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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    https://tinyurl.com/ycjldvsb 

    The cover story of Science Magazine (6 June 2008) has to be updated with the key discovery of Vedic River Sarasvati, decipherment of over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions and new light on the sources of tin which created the Tin-Bronze Revolution of 4th millennium BCE.


    The insights provided by Andrew Lawler about a 'Trade-Savvy' civilization, thus should enable researchers to focus on the contributions made by artisans and seafaring merchants of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization.

    I have posited a hypothesis that an ancient maritime tin route linked Hanoi (Vietnam) and Haifa (Israel) through the intermediation of Sarasvati Civilization people. This hypothesis is premised on the fact that the largest tin belt of the globe in the river basins of three Himalayan rivers (Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween) which drain a vast region of Ancient Far East. This together with the decipherment of Indus Script inscriptions as wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork necessitates further researches on 1. Formation and evolution of languages of Indian sprachbund and interactions with neighbouring civilizations to the west, to the east and to the north; 2. archaeometallurgical researches to revisit the tin-bronze artifacts discovered all over Eurasia from 4th millennium BCE; and 3. narrate the economic history of ancient Sarasvati civilization marked by the oldest human document, R̥gveda, domestication of maize and millet in 7th millennium BCE, domestication of cotton in 6th millennium BCE in the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization area.

    The decipherment of inscriptions is presented in the following volumes:
     

    The deciphered messages emphatically document the contributions made by Sarasvati civilization artisans and seafaring merchants in working with varieties of metal alloys, not excluding iron and steel and the advances of cire perdue techniques of metalcasting. The overall impact of the messages is that the contributions made by Sarasvati civilization artisans and seafaring merchants to Tin-Bronze Revolution (necessitated by the scarcity of naturally occurring Arsenical Bronzes) are very significant, exemplified by alloys such as pōḷad 'steel' T (by infusion of element carbon into ferrite ores through the use of wheat-chaff fumes), brass (alloy of copper and zinc), bronze (alloy of copper and tin), pewter (alloy of copper, tin, zinc/spelter). The contributions made are best exemplified by 1. the report of Ernest Mackay who called Chanhudaro the Sheffield of Ancient India; 2. discovery of.four pure tin ingots with Indus script inscriptions from Haifa shipwreck; 3. discovery of ancient zinc distillation plants in Zawar; 4. discovery of Indus Script hypertexts on Dong Son/Karen Bronze drums; 5. discovery of Indus Script hypertexts along the Persian Gulf sites and in Ancient Near East; and 6. discovery of Indus Script hypertexts on Anatolian seals; 6. discovery of a pot in Susa with metal implements and Indus Script hypertexts.  

    The deciphered messages also explain the significance of the priest statue of Mohenjo-daro as Potr̥, 'purifier'dhā̆vaḍ, 'iron-smelter'. There are also markers of Hindu culture with the preence of śivalinga-s in Harappa, Kalibangan, performance of Soma yajña in Binjor where a fire-altar with octagonal pillar was discovered (R̥gveda and Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mention such a ketu, 'emblem, pillar' as a proclamation of the performation of a Soma yāga).

     
     

    Zinc processing retorts. Zawar, Rajasthan.

    Dong Son Bronze drum tympanum; Karen Bronze drum with Indus Script hypertexts with Indus Script hypertext
    Image result for persian gulf indus sealsPersian Gulf seals with Indus Script hypertexts

    Bogazkoy (Anatolia) seal with Indus Script hypertext.
     

     Susa pot with metal implements and Indus Script hypertexts

    Indus Script hypertexts on Anatolian seals (Mitanni)

    The hypothesis is also premised on the fact highlighted by Angus Maddison in his study of contributions to world GDP by various regions for over 2000 years since 1 CE. His conclusions presented in a bar chart indicate that India contributed to 33% of world GDP in 1 CE. The 'Trade-Savvy' Sarasvati civilization is the principal cause for this level of contribution made by artisans and seafaring merchants of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization.
    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    January 16, 2018

    Boring No more, a Trade-Savvy Indus Emerges

    1. A
    2. ndrew Lawler
      1. Science  06 Jun 2008:
        Vol. 320, Issue 5881, pp. 1276-1281
        DOI: 10.1126/science.320.5881.1276
        1. UNMASKING THE INDUS SCIENCE, VOL. 320, P. 1276-1285, COVER STORY, JUNE 6, 2008 5 

        2. Science: 320 (5881)5 CM. HIGH TERRACOTTA MASK, MOHENJO-DARO

    Long in the shadow of its sister civilizations to the west, the Indus is emerging as the powerhouse of commerce and technology in the 3rd millennium B.C.E. But political and economic troubles dog archaeologists' efforts to understand what made this vast society tick
    THAR DESERT, PAKISTAN—Egypt has pyramids, temples, and mummies galore. Ancient Mesopotamians left behind the dramatic saga of Gilgamesh, receipts detailing their most prosaic economic transactions, and the occasional spectacular tomb. But the third of the world's three first civilizations had, well, good plumbing. Even the archaeologists who first discovered the Indus civilization in the 1920s found the orderly streetscapes of houses built with uniform brick to be numbingly regimented. As recently as 2002, one scholar felt compelled to insist in a book that the remains left behind by the Indus people “are not boring.”
    Image result for science mag Faces from the past.  These small figurines are rare examples of Indus human or deity statuary.
      Faces from the past.
      These small figurines are rare examples of Indus human or deity statuary.
      CREDIT: © J. M. KENOYER, COURTESY DEPT. OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND MUSEUMS, GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
      Striking new evidence from a host of excavations on both sides of the tense border that separates India and Pakistan has now definitively overturned that second-class status. No longer is the Indus the plain cousin of Egypt and Mesopotamia during the 3rd millennium B.C.E. Archaeologists now realize that the Indus dwarfed its grand neighbors in land area and population, surpassed them in many areas of engineering and technology, and was an aggressive player during humanity's first flirtation with globalization 5000 years ago. The old notion that the Indus people were an insular, homogeneous, and egalitarian bunch is being replaced by a view of a diverse and dynamic society that stretched from the Arabian Sea to the foothills of the Himalaya and was eager to do business with peoples from Afghanistan to Iraq. And the Indus people worried enough about the privileges of their elite to build thick walls to protect them. “This idea that the Indus was dull and monolithic—that's all nonsense,” says Louis Flam, an archaeologist at the City University of New York who has worked in Pakistan. “There was a tremendous amount of variety.”
      This radical overhaul of the Indus image, which has gone largely unnoticed by the larger archaeology community, emerges from recent visits to key excavations in India and Pakistan, including previously unknown sites here in the desert, and interviews with dozens of Indus scholars around the world. During the past decade, archaeologists have uncovered entire Indus cities previously unknown, some with unique features such as major fortifications. New methods have spurred the first detailed analyses of everything from climate to settlement patterns to butchered animal bones. Growing interest in the role of the ancient economy in spreading goods and ideas has scholars tracing a vast trade network that reached to Mesopotamia itself, where at least one Indus interpreter went native.
      Even well-combed sites are still full of surprises: The city of Harappa may be 1000 years older and Mohenjo Daro far larger than once thought. And the dramatic “Buddhist stupa” adorning Mohenjo Daro's high mound may in fact date back to the Indus heyday around 2000 B.C.E. “What has changed is the mass of evidence from the past 15 years,” says archaeologist Rita Wright of New York University (NYU), assistant director of the Harappa dig. “There is more data from landscapes and settlements, not just the cities.”
      But piecing together a cohesive new picture is hampered by the political discord between India and Pakistan. Many foreign archaeologists steer clear of Pakistan because of political instability, while India's government—scarred by colonialism—often discourages researchers from collaborating with European or American teams. A virtual Cold War between the two countries leaves scientists and sites on one side nearly inaccessible to the other. And although Indus sites are finally receiving extensive attention, many unexcavated mounds face destruction from a lethal combination of expanding agriculture, intensive looting, and unregulated urban development. The small coterie of archaeologists from Pakistan, India, America, Europe, and Japan who study the Indus admit that they also share some of the blame. Often slow to publish, this community can be reluctant to work together and lacks the journals and tradition of peer review common to colleagues who focus on other parts of the world. “We're at fault,” says one Indus researcher. “We should be pushing harder to publish and collaborate.”
      Despite these challenges, the wave of fresh material is leading to a deeper understanding of a culture once considered obscure and impenetrable. The new data paint a far more vibrant and complex picture of the Indus than the old view of a xenophobic and egalitarian society that lasted for only a few centuries before utterly vanishing. “We are rewiring the discussion,” says archaeologist Gregory Possehl of the University of Pennsylvania. Adds Wright: “The Indus is no longer just enigmatic—it can now be brought into the broader discussion of comparative civilizations.”

