lively trade with South Asia at Ra's al-Jins in coastal Arabia. (Cleuziou, S. & Tosi, M., 1997, Evidence for the use of aromatics in the early Bronze Age of Oman, in: A. Avanzini, ed., Profumi d'Arabia, Rome 57-81)."
    "In the late third-early second millennium, given the presence of a textually documented 'Meluhha village' in Lagash (southern Mesopotamia), one cannot be too surprised that such colonies existed 'east of Eden' in south-eastern Arabia juxtaposed with South Asia. In any case, here we encounter yet again evidence for contact between the two regions -- a contact of greater intimacy and importance than for the other areas of the Gulf."(Paul Yule, 2003, Beyond the pale of near Eastern Archaeology: Anthropomorphic figures from al-Aqir near Bahla' In: Stöllner, T. (Hrsg.): Mensch und Bergbau Studies in Honour of Gerd Weisgerber on Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Bochum 2003, pp. 537-542).
    See: Weisgerber, G., 1988, Oman: A bronze-producing centre during the 1st half of the 1st millennium BCE, in: J. Curtis, ed., Bronze-working centres of western Asia, c. 1000-539 BCE, London, 285-295.
    With curved horns, the ’anthropomorph’ is a ligature of a mountain goat or markhor (makara) and a fish incised between the horns. Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards.  At Sheorajpur, three anthropomorphs in metal were found. (Sheorajpur, Dt. Kanpur. Three anthropomorphic figures of copper. AI, 7, 1951, pp. 20, 29).
    One anthropomorph had fish hieroglyph incised on the chest of  the copper object, Sheorajpur, upper Ganges valley,   ca. 2nd millennium BCE,   4 kg; 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. State Museum,   Lucknow (O.37) Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards. miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) meḍ iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayo, ayas ‘metal. Thus, together read rebus: ayo meḍh ‘iron stone ore, metal merchant.’
    A remarkable legacy of the civilization occurs in the use of ‘fish‘ sign on a copper anthropomorph found in a copper hoard. This is an apparent link of the ‘fish’ broadly with the profession of ‘metal-work’. The ‘fish’ sign is apparently related to the copper object which seems to depict a ‘fighting ram’ symbolized by its in-curving horns. The ‘fish’ sign may relate to a copper furnace. The underlying imagery defined by the style of the copper casting is the pair of curving horns of a fighting ram ligatured into the outspread legs (of a warrior).

    The center-piece of the makara symbolism is that it is a big jhasa, big fish, but with ligatured components (alligator snout, elephant trunk, elephant legs and antelope face). Each of these components can be explained (alligator: manger; elephant trunk: sunda; elephant: ibha; antelope: ranku; rebus: mangar ‘smith’; sunda ‘furnace’; ib ‘iron’; ranku ‘tin’); thus the makara jhasa or the big composite fish is a complex of metallurgical repertoire.)

    One nidhi was makara (syn. Kohl, antimony); the second was makara (or, jhasa, fish) [bed.a hako (ayo)(syn. bhed.a ‘furnace’; med. ‘iron’; ayas ‘metal’)]; the third was kharva (syn. karba, iron).



    From Lothal was reported a fragmentary Type 1 anthropomorph (13.0 pres. X 12.8 pres. X c. 0.08 cm, Cu 97.27%, Pb 2.51% (Rao), surface ptterning runs lengthwise, lower portion slightly thicker than the edge of the head, 'arms' and 'legs' broken off (Pl. 1, 22)-- ASI Ahmedabad (10918 -- Rao, SR, 1958, 13 pl. 21A)

    The extraordinary presence of a Lothal anthropomorph of the type found on the banks of River Ganga in Sheorajpur (Uttar Pradesh) makes it apposite to discuss the anthropomorph as a Meluhha hieroglyph, since Lothal is reportedly a mature site of the civilization which has produced nearly 7000 inscriptions (what may be called Meluhha almost all 


    "Anthropomorphs occur in a variety of shapes and sizes (Plate A). The two basic types dominate, as defined by the proportions in combination with certain morphological features. All show processes suggestive of a human head, arms and legs. With one exception (no. 539) all are highly geometricising and flat. Fashioned from thick metal sheeting, these artifacts have stocky proportions and are patterned on both sides with elongated gouches or dents which usually are lengthwise oriented. Sometimes, however, the patterning is chevroned or cross-hatched. Significantly, the upper edge of the 'head' shows no thickening, as is the case of type H anthropomorphs. Examples have come to light at mid doab and a broken anthropomorph from distant Lothal as well. The only stratified example derives from Lothal, level IV. height range. 23.2-24.1cm; L/W: 0.65 - 0.88: 1; weight mean: 1260 gm." (Yule, Paul, pp.51-52).
    "Conclusions..."To the west at Harappa Lothal in Gujarat the presence of a fragmentary import type I anthropomorph suggests contact with the doab." "(p.92)


    From Lothal was reported a fragmentary Type 1 anthropomorph (13.0 pres. X 12.8 pres. X c. 0.08 cm, Cu 97.27%, Pb 2.51% (Rao), surface ptterning runs lengthwise, lower portion slightly thicker than the edge of the head, 'arms' and 'legs' broken off (Pl. 1, 22)-- ASI Ahmedabad (10918 -- Rao, SR, 1958, 13 pl. 21A)

    The extraordinary presence of a Lothal anthropomorph of the type found on the banks of River Ganga in Sheorajpur (Uttar Pradesh) makes it apposite to discuss the anthropomorph as a Meluhha hieroglyph, since Lothal is reportedly a mature site of the civilization which has produced nearly 7000 inscriptions (what may be called Meluhha epigraphs, almost all of which are relatable to the bronze age metalwork of India).

    The Sheorajpur anthropomorph (348 on Plate A) 
    has a 'fish' Indus Script hieroglyph incised on the chest.

    Some illustrations of anthropomorphs of various types
    File:Anthropomorphic figures, chalcolithic,Yamuna-Ganga.BKB.jpgChalcolitique du bassin Gange-Yamuna. 2800 - 1500 avant notre ère. Provenance : Bisauli (212 km de New Delhi), district de Badaun, Uttar Pradesh. Bharat Kala Bhavan, Varanasi. Inv. n° 94620 et 94621
    anthropomorphic copper figure (ACCN 93-51) found at Shahabad, UP, now at Government Museum, Mathura.
    Click the image to open in full size.Click the image to open in full size.Click the image to open in full size.Click the image to open in full size.Click the image to open in full size.Click the image to open in full size.

    Some images from Copper Hoard Culture and related sites 
    From Lothal was reported a fragmentary 
    Type 1 anthropomorph (13.0 pres. X 12.8 pres. X c. 0.08 cm, Cu 97.27%, Pb 2.51% (Rao),














    [quote] Deo Prakash Sharma published a work called Newly Discovered












    Carlos Aramayo notes: [quote]Copper Hoard, Weapons of South Asia, Delhi, 2002 in which he
    establishes a time between 2800 and 1500 BC for copper hoards based on analysis of copper implemets in the National Museum, New
    Delhi: "Till today around 5031 copper hoard implements have been reported from 197 sites mostly from Gangetic plains among which 193
    are in National Museum collection. We have fixed date of copper hoards from circa 2800 to 1500 B.C. and these could be divided into
    two groups as follows (A) North Eastern Indian (B) Ganga-Yamuna doab and Western India. The technology of western group B is of a
    distinctive and advanced type and is influenced by the Harappans...The anthropomorphic figure of copper hoard is a cult
    object and a symbol of good omen. The lugged shouldered axes and weed chisels are a new type in copper hoard implements. The shouldered
    axes show their origin from South East Asia via North-East India and Middle Ganga plain. The copper hoard implements and OCP ceramic are
    present in stratified deposits of Ganeshwar, Jodhpura, Mithathal, Madarpur, Saipai and Khatoli...Copper hoard implements of western






    ]


    The copper anthropomorph of Haryana is comparable to and an elaboration of a copper anthropomorph of Sheorajpur, Uttar Pradesh. Both deploy Meluhha hieroglyphs using rebus-metonymy layered cipher of Indus writing. 
    The hieroglyhs of the anthropomorphs are a remarkable archaeological evidence attesting to the evidence of an ancient Samskritam text, Baudhāyana śrautasūtra.
    Baudhāyana śrautasūtra 18.44 which documents migrations of Āyu and Amavasu from a central region:
    pran Ayuh pravavraja. tasyaite Kuru-Pancalah Kasi-Videha ity. etad Ayavam pravrajam. pratyan amavasus. tasyaite Gandharvarayas Parsavo ‘ratta ity. etad Amavasavam
    Trans. Ayu went east, his is the Yamuna-Ganga region (Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha). Amavasu went west, his is Gandhara, Parsu and Araṭṭa.
    Ayu went east from Kurukshetra to Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha. The  migratory path of Meluhha artisand in the lineage of Ayu of the Rigvedic tradition, to Kasi-Videha certainly included the very ancient temple town of Sheorajpur of Dist. Etawah (Kanpur), Uttar Pradesh.
    Haryana anthropormorph (in the Kurukshetra region on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati) deploys hieroglyphs of markhor (horns), boar and one-horned young bull together with an inscription text using Indus Script hieroglyphs. The Sheorajpur anthropomorph deploys hieroglyphs of markhor (horns) and fish. The astonishing continuity of archaeo-metallurgical tradition of Sarasvati-Sindhu (Hindu) civilization is evident from a temple in Sheorajpur on the banks of Sacred River Ganga. This temple dedicated to Siva has metalwork ceilings !!!
    Both anthropomorph artefacts in copper alloy are metalwork catalogs of dhokara kamar 'cire perdue(lost-wax) metal casters'.
    Hieroglyhph: eraka 'wing' Rebus: eraka, arka 'copper'.In 2003, Paul Yule wrote a remarkable article on metallic anthropomorphic figures derived from Magan/Makkan, i.e. from an Umm an-Nar period context in al-Aqir/Bahla' in the south-western piedmont of the western Hajjar chain. "These artefacts are compared with those from northern Indian in terms of their origin and/or dating. They are particularly interesting owing to a secure provenance in middle Oman...The anthropomorphic artefacts dealt with...are all the more interesting as documents of an ever-growing body of information on prehistoric international contact/influence bridging the void between south-eastern Arabia and South Asia...Gerd Weisgerber recounts that in winter of 1983/4...al-Aqir near Bahla' in the al-Zahirah Wilaya delivered prehistoric planoconvex 'bun' ingots and other metallic artefacts from the same find complex..." 
    In the following plate, Figs. 1 to 5 are anthropomorphs, with 'winged' attributes. The metal finds from the al-Aqir wall include ingots, figures, an axe blade, a hoe, and a cleaver (see fig. 1, 1-8), all in copper alloy. 
    Fig. 1: Prehistoric metallic artefacts from the Sultanate of Oman: 1-8  al-Aqir/Bahla'; 9 Ra's al-Jins 2, building vii, room 2, period 3 (DA 11961) "The cleaver no. 8 is unparalleled in the prehistory of the entire Near East. Its form resembles an iron coco-nut knife from a reportedly subrecent context in Gudevella (near Kharligarh, Dist. Balangir, Orissa) which the author examined some years ago in India...The dating of the figures, which command our immediate attention, depends on two strands of thought. First, the Umm an-Nar Period/Culture dating mentioned above, en-compasses a time-space from 2500 to 1800 BC. In any case, the presence of “bun“ ingots among the finds by nomeans contradicts a dating for the anthropomorphic figures toward the end of the second millennium BC. Since these are a product of a simple form of copper production, they existed with the beginning of smelting in Oman. The earliest dated examples predate this, i.e. the Umm an-NarPeriod. Thereafter, copper continues to be produced intothe medieval period. Anthropomorphic figures from the Ganges-Yamuna Doab which resemble significantly theal-Aqir artefacts (fig. 2,10-15) form a second line of evidence for the dating. To date, some 21 anthropomorphsfrom northern India have been published." (p. 539; cf. Yule, 1985, 128: Yule et al. 1989 (1992) 274: Yule et al 2002. More are known to exist, particularly from a large hoard deriving from Madarpur.)


