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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    --  Vasu-s, wealth givers, Vṛṣākapi is a Rudra, hunter (Mṛgaśiras, Orion)


    This is an addendum to: 

     https://tinyurl.com/ya969v73 
    ऋभुक्ष
     इन्द्र's thunderbolt L.(इन्द्र's) heaven Comm. on Un2. iv , 12; m. इन्द्र L. ऋभुक्षिन्  Pa1n2. 7-1 , 85 ff.), N. of the above ऋभुs , and esp. of the first of them RV.; 

    of the मरुत्RV. viii. 7 , 9 ; xx , 2; great , best ([ Sa1y. ]) RV. viii , 93 , 34. 
    Rhibhus or Ribhus (ṛbhú-, pl. ṛbhava, also called  R̥
    bhuksin). Their name's meaning is "clever, skillful, inventive, prudent", cognate to Latin labor and Gothic arb-aiþs "labour, toil", and perhaps to English elf. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa III, 30 describes them as "sun's neighbours or pupils".  Ribhus are artists who formed the horses of Indra, the carriage of the Ashvins, and the miraculous cow of Brihaspati, made their parents young, and performed other wonderful works which according to RV 4.51.6 were "done by the dawn". According to Yaska they also founded the yajña-s. ऋभु mfn. ( √रभ्) , clever , skilful , inventive , prudent (said of इन्द्र , अग्नि , and the आदित्यRV. ; also of property or wealth RV. iv , 37 , 5 ; viii , 93 , 34 ; of an arrow AV. i , 2 , 3).

    Skilled artisans R̥bhu-s are founders of yajña, Vasu-s, wealth givers, Vṛṣākapi is a Rudra, hunter (Mṛgaśiras, Orion). I suggest that the skilled artisans and seafaring merchants are the architects of Sarasvati Civilization who have left for us the heritage of over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions which are wealth accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues.

    The astronomical references point to 8th millennium BCE as the date the yajña wer founded.

    Vṛṣākapi is a Rudra. Viṣṇu Purāa 1.5 lists eleven Rudra:  Hara, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Aparajita,

    Vṛṣākapi, Śambhu, Kaparddi, Raivata, Mrigavyadha, Sarva, and Kapāli. Rudra (/ˈrʊdrə/Sanskritरुद्र) is a Rigvedic deity, associated with wind or storm and the hunt In RV 7.46, Rudra is described as armed with a bow and fast-flying arrows रुद्र m. " Roarer or Howler " , N. of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the रुद्रs and मरुत्s (in the वेद he is closely connected with इन्द्र and still more with अग्नि , the god of fire , which , as a destroying agent , rages and crackles like the roaring storm , and also with काल or Time the all-consumer , with whom he is afterwards identified ; though generally represented as a destroying deity , whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle , he has also the epithet शिव , " benevolent " or " auspicious " , and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere ; in the later mythology the word शिव , which does not occur as a name in the वेद , was employed , first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for रुद्र , who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle ; while a new class of beings , described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number , though still called रुद्रs , took the place of the original रुद्रs or मरुत्s: in VP. i , 7रुद्र is said to have sprung from ब्रह्मा's forehead , and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female , the former portion separating again into the 11 रुद्रs , hence these later रुद्रs are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of शिव , and most of their names , which are variously given in the different पुराणs , are also names of शिव ; those of the Va1yuP. are अजैकपाद् , अहिर्-बुध्न्य , हर , निरृत , ईश्वर , भुवन , अङ्गारक , अर्ध-केतु , मृत्यु , सर्प , कपालिन् ; accord. to others the रुद्रs are represented as children of कश्यप and सुरभि or of ब्रह्मा and सुरभि or of भूतand सु-रूपा ; accord. to VP. i , 8रुद्र is one of the 8 forms of शिव ; elsewhere he is reckoned among the दिक्-पालs as regent of the north-east quarter) RV. &c (cf.RTL. 75 &c )

    Mṛgaśira nakṣatra extends from after 23°20 in Vṛṣabha Rāśi up to 6°40 in Mithuna. Star is governed by mars and the presiding deity or God is a Soma God. Soma mean Chandra or Moon God. He hold amrita (nectar or eternity poison ). Symbol is Antelope or DeerThe first two carana/pada (quarters) of this nakṣatra are part of Vṛṣabha Rāśi (Devanagari: वृषभ) or Taurus. The latter half of this star belong to Mithuna Rāśi(Devanagari: मिथुन) or Gemini (from 23°20’ Taurus to 6°40’ Gemini). stars in λ, φ1, φ2 Orionis
    7.048.01 R.bhu, (Vibhu), and Va_ja, leaders of rites, possessors of opulence, be exhilarated by our effused (libation); may your active and powerful (horses) bring to our presence your chariot, beneficial to mankind. [r.bhuks.an.o va_jah, the use of the plural implies that the three brothers are intended].
    7.048.02 Mighty with the R.bhus, opulent with the Vibhus, may we overcome by strength, the strength (of our foes); may Va_ja defend us in battle; with Indra, our ally, may we destroy the enemy. [R.bhus: r.bhur r.bhubhih vibhvo vibhubhih: r.bhu and uru = great; vibhu vibhvah = rich or powerful].
    7.048.03 They verily, (Indra and R.bhus), overcome multitudes by their prowess; they overcome all enemies in the missile conflict; may Indra, Vibhvan, R.bhuks.in and Va_ja, the subduers of foes, annihilate by their wrath the strength of the enemy. [Missile: uparata_ti: upara = upala, a stone; upalaih pa_s.a_n.asadr.s'air a_yudhai ta_yate yuddham, war that is waged with weapons like stones, is uparatati].
    7.048.04 Grant us, deities, this day opulence; may you all, may you all, well-pleased alike, be (ready) for our protection; may the exalted (R.bhus) bestow upon us food; and do you (all) ever cherish us with blessings. [R.bhus: vasavah = Vasus; pras'asyah, an epithet of R.bhavah].
    Vṛṣākapi (वृषाकपि):—One of the Eleven Rudras (ekādaśa-rudra), according to the Agni-purāṇa. The Agni Purāṇa is a religious text containing details on Viṣṇu’s different incarnations (avatar), but also deals with various cultural subjects such as Cosmology, Grammar and Astrology.  Vṛṣākapi (वृषाकपि).—A Rudra, and a son of Bhūta and Sarūpā: Fought with Jambha in the Devāsura war.

    Viṣṇu Purāa 1.5 being devoted to it, was the wife of Prabhasa, the eighth of the Vasus, and bore to him the patriarch Viswakarma, the author of a thousand arts, the mechanist of the gods, the fabricator of all ornaments, the chief of artists, the constructor of the self moving chariots of the deities, and by whose skill men obtain subsistence. AjaikapadAhirvradhna, and the wise Rudra Twashtri, were born; and the self born son of Twashtri was also the celebrated Viswarupa. There are eleven well known Rudras, lords of the three worlds, or HaraBahurupaTryambakaAparajitaVrishakapiSambhuKaparddiRaivataMrigavyadhaSarva, and Kapali 17; but there are a hundred appellations of the immeasurably mighty Rudras 18.


    AtharvavedaAV 20.126

    [2012601] Men have abstained from pouring juice; nor counted Indra as a God.
    Where at the votary s store my friend Vrishakapi hath drunk his fill.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012602] Thou, Indra, heedless passest by the ill Vrishakapi hath wrought; Yet nowhere else thou findest place wherein to drink the Soma juice.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012603] What hath he done to injure thee, this tawny beast Vrishakapi, With whom thou art so angry now? What is the votary s food ful store? Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012604] Soon may the hound who hunts the boar seize him and bite him in the ear, O Indra, that Vrishakapi whom thou protectest as a friend.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012605] Kapi hath marred the beauteous things, all deftly wrought, that were my joy.
    In pieces will I rend his head; the sinner s portion shall be woe.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012606] No dame hath ampler charms than I, or greater wealth of love s delights.
    None with more ardour offers all her beauty to her lord s embrace.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012607] Mother whose love is quickly won,I say what verily will be, My breast, O mother, and my head and both my hips seem quivering Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012608] Dame with the lovely hands and arms, with broad hair plaits and ample hips, Why, O thou hero s wife, art thou angry with our Vrishakapi? Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012609] This noxious creature looks on me as one bereft of hero s love. [p. 361] Yet heroes for my sons have I, the Maruts friend and Indra s Queen Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012610] From olden time the matron goes to feast and general sacrifice.
    Mother of heroes, Indra s Queen, the rite s ordainer is extolled.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012611] So have I heard Indrani called most fortunate among these dames, For never shall her Consort die in future time through length of days.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012612] Never, Indrani have I joyed without my friend Vrishakapi, Whose welcome offering here, made pure with water, goeth to the Gods.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012613] Wealthy Vrishakapayi, blest with sons and consorts of thy sons, Indra will eat thy bulls, thy dear oblation that effecteth much.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012614] Fifteen in number, then, for me a score of bullocks they prepare.
    And I devour the fat thereof: they fill my belly full with food.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012615] Like as a bull with pointed horn, loud bellowing amid the herds, Sweet to thine heart, O Indra, is the brew which she who tends thee pours.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012616] Indrani speaks.
    Non ille fortis (ad Venerem) est cujus mentula laxe inter femora dependet; fortis vero estille cujus, quum sederit, membrum pilosum se extendit.
    Super omnia est Indra.

    [2012617] Indra speaks.
    Non fortis est ille cujus, quum sederit, membrum pilosum se extendit: fortis vero est ille cujus mentula laxe inter femora dependet.
    Super omnia est Indra.

    [2012618] O Indra, this Vrishakapi hath found a slain wild animal, Dresser, and new made pan, and knife, and wagon with a load of wood.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012619] Distinguishing the Dasa and the Arya, viewing all, I go.
    I look upon the wise, and drink the simple votary s Soma juice.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012620] The desert plains and steep descents, how many leagues in length they spread! Go to the nearest houses, go unto thine home, Vrishakapi.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012621] Turn thee again Vrishakapi; we twain will bring thee happiness.
    Thou goest homeward on thy way along this path which leads to sleep.
    Supreme is Indra over all.

    [2012622] When, Indra and Vrishakapi, ye travelled upward to your home, Where was that noisome beast, to whom went it, the beast that troubles man? Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012623] Daughter of ManuParsu bare a score of children at a birth. [p. 362] Her portion verily was bliss although her burthen caused her grief.

    [p. 363]

    The legend of vr̥ṣākapi The legend appears in R̥gVeda X.86 which is not an easy hymn to understand. Tilak (1893) gives a long verse by verse discussion of this hymn and concludes that the import of the legend can be understood by taking vr̥ṣākapi to represent the sun at vernal equinox when the dog star started the equinoctial year. Again Tilak interpreted this to mean vernal equinox occurring at Orion. However, it is our opinion that this legend also refers to the same event namely the equinoctical year with the Dog star and is illustrated by the figure 8.
    1.020.01 This hymn, the bestower of riches, has been addressed by the sages, with their own mouths, to the (class of) divinities having birth (lit. to the divine or brilliant birth; e.g. R.bhus--R.bhu, Vibhu and Va_ja were pious men, who through penance became divinities). [deva_ya janmane: lit. to the divine or brilliant birth; janmane: ja_yama_na_ya, being born, or having birth; deva_ya: deva-san:gha_ya, a class of divinities, R.bhus who achieved deification: manus.ya_h santastapasa_ devatvam pra_pta_h. R.bhus were three sons of Sudhanvan, a descendant of An:giras. Through their good work (svapas = su-apas), they became divine, exercised superhuman powers and became entitled to receive praise and adoration. They dwell in the solar sphere, identified with the rays of the sun].

    1.020.02 They who created mentally for Indra the horses that are harnessed (carved) at his words, have partaken of the sacrifice performed with holy acts. (s'ami_bhih = ceremonies; i.e. they have pervaded, appropriated or accepted the sacrifice peformed with tongs, ladles, and utensils; an intimation of the mechanical skills of R.bhu). [grahacamasa_dinis'pa_danaru_paih karmabhir, yajn~am, asmadi_yam a_s'ata (vya_ptavantah): they have pervaded (or accepted) our sacrifice, performed with those acts which are executed by means of tongs, ladles, and other (utensils used in oblations). R.bhus invented these implements, and attest to their mechanical skills].

    1.020.03 They constructed for the Na_satya_s, a universally-moving and easy car, and a cow yielding milk. (taks.an = ataks.an, lit. they (R.bhus) chipped or fabricated, mechanically, the appendages of Indra and As'vin). [They carved (tataks.uh) Indar's horse; they did it mentally (ma_nasa)].

    1.020.04 The R.bhus, uttering unfailing prayers, endowed with rectitude, and succeeding (in all pious acts; vis.t.i_ = vya_ptiyuktah, i.e. encountering no opposition in all acts), made their (aged) parents young. [satya-mantra_h = repeating true prayers, i.e. prayers certain to achieve the objects prayed for; akrata: fr. kr., to make generally].

    1.020.05 R.bhus, the exhilarating juices are offered to you, along with Indra, attended by the Maruts and along with the brilliang A_dityas. [Libations offered at the third daily, or evening sacrifice, are presented to Indra, along with the A_dityas, together with R.bhu, Vibhu and Va_ja, with Br.haspati and the Vis'vedeva_s (A_s'vala_yana S'rauta Su_tra, 5.3)].

    1.020.06 The R.bhus have divided unto four the new ladle, the work of the divine Tvas.t.a_ (i.e. devasambandhih taks.ana.vya_pa_rah = divinity whose duty in relations to gods is carpentry; cf. tvas.t.a_ tvas.t.uh s'is.ya_h R.bhavah = R.bhus are the disciples of Tvas.t.a_; four ladles are an apparent reference to an innovation in the objects of libation for sharing). [Tvas.t.a_ is the artisan of the gods; he is a divinity whose duty is carpentry, with relation to the gods].

    1.020.07 May they, moved by our praises, give to the offere of the libation many precious things, and perfect the thrice seven sacrifices [i.e. seven sacrifices in each of three classes: agnya_dheyam (clarified butter), pa_kayajn~a (dressed viands), agnis.t.oma (soma)]. [Trira_ sa_pta_ni: trih may be applied to precious things to sa_pta_ni, seven sacrifices].

    1.020.08 Offerers (of sacrifices), they held (a moral existence); by their pious acts they obtained a share of sacrifices with the gods. [a_dha_rayanta = they held or enjoyed (pra_n.a_n, i.e. vital airs, life)] [marta_sah santo amr.tatvam anas'uh: beyong mortals, they obtained immprtality (RV. 1.110.4); saudhanvana_ yajn~iyam bha_gam a_nas'a: by the son of Sudhanvan was a sacrificial portion acquired (RV. 1.60.1); r.bhavo vai deves.u tapasa_ somapi_tham abhyajayan: r.bhus won by devotion the drinking of Soma among the gods (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.30)].



    1.110.01 R.bhus, the rite formerly celebrated by me is again repeated, and the melodious hymn is recited in your praise; in this ceremony, the Soma is sufficient for all the gods; drink of it to your utmost content when offered on the fire.
    1.110.02 When, R.bhus, you who are amongst my ancestors, yet immature (in wisdom), but desirous of enjoying (the Soma libations), retired to the forest to perform (penance), then, sons of Sudhanvan, throught he plenitude of your completed (devotions), you came to the (sacrificial) hall of the worshipper Savita_. [r.bhurvibhva_ va_ja iti sudhanvana a_n:girasasya trayah putra_h babhu_vuh (Nirukta 11.16): Sudhanvan, father of the R.bhus, was a descendant of An:giras; so is Kutsa; pra_n~cah = pu_rva ka_li_na, of a former period; Kutsa is a kinsman of R.bhus of a former period].
    1.110.03 Then Savita_ bestowed upon you immortality, when you came to him, who is not to be concealed, and representd (your desire) to partake of the libations; and that ladle for the sacrificial viands which the Asura had formed single, you made fourfold. [Who is not to be concealed: In the previous hymn, Savita_ (fr. su, to offer oblations) perhaps refers to the presenter of oblations; in this hymn, the sun is alluded to].
    1.110.04 Associated with the priests, and quickly performing the holy rites, they, being yet mortals, acquired immortality and the son of Sudhanvan, the R.bhus, brilliant as the sun, became connected with the ceremonies (appropriated to the different season) of the year.
    1.110.05 Lauded by the bystanders, the R.bhus, with a sharp weapon, meted out the single sacrificial ladle, like a field (measured by a rod), soliciting the best (libations) and desiring (to participate of) sacrificial food amongs thte gods.
    6 To the leaders (of the sacrifice), dwelling in the firmament, we present, as with a ladle, the appointed clarified butter, and praise with knowledge those R.bhus, who, having equalled the velocityof the protector (of the universe, the sun), ascended to the region of heaven, through (the offerings) of (sacrificial) food. [nr.bhyah = yajn~asya netr.bhyah; r.bhavo hi yajn~asya neta_rah: 'the r.bhus are the leaders of the sacrifice'; because of this position, they obtained immortality; the term is perhaps connected with antariks.asya, to the chief of the firmament; r.bhus also identified with the solar rays (a_dityaras'mayo api r.bhava ucyanti: the r.bhus are, indeed, said to be the rays of the sun].
    1.110.07 The most excellent R.bhu is in strength our defender; R.bhu, through gifts of food and of wealth, is our asylum; may he bestow them upon us, Gods, through your protection; may we, upon a favourable occasion, overcome the hosts of those who offer no libations.
    1.110.08 R.bhus, you covered the cow with a hide, and reunited themother with the calf; sons of Sudhanvan, leaders (of sacrifice), through your good works you rendered your aged parents young. [Legend: a r.s.i, whose cow had died, leaving a calf prayed to the r.bhus for assistance, on which, they formed a living cow, and covered it with the skin of the dead one, from which the calf imagined it to be its own mother].
    1.110.09 Indra, associated with the R.bhus, supply us, in the distribution of viands, with food, and consent to bestow upon us wonderful riches; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve them fo rus. [alternative: va_jebhir no va_jasa_tau aviddhi = protect us in battle with your horses].


    1.161.01 Is this our senior or our junior who has come (to us); has he come upon a message (from the gods); what is it we should say? Agni,brother, we revile not the ladle which is of exalted race; verily we assert the dignity of the wooden (implement). [The legend: the three R.bhus were engaged in a sacrifice and about to drink the Soma; the gods sent Agni to see what they were doing. Agni noticed that they resembled each other; Agni assumed a like form. The hymn refers to this form, calling him brother, and questionign his comparative age. The next hymn states the purpose of Agni's visit is to order the conversion of one spoon or ladle, camasa, used for drinking Soma, or for libations, into four spoons].
    1.161.02 Make fourfold the single ladle; so the gods command you; and for that purpose have I come, sons of Sudhanvan; if you accomplish this, you will be entitled to sacrifices along with the gods.
    1.161.03 Then said they, in answer to Agni, the messenger (of the gods). Whatever is to be done, whether a horse is to be made, or a car is to be made, or a cow is to be made, or the two (old parents) are to be made young, having done all these (acts), Brother Agni, we are then ready to do (what you desire) to be done. [cf. su_ktas 20, 110 and 111 which relate the marvels of the R.bhus].
    1.161.04 So doing R.bhus, you inquired: where, indeed, is he who came to us as a messenger? When Tvas.t.a_ observed the one ladle become four, he was immediately lost amongst the women. [gna_su antarnya_naje; the verb is explained: nyakto abhu_t; the combination of ni and anj is perhaps the converse of vyan~j, to be manifest, i.e. to be concealed, indistinct, or invisible. gna_ = stri_ (mena gna_ iti stri_n.a_m--Nirukta 3.21); str.yam a_tma_nam amanyata = he, Tvas.t.a_, fancied himself; woman, that is, he felt humbled, as feeble as a female].
    1.161.05 When Tvas.t.a_ said: let us slay those who have profaned the ladle, (designed) for the drinking of the gods; then they made use of other names for one another as the libation was poured out; and the maiden (mother) propitiated them by different appellations. [Then they made us of other names: a legend accounts for the origin of the names of the chief officiating priests; to evade the indignation of Tvas.t.a_, the R.bhus assumed the titles: adhvaryu, hota_ and udgata_;an individual engaged in priestly functions at a sacrifice is to be always addressed by these titles, and never by his own name; propitiated them by different appellations: anyair ena_n kanya_ na_mabhih sparat: kanya_ = svotpa_dayitri_ ma_ta_, a mother self-engendering].
    1.161.06 Indra has caparisoned his horses; the As'vins have harnessed their car; Br.haspati has accepted the omniform (cow); therefore, R.bhu, Vibhva and Va_ja, go the gods, doers of good deeds, enjoy your sacrificial portion.
    1.161.07 Sons of Sudhanvan, from a hideless (cow) you have formed a living one; by your marvellous acts you have made your aged parents young; from one horse you have fabricated another; harness now your chariot, and repair unto the gods.
    1.161.08 They, (the gods), have said, sons of Sudhanvan, drink of this water, (the Soma); or drink that which has been filtered through the mun~ja grass; or, if you be pleased with neither of these, be exhilarated (by that which is drunk) at the third (daily) sacrifice. [R.bhus may be participants of the libations offered at dawn or at noon; the right of the R.bhus to share in the third, or evening sacrifice is always acknowledged].
    1.161.09 Waters are the most excellent said one (of them). Agni is that most excellent, said another; the third declared to many the Earth (to be the most excellent), and thus speaking true things the R.bhus divided the ladle. [The earth: vardhayanti_m = a line of clouds or the earth: vadhah arkah (Nirukta 2.20.7)].
    1.161.10 One pours the red water (the blood) upon the ground; one cuts the flesh, divided into fragments by the chopper; and a third seperates the excrement from the other parts; in what manner may the parents (of the sacrifice) render assistance to their sons? [The R.bhus are identified with the priests employed in the sacrifice of a victim; the parents of the sacrifice: the parents pitr.s, = the institutor of the ceremony and his wife].
    1.161.11 R.bhus, leaders (of the rains), you have caused the grass to grow upon the high places; you have caused the waters to flow over the low places; for (the promotion of) good works; as you have reposed for a while in the dwelling of the unapprehensible (Sun), so desist not today from (the discharge of) this (your function). [R.bhus are identified in this and following hymns with the rays of the sun, as the instruments of the rain and the causes of fertility; a_dityaras'mayo api r.bhava ucyante: (Nirukta 11.16); unapprehensible Sun: agohyasya gr.he: agohya = a name of the sun (Nirukta); who is not to be hidden, aguhani_ya;or, agrahan.i_ya, not to be apprehended, literally or metaphorically; so desist not: idam na_nugacchatha; anusr.tya na gacchatha, having come forth, go not away without doing this,idam, your office of sending down rain for as long a period as you repose in the solar orb; a truism is explained in Nirukta: ya_vat tatra bhavatha na ta_vadiha bhavatha, as long as you are there, you are not here].
    1.161.12 As you glide along enveloping the regions (in clouds); where, then, are the parents (of the world)? curse him who arrests your arm; reply sternly to him who speaks disrespectfully (to you). [The parents of the world: the sun and the moon, the protectors of the world, which, during the rains, are hidden by the clouds; who speaks disrespectfully:  yah pra_bravi_t pra tasma_ abravi_tana: pra prefixed to bru_ = either to speak harshly or kindly, to censure or to praise].
    1.161.13 R.bhus, reposing in the solar orb, you inquire: who awakens us, unapprehensive (Sun), to this office (of sending rain). The Sun replies: the awakener is the wind; and the year (being ended), you again today light up this (world). [The awakener is the wind: s'va_nam bodhayita_ram = the awakener is the dog; but, s'va_nam = antarks.e svasantam va_yum, the reposer in the firmament, the wind; sam.vatsare idam adya_ vyakhyata, you have made this world today luminous, after the year has expired; i.e. the rainy season has passed, the rays of the sun and moon are again visible].
    1.161.14 Sons of Strength, the Maruts, desirous of your coming, advance from the sky; Agni comes (to meet you) from the earth; the wind traverses the firmament; and Varun.a comes with undulating waters.


    4.033.01 I send my prayer as a messenger to the r.bhus; I solicit (of them) the cow, the yielder of the white milk, for the dilution (of the Soma libation); for they, as swift as the wind, the doers of good works, were borne quickly across the firmament by rapid steeds. [WSere borne quickly: as applicable to the deified mortals, the allusion is to their being transported to the sphere of the gods; if the reference is to the rays of the sun, it implies merely their dispersal through the sky].
    4.033.02 When the r.bhus, by honouring their parents with renovated (youth), and by other works, had achieved enough, they thereupon proceeded to the society of the gods, and, considerate, they bring nourishment to the devout (worshipper).
    4.033.03 May they who rendered their decrepid and dropsy parents, when, like two dry posts, again perpetually young, Va_ja, Vibhavan, and R.bhu associated with Indra, drinkers of the Soma juice, protect our sacrifice.
    4.033.04 Inasmuch as for a year the R.bhus preserved the (dead) cow, inasmuch as for a year they invested it with flesh, inasmuch as for a year they continued its beauty they obtained by their acts of immortality.
    4.033.05 The eldest said, let us make two ladles; the younger said, let us make three: Tvas.t.a_, R.bhus, has applauded your proposal.
    4.033.06 The men, (the R.bhus), spoke the truth, for such (ladles) they made, and thereupon the R.bhus partook of that libation; Tvas.t.a_, beholding the four ladles, brilliant as day, was content.
    4.033.07 When the R.bhus, reposing for twelve days, remained in the hospitality of the uncealable (sun) they rendered the fields fertile, they led forth the rivers, plants sprung upon the waste, and waters (spread over) the low (places).
    4.033.08 May those R.bhus who constructed the firm-abiding wheel-conducting car; who formed the all-impelling multiform cow; they who are the bestowers of food, the doers of great deeds, and dexterous of hand, fabricate our riches.
    4.033.09 The gods were pleased by their works, illustrious in act and in thought; Va_ja was the artificer of the gods, R.bhuks.in of Indra, Vibhavan of Varun.a.
    4.033.10 May those R.bhus who gratified the horses (of Indra) by pious praise, who constructed for Indra his two docile steeds, bestow upon us satiety of riches, and wealth (of cattle), like those who devise prosperity for a friend.
    4.033.11 The gods verily have given you the beverage at the (third sacrifice of the) day, and its exhilarqation, not through regard, but (as the gift of one) wearied out (by penance); R.bhus, who are so (eminent), grant us, verily, wealth at this third (diurnal) sacrifice. [Wearied out by penance: r.te s'ra_ntasya sakhya_ya = na sakhitva_ya bhavanti deva_h, the gods are not through friendship, s'ra_nta_t tapo yukta_t r.te except one wearied by penance; ete s'ra_nta ato saduh, they, wearied out, therefore gave].




    4.037.01 Divine Va_jas, R.bhus, come to our sacrifice by the path travelled by the gods, inasmuch as you, gracious (R.bhus), have maintained sacrifice among the people, (the progeny) of Manu, for (the sake of) securing the prosperous course of days. [R.bhus: the text has r.bhuks.ah, nom. sing. of r.bhuks.in, a name of Indra; here, it is equated with r.bhavah, pl. nom. of r.bhu; in the following verses r.bhuks.a_n.ah is used, the nom. or voc. pl. of r.bhuks.in].
    4.037.02 May these sacrifices be (acceptable) to you in heart and mind; may today the sufficient (juices) mixed with butter to you; the full libations are prepared for you; may they, when drunk, animate you for glorious deeds.
    4.037.03 As the offering suited to the gods at the third (daily) sacrifice supports, you, Va_jas, R.bhuks.ans; as the praise (then recited supports you); therefore, like Manu, I offer you the Soma juice, along with the very radiant (deities) among the people assembled at the solemnity. [I offer you: juhve manus.vat uparasu viks.u yus.me saca_ br.had dives.u somam: upara = those who are pleased or sport near the worship of the gods, devayajana sami_pe ramantah; ta_su viks.u-praja_su = in or among such people; br.haddives.u is an epithet of deves.u implied].
    4.037.04 Va_jins, you are borne by stout horses mounted on a brilliant car, have jaws of metal and are possessed of treasures; sons of Indra, grandsons of strength, this last sacrifice is for your exhilaration. [Possessed of treasures: va_jinah = possessors either of horses or food; ayahs'ipra_ = as hard or strong as metal, ayovat sa_rabhu_ta s'ipra_h; sunis.ka_h = having good nis.kas, a certain weight of gold; sons of Indra, grandsons of strength: the text has singular nouns, son of Indra, son or grandson of strength; this is followed by vah-vos, you in the plural; last sacrifice: ityagriyam = agre bhavam, the first, the preceding; explained as tr.ti_yam savanam].
    4.037.05 We invoke you, R.bhuks.ans, for splendid wealth, mutually co-operating, most invigorating in war, affecting the senses, ever munificent, and comprehending horses. [Splendid wealth: the epithets apply to rayim, wealth: r.bhu yujam, va_jintamam, indrasvantam, sada_sa_tamam as'vinam].
    4.037.06 May the man whom you, R.bhus and Indra, favour, be ever liberal by his acts, and possessed of a horse at the sacrifice. [A horse at the sacrifice: medhasa_ta_ so arvata_, perhaps a horse fit for the as'vamedha is implied].
    4.037.07 Va_jas, R.bhuks.an.s, direct us in the way to sacrifice; for you, who are intelligent, being glorified (by us), are able to traverse all the quarters (of space).
    4.037.08 Va_jas, R.bhuks.an.s, Indra, Na_satyas, command that ample wealth with horses be sent to men for their enrichment.