      The faceless place

      The very existence of the Indus wasn't recognized until more than 100 years after digs began in Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was only in 1924 that archaeologists announced they had found two great cities from a previously unknown urban society that flourished at the same time as the Old Kingdom pyramids and the great ziggurats of Sumer. The cities, Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, thrived for nearly 1000 years along the floodplain of the Indus River, which like the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates irrigates vast swaths of land that otherwise would be desert (see map).
      The discovery in what was then British India was stunning: Mohenjo Daro covered at least 200 square hectares and may have housed from 20,000 to 40,000 people. Harappa, 400 kilometers to the north, was only slightly smaller. Both were comparable in size to contemporary cities such as Memphis on the Nile and Ur in today's Iraq. Unlike Egyptian and Mesopotamian cities of the time, however, the Indus builders created well-ordered streets and homes with sophisticated water and sewer systems unmatched until Roman times. The Indus penchant for precise standardization—from tiny weights to bricks to houses to entire cities—was unique in the early historic period. And at Mohenjo Daro, they used expensive baked brick rather than the cheaper mud brick favored in the Middle East, thus leaving behind the only Bronze Age city on Earth where it is still possible to stroll down ancient alleys shaded by intact walls.
      Yet despite the impressive remains, there were bafflingly few clues to the political or religious systems behind the urban complexes, which seemed to lack the grandeur of Egypt and Mesopotamia. There are no remaining life-sized statues, extensive wall carvings, or elaborate building decorations. The Indus used a still-undeciphered script, but chiefly on small seals, and some scholars believe it was not a script at all (Science, 17 December 2004, p. 2026). Indus scribes did not leave the vast libraries of clay tablets or carved stone inscriptions that have yielded such insight into Mesopotamia and Egypt. Most burials include only a few modest goods, in contrast to the riches of Egyptian tombs. And archaeologists could find no obvious temples or palaces. The few monumental buildings—though given nicknames like “the Granary” and “the Monastery”—had functions still hotly debated.
      Unlike the many pharaohs, kings, architects, and merchants who show up in sculpture and texts in Egypt and Mesopotamia, few Indus individuals were recorded. Only a few small statues show individuals, such as seated men wearing tunics and a tiny, lithe dancer. The Indus “is something of a faceless sociocultural system,” says Possehl.
      This led some early and mid-20th century archaeologists to consider the Indus a nonhierarchical society. Others postulated rigid control by a small elite. Given the lack of data to support either interpretation, these ideas may have had more to do with socialist and totalitarian ideas popular at the time than with the ancient past
        Image result for Picking at the past. Workers at Farmana in India uncover clues to Indus architecture.Picking at the past.
        Workers at Farmana in India uncover clues to Indus architecture.
        CREDIT: A. LAWLER/SCIENCE
        That first generation of archaeologists did agree that the Indus was an impressive but brief flash in the pan without deep roots. Because there was no evidence of previous settled life in the region, they surmised at the time that the Indus people absorbed urban ideas from Mesopotamia—2500 kilometers to the west—and rapidly created a quirky two-city state around 2600 B.C.E., which then vanished equally abruptly by 1800 B.C.E. The 1947 partition of India, creating the new nations of India and Pakistan, drew a line through the Indus heartland and left Indus archaeology largely an academic backwater for nearly a half-century.

        Round to square

        The assumption that the Indus did not spring from local culture began to unravel in the 1970s, when a French-led team excavated a Neolithic site called Mehrgarh dating to 7000 B.C.E. in the Baluchistan hills on the western fringe of the Indus valley. The town included many of the trappings of later Indus life, from mud-brick houses and copper tools to wheat, barley, sheep, goats, and cattle. Although some plants may have arrived from the Near East, goats and cattle were likely domesticated locally, and possibly sheep as well. A partially worked elephant tusk demonstrates that craft specialists were already plying their trade, and lapis lazuli jewelry from Afghanistan and marine shells from the distant coast show long-distance trade networks.
        The site is now widely accepted as a precursor to the Indus and clear proof of the indigenous nature of the later civilization. That idea gets new support from surveys here in the Thar Desert, on the eastern edge of the Indus valley. This area was long assumed to have been largely uninhabited before the rise of the Indus cities. But hundreds of small sites now show that humans lived here on the plains, not just in the Baluchistan hills, for several millennia prior to the rise of the Indus, says archaeologist Qasid Mallah of Shah Abdul Latif University in Khairpur. Taking a reporter on a tour across dunes covered in scrub, he pointed out huge piles of chert used to make blades by the Neolithic predecessors of the Indus.

          Image result for Burnt out.  Qasid Mallah points to a burn layer at Kot Diji, perhaps a sign of ancient conflict.Burnt out.
          Qasid Mallah points to a burn layer at Kot Diji, perhaps a sign of ancient conflict.
          CREDIT: A. LAWLER/SCIENCE
          Still, the sudden appearance of fully formed urban areas remains a puzzle. Indus cities appeared starting about 2600 B.C.E.—600 years after the first cities sprouted in Mesopotamia—and typically arose on virgin soil rather than atop earlier settlements. Some older towns date back about a millennium earlier, but most of these appear to have suffered catastrophic fires and were abandoned at the dawn of the new urban era. A site called Kot Diji a short drive from the Thar Desert shows the scars, says Mallah. The mound is an archaeological layer cake built up over centuries, with a dark layer of ash distinctly visible in a band several meters above the plain.