    Fig. 2: Anthropomorphic figures from the Indian Subcontinent. 10 type I, Saipai, Dist. Etawah, U.P.; 11 type I, Lothal, Dist. Ahmedabad,Guj.; 12 type I variant, Madarpur, Dist. Moradabad, U.P.; 13 type II, Sheorajpur, Dist. Kanpur, U.P.; 14 miscellaneous type, Fathgarh,
    Fig. 2: Anthropomorphic figures from the Indian Subcontinent. 10 type I, Saipai, Dist. Etawah, U.P.; 11 type I, Lothal, Dist. Ahmedabad,Guj.; 12 type I variant, Madarpur, Dist. Moradabad, U.P.; 13 type II, Sheorajpur, Dist. Kanpur, U.P.; 14 miscellaneous type, Fathgarh,Dist. Farrukhabad, U.P.; 15 miscellaneous type, Dist. Manbhum, Bihar.
    The anthropomorph from Lothal/Gujarat (fig. 2,11), from a layer which its excavator dates to the 19 th century BCE. Lothal, phase 4 of period A, type 1. Some anthropomorphs were found stratified together with Ochre-Coloured Pottery, dated to ca. 2nd millennium BCE. Anthropomorph of Ra's al-Jins (Fig. 1,9) clearly reinforces the fact that South Asians travelled to and stayed at the site of Ra's al-Jins. "The excavators date the context from which the Ra’s al-Jins copper artefact derived to their period III, i.e. 2300-2200 BCE (Cleuziou & Tosi 1997, 57), which falls within thesame time as at least some of the copper ingots which are represented at al-Aqir, and for example also in contextfrom al-Maysar site M01...the Franco-Italian teamhas emphasized the presence of a settled Harappan-Peri-od population and lively trade with South Asia at Ra's al-Jins in coastal Arabia. (Cleuziou, S. & Tosi, M., 1997, Evidence for the use of aromatics in the early Bronze Age of Oman, in: A. Avanzini, ed., Profumi d'Arabia, Rome 57-81)."
    "In the late third-early second millennium, given the presence of a textually documented 'Meluhha village' in Lagash (southern Mesopotamia), one cannot be too surprised that such colonies existed 'east of Eden' in south-eastern Arabia juxtaposed with South Asia. In any case, here we encounter yet again evidence for contact between the two regions -- a contact of greater intimacy and importance than for the other areas of the Gulf."(Paul Yule, 2003, Beyond the pale of near Eastern Archaeology: Anthropomorphic figures from al-Aqir near Bahla' In: Stöllner, T. (Hrsg.): Mensch und Bergbau Studies in Honour of Gerd Weisgerber on Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Bochum 2003, pp. 537-542).
    See: Weisgerber, G., 1988, Oman: A bronze-producing centre during the 1st half of the 1st millennium BCE, in: J. Curtis, ed., Bronze-working centres of western Asia, c. 1000-539 BCE, London, 285-295.
    With curved horns, the ’anthropomorph’ is a ligature of a mountain goat or markhor (makara) and a fish incised between the horns. Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards.  At Sheorajpur, three anthropomorphs in metal were found. (Sheorajpur, Dt. Kanpur. Three anthropomorphic figures of copper. AI, 7, 1951, pp. 20, 29).
    One anthropomorph had fish hieroglyph incised on the chest of  the copper object, Sheorajpur, upper Ganges valley,   ca. 2nd millennium BCE,   4 kg; 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. State Museum,   Lucknow (O.37) Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards. miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) meḍ iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayo, ayas ‘metal. Thus, together read rebus: ayo meḍh ‘iron stone ore, metal merchant.’


    A remarkable legacy of the civilization occurs in the use of ‘fish‘ sign on a copper anthropomorph found in a copper hoard. This is an apparent link of the ‘fish’ broadly with the profession of ‘metal-work’. The ‘fish’ sign is apparently related to the copper object which seems to depict a ‘fighting ram’ symbolized by its in-curving horns. The ‘fish’ sign may relate to a copper furnace. The underlying imagery defined by the style of the copper casting is the pair of curving horns of a fighting ram ligatured into the outspread legs (of a warrior).


    The center-piece of the makara symbolism is that it is a big jhasa, big fish, but with ligatured components (alligator snout, elephant trunk, elephant legs and antelope face). Each of these components can be explained (alligator: manger; elephant trunk: sunda; elephant: ibha; antelope: ranku; rebus: mangar ‘smith’; sunda ‘furnace’; ib ‘iron’; ranku ‘tin’); thus the makara jhasa or the big composite fish is a complex of metallurgical repertoire.)

    One nidhi was makara (syn. Kohl, antimony); the second was makara (or, jhasa, fish) [bed.a hako (ayo)(syn. bhed.a ‘furnace’; med. ‘iron’; ayas ‘metal’)]; the third was kharva (syn. karba, iron).
    Title / Object: anthropomorphic sheorajpur
    Fund context: Saipai, Dist. Kanpur
    Time of admission: 1981
    Pool: SAI South Asian Archaeology
    Image ID: 213 101
    Copyright: Dr Paul Yule, Heidelberg
    Photo credit: Yule, Metalwork of the Bronze in India, Pl 23 348 (dwg)
    Saipal, Dist. Etawah, UP. Anthropomorph, type I. 24.1x27.04x0.76 cm., 1270 gm., both sides show a chevron patterning, left arm broken off (Pl. 22, 337). Purana Qila Coll. Delhi (74.12/4) -- Lal, BB, 1972, 285 fig. 2d pl. 43d



    From Lothal was reported a fragmentary Type 1 anthropomorph (13.0 pres. X 12.8 pres. X c. 0.08 cm, Cu 97.27%, Pb 2.51% (Rao), surface ptterning runs lengthwise, lower portion slightly thicker than the edge of the head, 'arms' and 'legs' broken off (Pl. 1, 22)-- ASI Ahmedabad (10918 -- Rao, SR, 1958, 13 pl. 21A)

    The extraordinary presence of a Lothal anthropomorph of the type found on the banks of River Ganga in Sheorajpur (Uttar Pradesh) makes it apposite to discuss the anthropomorph as a Meluhha hieroglyph, since Lothal is reportedly a mature site of the civilization which has produced nearly 7000 inscriptions (what may be called Meluhha epigraphs, almost all of which are relatable to the bronze age metalwork of India).

    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2014/01/meluhha-hieroglyphs-snarling-iron-of.html

    "Anthropomorphs occur in a variety of shapes and sizes (Plate A). The two basic types dominate, as defined by the proportions in combination with certain morphological features. All show processes suggestive of a human head, arms and legs. With one exception (no. 539) all are highly geometricising and flat. Fashioned from thick metal sheeting, these artifacts have stocky proportions and are patterned on both sides with elongated gouches or dents which usually are lengthwise oriented. Sometimes, however, the patterning is chevroned or cross-hatched. Significantly, the upper edge of the 'head' shows no thickening, as is the case of type H anthropomorphs. Examples have come to light at mid doab and a broken anthropomorph from distant Lothal as well. The only stratified example derives from Lothal, level IV. height range. 23.2-24.1cm; L/W: 0.65 - 0.88: 1; weight mean: 1260 gm." (Yule, Paul, pp.51-52).
    "Conclusions..."To the west at Harappa Lothal in Gujarat the presence of a fragmentary import type I anthropomorph suggests contact with the doab." "(p.92)

    The Sheorajpur anthropomorph (348 on Plate A) has a 'fish' hieroglyph incised on the chest

    Hieroglyphs: tagara ‘ram’ (Kannada) Rebus: damgar ‘merchant’ (Akk.) Rebus: tagara ‘tin’ (Kannada)


    Ta. takar sheep, ram, goat, male of certain other animals (yāḷi, elephant, shark). பொருநகர் தாக்கற்குப் பேருந் தகைத்து (குறள், 486).Ma. takaran huge, powerful as a man, bear, etc. Ka. tagar, ṭagaru, ṭagara, ṭegaru ram. Tu. tagaru, ṭagarů id. Te. tagaramu, tagaru id. / Cf. Mar. tagar id. (DEDR 3000). Rebus 1:tagromi 'tin, metal alloy' (Kuwi) takaram tin, white lead, metal sheet, coated with tin (Ta.); tin, tinned iron plate (Ma.); tagarm tin (Ko.); tagara, tamara, tavara id. (Ka.) tamaru, tamara, tavara id. (Ta.): tagaramu, tamaramu, tavaramu id. (Te.); ṭagromi tin metal, alloy (Kuwi); tamara id. (Skt.)(DEDR 3001). trapu tin (AV.); tipu (Pali); tau, taua lead (Pkt.); tū̃ tin (P.); ṭau zinc, pewter (Or.); tarūaum lead (OG.);tarv (G.); tumba lead (Si.)(CDIAL 5992). Rebus 2: damgar ‘merchant’.



    Hieroglyphs, allographs: ram, tabernae montana coronaria flower: तगर [ tagara ] f A flowering shrub, Tabernæ montana coronaria. 2 n C The flower of it. 3 m P A ram. (Marathi)

    *tagga ʻ mud ʼ. [Cf. Bur. t*lg*l ʻ mud ʼ] Kho. (Lor.) toq ʻ mud, quagmire ʼ; Sh. tăgāˊ ʻ mud ʼ; K. tagöri m. ʻ a man who makes mud or plaster ʼ; Ku. tāgaṛ ʻ mortar ʼ; B. tāgāṛ ʻ mortar, pit in which it is prepared ʼ.(CDIAL 5626). (Note: making of mud or plaster is a key step in dhokra kamar's work of cire perdue (lost-wax) casting.)
    krəm backʼ(Kho.) karmāra ‘smith, artisan’ (Skt.) kamar ‘smith’ (Santali) 

    About a temple in Sheorajpur with metal ceiling

     

    Could this be the work of dhokra kamar? this is an amazing structure by any standards as a ceiling of a S'iva temple called Kereshwar in Shivrajpur, a village on the banks of Ganga.
    Many bronze artifacts are also venerated in the temple.

    I hope some researcher will find out the sources for these bronze/brass marvels which echoe the anthropomorph of ancient India?
    Sheorajpur anthropomorph with 'fish' hieroglyph and 'markhor' horns hieroglyph. ayo'fish' Rebus: ayo 'iron, metal' (Gujarati) miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.)

    Prima facie, it appears that these are products of dhokra kamar 
    metalworkers

    NB: Some historical notes:

    Pratihara emperor, Mihir Bhoja, has ruled in nearby Kanpur since nearby Kannuaj was the capital of Parihar. At Shivrajpur, 20 km from the Kanpur Central railway station, there is an ancient temple built by Chandel Raja Sati Prasad. The history of the temple and architecture needs further investigations and researches.











    Anthropomorph Bibliography

    R. Balasubramaniam, MN Mungole, VN Prabhakar, DV Sharma and D.Banerjee, 2002, Studies on Ancient Indian OCP Period Copper, in: Indian Journal of History of Science, 37.1 (2002), pp. 1-15    http://www.dli.gov.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/2000616d_1.pdf
    BB Lal, ‘Further copper hoards from Gangetic basin and a review of the problem’, Ancient India, 7 (1951), pp. 20-30

    BB Lal, “A not on the excavation at Saipai,’ Puratattva 5 (1971-72), pp. 46-49

    Dikshit, KN, ‘The Ochre Coloured Ware settlements in Ganga-Yamuna Doab,’ in: DP Agrawal and DK Chakraborty, ed., Essays in Indian Protohistory,New Delhi, 1979, pp. 285-299.

    Kumar, K. ‘The beginnings of the Brahmanical iconography in the Ganga Valley’, Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art, New Series, XXII and XXIII (2000), pp,. 27-68.

    Ghosh, A., ed., Copper Hoard, Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology, Vol. I, New Delhi, 1989, p. 91

    Agrawal, DP, Krishnamurthy RV and Kusumgar, S., ‘New data on the copper hoards and the Daimabad bronzes’, Man and Environment, 2 (1978), pp. 41-46.

    Nautiyal, V., Agrawal DP, and Krishnamurthy, RV ‘Some new analysis on the protohistoric copperarts’, Man and Environment,5 (1981),pp. 48-51.

    Ball, V. ‘On the ancient coppermines of Singhbhum, Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1869, pp. 170-175.