    Orion
    Constellation Orioon


    The legend of bhu-s

    bhu-s occur in eleven suktas in gVeda, I. 20, I. 110, I.161, I. 164, IV. 33- IV.-37.


    bhu-s are three in number, bhuvibhvan and vaj and are the sons of Sudhanvan. They learnt many crafts under Tvaṣṭr̥, and constructed rathas and other equipment for the devas. By their hard work the devas were pleased and they were granted immortality. saudhanvanā bhava¨sūraacakasah¨ samvatsare samapcyanta dhītibhih¨ RV (I. 110.4) The bhu-s, children of Sudhanvan, bright as suns, were in a year's course made associate with prayers ('connected with the ceremonies appropriated to the different seasons of the year'-Wilson) The bhus represent the three seasons of the year (lunar year of 354 days) at the end of which they take rest for 12 days in the house of aghohya (the unconcealable, the sun) before they start their work again in the New Year. They are

    awakened from their sleep and vasta gives the information that they were awakened by the hound. 
    suṣupvāmsa  r̥bhavaastadāpr̥cchat āgohya ka idam no abūbudhat
    śvānam bastobodhayitāram abravīt samvatsara idamadyā vyākhyata (RV 1.161.13) 
    bhus, reposing in the solar orb, you inquire, 'who  wakens us, unconcealable sun to this office of sending rain?'. Sun replies 'the awakener is the Dog and in the year you again today light up this world'. This legend can be taken as referring to the time of commencement of the year with vernal equinox. The śvāna obviously refers to the Dog star. Tilak(1893) regards this as referring to the equinox in mgaśiras (identified by him with the constellation Orion, which according to him also includes the Dog-star). He supported his interpretation with a large number of quotations from gveda and other Vedic texts. The date corresponding to the occurrence of vernal equinox at the Orion can be simulated assuming that the Orion is represented by its brightest star, α-Ori, also known as Betelguese. The vernal equinox occurring at α-Ori is shown in Figure 7.




    Figure 7. Vernal Equinox at α-Ori. 5000 BCE. Note the passing of zero hour line of the coordinate Right Ascension (RA) through Betelguese.

    Tilak(1893) in his book The Orion first proposed the date of 4500 BCE, and then later on proposed the date of 5000 BCE. However, Sengupta interprets the bhu legend as referring to the heliacal rising of Canis Major after the summer solstice. But this is not the correct interpretation either, as the beginning of the New Year was most likely at the vernal equinox. 

    The legend refers to the vernal equinox, with the Dog star (Sirius) at the vernal equinox and is illustrated in Figure 8.
    Figure 8. Vernal Equinox at Canis Major. 7100 BCE

    Translation: Griffith
     Indra. 86
    1. MEN have abstained from pouring juice they count not Indra as a God.
    Where at the votarys' store my friend Vṛṣākapi hath drunk his fill. Supreme is Indra over all.
    2 Thou, Indra, heedless passest by the ill Vṛṣākapi hath wrought;
    Yet nowhere else thou findest place wherein to drink the Soma juice. Supreme is Indra over all.
    3 What hath he done to injure thee, this tawny beaVṛṣākapi,
    With whom thou art so angry now? What is the votarys' foodful store? Supreme is Indra over all.
    4 Soon may the hound who hunts the boar seize him and bite him in the car,
    Indra, that Vṛṣākapi whom thou protectest as a friend, Supreme is Indra over all.
    Kapi hath marred the beauteous things, all deftly wrought, that were my joy.
    In pieces will I rend his head; the sinners' portion sball be woo. Supreme is Indra over all.
    6 No Dame hath ampler charms than 1, or greater wealth of loves' delights.
    None with more ardour offers all her beauty to her lords' embrace. Supreme is Indra over all.
    Mother whose love is quickly wibn, I say what verily will be.
    Mybreast,, O Mother, and my head and both my hips seem quivering. Supreme is Indra over all.
    Dame with the lovely hands and arms, with broad hairplaits- add ample hips,
    Why, O thou Heros' wife, art thou angry with our Vṛṣākapi? Supreme is Indra over all.
    9 This noxious creature looks on me as one bereft of heros' love,
    Yet Heroes for my sons have I, the MarutsFriend and Indras' Queen. Supreme is Indra over all.
    10 From olden time the matron goes to feast and general sacrifice.
    Mother of Heroes, Indras' Queen, the rites' ordainer is extolled. Supreme is Indra over all.
    11 So have I heard Indrani called most fortunate among these Dames,
    For never shall her Consort die in future time through length of days. Supreme is Indra overall.
    12 Never, Indralni, have I joyed without my friend Vṛṣākapi,
    Whose welcome offering here, made pure with water, goeth to the Gods. Supreme is Indra over all.
    13 Wealthy Vṛṣākapayi, blest with sons and consorts of thy sons,
    Indra will eat thy bulls, thy dear oblation that effecteth much. Supreme is Indra over all.
    14 Fifteen in number, then, for me a score of bullocks they prepare,
    And I devour the fat thereof: they fill my belly full with food. Supreme is Indra over all.
    15 Like as a bull with pointed horn, loud bellowing amid the herds,
    Sweet to thine heart, O Indra, is the brew which she who tends thee pours. Supreme is Indra over
    all.
    18 O Indra this Vṛṣākapi hath found a slain wild animal,
    Dresser, and newmade- pan, and knife, and wagon with a load of wood. Supreme is Indra over all.
    19 Distinguishing the Dasa and the Arya, viewing all, I go.
    I look upon the wise, and drink the simple votarys' Soma juice. Supreme is Indra over all.
    20 The desert plains and steep descents, how many leagues in length they spread!
    Go to the nearest houses, go unto thine home, Vrsakapi. Supreme is Indra over all.
    21 Turn thee again Vṛṣākapi: we twain will bring thee happiness.
    Thou goest homeward on thy way along this path which leads to sleep. Supreme is Indra over all.
    22 When, Indra and Vṛṣākapi, ye travelled upward to your home,
    Where was that noisome beast, to whom went it, the beast that troubles man? Supreme is Indra over
    all.
    23 Daughter of ManuParsu bare a score of children at a birth. Her portion verily was bliss although her burthen caused her grief.

    Translation Sāyaṇa/Wilson
    10.086.01 Indra speaks: They have neglected the pressing of the Soma, they have not praised the divine Indra at the cherished (sacrifices), at which the noble Vṛṣākapi becoming my friend rejoiced; (still) I, Indra, am above all (the world).  [Ma_dhavabhat.t.as ascribe the r.ca to Indra_n.i_ the wife of Indra, deprecating the preference given to Vṛṣākapi].
    10.086.02 Indra_n.i_ speaks: You, Indra, much annoyed, hasten towards Vṛṣākapi; and yet you find no other place to drink the Soma; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.03 What (favour) has this tawny deer Vṛṣākapi done to you that you should like a liberal (benefactor) bestow upon him wealth and nourish me; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.04 This Vṛṣākapi whom you, Indra, cherish as your dear (son)-- may the dog which chases the boar (seize) him by the ear (and) devour him; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.05 The ape has spoiled the beloved ghi_-adorned (oblations) made to me (by worshippers); let me quickly cut off his head, let me not be the giver of happiness to one who works evil; Indra is  above all (the world). [The ape: kapi = ape; also, a shorter form of Vr.s.a_kapi].
    10.086.06 There is no woman more amiable than I am, not one who bears fairer sons than I; nor one more tractable not one more ardent; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.07 [Vṛṣākapi speaks]: O mother, who are easy of access, it will quickly be as (you have said); may my (father) and you, mother, be united; may it delight my (father) and your head like a bird; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.08 [Indra speaks]: You who have beautiful arms, who have beautiful fingers, long-haired, broad-hipped, why are you angry with our Vṛṣākapi, O you wife of a hero; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.09 [Indra_n.i_ speaks]: This savage beast (Vṛṣākapi) despises me as one who has no male (protector), and yet I am the mother of male offspring, the wife of Indra, the friend of the Maruts; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.10 The mother who is the institutress of the ceremony, the mother of male offspring, the wife of Indra, goes first to the united sacrifice to battle, (and) is honoured (by the praisers); Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.11 (Indra speaks]: I have heard that Indra_n.i_ is the most fortunate among these women, for her lord Indra, who is above all (the world), does ot die of old age like other (men).
    10.086.12 I am not happy, Indra_n.i, without my friend Vṛṣākapi; whose acceptable oblation here, purified with water, proceeds to the gods; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.13 [Vṛṣākapi speaks]: O mother of Vṛṣākapi, wealthy, possessing excellent sons, possessing excellent daughters-in-law, let Indra eat your bulls, (give him) the beloved and most delightful ghi_, Indra is above all (the world). [Mother of Vṛṣākapi: Vṛṣākapayin = wife of Indra; Vṛṣākapi may be a name of Indra, as the showerer of benefits].
    10.086.14 [Indra speaks]: The worshippers dress for me fifteen (and) twenty bulls; I eat them and (become) fat, they fill both sides of my belly; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.15 [Indra_n.i_ speaks]: Like a sharp-horned bull roaring among the herds, so may your libation please your heart, Indra, (your libation) which she who desires to please you is expressing for you; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.16 The man who is impotent begets not progeny, but he who is endowed with vigour; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.17 [Indra speaks]: He who is endowed with vigour begets not progeny, but he who is impotent; Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.18 [Indra_n.i_ speaks]: Let this Vṛṣākapi, Indra, take a dead wild ass, (let him take) a knife (to cut it up), a fire-place (to cook it), a new saucepan, and a cart full of fuel; Indra is above all (the world). [A dead wild ass: parasvantam = parasvam, i.e. one who is of his own nature, i.e. an ape, kapi; a fire place: su_na_; cf. Manu 3.68].
    10.086.19 [Indra speaks]: Here I come to the (sacrifice) looking upon (the worshippers), distinguishing the Da_sa and the A_rya; I drink (the Soma) of the (worshipper), who effuses (the Soma) with mature (mind); I look upon the intelligent (sacrificer); Indra is above all (the world). [cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. 2, p. 374].
    10.086.20 Go home, Vṛṣākapi, to the halls of sacrifice (from the lurking-place of the enemy), which is desert and forest (how many leagues are there from there?) and from the nearest (lurking-place); Indra is above all (the world).
    10.086.21 Come back, Vṛṣākapi, that we may do what is agreeable to you; you, who are the destroyer of sleep, come home again by the road; Indra is above all (the world). [Destroyer of sleep: i.e., the sun; cf. Nirukta 12.28].
    10.086.22 Rise up and come home, Vṛṣākapi and Indra; where is that destructive beast, to what (region) has (that beast), the exhilarator of men, gone? Indra is  above all (the world). [To what region: Nirukta, 13.3].
    10.086.23 The daughter of Manu, Pars'u by name, bore twenty children at once; may good fortune, O arrow of Indra, befall her whose belly was so prolific; Indra is above all (the world). [Indra is the deity invoked: Nirukta 13.3].

    0 0

    https://tinyurl.com/yadqjo2d

    -- R̥bhu-s are founders of yajña, are metaphors of material facets of Sarasvati Civilization.
    -- praṇo devī sarasvatī, triṣadasthā, 'three-sourced'sapadhātuh, 'seven ores'pañca jātā, 'five artisans'vardhayantī, 'prosperer'.

    I submit that Rāṣṭrī Suktam R̥gveda 10.125 is a tribute to the five guilds of artisans of Sarasvati Civiliization.






    The divinities venerated in the Rāṣṭrī Suktam (RV 10.125), specifically identified are

    Section 1. आदित्य, वरुण, मित्रअश्विनी-कुमार
    Section 2. आ-हनस्, त्वष्टृ, पूषन्, भग
    Section 3. वसु, रुद्र, ऋभु

    In this manvantara, O King, the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Visvedevas, the Maruts, the two Asvini-kumara brothers and the Rbhus are the demigods. Their head king [Indra] is Purandara. (Srimad Bhagavatam 8.13.4)

    Old Lithuanian ašva and Sanskrit ashva mean "horse". Ašvieniai are represented as pulling a carriage of Saulė (the Sun) through the sky] Ašvieniai, depicted as žirgeliai or little horses, are common motifs on Lithuanian rooftops,placed for protection of the house.Similar motifs can also be found on beehives, harnesses, bed frames, and other household objects. Ašvieniai are related to Lithuanian Ūsinis and Latvian Ūsiņš (cf. Vedic Ushas), gods of horses.
    Ašvieniai, commonly called the little horses, on the rooftop of a house in Nida

    Image result for Trundholm ChariotThe Sun Chariot was found by first-time ploughing on Trundholm Mose, south of Højby, in September 1902. The find dates back to the old Bronze Age, about 1400 B.C. The Sun Chariot, which is made of bronze, consists of a gold coated disc of the sun, drawn by a horse, both placed on a small six-wheeled chariot. Probably a miniature version of a larger cult chariot. The original Sun Chariot is on display at the National Museu in Copenhagen and is considered to be one of the most famous Danish national treasures. 

    https://www.webcitation.org/5tso8HIGS?url=http://blacktaj.homestead.com/files/documents/The_Sumerians_and_Gemini.pdf 
    Hamacher, Duane W. "The Sumerians and Gemini: Sumerian Astronomical Interpretations as Origins of the Divine Horse Twins and Solar Chariots in Indo-European Mythology (Unpublished manuscript)"

    Nasatya (elder ashvin) was God of Health and Darsa (younger ashvin) was God of Medicines The twins Ashwini kummaras sons of the sun god Surya. Vedic gods that represent the brightness of sunrise and sunset

    The invocation of these divinities is documented in  Rāṣṭrī Suktam R̥gveda 10.125. Hence, the Rāṣṭrī Suktam R̥gveda 10.125 constitutes the centrl theme, the essence, purport and function of the R̥gveda, The divinities are manifestations of skill, artisans, seafaring merchants of Sarasvati Civilization...

    The Ashvins are mentioned 376 times in the Rigveda, with 57 hymns specifically dedicated to them: 1.3, 1.22, 1.34, 1.46-47, 1.112, 1.116-120 (c.f. Vishpala), 1.157-158, 1.180-184, 2.20, 3.58, 4.43-45, 5.73-78, 6.62-63, 7.67-74, 8.5, 8.8-10, 8.22, 8.26, 8.35, 8.57, 8.73, 8.85-87, 10.24, 10.39-41, 10.143. The Nasatya twins are invoked in a treaty between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, kings of the Hittites and the Mitannirespectively. 
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A%C5%A1vieniai

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-E5xPEsP1A4 (3:29) A rendering of RV 10.125, "Devī Suktam"
    Sāyaṇa/Wilson translation RV 10.125 

    10.125.01 I proceed with the Rudras, with the Vasus, with the ādityas, and with the Viśvedevā; I support both Mitra and Varua, Agni and Indra, and the two Aśvins.[Deity Pramātmā: the word, or first of creatures].
    10.125.02 I support the foe-destroying Soma, Tvaṣṭā, Pūṣan and Bhaga; I bestow wealth upon the institutor of the rite offering the oblation, deserving of careful protection, pouring forth the libation.
    10.125.03 I am the sovereign queen, the collectress of treasures, cognizant (of the Supreme Being), the chief of objects of worship; as such the gods have put me in many places, abiding in manifold conditions, entering into numerous (forms. 
    10.125.04 He who eats food (eats) through me; he who sees, who breathes, who hears what is spoken, does so through me; those who are ignorant of me perish; hear you who have hearing, I tell that which is deserving of belief. 
    10.125.05 I verily of myself declare this which is approved of by both gods and men; whomsoever I will, I render formidable, I make him a Brahmā, a r̥ṣi, or a sage. [A Brahman: Brahmā, the creator].
    10.125.06 I bend the bow of Rudra, to slay the destructive enemy of the Brāhmaa-s, I wage war with (hostile) men. I pervade heaven and earth.
    10.125.07 I bring forth the paternal (heaven) upon the brow of this (Supreme Being), my birthplace is in the midst of the waters; from thence I spread through all beings, and touch this heaven with my body. 
    10.125.08 I breathe forth like the wind giving form to all created worlds; beyond the heaven, beyond this earth (am I), so vast am I in greatness.


    Griffith translation RV 10.125

    1. I TRAVEL with the Rudras and the Vasus, with the Adityas and AllGods- I wander.
    I hold aloft both Varuna and Mitra, Indra and Agni, and the Pair of Asvins.
    2 I cherish and sustain highswelling- Soma, and Tvastar I support, Pusan, and Bhaga.
    I load with wealth the zealous sdcrificer who pours the juice and offers his oblation
    3 I am the Queen, the gathererup- of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.
    Thus Gods have stablished me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in.
    4 Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, each man who sees, brewhes, hears the word
    outspoken
    They know it not, but yet they dwell beside me. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.
    5 1, verily, myself announce and utter the word that Gods and men alike shall welcome.
    I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him a sage, a Rsi, and a Brahman.
    6 I bend the bow for Rudra that his arrow may strike and slay the hater of devotion.
    I rouse and order battle for the people, and I have penetrated Earth and Heaven.
    7 On the worlds' summit I bring forth the Father: my home is in the waters, in the ocean.
    Thence I extend over all existing creatures, and touch even yonder heaven with my forehead.
    8 I breathe a strong breath like the wind and tempest, the while I hold together all existence.
    Beyond this wide earth and beyond the heavens I have become so mighty in my grandeur.


    देवी सूक्त

    अहं रुद्रेभिर्वसुभिश्र्चराम्यहमादित्यैरुत विश्र्वदेवैः ।
    अहं मित्रावरुणोभा बिभर्म्यहमिन्द्राग्नी अहमश्र्विनोभा ॥ १ ॥
    अहं सोममाहनसं बिभर्म्यहं त्वष्टारमुत पूषणं भगम् ।
    अहं दधामि द्रविणं हविष्मते सुप्राव्ये यजमानाय सुन्वते ॥ २ ॥
    अहं राष्ट्री संगमनी वसूनां चिकितुषी प्रथमा यज्ञियानाम् ।
    तां मा देवा व्यदधुः पुरुत्रा भूरिस्थात्रां भूर्यावेशयन्तीम् ॥ ३ ॥
    मया सो अन्नमत्ति यो विपश्यति यः प्राणितियईं श्रृणोत्युक्तम् ।
    अमन्तवो मां त उप क्षियन्ति श्रुधि श्रुत श्रद्धिवं ते वदामि ॥ ४ ॥
    अहमेव स्वयमिदं वदामि जुष्टं देवेभिरुत मानुषेभिः।
    यं कामये तं तमुग्रं कृणोमि तं ब्रह्माणं तमृषिं तं सुमेधाम् ॥ ५ ॥
    अहं रुद्राय धनुरा तनोमि ब्रह्मद्विषे शरवे हन्तवा उ ।
    अहं जनाय समदं कृणोम्यहं द्यावापृथिवी आ विवेश ॥ ६ ॥
    अहं सुवे पितरमस्य मूर्धन् मम योनिरप्स्वन्तः समुद्रे ।
    ततो वि तिष्ठे भुवनानु विश्वोतामूं द्यां वर्ष्मणोप स्पृशामि ॥ ७ ॥
    अहमेव वात इव प्र वाम्यारभमाणा भुवनानि विश्र्वा ।
    परो दिवा पर एना पृथिव्यैतावती महिना सं बभूव ॥ ८ ॥ 
    ॥ इति देवी सूक्त ॥

    देवी सूक्त हिंदी अनुवाद 

    यह अनुवाद कल्याण प्रकाशनके वेद-कथा अंकसे अंशतः आभार सहित लिया गया हैं ।
    भगवती पराम्बाके अर्चन-पूजनमे यह देवी सूक्त बहुत महत्व रखता हैं । ऋगवेदके दशम मण्डलका १२५वॉ "वाक्-सूक्त है । इसे आत्मसूक्त भी कहते हैं । इसमें अम्भृण ऋषिकी पुत्री वाक् उसे ब्रह्मसाक्षात्कारसे आत्मज्ञान प्राप्त होनेके कारण सर्वात्मदृष्टिको अभिव्यक्त कर रही हैं । ब्रह्मविद्की वाणी ब्रह्मसे तादात्म्यापन्न होकर अपने-आपको ही सर्वात्माके रुपमें वर्णन कर रही हैं । ये ब्रह्मस्वरुपा वाग्देवी ब्रह्मानुभवी जीवन्मुक्त महापुरुषकी ब्रह्ममयी प्रज्ञा ही हैं । इस सूक्तमें प्रतिपाद्य-प्रतिपादकका एकात्म्य सम्बन्ध दर्शाया गया है । 
     ब्रह्मस्वरुपा मैं रुद्र, वसु, आदित्य और विश्र्वदेवताके रुपमें विचरण करती हूँ, अर्थात् मैं ही उन सभी रुपोमें भासमान हो रही हूँ । मैं ही ब्रह्मरुपसे मित्र और वरुण दोनोंको धारण करती हूँ । मैं ही इन्द्र और अग्निका आधार हूँ । मैं ही दोनो अश्विनीकुमारोंका धारण-पोषण करती हूँ ।
    २ मैं ही शत्रुनाशक, कामादि दोष-निवर्तक, परमाल्हाददायी, यज्ञगत सोम, चन्द्रमा, मन अथवा शिवका भरण पोषण करती हूँ । मैं ही त्वष्टा, पूषा और भगको भी धारण करती हूँ । जो यजमान यज्ञमें सोमाभिषवके द्वारा देवताओंको तृप्त करनेके लिये हाथमें हविष्य लेकर हवन करता है, उसे लोक-परलोकमें सुखकारी फल देनेवाली मैं ही हूँ ।
    ३ मैं ही राष्ट्री अर्थात् सम्पूर्ण जगत् की ईश्र्वरी हूँ । मैं उपासकोंको उनके अभीष्ट वसु-धन प्राप्त करानेवाली हूँ ।
    जिज्ञासुओंके साक्षात् कर्तव्य परब्रह्मको अपनी आत्माके रुपमें मैंने अनुभव कर लिया है । जिनके लिये यज्ञ किये जाते हैं, उनमें मैं सर्वश्रेष्ठ हूँ । सम्पूर्ण प्रपञ्चके रुपमें मैं ही अनेक-सी होकर विराजमान हूँ । सम्पूर्ण प्राणियोंके शरीरमें जीवनरुपमें मैं अपने-आपको ही प्रविष्ट कर रही हूँ । भिन्नभिन्न देश, काल, वस्तु और व्यक्तियोंमें जो कुछ हो रहा है, किया जा रहा है, वह सब मुझमें मेरे लिये ही किया जा रहा है । सम्पूर्ण विश्वके रुपमें अवस्थित होनेके कारण जो कोई जो कुछ भी करता है, वह सब मैं ही हूँ ।
    ४ जो कोई भोग भोगता है, वह मुझ भोक्त्रीकी शक्तिसे ही भोगता है । जो देखता है, जो श्र्वासोच्छ्वासरुप व्यापार करता है और जो कही हुई सुनता है, वह भी मुझसे ही है । जो इस प्रकार अन्तर्यामिरुपसे स्थित मुझे नहीं जानते, वे अज्ञानी दीन, हीन, क्षीण हो जाते हैं । मेरे प्यारे सखा ! मेरी बात सुनो-- मैं तुम्हारे लिये उस ब्रह्मात्मक वस्तुका उपदेश करती हूँ, जो श्रद्धा-साधनसे उपलब्ध होती है ।
    ५ मैं स्वयं ही ब्रह्मात्मक वस्तुका उपदेश करती हूँ । देवताओं और मनुष्योंने भी इसीका सेवन किया है । मैं स्वयं ब्रह्मा हूँ । मैं जिसकी रक्षा करना चाहती हूँ, उसे सर्वश्रेष्ठ बना देती हूँ, मैं चाहूँ तो उसे सृष्टिकर्ता ब्रह्मा बना दूँ और उसे बृहस्पतिके समान सुमेधा बना दूँ । मैं स्वयं अपने स्वरुप ब्रह्मभिन्न आत्माका गान कर रही हूँ ।
    ६ मैं ही ब्रह्मज्ञानियोंके द्वेषी हिंसारत त्रिपुरवासी त्रिगुणाभिमानी अहंकारी असुरका वध करनेके लिये संहारकारी रुद्रके धनुषपर ज्या (प्रत्यञ्चा) चढाती हूँ । मैं ही अपने जिज्ञासु स्तोताओंके विरोधी शत्रुओंके साथ संग्राम करके उन्हें पराजित करती हूँ । मैं ही द्युलोक और पृथिवीमें अन्तर्यामिरुपसे प्रविष्ट हूँ ।
    ७ इस विश्वके शिरोभागपर विराजमान द्युलोक अथवा आदित्यरुप पिताका प्रसव मैं ही करती रहती हूँ । उस कारणमें ही तन्तुओंमें पटके समान आकाशादि सम्पूर्ण कार्य दीख रहा है । दिव्य कारण-वारिरुप समुद्र, जिसमें सम्पूर्ण प्राणियों एवं पदार्थोंका उदय-विलय होता रहता है, वह ब्रह्मचैतन्य ही मेरा निवासस्थान है । यही कारण है कि मैं सम्पूर्ण भूतोंमें अनुप्रविष्ट होकर रहती हूँ और अपने कारणभूत मायात्मक स्वशरीरसे सम्पूर्ण दृश्य कार्यका स्पर्श करती हूँ ।
    ८ जैसे वायु किसी दूसरेसे प्रेरित न होनेपर भी स्वयं प्रवाहित होता है, उसी प्रकार मैं ही किसी दूसरेके द्वारा प्रेरित और अधिष्ठित न होनेपर भी स्वयं ही कारणरुपसे सम्पूर्ण भूतरुप कार्योंका आरम्भ करती हूँ । मैं आकाशसे भी परे हूँ और इस पृथ्वीसे भी । अभिप्राय यह है कि मैं सम्पूर्ण विकारोंसे परे, असङ्ग, उदासीन, कूटस्थ ब्रह्मचैतन्य हूँ । अपनी महिमासे सम्पूर्ण जगत् के रुपमें मैं ही बरत रही हूँ, रह रही हूँ ।   


    Section 1. आदित्य, वरुण, मित्रअश्विनी-कुमार

     ब्रह्मस्वरुपा मैं रुद्र, वसु, आदित्य और विश्र्वदेवताके रुपमें विचरण करती हूँ, अर्थात् मैं ही उन सभी रुपोमें भासमान हो रही हूँ । मैं ही ब्रह्मरुपसे मित्र और वरुण दोनोंको धारण करती हूँ । मैं ही इन्द्र और अग्निका आधार हूँ । मैं ही दोनो अश्विनीकुमारोंका धारण-पोषण करती हूँ ।

    I wander in the forms of Rudra, Vasu, Aditya, Viśvedevatā. I bear both Mitra and Varua.

    आ-धार m. support , prop , stay , substratum. I am the ādhāra of Indra and Agni. I support and nourish the twin, aśvinīkumāra.

    अश्विनी-कुमार  m. the son of अश्विनी (said to be the father of the first physician) BrahmaP. i.