            EAST OF EDEN.
            Sprawling between the Himalaya Mountains and the Arabian Sea, the Indus civilization covered a larger area than Egypt or Mesopotamia (inset) and boasted at least a half-dozen large cities and many smaller towns and villages. Trading posts stretched from northern Afghanistan to Oman, and goods traveled over both land and sea routes.
            Some scholars argue that these burn layers record conflict between the earlier towns and new cities. But Mallah and many of his colleagues say there is not enough evidence to make that leap. Whoever constructed the cities did make distinct changes, creating new pottery styles and introducing metal forms such as razors and fishhooks. But they also drew on the long cultural history of the region and don't appear to be outside invaders, says Mallah.
            In fact, new evidence suggests that not all the major cities were built from scratch. At an ongoing dig at Harappa, led by Richard Meadow of Harvard University and Jonathan Kenoyer of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, the team has found evidence of occupation dating to as early as 3700 B.C.E. By 3300 B.C.E., Harappa was a modest village of 10 square hectares but with streets running in a gridlike pattern and bricks of two standard sizes—clear foreshadowing of orderly Indus construction. “And they were trading lapis, shells from the coast, copper, and carnelian across a vast area,” says Kenoyer. One of his graduate students, Randall Law, just published a dissertation pinpointing for the first time the far-flung origin of the many varieties of stone used by Indus artisans.
            At a site called Farmana in the intensely farmed region west of Delhi, across the Pakistan border from Harappa, this evolution from a village of huts to sophisticated urban architecture is remarkably visible. At this previously unexcavated site, Vasant Shinde of Deccan College in Pune and his team have uncovered remains of an oval-shaped hut dating to about 3500 B.C.E., a pit dwelling made with wattle and daub and plastered walls, of a type seen today in the region. A few meters away is a level from 1000 years later where the houses have morphed into a rectangular shape and resemble those of the later Indus, except for postholes on the periphery that may have held up a roof. A few meters and 2 centuries from that trench is classic urban Indus: the clear outline of a large house with more than a dozen rooms, including a plastered bathroom, and a 20-meter-long wall fronting a long street nearly 4 meters wide. “You can see how beautifully this was planned,” Shinde says, pointing at the fine brickwork and straight lines. “There are no postholes, and the bricks are of the same ratio as at Harappa.” Thus from both sides of the border, the newest evidence not only underscores the local origins of the Indus, it also reveals in situ evolution. Says Mallah, “We believe that urbanization was a gradual process.”

            Gated communities

            For the first half-century after its discovery, the Indus was virtually synonymous with Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. No other major cities were known. But along with 1000 smaller sites, archaeologists now count at least five major urban areas and a handful of others of substantial size. These sites reveal new facets of Indus life, including signs of hierarchy and regional differences that suggest a society that was anything but dull and regimented.

            Image result for Water works. This drain from Harappa is part of a sophisticated water system that set the Indus apart from its Mesopotamian and Egyptian cousins.Water works. 
            This drain from Harappa is part of a sophisticated water system that set the Indus apart from its Mesopotamian and Egyptian cousins.
            CREDIT: © J. M. KENOYER, COURTESY DEPT. OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND MUSEUMS, GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
            Take Dholavira, 800 kilometers south of Harappa in the Indian state of Gujarat. Covering 60 square hectares, it thrived for nearly 1000 years with perhaps seasonal access to the Arabian Sea. Evidence from excavations during the 1990s reveals a city that apparently included different classes of society. “Here you have meticulous planning, monumental and aesthetic architecture, a large stadium, and an efficient water-management system,” says R. S. Bisht, the Archaeological Survey of India scientist who oversaw the digs. Although still largely unpublished, archaeologists around the world say Bisht's finds are truly extraordinary.
            In Dholavira's central citadel is an enormous structure—which Bisht dubs “the castle”—with walls that are an astounding 18.5 meters wide at their base. Next to it is an enclosed area Bisht calls “the bailey” that may have housed an elite. “This shows that Harappan [Indus] society was highly structured,” says Bisht. “There was a hierarchy.” Nearby is a huge mud-brick platform adorned with rare pink-and-white clay decoration and what Bisht believes was a multipurpose stadium ground stretching nearly the length of three football fields and including terraces to seat thousands of people. No structures of similar size are found at other Indus cities. And though the acropolis of an Indus city is usually walled, Dholavira's acropolis, middle town, lower town, and a series of water tanks are surrounded by an enormous wall measuring nearly 800 meters on one side and more than 600 meters on the other.
            The finds at Dholavira are part of a growing body of data that lay to rest the idea of an egalitarian or a totalitarian society. For example, although most Indus graves are modest, at Kalibangan in India the remains of an elderly man lie in a mud-brick chamber beside 70 pottery vessels. At Harappa, another elderly man shares his tomb with 340 steatite beads plus three beads of gold, one of onyx, one of banded jasper, and one of turquoise. Another high-status Harappan went to rest in an elegant coffin made of elm and cedar from the distant Himalayas and rosewood from central India.
            Urban house sizes also vary much more dramatically than early excavators thought, says Wright, who works on the Harappa team. Then, as now, location was a matter of status: She notes that whereas some larger dwellings have private wells and are next to covered drains, more modest houses face open drains and cesspools.
            Like elites everywhere, high-status Indus people were able to acquire high-quality goods from master craftsmen to denote their wealth. They owned finely crafted beads made in a wide variety of stone, glazed pottery called faience, and ornamentation in gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, and electrum (a gold and silver alloy). For those with less means, beaded necklaces of cheap terra cotta imitated those of semiprecious stone. Anthropologist Heather Miller of the University of Toronto in Canada and Massimo Vidale, a visiting professor at the University of Bologna in Italy, concluded in a 2001 paper that the Indus were capable of “technological virtuosity.” A recent find at Harappa tentatively dated to 1700 B.C.E. may prove to be the world's oldest glass, says Kenoyer.
            Such goods are found across the region, including at newly discovered cities. For example, recent excavations at Rakhigarhi, 340 kilometers southeast of Harappa in rural India, turned up a bronze vessel decorated in gold and silver along with a foundry containing thousands of semiprecious stones, demonstrating extensive craft production and bolstering the notion of an elite. At another new site called Ganweriwala, deep in the desert region south of Harappa, preliminary fieldwork by Farzand Masih of Punjab University in Pakistan has yielded finely made shell bangles and a variety of agate, terra cotta, and steatite beads.
            Yet despite the trappings of wealth for some, there is little evidence of the vast divide that separated pharaoh from field hand in Egypt. “This was an enormously innovative civilization,” says Michael Jansen of RWTH Aachen University in Germany. “Rather than spend their time on monuments as in Egypt, they built practical things that benefited the inhabitants.”
            The newly discovered cities also reveal a surprisingly diverse urban life. Rakhigarhi contains the usual Indus amenities—paved streets, brick-lined drains, orderly planning—that are conspicuously lacking in the current town that covers the highest mound. But instead of following a grid, the ancient streets radiate from the city's east gate. As at Harappa, there is evidence of settlement centuries before the urban explosion rather than the clean-slate approach typical of other Indus cities. Dholavira has its own peculiarities, including large amounts of dressed stone from a local quarry in addition to the standard baked or mud brick. A 10-symbol signboard was posted on the gate leading into the citadel, an unusual use of a script typically found only on small seals or pots. Grave rites also seem diverse. At Mohenjo Daro, there is no evidence for formal burials at all. At Dholavira, Bisht found a set of tomblike chambers containing an unusual variety of grave goods such as beads and pots but no traces of skeletons; he speculates that the bodies may have been cremated.
            How the Indus people viewed life after death remains elusive. And the lack of temples adds to the difficulties in understanding their overall religious beliefs. A rare clue to religious practice may have emerged from now-barren Ganweriwala, which once bloomed thanks to the ancient Ghaggar-Hakra River. In his preliminary work there last year, Masih found a seal with the figure of a person or god in a yogalike pose and an apparent devotee below; on the reverse side is Indus script. The seal is similar to others found at Mohenjo Daro and dubbed “proto-Shiva” by some for its similarity to the Hindu deity. The seal has fueled speculation that the religious traditions of the Indus lived on beyond the urban collapse of 1800 B.C.E. and helped lay the basis for Hinduism (see p. 1281). Horned figures on a variety of artifacts may depict gods, as they often do in Mesopotamia.
            The frustrating lack of evidence has fueled other theories that remain tenuous. Jansen and Possehl suggest that the Indus obsession with baths, wells, and drains reveals a religious ideology based on the use of water, although other scholars are skeptical.