    Smith, VA, 1905, The Copper Age and Prehistoric Bronze Implements of India, The Indian Antiquary, 34, pp. 229-44, pl. II, Fig.5 

    Piggott, S., 1944, Prehistoric Copper Hoards in the Ganges Basin, Antiquity, 18/72, pp. 173-82. 

    Agrawala,BC, 1984, A unique copper anthropomorph from Sheorajpur, Kanpur, Bulletin of Museums & Archaelogy, 33-34, pp. 9-10

    Yule, PA, 1985, Metalwork of the Bronze Age in India,Munchen, 51-52, pl. A, E (No. 239), 10 (No. 241), 11, 15 (No. 255), 22 (No. 337), 23 (No. 348), 24 (No. 345), 25 (No. 350), 47, (No. 336), 48 (No. 537) http://crossasia-repository.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/1895/

    Trivedi, SD,1989, Copper Implement (Anthropomorph). In SD Trivedi, Masterpieces in the State Museum, Lucknow, p. 26, Lucknow.

    Yule, PA, 1989, The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent. Preliminaries for an Interpretation, in: Juhrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum, Mainz, 36 (Part 1): 201 (No. 1105), 202 (No. 1121-1123), 203 (No. 1128) (pp. 193 to 275)

    http://crossasia-repository.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/509/

    Joshi, MP, 1990, New Horizon of the Ganga Valley copper hoard archaeology, Bulletin of Museums & Archaeology, 43-46, pp. 1-7.

    Yule, PA, 1993, Uberlegungen zu den frhen Metallarbeiten in Indien, in C.Mallebrein, ed., Die anderen Goiter, Volks- and Stammensbronzen ans Indien, Koln: 56, 59 (ill. P.20)

    Mode, H., 1959, Das fruhe Indien, Stuttgart: 108-9, pl. 76


    Paul Yule, Addenda to "The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent: Preliminaries for an Interpretation", Man and Environment 26.2, 2002, 117–120 http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/savifadok/volltexte/2009/510/.


    Paul Yule, Beyond the Pale of Near Eastern Archaeology: Anthropomorphic Figures from al-Aqir near Baḥlāʾ, Sultanate of Oman, Man and Mining – T. Stöllner et al. (eds.) Mensch und Bergbau Studies in Honour of Gerd Weisgerber on Occasion of his 65th Birthday, Bochum, 2003, 537–542 http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeumdok/volltexte/2008/109/ also under the same title in Pragdhara 14, 2004, 231–239; A New Prehistoric Anthropomorphic Figure from the Sharqiyah, Oman, in: ‘My Life is like the Summer Rose’ Maurizio Tosi e l’Archeologia come modo de vivere, Papers in Honour of Maurizio Tosi on his 70th Birthday, C. Lamberg-Karlovsky‒B. Genito‒B. Cerasetti (eds.), BAR Intern. Series 2690, Oxford, 2014, 759–60, ISBN 978 1 4073 1326 9; https://uni-heidelberg.academia.edu/paulyule


    B.B. Lal, Further Copper Hoards from the Gangetic Basin and a Review of the Problem, Ancient India 7, 1951, 20-39

    Tapan Kumar Das Gupta, Die Anthropomorphen Figuren der Kupferhortfunde aus Indien, Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, 56, 2009, 39-80.

    D.P. Agrawal, The Copper-Bronze Age in India (Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal1971) 200; Harry Falk, Copper Hoard Weapons and the Vedic Vajra, South Asian Archaeology 1993 (Helsinki 1994) 193-206.

    Monika Zin, Vajrapāṇi in the Narrative Reliefs, in: Migration, Trade and Peoples, Part 2: Gandharan Art, ed. C. Fröhlich, The British Association for South Asian Studies, (Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists in London 2005) 73-83 

    Manjul SK and Arvin Manjul, 2012, Composite Copper anthropomorphs Figure from Haryana: A Re-appraisal. In Proceedings of Indian Art History Congress XX Session, 2011, Patna, pp. 14-19.


    khoṇḍ, kõda 'young bull-calf' Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi)  kõda 'kiln, furnace' Hieorglyph: boar: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’; baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) 'Rebus: bari 'merchant'.barea 'merchant' (Santali)বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) Varāha is explained by वाचस्पत्यम् Vācaspatyam: वराय अभीष्ठाय मुस्तादिलाभाय आहन्ति खनति भूमिम्  To represent a boon, (to obtain) wished, desired products (including species of grass) mined from the earth, by striking, hitting. Hieroglyph: Spread legs: कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 'spread legs'; (semantic determinant) Rebus: karNa 'helmsman', karNI 'scribe, account''supercargo'. Thus, the hieroglyphs on the anthropomorph Type 2 signify a helmsman, engraver who works with metals and mines to produce supercargo of mined products. (Note: I had suggested that the head ligature on the anthropomorph signifies a crocodile, but Dr. Sanjay Manjul's suggestion that it signifies head of a boar is consistent with the Vedic metaphor and tradition of Varāha. I correct my identification and read the Anthropomorph head as signifier of Varāha.)


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    Scientists Found That The Soul Doesn’t D.I.E – It Goes Back To The Universe


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    1. Image result for vajpayee
      मैं नि:शब्द हूं, शून्य में हूं, लेकिन भावनाओं का ज्वार उमड़ रहा है। हम सभी के श्रद्धेय अटल जी हमारे बीच नहीं रहे। अपने जीवन का प्रत्येक पल उन्होंने राष्ट्र को समर्पित कर दिया था। उनका जाना, एक युग का अंत है।



    2.  5 minutes ago
    3. लेकिन वो हमें कहकर गए हैं- “मौत की उमर क्या है? दो पल भी नहीं, ज़िन्दगी सिलसिला, आज कल की नहीं मैं जी भर जिया, मैं मन से मरूं, लौटकर आऊँगा, कूच से क्यों डरूं?”

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    -- Metalwork. Anthropomorph Indus Script Hypertext on Proto-Elamite clay tablet. Breath-taking video on Mohenjo-daro ziggurat 

    Researchers at Oxford University hope new technology and crowdsourcing on the Internet will help them decipher the world's oldest writing system that still remains a mystery.


    The ancient writing from what is now southwest Iran, called proto-Elamite, was used during the Bronze Age between 3200 BC and 2900 BC but has defied academics who long ago found the Rosetta Stone to understand Egyptian hieroglyphics and other ancient languages. Although proto-Elamite was borrowed from neighboring Mesopotamia, its scribes devised their own symbols that have made it all but undecipherable for millennia.But now, according to BBC News, scholars believe they have the tools to make significant headway."I think we are finally on the point of making a breakthrough," Jacob Dahl, a fellow in the Oriental Studies department at Oxford University, told the BBC. "It's an unknown, uncharted territory of human history."Dahl and other researchers at Oxford have spent more than a decade studying the right-to-left writing on clay tablets. So far, they have deciphered 1,200 symbols but that merely scratches the surface. Basic words such as "cattle" remain unknown, the BBC adds. So the scholars have turned to a device known as a Reflectance Transformation Imaging System(RTI). Developed by a team of international developers, RTI uses light to capture photos of every groove on a clay tablet to produce super-sharp images.Dahl's team shipped an RTI machine to the Louvre museum in Paris, home to the world's largest trove of proto-Elamite tablets, and exposed the tablets to them. The high-resolution images will be put online to allow academics around the world to crowdsource a translation, ideally within two years.The ancient writing has proven particularly maddening to scholars, Dahl says, because it appears to be full of mistakes that have made deciphering them all the more difficult. There also have been no bilingual texts to use for comparison nor any lists of symbols or primers to use as a reference. In addition, scholars don't know how the language was spoken and thus lack phonetic clues that might have helped their work.Yet the writing system is hugely important to experts in ancient languages because it was the first to use syllables and represents the first recorded example of one people adopting writing from another people nearby.



    June 20, 2018 See the difference

    Department has taken wonderful action and made Mohen Jo Daro clean, repaired the broken pieces of walls.


    Close-up images of Mohenjo-daro ziggurat, temple (so-called Stupa mound) merges with the brickwork of the archaeological site exemplified by the Great bath.





    Transition from Indus Valley Culture script to Proto-Elamite cuneiform...!!!
    Could this be a start of Rosetta Stone like decipherment?!
    Apparently some Proto-Elamite decipherment and translation is available... 
    @Suzanne Redalia.
    "Indus Valley gold, chiefly in jewellery, is very rare. It seems that gold was not readily available, and was not wasted, as in the case of burial goods, although this is different at Baluchistan sites. Most gold pieces use the metal very sparingly. In this example, the beads are hollow, and in the pendant, thin gold lies over an organic core. The pendant is in the form of a Indus River reed boat. All told, the necklace is about 43 cm in length and weighs only about 18 g." -- eclectic.com 






    https://www.academia.edu/35354756/Indus_Administrative_Technologies._New_data_and_novel_interpretations_on_the_Indus_stamp_seals_and_their_impressions_on_clay



    Indus river boat. Shown on a seal, Mohenjo-daro.

    Mohenjo-daro. Sailing vessel depicted on a stone stamp seal (after Potts 1995: Fig. 1)