    मित्र m. the sun; (orig. मित्-त्र , fr. √ मिथ् or मिद् ; cf. मेदिन्) a friend , companion , associate RV. AV. (in later language mostly n.); N. of an आदित्य (generally invoked together with वरुण cf. मित्रा-व्° , and often associated with अर्यमन् q.v. ; मित्र is extolled alone in RV. iii , 59, and there described as calling men to activity , sustaining earth and sky and beholding all creatures with unwinking eye ; in later times he is considered as the deity of the constellation अनुराधा , and father of उत्सर्गRV. &c

    वरुण the water, the oceanm. (once in the TA1r. वरुण्/अ) " All-enveloping Sky " , N. of an आदित्य (in the वेद commonly associated with मित्र [q.v.] and presiding over the night as मित्रover the day , but often celebrated separately , whereas मित्र is rarely invoked alone ; वरुण is one of the oldest of the Vedic gods , and is commonly thought to correspond to the ÎŸá½ÏÎ±Î½ÏŒÏ‚ of the Greeks , although of a more spiritual conception ; he is often regarded as the supreme deity , being then styled " king of the gods " or " king of both gods and men " or " king of the universe " ; no other deity has such grand attributes and functions assigned to him ; he is described as fashioning and upholding heaven and earth , as possessing extraordinary power and wisdom called माया , as sending his spies or messengers throughout both worlds , as numbering the very winkings of men's eyes , as hating falsehood , as seizing transgressors with his पाश or noose , as inflicting diseases , especially dropsy , as pardoning sin , as the guardian of immortality ; he is also invoked in the वेद together with इन्द्र , and in later Vedic literature together with अग्नि , with यम , and with विष्णु ; in RV. iv , 1 , 2, he is even called the brother of अग्नि; though not generally regarded in the वेद as a god of the ocean , yet he is often connected with the waters , especially the waters of the atmosphere or firmament , and in one place [ RV. vii , 64 , 2] is called with मित्र , सिन्धु-पति , " lord of the sea or of rivers " ; hence in the later mythology he became a kind of Neptune , and is there best known in his character of god of the ocean ; in the MBh. वरुण is said to be a son of कर्दम and father of पुष्कर , and is also variously represented as one of the देव-गन्धर्वs , as a नाग , as a king of the नागs , and as an असुर ; he is the regent of the western quarter [cf. लोक-पाल] and of the नक्षत्र शतभिषज् [ VarBr2S. ] ; the जैनs consider वरुण as a servant of the twentieth अर्हत् of the present अवसर्पिणी) RV. &c &c (cf. IW.10 ; 12 &c )

    आदित्य  mfn. ( Pa1n2. 4-1 , 85) belonging to or coming from अदिति TS. ii , 2 , 6 , 1 S3Br. &c; m. pl. N. of seven deities of the heavenly sphere RV. ix , 114 , 3 , &c S3Br. iii , 1 , 3 , 3 (the chief is वरुण , to whom the N. आदित्य is especially applicable ; the succeeding five are मित्र , अर्यमन् , भग , दक्ष , अंश ; that of the seventh is probably सूर्य or सवितृ ; as a class of deities they are distinct from the विश्वे देवाःChUp. ; sometimes their number is supposed to be eight TS. Sa1y. ; and in the period of the ब्राह्मणs twelve , as representing the sun in the twelve months of the year S3Br. iv , 5 , 7 , 2 , &c ) आदित्या f. (?) the sun VS. iv , 21

    Section 2. आ-हनस्, त्वष्टृ, पूषन्, भग

     मैं ही शत्रुनाशक, कामादि दोष-निवर्तक, परमाल्हाददायी, यज्ञगत सोम, चन्द्रमा, मन अथवा शिवका भरण पोषण करती हूँ । मैं ही त्वष्टा, पूषा और भगको भी धारण करती हूँ । जो यजमान यज्ञमें सोमाभिषवके द्वारा देवताओंको तृप्त करनेके लिये हाथमें हविष्य लेकर हवन करता है, उसे लोक-परलोकमें सुखकारी फल देनेवाली मैं ही हूँ ।

    आ-हनस् mfn. to be beaten or pressed out (as सोम); to be skimmed (as milk) RV. The expression अहं सोममाहनसं is significant inproviding a lead to the nature of the product, soma. A remarkable expression yields the early avocation of the soma presser. The expression is: ahan-gār अहन्-गार् (= ) m. a blacksmith (H. xii, 16) (Kashmiri) P آهن āhan, s.m. (9th) Iron. Sing. and Pl. آهن ګر āhan gar, s.m. (5th) A smith, a blacksmith. Pl. آهن ګران āhan-garānآهن ربا āhan-rubā, s.f. (6th) The magnet or loadstone. (E.) Sing. and Pl.); (W.) Pl. آهن رباوي āhan-rubāwī. See اوسپنهپنه aos-panaʿh, s.f. (3rd) Iron. Also used as an adjective to qualify another noun, signifying, Iron-like, hard. Pl. يْ eyاوسپنخړيَ aos-panḵẖaṟṟaey, s.m. (1st) The dross of iron left after melting. Pl. يِ ī.(Pashto) The Pashto expression aos-pana is cognate of gveda word ayas'alloy metal'aya'iron' (Gujarati) अयस् steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]); n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10; gold. The word āhan <अशन् m. (connected with √ अश्) ([only /अश्ना (instr.) and /अश्नस् , perhaps better derived from /अश्मन् q.v. , cf. Whitney's Gr. 425 e]) , stone , rock RV. x , 68 , 8; a stone for slinging , missile stone RV. ii , 30 , 4 and iv , 28 , 5; ( NBD. ) the firmament RV. i , 164 , i ; 173 , 2 ; x , 27 , 15 [in the first two of these three passages the form /अश्नस् has before been taken as nom. sg. m.fr. 1. अश्न q.v.]; अश्न m. (cf. /अशन्) , a stone RV. viii , 2 , 2. The early association of stone with a thunderbolt yields the term अशनी f. = अश्/अनि , the thunderbolt S3Br. xi (voc.R. iii , 35 , 40.

    मैं ही त्वष्टा, पूषा और भगको भी धारण करती हूँ| I support tvaṣṭr̥, Puṣa, Bhaga.

    त्वष्टृ m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृ) AV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/इ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम् अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/अ-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुs i , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस् or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा TBr.S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23 ; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर् आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. ); a form of the sun MBh. iii , 146 Hariv. 13143 BhP. iii , 6 , 15;name of an आदित्य MBh. i Hariv. BhP. vi , 6 , 37 VP. i , 15 , 130 ; ii , 10 , 16; name of a रुद्र , i , 15 , 122.

    पूषन् m. (the अ not lengthened in the strong cases , but acc. °षाणम् , in Ma1rkP. N. of a Vedic deity (originally connected with the sun , and therefore the surveyor of all things , and the conductor on journeys and on the way to the next world , often associated with सोम or the Moon as protector of the universe ; he is , moreover , regarded as the keeper of flocks and herds and bringer of prosperity ; in the ब्राह्मणs he is represented as having lost his teeth and feeding on a kind of gruel , whence he is called करम्भा*द् ; in later times he is one of the 12 आदित्यs and regent of the नक्षत्र रेवती or पौष्ण ;du. " पूषन् 
    and अर्यमन् " VP. Sch.)

    भग m. (ifc. f(आ and ई). g. बह्व्-ादि) " dispenser " , gracious lord , patron (applied to gods , esp. to सवितृ) RV. AV.; N. of an आदित्य (bestowing wealth and presiding over love and marriage , brother of the Dawn , regent of the नक्षत्र उत्तर-फल्गुनी ; यास्क enumerates him among the divinities of the highest sphere ; according to a later legend his eyes were destroyed by रुद्र) ib. &c; the नक्षत्र उत्तर-फल्गुनी MBh. vi , 81; mn. = यत्न , प्रयत्न , कीर्ति , यशस् , वैराग्य , इच्छा , ज्ञान , मुक्ति , मोक्ष , धर्म , श्री L. [cf. Zd. bagha = Old Pers. baga ; Slav. bogu8 , bogatu8 ; Lith.bago4tas , na-ba4gas.]

    ३ मैं ही राष्ट्री अर्थात् सम्पूर्ण जगत् की ईश्र्वरी हूँ । मैं उपासकोंको उनके अभीष्ट वसु-धन प्राप्त करानेवाली हूँ ।

    Section 3. वसु, रुद्र, ऋभु

    वसु  
    a symbolical N. of the number " eight " VarBr2S.; N. of the gods (as the " good or bright ones " , esp. of the आदित्यs , मरुत्s , अश्विन्s , इन्द्र , उषस् , रुद्र , वायु , विष्णु , शिव , and कुबेरRV. AV. MBh. R.; of a partic. class of gods (whose number is usually eight , and whose chief is इन्द्र , later अग्नि and विष्णु ; they form one of the nine गणs or classes enumerated under गण-देवता q.v. ; the eight वसुs were originally personifications , like other Vedic deities , of natural phenomena , and are usually mentioned with the other गणs common in the वेद , viz. the eleven रुद्रs and the twelve आदित्यs , constituting with them and with द्यौस् , " Heaven " , and पृथिवी , " Earth " [or , according to some , with इन्द्र and प्रजा-पति , or , according to others , with the two अश्विन्s] , the thirty-three gods to which reference is frequently made ; the names of the वसुs , according to the विष्णु-पुराण , are , 1. आप [connected with अप् , " water "] ; 2. ध्रुव , " the Pole-star " ; 3. सोम , " the Moon " ; 4. धव or धर ; 5. अनिल , " Wind " ; 6. अनल or पावक , " Fire " ; 7. प्रत्यूष , " the Dawn " ; 8. प्रभास , " Light " ; but their names are variously given ; अहन् , " Day " , being sometimes substituted for 1 ; in their relationship to Fire and Light they appear to belong to Vedic rather than Puranic mythology) RV. &c. The hieroglyph, homonymous (similar sounding word) which signifies the thunderbolt is: श्येन m. a hawk , falcon , eagle , any bird of prey (esp. the eagle that brings down सोम to man) RV. &c; firewood laid in the shape of an eagle S3ulbas.; श्यैन mfn. coming from a hawk &c (» श्येन).

    रुद्र 
    m. N. of the number " eleven " (from the 11 रुद्रs) VarBr2S.; m. " Roarer or Howler " , N. of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the रुद्रs and मरुत्s (in the वेद he is closely connected with इन्द्र and still more with अग्नि , the god of fire , which , as a destroying agent , rages and crackles like the roaring storm , and also with काल or Time the all-consumer , with whom he is afterwards identified ; though generally represented as a destroying deity , whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle , he has also the epithet शिव , " benevolent " or " auspicious " , and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere ; in the later mythology the word शिव , which does not occur as a name in the वेद , was employed , first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for रुद्र , who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle ; while a new class of beings , described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number , though still called रुद्रs , took the place of the original रुद्रs or मरुत्s: in VP. i , 7, रुद्र is said to have sprung from ब्रह्मा's forehead , and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female , the former portion separating again into the 11 रुद्रs , hence these later रुद्रs are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of शिव , and most of their names , which are variously given in the different पुराणs , are also names of शिव ; those of the Va1yuP. are अजैकपाद् , अहिर्-बुध्न्य , हर , निरृत , ईश्वर , भुवन , अङ्गारक , अर्ध-केतु , मृत्यु , सर्प , कपालिन् ; accord. to others the रुद्रs are represented as children of कश्यप and सुरभि or of ब्रह्मा and सुरभि or of भूतand सु-रूपा ; accord. to VP. i , 8, रुद्र is one of the 8 forms of शिव ; elsewhere he is reckoned among the दिक्-पालs as regent of the north-east quarter) RV. &c (cf.RTL. 75 &c )

    ऋभु R̥bhu mfn. ( √रभ्) , clever , skilful , inventive , prudent (said of इन्द्र , अग्नि , and the आदित्यs RV. ; also of property or wealth RV. iv , 37 , 5 ; viii , 93 , 34 ; of an arrow AV. i , 2 , 3)

    I submit that त्वष्टृ, वसु, रुद्र, ऋभु are metaphors in Chandas in the context of wealth of a nation. Hence, the use of the central phrase: Rāṣṭram personified, deified as fem. Rāṣṭrī in R̥gveda 10.125 with the expression rendered in a soliloquy: 

    अहं राष्ट्री संगमनी वसूनां चिकितुषी प्रथमा यज्ञियानाम् । तां मा देवा व्यदधुः पुरुत्रा भूरिस्थात्रां भूर्यावेशयन्तीम् ॥ ३ ॥

    This राष्ट्री, 'nation' divinity of the Suktam makes an offering to Devatā ātmā. 

    Devatā ātmā invoked in these mantra-s of R̥gveda 10.125 are an invocation of principle of life and sensation. In my view, this is a tribute to life activities of people engaged in producing, acquiring wealth for the nation to be shared as a commonwealth with all the peoples. 

    Since Indus Script Hypertexts in over 8000 inscriptions are wealth accounting ledgers, metalworking catalogues, I suggest that the narrative of these inscriptions constitute the quintessence of the Rāṣṭrī suktam (RV 10.125) which categorically states that I am the Rāṣṭram, the collectress, mover of wealth. 

    In the context of life activities, the devatā of the Suktam is ātmā, 'life principle and sensation' which is epitomised in the activities of artisans and seafaring Meluhha merchants engaged in creating the wealth of a Nation, Rāṣṭram. 

    Descriptors which are perceptions in awe of the might of a river

    Sarasvati, the Mother of Floods


    7.36: 1. LET the prayer issue from the seat of Order, for Surya with his beams hath loosed the cattle. With lofty ridges earth is far extended, and Agnis' flame hath lit the spacious surface.
    2 O Asuras, O Varuna and Mitra, this hymn to you, like food, anew I offer. One of you is a strong unerring Leader, and Mitra, speaking, stirreth men to labour.
    3 The movements of the gliding wind come hither: like cows, the springs are filled to overflowing. Born in the station even of lofty heaven the Bull hath loudly bellowed in this region.
    4 May I bring hither with my song, O Indra, wise Aryaman who yokes thy dear Bay Horses, Voracious, with thy noble car, O Hero, him who defeats the wrath of the malicious.
    5 In their own place of sacrifice adorers worship to gain long life and win his friendship.He hath poured food on men when they have praised him; be this, the dearest reverence, paid to Rudra.
    6 Coming together, glorious, loudly roaring - SarasvatiMother of Floods, the seventh-With copious milk, with fair streams, strongly flowing, full swelling with the volume of theirwater;
    7. And may the mighty Maruts, too, rejoicing, aid our devotion and protect our offspring.Let not swiftmoving- Aksara neglect us: they have increased our own appropriate riches,
    8 Bring ye the great Aramati before you, and Pusan as the Hero of the synod,Bhaga who looks upon this hymn with favour, and, as our strength, the bountiful Purandbi.
    9 May this our song of praise reach you, O Maruts, and Visnu guardian of the future infant.May they vouchsafe the singer strength for offspring. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
    ( In the original, the plurals are juxtaposed with the singular sarasvat
    ī saptathī sindhu-mātā. The notion of ‘seven mother rivers’ implicit in ‘the seventh mother river’ makes the transition possible.) See  Aklujkar section §3.7 for “Mother of Floods, the seventh.” 

    sarasvatī the seventh (RV 7.36.6), naditama (RV 2.41.16), sindhumātā, mother of rivers (RV 7.36.6), seven mighty rivers that seek he sea (RV 1.71.7), swells with rivers (RV 6.52.6), two sapta sindhavah (RV 8.54.4), associates named dadvati, āpayā (RV 3.23.4), with kings on her banks (RV 8.21.18), in the mountains (RV 7.95.2), samudra, gatherer of the waters (RV 7.95.2), surpasses all other rivers in majesty and might (RV 7.95.2), fierce (RV 6.62.7), swifter than other streams (RV 6.61.13), its tempestuous roar (RV 6.61.8), bursts ridges with strong waves (RV 6.61.2), three-fold source for its spring (RV 6.61.12), prosperer of five peoples (RV 6.61.12),  seven rivers joining in number (RV 6.61.12), sapta svasa, 'seven-sistered' (RV 6.61.10).

    பஞ்சகம்மாளர் pañca-kammāḷarn. < pañcan +. The five castes of artisans, viz., taṭṭāṉ, kaṉṉāṉ, ciṟpaṉ, taccaṉ, kollaṉதட்டான், கன்னான், சிற்பன், தச்சன் கொல்லன் என்ற ஐவகைப் பட்ட கம்மாளர். (சங். அக.)  பஞ்சகம்மியர் pañca-kammiyarn. < id. +. The five castes of artisans; பஞ்சகம்மாளர். (சிற்பரத். முகவுரை, பக். 10.)



    5.46.1-4: 1. WELL knowing I have bound me, horselike, to the pole: I carry that which bears as on and gives us help. I seek for no release, no turning back therefrom. May he who knows the way, the Leader, guide me straight.
    2 O AgniIndraVaruna, and Mitra, give, O ye Gods, and Marut host, and Visnu. May both NasatyasRudra, heavenly MatronsPusanSarasvatiBhaga, accept us.
    Indra and AgniMitraVarunaAditi, the WatersMountainsMarutsSky, and Earth and Heaven, Visnu I call, Pusan, and Brahmanaspati, and BhagaSamsaSavitar that they may help.
    4 May Visnu also and Vata who injures none, and Soma granter of possessions give us joy; And may the Rbhus and the AsvinsTvastar and Vibhvan remember us so that we may have wealth.

    6.61:1. To Vadhryasva when. be worshipped her with gifts she gave fierce Divodasa, canceller of debts.
    Consumer of the churlish niggard, one and all, thine, O Sarasvati, are these effectual boons. 

    2 She with her might, like one who digs for lotusstems-, hath burst with her strong waves the ridges of the hills. Let us invite with songs and holy hymns for help Sarasvati who slayeth the Paravatas.
    3 Thou castest down, Sarasvati, those who scorned the Gods, the brood of every Brsaya skilled in
    magic arts.Thou hast discovered rivers for the tribes of men, and, rich in wealth! made poison flow away from them.
    4 May the divine Sarasvati, rich in her wealth, protect us well, Furthering all our thoughts with might
    5 Whoso, divine Sarasvati, invokes thee where the prize is set, Like Indra when he smites the foe.
    6 Aid us, divine Sarasvad, thou who art strong in wealth and power Like Pusan, give us opulence.
    7 Yea, this divine Sarasvati, terrible with her golden path, Foeslayer-, claims our eulogy.
    8 Whose limitless unbroken flood, swiftmoving- with a rapid rush, Comes onward with tempestuous roar.
    9 She hath spread us beyond all foes, beyond her Sisters, Holy One, As Surya spreadeth out the days.
    10 Yea, she most dear amid dear stream, Seven sistered-, graciously inclined, Sarasvati hath earned our praise.
    11 Guard us from hate Sarasvati, she who hath filled the realms of earth, And that wide tract, the firmament!
    12 Seven sistered-, sprung from threefold source, the Five Tribes' prosperer, she must be Invoked in every deed of might.
    13 Marked out by majesty among the Mighty Ones, in glory swifter than the other rapid Streams,
    Created vast for victory like a chariot, Sarasvati must be extolled by every sage.
    14 Guide us, Sarasvati, to glorious treasure: refuse us not thy milk, nor spurn us from thee.
    Gladly accept our friendship and obedience: let us not go from thee to distant countries.





    10.64.1-17: 1. WHAT God, of those who hear, is he whose wellpraised- name we may record in this our sacrifice;and how?Who will be gracious? Who of many give us bliss? Who out of all the Host will come to lend us aid?
    2 The will and thoughts within my breast exert their power: they yearn with love, and fly to all the regions round.None other comforter is found save only these: my longings and my hopes are fixt upon the Gods.
    3 To Narasamsa and to Pusan I sing forth, unconcealable Agni kindied by the Gods. To Sun and Moon, two Moons, to Yama in the heaven, to TritaVata, Dawn, Night, and the AtvinsTwain.
    4 How is the Sage extolled whom the loud singers praise? What voice, what hymn is used to laud Brhaspati? May AjaEkapad- with Rkvans swift to hear, and Ahi of the Deep listen unto our call.
    Aditi, to the birth of Daksa and the vow thou summonest the Kings Mitra and Varuna. With course unchecked, with many chariots Aryaman comes with the seven priests to tribes of varied sort.
    6 May all those vigorous Coursers listen to our cry, hearers of invocation, speeding on their way; Winners of thousands where the priestly meed is won, who gather of themselves great wealth in every race.
    7 Bring ye Purandbi, bring Vayu who yokes his steeds, for friendship bring ye Pusan with your songs of praise: They with one mind, one thought attend the sacrifice, urged by the favouring aid of Savitar theGod.
    8 The thriceseven- wandering Rivers, yea, the mighty floods, the forest trees, the mountains, Agni to our aid,KrsanuTisya, archers to our gatheringplace-, and Rudra strong amid the Rudras we invoke. 
    9 Let the great Streams come hither with their mighty help, SindhuSarasvati, and Sarayu with waves. Ye Goddess Floods, ye Mothers, animating all, promise us water rich in fatness and in balm.
    10 And let Brhaddiva, the Mother, hear our call, and Tvastar, Father, with the Goddesses and Dames
    RbhuksanVajaBhaga, and Rathaspati, and the sweet speech of him who labours guard us well!
    11 Pleasant to look on as a dwelling rich in food is the blest favour of the MarutsRudrasSons. May we be famed among the folk for wealth in kine. and ever come to you, ye Gods, with sacred food.
    12 The thought which ye, O MarutsIndra and ye Gods have given to me, and ye, Mitra and Varuna, Cause this to grow and swell like a milchcow with milk. Will ye not bear away my songs upon your car?
    13 O Maruts, do ye never, never recollect and call again to mind this our relationship? When next we meet together at the central point, even there shall Aditi confirm our brotherhood.
    14 The Mothers, Heaven and Earth, those mighty Goddesses, worthy of sacrifice, ecune with the race of Gods. These Two with their support uphold both Gods and men, and with the Fathers pour the copious genial stream.
    15 This invocation wins all good that we desire Brhaspati, highlypraised- Aramati, are here, Even where the stone that presses meath rings loudly out, and where the sages make their voices heard with hymns.
    16 Thus hath the sage, skilled in loud singers' duties, desiring riches, yearning after treasure, Gaya, the priestly singer, with his praises and hymns contented the Celestial people.
    17 Thus hath the thoughtful sage the son of Plati, praised you, O Aditi and all AdityasMen are made rich by those who are Immortal: the Heavenly Folk have been extolled by Gaya.





    10.65.1-15: 1. MAY Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varuna consent, Aryaman, Vayu, Pusan, and SarasvatiAdityas, Maruts, Visnu, Soma, lofty Sky, Rudra and Aditi, and Brahmanaspati.
    2 Indra and Agni, Herolords- when Vrtra fell, dwelling together, speeding emulously on, And Soma blent with oil, putting his greatness forth, have with their power filled full the mighty firmament.
    3 Skilled in the Law I lift the hymn of praise to these, Lawstrengtheners-, unassailed, and great in majesty.
    These in their wondrous bounty send the watery sea: may they as kindly Friends send gifts to make us great.
    4 They with their might have stayed Heaven, Earth, and Prthivi, the Lord of Light, the firmament, the- lustrous spheres. Even as fleetfoot- steeds who make their masters glad, the princely Gods are praised, most bountiful to man.
    5 Bring gifts to Mitra and to Varuna who, Lords of all, in spirit never fail the worshipper, Whose statute shines on high through everlasting Law, whose places of sure refuge are the heavens and earth.
    6 The cow who yielding milk goes her appointed way hither to us as leader of holy rites, Speaking aloud to Varuna and the worshipper, shall with oblation serve Vivasvan and the Gods. 
    7 The Gods whose tongue is Agni dwell in heaven, and sit, aiders of Law, reflecting, in the seat of Law.
    They propped up heaven and then brought waters with their might, got sacrifice and in a body made
    it fair.
    8 Born in the oldest time, the Parents dwelling round are sharers of one mansion in the home of Law.
    Bound by their common vow Dyaus, Prthivi stream forth the moisture rich in oil to Varuna the Steer.
    9 Parjanya, Vata, mighty, senders of the rain, Indra and Vayu, Varuna, Mitra, AryamanWe call on Aditi, Adityas, and the Gods, those who are on the earth, in waters, and in heaven.
    10 Tvastar and V
    āyu, those who count as Rbhus, both celestial Hotar priests-, and Dawn for happiness,
    Winners of wealth, we call, and wise Brhaspati, destroyer of our foes, and Soma Indras' Friend.
    11 They generated prayer, the cow, the horse, the plants, the forest trees, the earth, the waters, and the hills. These very bounteous Gods made the Sun mount to heaven, and spread the righteous laws of Aryas
    over the land.
    12 O Asvins, ye delivered Bhujyu from distress, ye animated Syava, Vadhrmatis' son. To Vimada ye brought his consort Kamadyu, and gave his lost Visnapu back to Visvaka

    13 Thunder, the lightnings' daughter, AjaEkapad-, heavens' bearer, Sindhu, and the waters of the sea:
    Hear all the Gods my words, Sarasvati give ear together with Purandhi and with Holy Thoughts.
    14 With Holy Thoughts and with Purandhi may all Gods, knowing the Law immortal, Manus' Holy Ones,
    Boongivers-, favourers, finders of light, and Heaven, with gracious love accept my songs, my prayer, my hymn. 

    15 Immortal Gods have I, Vasistha, lauded, Gods set on high above all other beings.
    May they this day grant us wide space and freedom: ye Gods, preserve us evermore with blessings.
    I, therefore, submit that RV 10.125 Rāṣṭrī suktam is the R̥gveda textual metaphor Chandas equivalent of the Indus Script Hypertexts rendered in Meluhha speech forms (Indian sprachbund, speech union).


    वसु N. of the gods (as the " good or bright ones " , esp. of the आदित्यs , मरुत्s , अश्विन्s , इन्द्र , उषस् , रुद्र , वायु , विष्णु , शिव , and कुबेर) RV. AV. MBh. R.; of a partic. class of gods (whose number is usually eight , and whose chief is इन्द्र , later अग्नि and विष्णु ; they form one of the nine गणs or classes enumerated under गण-देवता q.v. ; the eight वसुs were originally personifications , like other Vedic deities , of natural phenomena , and are usually mentioned with the other गणs common in the वेद , viz. the eleven रुद्रs and the twelve आदित्यs , constituting with them and with द्यौस् , " Heaven " , and पृथिवी , " Earth " [or , according to some , with इन्द्र and प्रजा-पति , or , according to others , with the two अश्विन्s] , the thirty-three gods to which reference is frequently made ; the names of the वसुs , according to the विष्णु-पुराण , are , 1. आप [connected with अप् , " water "] ; 2. ध्रुव , " the Pole-star " ; 3. सोम , " the Moon " ; 4. धव or धर ; 5. अनिल , " Wind " ; 6. अनल or पावक , " Fire " ; 7. प्रत्यूष , " the Dawn " ; 8. प्रभास , " Light " ; but their names are variously given ; अहन् , " Day " , being sometimes substituted for 1 ; in their relationship to Fire and Light they appear to belong to Vedic rather than Puranic mythology) RV. &c; a partic. ray of light VP.; a symbolical N. of the number " eight " (वराह-मिहिर 's बृहत्-संहिता)

    रुद्र m. " Roarer or Howler " , N. of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the रुद्रs and मरुत्s (in the वेद he is closely connected with इन्द्र and still more with अग्नि , the god of fire , which , as a destroying agent , rages and crackles like the roaring storm , and also with काल or Time the all-consumer , with whom he is afterwards identified ; though generally represented as a destroying deity , whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle , he has also the epithet शिव , " benevolent " or " auspicious " , and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere ; in the later mythology the word शिव , which does not occur as a name in the वेद , was employed , first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for रुद्र , who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle ; while a new class of beings , described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number , though still called रुद्रs , took the place of the original रुद्रs or मरुत्s: in VP. i , 7, रुद्र is said to have sprung from ब्रह्मा's forehead , and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female , the former portion separating again into the 11 रुद्रs , hence these later रुद्रs are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of शिव , and most of their names , which are variously given in the different पुराणs , are also names of शिव ; those of theVa1yuP. are अजैकपाद् , अहिर्-बुध्न्य , हर , निरृत , ईश्वर , भुवन , अङ्गारक , अर्ध-केतु , मृत्यु , सर्प , कपालिन् ; accord. to others the रुद्रs are represented as children of कश्यपand सुरभि or of ब्रह्मा and सुरभि or of भूत and सु-रूपा ; accord. to VP. i , 8, रुद्र is one of the 8 forms of शिव ; elsewhere he is reckoned among the दिक्-पालs as regent of the north-east quarter) RV. &c (cf. RTL. 75 &c )


    7.048.01 R.bhu, (Vibhu), and Va_ja, leaders of rites, possessors of opulence, be exhilarated by our effused (libation); may your active and powerful (horses) bring to our presence your chariot, beneficial to mankind. [r.bhuks.an.o va_jah, the use of the plural implies that the three brothers are intended].
    7.048.02 Mighty with the R.bhus, opulent with the Vibhus, may we overcome by strength, the strength (of our foes); may Va_ja defend us in battle; with Indra, our ally, may we destroy the enemy. [R.bhus: r.bhur r.bhubhih vibhvo vibhubhih: r.bhu and uru = great; vibhu vibhvah = rich or powerful].
    7.048.03 They verily, (Indra and R.bhus), overcome multitudes by their prowess; they overcome all enemies in the missile conflict; may Indra, Vibhvan, R.bhuks.in and Va_ja, the subduers of foes, annihilate by their wrath the strength of the enemy. [Missile: uparata_ti: upara = upala, a stone; upalaih pa_s.a_n.asadr.s'air a_yudhai ta_yate yuddham, war that is waged with weapons like stones, is uparatati].
    7.048.04 Grant us, deities, this day opulence; may you all, may you all, well-pleased alike, be (ready) for our protection; may the exalted (R.bhus) bestow upon us food; and do you (all) ever cherish us with blessings. [R.bhus: vasavah = Vasus; pras'asyah, an epithet of R.bhavah].
    Vṛṣākapi (वृषाकपि):—One of the Eleven Rudras (ekādaśa-rudra), according to the Agni-purāṇa. The Agni Purāṇa is a religious text containing details on Viṣṇu’s different incarnations (avatar), but also deals with various cultural subjects such as Cosmology, Grammar and Astrology.  Vṛṣākapi (वृषाकपि).—A Rudra, and a son of Bhūta and Sarūpā: Fought with Jambha in the Devāsura war.

    Viṣṇu Purāa 1.5 being devoted to it, was the wife of Prabhasa, the eighth of the Vasus, and bore to him the patriarch Viswakarma, the author of a thousand arts, the mechanist of the gods, the fabricator of all ornaments, the chief of artists, the constructor of the self moving chariots of the deities, and by whose skill men obtain subsistence. AjaikapadAhirvradhna, and the wise Rudra Twashtri, were born; and the self born son of Twashtri was also the celebrated Viswarupa. There are eleven well known Rudras, lords of the three worlds, or HaraBahurupaTryambakaAparajitaVrishakapiSambhuKaparddiRaivataMrigavyadhaSarva, and Kapali 17; but there are a hundred appellations of the immeasurably mighty Rudras 18.