            Masters of trade

            While evidence accumulates from Indus cities, other insights are coming from beyond the region, as artifacts from Central Asia, Iraq, and Afghanistan show the long arm of Indus trade networks. Small and transportable Indus goods such as beads and pottery found their way across the Iranian plateau or by sea to Oman and Mesopotamia, and Indus seals show up in Central Asia as well as southern Iraq. An Indus trading center at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan funneled lapis to the homeland. And there is strong evidence for trade and cultural links between the Indus and cities in today's Iran as well as Mesopotamia.

              Image result for holding a pose this seal shivaHolding a pose?
              This rare seal may hint at the ancient origins of yoga and the Hindu god Shiva.
              CREDIT: © J. M. KENOYER, COURTESY DEPT. OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND MUSEUMS, GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
              Textual analysis of cuneiform tablets coupled with recent excavations along the Persian Gulf also show that Indus merchants routinely plied the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf, likely in reed boats with cotton sails. “They were major participants in commercial trade,” says Bisht, who sees Dholavira and other sites along the coast as trading centers thanks to monsoon winds that allowed sailors to cross 800 kilometers of open waters speedily. “These people were aggressive traders, there is no doubt about it,” adds Possehl, who has found Indus-style pottery made from Gujarat clay at a dig in Oman. Archaeologist Nilofer Shaikh, vice chancellor of Latif University, takes that assertion a step further, arguing that “the Indus people were controlling the trade. They controlled the quarries, the trade routes, and they knew where the markets were.”
              She points out that although Indus artifacts spread far and wide, only a small number of Mesopotamian artifacts have been found at Indus sites. Evidence suggests that some Indus merchants and diplomats lived abroad, although the trade was certainly two-way. An inscription from the late 3rd millennium B.C.E. refers to one Shu-ilishu, an interpreter from Meluhha, reports NYU's Wright in a forthcoming book. What may be Shu-ilishu and his wife are featured on a seal wearing Mesopotamian dress. There is some evidence for a village of Indus merchants between 2114 and 2004 B.C.E. in southern Iraq. And “a man from Meluhha” knocked out someone's tooth during an altercation and was made to pay a fine, according to a cuneiform text, hinting at a life that was neither faceless nor boring.
              Indus archaeologists still confront fundamental research questions, including how a far-flung array of cities adopted standardized measures. There is little or no data on how the Indus people governed themselves, what language they spoke, and whether they engaged in war. Some researchers envision a collection of city states, while others imagine regional powers that jockeyed for influence but generally cooperated. What is clear is that the organization differed from the pharaonic ways of Egypt and the rival kingdoms of Mesopotamia. “We don't need to use the models from the Near East,” says Kenoyer. “What was once seen as a monolithic state was actually a highly diverse set of multiple centers of power that negotiated across a large landscape.”
              With barely one-tenth of the 1000-plus known Indus sites examined, archaeologists say the next frontier is the smaller sites that could reveal more about day-to-day life. That could fill in the gaps about how the Indus people worshipped, traded, and governed themselves. “There are thousands of villages,” says Shinde during lunch break at the Farmana dig. “And it is our fault that we only go to the big sites.” Researchers are also bringing the latest archaeological tools to bear on Indus artifacts, closely examining the origins of stone used in beadwork, the prevalence of certain animals and plants, and even the methods used in butchering. Archaeologists also recognize an urgent need to chart climate change throughout the region during the Indus era. “It's a great tragedy,” says Bisht. “It is a book waiting to be read.” Whatever archaeologists uncover in coming years, the revised story of the Indus civilization is sure not to be a dull read.


              Great Civilizations, Egypt, Indus, Mesopotamia
              The opening few paragraphs of the lead essay – “Boring No More, a Trade-Savvy Indus Emerges” – give a flavor of the key argument:
              THAR DESERT, PAKISTAN–Egypt has pyramids, temples, and mummies galore. Ancient Mesopotamians left behind the dramatic saga of Gilgamesh, receipts detailing their most prosaic economic transactions, and the occasional spectacular tomb. But the third of the world’s three first civilizations had, well, good plumbing. Even the archaeologists who first discovered the Indus civilization in the 1920s found the orderly streetscapes of houses built with uniform brick to be numbingly regimented. As recently as 2002, one scholar felt compelled to insist in a book that the remains left behind by the Indus people “are not boring.”
              Science June 6 2008, Unmasking the IndusStriking new evidence from a host of excavations on both sides of the tense border that separates India and Pakistan has now definitively overturned that second-class status. No longer is the Indus the plain cousin of Egypt and Mesopotamia during the 3rd millennium B.C.E. Archaeologists now realize that the Indus dwarfed its grand neighbors in land area and population, surpassed them in many areas of engineering and technology, and was an aggressive player during humanity’s first flirtation with globalization 5000 years ago. The old notion that the Indus people were an insular, homogeneous, and egalitarian bunch is being replaced by a view of a diverse and dynamic society that stretched from the Arabian Sea to the foothills of the Himalaya and was eager to do business with peoples from Afghanistan to Iraq. And the Indus people worried enough about the privileges of their elite to build thick walls to protect them. “This idea that the Indus was dull and monolithic–that’s all nonsense,” says Louis Flam, an archaeologist at the City University of New York who has worked in Pakistan. “There was a tremendous amount of variety.”
              … Even well-combed sites are still full of surprises: The city of Harappa may be 1000 years older and Mohenjo Daro far larger than once thought. And the dramatic “Buddhist stupa” adorning Mohenjo Daro’s high mound may in fact date back to the Indus heyday around 2000 B.C.E.
              However, the problems remain serious. As the author points out:
              …piecing together a cohesive new picture is hampered by the political discord between India and Pakistan. Many foreign archaeologists steer clear of Pakistan because of political instability, while India’s government–scarred by colonialism–often discourages researchers from collaborating with European or American teams. A virtual Cold War between the two countries leaves scientists and sites on one side nearly inaccessible to the other.