    “The construction of boats using locally available wood is well attested in the cuneiform sources. One Ur III boatbuilding text refers to 11,787 pieces of wood, stipulating in most cases what part of the ship they were destined to be used for. An Old Babylonian text from Ur (UET V 468) attests to the use of the date-plm midrib (?) in boat construction, three hundred of which were delivered by twenty-five workers. M. Powell has noted a number of wooden elements used in boat construction among pre-Sargonic ‘timber’ texts from Girsu. Planks of asal, (Populus sp. Euphratica?) for short or deep-draft boats are attested, as are the handles of steering oars. Both gig id and gul-bu (unidentified) were probably used for steering oar handles as wel. Ships’ timbers were made of u-suh (pine?), as were steering oars, punting poles and elements of the mooring apparatus…an Ur III text from Umma lists the delivery of 810 boat ribs of ma-nu wood (willow?) Palm-fibre and palm-leaf ropes (Sum. Shu-sar, Akk. Pitiltium) of differing thickness and weights were made by ‘twisting’ (akk. patAlum). Old Babylonian texts from Ur (e.g. UET V 468) show no fewer than 186 labourers are employed in this sort of rope manufacture, and texts relting to the distribution of ropes for the outfitting of boats reveal that enormous quantities of such rope were employed…in the context of reed use in the construction of Magan ships (CT 7:31a) lists no less than 176 talents (8.28 tons) of palm-fibre rope (shu-sar KAxSA) and 34 talents (1.02 tons) of palm-leaf rope (shu-sar pesh). The tons of palm-fibre rope called for in this text suggest that some of the watercraft of the Ur III period must have been sewn or stitched vessels, a possibility to which scant attention has been paid in the literature on Mesopotamian watercraft. Sewn plank boats are an important and well-studied phenomenon in northern Europe, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, South Asia and Southeast Asia. The sewn vessels of the Gulf, Red Sea and Indian Ocean are justly famous in nautical literature and have been commented on my European observers for almost two millennia. In the mid-first-century CE the anonyumous author of the Periplus Maris Erythraei, a commercial mariner’s handbook containing information on travel between Egypt and India, noted ‘boats sewed together,…known as madarata’ on the southern coast of Arabia. In 1890 the great Austrian Orientalist and South Arabian explorer Eduard Glaser suggested that the word rendered madarata in Greek by the author of the Periplus was undoubtedly the same as Arabic muddarra’at or maddarra’at or madra’at, a vessel fastened with palm-fibre. In his chronicle of the Sasanian wars, Procopius (c. CE 500-560+) wrote of the ships in the Red Sea and in India as follows: ‘Nor indeed are the planks are fastened together by iron nails going through and through, but they are bound together with a kind of cording’ (On the Persian War I xix 23-24). The tenth-century Persian writer Abu Zaid Hasan of Siraf, on the Gulf coast of Iran, described Omani shipbuilders who travelled to the Maldive and Laccadive islands off the Indian coast where they felled coconut palms, ‘and with the bark of the tree they spin a yarn, wherewith they sew the planks together, and so build a ship’. At the end of the thirteenth century Marco Polo observed the use of coconut palm-fibre by the inhabitants of Hormuz, near Minab in southern Iran, noting ‘and from that they spin twine, and with this stitch the planks of the ship together’.  James Bruce who described boats on the Red Sea near Quseir in the late eighteenth century, felt that sewing the hull gave it an elasticity which made it more resistant to damage than one fastened with iron naILS. ‘The planks of the vessel’, he noted, ‘were sewed together and there was not a nail nor a piece of iron in the whole ships; so that when you struck upon a rock, seldom any damage ensued’. The use of palm-fibre cordage in the Gulf was observed in 1828 by GB Kempthrons and specifically on Bahrain in the 1890s by SM Zwemer. Given the fact that the Ur III text express the quantity of palm-fibre rope used by Mesopotamian shipwrights in terms of weight, one can be impressed by the sheer tonnage involved, but it is difficult to get an accurate impression of quantity which, for a commodity like rope or cord, is more easily understood by length. Some impression can perhaps be gained by considering the Fourth Dynasty royal ship of Cheops found near the Great Pyramid at Giza. This vessel, 43.63m long and 5.6 m wide, is said to have needed 5000  (5 km) of cordage. The structurally very different Sohar, a 23-m-long, 6.2 m-wide replica of the type of sewn-plank boat thought to have been sailed in the early medieval era, used no less than 400 miles (640 km) of coconut palm-fibre rope (coir). The 207 talents (6210 kg or 6.21 tons) of fish oil mentioned in CT 731a along with the tons of rope or cord probably represent an anti-fouling agent used on the rope as opposed to the wooden hull itself which was caulked with bitumen. In reviewing the uses of wood, mention was made of a text attesting to the provision of 59,290 wooden pegs for the boatyards of Umma during the Ur III period. Had Paul Johnstone been aware of the data such as this, he would have had a ready answer to the question which he posed in his posthumously published Sea-craft of Prehistory, ‘Did any ancient shipbuilder in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Gulf…use tenons and dowels to keep planks in place?’. The Ur III data is important, particularly in view of the fact that wooden, bamboo or cane pegs were traditionally used in combination with sewing or stitching throughout the Gulf/Indian Ocean region in the pre-modern era. As Gemelli Carreri observed at Kung island in the lower Gulf in the late seventeenth century, ‘Instead of nails, which they were without, they use ‘chevilles’ (pegs) of bamboo or cane, and further join the planks with ‘ficelles’ (strings) made of rushes (probably coir or coconut fibre).’ Similarly, Marco Polo found ‘wooden trenails’ (i.e. nails of wood) used in combination with the coconut palm-fibre cord mentioned above during his visit to Hormuz. Another justification for the use of so many pegs is provided by an account of the repair of a ganja, a large, ocean-going, traditional wooden vessel used on the Malabar coast of South India… The character of watercraft in southern Mesopotamia and the surrounding area. Regardless of the fact that reed boats and sewn plank-built vessels can be found in many parts of the world, there is no denying that these show as many differences cross-culturally as other categories of material culture, such as ceramics. Thus, while certain common techniques and solutions to problems may appear in widely differing regions, their cultural expression and the materials used vary enough for the end product to have a distinctive appearance vis-à-vis others of its type. The late nautical archaeology specialist, Paul Johnstone, suggested that by examining the representations of watercraft on the stamp seals of Bahrain and Failaka in the Gulf (ancient Dilmun), it would be possible to gain at least a partial understanding of the sorts of ships which must have sailed between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley in the late third and early second millennium BCE. A close examination of all the early iconography of sailing vessels from Harappa sites, the Oman peninsula and the Gulf region, however, shows clearly that each differed from the other in many points of detail and overall form, as indeed Egyptian vessels differed from Mesopotamian ones…”(DT Potts, 1997, Mesopotamian Civilization: The material foundations, London, The Athlone Press, p. 74, 126-128, 134).  

    https://ia800804.us.archive.org/0/items/MesopotemianCivilizationTheMaterialFoundations/PottsMesopotamienCivilisation1997.pdf
    See: 

     http://tinyurl.com/z23mwx6

    Image result for Ur III period boatOne side of a Mohenjo-daro prism tablet shows a boat carrying oxhide ingots PLUS related hieroglyphs signifying technical metalwork information as a knowledge system.












    Proto-elamite clay tablet from the collection at the Loure. Scribes used a stylus typically made of reed to press these shapes into the soft clay. (Photo: University of Oxford) Animal in boat. Excavated at Susa. Image courtesy: Dr. Jacob L. Dahl, University of Oxford. Tablet Sb04823 

    Receipt of 5 workers (?) and their monthly (?) rations, with subscript and seal depicting animal in boat.

    The rightmost hypertext on the Elamite tablet signifies ranku'liquid measure' rebus: ranku'tin'. The cargo on the reed boat are tin ingots.

    Image may contain: food
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    Image may contain: food
    RTI-Reflectance Transformation Imaging. "Dahl's team shipped an RTI machine to the Louvre museum in Paris, home to the world's largest trove of proto-Elamite tablets, and exposed the tablets to them. The high-resolution images will be put online to allow academics around the world to crowdsource a translation, ideally within two years.The ancient writing has proven particularly maddening to scholars, Dahl says, because it appears to be full of mistakes that have made deciphering them all the more difficult. There also have been no bilingual texts to use for comparison nor any lists of symbols or primers to use as a reference. In addition, scholars don't know how the language was spoken and thus lack phonetic clues that might have helped their work.Yet the writing system is hugely important to experts in ancient languages because it was the first to use syllables and represents the first recorded example of one people adopting writing from another people nearby."
    http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php/38261-Proto-Elamite-Codebreakers-Try-Crowdsourcing-To-Help-Decipher-Mystery-Language
    Boat hieroglyphs and fish on a Mesopotamia proto-cuneiform tablet. Tablet Sb04823: receipt of 5 workers(?) and their monthly(?) rations, with subscript and seal depicting animal in boat; excavated at Susa in the early 20th century; Louvre Museum, Paris (Image courtesy of Dr Jacob L. Dahl, University of Oxford) Cited in an article on Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) System. http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/06/indus-writing-in-ancient-near-east-on.html 

    On loan from Louvre in British Museum.



    Holly Pittman notes: “Impressed on a series of small tablets is an image of a demonic feline-like creature in a posture of reverence or power, kneeling in a high-prowed boat with its front legs held together at the chest. In front and back of the creature are two pointed forms that could be either spears or oars. Under the boat is a large fish; to the side is a tall bundle of tied reeds, a shape that is a sign in the Proto-Elamite script. The representation of a boat is most unusual among Proto-Elamite seals.  At least five tablets, in addition to this one, are impressed with the same seal. They carry inscriptions which, although they cannot be read, were certainly  written by the same hand and all end with the same series of signs.” (After Fig. 48. Tablet with impression of a demonic creature in a boat. Clay h. 1 ¾ in. (4.5 cm); w. 2 5/8 in. (6.7 cm) Proto-Elamite period, ca. 3100-2900 BCE Sb 4832). loc.cit. Legrain, Leon, 1925, The culture of the Babylonians: from their seals in the collections of the Museum. University Museum, Publications of the Babylonian Section 14. Philadelphia. See: Legrain, Leon, 1925, The culture of the Babylonians: from their seals in the collections of the Museum. University Museum, Publications of the Babylonian Section 14. Philadelphia.

    The hieroglyphs (which are referred to as 'signs' by Holly Pitman) are: boat, tiger, rice-plant next to the tiger, arrow (spear), fish, tall reed bundles

    áritra (arí° ŚBr.) n. ʻ oar ʼ RV.Pa. aritta -- n. ʻ punting -- pole ʼ; Pk. aritta -- n. ʻ rudder ʼ, alitta -- , āl° n. ʻ oar ʼ; Si. riṭa°ṭi ʻ long pole used as an oar ʼ Geiger GS 32 but without explanation of  <tr.(CDIAL 608)

    bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (Gujarati) bagala = an Arab boat of a particular description (Ka.); bagalā (M.); bagarige, bagarage = a kind of vessel (Kannada) Rebus: bangala = kumpaṭi = angāra śakaṭī = a chafing dish a portable stove a goldsmith’s portable furnace (Telugu) cf. bangaru bangaramu = gold (Telugu) 


    kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith'
    kolmo 'rice-plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'

    Alternative:
    kaṇḍe A head or ear of millet or maize (Telugu) Rebus: kaṇḍa ‘stone (ore)(Gadba)’ Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil) stone (DEDR 1298).  

    ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayas ‘alloy metal’ aya 'iron' (Gujarati)

    eruvai 'European bamboo reed' (Tamil) Rebus: eruvai 'copper' (Tamil)(DEDR 817)

    Reeds, arrows:

    kāˊṇḍa (kāṇḍá -- TS.) m.n. ʻ single joint of a plant ʼ AV., ʻ arrow ʼ MBh., ʻ cluster, heap ʼ (in tr̥ṇa -- kāṇḍa -- Pāṇ. Kāś.). [Poss. connexion with gaṇḍa -- 2 makes prob. non -- Aryan origin (not with P. Tedesco Language 22, 190 < kr̥ntáti). Prob. ← Drav., cf. Tam. kaṇ ʻ joint of bamboo or sugarcane ʼ EWA i 197]Pa. kaṇḍa -- m.n. ʻ joint of stalk, stalk, arrow, lump ʼ; Pk. kaṁḍa -- , °aya -- m.n. ʻ knot of bough, bough, stick ʼ; Ash. kaṇ ʻ arrow ʼ, Kt. kåṇ, Wg. kāṇkŕãdotdot;, Pr.kə̃, Dm. kā̆n; Paš. lauṛ. kāṇḍkāṇ, ar. kōṇ, kuṛ. kō̃, dar. kã̄ṛ ʻ arrow ʼ, kã̄ṛī ʻ torch ʼ; Shum. kō̃ṛkō̃ ʻ arrow ʼ, Gaw. kāṇḍkāṇ; Kho. kan ʻ tree, large bush ʼ; Bshk. kāˋ'nʻ arrow ʼ, Tor. kan m., Sv. kã̄ṛa, Phal. kōṇ, Sh. gil. kōn f. (→ Ḍ. kōn, pl. kāna f.), pales. kōṇ; K. kã̄ḍ m. ʻ stalk of a reed, straw ʼ (kān m. ʻ arrow ʼ ← Sh.?); S. kānu m. ʻ arrow ʼ, °no m. ʻ reed ʼ, °nī f. ʻ topmost joint of the reed Sara, reed pen, stalk, straw, porcupine's quill ʼ; L. kānã̄ m. ʻ stalk of the reed Sara ʼ, °nī˜ f. ʻ pen, small spear ʼ; P. kānnā m. ʻ the reed Saccharum munja, reed in a weaver's warp ʼ, kānī f. ʻ arrow ʼ; WPah. bhal. kān n. ʻ arrow ʼ, jaun. kã̄ḍ; N. kã̄ṛ ʻ arrow ʼ, °ṛo ʻ rafter ʼ; A. kã̄r ʻ arrow ʼ; B. kã̄ṛ ʻ arrow ʼ, °ṛā ʻ oil vessel made of bamboo joint, needle of bamboo for netting ʼ, kẽṛiyā ʻ wooden or earthen vessel for oil &c. ʼ; Or. kāṇḍakã̄ṛ ʻ stalk, arrow ʼ; Bi. kã̄ṛā ʻ stem of muñja grass (used for thatching) ʼ; Mth. kã̄ṛ ʻ stack of stalks of large millet ʼ, kã̄ṛī ʻ wooden milkpail ʼ; Bhoj. kaṇḍā ʻ reeds ʼ; H. kã̄ṛī f. ʻ rafter, yoke ʼ, kaṇḍā m. ʻ reed, bush ʼ (← EP.?); G. kã̄ḍ m. ʻ joint, bough, arrow ʼ, °ḍũ n. ʻ wrist ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ joint, bough, arrow, lucifer match ʼ; M. kã̄ḍ n. ʻ trunk, stem ʼ, °ḍẽ n. ʻ joint, knot, stem, straw ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ joint of sugarcane, shoot of root (of ginger, &c.) ʼ; Si. kaḍaya ʻ arrow ʼ. -- Deriv. A. kāriyāiba ʻ to shoot with an arrow ʼ.kāˊṇḍīra -- ; *kāṇḍakara -- , *kāṇḍārā -- ; *dēhīkāṇḍa -- Add.
    Addenda: kāˊṇḍa -- [< IE. *kondo -- , Gk. kondu/los ʻ knuckle ʼ, ko/ndos ʻ ankle ʼ T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 55]S.kcch. kāṇḍī f. ʻ lucifer match ʼ? (CDIAL 3023)