    AtharvavedaAV 20.126

    [2012601] Men have abstained from pouring juice; nor counted Indra as a God.
    Where at the votary s store my friend Vrishakapi hath drunk his fill.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012602] Thou, Indra, heedless passest by the ill Vrishakapi hath wrought; Yet nowhere else thou findest place wherein to drink the Soma juice.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012603] What hath he done to injure thee, this tawny beast Vrishakapi, With whom thou art so angry now? What is the votary s food ful store? Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012604] Soon may the hound who hunts the boar seize him and bite him in the ear, O Indra, that Vrishakapi whom thou protectest as a friend.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012605] Kapi hath marred the beauteous things, all deftly wrought, that were my joy.
    In pieces will I rend his head; the sinner s portion shall be woe.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012606] No dame hath ampler charms than I, or greater wealth of love s delights.
    None with more ardour offers all her beauty to her lord s embrace.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012607] Mother whose love is quickly won,I say what verily will be, My breast, O mother, and my head and both my hips seem quivering Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012608] Dame with the lovely hands and arms, with broad hair plaits and ample hips, Why, O thou hero s wife, art thou angry with our Vrishakapi? Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012609] This noxious creature looks on me as one bereft of hero s love. [p. 361] Yet heroes for my sons have I, the Maruts friend and Indra s Queen Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012610] From olden time the matron goes to feast and general sacrifice.
    Mother of heroes, Indra s Queen, the rite s ordainer is extolled.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012611] So have I heard Indrani called most fortunate among these dames, For never shall her Consort die in future time through length of days.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012612] Never, Indrani have I joyed without my friend Vrishakapi, Whose welcome offering here, made pure with water, goeth to the Gods.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012613] Wealthy Vrishakapayi, blest with sons and consorts of thy sons, Indra will eat thy bulls, thy dear oblation that effecteth much.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012614] Fifteen in number, then, for me a score of bullocks they prepare.
    And I devour the fat thereof: they fill my belly full with food.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012615] Like as a bull with pointed horn, loud bellowing amid the herds, Sweet to thine heart, O Indra, is the brew which she who tends thee pours.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012616] Indrani speaks.
    Non ille fortis (ad Venerem) est cujus mentula laxe inter femora dependet; fortis vero estille cujus, quum sederit, membrum pilosum se extendit.
    Super omnia est Indra.
    [2012617] Indra speaks.
    Non fortis est ille cujus, quum sederit, membrum pilosum se extendit: fortis vero est ille cujus mentula laxe inter femora dependet.
    Super omnia est Indra.
    [2012618] O Indra, this Vrishakapi hath found a slain wild animal, Dresser, and new made pan, and knife, and wagon with a load of wood.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012619] Distinguishing the Dasa and the Arya, viewing all, I go.
    I look upon the wise, and drink the simple votary s Soma juice.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012620] The desert plains and steep descents, how many leagues in length they spread! Go to the nearest houses, go unto thine home, Vrishakapi.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012621] Turn thee again Vrishakapi; we twain will bring thee happiness.
    Thou goest homeward on thy way along this path which leads to sleep.
    Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012622] When, Indra and Vrishakapi, ye travelled upward to your home, Where was that noisome beast, to whom went it, the beast that troubles man? Supreme is Indra over all.
    [2012623] Daughter of ManuParsu bare a score of children at a birth. [p. 362] Her portion verily was bliss although her burthen caused her grief.
    [p. 363]

    The legend of vr̥ṣākapi The legend appears in R̥gVeda X.86 which is not an easy hymn to understand. Tilak (1893) gives a long verse by verse discussion of this hymn and concludes that the import of the legend can be understood by taking vr̥ṣākapi to represent the sun at vernal equinox when the dog star started the equinoctial year. Again Tilak interpreted this to mean vernal equinox occurring at Orion. However, it is our opinion that this legend also refers to the same event namely the equinoctical year with the Dog star and is illustrated by the figure 8.
    1.020.01 This hymn, the bestower of riches, has been addressed by the sages, with their own mouths, to the (class of) divinities having birth (lit. to the divine or brilliant birth; e.g. R.bhus--R.bhu, Vibhu and Va_ja were pious men, who through penance became divinities). [deva_ya janmane: lit. to the divine or brilliant birth; janmane: ja_yama_na_ya, being born, or having birth; deva_ya: deva-san:gha_ya, a class of divinities, R.bhus who achieved deification: manus.ya_h santastapasa_ devatvam pra_pta_h. R.bhus were three sons of Sudhanvan, a descendant of An:giras. Through their good work (svapas = su-apas), they became divine, exercised superhuman powers and became entitled to receive praise and adoration. They dwell in the solar sphere, identified with the rays of the sun].

    1.020.02 They who created mentally for Indra the horses that are harnessed (carved) at his words, have partaken of the sacrifice performed with holy acts. (s'ami_bhih = ceremonies; i.e. they have pervaded, appropriated or accepted the sacrifice peformed with tongs, ladles, and utensils; an intimation of the mechanical skills of R.bhu). [grahacamasa_dinis'pa_danaru_paih karmabhir, yajn~am, asmadi_yam a_s'ata (vya_ptavantah): they have pervaded (or accepted) our sacrifice, performed with those acts which are executed by means of tongs, ladles, and other (utensils used in oblations). R.bhus invented these implements, and attest to their mechanical skills].

    1.020.03 They constructed for the Na_satya_s, a universally-moving and easy car, and a cow yielding milk. (taks.an = ataks.an, lit. they (R.bhus) chipped or fabricated, mechanically, the appendages of Indra and As'vin). [They carved (tataks.uh) Indar's horse; they did it mentally (ma_nasa)].

    1.020.04 The R.bhus, uttering unfailing prayers, endowed with rectitude, and succeeding (in all pious acts; vis.t.i_ = vya_ptiyuktah, i.e. encountering no opposition in all acts), made their (aged) parents young. [satya-mantra_h = repeating true prayers, i.e. prayers certain to achieve the objects prayed for; akrata: fr. kr., to make generally].

    1.020.05 R.bhus, the exhilarating juices are offered to you, along with Indra, attended by the Maruts and along with the brilliang A_dityas. [Libations offered at the third daily, or evening sacrifice, are presented to Indra, along with the A_dityas, together with R.bhu, Vibhu and Va_ja, with Br.haspati and the Vis'vedeva_s (A_s'vala_yana S'rauta Su_tra, 5.3)].

    1.020.06 The R.bhus have divided unto four the new ladle, the work of the divine Tvas.t.a_ (i.e. devasambandhih taks.ana.vya_pa_rah = divinity whose duty in relations to gods is carpentry; cf. tvas.t.a_ tvas.t.uh s'is.ya_h R.bhavah = R.bhus are the disciples of Tvas.t.a_; four ladles are an apparent reference to an innovation in the objects of libation for sharing). [Tvas.t.a_ is the artisan of the gods; he is a divinity whose duty is carpentry, with relation to the gods].

    1.020.07 May they, moved by our praises, give to the offere of the libation many precious things, and perfect the thrice seven sacrifices [i.e. seven sacrifices in each of three classes: agnya_dheyam (clarified butter), pa_kayajn~a (dressed viands), agnis.t.oma (soma)]. [Trira_ sa_pta_ni: trih may be applied to precious things to sa_pta_ni, seven sacrifices].

    1.020.08 Offerers (of sacrifices), they held (a moral existence); by their pious acts they obtained a share of sacrifices with the gods. [a_dha_rayanta = they held or enjoyed (pra_n.a_n, i.e. vital airs, life)] [marta_sah santo amr.tatvam anas'uh: beyong mortals, they obtained immprtality (RV. 1.110.4); saudhanvana_ yajn~iyam bha_gam a_nas'a: by the son of Sudhanvan was a sacrificial portion acquired (RV. 1.60.1); r.bhavo vai deves.u tapasa_ somapi_tham abhyajayan: r.bhus won by devotion the drinking of Soma among the gods (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.30)].



    1.110.01 R.bhus, the rite formerly celebrated by me is again repeated, and the melodious hymn is recited in your praise; in this ceremony, the Soma is sufficient for all the gods; drink of it to your utmost content when offered on the fire.
    1.110.02 When, R.bhus, you who are amongst my ancestors, yet immature (in wisdom), but desirous of enjoying (the Soma libations), retired to the forest to perform (penance), then, sons of Sudhanvan, throught he plenitude of your completed (devotions), you came to the (sacrificial) hall of the worshipper Savita_. [r.bhurvibhva_ va_ja iti sudhanvana a_n:girasasya trayah putra_h babhu_vuh (Nirukta 11.16): Sudhanvan, father of the R.bhus, was a descendant of An:giras; so is Kutsa; pra_n~cah = pu_rva ka_li_na, of a former period; Kutsa is a kinsman of R.bhus of a former period].
    1.110.03 Then Savita_ bestowed upon you immortality, when you came to him, who is not to be concealed, and representd (your desire) to partake of the libations; and that ladle for the sacrificial viands which the Asura had formed single, you made fourfold. [Who is not to be concealed: In the previous hymn, Savita_ (fr. su, to offer oblations) perhaps refers to the presenter of oblations; in this hymn, the sun is alluded to].
    1.110.04 Associated with the priests, and quickly performing the holy rites, they, being yet mortals, acquired immortality and the son of Sudhanvan, the R.bhus, brilliant as the sun, became connected with the ceremonies (appropriated to the different season) of the year.
    1.110.05 Lauded by the bystanders, the R.bhus, with a sharp weapon, meted out the single sacrificial ladle, like a field (measured by a rod), soliciting the best (libations) and desiring (to participate of) sacrificial food amongs thte gods.
    6 To the leaders (of the sacrifice), dwelling in the firmament, we present, as with a ladle, the appointed clarified butter, and praise with knowledge those R.bhus, who, having equalled the velocityof the protector (of the universe, the sun), ascended to the region of heaven, through (the offerings) of (sacrificial) food. [nr.bhyah = yajn~asya netr.bhyah; r.bhavo hi yajn~asya neta_rah: 'the r.bhus are the leaders of the sacrifice'; because of this position, they obtained immortality; the term is perhaps connected with antariks.asya, to the chief of the firmament; r.bhus also identified with the solar rays (a_dityaras'mayo api r.bhava ucyanti: the r.bhus are, indeed, said to be the rays of the sun].
    1.110.07 The most excellent R.bhu is in strength our defender; R.bhu, through gifts of food and of wealth, is our asylum; may he bestow them upon us, Gods, through your protection; may we, upon a favourable occasion, overcome the hosts of those who offer no libations.
    1.110.08 R.bhus, you covered the cow with a hide, and reunited themother with the calf; sons of Sudhanvan, leaders (of sacrifice), through your good works you rendered your aged parents young. [Legend: a r.s.i, whose cow had died, leaving a calf prayed to the r.bhus for assistance, on which, they formed a living cow, and covered it with the skin of the dead one, from which the calf imagined it to be its own mother].
    1.110.09 Indra, associated with the R.bhus, supply us, in the distribution of viands, with food, and consent to bestow upon us wonderful riches; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve them fo rus. [alternative: va_jebhir no va_jasa_tau aviddhi = protect us in battle with your horses].


    1.161.01 Is this our senior or our junior who has come (to us); has he come upon a message (from the gods); what is it we should say? Agni,brother, we revile not the ladle which is of exalted race; verily we assert the dignity of the wooden (implement). [The legend: the three R.bhus were engaged in a sacrifice and about to drink the Soma; the gods sent Agni to see what they were doing. Agni noticed that they resembled each other; Agni assumed a like form. The hymn refers to this form, calling him brother, and questionign his comparative age. The next hymn states the purpose of Agni's visit is to order the conversion of one spoon or ladle, camasa, used for drinking Soma, or for libations, into four spoons].
    1.161.02 Make fourfold the single ladle; so the gods command you; and for that purpose have I come, sons of Sudhanvan; if you accomplish this, you will be entitled to sacrifices along with the gods.
    1.161.03 Then said they, in answer to Agni, the messenger (of the gods). Whatever is to be done, whether a horse is to be made, or a car is to be made, or a cow is to be made, or the two (old parents) are to be made young, having done all these (acts), Brother Agni, we are then ready to do (what you desire) to be done. [cf. su_ktas 20, 110 and 111 which relate the marvels of the R.bhus].
    1.161.04 So doing R.bhus, you inquired: where, indeed, is he who came to us as a messenger? When Tvas.t.a_ observed the one ladle become four, he was immediately lost amongst the women. [gna_su antarnya_naje; the verb is explained: nyakto abhu_t; the combination of ni and anj is perhaps the converse of vyan~j, to be manifest, i.e. to be concealed, indistinct, or invisible. gna_ = stri_ (mena gna_ iti stri_n.a_m--Nirukta 3.21); str.yam a_tma_nam amanyata = he, Tvas.t.a_, fancied himself; woman, that is, he felt humbled, as feeble as a female].
    1.161.05 When Tvas.t.a_ said: let us slay those who have profaned the ladle, (designed) for the drinking of the gods; then they made use of other names for one another as the libation was poured out; and the maiden (mother) propitiated them by different appellations. [Then they made us of other names: a legend accounts for the origin of the names of the chief officiating priests; to evade the indignation of Tvas.t.a_, the R.bhus assumed the titles: adhvaryu, hota_ and udgata_;an individual engaged in priestly functions at a sacrifice is to be always addressed by these titles, and never by his own name; propitiated them by different appellations: anyair ena_n kanya_ na_mabhih sparat: kanya_ = svotpa_dayitri_ ma_ta_, a mother self-engendering].
    1.161.06 Indra has caparisoned his horses; the As'vins have harnessed their car; Br.haspati has accepted the omniform (cow); therefore, R.bhu, Vibhva and Va_ja, go the gods, doers of good deeds, enjoy your sacrificial portion.
    1.161.07 Sons of Sudhanvan, from a hideless (cow) you have formed a living one; by your marvellous acts you have made your aged parents young; from one horse you have fabricated another; harness now your chariot, and repair unto the gods.
    1.161.08 They, (the gods), have said, sons of Sudhanvan, drink of this water, (the Soma); or drink that which has been filtered through the mun~ja grass; or, if you be pleased with neither of these, be exhilarated (by that which is drunk) at the third (daily) sacrifice. [R.bhus may be participants of the libations offered at dawn or at noon; the right of the R.bhus to share in the third, or evening sacrifice is always acknowledged].
    1.161.09 Waters are the most excellent said one (of them). Agni is that most excellent, said another; the third declared to many the Earth (to be the most excellent), and thus speaking true things the R.bhus divided the ladle. [The earth: vardhayanti_m = a line of clouds or the earth: vadhah arkah (Nirukta 2.20.7)].
    1.161.10 One pours the red water (the blood) upon the ground; one cuts the flesh, divided into fragments by the chopper; and a third seperates the excrement from the other parts; in what manner may the parents (of the sacrifice) render assistance to their sons? [The R.bhus are identified with the priests employed in the sacrifice of a victim; the parents of the sacrifice: the parents pitr.s, = the institutor of the ceremony and his wife].
    1.161.11 R.bhus, leaders (of the rains), you have caused the grass to grow upon the high places; you have caused the waters to flow over the low places; for (the promotion of) good works; as you have reposed for a while in the dwelling of the unapprehensible (Sun), so desist not today from (the discharge of) this (your function). [R.bhus are identified in this and following hymns with the rays of the sun, as the instruments of the rain and the causes of fertility; a_dityaras'mayo api r.bhava ucyante: (Nirukta 11.16); unapprehensible Sun: agohyasya gr.he: agohya = a name of the sun (Nirukta); who is not to be hidden, aguhani_ya;or, agrahan.i_ya, not to be apprehended, literally or metaphorically; so desist not: idam na_nugacchatha; anusr.tya na gacchatha, having come forth, go not away without doing this,idam, your office of sending down rain for as long a period as you repose in the solar orb; a truism is explained in Nirukta: ya_vat tatra bhavatha na ta_vadiha bhavatha, as long as you are there, you are not here].
    1.161.12 As you glide along enveloping the regions (in clouds); where, then, are the parents (of the world)? curse him who arrests your arm; reply sternly to him who speaks disrespectfully (to you). [The parents of the world: the sun and the moon, the protectors of the world, which, during the rains, are hidden by the clouds; who speaks disrespectfully:  yah pra_bravi_t pra tasma_ abravi_tana: pra prefixed to bru_ = either to speak harshly or kindly, to censure or to praise].
    1.161.13 R.bhus, reposing in the solar orb, you inquire: who awakens us, unapprehensive (Sun), to this office (of sending rain). The Sun replies: the awakener is the wind; and the year (being ended), you again today light up this (world). [The awakener is the wind: s'va_nam bodhayita_ram = the awakener is the dog; but, s'va_nam = antarks.e svasantam va_yum, the reposer in the firmament, the wind; sam.vatsare idam adya_ vyakhyata, you have made this world today luminous, after the year has expired; i.e. the rainy season has passed, the rays of the sun and moon are again visible].
    1.161.14 Sons of Strength, the Maruts, desirous of your coming, advance from the sky; Agni comes (to meet you) from the earth; the wind traverses the firmament; and Varun.a comes with undulating waters.


    4.033.01 I send my prayer as a messenger to the r.bhus; I solicit (of them) the cow, the yielder of the white milk, for the dilution (of the Soma libation); for they, as swift as the wind, the doers of good works, were borne quickly across the firmament by rapid steeds. [WSere borne quickly: as applicable to the deified mortals, the allusion is to their being transported to the sphere of the gods; if the reference is to the rays of the sun, it implies merely their dispersal through the sky].
    4.033.02 When the r.bhus, by honouring their parents with renovated (youth), and by other works, had achieved enough, they thereupon proceeded to the society of the gods, and, considerate, they bring nourishment to the devout (worshipper).
    4.033.03 May they who rendered their decrepid and dropsy parents, when, like two dry posts, again perpetually young, Va_ja, Vibhavan, and R.bhu associated with Indra, drinkers of the Soma juice, protect our sacrifice.
    4.033.04 Inasmuch as for a year the R.bhus preserved the (dead) cow, inasmuch as for a year they invested it with flesh, inasmuch as for a year they continued its beauty they obtained by their acts of immortality.
    4.033.05 The eldest said, let us make two ladles; the younger said, let us make three: Tvas.t.a_, R.bhus, has applauded your proposal.
    4.033.06 The men, (the R.bhus), spoke the truth, for such (ladles) they made, and thereupon the R.bhus partook of that libation; Tvas.t.a_, beholding the four ladles, brilliant as day, was content.
    4.033.07 When the R.bhus, reposing for twelve days, remained in the hospitality of the uncealable (sun) they rendered the fields fertile, they led forth the rivers, plants sprung upon the waste, and waters (spread over) the low (places).
    4.033.08 May those R.bhus who constructed the firm-abiding wheel-conducting car; who formed the all-impelling multiform cow; they who are the bestowers of food, the doers of great deeds, and dexterous of hand, fabricate our riches.
    4.033.09 The gods were pleased by their works, illustrious in act and in thought; Va_ja was the artificer of the gods, R.bhuks.in of Indra, Vibhavan of Varun.a.
    4.033.10 May those R.bhus who gratified the horses (of Indra) by pious praise, who constructed for Indra his two docile steeds, bestow upon us satiety of riches, and wealth (of cattle), like those who devise prosperity for a friend.
    4.033.11 The gods verily have given you the beverage at the (third sacrifice of the) day, and its exhilarqation, not through regard, but (as the gift of one) wearied out (by penance); R.bhus, who are so (eminent), grant us, verily, wealth at this third (diurnal) sacrifice. [Wearied out by penance: r.te s'ra_ntasya sakhya_ya = na sakhitva_ya bhavanti deva_h, the gods are not through friendship, s'ra_nta_t tapo yukta_t r.te except one wearied by penance; ete s'ra_nta ato saduh, they, wearied out, therefore gave].





    4.037.01 Divine Va_jas, R.bhus, come to our sacrifice by the path travelled by the gods, inasmuch as you, gracious (R.bhus), have maintained sacrifice among the people, (the progeny) of Manu, for (the sake of) securing the prosperous course of days. [R.bhus: the text has r.bhuks.ah, nom. sing. of r.bhuks.in, a name of Indra; here, it is equated with r.bhavah, pl. nom. of r.bhu; in the following verses r.bhuks.a_n.ah is used, the nom. or voc. pl. of r.bhuks.in].
    4.037.02 May these sacrifices be (acceptable) to you in heart and mind; may today the sufficient (juices) mixed with butter to you; the full libations are prepared for you; may they, when drunk, animate you for glorious deeds.
    4.037.03 As the offering suited to the gods at the third (daily) sacrifice supports, you, Va_jas, R.bhuks.ans; as the praise (then recited supports you); therefore, like Manu, I offer you the Soma juice, along with the very radiant (deities) among the people assembled at the solemnity. [I offer you: juhve manus.vat uparasu viks.u yus.me saca_ br.had dives.u somam: upara = those who are pleased or sport near the worship of the gods, devayajana sami_pe ramantah; ta_su viks.u-praja_su = in or among such people; br.haddives.u is an epithet of deves.u implied].
    4.037.04 Va_jins, you are borne by stout horses mounted on a brilliant car, have jaws of metal and are possessed of treasures; sons of Indra, grandsons of strength, this last sacrifice is for your exhilaration. [Possessed of treasures: va_jinah = possessors either of horses or food; ayahs'ipra_ = as hard or strong as metal, ayovat sa_rabhu_ta s'ipra_h; sunis.ka_h = having good nis.kas, a certain weight of gold; sons of Indra, grandsons of strength: the text has singular nouns, son of Indra, son or grandson of strength; this is followed by vah-vos, you in the plural; last sacrifice: ityagriyam = agre bhavam, the first, the preceding; explained as tr.ti_yam savanam].
    4.037.05 We invoke you, R.bhuks.ans, for splendid wealth, mutually co-operating, most invigorating in war, affecting the senses, ever munificent, and comprehending horses. [Splendid wealth: the epithets apply to rayim, wealth: r.bhu yujam, va_jintamam, indrasvantam, sada_sa_tamam as'vinam].
    4.037.06 May the man whom you, R.bhus and Indra, favour, be ever liberal by his acts, and possessed of a horse at the sacrifice. [A horse at the sacrifice: medhasa_ta_ so arvata_, perhaps a horse fit for the as'vamedha is implied].
    4.037.07 Va_jas, R.bhuks.an.s, direct us in the way to sacrifice; for you, who are intelligent, being glorified (by us), are able to traverse all the quarters (of space).
    4.037.08 Va_jas, R.bhuks.an.s, Indra, Na_satyas, command that ample wealth with horses be sent to men for their enrichment.



    8.093.01 You rise, O sun, on (the sacrifice of Indra) the showerer (of blessings), the bountiful giver, famed for his wealth, the benefactor of men. [Indra is one of the twelve A_dityas].
    8.093.02 Who cleft the ninety-nine cities by the strength of his arm, and, slayeer of Vr.tra, smote Ahi. [Ninety-nine cities: RV. 2.19.6; ahi = the cloud].
    8.093.03 May Indra, our auspicious friend, milk for us, like a richly-streaming (cow), wealth of horses, kine and barley.
    8.093.04 Whatsoever, O Sun, slayr of Vr.tra, you have risen upon today-- it is all, Indra, under your power.
    8.093.05 When, swelling in your might, lord of the good, you think, 'I shall not die', that thought of yours is indeed true. [Lord of the good: lord of the naks.atras].
    8.093.06 You go at once, Indra, to all those Soma-libations which are effused afar or effused near.
    8.093.07 We invigorate that (great) Indra for the slaying of mighty Vr.tra, may he be a bounteous showerer (of wealth).
    8.093.08 Indra was created for giving; he, the most mighty was set over the exhilarating Soma; he, the glorious one the lord of praise, is worthy of the Soma. [made = bale; Indra was created: by Praja_pati at the time of creation].
    8.093.09 The mighty (Indra), unassailed by his foes, hastens to confer wealth on his worshippers-- rendered keen by their praises as a weapon, full of strength and invincible. [r.s.vah = ugrah].
    8.093.10 Indra, worthy of our praise, do you, hymned by us, make our path plain even in the midst of difficulties, (hear us), Maghavan, if you love us.
    8.093.11 You whose command and rightful empire neither god nor irresistible hero can harm. [Rightful empire: svara_jya = svargasva_mitva].
    8.093.12 Yes, deity of the handsome jaw, the two goddesses, heaven and earth, both worship your resistless consuming might.
    8.093.13 It is you that keep this bright milk in the black, red, and spotted cows.
    8.093.14 When all the gods fled in various directions from the splendour of the demon Ahi, and when fear of the deer seized them.
    8.093.15 Then was my Indra the repeller; then did the smiter of Vr.tra put forth his might, he who has no existent enemies, the invincible.
    8.093.16 (Priests), I bring to you men, for great wealth, that renowned and mighty one who utterly destroyed Vr.tra. [a_s'us.e = a_s'is.e; cars.an.i_na_m: renowned and mighty among men].
    8.093.17 O you bearing many names and praised by many, when you are present at our various Soma-libations, may we be endowed with a kine-desiring mind. [May we be endowed: maywe obtain kine; gavyaya_ = with a desire for milk; come with this mind, with this desire for milk, whenyou are present at our Soma-offerings].
    8.093.18 May the slayer of Vr.tra, to whom many libations are offered, know our desires-- may S'akra hear our praises. [bodhinmana_ = bodhanmana_h].
    8.093.19 Showerer (of blessings), with what coming of yours do you gladden us, with what coming bring you (wealth) to your worshippers?
    8.093.20 At whose hymn-accompanied libations does the showerer, the lord of the Niyuts, the slayer of Vr.tra, rejoice to drink the Soma?
    8.093.21 Rejoicing (in our oblations), bring us wealth a thousandfold; remember that you are the giver to your votary.
    8.093.22 These Soma-libations with their wives proceed (to Indra) longing to be drunk; the stale Soma, pleasing to the taste, goes to the waters. [Ya_ska, Nirukta 5.18: patni_vantah = with their wives or protectresses: an allusion to the two kinds of water, the vasati_varyah and the ekadhana_h, used in the Soma offerings (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 2.20). At the time of the avabhr.tha, or concluding ceremonies of purification, the r.ji_s.a or stale Soma is thrown into the waters. nicumpunan.ah = ni_cama_nena pr.n.a_ti].
    8.093.23 The sacrificing priests, invigorating (Indra) by their offerings at the sacrifice, have by their might dismissed him to the avabhr.tha.
    8.093.24 May those two golden-maned steeds together exulting bring him to our wholesome offering.
    8.093.25 Resplendent (Agni), these Soma-libations are effused for you, the clipped grass is spread; bring Indra here for his worshippers.
    8.093.26 May he give strength and his brilliant heaven and precious things to you his worshipper, and to his praising priests; worship Indra.
    8.093.27 I prepare, S'atakratu, your strong (Soma) and all your praises; be gracious, Indra, to your hymners.
    8.093.28 Bring us what is most auspicious, S'atakratu, (bring us) food and strength, if you have favour to us, Indra.
    8.093.29 Bring us all blessings, S'atakratu, if you have favour to us, Indra.
    8.093.30 Bearing the effused libation, we invoke you, mightiest slayer of Vr.tra, if you have favour to us, Indra.
    8.093.31 Come with your steeds to our effused libation, lord of the Soma-- come with your steds to our effused libation.
    8.093.32 Indra, S'atakratu, mightiest slayer of Vr.tra, you whose power is known in a two-fold way, come with your steeds to our effused libation. [Whose power is known in a two-fold way: i.e., you are known in your terrible form as the slayer of Vr.tra, etc., and in your merciful form as the protector of the world].
    8.093.33 Slayer of Vr.tra, you are the drinker of these Soma juices, come with your steeds to our effused libation.
    8.093.34 May Indra bring to us the bounteous R.bhu R.bhuks.an.a to partake of our sacrificial viands; may he, the mighty, bring the mighty (Va_ja). [R.bhuks.an.a: was the eldest and Va_ja the youngest of three brothers. The R.bhus have a share in the evening libation between Praja_pati and Savita_ (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 3.30); the r.ca is addressed to the R.bhus in the evening libation on the ninth day of the dva_das'a_ha ceremony (Aitareya Bra_hman.a5.21)].