              One key in this new wave is the knowledge that was unleashed with the discovery, in the 1970s by a French-led team, of Mehrgarh“dating to 7000 B.C.E. in the Baluchistan hills on the western fringe of the Indus valley.” The Science article points out:


              Science June 6 2008, Map of the Indus Valley Civilization


              [Mehrgarh] is now widely accepted as a precursor to the Indus and clear proof of the indigenous nature of the later civilization. That idea gets new support from surveys here in the Thar Desert, on the eastern edge of the Indus valley. This area was long assumed to have been largely uninhabited before the rise of the Indus cities. But hundreds of small sites now show that humans lived here on the plains, not just in the Baluchistan hills, for several millennia prior to the rise of the Indus, says archaeologist Qasid Mallah of Shah Abdul Latif University in Khairpur.
              Moenjodaro, Sindh, Pakistan - Indus Civilization
              Of course many mysteries remain – the largest probably about language and civilizational collapse – however, there is a key, and exciting difference:
              For the first half-century after its discovery, the Indus was virtually synonymous with Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. No other major cities were known. But along with 1000 smaller sites, archaeologists now count at least five major urban areas and a handful of others of substantial size. These sites reveal new facets of Indus life, including signs of hierarchy and regional differences that suggest a society that was anything but dull and regimented.
              One of the most fascinating aspect is about international trade:
              Indus Valley CivilizationWhile evidence accumulates from Indus cities, other insights are coming from beyond the region, as artifacts from Central Asia, Iraq, and Afghanistan show the long arm of Indus trade networks. Small and transportable Indus goods such as beads and pottery found their way across the Iranian plateau or by sea to Oman and Mesopotamia, and Indus seals show up in Central Asia as well as southern Iraq. An Indus trading center at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan funneled lapis to the homeland. And there is strong evidence for trade and cultural links between the Indus and cities in today’s Iran as well as Mesopotamia.
              …”These people were aggressive traders, there is no doubt about it,” adds [Gregory] Possehl [ of the University of Pennsylvania], who has found Indus-style pottery made from Gujarat clay at a dig in Oman. Archaeologist Nilofer Shaikh, vice chancellor of Latif University, takes that assertion a step further, arguing that “the Indus people were controlling the trade. They controlled the quarries, the trade routes, and they knew where the markets were.”
              She points out that although Indus artifacts spread far and wide, only a small number of Mesopotamian artifacts have been found at Indus sites. Evidence suggests that some Indus merchants and diplomats lived abroad, although the trade was certainly two-way. An inscription from the late 3rd millennium B.C.E. refers to one Shu-ilishu, an interpreter from Meluhha [a reference to the Indus civilization], reports NYU’s Wright in a forthcoming book. What may be Shu-ilishu and his wife are featured on a seal wearing Mesopotamian dress. There is some evidence for a village of Indus merchants between 2114 and 2004 B.C.E. in southern Iraq. And “a man from Meluhha” knocked out someone’s tooth during an altercation and was made to pay a fine, according to a cuneiform text, hinting at a life that was neither faceless nor boring.
              Indus Valley CivilizationThere is much more in the full report to keep the reader engrossed. How archeaologists are chronically short of resources. How archaeologist Farzand Masih from Punjab University, Lahore, who is excavating at Ganweriwala, Pakistan, and Vasant Shinde from Deccan College, Pune, who is excavating at Farmana, India, work a mere 200 kilometers apart but cannot collaborate on their findings. How part of the last remains of a 5000-year-old city known as Lakhanjo Daro has been lost to “development” and a factory is being built over the site. How the politics of religion threatens to undermine scientific integrity and matters of archeology are being played out in the Indian parliament as well as the courts. How looters and thieves are running away with treasures of the Indus civilization. And much more.
              I do hope our readers will find the Sciencereport as fascinating as I did.

              https://pakistaniat.com/2008/07/20/science-indus-harappa/

              https://www.scribd.com/document/37199095/Indus-Valley
              Indus Valley by gupadupa on Scribd

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              ātmā is mandiram viśva sancār of Bhāratīya samskr̥ti : 

              Glimpses of temples in Rāṣṭram

              Pratimā lakṣaṇa is a metaphor for aspects of the cosmic dance, tāṇḍava nr̥tyam which we endeavor to understand through the Veda, knowledge systems https://youtu.be/_QJPFpUqYKc (13:27 minutes)

              S. Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Center, January 17, 2018


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              Mohenjo-daro stupa is Sarasvati Civilization temple


              Dominating the city is a massive structure long thought to be a Buddhist stupa. Some archaeologists now suspect it may, in fact, have been constructed during the Indus era, but excavations are needed to confirm this theory.

              This small statue found at Mohenjo-Daro, dubbed the Priest-King, is one of the very few Indus-period sculptures depicting a human ever found.

              "With a possible population of 100,000, Mohenjo-Daro would have been bigger than Egypt's Memphis, Mesopotamia's Ur or Elam's Susa in today's Iran, some of the ancint Near East's largest metropolises. The city boasted wide streets, more than 60 deep wells, strong foundations, and impressive walls, 25 miles of which have been excavated thus far. Overlooking the settlement, on the northwest end, was a high-walled platform that archaeologists dubbed a 'citadel.'..Covering some 625,000 square miles, the Indus surpassed Egypt and Mesopotamia in size, and may have included as many as a million peole, a staggering figure for an agricultural society that depended on the unreliable waters of the Indus River and its tributaries. Indus sites have been identified from the shores of Iran to the mountains of Afghanistan to the outskirts of today's Delhi. Recent work by University of Wisconsin researcher Randall Law demonstrated that stones nd metals from across this vast region circulated throughout ('Letter from Pakistan,' September/October 2008). Indus merchants, mastering monsoon winds, traded goods with Arabians and likely conducted business as far west as today's Iraq. One Mesopotamian text records a court case involving a 'Meluhhan,' thought to be the Sumerian word for someone from the Indus, while another mentions a Meluhhan interpreter at a Mesopotamian court...The citadel that forms the height of Mohenjo-Daro was clearly a planned effort, with enormous walls enclosing a raised platform that is 200 yards long and 400 wide. At its highest point sits a prominent structure that 1920s researchers identified as a Buddhist stupa. These scholars thought the stup, which was built with bricks and ringed by what they called monks' cells, had been constructed in the early centuries AD, when Buddhism was at its peak in the region. This assumption derived mainly from the discovery of coins dating to that era. But in 2007, Giovanni Verardi, a retired archaeologist from the University of Naples, examined the site and noted that the stups is not aligned in typical Buddhist fashion, along the cardinal points. The plinth is high and rectangular, not square as would be expected, and there is little pottery associated with the later period. He also concluded that the materials recovered from the 'monks'' rooms were made in the Indus period. Verardi now thinks there is 'little doubt' that, apart from the mudbrick dome, the 'stupa' is actually an Indus building. He believes that it was likely a stepped pyramid with two access ramps, and that terracotta seals found nearby depicting what appears to be a goddess standing on a tree while a man sacrifices an animal suggest that the building was used for religious activities. Jansen and other archaeologists agree that Verardi's interpretation may be correct, though they add that excavations are necessary to prove that his theory about an Indus-era temple is accurate. If it is, says Jansen, 'this will turn our interpretations upside dow.' No templess have been discovered at any Indus site, an absence unique among major ancient civilizations. But the presence of a stepped platform in the heart of its largest city would link the Indus with a tradition of religious buildings that by 2000 BCE had spread across the Middle East and Central Asia...Only 10 percent of the known site has been dug and no major excavations are in the offing. But Fazal Dad Kakkar, director general of Pakistan's museums and ancient sites, says he hopes to begin coring around the perimeter soon..." (Andrew Lawler, 2013, Mohenjo Daro's New story, in: Archaeology, January/February 2013 pp.32-37).