    Rebus: khāˊṇḍa  'implements' (Marathi)
    Santali glosses
    badhia ‘castrated boar’ (Santali); baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’ (Santali) 

    বরাহ barāha 'boar', bārakaśa 'merchantman' pāṟu 'sailing ship'


    The suffix -kaśa in the expression bārakaśa is semantically cognate with kāsa ʻ moving ʼ Pāṇ. [√kas] S. kāha f. ʻ rush ʼ, kāho m. ʻ driver, persecutor ʼ(CDIAL 3134)

     I demonstrate in this note that the boatbuilders of the Bronze Age Sarasvati civilization were called bāṛaï 'carpenter' and by semantic extension बारकस [bārakaśa or bārakasa] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman. Ta. pāṟu ship, sailing ship; paḵṟi coracle, boat, ship, vessel. Ma. pāṟu small boat, catamaran; pāṟal float, raft. Ka. pāṟu a kind of boat or ship. ? Tu. pāti small boat (DEDR 4120) See: Austro-Asiatic etyma: barau - canoe, Efate; fera - village, Proto-Malaitan, farau - canoe, Tahiti puruwa - village, Faita.poruku - canoe, Futuna peuru - village, Bilua,

    parao - canoe, Tagalog. Ta. paṭaku small boat; dhoney, large boat; paṭavu small boat; paṭavaṉ boatman; paṭuvai raft, float. Ma. paṭavu, paṭaku ship, large boat. Ka. paḍagu, paḍaṅgu, paḍahu, haḍaga, haḍagu id. Tu. paḍa, paḍavu boat; haḍaga, aḍagů ship. Te. paḍava boat. / Cf. Mar. paḍāv a kind of boat carrying from five to twenty. (DEDR 3838) Pilava & Plava [fr. plu, cp. Vedic plava boat, Russ. plov ship] 1. swimming, flowing, floating J v.408 (suplav -- atthaŋ in order to swim through well=plavana C.). -- 2. a kind of duck [so Epic Sk.] Vv 358 (cp. VvA 163); J v.420.(Pali) *plōtra ʻ boat ʼ. [pōta -- 3 m. ʻ boat ʼ MBh. is MIA. (amg.?) < *plōtra -- (EWA ii 346 < *plavata -- ), pōtāra<-> m. or n. BHSk. < *plōtr̥ -- ? -- √plu]Ku. pot ʻ boat ʼ.(CDIAL 9032)

    Seafaring merchants, Indus Script hieroglyph baḍhia,বরাহ barāha 'boar', baḍhi,bāṛaï 'carpenter'बारकस bārakaśa 'merchantman' 

    Indus Script Cipher: hieroglyph and rebus reading: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog (Santali) Rebus-metonymy-layered cipher provides the signified, artificer: baḍhi ‘a  caste who work both in iron and wood’ (Santali) baṟea 'merchant'.


    Indian sprachbund retains the early Indus Script hieroglyph of 'boar' rebus: 'boatbuilder, merchantman (seafaring vessel)'

    বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman. The Bengali etymon bāṛaï is cognate with baḍhi  'carpenter' (Santali)

    Thus, the message of the Elamite tablet is: boat laden with metal imlements, a veritable catalogus catalogorum of metalwork of Meluhha artisans.


    Indus Valley


    Picture
    Indus Valley artifacts are generally relatively small and made from terracotta or steatite (a type of soapstone) or in the case of jewellery carnelian or other coloured stones.  Metal objects are rare.  Amongst the most iconic artifacts are square steatite seals which usually bear the image of an animal such as a bull, or less commonly an elephant or rhinoceros.  In addition there are usually a few characters of Indus script, which has defied deciphering to this day.  This seal has the image of a single horned bull - some say this is a "unicorn"; other say it is simply a bull in profile.  The back of the seal bears a perforated boss.  The boss was prone to breakage, and seals were often lost.  This seal is about 36 mm on a side.

    Picture
    This is an extremely rare bronze seal, one of only a few known.  It depicts a zebu bull and it is about 42 mm square with a boss on the back.

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    A significant number of distinctive hollow terracotta figures have been recovered from the Bajaur region.  These most commonly depict a female figure with arms clasped in front.  Often the head is detached, perhaps ceremonially.  In rare examples, the figures have unusual attributes which probably denote a special function for the piece.  This large example standing 20 cm tall, perhaps a goddess or demon, has unusual ears and an eagle-like nose.

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    This is a remarkable engraved copper plate measuring about 56 mm by 64 mm, with a thickness of 5.5 mm.   It incorporates the image of a horned deity, an altar, and a flowering herb, and bears the longest known inscription, 34 characters, of Indus script.  The writing is reversed, as seen in the asymmetric characters, but the engraving is too fine to have use as a seal.  It appears that this is the world's oldest known printing plate, and likely was used for printing on cloth.  This and other plates have recently been described in the e-journal Ancient Asia, volume 5.

    Picture
    The Indus Valley was renowned for the production of fine pottery, and it was a major export of the region.  Almost all of the pottery that is available for sale does not actually come from the Indus Valley in the strict sense; most comes from nearby Baluchistan, where burial goods were more common.   This particular small pot is in the Nindowari style and is made of orange-red terracotta.  What is most unusual is the dot design, which is reminiscent of modern Australian aboriginal art.  The pot is about 10.5 cm in height, and likely dates to at least 3000 BC.

    Picture
    This is one of the most important pottery pieces discovered from the Indus Valley region.  It is about 43 cm in diameter and 24 cm in height.  Very few pieces of Indus Valley pottery depict human figures, and this example has seven figures that appear to be birdmen god deities.  This bowl has been tested by thermoluminescence, giving a rough date of 2900 BC. 

    Picture
    Indus Valley craftsmen were renowned for their ability to produce fine beads, especially from stones such as carnelian (an orange to red quartz).  Often the beads were etched using lime and heat.  Beads in this style are found widely throughout the Near and Far East, which suggests that such beads became esteemed objects of trade and were imitated. 

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    This is perhaps one of the most significant figures known from the Indus Valley region.  Statuettes in metal are extremely rare, and this depicts three god-like figures, each with prominent nose and wide muscular shoulders.  The function of the piece is unknown - it may depict a triumvirate of gods or possibly kings.  Metal was a scarce and valued commodity in the Indus Valley, and was little used in art. The piece stands only 11.3 cm in height.

    Picture
    It is difficult to know exactly what the function of these objects was.  They are terracotta figurines of pairs of zebu cattle.  They are possibly toys, but is also possible that they are some sort of fertility amulet, perhaps given to young couples.  Each is about 5-6 cm in length.  These date from the 3rd Millennium BC.

    Picture
    Indus Valley gold, chiefly in jewellery, is very rare.  It seems that gold was not readily available, and was not wasted, as in the case of burial goods, although this is different at Baluchistan sites.  Most gold pieces use the metal very sparingly.  In this example, the beads are hollow, and in the pendant, thin gold lies over an organic core.  The pendant is in the form of a Indus River reed boat.  All told, the necklace is about 43 cm in length and weighs only about 18 g.

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    An Indus Valley cubic weight made of chert.  Each side measures about 39 mm.

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    The ultimate sign of wealth in Indus Valley civilisation were large narrow beads, as they were difficult and tedious to make.  The longest bead here is about 9.1 cm.  Apart from being fashioned from a rough piece of stone, the beads had to be drilled, and quartz is a very hard material.  It is estimated that in hand-drilling a bead, the rate of progress might have been 1 mm per hour, and an error in alignment could cause the bead to break.  A single large bead could involve a month's labour.

    Picture


    Terracotta figures of this general type have been found widely in Pakistan and India, and were likely some sort of fertility idol perhaps purchased at special festivals.  Most of the figures are of extended form where the fused legs point straight downward.  This particular figure is quite unusual in that the tail-like legs are bent forward into the mouth, perhaps simply to allow the figure a stable base.  Although described as Indus Valley civilisation, these terracotta 
    http://eclecticmuseum.com/indus-valley.html

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    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4P-5GDpj-0E (28:48) 

    Metaphors & Metals empire of Vedic Rāṣṭram (Update with Sarasvati Veena tune played in background) 

    https://tinyurl.com/y6vwfoep

    The video was presented in WAVES 2018, Dallas, TX on August 4, 2018 (World Association of Vedic Studies, International Conference, August 3 to 5, 2018) with an introduction by Dr. S. Rammohan, Sarasvati Research Center This is an addendum to: A prayer to wealth givers, Rāṣṭrī Sūktamअहम् राष्ट्री संगमनी वसूनाम् I am the mover of nation's wealth: देवता आत्मा, ऋषिका वाक् आम्भृणी (RV 10.125) https://tinyurl.com/ybt5sas4 Video: https://youtu.be/ELjFR3ZrrXo (28:47)
    राष्ट्री is translated by Monier-Williams as f. a female ruler or sovereign or proprietress (ऋग्-वेद ऐतरेय-आरण्यक). Hence, I hope the reference to 'empire' is appropriate. Both the chandas renderings of R̥gveda and of Indus Script Corpora abound in metaphors, which are called rūpaka or mlecchita vikalpa (Script cipher). Our ancestors of earlier millennia are geniuses in creating abiding metaphors and institutionalising them as demonstrated by the vāhana of Ganga and Yamuna to signify smelters and mints for wealth creation.
    Kāpi raga played on Sarasvati Veena in the background are courtesy: Smt.Jayanti Kumaresh. Rāṣṭrī Sūktam chant is rendered by gaṇapāṭhin in Prasānti Nilayam. The thumbnail size painting of Sarasvati is by Raja Ravi Varma.

    Brief Report 

    “Enduring relevance of Vedic knowledge in today’s world for the welfare of humanity” 
     Proclaimed International conference of the ‘World Association for Vedic Studies’ 
     (WAVES-2018) at DALLAS, TEXAS, USA 

    Dallas, TX, August 10, 2018 -The 13th international conference of the World Association for Vedic Studies (WAVES-2018) was successfully held Aug. 2-5 at the Brookhaven College, Dallas, Texas, centered on the theme of "Vedic Traditions for Education and Learning."  

    Lighting the lamp by the guests Dr. Anupam Ray, Cousul General of India,  Houston, Texas as the Chief Guest 
     The conference was inaugurated by Hon. Dr. Anupam Ray, Consul General of India, Houston, Texas, who spoke of the enduring relevance of Vedic knowledge in today’s world. He highlighted that the Vedas have eternal truths to guide our lives. 



    Released the proceedings of WAVES 2016 Released the proceedings of WAVES 2018 

    After his inaugural speech, Dr. Ray released the proceedings of WAVES 2016 and 2018. Special guest attendee to the WAVES conference this year, Dr. Samhitashastri Arjunprasad Bastola, a Vedic scholar from Nepal, brought a message of good wishes from the president of Nepal, as well as an invitation to host the next edition of WAVES in Kathmandu, Nepal in 2020.  

    Jeffrey Armstrong, also called Kavindra Rishi, founder of Vedic Academy of Sciences and Arts (VASA), Vancouver, Canada, presented inspiring opening remarks on the Vedic Civilization and congratulated Indians for having this Vidya.  Sashi Kejriwal, president of WAVES, welcomed the attendees and dignitaries, noting that WAVES is in its 22nd year in existence, having started with its inaugural conference in the year 1996 at Atlanta. 

    The conference Chair Dr. Narayanan Komerath, Professor of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Dr. Sashi Tiwari, former Professor at the Sanskrit Department, University of Delhi, and president of WAVES-India, also the co-editor of the 2018 proceedings, worked diligently to bring out the Proceedings of WAVES-2018, ahead of schedule and released it on the opening day. Dr. Narayanan Komerath who has published over 400 papers in his academic career as an aerospace engineer, brought a considerable degree of rigor to the peer review process that selected more than 50 papers for presentation at the conference and represented a genuine advance over previous conferences. Attended by over 400 people, and divided into 23 sessions, the conference consisted of keynote speeches, plenary lectures, panel discussions and presentation of research papers from around the world.  