    The legend of bhu-s

    bhu-s occur in eleven suktas in gVeda, I. 20, I. 110, I.161, I. 164, IV. 33- IV.-37.


    bhu-s are three in number, bhuvibhvan and vaj and are the sons of Sudhanvan. They learnt many crafts under Tvaṣṭr̥, and constructed rathas and other equipment for the devas. By their hard work the devas were pleased and they were granted immortality. saudhanvanā bhava¨sūraacakasah¨ samvatsare samapcyanta dhītibhih¨ RV (I. 110.4) The bhu-s, children of Sudhanvan, bright as suns, were in a year's course made associate with prayers ('connected with the ceremonies appropriated to the different seasons of the year'-Wilson) The bhus represent the three seasons of the year (lunar year of 354 days) at the end of which they take rest for 12 days in the house of aghohya (the unconcealable, the sun) before they start their work again in the New Year. They are

    awakened from their sleep and vasta gives the information that they were awakened by the hound. 
    suṣupvāmsa  r̥bhavaastadāpr̥cchat āgohya ka idam no abūbudhat
    śvānam bastobodhayitāram abravīt samvatsara idamadyā vyākhyata (RV 1.161.13) 
    bhus, reposing in the solar orb, you inquire, 'who  wakens us, unconcealable sun to this office of sending rain?'. Sun replies 'the awakener is the Dog and in the year you again today light up this world'. This legend can be taken as referring to the time of commencement of the year with vernal equinox. The śvāna obviously refers to the Dog star. Tilak(1893) regards this as referring to the equinox in mgaśiras (identified by him with the constellation Orion, which according to him also includes the Dog-star). He supported his interpretation with a large number of quotations from gveda and other Vedic texts. The date corresponding to the occurrence of vernal equinox at the Orion can be simulated assuming that the Orion is represented by its brightest star, α-Ori, also known as Betelguese. The vernal equinox occurring at α-Ori is shown in Figure 7.




    Figure 7. Vernal Equinox at α-Ori. 5000 BCE. Note the passing of zero hour line of the coordinate Right Ascension (RA) through Betelguese.

    Tilak(1893) in his book The Orion first proposed the date of 4500 BCE, and then later on proposed the date of 5000 BCE. However, Sengupta interprets the bhu legend as referring to the heliacal rising of Canis Major after the summer solstice. But this is not the correct interpretation either, as the beginning of the New Year was most likely at the vernal equinox. 

    The legend refers to the vernal equinox, with the Dog star (Sirius) at the vernal equinox and is illustrated in Figure 8.
    Figure 8. Vernal Equinox at Canis Major. 7100 BCE 

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    Introduction

    As I read through this interview, two statements stand out: 

    1. Do Indians lack access to the “true” meaning of their texts ?

    2. "You do not need the Indologists, or their degrees, or their permission, to read texts. Pick up a work of literature and read it." -- Adluri

    I am posting this interview in the context of a 'methodology' question  Nilesh Nilkanth Oak poses to himself on how to go about reconciling conflicting conclusions about the dates of events described in the Mahābhārata text.

    I suggest that the questions of 'philosophy' can be best left to Vishwa Adluri and Joydeep Bagchee to counter 'indologists'.

    For critical analyses of 'astronomy'-related citations, I suggest three steps: 

    1. List all references in the text which have an astronomical connotation or skymap observation
    2. List alternative readings of the texts related to these connotations or observations. The alternative readings are critical because there could be varying interpretations of key words; for e.g. graha may signify a planet or graha may signify a comet. 
    3. Isolate the readings of texts which have been subjected to varying interpretations, for e.g. using a statement as an 'omen' in astrological terms or using a statement as a skymap event relatable to a terrestrial event in the MBh narrative.
    4. Create of sets of skymap readings which provide for a chronological sequence of events related to the MBh war described in great detail in the cited texts.

    NB: Attempts at correlating textual references with archaeological findings should be kept to the minimum, since skymaps are very reliable documentary evidences for reconstructing the chronology of MBh war events.

    Avoid 'the whole arrogance of modernity' by remembering the words of ancient Indian wisdom: vidyā dadaāti vinayam 'enquiry gives humility'. In debate, use the framework of tantra-yukti to agree upon agreed interpretations of reading textual references as relatable to specific skymaps. See: 

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2JzqYjCjMU&t=3476si (57:59 to 1:39:00)


    Kalyanaraman


    Against Occidentalism: A Conversation with Alice Crary and Vishwa Adluri on “The Nay Science”


    How should we read and interpret texts? And how might the modes through which we read be informed, enriched and revised by our understanding of our cultures of interpretation? These questions have driven the work of Vishwa Adluri and Joydeep Bagchee, doctoral alumni of the Department of Philosophy at The New School for Social Research.
    This winter, Anthem Press will publish their second book, Philology and Criticism: A Guide to Mahābhārata Textual Criticism. To mark the occasion, Research Matters presents excerpts of Adluri’s conversation with Philosophy Professor Alice Crary. They talk about Adluri and Bagchee’s first book, The Nay Science: A History of German Indology (Oxford University Press), the practice of reading and interpreting texts and a history of Indology.
    Indology—the academic study of India—originated in Germany and served as a foundation for western academic interpretations of Indian texts and traditions. The Nay Science charts the history of German Indology to show how the nascent discipline was rooted in troubling philosophical assumptions that generated inaccurate readings of the culture it was studying. Against stubbornly persistent biases, Adluri and Bagchee write in favor of a more sincere reading of ancient and Eastern texts—a kind of “innocent reading” that goes beyond a postcolonial critique—that might enable us to meet texts outside the Western Christian tradition on their own terms.
    Pressing beyond a critique of the specific history of Indology and its effects on our understanding and our modes of reading ancient texts, The Nay Science offers vital reflections on philosophical and social scientific methods. Adluri says that the book teaches us to, “read texts carefully but respectfully because, if you read them respectfully, they will talk to you.”
    Adluri also reflects on his training at The New School. On the practice of philosophy, he says: “You have to read every single thing, struggle your whole life to claim the life of an intellectual. If they are competent—perhaps competent is not the right word—if they can hang on and do the work, there is no greater reward than philosophy.”

    Alice Crary (AC): The occasion for this interview is your magnum opus, the 2014 monograph written with Joydeep Bagchee, The Nay Science: A History of German Indology. I want to sit with you and talk about its significance and implications. I thought we should get some background first—who you are and what you have done since your time at The New School for Social Research’s (NSSR) Philosophy Department. Can you tell us a bit about your life and your intellectual work at NSSR and afterwards?
    Vishwa Adluri (VA): Thank you, Alice. I went to The New School where I got my first PhD for a dissertation on ancient Greek philosophy (since published as Parmenides, Plato and Mortal Philosophy). After that, I continued my work in ancient Greek philosophy (I published an edited volume titled Philosophy and Salvation in Greek Religion in 2013), but also branched out into Indian philosophy. My education at The New School sensitized me to the need to ponder the conditions of modernity. My teacher and mentor Reiner Schürmann had the greatest influence on me. In Broken Hegemonies, Reiner describes modernity as a project grounded in an inward turn toward self-consciousness as the primary referent for all knowledge. He calls self-consciousness “the modern hegemon,” and describes how it conditions our relationship to the world and ourselves. I began to see how, when we approach the ancients—ancient Greeks, for example—or other civilizations, we automatically subject them to our prejudices as moderns, as Europeans and as post-Enlightenment. I wanted to investigate this problem in a different field. I turned to “Indology” as a test case to study the influence of method on a non-Western episteme. About the same time I met a fellow NSSR student who was living and studying in Berlin. Working together, we mapped the emergence and decline of this field. The resulting book was published by Oxford University Press (OUP) in 2014. OUP India released a South Asian edition last month (August 2017). We were humbled by the enthusiasm among scholars whose work we read and in turn admired (Richard Wolin, Bryan W. Van Norden, Peter K. J. Park, Susannah Heschel, Arbogast Schmitt, Edward P. Butler and Robert Yelle). But we were simultaneously traumatized by the disciplinary force contained in academic disciplines, facing enormous resistance for talking about things as obvious as the link between Orientalism and anti-semitism.
    AC: Can you talk about how you got started after the first monograph? What got you started on this project?
    VA: I was working with Arbogast Schmitt on Greek philology at Marburg. I had contacted him because he had written a wonderful book, Die Moderne und Platon, that I wanted to translate into English (my translation appeared as Modernity and Plato in 2012). His ideas resonated with what I had learned from Reiner. Like Reiner, Arbogast had rethought the relationship of the ancients and moderns. He has this wonderful phrase, “Die ganze Arroganz der Moderne,” which defines our attitude not only to the past but also to cultures labeled “pre-modern.” Arbogast knew I was interested in the Sanskrit epic, The Mahābhārata, which I had been reading alongside my work on Homeric epics. Taking Nietzsche’s and Reiner’s cue, I had looked at the pre-Socratics and Plato in relation to Homer. Arbogast knew the Indology professor at Marburg and he introduced us quite casually over a glass of wine. The professor, Michael Hahn, suggested I turn my writings into a dissertation under his and Arbogast’s guidance; a pilot project for collaboration between their departments (classics and Indology). Back then—remember I was Seth Benardete’s student and came from classics—I could not have known the problems with so-called Indian philology or Indology. What they presented in the name of a “critical” philology was anti-semitic and anti-Brahmanic resentments, theological maxims and racial prejudices (about ancient Aryans, Indo-Germans, etc.).
    AC: You say there are parallels between the way you were treated; parallels reflected in the attitudes you trace in part one of your book, where you argue that a partial and flawed positivism was a cover for the projection and imposition of different strains of Protestant theologizing, Eurocentrism and also various kinds of racialized and even racist thought.
    VA: Yes. The racism I encountered in Marburg was not the kind we see among the “alt-right” or the discrimination black and minority citizens face daily. That kind of racism is easier to spot and to call out. This was more insidious. It was scientific or scientized racism. The Indologists had for so long told themselves that Indians lacked access to the “true” meaning of their texts that they no longer considered it a prejudice but a methodological principle and a necessary one at that. The question was, “How do we approach these texts scientifically and critically?” The answer was, “Obviously not as Indians read them, for Indians never developed scientific, critical thinking.” Apart from the fact that, except by skin color, I am not Indian—I have lived and studied in the US most of my life, have a PhD in Western philosophy and know German intellectual history inside out—I was not approaching the Sanskrit epic in a “traditional” way. I was reading it alongside Homer and the tragedians. I knew the scholarly literature, had presented at the American Philological Association (now known as the SCS) and was offering a cogent interpretation. Yet, whenever I opened my mouth, the Marburg Indologists could only hear an Indian, and thus, whatever I said had to be negated to maintain Indology’s status as a science. And then I realized: scientism and racism are linked. Indologists enact this discrimination not because they are vulgar racists—obviously, they think they are cultured, enlightened and cosmopolitan—but because their authority depends on it.
    AC: Can you explain a bit more?
    VA: Certainly. Here is the situation. Someone proposes a reading of a text. You may disagree with him, but then you must give grounds. This was different: they were accusing me, quaIndian, of being incapable of methodological, scientific studies; of being incapable of reading texts without a dogmatic faith in gods and metaphysical entities. One professor wrote me:
    “What I was arguing against in my assessment of your work was your peculiar method to use ‘theology,’ that is in this case an Indian religious view of the text, not as the object of research (which we do all the time), but as a key approach. While I have no problems with theologians, with whom I work here, I would not accept a work with a theological approach for our department of philology, but send him to my colleagues in theology. So, in fact, it is your method, which does not fit into the academic self-understanding of ‘Indologie.’”
    The problem was that I was not proposing an “an Indian religious view.” I had not studied the text traditionally. I began with a reference to Jean-Luc Nancy, his idea of the flight of the Gods. NSSR students know this has been a pervasive theme in German thought since Hölderlin. Heidegger talks about it. I then used Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty and Plato to explore what this flight might mean. You know the theological turn in Continental philosophy (Levinas, Marion, Courtine, Derrida, etc.). The Mahābhārata likewise takes a theological turn in response to nihilism and materialism. But rather than seeing my work as Western to its core, the Indologists saw it as hopelessly naïve and backward. The same professor, Jürgen Hanneder, wrote:
    “To an international discussion of methods appropriate for academic studies of Sanskrit texts I always look forward, but I have to disappoint you: this discussion is not really brand new. In Europe it is as old as the emancipation of the humanities from theology.”
    This triggered my deconstructive project: whence these prejudices? Why this insecurity? Why this need to prove oneself “modern” by disparaging the ancients? The popular view of the Enlightenment is that it overcomes theology. But this is hardly accurate. The German Enlightenment, especially, was ambiguous about religion. There was a strong Pietist influence (think, for example, of Thomasius and Zinzendorf). Kant famously declared, “I had to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith.” (CPR Bxxx) The Indologists’ own work emerged from Protestant debates over scripture (sola scriptura, the emphasis on the sensus litteralis sive historicus, Semler’s Kanonkritik). Do you see the problem with preaching to an NSSR graduate about having overcome theology? Whence this arrogance?
    And then I realized that the supersessionism inherent to modernity itself underwrites the Indologists’ arrogance. The Indologists really believe it is their mission—as Europeans—to teach Indians to receive their own texts correctly and “critically.” There is now a narrative about history as a progression from the darkness of religious belief to the light of reason. Europe, having exited religious superstition first, has a privileged status. Other cultures must look to it for guidance, as they are—allegedly—on the same path. Husserl can now declare that “the spiritual telos of European Man [includes] the particular telos [sic] of individual nations.” Notice the provincialism, the reduction of other cultures to one’s own. Notice the negation and subsumption of ancient cultures. Everything they thought is only preliminary. And finally, notice the disparity instituted. Europeans are mündig (mature), whereas non-Europeans are unmündig, and hence candidates for (Um)erziehung ((re)education). I wish us to hear this word with all the disciplinary force inherent in it. At stake is an Umerziehung, rather than an Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts (in the spirit of Lutheran theology and its specific Menschenbild).
    AC: Heidegger just came up, but Gadamer plays a big role in the project also. It is a positive role and he is Heidegger’s heir. As I understand it, Heidegger plays an ambiguous role here. Is that right? Can you explain why Heidegger and Gadamer appear in different ways?
    VA: Heidegger’s role is ambiguous because, while he has profound philosophical insights, he also buys into “Germanness.” In several passages, he declares that philosophy is uniquely Greek, European and German. The Germans are the true inheritors of this legacy and the German language is the philosophical language par excellence. Germany has a role to play in the destiny of the Occident by recapturing the true meaning of Being (Pauline, not Greek). Studying Indology opened my eyes to how Germany, after Kant and Goethe, laid exclusive claim to the idea of thought and scholarship. I saw how, through this ideology, people from rather humble backgrounds, first-generation school-goers, began to dominate the reception of ancient thought. I saw how, through the Humboldtian university, they injected Protestant prejudices into other textual cultures. I saw how, out of their provincialism—what Germans call Deutschtümelei—they arrogantly declared that those cultures had failed to grasp their own texts and only Germans, or German-trained scholars, could interpret them.
    Gadamer is alert to the problem. In Truth and Method, he expands Heidegger’s hermeneutic circle to an a priori condition of interpretation. He shows that all understanding is historically mediated. The idea of “presuppositionlessness” (Voraussetzungslosigkeit) arises from the Enlightenment prejudice against all prejudices. But it is no less prejudicial. The genuine meaning of prejudice is not an unjustified prepossession but a pre-understanding (Vorverstehen). Without this pre-understanding, no understanding is possible. Every interpretation therefore must engage with past interpretations (that is, with the text’s Rezeptionsgeschichte). The Indologists systematically overlooked this fact. They modeled themselves on the natural sciences, forgetting Dilthey’s distinction—indeed, if they ever knew it—between Geisteswissenschaften, which aim at understanding (Verstehen), and Naturwissenschaften, whose goal is explanation (Erklären). This is why we ultimately took the critique of Indology towards a discussion of the methodology of the social sciences (the title of a lecture course by Reiner in the Schürmann Archives). Contrary to what the Indologists may think, the book is not just about them: it is a nuanced critique of “method” in the humanities.
    AC: I want to talk about the reception to the book. A minute ago you said something that I had not detected earlier. As far as I know, the book was greeted as a huge accomplishment, but you suggested that, contrary to what the Indologists say, you are a nuanced thinker. Do you think that in some places, the book was received as a polemic? Has it gotten the reception you expected and hoped for?
    VA: Outside Indological circles, the book received strong reviews. We had fantastic responses from classicists, who saw it as continuing Nietzsche’s legacy. We had fantastic responses from philosophers—including a fellow New School alum—who grasped its Foucauldian archaeological-genealogical project. A reviewer for History of Religions wrote that we had “hoist[ed] earlier Western scholars by their own petards.” I must confess, I had to look up the expression. A petard is a small bomb (from French peter, meaning “to break wind”; pet “the expulsion of intestinal gas”). And this is quite appropriate because, essentially, we just translated everything the Indologists had said into English. More exciting, the book created waves in fields we least expected; fields like German studies, history and even Jewish studies. I received an email from Susannah Heschel, who wrote, “I want to thank you and Joydeep Bagchee for your hard work and remarkable insights. The book is real gem.” Susannah is Abraham Joshua Heschel’s daughter, whom I read as a religion undergraduate. It was very gratifying. In a way, I felt I had come full circle. The Nazi legacy tormented Reiner his whole life. By tracing what he calls those “distant and profound origins,” (Broken Hegemonies, 3) I felt I had repaid my debt to him.
    AC: I want to talk a bit about larger morals we can draw from the book. I know you considered its relationship to postcolonial studies. We could start there. When I think about what you and Joydeep have done, there is a moral about the nature of interpretation. Interpretation has an ethical dimension, especially as making sense of people distant from us in time and place. At the same time, the book itself is an exercise in social criticism. It is a critique: writ large, its moral about the nature of interpretation is, simultaneously, a moral about what powerful critique is like.
    VA: That is very perceptive. The book does not just present a critique. Through its backstory, it also enacts a critique. It illustrates how we must question established paradigms. Critique cannot be only historical, but must be directed against existing institutions. Remember that Foucault said, “Schools serve the same social functions as prisons and mental institutions—to define, classify, control and regulate people.” I would like to throw a challenge out to NSSR students: how does our institutional framework—the research university, the dissertation refereeing past research, the encyclopedic tome, the reverential relationship to German scholars, the Eurocentrism exhibited, for example, in Husserl’s Vienna Lecture—limit what we think? They should read not just the primary figures, but should also study their historical context: issues in German political and social life, how figures like Hegel were embedded in a specific religio-philosophic context. They should read critiques of the university (Nietzsche’s “Anti-Education”and Arrowsmith’s “The Shame of the Graduate Schools” are good starting points). The Nay Science let me emancipate myself from an idealized vision of Germany. Meeting Indologists was a wake-up call. I saw behind the façade and beheld racism, supremacism and chauvinism.
    Everyone studies Hegel at The New School. But how many actually experience the systematic othering the Hegelian narrative effects? How many will perceive the absurdity of declaring that ideas that arose in Germany at a specific moment and have their historical reasons are the telos of world history? Indology was my second education. It forced me to rethink everything I knew about the Enlightenment and German philosophy. I returned to Herder, Schlegel and Hegel with new eyes, and saw they had betrayed Kant’s and Humboldt’s legacy. Positively, I learned about what you called the ethical dimension of interpretation. I saw that we must respect what others respect and not perform autopsies on the ethical spinal cord of living cultures. I saw that the university’s arrangement into area-specific disciplines reifies cultural boundaries, ethnicity and race. I saw that this structure was itself “disciplinary,” since it gathers every culture into the university and lays it bare to the viewing of a master gaze in the same way museums of natural history gather animal and human specimens. And I saw that my narrative could no longer fit this paradigm. I was neither eastern nor western, neither German nor Indian, neither modern nor traditional and neither religious nor a participant in modern iconoclasm. I had exploded the Indologists’ categories.
    AC: I am interested in how you started working with Joydeep. I knew you both independently, so I know he started at The New School after you. I also know that when he talks about you he talks, in the most glowing terms possible, about you as a great teacher and role model. How did you start working together, and how would you describe the collaboration?
    VA: We reconnected in Berlin after many years. He had gone to Germany to study Heidegger in Berlin and Freiburg. And after three years, he became extremely frustrated with the German system—its cult of the God-professor, the endless posturing and the lack of dialogue. He was about to quit because he really cared about philosophy. I went to Berlin, and when I read his dissertation, I realized his was not an ordinary mind. He was wrestling with genuine philosophical questions. I later realized that Joydeep is very logical. In his dissertation, he was trying to reconstruct Heidegger’s grounding of Dasein in facticity, and he had this sense of circularity. I always say that he broke Heidegger’s hermeneutic circle. I see him as Reiner’s successor, so he has been my greatest conversational partner after Reiner.
    AC: We were just talking about Hegel. I wanted to ask about the role Foucault plays in the book. I take it that when you talk about genealogical method, you have not just Nietzsche but also Foucault in mind.
    VA: Foucault is important. Joydeep and I read, admired and learned from him. His writings on nineteenth-century institutions like Victorian sexuality, the prison and the madhouse anticipate our struggle with Indology: another nineteenth-century disciplinary institution. His writings on power/knowledge, disciplinary mechanisms (especially the panopticon) and, finally, modes of subjectivization, now assumed a new significance. We could, for the first time, see these principles at work. We saw how Indologists had constituted a knowledge domain, introduced verification techniques and distributed authority between those who could speak and those condemned to be silent observers, the subjects on whose bodies they played games of truth and power. I know to most people a history of Indology must sound banal. Who cares about these nineteenth-century figures? But if you read The Nay Science with Foucault in mind, you will see it is a journey into an institution like the nineteenth-century madhouse or prison, except its inhabitants are our contemporaries and we have yet to see it as the perverse and inhuman system it is.
    AC: A related philosophical question, since you just described Foucault. I think it comes out really clearly that this is what the book really does: it provides the resources or methods to critically dismantle a discipline. Foucault is also brought to bear in many other people’s work, positively, to describe the kind of self-awareness and methods one needs to positively approach a text. Listening to the references to his writings on these topics and the things you just said, it strikes me as one of the most interesting things about your project is that you do not recommend a skeptical moral about our relationship to texts.
    VA: The Nay Science argues for a new way of reading texts—call it innocent reading. I am thinking of Deleuze’s quote, “If you don’t admire something, if you don’t love it, you have no reason to write a word about it.” In their quest to prove Indian texts monstrous, false and debased, the Indologists forgot this basic qualification. They advocated a historicist approach, aware it would frustrate the texts’ ability to address the reader. From their perspective, this was essential. They wanted to insert themselves between the reader and the text. Having historicized the texts, they could claim the reader needed their expertise to decode the texts’ historical layers and lay them bare in their primitivity.
    Deleuze again: “[I came] to see the history of philosophy as a sort of buggery… I saw myself as taking an author from behind and giving him a child that would be his own offspring, yet monstrous. It was really important for it to be his own child, because the author had to actually say all I had him saying. But the child was bound to be monstrous too, because it resulted from all sorts of shifting, slipping, dislocations, and hidden emissions that I really enjoyed.”
    Does this not apply to the Indologists? Did not their literary productions—the purified versions of the transmitted texts they proposed—result from their “buggery” of the ancients? The Nay Science opposed this perverted, self-serving reading to the texts in their immediate presence. You do not need the Indologists, or their degrees, or their permission, to read texts. Pick up a work of literature and read it.
    AC: I heard you say that your book can be read as an argument for Indian philosophy. Can you clarify that?
    VA: What has been the single greatest obstacle in reading Indian philosophy for the past two hundred years? The conviction that India did not develop philosophy, that everything we call philosophy is really only “religion.” This conviction is false and prejudicial. Indian philosophy is rigorously logical. It is based on the principle of noncontradiction. It developed sophisticated systems of debate and criteria for validity (including a critical epistemology). The separation of theology and philosophy did not happen in Europe itself until the Reformation. When we accuse Indian philosophy of being “religion,” we apply a post-Reformation prejudice (here religion, which is a matter of faith; there philosophy, which was hubristic with the Greeks and uncritical with the Scholastics, but is now limited to self-reflection or critique and, importantly, cannot say anything about God, the soul and the universe). The allegation serves to negate a potential challenge to Christianity. This prejudice can be traced to Hegel, who largely fashioned the Western image of India (India only developed an abstract Absolute, it lacks a historical sense, it does not know of concrete individuality, etc.). Hegel’s aim was to head off the challenge from Indian philosophy to his Lutheran faith. Remember, Hegel said, “I am a Lutheran, and through philosophy have been at once completely confirmed in Lutheranism.” And again, “We Lutherans (I am and will remain one) have a better faith.” Hegel’s entire philosophy thus serves to justify Protestantism and the Prussian state. The university is the link between them (Hegel knew this in saying, “Our universities… are our churches.”). Hegel’s Protestantism is now well known and the Prussian state has collapsed. Nietzsche has exposed the link between philosophy, Protestantism (“The Protestant pastor is the grandfather of German philosophy, Protestantism itself is its peccatum originale”) and how the humanities and philology, in particular, serve to neutralize the threat from ancient thought to Christianity (from Wir Philologen: “The philologists are… ardent slaves of the State, Christians in disguise [and] philistines”). When, then, have we not revised our judgment about Indian philosophy? One reason is the university’s inherent inertia. Once Hegel rejected Indian philosophy and parceled it out to departments of Religion and Indology, Philosophy never reclaimed it, partly because of its own Christian inheritance and partly because of its Eurocentrism. We would rather study Hegel, who needed the resources of the Prussian university system to preserve his fame (“Verein von Freunden des Verewigten”) than look at Indian thought afresh. Indology draws sustenance from this snobbery and contributes to it. By dismantling Indology, The Nay Science lets us reclaim Indian thought; to read it as contemporaneous rather than as a stage of thought that Spirit allegedly bypassed on its way to Germany.
    AC: Is there anything further you want to say about the project’s wider consequences, including political ones?
    VA: We have seen the problems that result when academics play politics. Consider, for example, Bernard Lewis’s role in the Neocon movement. American intervention in the Middle East was disastrous. Likewise, the Indologists, having failed at an epistemic justification, have turned to politics. It is their last hope for their chairs. The Nay Science did not address this because we are disinterested in politics. But we know the danger power-hungry sophists represent. Instead of sticking to grammar, the Indologists turned to policing and petitioning. They wish to ride a wave of self-righteousness without questioning what they do, whom they serve and how they use or misuse their authority. Why should taxpayers fund them if they do not serve society?
    AC: I know you just finished another book, Philology and Criticism. Is that a continuation of this project? You suggested it was at the beginning of the interview. What aspects of The Nay Scienceare you still working on?
    VA: We sometimes call Philology and Criticism The Nay Science: Part 2, even though it is a book of a different nature. The Nay Science presented a genealogy of German Indology. It returned to Indology’s roots to understand its emergence from neo-Protestant theology and its anti-clerical prejudices. The Indologists’ justification has been that Indology is neither theology nor religious studies. It is indebted to neither Romanticism nor Aryanism. It neither supported nor fed into German nationalism. We are simply editors and preservers of texts; we do for Indian texts what classicists did for Greek and Latin texts. We thus had to show that the Indologists did not know textual criticism. Philology and Criticism examines post-critical  Mahābhāratascholarship. It shows that on the pretext of respecting The Mahābhārata’s critical edition the Indologists reintroduced their anti-Brahmanic prejudices (found, for example, in the work of the anti-semite, Christian Lassen). The book contrasts V. S. Sukthankar’s careful philology with the Indologists’ pseudo criticism. It distinguishes between philology as a method, which is needed, and philology as a discipline or a slogan.
    I am thinking of Sheldon Pollock, who has never produced a critical edition but argues that the textual practices of non-Western cultures must submit to the tests of “historical self-awareness,” “nonprovinciality” and “methodological and conceptual pluralism” before they can be admitted to the “temple of disciplinarity [sic].” Philology and Criticism shows that Pollock himself made unforced philological errors. One wonders, why make these statements in favor of philology, if you have not mastered the method? Are they not another form of Wissenschaftsideologie, the writing of manifestos for the future university? How much intelligence does it take to write pompous statements? University history is littered with those who made their careers writing them. Husserl’s Vienna Lecture is an example. How did that turn out for Husserl?
    AC: Imagining either your younger self or students here at the New School right now, do your experiences as an intellectual post-PhD make you wish you could have told your younger self something?
    VA: Do they stay up at night worried about philosophy? Even if there is no prospect of a job, will they still do it? A job is necessary and important but it is not the only thing. The other thing I would say is that the big dream they see as graduate students, the glorious dawning of truth, has a price. You have to read every single thing, struggle your whole life to claim the life of an intellectual. If they are competent—perhaps competent is not the right word—if they can hang on and do the work, there is no greater reward than philosophy.
    EDITOR’S NOTE: The original text of this article has been revised and re-posted to reflect necessary changes made by Vishwa Adluri. Questions can be addressed to nssrcommunications@newschool.edu.

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    https://tinyurl.com/ycu6vvtw

    I suggest that the sculptor who designed the Vajrāsana to commemorate the attainment of enlightenment of theBuddha, chose three hypertexts in the Indus Script tradition.

    Three hieroglyphs are signified to read tri-ratna in Bauddham tradition: sangha, dhamma (cakra) and Buddha (paramahamsa, 'supreme anser indicus'). The hieroglyphs are seen along the edges of the Vajrāsana excavated at Bodhgaya. The petals of the lotuses signify the spokes of the dhamma cakka. dhamma -- cakka (the wheel of the Doctrine, i. e. the symbol of conquering efficacy, or happiness implicated in the D. (Pali) Do the petals of the lotus signify the spokes of a wheel? The choice of a lotus may relate it to the law of nature (dhamma).