              The insights provided by archaeologist Giovanni Verardi of the University of Naples indicate that the stupa which was a structure that co-existed with the town ca. 3000 BCE, was modeled after the ziggurats found in Ancient Near East (in sites such as Ur, Choga Zanbil which had trade contacts with Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization).

              An example of the stepped rectangular structure of a ziggurat is provided by the Sit-Shamshi Bronze of Louvre Museum.
              See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/01/sit-shamshi-bronze-morning-libations-to.html  Sit Shamshi bronze, morning libations to Sun divinity, as Meluhha metalwork with Indus writing hieroglyphs transmitted along the Tin Road of Antiquity.




              Discovery location: Ninhursag or Nintud (Earth, Mountain and Mother Goddess)Temple, Acropole, Shūsh (Khuzestan, Iran); Repository: Musée du Louvre (Paris, France) ID: Sb 2743 width: 40 cm (15.75 inches); length: 60 cm (23.62 inches)

              The stele (L) next to 3 stakes (or tree trunks, K) may denote a linga. Hieroglyph: numeral 3: kolmo 'three' Rebus: kolami 'smithy' PLUS meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.(Marathi)(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Thus, together, the three stakes or stalks + linga connote rebus representations of 'iron smithy' meḍ kolami. Another rebus reading may connote: mḗdha m. ʻ sacrificial oblation ʼ RV.Pa. mēdha -- m. ʻ sacrifice ʼ; Si. mehe sb. ʻ eating ʼ mḗdhya -- ʻ full of vigour ʼ AV., ʻ fit for sacrifice ʼ Br. [mḗdha -- m. or mēdhāˊ -- f. ʻ mental vigour ʼ RV.] Pa. mejjha -- ʻ pure ʼ, Pk. mejjha -- , mijjha -- ; A. mezi ʻ a stack of straw for ceremonial burning ʼ.(CDIAL 10327). The semant. of 'pure' may also evoke the later-day reference to gangga sudhi 'purification of river water' in an inscription on Candi Sukuh 1.82m tall linga ligatured with a kris sword blade, flanked by sun and moon and a Javanese inscription referring to consecration and manliness as the metaphor for cosmic essence. The semant. link with Ahura Mazda is also instructive, denoting the evolution of the gestalt relating knowledge, consciousness and cosmic effulgence/energy. That the metaphor related to metalwork is valid is indicated by a Meluhha gloss: kole.l 'smithy' Rebus: kole.l 'temple.

              A large stepped structure/altar/ziggurat (A) and small stepped structure/altar or temple (B) may be denoted by the gloss: kole.l. The large stepped structure (A) may be dagoba, lit. dhatu garbha 'womb of minerals' evoking the smelter which transmutes earth and stones into metal and yields alloyed metal castings with working in fire-altars of smithy/forge: kolami

              Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë 
              blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133).

              The pair of lingas (D and D') have indentations at the tip of the stone pillars. These indentations might have held lighted earthen lamps (deepam) to connote the lingas as pillars of light. The four hemi-spheres (C and C') linked to each stone pillar (D and D') have been explained as Meluhha hieroglyphs read rebus: 

              lo 'penis' Rebus: loh 'copper, metal'

              Hieroglyphs: gaṇḍa 'swelling' gaṇḍa 'four' gaṇḍa 'sword' Hieroglyph:  Ta. kaṇṭu ball of thread. ? To. koḍy string of cane. Ka. kaṇḍu, kaṇḍike, kaṇṭike ball of thread. Te. kaṇḍe, kaṇḍiya ball or roll of thread. (DEDR 1177)

              Rebus: kanda 'fire-trench' used by metalcasters
              Rebus: gaṇḍu 'manliness' (Kannada); 'bravery, strength' (Telugu) 
              Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)

              Together, hieroglyphs: lo + gaṇḍa. Rebus: लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] 'metalwork'

              Metaphor: Sh. K.ḍoḍ.  m. ʻ light, dawn ʼ; L. awāṇ.  ʻ light ʼ; P. lo f. ʻ light, dawn, power of seeing, consideration ʼ; WPah. bhal. lo f. ʻ light (e.g. of moon) ʼ.(CDIAL 11120). + kaṇṭa 'manliness'. 

              Tabulation explaining the model & transcribed Elamite cuneiform inscription sourced from: Gian Pietro Basello, 2011, The 3D model from Susa called Sit-shamshi: an essay of interpretation, Rome, 2011 November 28-30 

              Gian Pietro Basello of University of Naples presents (2004) the details of Sit Shamshi Bronze and explains its significance in a paper presented at the National Archaeological Museum of Iran, Teheran. 



              Inscription of king Shilhak-Inshushinak I (1140-1120 BCE) on the three-dimensional model found in 1904-1905 campaign on the Acropois of Susa.

              Gautier, Joseph-Etienne, 1911, Le Sit Shamshi de Shilhak in Shushinak, in Recherches archeologiques (Memoires de la Delegation en Perse, 12), pp. 143-151, Paris [description of the model with plan] 

              Konig, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1965, Die elamischen Konigsinschriften (Archiv fur Orientforschung, Beiheft 16), p. 136, no. 56, Berlin/Graz (text of the inscription) 
              FW Konig, Corpus Inscriptionum Elamicarum, no. 56, Hannover 1926.

              Tallon, Francoise, 1992, 'Model, called the sit-shamshi (sunrise)' [no. 87 of the exhibition catalogue] and Francoise Tallon and Loic Hurtel, 'Technical Analysis', in Prudence O. Harper, Joan Aruz & Francoise Tallon, eds., The Royal City of Susa. Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre, pp. 137-141, New York, Abrams.

              It is imperative that the stupa in Mohenjo-daro should be re-investigated to determine the possibility of it being a ziggurat of the bronze age, comparable to the stepped ziggurat.

              Image result for napirasu susaStatue of Queen Napir-Asu, from Susa, Iran, ca. 1350-1300 BCE.Tin bronze statue of Napirasu, Susa. I suggest that this type of bronze work involving lost-wax casting and alloys of tin are characteristic of Meluhha artisan competence and may denote the metalwork by Meluhha artisan settlers in Elam who continue the metalwork traditions of Meluhha (Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization contact area) -- along the Tin Road from Haifa to Hanoi: Haifa exemplified by the finds of two pure tin ingots with Indus writing and Hanoi exemplified by the veneration of Mahadeva Siva in aniconic form of linga with metalwork underlying rebus readings and metaphors of cosmic dance, infinite pillar of light.

              Statue from early temple at Susa, Iran, ca. 2700 - 2340 BCE (Louvre). The animal he carries on his hands is a Meluhha rebus hieroglyph: kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Hence, a blacksmith.

              Related image
              Lingam, grey sandstone in situ, Harappa, Trench Ai, Mound F, Pl. X (c) (After Vats). "In an earthenware jar, No. 12414, recovered from Mound F, Trench IV, Square I... in this jar, six lingams were found along with some tiny pieces of shell, a unicorn seal, an oblong grey sandstone block with polished surface, five stone pestles, a stone palette, and a block of chalcedony..." (Vats,MS,  Excavations at Harappa, p. 370).

              A Terracotta Linga from Kalibangan (2600 BCE).