    This year’s WAVES conference featured keynote addresses by two recipients of the prestigious Padmabhushan Awards from the Government of India: Dr. Ved Nanda, Professor of law, University of Denver, Colorado, and Dr. David Frawley, Founder and Director, American Institute of Vedic Studies, New Mexico, USA. Dr. Ved Nanda traced the origins of the concept of Human Rights to the Vedas, while Dr. David Frawley, highlighted the study of mind and consciousness as India’s unique contribution to the world through its Vedic knowledge systems. 


    Dr. John Hagelin, president of the Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa, in his keynote, spoke on the theme of how Vedic science fulfills the development of modern science, and drew parallels between the Vedic concepts of energy and consciousness as embodied in the Bhutas, Gunas and Doshas with the modern mathematically derived ideas of energy and particles such as bosons, gravitons and other quantum field and string field theories.  

    In his keynote address, Dr. Subhash Kak, Regents Professor, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, spoke of the Indian foundations of modern science, and shared some of the frontiers of current explorations in Artificial Intelligence, speculating on whether and to what extent machines can produce or emulate human consciousness. 
     
    In his keynote, Shri Rajiv Malhotra, founder and President of Infinity Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey, reflected on his own personal journey titled “Journey towards Infinity,” in disrupting the status quo in the academia, where western colonial and orientalist narratives about India and the Vedic Hindu civilization are recycled as authoritative knowledge about India. He also speculated on the way forward and the critical need to develop a school of thought that more authentically represented an Indic narrative about India’s traditions and knowledge systems. 

     
    The themes discussed in the parallel sessions, at the Conference, ranged from Vedic Education, Vedic Mythology and Philosophy, Vedic Knowledge Systems, Sanskrit wisdom, Indian Youth and Hinduism, Vedic Learning, Ancient Education and Sciences and contemporary Hindu Studies. Dr. Sashi Tiwari, President of WAVES-India, presented her reflections on inquisitiveness as an important ingredient of Vedic learning, and the methods of dialog and discourse embedded in the Vedic traditions, as critical elements that have contemporary relevance today. Dr. Narayanan Komerath presented his ideas on “Pavamana Soma,” the missing link in the birth of the material universe. Dr. Narahari Achar, Professor Emeritus, Department of Physics and Material Science, University of Memphis, presented some new insights into the Somayajna and the structure of the Rig Veda. Dr. Bhakti Vijnana Muni, President, Sri Chaitanya Saraswat Institute, Bengaluru, India, presented his views on the contribution of Vedanta towards the harmony between science and religion. Shri Jeffrey Armstrong reflected on the use of Jyotish and Ayurveda in Vedic Education. Shri Dhirendra Shah, member of the board of directors of WAVES and treasurer, presented a historical journey through the contours of the Indic civilization, highlighting the need for research and a better understanding of the longstanding effects of various invasions and colonization on Hindu society. Dr. Deen Chandora of Atlanta spoke in detail about the Vedic methodology for the understanding of Cosmic Time. 

    Special panel discussions explored topics such as teaching Hindu Dharma as a science and developing curriculum guidelines for parents and teachers (moderated by Mrs. Kamlesh Kapur), Vedic and ancient Indian chronology(moderated by Dr. Raj Vedam), the ongoing issue of the high school and middle school textbooks curriculum in history and social science as it pertains to the content related to India and Hindu civilization (moderated by Rajiv Malhotra) and contributions of the Indian civilization to the world (moderated by Nilesh Oak).These discussions were very lively as they pertained to the constant related to  India and Hindu civilization and their contribution to the world.  
     
    The conference featured fascinating, sometimes contradictory, speculations on the historicity and possible dating of the Mahabharata war and the beginning of the Kali Yuga, the cosmic timescales embedded in the Vedas, that correspond remarkably closely to modern-day conceptions of the age of the universe and the earth, as well as reflections on European speculation that collapsed Vedic timeframes and dates into a Biblical timescale in 19th century Indology and passes for authoritative knowledge today. One of the highlights of the WAVES conference was Dr. Raj Vedam’s reconstruction of the knowledge transfer out of India that has occurred across the various epochs through history. Taken together, these themes highlighted the need for a more authentic reconstruction of India’s history that goes beyond orientalist and Indological discourse. In a similar vein, Dr. Shivshankar Sastry, in an electronic presentation from Bengaluru, dissected the theories of origins developed by Colonial-era Linguists, and pointed to the evidence that the entire framework of such concepts as Proto Indo European (PIE) and Avesta cannot withstand objective scientific and logical scrutiny. 

    Dr. S. Kalyanaraman, Director, Saraswati Research Institute, Chennai India, was awarded the Saraswati Award this year at the WAVES conference for his extensive contributions in his multidisciplinary research into the Saraswati River civilization as the theater of the Rig Vedic people. 

    His talk delivered remotely from Chennai, India, offered new insights into the Metallurgical prowess of the Vedic people as far back as the 4th millennium BCE by correlating Vedic literary passages with the seals and artifacts being unearthed from current day excavations in and around the Saraswati-Sindhu region. His talk highlighted the need to revise our understanding of the ancient Vedic society in the light of contemporary research in multiple fields, such as archeology, Vedic literary studies, geology, hydrology and so on.  
     
    Dr. Kundan Singh, Sophia University, Palo Alto, received the Veda Vyasa award on behalf of the community. He has recently released a critique of the McGraw Hill textbook contents proposed for adoption by the California Board of Education in his new book "Making children Hindu phobic," published by Infinity Foundation and released at the WAVES conference this year. 

    Both awards, the Saraswati Award and the Veda Vyasa Award, were inaugurated at the WAVES conference 2018 and sponsored by Sanatana Dharma Foundation, Dallas, Texas. 

    The youth panel consisted of well-researched papers that dealt with some interesting aspects of Vedic culture consisted of Sanjana Venkatasubramanian, Ananya Ponangi, Arushi Agrawal and Anukriti Singh. And lastly, in acknowledging the enormous effort by volunteers and organizers in putting on this conference, Sashi Kejriwal, president of WAVES, highlighted the need for younger generations to get more involved in the future activities of WAVES. This conference was specially attended by some members of WAVES India, such as, Dr. S. Rammohan, Dr Rajeev Srinivasan, Dr. Subhash Bhargava, Dr. Lalita Juneja and Dr. Ranjit Behera.  


    Contact: For more information about this release, please contact: - Mr. Dhirendra Shah (Treasurer, WAVES International), at siaram@aol.com - Dr. Shashi Tiwari ( President,WAVES-India), at shashitiwari_2017@yahoo.com 

    Photos links:  https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1fxVk1XneHDi_ceBDSokxcKE3svdCn0v-?usp=sharinghttps://drive.google.com/drive/folders/10kVFvxhJIGd9iERkVSwpKxExoi0CcHyb?usp=sharinghttps://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1NK4ycf8Qxrl_7S5aQQWBWbubVx-bupkz?usp=sharinghttps://drive.google.com/drive/u/0/mobile/folders/16AVmWYm7jIkyjq2RiOZtnet7C79Z9dkA?usp=drive_op en 

    http://www.globindian.org/WAVES2018/

    Paper 2018-15 This is a synopsis of a monograph presenting contemporary understanding of 
    Veda culture and the Indus Script, as well as the Bronze Age. 
    Evidence is presented, for the civilization having been a link between the Ancient Near East 
    and Ancient Far East in the tin/bronze age. 
    The ancient Far East was the tin belt of the globe. 
    The Ancient Near East was a major region which used tin alloyed with copper to create bronze artifacts 
    during the Bronze Age, creating an urban revolution, the birth of civilization, a leap from chalcolithic,
    ‘copper-stone’ phase of human evolutionary, cultural itihāsa.  
    The links to the Sarasvati river basin come from as far as Gardez in Afghanistan and Hanoi in Vietnam. The same culture extended from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean, with connections as far as the Phillippines and Egypt. The approach used is to crack the code of the Indus Script cipher
    by calling it the Sarasvati Script and using tantra yukti research methodology of Ancient Bhāratam. 

    or YouTube Version

    Both have sound: please turn your speakers on. 


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    Download NaMo Appअटल जी अब नहीं रहे। मन नहीं मानता। अटल जी, मेरी आंखों के सामने हैं, स्थिर हैं। जो हाथ मेरी पीठ पर धौल जमाते थे, जो स्नेह से, मुस्कराते हुए मुझे अंकवार में भर लेते थे, वे स्थिर हैं। अटल जी की ये स्थिरता मुझे झकझोर रही है, अस्थिर कर रही है। एक जलन सी है आंखों में, कुछ कहना है, बहुत कुछ कहना है लेकिन कह नहीं पा रहा। मैं खुद को बार-बार यकीन दिला रहा हूं कि अटल जी अब नहीं हैं, लेकिन ये विचार आते ही खुद को इस विचार से दूर कर रहा हूं। क्या अटल जी वाकई नहीं हैं? नहीं। मैं उनकी आवाज अपने भीतर गूंजते हुए महसूस कर रहा हूं, कैसे कह दूं, कैसे मान लूं, वे अब नहीं हैं।
    वे पंचतत्व हैं। वे आकाश, पृथ्वी, जल, अग्नि, वायु, सबमें व्याप्त हैं, वेअटल हैं, वे अब भी हैं। जब उनसे पहली बार मिला था, उसकी स्मृति ऐसी है जैसे कल की ही बात हो। इतने बड़े नेता, इतने बड़े विद्वान। लगता था जैसे शीशे के उस पार की दुनिया से निकलकर कोई सामने आ गया है। जिसका इतना नाम सुना था, जिसको इतना पढ़ा था, जिससे बिना मिले, इतना कुछ सीखा था, वो मेरे सामने था। जब पहली बार उनके मुंह से मेरा नाम निकला तो लगा, पाने के लिए बस इतना ही बहुत है। बहुत दिनों तक मेरा नाम लेती हुई उनकी वह आवाज मेरे कानों से टकराती रही। मैं कैसे मान लूं कि वह आवाज अब चली गई है। 


    कभी सोचा नहीं था, कि अटल जी के बारे में ऐसा लिखने के लिए कलम उठानी पड़ेगी। देश और दुनिया अटल जी को एक स्टेट्समैन, धारा प्रवाह वक्ता, संवेदनशील कवि, विचारवान लेखक, धारदार पत्रकार और विजनरी जननेता के तौर पर जानती है। लेकिन मेरे लिए उनका स्थान इससे भी ऊपर का था। सिर्फ इसलिए नहीं कि मुझे उनके साथ बरसों तक काम करने का अवसर मिला, बल्कि मेरे जीवन, मेरी सोच, मेरे आदर्शों-मूल्यों पर जो छाप उन्होंने छोड़ी, जो विश्वास उन्होंने मुझ पर किया, उसने मुझे गढ़ा है, हर स्थिति में अटल रहना सिखाया है।
    हमारे देश में अनेक ऋषि, मुनि, संत आत्माओं ने जन्म लिया है। देश की आज़ादी से लेकर आज तक की विकास यात्रा के लिए भी असंख्य लोगों ने अपना जीवन समर्पित किया है। लेकिन स्वतंत्रता के बाद लोकतंत्र की रक्षा और 21वीं सदी के सशक्त, सुरक्षित भारत के लिए अटल जी ने जो किया, वह अभूतपूर्व है।


    उनके लिए राष्ट्र सर्वोपरि था -बाकी सब का कोई महत्त्व नहीं। इंडिया फर्स्ट –भारत प्रथम, ये मंत्र वाक्य उनका जीवन ध्येय था। पोखरण देश के लिए जरूरी था तो चिंता नहीं की प्रतिबंधों और आलोचनाओं की, क्योंकि देश प्रथम था।सुपर कंप्यूटर नहीं मिले, क्रायोजेनिक इंजन नहीं मिले तो परवाह नहीं, हम खुद बनाएंगे, हम खुद अपने दम पर अपनी प्रतिभा और वैज्ञानिक कुशलता के बल पर असंभव दिखने वाले कार्य संभव कर दिखाएंगे। और ऐसा किया भी।दुनिया को चकित किया। सिर्फ एक ताकत उनके भीतर काम करती थी- देश प्रथम की जिद।   
    काल के कपाल पर लिखने और मिटाने की ताकत, हिम्मत और चुनौतियों के बादलों में विजय का सूरज उगाने का चमत्कार उनके सीने में था तो इसलिए क्योंकि वह सीना देश प्रथम के लिए धड़कता था। इसलिए हार और जीत उनके मन पर असर नहीं करती थी। सरकार बनी तो भी, सरकार एक वोट से गिरा दी गयी तो भी, उनके स्वरों में पराजय को भी विजय के ऐसे गगन भेदी विश्वास में बदलने की ताकत थी कि जीतने वाला ही हार मान बैठे।  