    Right side frieze detail: geese and flame palmettesHieroglyph: hāngi ʻ snail : śāṅkhika ʻ relating to a shell ʼ W. 2. *śāṅkhinī -- (śaṅkhinī -- f. ʻ mother -- of -- pearl ʼ Bālar.). [śaṅkhá -- 1]1. K. hāngi ʻ snail ʼ; B. sã̄khī ʻ possessing or made of shells ʼ.2. K. hö̃giñ f. ʻ pearl oyster shell, shell of any aquatic mollusc ʼ.(CDIAL 12380) Rebus: saṅgin ʻ attached to, fond of ʼ MBh. [saṅgá -- Pk. saṁgi -- , saṁgilla -- ʻ attached to ʼ; S. L. P. saṅgī m. ʻ comrade ʼ (P. also ʻ one of a party o pilgrims ʼ), N. saṅi, Or. sāṅga˚gī, H. saṅgī m., M. sãgyāsāgyā m WPah.kṭg. (kc.) sɔ́ṅgi m. ʻ friend ʼ, kṭg. sɔ́ṅgəṇ, kc. sɔṅgiṇ f., J. saṅgīsaṅgu m. (prob. ← H. Him.I 212)..(CDIAL 13084) *sāṅgaka ʻ relating to a company ʼ. [saṅgá -- ]S. sã̄go m. ʻ companionship, caravan ʼ.(CDIAL 13328)

    sangi 'mollusc', sangi 'pilgrim';
    sippī f. ʻ shell, spathe of date palm ʼ Rebus: sippī 'sculpture, sculptor'. 

    Bar-headed Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpgAnser indicushaṁsá m. ʻ goose ʼ RV., haṁsaka -- m. Kāv., haṁsī -- f. Mr̥cch. Pa. Aś. Pk. haṁsa -- m. ʻ goose ʼ, Sh. hănza̯ m., K. ünzü m., anziñ f., S. hañju m.; N. hã̄s ʻ duck ʼ; A. hã̄h ʻ duck, goose ʼ, B. hã̄s; Or. hã̄s ʻ swan ʼ; H. hã̄s m. ʻ duck, goose, swan ʼ; G. M. hã̄s m. ʻ goose ʼ (OG. hāṁsī f.); Ko. ã̄s m. ʻ drake ʼ; Si. has ʻ goose, flamingo, swan ʼ (f. häsa), as ʻ signet ring of Sinhalese kings bearing figure of a goose ʼ (OSi. hasin inst. sg.). -- P. hãs m. ʻ goose ʼ and WPah.bhal. hɔũs m. ʻ swan (?) ʼ ← Sk.?(CDIAL 13937) In Ancient Bharatiya tradition, wild geese, including swans, are noted for characteristics of discipline, stamina, grace, and beauty. This is especially said of[citation needed] the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus), whose migratory route from Central Asia to India and back forces it to fly over the Himalayas twice a year, a feat which makes it one of the highest flying birds in the world. Rebus: hamsa signifies an enlightened person. The word 'Paramahamsa' signifies one who is Awakened in all realms. The word is compounded of Sanskrit परम parama meaning 'supreme' or 'transcendent' (from PIE per meaning 'through', 'across', or 'beyond', cognate with English far) and Sanskrit हंस hamsa meaning 'swan or wild goose'. Rebus: Paramahamsa 'enlightened ātman'.

    Vajrāsana mahabodhi Temple Bodhgaya

    Front frieze of the Vajrasana: lotuses with multiple calyx, alternating with "flame palmettes". This design is broadly similar to that of the lost frieze of the Allahabad pillar of Ashoka, or the abacus of the Sankissa elephant.
    Stone relief from Mathurå depicting a gateway or torana. From Hackin 1954, fig. 494.
    Several antefixae with "flame palmette" designs, Ai Khanoum, Afghanistan, 2nd century BCE.
    "Flame palmette" design (center) at Didyma, 3rd century BCE.

    "Flame palmettes" around a lotus, Detail of Rampurva bull capital, detail of the abacus.


    Frieze of the lost capital of the Allahabad pillar, with two lotuses with multiple calyx, framing a "flame palmette" surrounded by small rosette flowers, over a band of beads and reels.
    John Murray, 1876 - Illustration for History of Indian and Eastern Architecture by James Fergusson (John Murray, 1876).
    Frieze of capital of Lat at Allahabad, with flame palmette within multiple calyx lotuses. Similarities with a frieze from Delphi featuring lotus with multiple calyx:


    Hackin 1954, p.169, figs.18 Ivory? Size: 10.6 x 15.8 x 0.4 cm Begram rectangular plaque depicting three palmettos with curled-up ends, held together by rings made up of lotus petals. Between the palmettos elongated fruit is shown . This scene is bordered by a band depicting a series of four-leaved flowers set in a square frame. In this hieroglyhphic multiplex, there are three distinct orthographic components:

    Mollusc 1. mollusc (snail) pair depicted by a pair of antithetical S curved lines: sã̄khī Rebus: sã̄kh ʻconch-shell-cutterʼ

    Palmetto or Spathe 2. spathe of a palm or palmetto: sippī f. ʻspathe of date palmʼ Rebus: sippi 'artificer, craftsman'. It could also be seen as a chisel:śaṅkula Rebus: sangin 'shell-cutter'.
    Tied together, cord 3. a thread or cord that ties the mollusc pair and spath in the centre together into a composite orthographic unit. dām ʻropeʼ Rebus: dhamma 'dharma' dham̄a ʻemployment in the royal administrationʼ.
    Hieroglyph on a Begram ivory plaque: a pair of molluscs tied with a chisel
    Hieroglyph: śaṅkula 'chisel' Rebus: sangin 'shell-cutter'. sangi 'mollusc' Rebus: sangi 'pilgrim'. Dama 'cord, tying' Rebus: dhamma 'moral conduct, religious merit'. A variant ties a fish with the hieroglyph complex: ayira, ayila 'fish' Rebus: ayira, ariya 'noble conduct'. Thus connoting ariya-dhama, ayira-dhamma; ariya-sangha, ayira-sangha (Pali). 
    Railing post with a lotus rhizome. Allahabad Museum. Stone. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh.Shunga. c. 2nd cent. BCE. 43x58x25 cm. Pillar shows in the middle a lotus flower. A border of palmettes on each bevelled side. A small fragment later joined to it. 

    Hieroglyph: tāmarasa 'lotus' Rebus: tāmra 'copper'.

    palm frond: ḍāla -- n. ʻ branch ʼtāla -- 2 m. ʻ Borassus flabelliformis ʼ, palm (CDIAL 5750)Rebus: ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhālakī = a metal ingot.



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    Indus Script hypertexts: mr̥dvī, mr̥dvīkā  f. ʻ vine, bunch of grapes ʼ Suśr. rebus: mr̥du 'a kind of iron'. Triśiras is son of Tvaṣṭṛ, 'divine artisan', maker of Indra's vajra. Indian metalworkers may have sculpted this pratimā. पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळ [ pōḷa ]  'magnetite, ferrite ore'

    Śiva-Maheśvara (c. 5th century CE) from Yungang Grotto in Xinjiang sitting atop Nandi.

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    https://tinyurl.com/y7lfpq2b

                                                                                                                                                                                    

    This is an addendum to: Iron making in Hallur of 1100 BCE, Ukku crucible steel evidence from Junnar caves dated to 3rd cent.BCE 

    https://tinyurl.com/ya6rj6zd

      Published on Mar 19, 2014

    ಶಿಲಾಯುಗದ ಬೂದಿ ದಿಬ್ಬ, ಹಳ್ಲೂರ್ Hallur's ash-mound is probably the largest in Karnataka if not India. This Neolithic ash-mound situated next to Tungabhadra river is said to occupy 32 acres. Also a fort existed on this site. Sadly the ash-mound is being actively destroyed, local people have vandalized this monument. Tractor loads of ash is taken away everyday and dumped in agricultural plots - people believe this ash improves fertility of the land. Read more at http://karnatakatravel.blogspot.in/20...

    Oct 4, 2014

    Prehistoric Ash-mound of Hallur

    Hallur, situated on Tungabhadra river bank in Haveri district is know for a prehistoric ash-mound. Hallur's ash-mound was discovered by Nagaraja Rao in 1962 and excavated in 1965. The excavations revealed two periods of human occupation- 1. Neolithic-Chalcolithic (between 2000 BC and 1200 BC) and 2. an overlapping period between Neolithic-Chalcolithic and early Iron Age. During the excavations several artifacts were found- iron arrowheads, daggers & knives and earthenware. Pottery found was black-and-red ware with lines and patterns in white drawn over them.

    March 17, 2014
    I arrived at Hallur by 3 PM. At the village entrance my inquiries for ash-mound's location caught few people's attention. Of them one person seem to have an interest for history. In fact he sprang a surprise- ruins of Hallur's mud fort. Wow! The search for an ash-mound came with a bonus :) I asked him if he could take me to the site. Yes! My guide's name is Suresh F Tilawalli. We hopped into the cab and took a dirt branching out of the village's main street. Just outside the village and close to the site, Suresh showed couple of neglected ancient sculptures- damaged images of Hanuman and a slab with Kannada inscription : (

    Hanuman | Slab with Kannada inscription
    A short distance away to our right was the fort. This mound is one the corners. A wide trench running along the fort perimeter indicates the presence of a moat.
    We take the dirt path going into the fort, towards the river. We stopped by a large excavated pit to out left. The white earth seen here is actually ash. I could see pottery pieces on every square foot, literally. This ash-mound is spread over 32 acres and over the ash-mound itself sits the fort. Suresh spoke about excavations carried out during 1990s.. hundreds of artefacts were found in this pit. Well, digging did not stop there.. in still continues. But why? Local people hauled loads of this dirt-ash mixture to their fields because they believe it improves soil's fertility and crops yield. Off late with increasing fertilizer prices, farmers have resorted to a large scale operation.
    We inspect a layer of ash at a spot. The ash grey and fine. Suresh lets go a handful in the air, the mild breeze blows it away.
    Suresh leads the way to the 'ash mine'. This is where earthmovers load hundreds of tractor-trailers every week. It really resembles a mine.
    The excavations have revealed the innards of the ash-mound. Layers of different colors formed over time can be seen here. We locate a damaged grinding stone, the type used to grind cereals into flour. The concave surface is well ground, proof it was well used before coming to this state. This stone reminds me of similar grinding stones seen at Hiregudda near Sangankallu.
    Here every foot fall raised a mini cloud of ash. At places our feet would sink into the fine ash.

    Next we inspect a much wall with several layers of dirt and ash. At this point the mound is about 15' high. This is a very ideal spot to study the content.
    Suresh points at a mass of ash and bits of charcoal embedded in earth.
    Close look at ash and charcoal bits.
    Here Suresh shows a layer of stones embedded into ash-earth mixture. His opinion is that a wall was built here. It does seem like a wall.Close by we found two more grinding stones the type used to grind wet food matter like batter or masala.

    Here's a small sample of artefacts collected in 30 minutes- bone fragments, grinding stones and pottery shreds. Notice the bottom right piece- the red-black ware as mentioned in Ashmounds and hilltop villages: The search for early agriculture in southern India.
    Few more closer views:
    layers of ash, red and brown earth
    ash, pottery shred and a tuft of hair like strands
    black and grey shreds of pottery
    Sadly, this important prehistoric monument is being vandalized. Several hundreds of trailer loads have been looted, doing permanent damage and loss of invaluable artefacts. A short distance from here is a sand mining setup. Oh mankind, what ever you are upto!!

    We move to the highest point of the mound/fort. That's Tungabhadra flowing in our direction. Hallur village is the background, concealed by a wall of trees.
    Suresh wanted to show me a stone structure with a passage. The structure was probably built during 16th century. It looks like a sentry/docking point for boats navigating the river, bringing in supplies for the fort. Such docking points can be seen at AraniHavanur and Nadivi forts too.
    In this view, on the left is a stairway descending into the structure. Perhaps it has a passage below which worked as an underwater entrance.
    The structure as seen from river bed.
    Blazing Sun had literally roasted me. We went to the water and cooled off. Bare feet in water felt great, I felt rejuvenated. We walked back the cab and drove back to the village. Back at the village entrance, we exchanged phone numbers over tea. We spoke of the hillock within Hallur's sight. The hill has peculiar rock formations on its southern face. The rocks are spiky, sticking out of the hill, varying in height from 4' to 12'. Also on the hill is a shrine dedicated to Shri Lakshmi Ranganath Swamy believed to be a Udbhava Murthy a self created image. Time being a constraint, I had to leave. Thanks to Suresh for his patience and time.

    Here are links to few more ash-mounds of Karnataka-
    Location Taluq District
    Kappagallu Bellary Bellary
    Kudathini Bellary Bellary
    Budhihal Shorapur Yadgir

    The ended with a beautiful sun burst..
    Hallur Ash-mound & fort coordinates: 14°20'27"N   75°37'15"E
    .........

    0 0


    --पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel' = ukku'wootz steel' derived from Vedic utsa'spring'; eraka, urku'moltencast'


    This is an addendum to 


    I submit that these oval spots signifyपोलाद pōlāda, 'crucible steel cake' explained also as mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali)


    Image result for zebu ingot shape bharatkalyan97
    Slide 33. Early Harappan zebu figurine with incised spots from Harappa. Some of the Early Harappan zebu figurines were decorated. One example has incised oval spots. It is also stained a deep red, an extreme example of the types of stains often found on figurines that are usually found in trash and waste deposits. Approximate dimensions (W x H(L) x D): 1.8 x 4.6 x 3.5 cm. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow) http://www.harappa.com/figurines/33.html

    The oval spots are shaped like the copper ingots shown on this photograh of Maysar, c. 2200 BCE:
    Maysar c.2200 BCE Packed copper ingots INGOTS
    mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali)

    Another artifact which compares with the described shape of mūhā mẽṛhẽt 'steel ingot' is shown in the characteristic oval shape of a crucible steel buttton.
    Related imageCrucible steel button. Steel smelted from iron sand in a graphite crucible.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crucible_steel_button.jpg
    Decipherment of the Harappa figurine on Slide 33:

     पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu' Rebus: magnetite, citizen.(See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/08/zebu-archaeometallurgy-legacy-of-india.html )
     mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali)
     
    खोट (p. 212) [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. (Marathi)

    The figurine signifies ingots of  पोळ [pōḷa], ‘magnetite’. This is a metalwork catalogue message in Indus Script Corpora.

    The following proverb indicates the exalted status of the zebu, bos indicus which read rebus as  पोळ‘magnetite, ferrite ore’ is the life-sustaining wealth of the artisans:  ज्याचीखावीपोळीत्याचीवाजवावीटाळी. Of whom you eat the salt, him laud and exalt. टाळी (p. 196) ṭāḷī f (ताल S)  Beating the hands together.

    There is a remarkable expression in Tamil which signifies the homonymous writing of similar sounding words as pictures in Indus Script. The expression is: போலியெழுத்து pōli-y-eḻuttun. < id +. 1. Syllable or letter resembling another in sound, as அய் for , அவ் for ஓர்எழுத்துக்குப்பிரதியாகஅவ்வொலியில்அமையும்எழுத்து. (நன். 124.) 2. Letter substituted for another different in sound, as in சாம்பர் for சாம்பல்; ஓர்எழுத்துக்குப்பிரதியாகவரும்எழுத்து. (நன்.)


    போலியெழுத்து pōli-y-eḻuttu can thus be translated as rebus writing of Indus Script.


    I suggest that since the majestic dewlap is the most characteristic feature of the zebu, the following etyma reinforce the identification of zebu,bos indicus as पोळ   pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large: पोळी   pōḷī fig. A dewlap. पोळीपिकणें g. of s. To begin to fare sumptuously; to get into good living.


    The oval-shaped incised spots on the zebu figurine signify crucible steel cakes and hence may be called पोळ   pōḷa   पोळें   pōḷēṃ   पोळा   pōḷā  पोळी   pōḷī f. n C A cake-form or flat honeycomb;  fig. Any squeezed and compressed cakeform body or mass. पोळी (p. 305) pōḷī f A plain wheaten cake: also a cake composed of rice-flour boiled and rolled up with wheaten. 2 The cake-form portion of a honeycomb. 3 fig. Any squeezed and compressed cakeform body or mass. 4 Cotton steeped in a dye of lác, lodhra &38;c., flattened into the form of a cake, and dried;--forming afterwards, with water, a sort of red ink. 5 fig. A dewlap. पोळीपिकणें g. of s. To begin to fare sumptuously; to get into good living.

    The smelting processes involved in making such crucible steel cakes are expressed by the following semantics of cognate words: अहारोळी   ahārōḷī f (अहार& पोळी) A cake baked on embers.पोळणें   pōḷaṇēṃ v i To catch, burn, singe; to be seared or scorched.  पोळा   pōḷā A kindled portion flying up from a burning mass, a flake. पोळींव   pōḷīṃva p of पोळणें Burned, scorched, singed, seared. पोळभाज   pōḷabhāja f (पोळणें&38; भाजणें To burn &38;c.) In agriculture. A comprehensive term for the operations connected with the burning of the ground.


    The cultural significance  attached to the crucible steel cake may be seen from the practice of offering a cake atop the Holi festival fire which is called : होळीचीपोळी (p. 527) hōḷīcī pōḷī f The right (of villagers, esp. of the मुखत्यारपाटील) of first placing a पोळी (or cake) upon the pile which is kindled at the close of the festival of the होळी. 2 The cake so designated and applied.

    दुपोडीपोळी (p. 237) dupōḍī pōḷī f (दु, पूड, पोळी) A पोळी or stuffed cake doubled up.


    दक्षिणा (p. 230) dakṣiṇā f (S) Money or presents given to Bráhmans or young virgins upon occasions. Pr. भातभक्षणापोळी0.

    Sign 391-- eraka'nave of wheel', heraka'spy' rebus: eraka, urku'moltencast' PLUS arā 'spokes' rebus: āra'brass'

    m309A kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' PLUS krammara 'look back' rebus: kamar 'blacksmith' 
    See: 

     


    utsa'spring'; rebus: wootz'wootz steel' is a reference to the water-pattern of the sword forged from crucible steel button or cake.
    Picture shows 18th-century Persian-forged sword was first manufactured in the southern part of India, in Tamil Nadu, on or before 11th century, also later manufactured in DamascusCrucible steels, such as wootz steel and Damascus steel, exhibit unique banding patterns because of the intermixed ferrite and cementite alloys in the steel. 
    "Crucible steel making, after all, was a major industry in India until about 1900 and and "up to this day, massive heaps of broken crucibles cover the outskirts of several Indian villages, and are testimony to a time in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when Indian wootz ingots were sold by the shipload to European and Arabian merchants, serving international markets", writes Thilo Rehren. Here is a picture from his homepage illustrating this.":
    http://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/kap_a/advanced/ta_4_2.pdf

    Heaps of broken crucibles (Thilo Rehren: "As similar as black and white: steelmaking crucibles from South and Central Asia"; Archaeology International, 23 October 2002, p. 37).

    This is an addendum to: 

    Archaeology, geology & metallurgy of Kannada word ukku (wootz), crucible steel, an advanced material invented in Sarasvati Civilization https://tinyurl.com/y6v6pr4w


    While recorded evidence of ukku 'steel' as an advanced material (carburized iron) is mostly related to documents from 17th century CE, the archaeological evidence for the early synonym of ukku--  पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel' -- traces back to the Tin-Bronze Revolution of 4th-3rd millennia BCE of Sarasvati Civilization with a number of Indus Script Inscriptions with hieroglyph पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' read rebus in Meluhha (Bharatiya sprachbund, 'speech union')--  पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel'. 
    I also suggest that on the Shu-ilishu cylinder seal, a significant hieroglyph is shown. It is a crucible which may have been used by the copper-tin artisans to work with an extraordinary invention called ukku in Kannada produced in a crucible. I suggest that Kannada word ukku is the root word because of semantic association signified by cognate words: uggi, urika which mean 'burning'. Crucible steel process is vividly explained by these etyma.


    This monograph posits a thesis that the roots of ukku, 'crucible steel' are to be found in the Kannada word, (variant pronunciation, wootz), since ancient Kannada speakers and metalworkers lived close to the rich iron ore mines of Sahyadri ranges, near Dharwar. An expression in Samskrtam which is a synonym is semantically related to dark colour and mixing: कालयवन kâla-yavana -loha, n. iron, steel. Synonyms:  asita असित-यवन = कालयवन q. v. गुरुकोपरुद्धपदमापदसितयवनस्य रौद्रताम् Śi.15.56; असित-1 Unbound (Ved). -2 [न सितः शुभ्रः] Not white, black, dark-blue, dark-coloured; असिता मोहरजनी Śānti.3.4; Y.3.166.यवन n. ( √2. यु) mixing , mingling (esp. with water) (न्यायमाला-विस्तर).

    Evidence from Indus Script Corpora, metallurgical wealth accounting data archive,metalwork catalogues of 4th millennium BCE is presented.

    Bulat steel blade of a knife "Bulat is a type of steel alloy known in Russia from medieval times; regularly being mentioned in Russian legends as the material of choice for cold steel. The name булат is a Russian transliteration of the Persian word fulad, meaning steel. This type of steel was used by the armies of nomadic peoples. Bulat steel was the main type of steel used for swords in the armies of Genghis Khan, the great emperor of the Mongolian Empire. The technique used in making wootz steel has been lost for centuries and the bulat steel used today makes use of a more recently developed technique...Carbon steel consists of two components: pure iron, in the form of ferrite, and cementite or iron carbide, a compound of iron and carbon. Cementite is very hard and brittle; its hardness is about 640 by the Brinell hardness test, whereas ferrite is only 200. The amount of the carbon and the cooling regimen determine the crystalline and chemical composition of the final steel. In bulat, the slow cooling process allowed the cementite to precipitate as micro particles in between ferrite crystals and arrange in random patterns. The color of the carbide is dark while steel is grey. This mixture is what leads to the famous patterning of Damascus steel.Cementite is essentially a ceramic, which accounts for the sharpness of the Damascus (and bulat) steel. "
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulat_steel 
    Wootz was imported into the Middle East from Im India. (Jeffrey Wadsworth and Oleg D. Sherby (1980). "On the Bulat – Damascus Steel Revisited". Prog. Mater. Sci. 25 (1): 35–68)  "In the Muslim world of the 9th-12th centuries CE, the production of fuladh, a Persian word, has been described by Al-Kindi, Al-Biruni and Al-Tarsusi, from narm-ahanand shaburqan, two other Persian words representing iron products obtained by direct reduction of the ore. Ahan means iron. Narm-ahan is a soft iron and shaburqan a harder one or able to be quench-hardened. Old nails and horse-shoes were also used as base for fuladh preparation. It must be noticed that, according to Hammer- Purgstall, there was no Arab word for steel, which explain the use of Persian words. Fuladh prepared by melting in small crucibles can be considered as a steel in our modem classification, due to its properties (hardness, quench hardened ability, etc.). The word fuladh means "the purified" as explained by Al-Kindi. This word can be found as puladh, for instance in Chardin (1711 AD) who called this product; poulad jauherder, acier onde, which means "watering steel", a characteristic of what was called Damascene steel in Europe. In Russian the corresponding word is bulat and in Mongol bolot. In the 19th century AD, it was accepted as evident by European metallurgists that the ancient word bulat / fuladh and the newly introduced one Wootz represented the same kind of high carbon crucible steel (1-2wt % C) which should have been used by Muslim blacksmiths to forge the so called Damascene blades, the secret of which had been lost as was said by Russian and European metallurgists of that time.http://www.indianscience.org/essays/Wootzstory.shtml DP Agarwal, Linguistic Avatars of Wootz: the ancient Indian Steel in: History of Indian Science and Technology Source: J. LE COZE. 2003. About the Signification of Wootz and Other Names Given to Steel. Indian Journal of History of Science. 38 (2):117-127.                                           
    Polad, bulat Crucible steel

    Bolad (alternatively spelled PuladPulatPolat, or Polad in Persian and Turkic languages) is common given name among the Inner Asian peoples. The meaning of the word Bolad is "steel". In Khalkha Mongolian form of the word is Boldhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolad_(given_name)


    'Schrader gives a list of names for 'steel' related to Pers. pulAd; Syr. pld; Kurd. pila, pola, pulad; Pehl. polAwat; Armen. polovat; Turk. pala; Russ. bulat; Mizdzhegan polad, bolat; Mongol. bolot, bulat, buriat. He is unable to suggest an origin for these words. Fr. Muller pointed out that the Pehlevi and Armenian should be polapat and suggested Greek 'much-beaten' as the original word...not all the countries of Asia had been exhausted in search for similar names...by adding Tibetan p'olad, Sulu bAlan, Tagalog patalim, Ilocano paslip, we at once see that the origin of the word may lie to the east. Naturally one thinks of China as the possible point of issue, for there steel was known in the third millenium before our era and we have the positive reference to steel in a Chinese writer of the fifth century BCE...Cantonese dialect fo-lim, literally 'fire-sickle'..."(Wiener, Leo, 2002, Contributions toward a history of Arabico-Gothc culture, vol.4, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. xli-xlii)


    "...‘pulad’ of Central Asia. The oasis of Merv where crucible steel was also made by the medieval period lies in this region. The term ‘pulad’ appears in Avesta, the holy book of Zorastrianism and in a Manichéen text of Chinese Turkestan. There are many variations of this term ranging from the Persian

    ‘polad’, the Mongolian ‘bolat’ and ‘tchechene’, the Russian ‘bulat’, the Ukrainian and Armenian ‘potovat’, Turkish and Arab ‘fulad’, ‘farlad’ in Urdu and ‘phaulad’ in Hindi. It is this bewildering variety of descriptions that was used in the past that makes a study of this subject so challenging."https://www.scribd.com/doc/268526061/Wootz-Steel-Indian-Institute-of-Science Wootz Steel, Indian Institute of SciencePWLẠD (پولاد) > BOLD RUSSIAN (ПОЛАД) ORIGIN: PERSIAN (TĀJĪK)  /  MONGOLIAN 

    INDO-EUROPEAN > INDO-IRANIAN > INDO-ARYAN 

    This name derives from the Mongolian (Qalq-a ayalγu) “Bold”, from the Persian (Tājīk) "pwlạd", meaning “steel”. 

                                                                                                          Geographical spread of the word PWLAD in Europe

                                                                                             
    पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' of Indus Script corpora is rebus:pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian), fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto) http://tinyurl.com/mrsqcws                                                                     There are two etymological sources for the words पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel' and utsa, 'water spring' rebus: 'wootz steel water pattern'. Both sources are from Indian sprachbund (speech union).                                                                                                                                                                                                           The word is an abiding cultural memory celebrated even today every year as a pola festival.
    पोळ (p. 305) pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. Rebus 1: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4'. पोळ [ pōḷa ]  ‘magnetite (ore)’ (Asuri) पोलाद (p. 533) [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel (Marathi)

    पोळा [ pōḷā ] m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. "Pola is a bull-worshipping festival celebrated by farmers mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra (especially among the Kunbis). On the day of Pola, the farmers decorate and worship their bulls. Pola falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (the new moon day) in the month of Shravana (usually in August)."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pola_(festival)  Festival held on the day after Sankranti ( = kANum) is called pōlāla paNDaga (Telugu). Comparable bronze images of cattle from Daimabad (ca. 2nd millennium BCE) are dramatic evidence for the continuum of celebration of cattle wealth.
    Image result for daimabad bronzes
    gaṇḍa 'rhinoceros'; rebus:khaṇḍ 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware'.
    Hieroglyph: rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ Rebus: Pk. raṅga 'tin' P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼOr. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅgaada -- m. ʻ borax ʼ lex.Kho. (Lor.) ruṅ ʻ saline ground with white efflorescence, salt in earth ʼ  *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.
     karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' (Tulu.Kannada. Santali) 


    Image result for daimabad bronzesImage result for daimabad bronzes



    Hypertext:पोळ pōḷa, 'zebu'. The zebu, bos indicus is   पोळ pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large; पोल m. ( √ पुल्) magnitude , bulk , heap L. (g. ज्वला*दि); पौल   paula m R Offspring, male or female, of cows or buffaloes.(Monier-Williams).பொலியெருது poli-y-erutu , n. < பொலி- +. 1. Bull kept for covering; பசுக்களைச் சினையாக்குதற் பொருட்டு வளர்க்கப்படும் காளை. (பிங்.) கொடிய பொலியெருதை யிருமூக்கிலும் கயி றொன்று கோத்து (அறப். சத. 42). 2. The leading ox in treading out grain on a threshing-floor; களத்துப் பிணையல்மாடுகளில் முதற்செல்லுங் கடா. (W.) பொலி முறைநாகு poli-muṟai-nāku, n. < பொலி + முறை +. Heifer fit for covering; பொலியக்கூடிய பக்குவமுள்ள கிடாரி. (S. I. I. iv, 102.) Rebus: पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'magnetite', ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4 (Asuri)



    पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, Fe3O4'. The word for magnetite ore [pōḷa] gave the root for the famed crucible wootz steel called [pōlāda] n ( or P)  [pōlādi]  'steel'. A variant expression iin Russian is:  bulat 'steel'.