              Harappa has revealed stone śivalinga-s, apart from śankha bangles, śankha trumpet and śankha used as feeding ladles for babies. At Nausharo, two terracotta toys revealed women wearing sindhur at the parting of their hair, attesting a 5000 year-old continuum of a Hindu tradition followed by women in India even today.

              So do women in Bengal and Orissa celebrate marriages wearing śankha bangles. One śankha discovered in a burial of a woman yielded a stunning date of 6500 BCE for the burial.

              Bhirrana, a site on Sarasvati river basin takes the roots of the civilization to ca. 7500 BCE.



              Nausharo: female figurines. Wearing sindhur at the parting of the hair. Hair painted black, ornaments golden and sindhur red. Period 1B, 2800 – 2600 BCE. 11.6 x 30.9 cm.[After Fig. 2.19, Kenoyer, 1998].

              The ladies wearing sindhur at the mang of the hair-parting is a unique Hindu tradition.

              https://www.scribd.com/document/369320333/Sit-Shamshi-Bronze-interpretations-Gian-Pietro-2004



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              ED NAILS KARTI WITH LIST OF 63 BIG FIRMS

               |  | New Delhi

              ED nails Karti with list of 63 big firms


              The Enforcement Directorate (ED) has come out with a startling report showing that as many as 63 companies, including the conglomerates like Vodafone, Carin, Aditya Birla Nova, Arcelor-Mittal, Diageo, DLF, Essar, Godrej, GVK, Vedanta, Quippo, Maruti Suzuki and Sterlite, were clients of Chess Management Services Private Limited, a company of former Finance Minister P Chidambaram’s son Karti Chidambaram.
              As FM, Chidambaram was also in-charge of Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) and a member of Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA), handling foreign investment proposals and other clearances of these firms.
              The report is significant since the ED and the CBI have already found that Karti-controlled Advantage Strategic Consulting Pvt Limited and Chess Management had taken bribes from Aircel-Maxis & INX Media for facilitating FIPB clearances through Chidambaram. The firms received around Rs 5 crore and two lakh dollars from INX Media and Malaysian company Maxis respectively when FIPB clearance files were with Chidambaram.
              The ED has compiled the latest report about these 63 companies on the basis of a joint raid carried out by its team along with Income Tax’s Chennai unit. The computers of Karti and his firms seized during the raid led to the discovery of the list of major clients served by the Chess Management Services Pvt Ltd. 
              The ED is now probing whether any irregularity took place regarding giving any clearance to these companies by Chidambaram.
              Already they have found that British liquor giant Diageo, which took over UB Group from liquor baron Vijay Mallya, paid 15,000 dollars as service charge to the Karti’s company for fixing appointment of its head Lord Blyth with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Chidambaram.
              Lord Blyth met Singh and Chidambaram just before the announcement of Rs 4,000 crore takeover of Mallay’s UB Group. The email trails of this payment seized by investigators show that the “service charge” paid to Karti’s firm by British company was on July 1, 2005.
              Now the ED’s compilation of Chess Management’s client list shows that Diageo Scotland Limited, Diageo Radico Distilleries Limited, and Diageo Scotland Holdings BV Netherland were its clients from 2005.
              Chess Management was started by Karti and his cousin Annamalai Palaniappan in 1998. Karti resigned from its Directorship in March 2013 after his role came under scanner in the Aircel-Maxis scam.
              According to the agencies, Aditya Birla Nova Ltd, Aircel Televenutre, Arcelor MIttal, Maxis subsidiary Astro All Asia Network, Bajaj Hindustan, Bharat Aluminum Company Ltd, Bharati Realiity Limited, Carin India and Carin UK Holdings, Carlton Trading, Carrier Air-conditioning, Claris Life Science, Daikin Air-conditioning, DIAL, Delphi TVS, Diageo, DLF Universal, EL Forge Limited, Essar Group, GVK Power, Hazira LNG, IL&FS Group, INX Media, ITC Centre-STFC, Katara Group, Maxis Mobile, Max Bupa Health Insurance, Maruti Suzuki, Praj Industries, Quippo Infrastructure, S Kumar, Sesa Goa, SKF India, Vedanata Alumina Ltd, Vodafone Essar and subsidiaries were the major clients of Chess Management when  Chidambaram was Finance Minister and in-charge of FIPB and CCEA.
              For the past two years, Karti is evading repeated summons issued by the ED in Aircel-Maxis and INX Media bribe cases. In a fresh summon, the ED has asked Karti to appear before it on January 18. 

              http://www.dailypioneer.com/todays-newspaper/ed-nails-karti-with-list-of-63-big-firms.html

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              Linking of rivers may get 'national projects' tag


              TNN | Updated: Jan 18, 2018, 01:29 IST
              Godavari Krishna River link.
              All inter-linking of river (ILR) projects in the country may be declared as 'national projects' in a bid to expedite their implementation through quick flow of funds and better monitoring on the ground.

              The issue was discussed at the meeting of special committee for river linking projects on Wednesday where the Union water resources minister Nitin Gadkari urged concerned states to come forward with definite funding proposals which can even be taken up with foreign funding agencies.

              Besides discussing how to expedite ILR projects which are based on the premise of transferring surplus water to deficit zone through river linkings, the participants also explored options of creating separate central fund for this purpose.

              "We discussed framing criteria for considering ILR projects as 'national projects', especially in the backdrop of the ministry's decision to begin works on three identified river linking projects by resolving all differences among states this year", said an official.

              river




              Though the Ken-Betwa link has already been declared as a 'national project', the remaining ILR projects are yet to be clubbed in this category. The three projects which are ready for implementation are: Ken-Betwa link in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and Damanganga-Pinjal link and Par-Tapi-Narmada link in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

              "The Ken-Betwa link project alone will require over Rs 18,000 crore. It would be difficult for UP and MP to go ahead with it under the existing 60 (Centre):40 (State) funding pattern as 90 (Centre):10 (State) pattern is yet to be finalised for this project", said the official while referring to discussion on new funding mechanism.

              The water resources ministry, however, on Wednesday said an MoU to implement the Ken-Betwa link project was likely to be signed soon.

              Once the other ILR projects are declared as 'national projects', the states would be spared from funding obligation on major heads. The national project is eligible for 90% grant for the cost of work of irrigation and drinking water components of the project. Besides, the progress of work on 'national project' is monitored by a high-powered steering committee chaired by Union water resources secretary.



              At present, 16 projects across the country are declared as 'national projects'. It includes one ILR (Ken-Betwa link) project and 15 other dam and multi-purpose projects such as Teesta Barrage project in West Bengal, Polavaram project in Andhra Pradesh, Gosikhurd irrigation project in Maharashtra and Renuka Damproject in Himachal Pradesh among others.

              TOP COMMENT

              the difference between BJP and Congress... BJP working on such projects like interlinking rivers, Making Railways 100% LED, PMAY, establishing Electronic automative industries etc etc (list goes on).... Read MoreMukesh Rawat


              The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) had identified 30 links (16 under Peninsular component and 14 under Himalayan component) for preparation of feasibility reports (FRs). The pre-feasibility report (PFR) of the all proposed 30 links have been prepared and circulated to the concerned state governments.


              After survey and investigations, feasibility reports of 14 links under Peninsular component and feasibility reports of 2 links and draft feasibility reports of 7 links (Indian portion) under Himalayan component have already been completed.