    अटल जी कभी लीक पर नहीं चले। उन्होंने सामाजिक और राजनीतिक जीवन में नए रास्ते बनाए और तय किए। आंधियों में भी दीये जलानेकी क्षमता उनमें थी। पूरी बेबाकी से वे जो कुछ भी बोलते थे, सीधा जनमानस के हृदय में उतर जाता था। अपनी बात को कैसे रखना है, कितना कहना है और कितना अनकहा छोड़ देना है, इसमें उन्हें महारत हासिल थी।
    राष्ट्र की जो उन्होंने सेवा की, विश्व में मां भारती के मान सम्मान को उन्होंने जो बुलंदी दी, इसके लिए उन्हें अनेक सम्मान भी मिले। देशवासियों ने उन्हें भारत रत्न देकर अपना मान भी बढ़ाया। लेकिन वे किसी भी विशेषण, किसी भी सम्मान से ऊपर थे।
    जीवन कैसे जीया जाए, राष्ट्र के काम कैसे आया जाए, यह उन्होंने अपने जीवन से दूसरों को सिखाया। वे कहते थे, “हम केवल अपने लिए ना जीएं, औरों के लिए भी जीएं...हम राष्ट्र के लिए अधिकाधिक त्याग करें। अगर भारत की दशा दयनीय है तो दुनिया में हमारा सम्मान नहीं हो सकता। किंतु यदि हम सभी दृष्टियों से सुसंपन्न हैं तो दुनिया हमारा सम्मान करेगी” 
    देश के गरीब, वंचित, शोषित के जीवन स्तर को ऊपर उठाने के लिए वे जीवनभर प्रयास करते रहे। वेकहते थे गरीबी, दरिद्रता गरिमा का विषय नहीं है, बल्कि यह विवशता है, मजबूरी हैऔर विवशता का नाम संतोष नहीं हो सकता”। करोड़ों देशवासियों को इस विवशता से बाहर निकालने के लिए उन्होंने हर संभव प्रयास किए। गरीब को अधिकार दिलाने के लिए देश में आधार जैसी व्यवस्था, प्रक्रियाओं का ज्यादा से ज्यादा सरलीकरण, हर गांव तक सड़क, स्वर्णिम चतुर्भुज, देश में विश्व स्तरीय इंफ्रास्ट्रक्चर, राष्ट्र निर्माण के उनके संकल्पों से जुड़ा था।


    आज भारत जिस टेक्नोलॉजी के शिखर पर खड़ा है उसकी आधारशिला अटल जी ने ही रखी थी। वे अपने समय से बहुत दूर तक देख सकते थे - स्वप्न दृष्टा थे लेकिन कर्म वीर भी थे।कवि हृदय, भावुक मन के थे तो पराक्रमी सैनिक मन वाले भी थे। उन्होंने विदेश की यात्राएं कीं। जहाँ-जहाँ भी गए, स्थाई मित्र बनाये और भारत के हितों की स्थाई आधारशिला रखते गए। वे भारत की विजय और विकास के स्वर थे।
    अटल जी का प्रखर राष्ट्रवाद और राष्ट्र के लिए समर्पण करोड़ों देशवासियों को हमेशा से प्रेरित करता रहा है। राष्ट्रवाद उनके लिए सिर्फ एक नारा नहीं था बल्कि जीवन शैली थी। वे देश को सिर्फ एक भूखंड, ज़मीन का टुकड़ा भर नहीं मानते थे, बल्कि एक जीवंत, संवेदनशील इकाई के रूप में देखते थे। “भारत जमीन का टुकड़ा नहीं, जीता जागता राष्ट्रपुरुष हैयह सिर्फ भाव नहीं, बल्कि उनका संकल्प था, जिसके लिए उन्होंने अपना जीवन न्योछावर कर दिया। दशकों का सार्वजनिक जीवन उन्होंने अपनी इसी सोच को जीने में, धरातल पर उतारने में लगा दिया। आपातकाल ने हमारे लोकतंत्र पर जो दाग लगाया था उसको मिटाने के लिए अटल जी के प्रयास को देश हमेशा याद रखेगा।

    राष्ट्रभक्ति की भावना, जनसेवा की प्रेरणा उनके नाम के ही अनुकूल अटल रही। भारत उनके मन में रहा, भारतीयता तन में। उन्होंने देश की जनता को ही अपना आराध्य माना। भारत के कण-कण, कंकर-कंकर, भारत की बूंद-बूंद को, पवित्र और पूजनीय माना।
    जितना सम्मान, जितनी ऊंचाई अटल जी को मिली उतना ही अधिक वह ज़मीन से जुड़ते गए। अपनी सफलता को कभी भी उन्होंने अपने मस्तिष्क पर प्रभावी नहीं होने दिया। प्रभु से यश, कीर्ति की कामना अनेक व्यक्ति करते हैं, लेकिन ये अटल जी ही थे जिन्होंने कहा,
    हे प्रभु! मुझे इतनी ऊंचाई कभी मत देना।
    गैरों को गले ना लगा सकूं, इतनी रुखाई कभी मत देना
    अपने देशवासियों से इतनी सहजता औरसरलता से जुड़े रहने की यह कामना ही उनको सामाजिक जीवन के एक अलग पायदान पर खड़ा करती है।
    वेपीड़ा सहते थे, वेदना को चुपचाप अपने भीतर समाये रहते थे, पर सबको अमृत देते रहे- जीवन भर। जब उन्हें कष्ट हुआ तो कहने लगे- “देह धरण को दंड है, सब काहू को होये, ज्ञानी भुगते ज्ञान से मूरख भुगते रोए। उन्होंने ज्ञान मार्ग से अत्यंत गहरी वेदनाएं भी सहन कीं और वीतरागी भाव से विदा ले गए।  
    यदि भारत उनके रोम रोम में था तो विश्व की वेदना उनके मर्म को भेदती थी। इसी वजह से हिरोशिमा जैसी कविताओं का जन्म हुआ। वे विश्व नायक थे। मां भारतीके सच्चे वैश्विक नायक। भारत की सीमाओं के परे भारत की कीर्ति और करुणा का संदेश स्थापित करने वाले आधुनिक बुद्ध। 
    कुछ वर्ष पहले लोकसभा में जब उन्हें वर्ष के सर्वश्रेष्ठ सांसद के सम्मान से सम्मानित किया गया था तब उन्होंने कहा था, “यह देश बड़ा अद्भुत है, अनूठा है। किसी भी पत्थर को सिंदूर लगाकर अभिवादन किया जा रहा है, अभिनंदन किया जा सकता है।”
    अपने पुरुषार्थ को, अपनी कर्तव्यनिष्ठा को राष्ट्र के लिए समर्पित करना उनके व्यक्तित्व की महानता को प्रतिबिंबित करता है। यही सवा सौ करोड़ देशवासियों के लिए उनका सबसे बड़ा और प्रखर संदेश है। देश के साधनों, संसाधनों पर पूरा भरोसा करते हुए, हमें अब अटल जी के सपनों को पूरा करना है, उनके सपनों का भारत बनाना है।
    नए भारत का यही संकल्प, यही भावलिए मैं अपनी तरफ से और सवा सौ करोड़ देशवासियों की तरफ से अटल जी को श्रद्धांजलि अर्पित करता हूं, उन्हें नमन करता हूं।
    A leader for the ages, he was ahead of the times -- Narendra Modi
    In times of turbulence and disruption, a nation is blessed to have a leader who rises to become its moral compass and guiding spirit, providing vision, cohesion and direction to his people. And, in such a moment at the turn of the century, India found one in Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who was gifted in spirit, heart and mind.
    For those of us who knew him, he was, first, the rarest of human beings, who touched and inspired everyone he met. He was compassionate to the core, generous in spirit, warm beyond measure and kind to a fault. He was deeply respectful of others and gifted with a rare sense of humour that he often turned upon himself.
    Orator without parallel, he could switch from disarming humour to a lofty vision with ease, with a rare ability to connect with people naturally, to stir them to self-belief and to a higher cause. Sharply perceptive, he could summarize the most complex issues and discussions in a single sentence or question.
    Born into a family of modest means and high ideals, he hailed from a small town in MP. His youth was defined by academic excellence and quest for public service during the gathering momentum of freedom struggle. Starting as an ordinary Karyakarta in the Jana Sangh, he organized the only truly national-level party to be formed in independent India – the BJP – and helmed its organization work after the passing away of Shri Syama Prasad Mookerjee and Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya.
    Through the four decades of leadership in Parliament, the struggle against Emergency (who can forget that memorable rally in Delhi’s Ramlila Maidan when his speech became the roar of the nation), the clarity to represent his party with passion but always speak for the nation, he defined the spirit of democracy in India. Firm in his political beliefs, but always accommodating and respectful of other points of view, he set the standards of debate in Parliament. In his simplicity and integrity, in his dignity and empathy, and a sense of personal non-attachment to the office, he became an inspiration for a nation of youth.
    He rescued the economy from the morass of the mid-1990s, when political instability at home and an uncertain global environment had threatened to derail a still incipient economic reforms process. He sowed the seeds of much of the economic success that we have experienced over the past two decades. For him, growth was a means to empower the weakest and mainstream the marginalized. It’s that vision that continues to drive our government’s policy.
    It was Atalji who prepared the foundations of an India that is ready to take on the mantle of global leadership in the 21st century. The futuristic economic policies and reforms of his government ensured prosperity for several Indians. His thrust on next-generation infrastructure particularly roads and telecom contributed to our country’s economic as well as social empowerment.
    Atalji irreversibly changed India’s place in the world. He overcame the hesitation of our nation, the resistance of the world and threat of isolation to make India a nuclear weapons power. It was not a decision he took lightly, but one he knew was of paramount importance in the face of mounting challenges to India’s security. No longer would India’s security be vulnerable. At that moment of surge in national pride, his was a voice of restraint and responsibility. And, the world listened to the wisdom of the man of peace. Equally important, he then brought to bear his extraordinary understanding of world affairs and formidable diplomatic skills to gain global acceptance of new realities. Indeed, it is the combination of his legacies of creating strategic capabilities, promoting stronger economic growth, undertaking multi-directional diplomacy and harnessing of diaspora energies that is today the basis for the respect we command across the world.
    He transformed five decades of estrangement with USA into an enduring strategic partnership in the course of five years. He also steered India to deep friendship with a new post-Soviet Russia through a strategic partnership in 2000. I had the privilege of accompanying him on a visit to Russia in November 2001 when we concluded a sister province agreement between Gujarat and Astrakhan.
    With China, he made the boldest move for peace in an effort to overcome the burdens of a difficult past by establishing the mechanism of Special Representatives for boundary talks. Atal Ji’s conviction that these two ancient civilisations – which are rising powers – can work together to shape the global future continues to guide my thinking.
    A person of grassroots, our neighbours were his priority. In many ways, he was the inspiration for, and even pioneer of, our Neighbourhood First policy. He was unwavering in his support as an opposition leader towards Bangladesh’s liberation. He went to Lahore in search of peace. With persistence and optimism that was his nature, he continued to search for peace and heal the wounds in J&K. But, he was resolute in winning the Kargil War. And, when our Parliament was struck, he made the world recognize the true nature and source of cross-border terrorism against India.
    Personally, Atalji was an ideal, a guru, and role model who inspired me deeply. It was he who entrusted me with responsibilities both in Gujarat as well as at the national level. It was he who called me one evening in October 2001, and told me to go to Gujarat as the chief minister. When I told him that I had always worked in the organization, he said he was confident I would fulfill the people’s expectations. The faith he had in me was humbling.
    Today, we are a self-assured nation, brimming with the energy of our youth and resolve of our people, eager for change and confident of achieving it, striving for clean and responsive governance, building future of inclusion and opportunity for all Indians. We engage the world as equals and in peace, and we speak for principles and support the aspirations of others. We are on the path that Atalji wanted us to take. He was ahead of the times, because he had a deep sense of history, and he could peer into the soul of India from his grasp of our civilizational ethos.