    Addorsed zebu, Rakhigarhi. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magenetite, ferrite ore'. Thus the addorsed pair of zebus signifies: dul pōḷa, 'magnetite casting'. [After Fig. 69 in: KN Dikshit, 2013, Origin of early Harappan cultures in the Sarasvati Valley: Recent archaeological evidence and radiometric dates, Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology No. 9, 2013, pp. 88 to 142 (Plates)]
    Figurine of zebu, humped bull discovered in Binjor 4MSR http://www.dailypioneer.com/vivacity/revelations-in-history.html

    A zebu on a plaque from the Elamite Diyala Valley (Lamberg-Karlovsky and Potts 2001: 225).


    Compartmented stamp seal with a zebu. Copper alloy. L 4.3 cm (1 3/4 in.); W. 3.8 cm (1 1/2 in.); Thickness 0.5 cm (3/16 in.). Baluchistan, Nausharo, Sector G, phase IB. Nausharo, ca. 2400 BCE. Exploration Branch, Karachi EXB 539. Dept. of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Pakistan.) "The glyptic evidence, though limited to a few examples, is varied in form and geographic distribution. Perhaps the most widespread type of Oxus seal is the copper-alloy compartmented version, which has been found at sites in Syria, Iran and Baluchistan, as well as Mohenjo-daro. The depiction of the typically Harappan zebu on such seals from both Mohenjo-daro and Nausharo, and their impressions on pottery from Shahr-i-Sokhta, in southeastern Iran, may indicate some special significance for this image in the context of interregional exchange. The Nausharo seal found in a phase at the site that appears to predate a mature Harappan presence, depicts the animal striding, with characteristic inward-curving horns, a circular eye, and geometric patterns to divide and define areas of the body, such as the forequarters, legs, belly, hindquarters, and tail. It recalls a compartmented seal from Altyn-depe, where the pattern is simpler. Both Nausharo and Mohenjo-daro have produced two Central Asian compartmented seals."(Joan Aruz, Ronald Wallenfels, 2003, Art of the first cities: the third millennium BCE from the Mediterranean to the Indus, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, pp.412-413).
    Bos indicus on Hasanlu gold bowl



    Image result for hasanlu gold bowlImage result for hasanlu gold bowlFocus on bos indicus aurochs + water flowing out of muzzle.

    The Hasanlu bowl.ca. 800 BCE. Museum Iran Bastan, Teheran. After Winter 1989, fig. 6, p. 90, drawing by M. T. M. de Schauensee. 
    Indus Script hypertexts: Water flows out of zebu muzzle (Hasanlu bowl), Culm of millet lifts up rein-ring and young bull (Mari procession) 1. sword-arrow-maker; 2. fine gold invoiced on approval basis'

    Hieroglyph1: காண்டம்² kāṇṭam n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16). काण्डः ण्डम् Water. निवृत्ताः काण्डचित्राणि क्रियन्ते दाशबन्धुभिः Rām.2.89.18. కాండము kāṇḍamu kānḍamu. [Skt.] n. Water. నీళ్లు.(Telugu)


    Hieroglyph 2: کرئِي kar-aʿī, s.f. (6th) A ring, an ox muzzle, or halter for a horse. Sing. and Pl. (Pashto) S. karāī f. 'wrist'; karã̄ n. pl. ʻ wristlets, bangles ʼ.(Gujarati) (CDIAL 2779). Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri).

    Hieroglyph 3: पोळ pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. पोळा pōḷā m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. (Marathi)

    Rebus:पोळ pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'. Together, the rebus reading is: pōḷa kāṇḍakara 'ferrite metal equipment-maker, sword-maker, arrow-maker'

    *kāṇḍakara ʻ worker with reeds or arrows ʼ. [kāˊṇḍa -- , kará -- 1] L. kanērā m. ʻ mat -- maker ʼ; H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers ʼ.(CDIAL 3024) காண்டம்² kāṇṭam , n. < kāṇḍa.Staff, rod; கோல். (சூடா.);Arrow; அம்பு. (சூடா.) 5. Weapon; ஆயுதம். (சூடா.) kāˊṇḍa (kāṇḍá -- TS.) m.n. ʻ single joint of a plant ʼ AV., ʻ arrow ʼ MBh.; Bshk. kāˋ'n ʻ arrow ʼ, Tor. kan m., Sv. kã̄ṛa, Phal. kōṇ, Sh. gil. kōn f. (→ Ḍ. kōn, pl. kāna f.), pales. kōṇ;; kānī f. ʻ arrow ʼ; WPah. bhal. kān n. ʻ arrow ʼ, jaun. kã̄ḍ; N. kã̄ṛ ʻ arrow ʼ, °ṛo ʻ rafter ʼ; A. kã̄r ʻ arrow ʼ; B. kã̄ṛ ʻ arrow ʼ\; G. kã̄ḍ m. ʻ joint, bough, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023) खंडा khaṇḍā m A sort of sword. It is straight and twoedged. See खांडा  khāṇḍā m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended.  काण्डः ण्डम् An arrow. मनो दृष्टिगतं कृत्वा ततः काण्डं विसर्जयेत् Dhanur.3; Mb.5.155.7. काण्डवत् m. An archer. (Skt. Apte)



    Jiroft artifacts with Meluhha hieroglhyphs referencing dhokra kamar working with metals.

    Dark grey steatite bowl carved in relief. Zebu or brahmani bull is shown with its hump back; a male figure with long hair and wearing akilt grasps two sinuous objects, representing running water, which flows in a continuous stream. Around the bowl, another similar male figure stands between two lionesses with their head turned back towards him; he grasps a serpent in each hand. A further scene (not shown) represents a prostrate bull which is being attacked by a vulture and a lion. 


    The zebu is reminiscent of Sarasvati Sindhu seals. The stone used, steatite, is familiar in Baluchistan and a number of vessels at the Royal Cemetery at Ur were made out of this material. 


    The bowl dates from c. 2700-2500 B.C. and the motif shown on it resembles that on a fragment of a green stone vase from one of the Sin Temples at Tell Asmar of almost the same date. 


    Khafajeh bowl; a man sitting, with his legs bent underneath, upon two zebu bulls. This evokes the proto-Elamite bull-man; the man holds in his hands streams of water and issurrounded by ears of corn. He has a crescent beside his head. On the other side of the bowl, a man is standing upon two lionesses and grasping two serpents.

    Indus Valley Slip-Painted Terracotta Sculpture of a Zebu Bull - SF.151 Origin: Pakistan Circa: 2800 BC to 2600 BC Dimensions: 11 (27.9cm) high x 14.5 (36.8cm) wide Collection: Asian Art Medium: Terracotta Location: Great Britain
    Mehrgarh. Slip-Painted Terracotta Sculpture of a Zebu Bull - SF.151 Origin: Pakistan Circa: 2800 BC to 2600 BCE Dimensions: 11 (27.9cm) high x 14.5 (36.8cm) wide Collection: Asian Art Medium: Terracotta Location: Great Britain

     पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, Fe3O4 Ferrite ore' 

    Cylinder seal with a zebu, scorpion, man, snake and tree. Enstatite.H. 2.6 cm (1 in.); diam. 1.55 cm (5/8 in.). Mesopotamia, Ur, U. 16220. Late 3rd millennium BCE. British Museum. BM 122947


    Gadd seal 6. (cut down into Ur III mausolea from Larsa level; U. 16220), enstatite; Legrain, 1951, No. 632; Collon, 1987, Fig. 611 Cylinder seal; BM 122947;humped bull stands before a palm-tree, a thorny stone(?), tabernae montana (five-petalled fragrant flower); snake; person with long legs; behind the bull a scorpion ... Deciphered Indus writing: pola 'zebu, bos indicus'; pola ‘magnetite ore’ (Munda. Asuri); bichi 'scorpion'; 'hematite ore'; tagaraka 'tabernae montana'; tagara 'tin'; ranga 'thorny'; Rebus: pewter, alloy of tin and antimony;  kankar., kankur. = very tall and thin, large hands and feet; kankar dare = a high tree with few branches (Santali) Rebus: kanka, kanaka = gold (Samskritam); kan = copper (Tamil) nAga 'snake' nAga 'lead' (Samskritam).


    Banawali kammaṭa ayaskāṇḍa 'iron (metal) implements from mint. PLUS semantic determinant: 
    Image result for sibri cylinder sealA cylinder seal with zebu and lion, Sibri {Jarrige) Hieroglyphs: aryeh 'lion' rebus: arā 'brass'; [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods. pōḷī, ‘dewlap, honeycomb’. Rebus: pola ‘magnetite ore’ (Munda. Asuri) [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon); Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, weapons, metalware'.
    The legends in Greek and Kharoṣṭhī read: 
    Greeklegend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, "of Saviour King Apollodotus".
    Rev: Zebu bull with Kharoshti legend 𐨨𐨱𐨪𐨗𐨯 𐨀𐨤𐨫𐨡𐨟𐨯 𐨟𐨿𐨪𐨟𐨪𐨯 (MAHARAJASA APALADATASA TRATARASA),"Saviour King Apollodotus".

    The Indus Script Hypertexts in addition to the Greek and Kharoṣṭhī legends are:

    1. Nandipada in front of 2. zebu, bos indicus, 3. arched-hill, 4. sun, 5 six-armed vajra, 6. elephant; and 7. a river. 

    These five Indus Script Hypertexts are read rebus (or, rūpaka, metaphors in Meluhha).

    1. Nandipada.  dul ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metal casting mint' PLUS dala 'leaf petal' rebus:  ḍhālako = a large metal ingot PLUS karã̄ n.' pl.wristlets, bangles' Rebus: khār 'blacksmith, iron worker'. The 'bangle' image may have a variant reading as a 'pebble, round stone' goṭā 'round pebble, stone' Rebus: goṭā ''laterite, ferrite ore''gold braid' खोट [khōṭa] ‘ingot, wedge’; A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down)(Marathi)  khoṭ f ʻalloy' (Lahnda)
    2.  poḷa 'zebu' rebus: poḷa 'magnetite ore'. 
    3.  ḍāngā = hill, dry upland (B.); ḍã̄g mountain-ridge' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'
    4. arka 'sun' rebus; arka, eraka 'gold, copper', eraka 'molten cast'
    5. Six-armed vajra: dhā̆vaḍ 'strands' rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter'. -- and relate the work of a smelter to a dotted circle which is dāya 'throw of one in dice' rebus: dhāi 'mineral ore' PLUS arā 'spokes' rebus: āra 'brass'.PLUS eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'molten cast' 
    6. karba, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'
    7. River: kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍā, khaṇḍa 'implements'.

    The first Indian coins of Apollodotus used Indian symbols. These coins associated the elephant with the Buddhist Chaitya or arched-hill symbol, sun symbols, six-armed symbol, and a river. The bull had a Nandipada in front. The symbol at the top of the bull is only a mint mark. These symbols disappeared soon after, and only the elephant and the bull remained.

    Kausambi (U.P). Late Harappan period(c.2000 BCE). Two Bronze artifacts. Met Museum. These are Indus Script hieroglyphs: 1. kola'woman' rebus; kol 'working in iron', kolhe'smelter' 2. (scarf worn on head) dhatu'scarf' rebus: dhatu'mineral ore' 3. Pair (of zebu) dula'pair' rebus; dul 'metal casting' 4. Bos indicus, zebu  pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'.

    Thus, the artifacts constitute the hypertext, kol dhatu, dul  pōḷa 'mineral ore smelter, metal casting magnetite, ferrite ore. The woman is in a worshipful state because kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge'.


    m0451Am0451BText 3235

    Field symbol 1: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu, bos indicus taurus' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, ferrite ore: Fe3O4' 

    Field symbol 2: seṇa 'falcon' rebus: seṇa, aśani 'thunderbolt', āhan gar 'blacksmith'  PLUS kambha 'wing' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage[Metwork catalogues: ferrite ore, blacksmith mint] Alternate titles: sēnāpati m. ʻ leader of an army ʼ AitBr. [sḗnā -- , páti -- ]Pa. sēnāpati -- , °ika -- m. ʻ general ʼ, Pk. sēṇāvaï -- m.; M. śeṇvaī°vīśeṇai m. ʻ a class of Brahmans ʼ, Ko. śeṇvi; Si. senevi ʻgeneralʼ.(CDIAL 13589) Vikalpa:eruvai ‘eagle’ rebus: eruvai ‘copper’ 


    Text 3235


    loa 'ficus glomerata' Rebus: loha 'copper, iron'. PLUS karṇī  ‘ears’ rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' [supercargo in charge of copper, iron ores]

    kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥकौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith  PLUS dula ‘duplicated’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’. Thus, bronze castings. [bronze castings]


    khaṇḍa 'division'. rebus: kaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' [metal implement castings]


    dhāḷ 'slanted stroke' rebus: dhāḷako 'ingot' PLUS खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).  khaṇḍa 'implements'. Thus, ingots and implements [ingots, implements]


    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal alloy' (Rigveda) PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.PLUS sal ‘splinter’ rebus: sal ‘workshop’ [alloy metal mint workshop]

    Thus, the Mohenjodaro tablet is a metalwork catalogue of: 1.ferrite ore; 2.blacksmith mint, army general.

    Accounted sub-categories: 

    [supercargo in charge of copper, iron ores]
    [bronze castings]
    [metal implement castings]
    [ingots, implements]
    [alloy metal mint workshop]
    Courtesy of The Cleveland Museum of Art, J. H. Wade Fund 1973.160.
    Chanhu-darho in Sindh in 1935-36. Steatite, Height: 3.20 Width: 3.20 cm (h:1 1/4 w:1 1/4 inches). Courtesy of The Cleveland Museum of Art, J. H. Wade Fund 1973.160.
    poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite'
    kaNDa 'square/divisions' rebus: kANDa 'implements' dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron or copper' Thus, metal implements.
    Parenthesis may be orthographically a split rhombus, shaped like an ingot: Hieroglyph: mūhā 'ingot' rebus: mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; kolhe tehen me~ṛhe~t mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali) PLUS karaNDava 'aquatic bird' rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy' thus, hard alloy ingot.

    khareḍo = a currycomb (Gujarati) खरारा [ kharārā ] m ( H) A currycomb. 2 Currying a horse. (Marathi) Rebus: 1. करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) 2. kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati)

    The hypertext message is thus a metalwork catalogue of a metals turner working with iron, hard alloy ingots and magnetite (ferrite ore).

    Mohenjodaro seal (M-262) poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite ore' meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' gaNDa 'four' rebus: khaNDa 'implements'. Thus iron implements.

    Mohenjodaro seal (M-328) poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite ore' meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' koDa 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' kuTi 'water-carrier' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' karNIka 'rim of jar' Rebus: karNI 'supercargo' karNIka 'scribe'.

    Mohenjodaro seal (M-264) dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' adar 'lid' rebus: aduru 'native metal' 

    खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.karNIka 'rim of jar' Rebus: karNI 'supercargo' karNIka 'scribe'.


    Image result for zebu bos indicus bharatkalyan97kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' (Phonetic determinative)
    Sign 162 kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'



    Mohenjo-daro Seals m1118 and Kalibangan 032, glyphs used are: Zebu (bos taurus indicus), fish, four-strokes (allograph: arrow). ayo 'fish' (Mu.) rebus: aya 'iron' 

    (Gujarati) ayas 'alloy metal' (Rgveda)  gaṇḍa 'four' kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus:khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS poa ‘zebu' rebus polad 'steel'poa ‘magnetite ore'. Thus, the Mohenjo-daro and Kalibangan seals inMeluhha Sarasvati Script cipher, signify plain-text message: poa ‘magnetite ore' PLUS ayas 'alloy 
    Mohenjodaro seal 2.8x2.8x1.3 cm

    Hieroglyphs used are: Zebu (bos taurus indicus), fish, four-strokes (allograph: arrow).ayo ‘fish’ (Mu.) + kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.) gaṆḌa, ‘four’ (Santali); Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’, ‘furnace’), arrow read rebus in mleccha (Meluhhan) as a reference to a guild of artisans working with ayaskāṇḍa ‘excellent quantity of iron’ (Pāṇini) is consistent with the primacy of economic activities which resulted in the invention of a writing system, now referred to as Indus Writing. I suggest that the early Prakritam meaning of thelingua franca expression, ca. 3000 BCE is: ayaskāṇḍa 'iron (metal) implements.'
    *khaṇḍaka3 ʻ sword ʼ. [Perh. of same non -- Aryan origin as khaḍgá -- 2](Gujarati) ayas 'alloy metal' (Rgveda)  gaṇḍa 'four' kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus:khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS poa ‘zebu' rebus polad 'steel'poa ‘magnetite ore'. Thus, the Mohenjo-daro and Kalibangan seals inMeluhha Sarasvati Script cipher, signify plain-text message: poa ‘magnetite ore' PLUS ayas 'alloy metal' khaṇḍa 'implements'.Pk. khaṁḍa -- m. ʻ sword ʼ (→ Tam. kaṇṭam), Gy. SEeur. xai̦o, eur. xanroxarnoxanlo, wel. xenlī f., S. khano m., P. khaṇḍā m., Ku. gng. khã̄ṛ, N. khã̄ṛokhũṛo (X churi < kṣurá -- ); A. khāṇḍā ʻ heavy knife ʼ; B. khã̄rā ʻ large sacrificial knife ʼ; Or. khaṇḍā ʻ sword ʼ, H. khã̄ṛā, G. khã̄ḍũ n., M. khã̄ḍā m., Si. kaḍuva.(CDIAL 3793)

    The magnetite ore stones are identified as pola iron by Meluhha speakers.   अयस्कान्त [p= 85,1] m. (g. कस्का*दि) , " iron-lover " , the loadstone (cf. कान्ता*यस) Ragh. xvii , 63 , &c;  ayaskānta S (The iron gem.) The loadstone. (Marathi) Lodestone or Loadstone or Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring igneous and metamorphic rocks with black or brownish-black with a metallic luster. 

    Lodestones are naturally-occurring magnets, which can attract iron. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite. 
    [quote]The Indus Valley sites display a highly sophisticated technology of copper and bronze metalworking, even in the earliest excavated levels of the major cities (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1967). Issues with the integrity of the stratigraphy of early excavations of these major Indus sites makes it harder for present-day archaeologists to track the different developmental stages of the civilization's metallurgy though. However, based upon the wide array of metal artifacts found in these early deposits, it is suggested that these advanced metallurgical skills were known to the inhabitants of the Indus Valley before city constructions began and possibly originated in previous cultures to the west from which the Indus people progressed from. A large variety of bronze and  copper artifacts have been recovered from all Indus sites. The most common types are flat axes, chisels, fishhooks, bracelets, arrowheads, spearheads, knives, razors, mirrors, and saws. 



    Examples of types of tools and metal works (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1967)

    Indus metal working used many kinds of manufacturing processes. For example, from the artifact types mentioned above- flat axes and mirrors were made by open-mold casting; thick knives and chisels were hammered from rods of bronze or copper; and razors, saws, and arrow and spear heads were chiseled from thinly hammered sheets of copper.

    Unfortunately, little is known about the means of production used by the Indus metal workers because very little remains of tools or architecture required to perform such a craft. The only two examples for possible metallurgy workshops in the whole of the Indus Valley were discovered at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. In a large building close to the Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro a brick lined pit was discovered with an incredible amount of copper ore that archaeologists have interpreted as a smelting pit  and possibly a casting site. The whole building is thought to have housed the city's metal workers. Also, the only furnace construction found in the region was discovered in the city of Harappa and was constructed to have been powered by large effective bellows positioned above the furnace (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1967).[unquote]Roger Matthews, 2002, Zebu: harbingers of doom in Bronze Age western Asia? in: Antiquity 76 (2002) Number: 292: 438-446  https://www.scribd.com/doc/115702890/Ant-0760438 "The significance of zebu, or humped cattle as potential indicators of episodes of aridification in the Bronze Age of western Asia is explored through study of figurines and faunal remains from Mesopotamia, the Levant and Anatolia." "Magnetite is a mineral, ferrous-ferric oxide, one of the three common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth.[Harrison, R. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, RE; Putnis, A (2002). "Direct imaging of nanoscale magnetic interactions in minerals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 (26): 16556–16561] Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite, called lodestone, will attract small pieces of iron, and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism...Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite, and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity.
    [quote]Magnetite, a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides, is one of the more common meteor-wrongs. Magnetite displays a black exterior and magnetic properties....A piece of intensely magnetic magnetite was used as an early form of magnetic compass. Iron, steel and ordinary magnetite are attracted to a magnetic field, including the Earth's magnetic field. Only magnetite with a particular crystalline structure, lodestone, can act as a natural magnet and attract and magnetize iron. The name "magnet" comes from lodestones found in a place called Magnesia. [unquote] http://meteorite-identification.com/Hot%20Rocks/magnetite.html

    The importance of the पोळ pōḷa or cattle wealth festival is signified by: सणवई   saṇavī f (सण Holiday.) Corn given by the agriculturists at the seasons of दसरा, दिवाळी, पोळा, शिमगा, संक्रांत &38;c. to the twelve कारू or बलुतेदार. v दे, घाल, माग. Rebus: पोलाद   pōlāda n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) Semantic determinant: shine: Ta. poli (-v-, -nt-) to bloom (as the countenance), shine; polivu brightness of countenance, beauty, splendour, gold; polam, polaṉ gold, beauty, jewel. Ka. pol to be fit or proper, excel. Te. polucu to be suitable, agreeable, beautiful, appear, seem, (K. also) shine; pol(u)pu beauty, agreeableness; polāti, polātuka woman(DEDR 4551)

    Often, the zebu or bos indicus is shown in association with a unique bird called black drongo.    పోలడు  , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.). Thus, పోలడు pōlaḍu is a phonetic determinative of the signified normal text: पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel'.
    Zebu and leaves. In front of the standard device and the stylized tree of 9 leaves, are the black buck antelopes. Black paint on red ware of Kulli style. Mehi. Second-half of 3rd millennium BCE. [After G.L. Possehl, 1986, Kulli: an exploration of an  ancient civilization in South Asia, Centers of Civilization, I, Durham, NC: 46, fig. 18 (Mehi II.4.5), based on Stein 1931: pl. 30. 

    Decipherment:

    meṛh  f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, me 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.)

    पोळ pōḷa, 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4', Vikalpa: adar ḍangra ‘zebu’ (Santali); Rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.);ḍhan:gar
    ‘blacksmith’ (WPah.) ayir = iron dust, any ore (Ma.) aduru = gan.iyinda
    tegadu karagade iruva aduru
     = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to
    melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddha_nti Subrahman.ya’ S’astri’s new interpretation
    of the Amarakos’a, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p. 330) DEDR 192  Ta.  ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native
    metal.
     Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron.

    Hieroglyph: lo = nine (Santali); no = nine (B.)  on-patu = nine (Ta.) 
    [Note the count of nine fig leaves on m0296] Rebus: loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali.lex.)(Phonetic determinant)
    http://www.waa.ox.ac.uk/XDB/tours/indus6.asp 
    Related imageLarge painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat. No. 8.

    Hypertexs पोळ pōḷa 'zebu'& pōlaḍu 'black drongo' signify polad 'steel
    A phonetic determinant is provided by the popular bird, black drongo with habitat in Bharatam.Hieroglyph: eagle పోలడు [ pōlaḍu ] , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)(Telugu)


    पोळा [ pōḷā ] m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. "Pola is a bull-worshipping festival celebrated by farmers mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra (especially among the Kunbis). On the day of Pola, the farmers decorate and worship their bulls. Pola falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (the new moon day) in the month of Shravana (usually in August)."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pola_(festival)  Festival held on the day after Sankranti ( = kANum) is called pōlāla paNDaga (Telugu).A phonetic determinant is provided by the popular bird, black drongo with habitat in Bharatam.Hieroglyph: eagle పోలడు [ pōlaḍu ] , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)(Telugu)పసి (p. 730) pasi pasi. [from Skt. పశువు.] n. Cattle. పశుసమూహము, గోగణము. The smell of "With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals."(Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 155–157.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_drongo
    Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) IMG 7702 (1)..JPGA Black drongo in Rajasthan state, northern IndiaA pair of black drongo birds are perched on the Daimabad bronze chariot flanking the charioter
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_drongపసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu. n. The Black Drongo or King crow, Dicrurusater. (F.B.I.) ఏట్రింత.Also, the Adjutant. తోకపసులపోలిగాడు the Raquet-tailed Drongo shrike. Jerdon. No. 55. 56. 59. కొండ పనులపోలిగాడు the White bellied Drongo, Dicrurus coerulescens.  వెంటికపనుల పోలిగాడు the Hair-crested Drongo, Chibia hottentotta. టెంకిపనుల పోలిగాడు the larger Racket-tailed Drongo, Dissemurus paradiseus (F.B.I.)పసులవాడు pasula-vāḍu. n. A herdsman, గొల్లవాడు. the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)(Telugu)"With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals."(Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 155–157.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_drongo.Source: https://www.ancient.eu/image/7187/ This ritual vessel shows nude heroes protecting a bird and a bull. Such heroes were popular images in ancient Mesopotamia. Late Uruk Period, 3300-3000 BCE. Probably from Uruk (Warka), Southern Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq. (The British Museum, London)
    Image result for zebu black drongoA zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Zebu and black Nausharo pot. Black drongo and zebu. Mohenjo-daro seal. Zebu PLUS a pair of black drongos. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. 


    Sign 286 variants, Indus Script





    Circumscript: four short strokes: gaṇḍā 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar'. Sign 286 is a composite of Sign 284 with infixed spoked wheel. The reaiding of hypertext of Sign 286 is: 


    kaṇḍa āra eraka kancu mũh khāṇḍā  'fire-altar (for) brass, moltencast copper, bell-metal ingot, implements.' Four corners, four short linear strokes as circumscript.  kaṇḍa kancu mũh khāṇḍā 'bell-metal ingot, implements (from) fire-altar'. 



    The rebus reading of hieroglyph spoked-wheel is: arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass' PLUS eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast,copper'.  


    Carved chlorite plaque of the Halil Rud. పోలడు  pōlaḍu, 'black drongo' percfhed on the back of पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' rebus: magnetite ore, steel.
    1. https://www.harappa.com/blog/indus-civilization-through-halil-rud-civilization-object
    2. pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'; pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel' The semantics of bull (zebu) PLUS black drongo bird are the reason why the terracotta bird is shown with a bull's head as a phonetic determinative to signify 'steel/magnetite ferrite ore'.
        of Sarasvati Script corpora is rebus: pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian), fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto) पोलाद   pōlāda n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel.(Marathi) 

      pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore) pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel' The semantics of bull (zebu) PLUS black drongo bird are the reason why the terracotta pōladu  bird is shown with pōḷa bull's head as a phonetic determinative to signify 'steel/magnetite ferrite ore'.
    3. A hieroglyph signifies पोला  pōlā a Hollow, unfilled, light--an ear or a grain of corn Rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore.
    4. Image result for black drongo zebu nausharo pot
    Ceramic from Nausharo showing transition from Early to Mature Phase of Sarasvati Civilization (Image after Jarrige, J.F., 1989, Excavations at Nausharo )
    "With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals."(Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 155-157.)  Hence, the expression, 
    పనుల పోలిగాడు in Telugu: పసులు pasulu. n. plu. Cattle, గోవులు. పసిగాపు pasi-gāpu. n. A herdsman, గోపకుడు పసితిండి pasi-tinḍi. n. A tiger, పెద్దపులి. పసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu. n. The Black Drongo or King crow, Dicrurusater. (F.B.I.) ఏట్రింత. Also, the Adjutant. తోకపసులపోలిగాడు the Raquet-tailed Drongo shrike. Jerdon. No. 55. 56. 59. కొండ పనులపోలిగాడు the White bellied Drongo, Dicrurus coerulescens. వెంటికపనుల పోలిగాడు the Hair-crested Drongo, Chibia hottentotta. టెంకిపనుల పోలిగాడు the larger Racket-tailed Drongo, Dissemurus paradiseus (F.B.I.) పసులవాడు pasula-vāḍu. n. A herdsman, గొల్లవాడు.
    Steel is an alloy of iron with around 0.1 to 2.0 percent carbon. Steel is used to make knives, chisels, scissors, files, swords.Steel could be made in a hearth or furnace by 1) adding carbon to wrought iron, 2) by removing carbon from cast iron. Steel could also be made in crucible by either carburizing or decarburing the crucible charge (i.e. materials put into the crucible).Crucible steel = high-carbon steel made by enriching low-carbon iron / steel with carbon in a crucible in the liquid state 


    उत्स m. ( √ उद् Un2. iii. 68) , a spring , fountain (metaphorically applied to the clouds) RV. AV. VS. TBr. Sus3r. Das3. (Monier-Williams)






    útsa m. ʻ spring of water ʼ RV. 2. utsíya -- (utsyà -- ) ʻ coming from a spring (of water) ʼ AV. [√ud2].1. Wg. ūċ ʻ spring ʼ, Kt. unċo, Dm. ūċ, Gaw. ū̃ċwū̃ċ, Kal. rumb. Kho. , Bshk. ūċūč, Phal. ūċ, Sh. gil. ũċ m., koh. gur.  m., A. uh (< *ūcha), Or. ucha. 2. Paš. lauṛ.  f., ar. ūičūiċ.(CDIAL 1869)

    Ukku, a word which has its roots in Dharwar iron ore belt and originated in Kannada was wrongly pronounced as wootz. Ukku is the first invented form by artisans of ancient Inid, of extraordinary metallurgical excellence called crucible steel. I submit that the word ukku is a Meluhha Bharatiya sprachbund (speech union) word.

    ఉక్కు ukku ukku. [Tel.] n. Steel. Strength, courage, pride, vigour, potency. అయస్సారము, బలము, శౌర్యము. Steadiness. స్థైర్యము. తెలగ ఉక్కు. A very tough sort of steel. R. v. 197. ఉక్కు తీగె ukku-tīge. n. Steel wire. ఉక్కుతునక or ఉక్కుముక్క ukku-tunaka. n. A bit of steel, a brave, sharp or active man. ఉక్కు ముఖి ukku-mukhi. n. The crimson crested barbet, or coppersmith bird, Xantholaema haemaxtocephala. (F.B.I.) ఉక్కుసున్నము ukku-sunnamu. n. Ashes of calcined iron, scoriæ calx. (Telugu) Semantic expansion of the word ukku in Telugu also relates to the processes of crushing to death and of heroism:  ఉక్కడగించు or ఉక్కడచు ukkaḍaginṭsu. v. a. To crush one's pride, to humble: to dishearten. ఉక్కడగు ukkaḍagu. (ఉక్కు+అడగు) v. To sink or faint. To be disheartened. ఉక్కరి ukk-ari. (ఉక్కు+అరి) A man, a hero. శూరుడు, ధీరుడు.

    Ta. eṟṟu (eṟṟi-) to throw out (as water from a vessel); iṟai (-v-, -nt-) to scatter (intr.), disperse; (-pp-, -tt-) to splash (tr.), spatter, scatter, strew, draw and pour out water, irrigate, bale out, squander; iṟaivai receptacle for drawing water for irrigation; iṟaṭṭu (iṟaṭṭi-) to sprinkle, splash. Ma. iṟekka to bale out; iṟayuka id., scatter, disperse; iṟavabasket for drawing water; eṟiccil rainwater blown in by the wind. To. eṟ- (eṟQ-) to scoop up (water with vessel). Ka. eṟe to pour any liquids, cast (as metal); n. pouring; eṟacu, ercu to scoop, sprinkle, scatter, strew, sow; eṟaka, eraka any metal infusion; molten state, fusion. Tu. eraka molten, cast (as metal); eraguni to melt. Kur. ecchnā to dash a liquid out or over (by scooping, splashing, besprinkling). (DEDR 866) Kur. elkhnā to pour liquid out (by tilting a vessel standing on the ground); elkhrnā to be poured out. Malt. eqe to pour out from a vessel. (DEDR 840)




    The Kannada word ukku is clearly related to the metallurgical processes of dissolution, fusing, melting of metal, as evidenced by the following etyma: Ta. uruku (uruki-) to dissolve (intr.) with heat, melt, liquefy, be fused, become tender, melt (as the heart), be kind, glow with love, be emaciated; urukku (urukki-) to melt (tr.) with heat (as metals or congealed substances), dissolve, liquefy, fuse, soften (as feelings), reduce, emaciate (as the body), destroy; n.steel, anything melted, product of liquefaction; urukkam melting of heart, tenderness, compassion, love (as to a deity, friend, or child); urukkiṉam that which facilitates the fusion of metals (as borax). Ma. urukuka to melt, dissolve, be softened; urukkuka to melt (tr.); urukkam melting, anguish; urukku what is melted, fused metal, steel. Ko. uk steel. Ka. urku, ukku id. Koḍ. ur- (uri-) to melt (intr.); urïk- (urïki-) id. (tr.); ukkï steel. Te. ukku id. Go. (Mu.) urī-, (Ko.) uṛi- to be melted, dissolved; tr. (Mu.) urih-/urh-(Voc. 262). Konḍa (BB) rūg- to melt, dissolve. Kui ūra (ūri-) to be dissolved; pl. action ūrka (ūrki-); rūga (rūgi-) to be dissolved. Kuwi (Ṭ.) rūy- to be dissolved; (S.) rūkhnaito smelt; (Isr.) uku, (S.) ukku steel.(DEDR 661) urukku , n. < உருக்கு-. [T. ukku, K. urku, M. urukku.] 1. Steel; எஃகு. (சூடா.) 2. Anything melted, product of liquefaction; உருக் கினபொருள். செப்புருக் கனைய (கம்பரா. கார்கா. 91); உருகு-தல் uruku-, 5 v. intr. [M. uruhu.] 1. To dissolve with heat; to melt, liquefy; to be fused; வெப்பத்தால் இளகுதல். 2. To become tender; to melt, as the heart; to be kind; to commisserate; to sympathize; to glow with love; மனநெகிழ்தல். பூண்முலையார் மன முருக (பு. வெ. 9, 41, கொளு); உருகுபதம் uruku-patam, n. < உருகு- +. Softness of condition, melting state; இளகுதற்குரிய பக்குவம். உருகுபதத்திலே வளைந்தவை (ஈடு, 1, 4, 3).(Tamil)


    Magnetite Iron ore resources of Kannada-speaker region in India

    Karnataka is endowed with rich deposits of iron ores; with approximately 9.03 billion tonnes or about 41% of India’s estimated total haematitic and magnetitic iron ore resources...

    Magnetite iron ore: The Kudremukh and partly Bababudan iron ore belts represent massive magnetite type of ores, occurring in the form of banded magnetite quartzites. In banded magnetite quartzites, layers of iron oxides (magnetite) alternate with those of quartz. The Early Precambrian BIFs have been metamorphosed to greenschist to amphibolite facies and the ores occur mainly in the magnetite form. Most of the estimated 7.8 billion tonnes of magnetite ores reserves of Karnataka are in the Kudremukh and Bababudan ranges falling within the limits of Chikmagalur district. Magnetite type iron ores are harder compared to haematitic ores and are amenable for underground type of mining. However, in Kudremukh area, KIOCL designed a large open cast type of mine to extract the low grade magnetite ore.

    Table 2.Districtwise Production of iron ores in Karnataka (in metric tonnes)

    District/Year


    2001-02

    2002-03

    2003-04

    2004-05

    2005-06

    Bagalkot


    60,140

    31,045

    331,378

    882,334

    1,150,350

    Belgaum


    100

    0

    0

    500

    450

    Bellary


    5,955,728

    15,925,769

    25,413,044

    31,494,682

    36,301,615

    Chikmagalur


    5,572,265

    5,759,722

    5,241,459

    4,458,760

    2922

    Chitradurga


    1,281,116

    1,277,321

    2188942

    2,324,037

    2,326,454

    Dharwad


    0

    0

    13,300

    261,827

    0

    Shimoga


    0

    900

    222,500

    0

    0

    Tumkur


    8668

    205,222

    1,114,005

    1,687,638

    1,625,481

    Total


    12,878,017

    23,199,979

    34,524,628

    41,109,778

    41,407,272


    "Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands, which are formed by sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensiteor pearlite matrix in higher carbon steel, or by ferrite and pearlite banding in lower carbon steels. It is the pioneering steel alloy developed in Southern India in the 6th century BC and exported globally. It was also known in the ancient world by many different names including Ukku, Hindvi Steel, Hinduwani Steel, Teling Steel and Seric Iron...Wootz steel originated in India.[1][2] There are several ancient Tamil, Telugu, Greek, Chinese and Roman literary references to high carbon Indian steel. The crucible steel production process started in the 6th century BC,[citation needed] at production sites of Kodumanal in Tamil NaduGolconda in TelanganaKarnataka and Sri Lanka and exported globally; the Tamils of the Chera Dynasty producing what was termed the finest steel in the world, i.e. Seric Iron to the Romans, Egyptians, Chinese and Arabs by 500 BC.The steel was exported as cakes of steely iron that came to be known as "Wootz"...The Tamilakam method was to heat black magnetite ore in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible inside a charcoal furnace. An alternative was to smelt the ore first to give wrought iron, then heat and hammer it to remove slag. The carbon source was bamboo and leaves from plants such as Avārai.The Chinese and locals in Sri Lanka adopted the production methods of creating wootz steel from the Chera Tamils by the 5th century BC. In Sri Lanka, this early steel-making method employed a unique wind furnace, driven by the monsoon winds. Production sites from antiquity have emerged, in places such as AnuradhapuraTissamaharama and 
    Samanalawewa, as well as imported artifacts of ancient iron and steel from Kodumanal. A 200 BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period.The Arabs introduced the South Indian/Sri Lankan wootz steel to Damascus, where an industry developed for making weapons of this steel. The 12th century Arab traveler Edrisi mentioned the "Hinduwani" or Indian steel as the best in the world (Davidson, Hilda Roderick Ellis (1998). The Sword in Anglo-Saxon England: Its Archaeology and Literature. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 20.)" 

    Kannada etyma provide vivid semantic elucidations of the word ukku which relates to working with fire and producing a new metal with unique chemical, physical and metallurgical characteristics, a lohabheda. This word ukku enters the vocabulary of almost all ancient languages of India and gains global currency in pronunciation variants such as wootz.
    h1953a,b

    पोळ pōḷa, 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4',
    aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'
    dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'
    Sign 387 bun-ingot shape (oval) + 'riceplant', i.e. ingots worked on in a smithy/forge. This hypertext DOES NOT occur on copper plates. This indicates that Sign 387 signifies ingots processed in a smithy/forge, i.e. to forge ingots into metalware, tools, implements, weapons.
    Sign 67 khambhaṛā'fish-fin' rebus: kammaṭa'mint, coiner, coinage' PLUS ayo, aya 'fish' rebus:aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'alloy metal' 


    Sign 171 dánta m. ʻ tooth ʼ RV. [dánt -- RV.]Pa. danta -- m. ʻ tooth, tusk ʼ; Pk. daṁta -- m. ʻ tooth, part of a mountain ʼ; Gy. eur. dand m. ʻ tooth ʼ, pal. dṓndă, Ash. dō˘nt, Kt. dut, Wg. dō̃tdū̃t, Pr. letumlätəm'ätəm ʻ my (?) tooth ʼ, Dm. dan, Tir. d*lndə, Paš. lauṛ. dan(d), uzb. dōn, Niṅg. daṅ, Shum. dandem ʻ my tooth ʼ, Woṭ. dan m., Gaw. dant, Kal.urt. d*ln, rumb. dh*lndōŕy*lk (lit. ʻ front and back teeth ʼ? -- see *dāṁṣṭra -- ); Kho. don, Bshk. d*lndə, Tor. d*ln, Kand. dɔdi, Mai. dān, Sv. dānd, Phal. dān, pl. dānda, Sh.gil. do̯n, pl. dōnye̯ m. (→ Ḍ. don m.), pales. d*ln, jij. dɔn, K. dand m., rām. pog. ḍoḍ. dant, S. ḍ̠andu m.; L. dand, mult. ḍand, (Ju.) ḍ̠ãd m., khet. dant ʻ tooth ʼ, (Shahpur) dãd f. ʻ cliff, precipice ʼ; P. dand m. ʻ tooth, ʼ WPah.bhad. bhal. paṅ. cur. dant, cam. dand, pāḍ. dann, Ku. N. dã̄t (< *dã̄d in N. dã̄de ʻ harrow, a kind of grass ʼ), A. B. dã̄t, Or. dānta, Mth. Bhoj. Aw.lakh. H. Marw. G. M. dã̄t m., Ko. dāntu, Si. data. -- Ext. -- ḍa -- : Dm. dandə́ŕidánduri ʻ horse's bit ʼ, Phal. dándaṛi. -- See Add.
    Addenda: dánta -- : S.kcch. ḍandh m.pl. ʻ teeth ʼ; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) dānd m., J. dã̄d m., Garh. dã̄t, Md. dat.(CDIAL 6152) Rebus: dhatu 'mineral ore'.
    Sign 59 ayo, aya 'fish' rebus:aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'alloy metal' 
     Sign 211 kaṇḍa 'arrow' (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024) khaṇḍa  'equipment'. 
    Hình dáng trống đồng Làng Vạc 1

    Zebu on a cire perdue inscription with Indus Script hieroglyphs on a Dong Son Bronze Drum

    Hình thuyền trên một trống đồng Điền (nguồn 1).
    Dong Son Bronze artiface. Zebu and a rider.



    Gate on Nahalmishmar crown: pol m. ʻgate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate': Ka. por̤al town, city. Te. prōlu, (inscr.) pr̤ōl(u) city. ? (DEDR 4555) पोवळ or पोंवळ [ pōvaḷa or pōṃvaḷa ] f पोवळी or पोंवळी f The court-wall of a temple. (Marathi) *pratōlika ʻ gatekeeper ʼ. [pratōlī -- ] H. pauliyā, pol°, pauriyā m. ʻ gatekeeper ʼ, G. poḷiyɔ m.(CDIAL 8632) pratōlī f. ʻ gate of town or fort, main street ʼ MBh. [Cf. tōlikā -- . -- Perh. conn. with tōraṇa -- EWA ii 361, less likely with *ṭōla -- ] Pk. paōlī -- f. ʻ city gate, main street ʼ; WPah. (Joshi) prauḷ m., °ḷi f., pauḷ m., °ḷi f. ʻ gateway of a chief ʼ, proḷ ʻ village ward ʼ; H. paul, pol m. ʻ gate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate ʼ, paulī f. ʻ gate ʼ; OG. poli f. ʻ door ʼ; G. poḷi f. ʻ street ʼ; M. pauḷ, poḷ f. ʻ wall of loose stones ʼ. -- Forms with -- r -- poss. < *pradura -- : OAw. paüri ʻ gatepost ʼ; H. paur, °rī, pãwar, °rī f. ʻ gate, door ʼ.WPah.poet. prɔ̈̄ḷ m., prɔḷo m., prɔḷe f. ʻ gate of palace or temple ʼ.(CDIAL 8633) Porin (adj.) [fr. pora=Epic Sk. paura citizen, see pura. Semantically cp. urbane>urbanus>urbs; polite= poli/ths>po/lis. For pop. etym. see DA i.73 & 282] belonging to a citizen, i. e. citizenlike, urbane, polite, usually in phrase porī vācā polite speech D i.4, 114; S i.189; ii.280=A ii.51; A iii.114; Pug 57; Dhs 1344; DA i.75, 282; DhsA 397. Cp. BSk. paurī vācā MVastu iii.322. Porisa2 (nt.) [abstr. fr. purisa, *pauruṣyaŋ, cp. porisiya and poroseyya] 1. business, doing of a man (or servant, cp. purisa 2), service, occupation; human doing, activity M i.85 (rāja˚); Vv 6311 (=purisa -- kicca VvA 263); Pv iv.324 (uṭṭhāna˚=purisa -- viriya, purisa -- kāra PvA 252). -- 2. height of a man M. i.74, 187, 365.(Pali) పౌరము [ pauramu ] pauramu. [Skt. from పుర.] adj. Belonging to a city or town (పురము.) పౌరసతులు the ladies of the place: citizens' wives. పౌరలోకము paura-lōkamu. n. The townsfolk, a body of citizens. పౌరుడు pauruḍu. n. A citizen. పౌరులు citizens, townsfolk.(Telugu)



    Rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore' This may be reinforced by the phonetic determinant:  dula 'pair' 

    rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS pōladu 'Black drongo bird pair' shown on the crown.

    sã̄gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ (M.)(CDIAL 12859) Rebus: jaṅgaḍ ‘entrustment articles’ sãgaṛh m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ (Lahnda).(CDIAL 12845) Allograph: saṅgaḍa ‘lathe’. 'potable furnace'. sang ‘stone’, gaḍa ‘large stone’. Rebus: Vajra-samghāta is to be compounded of 8 parts of lead, 2 parts of bell metal and 1 part of brass, melted and poured hot. It is stated that when this type of cement is applied to temple, etc. they last for around thousand years. Vajra-samghāta means, composition as hard as thunderbolt. 

    http://www.niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/researchjournals/rejour/ijtk/Fulltextsearch/2006/April%202006/IJTK-vol%205(2)-April%202006-pp%20259-262.htm samghāta सं-घात b [p= 1130,1] close union or combination , collection , cluster , heap , mass , multitude TS. MBh. &c वज्र--संघात [p= 914,1]mfn. having the hardness or compactness of adamant (said of भीमMBh. i , 4775; m. N. of a kind of hard cement VarBr2S.

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. koḍ ‘horns’ Rebus: koḍ‘artisan’s workshop’.
    Konar Sandal white marble cylinder seal: metalwork repertoire
    Massimo Vidale and Dennys Frenez present (2015) "a detailed analysis of the iconography carved on a cylinder seal found in a metallurgical sitewithin the archaeological complex of Konar Sandal South, near Jiroft, in the Halil river valley of the Kerman province, south-eastern Iran. This seal is made of a whitish marble and  even if heavily worn by use it retainstraces of different animal figures. These animals represent the translation into local style of a rare but characteristic iconography found in the seal production of the Indus Civilization. The merging into a single seal of different animals, some of which clearly belong to the standard animal series of the Indus seals, might have provided theowner with a special authority that allowed him/her to hold different administrative functions. Moreover, the discovery at Konar Sandal South of a cylinder seal bearing an Indus-related iconography might further testify to the direct interest of Indus merchants and probably craftsmen in trade exchanges with a major early urban site in south-eastern Iran." (Massimo Vidale and Dennys Frenez, 2015, Indus components in the iconography of a white marble cylinder seal from Konar Sandal South (Kerman, Iran) in: South Asian Studies Vol. 31, No. 1, pp.144-154 )

    Photographs of the cylinder seal in white marble found at Konar Sandal South in the excavation of Trench IX. Courtesy of Halil  Rud Archaeological Project


    Drawing of the animals carved on the cylinder seal found at Konar Sandal South.



    "The cylinder seal published by Pittman is 23.97 mm long and has a maximum diameter at the base of 12.42mm. It is made of whitish marble with pale brown shadows...This seal has a zebu depicted in front of a small round object...The main subject of this seal and its iconographic arrangement are clearly Indus, but the engraving technique based on drill-holes links it to the copper seal from Konar Sandal South and with other stamp seals found in Oman, further stressing the intense cultural interactions that occurred between Eastern Arabia, Iran and the Indus Valley during the second half of the third millennium BCE...The second creature is an Indus unicorn...Image 3.3...probably belong to the head of an Indus buffalo...Image 3.4...may represent the long ears of a large, evidently disproportionate, hare or rabbit...Image 3.5...(maybe) a markhor wild goat (Capra folconeri) or a blackbuck antelope (Antilope cervicapra)...Considered all together, these animals may symbolize something more than a simple list or procession, representing instead the physical disembodiment of a concept represented on two similar Indus whirl-like images on stamp seals...In general, the Halil Rud animal imagery more directly linked to the iconography of the Indus civilization suggests a precise knowledge of very important eastern symbols, but also a strategic will of subverting their original implications, adapting them to the local style and tradition. More likely, the cylinder seal found at Konar Sandal South bears the linear translation of a similar rotatory template...The uncommon iconographies with multiple animal heads present in Indus seals production are still a mystery, but the most reasonable addumption is that animals and fantastic creatures represented different identities, social roles, and/or social segment of the developing universe...The white marble cylinder seal on study was found inthe excavation of Trench IX, a large trench (15 x 20 m)dug in a low mound  c. 500 m south-east of Konar Sandal South. In the same area, eight furnaces built onceramic jars operated on massive mud-bricks platforms.As stated by the excavator: Close to the furnaces, clear evidence of craft activitywas found including nearly five kilos of copper slag,fragments of ingots, and open molds. In addition, a number of copper and bronze objects and tools suchas chisels, stone vessels in marble, and steatite/chlorite,microlithic tools, and a large number of clay objects possibly connected with pyrotechnical activities havealso been recovered. It was evidently a neighbourhood occupied by a com-munity specialized in roasting and smelting copper ores and casting various types of artefacts in moulds and thorough lost-wax processes...The presence of a cylinder sealbearing a distinctive even if rare – Indus iconographysupports the hypothesis of a specific interest and actualfrequentation of Indus merchants and craftsmen, or of families maintaining formal ties with the Indus communities, in the copper ore deposits of the Kerman-Halilriver region. (Note: Originally put forward in S. Ashtana, 'Harappans interest in Kirman', Man and Environment, 3 (1979), 55-60. See also S. Ashtana, 'Harappan trade in metals and minerals: a regional approach, in Harappan civilization: a recent perspective, ed. by GL Possehl, 2nd edn, New Delhi, Oxford & IBH, 1993, pp. 271-86)."
    Meluhha and Jiroft

    A dominant hieroglyph depicted on Jiroft artifacts is a 'wallet'. The Meluhha word for this hieroglyph is dhokra. Meluhha hieroglyphs related to metalwork are depicted on artifacts shaped like wallets.

    Hieroglyph: wallet:  *dhōkka1 ʻ sacking, matting ʼ. 2. *dhōkha -- . 3. *dhōṅga -- 2. 4. *ḍhōkka -- 1. [Cf. *ṭōkka -- 1]1. Ext. --  -- : N. dhokro ʻ large jute bag ʼ, B. dhokaṛ; Or. dhokaṛa ʻ cloth bag ʼ; Bi. dhŏkrā ʻ jute bag ʼ; Mth. dhokṛā ʻ bag, vessel, receptacle ʼ; H. dhukṛī f. ʻ small bag ʼ; G. dhokṛũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- ṭṭ -- : M. dhokṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ; -- with -- n -- : G. dhokṇũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- s -- : N. (Tarai) dhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in ʼ.2. L. dhohẽ (pl. dhūhī˜) m. ʻ large thatched shed ʼ.3. M. dhõgḍā m. ʻ coarse cloth ʼ, dhõgṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ.4. L. ḍhok f. ʻ hut in the fields ʼ; Ku. ḍhwākā m. pl. ʻ gates of a city or market ʼ; N. ḍhokā (pl. of *ḍhoko) ʻ door ʼ; -- OMarw. ḍhokaro m. ʻ basket ʼ; -- N. ḍhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in, large basket ʼ.(CDIAL 6880) Rebus: dhokra kamar 'cire perdue, lost-wax casting metalworker'
    Related image Jiroft. Vase. Basket-shaped wallet. http://antikforever.com/Perse/Divers/jiroft.htm

    Bi. dhŏkrā ʻ jute bag ʼ; Mth. dhokṛā ʻ bag, vessel, receptacle ʼ; OMarw. ḍhokaro m. ʻ basket ʼ; -- N. ḍhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in, large basket ʼ.(CDIAL 6880) Rebus: dhokra kamar 'cire perdue, lost-wax casting metalworker'.

    āre 'lion' rebu: āra 'brass' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.

    pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore)
    pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel'

    Thus, this Jiroft vase with Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs is a professional calling card -- dharma samjñā 'responsibility badge' -- of the Meluhha  cire perdue metalcaster.

    Hieroglyph 1: kulā ʻhood of a snakeʼ(Assamese) (CDIAL 3350) खोळ (p. 216) [ khōḷa ] A hooded cloak for children. (CDIAL 3942)Rebus: kol metal (Ta.) kol = pan~calōkam (five metals) (Tamil) kol ‘working in iron’, blacksmith’; kolle'blacksmith’ kolhe ‘smelters’ kole.l ‘smithy, Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; temple’ ;  (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133) kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollanblacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·lKota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; konimi blacksmith;(Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollëblacksmith.                                                                


    Hieroglyph 2: bica 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'haematite'   
    Hieroglyph 3: pōladu 'Black drongo' rebus:  pōlāda 'steel'
    Stairs of Konar Sandal Ziggurat The main part of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat of the Jiroft ancient site, located in the southern Iranian province of Kerman, has recently been excavated, the Persian service of CHN reported on Friday.


    Before the discovery of the ziggurat in 2002, Chogha Zanbil, a major remnant of the Elamite civilization near Susa , was the only surviving ziggurat in Iran . Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat dates back to 1250 BCE.


    “The main part of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat is the lower part and is 200 years older than the upper section. Thus, construction of the ziggurat was carried out in stages beginning in 2200 BCE,” said Professor Yusef Majidzadeh, the director of the archaeological team working at the site.


    Built some time around 2100 BCE by king Ur-Nammu, the Ur Ziggurat is the oldest one in Mesopotamia , but the Konar Sandal Ziggurat is a century older than it, he added.


    The Ur Ziggurat was built in honor of the god Sin in Ur , a Sumerian city on the Euphrates , in the south of modern-day Iraq . It was called 'Etemennigur', which means 'house whose foundation creates terror'.


    “The archaeologists have determined the original shape of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat for restoration,” Majidzadeh said.


    Jiroft came into the spotlight nearly four years ago when reports of extensive illegal excavations and plundering of the priceless historical items of the area by local people surfaced.


    Since 2002, two excavation seasons have been carried out at the Jiroft site under the supervision of Majidzadeh, leading to the discovery of a ziggurat made of more than four million mud bricks dating back to about 2200 BCE.


    Jiroft is one of the richest historical areas in the world, with ruins and artifacts dating back to the third millennium BCE. Over 100 historical sites are located along the approximately 400 kilometers of the Halil Rud riverbank.


    Many Iranian and foreign experts see the findings in Jiroft as signs of a civilization as great as Sumer and ancientMesopotamia . Majidzadeh believes that Jiroft is the ancient city of Aratta , which was described as a great civilization in a Sumerian clay inscription.

    Image result for halil rud civilizationMap showing the main sites of Middle Asia in the third millennium BC (whorls indicate the presence of Indus and Indus-likeseals bearing multiple heads of different animals arranged in whirl-like motif). "The hypothesis which is validated in historical chronology of peoples’ movements in Eurasia is that Meluhha artisans and merchants of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization moved to spread the archaeometallurgical initiatives of alloying. They had invented a unique writing system with hieroglyph multiplexes as signifiers to compile metalwork catalogues. 





    This is consistent with the evidence of Baudhāyana Śrauta Sūtra  18.44:397.9 sqq which records: 
    Ayu migrated eastwards. His (people) are the Kuru-Pancalas and the Kasi-Videhas.  
    This is the Ayava (migration). Amavasumigrated westwards
    His (people) are the Ghandhari, Parsu and Aratta. 
    This is the Amavasu (migration). 
    https://www.academia.edu/14548989/Bhirrana_to_Mehrgarh_and_beyond_in_the_civilization_contact_areas_from_8th_millennium_BCE


    A vivid historical document which summarises the pinnacle of metallurgical achievement of Sarasvati Civilization is a painting in the Institute of Steel Authority of India, Ranchi. See: 

     https://tinyurl.com/yasc8ghs 


    King Puru and Alexander the Great. ca. 330 BCE. Painting in the guesthouse of the largest R&D steel laboratory in the world, the Steel Authority of India, Ranchi. "After King Puru was defeated by Alexander the Great in battle, the King gave, as a token of respect, his sword to Alexander, and behind the King his aide is carrying an additional gift, a gold container within which is a cake of Indian wootz. At the time, this steel was more prized than gold. In a more recent period, the Russian poet, Alexander Pushkin immortalized 'bulat' with a similar comparison when he wrote in 1830 the following poem: All is mine, said gold;all is mine said bulat; all I can buy said gold, all I will take, said bulat. The exact procedures used by the ancient blacksmiths in making the surface markings on genuine Damascus steel swords (it is termed 'genuine' because it is made from a single ultrahigh carbon composition casting) have been the source of much speculation."


    Ukku signifies the ingot produced in the metallurgical alloying process which is subjected to forging to achieve the desired shape of a sabre, sword or knife. Thus, pōḷa signifies the ferrite mineral ore, pōḷad signifies the alloy metal using the ferrite mineral ore, ukku signifies the ingot cake produced in a crucible.

     ولاد polād, s.m. (6th) The finest kind of steel. Sing. and Pl. folād P فولاد folād or fūlād, s.m. (6th) Steel. Sing. and Pl. folādī P فولادي folādī or fūlādī, adj. Made of steel, steel. (Pashto) 
    pŏlād प्वलाद् or phōlād फोलाद् । मृदुलोहविशेषः m. steel (Gr.M.; Rām. 431, 635, phōlād).   pŏlödi प्वला॑दि॒
    pōlödi फोला॑दि॒, or phōlödi फोला॑दि॒ (= । लोहविशेषमयः adj. c.g. of steel, steel (Rām. 19, 974, 1607, pōo).   
    pŏlāduwu प्वलादुवु॒ । शस्त्रविशेषमयः adj. (f. pŏlādüvü प्वलाद॑वू॒), made of steel (H. v, 4). (Kashmiri)

    पोलाद pōlāda n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi)

    پولاد polādpaulādpūlād , s.m. The finest Damascus steel (which with that of Kum is esteemed the best in the East; see fūlād).  P فولاد fūlād, vulg. faulād (for orig. pūlād) , s.f. Steel:—fūlād-kā 'araq, Tincture of steel:—fūlād-kā kushta, Calcined steel.   P فولادي fūlādī, vulg. faulādī (rel. n. fr. fūlād) , adj. Of steel, steel- (Urdu)




    Ukku, ingot or cake of Crucible steel http://www.Bladesmithsforum.com   
    Related imageCrucible steel button. Steel smelted from iron sand in a graphite crucible.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crucible_steel_button.jpg
    Related image