    A life is to be judged not just by the extent of grief that follows when its light goes out. It is also to be measured by the lasting impact on the lives of people and the course of time. For that reason, Atalji was a true Ratna of Bharat. His spirit will continue to guide us as we build the New India of his dreams.
    August 17, 2018

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    Subhash Kak सुभाष काक. Author, scientist. August 18, 2018

    The Rāma Story and Sanskrit in Ancient Xinjiang

    Śiva-Maheśvara from Khotan, British Museum
    Most people do not know that until about a thousand years ago, the Tarim Basin (northwest of Tibet, which is the part of Xinjiang below the Tian Shin Mountains) was Indic in culture and it was a thriving part of the Sanskritic world; its people spoke the Gāndhārī language which many see as descended from Vedic Sanskrit, and Khotanese Saka, which is also closely related to Sanskrit. Perhaps the region to compare it most is Kashmir, to whose north it lay. There was also much interaction between the two regions with many scholars traveling from Kashmir to Khotan, and silk culture is believed to have passed from Khotan to Kashmir and then into India.
    Ancient Khotan by Aurel Stein
    Gāndhārī inscriptions have been found as far east as Luoyang and Anyang in Henan province in Eastern China which attests to the vastness of the influence of Sanskrit. Europeans in recent centuries called the whole region Serindia, indicating the meeting place of China and India.
    Khotanese kings were Mahāyāna Buddhist but as we know this sect incorporates Vedic and Tantric systems, with all the devas such as Indra, Śiva, Viṣṇu and Sarasvatī, and just places the Buddha at the head of the system (as in Vidyākara’s Treasury). There was also Krishna worship in Khotan and we find the Rāma story in Khotanese language, of which there is also a Tibetan version.
    The Buddhists put a characteristic spin on the Rāma story, which has had immense power on the imagination of the people all over Asia. In their variant, Rāvaṇa, after losing the war is spared his life, and becomes a worthy Buddhist to accord with the Laṅkāvatārasūtra, set in Laṅkā, in which the Buddha instructs Rāvaṇa. Likewise, in an effort not to lose followers of Rāma, Jain texts show him as a faithful Jain.
    The Khotanese Rāmāyaṇa is not the standard Rāma story. In it Daśaratha, who is called Sahasrabāhu (“thousand-armed”), fights with Paraśurāma and gets killed, and his sons Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa are saved by a queen. When they grow older they slay Paraśurāma in revenge and become masters of all Jambudvīpa.
    Meanwhile, the Rākṣasas are ruled by Rāvaṇa (Daśagrīva). A daughter is born to his chief queen and it is prophesied that she will be the cause of his ruin. So he orders the girl, Sītā, to be cast upon the great river in a box. A ṛṣi chances upon the box and raises the girl lovingly. This is of course somewhat similar to the account in Adbhuta Rāmāyaṇa.
    Later in the story, Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa and Sītā are in the forest and as the brothers leave to hunt, Lakṣmaṇa draws the magic circle around Sītā for protection. Daśagrīva sees this lovely woman from the air, and not knowing she is his own daughter, approaches her and persuades her to step out of the circle to abduct her.
    There is war and Dasagriva is defeated. But in the end Rāma doesn’t kill him. Here’s the original with translation that gives a sense of the language:
    sahasrrabāhi: pūra harya
    the sons of Sahasrabāhu escaped.
    rrāmi hamye śūrāṃ myāña
    Rama was among the heroes. (Bailey translation)
    At the end of the story, the Buddha Śākyamuni is identified with Rāma and Maitreya with Lakṣmaṇa. Daśagrīva comes to the Buddha and receives instruction in the Dharma as in the Laṅkāvatārasūtra.
    Some history
    The traditional date for the founding of Khotan, on the southern and the more ancient branch of the Silk Road, is the reign of Aśoka Maurya (3rd century BCE). It was ruled by Buddhist kings until it was conquered by the Muslims in 1006. Some of the kings mentioned in the “Prophecy of the Li Country”, composed in 746 CE, dealing with events of the recent past are Vijaya Kīrti, Vijaya Saṅgrāma, Vijaya Dharma, Vijaya Saṃbhava, and Vijaya Vāhana.
    Many Khotanese cities had Sanskrit names. For example, Khotan in Sanskrit was Gaustana गौस्तन and the modern city of Kashi (Kashgar) was called Śrīkrīrāti (in Sanskrit Śrī+krī+rāti, श्रीक्रीराति ‘Glorious Hospitality’). Kashgar itself appears to be the popular name from Sanskrit Kāśa+giri (काशगिरि bright mountain). The Khotanese called their language hvatanai ह्वतनै which later became hvaṃnai ह्वंनै; this is equivalent to the name deśī that is used for language in India (vatan, from svatana = deśa).
    The litugical texts in the region were written in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, whereas those in the region of Krorän (Chinese Loulan), an important oasis further east of Khotan, used Prakrit in administration. A third language called Tocharian was also used both to translate Buddhist texts and as an administrative language. Many Sanskrit texts of India remember the general region as Tuṣāra or Tukhāra, and it retains currency as a popular proper name.
    Another major language was Khotanese Saka, which is sometimes seen as an eastern Iranian language (that is emerging from the region just west of Kashmir). But since the large number of the Śaka who ended up in India as rulers or soldiers have always spoken the more easterly Indo-Aryan languages, I personally believe that the Saka languages were also principally Indo-Aryan, although as one traveled further west, the Iranian elements would have increased.
    That Khotanese Saka was principally a Indo-Aryan Prakrit is reinforced by the fact that the texts are in Indian scripts of Brāhmī and Kharoṣṭhī. Many of these documents were collected in archaeological explorations to Chinese Turkestan by Aurel Stein, who is also known for his translation of Kalhaṇa’s Rājataraṅginī. Stein came across tens of thousands of manuscripts from 5th to 11th centuries in various sites including the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas in the Kansu (Gansu) province. One of the principal scholars who edited and translated many of these texts was H.W. Bailey and this literature remains a popular field of study for scholars.
    Aurel Stein says in his celebrated Ancient Khotan: “There was little to prepare us for such overwhelming evidence .. on the large place which Indian language and culture must have occupied in the administration and daily life of this region during the early centuries of our era. That Sanskrit Buddhist literature was studied in Khotan down to the end of the eighth century A.D. has been proved beyond all doubt by the texts in Brāhmī script which I excavated.”
    The mummies of Tarim Basin
    The discovery of the Tarim mummies that go back to 1800 BCE strengthen the view that the region was Sanskritic. The earliest mummies in the Basin are exclusively Caucasoid, and the American Sinologist Victor H. Mair has said: “Because the Tarim Basin Caucasoid corpses are almost certainly the most easterly representatives of the Indo-European family and because they date from a time period that is early enough to have a bearing on the expansion of the Indo-European people from their homeland, it is thought they will play a crucial role in determining just where that might have been.”
    Some have suggested Europoid identification to explain the blonds and red-heads among the mummies, but there is no need to travel thousands of miles to Western Europe to explain this; Kashmir, just south of the Basin has plenty of red-heads and blonds.
    One of the DNA studies notes that the population had “relatively close relationships with the modern populations of South Central Asia and Indus Valley, as well as with the ancient population of Chawuhu.” This is perfectly reasonable if the original inhabitants of the region were from Indus Valley [code for India] and they left a genetic trace in the region.
    The end of a civilization
    Protected by the Taklamakan Desert, the Tarim Basin world survived attacks from steppe nomads for a long time. There was a break in the tradition of Buddhist learning during the social and political turmoil under Tibetan rule from after 790 to the mid-9th century. Things began to change with the arrival of Turkic immigrants, who included Buddhist Uyghurs and Muslim Karluks, from the collapsing Uyghur Khaganate of modern-day Mongolia in 840.
    The Islamic attacks and conquest of the Buddhist cities east of Kashgar was started by the Turkic Karakhanid Satok Bughra Khan who in 966 converted to Islam. Islamic Kashgar launched many jihads which eventually ended in the conquest in 1006 of Khotan by the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir.
    The end of civilization makes one wonder about assumptions regarding life. Going beyond ephemeral loves and heartbreaks, does one see it as parikalpa (false assumption) and śūnyatā, as scholars had argued? There was no time for philosophizing, and fearing the worst, monks during the reigns of Khotanese kings Viśa Śūra (r. 966–977) and Viśa Dharma (r. from 978) began to copy texts which were sealed in caves to be preserved for posterity. What followed was a period of destruction and vandalism equaling the worstelsewhere in the world. At the end of it, the populace retained no memory of their collective past and until the discovery of the mummies and the literature they did not know that their ancestors spoke Indian Prakrits.
    kãlñizlãyũ aqtimiz
    kãndlãr õzã čiqtimiz
    furxan ãwin yiqtimiz
    burxan ũzã sičtimiz
    “We came down on them like a flood,
    We went out among their cities,
    We tore down the idol-temples,
    We shat on the Buddha’s head!”

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    The density of archaeological settlements in the interfluve between Sutlej and Yamuna has to be interpreted in the context of the possibility that river waterways existed which linked with the maritime routes of Rann of Kutch, Persian Gulf and the Tigris-Euphrates doab. Cuneiform texts and Indus Script inscriptions dated from ca. 3300 BCE to 1900 BCE have to be taken into account. One view is that the Sarasvati River system and the palaeo-channels constituted a Himalayan riverine waterway which linked over 2000 archaeological settlements on the Sarasvati River Basin. The enormity of this evidence and the trade contacts across Eurasia cannot be wished away by fanciful statements such as the assumption that the archaeological settlements avoided river banks.

    The location of Rakhigarhi, the largest site of the civilization has to be explained. It is posited that this side was the Rakhishahi (Bankers' capital) which linked both Sarasvati River basin and Metals Age sites on the Yamuna-Ganga-Brahmaputra river basins of 2nd millennium BCE. See: http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~tcrndfu/articles/MadellaFullerQSR.pdf"Climatic change has often been cited as a determining factor in cultural changes in the context of the Harappan Civilisation of northwestern South Asia, 2500–1900 BC. While these claims have been critiqued by archaeologists they continue to be accepted by nonarchaeologists, including Quaternary scientists. The purpose of this paper is to assess the available evidence and published arguments and to provide a constructive working synthesis of evidence for the palaeoenvironmental setting of northwestern South Asia for the mid- to late Holocene, especially ca 4000–1000 cal BC, and its possible connection to important cultural changes. We conclude that Harappan urbanism emerged on the face of a prolonged trend towards declining rainfall. No climatic event can be blamed for a precipitous end of this civilisation, although strategic local shifts in agriculture that may have begun in response to prolonged droughts at ca 2200 BC may have contributed to the de-urbanisation process and the restructuring of human communities over the following 200–300 yrs."

    See my comment on Ajit Singh et al's article Suppressio veri. Researchers have ignored navigable maritime waterway Sarasvati River system which linked over 2000 sites of Sarasvati Civilization unified by Indus Script documenting 8000+ metalwork catalogues.
    Source:
    https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1810/269763/Manuscript_RS_revised.pdf?sequence=1

    https://www.scribd.com/document/386451634/Sarasvati-Palaeo-River-Networks-Hector-A-Orengo-and-Cameron-A-Petrie-2017

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    Farmana is about 40 kms. from Rakhigarhi which is the capital of the Ghaggar basin region of Sarasvati Civilization. In view of Rakhigarhi's proximity to Farmana, Girawad, Mitathal clusters of Chautang tributary -- close to the right bank of Yamuna river -- and access to Khetri mines about 300 kms. west makes the Rakhigarhi cluster of sites uniquely located between Sarasvati River basin and Yamuna-Ganga-Brahmaputra River Basins. Rakhigarhi, the largest settlement of Sarasvati Civilization with an area of about 500 hectares can thus be viewed as the bridge between two major expanses of Hindu Civilization during the Metals Age. The seals and clay seal impressions found at Farmana confirm the site's access to both iron ore and copper resources.

    GullyinthemiddleseparatestwovillagesRakhiKhaasandRakhi Shahpur.BoththevillagesarelocatedonRGR-4,themainmound atRakhigarhi,...