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              https://tinyurl.com/yb32kus9


              This is an addendum to: M https://tinyurl.com/y9dxavqe

               

              The Mohenjo-daro stupa is directly in front of the Great Bath which is a puṣkariṇī, 'sacred water tank' in front of a temple. This indicates the possibility that water ablutions of the type shown on Sit Shamshi Bronze Temple model discovered at Susa (12th cent. BCE) is a continuum of similar veneration traditions followed in Mohenjo-daro from the sacred water tank, the so-called Great Bath, Which is a puṣkariṇī, 'sacred water tank' in front of a temple. 


              Mohenjo-daro stupa a dagoba, dhatugarbha, venerating the Sun divinity, ancestors, ie like a mastaba, a bench of mud, a house for eternity.



              .
              Image result for mohenjodaro stupa andrew lawler
              Image result for mohenjodaro stupa andrew lawler
              Related image
              Related imageRelated image


              This monograph posits that the Mohenjo-daro stupa, Sialk ziggurat, Chogha Zanbil ziggurat of Ur are in the continuum of Sarasvati civilization which created sacred places to venerate the ancestors and bring the temple closer to the heavens. A comparable model of a ziggurt as a sacred place is provided by comparable Sit-Shamshi bronze. I have argued that the Sit Shamshi bronze is a veneration of the ziggurat as Sun divinity and the narrative is an offering of water ablutions to Sun divinity in a Veda culture continuum.

              There is a distinct possibility that the Mohenjo-daro Stupa was a dagoba (dhatugarbha) mandiram dated to ca. 2500 BCE. This worship of earth as dhatugarbha 'womb of minerals' is consistent with the record of the R̥gveda which venerates Mother Earth and cosmic phenomena.

              I suggest that the Mohenjo-daro stupa is a dhatugarbha venerating the Sun divinity and ancestors in the Veda culture tradition.

              Version of the ancient star/Sun symbol of Shamash 
              M428 Mohenjo-daro. 

              'Sun' in 'four quadrants', painted on faiz Mohammad style grey ware from Mehrgarh, period VI (c. 3000-2900 BCE), Kacchi plain, Pakistan. After C. Jarrige et al., 1995, Mehrgarh Field Reports 1974-1985: From neolithic times to the Indus civilization, Karachi: Sind Culture Department: 160.


              Seal from Rahman  Dheri with the motif of 'rays around concentric circles'. After Durrani, FA, et al., 1994-95, Seals and inscribed sherds in: Excavations in the Gomal valley: Rehman Dheri report No.2 ed. Taj Ali. Ancient Pakistan 10, Peshawar: Department of Archaeology, University of Peshawar: Pp. 198-223.
               
              Indus Script hypertexts signify sun's rays on a seal arka 'sun' rebus: arka 'copper, gold' eraka 'moltencast'

              Shamash (AkkadianŠamaš dUD 𒀭𒌓) was the solar deity in ancient Semitic religion, corresponding to the Sumeriangod Utu. Shamash was also the god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria.
              Akkadian šamaš "Sun" is cognate to Phoenician𐤔𐤌𐤔 šmšClassical Syriacܫܡܫܐ‎ šemšaHebrewשֶׁמֶשׁ‎ šemeš and Arabicشمس‎ šams.
              Conate semantics in Veda culture are: षष् num. a. (used in pl., nom. षट्; gen. षण्णाम्) Six; तेषां त्ववयवान् सूक्ष्मान् षण्णामप्यमितौजसाम् Ms.1.16;8.43. अशीतिः f. (-ष़डशीतिः) 1 eighty-six. -2 N. of the four passages of the sun from one zodiacal sign to the other. शोषयित्नुः [शुष्-इत्नुच् Uṇ.3.29] The sun.शोषिणी Ether. Fire; शुचि a. [शुच्-कि] 1 Clean, pure, clear; the sun शुचीनां हृदयं शुचिः Mb.12.193.18. शाश्वत a. (-ती f.1 [शश्वद् भवः अण्] 1 Eternal, per- petual, everlasting; शाश्वतीः समाः Rām.1.2.15 (= U.2. 5) 'for eternal years', 'ever more', 'for all time to come'; श्रेयसे शाश्वतो देवो वराहः परिकल्पताम् U.5.27 (v. l.); R.14.14. -2 All. -तः 1 N. of Śiva. -2 Of Vyāsa. -3 The sun

              https://tinyurl.com/yddpn69e Significance of linga and 4 spheres on Sit Shamshi bronze and Meluhha hieroglyphs on Candi Sukuh linga
              sit shamshi musée du louvre parís tabla de bronce que parece resumir ...
              • Model of a temple, called the Sit-shamshi, made for the ceremony of the rising sun
                12th century BC
                Tell of the Acropolis, Susa
              • Bronze
              • J. de Morgan excavations, 1904-05
                Sb 2743
              The Candi Sukuh temple fortification on Mt. Lawu in Central Java is comparable to one of the 16  pyramids in Greece dated to 2720 BCE called Pyramid in Hellenicon, Greece (Fig. 7).

               http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/01/meluhha-hieroglyphs-and-candi-sukuh.html
              Photo 1: “True” pyramids on Gizeh plateau (Egypt): Cheops, Khefren and Mikeren pyramids are three out of 130 pyramids built in ancient Egypt; perfect orientation North-South, East-West
              Photo 2: Mayan pyramid in Tikal (Northern Guatemala), the highest pyramidal structure in Central America
              Photo 3: Candi Sukuh, Java, Indonesia, pyramidal temple
              Photo 4: Step stone pyramid in Mel, Mauritius
              Photo 5: Model of step Pyramid of Akapana in Bolivia, granite blocks were used in construction
              Photo 6: Step circular pyramid in Andon, Korea (one of three stone pyramids in Korea)
              Photo 7: Pyramid in Hellenicon, Greece, 2720 B.C.(one of the 16 pyramids in Greece)
              Photo 8: Pyramid in Sicily (one of five locations among the ancient pyramids in Italy)
              Photo 9: Guimar pyramid, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, one of six step stone pyramids in Guimar; dozens of pyramidal structures in Tenerife and La Palma have been destroyed by modern civilization
              Photo 10: Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan, Mexico, 1858, completely covered by soil and vegetation
              Photo 11: Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan, Mexico, 1985, after the excavation
              Photo 12: Pyramid - Han Yang Ling Mausoleum, Xian, China, completely covered by soil and vegetation
              Photo 13: Pyramid - Han Yang Ling Mausoleum, Xian, China, Model of the pyramid in Museum,
              perfect orientation North-South, East-West
              Photo 14: Step pyramid in Kavachi region, Southern Peru, orientation towards the cardinal points,
              (total of 34 pyramids in this area, and 250
              Tucume pyramids on the North)
              Photo 15: Step pyramid in Saqqara, Egypt
              Photo 16: Nubian pyramids in Northern Sudan (total of 224 stone pyramids were built)
              Photo 17: Mahalatea step pyramid in Tahiti
              Photo 18: Red Pyramid in Egypt
              Photo 19: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, Visoko, Bosnia-Herzegovina, with it’s height of 220 meters - tallest pyramidal structure of the ancient World; preliminary report on the rectangular base: 440x660 meters
              http://www.cerchinelgrano.info/piramidi_bosnia.htm

              "A ziggurat (/ˈzɪɡəræt/ ZIG-ər-atAkkadianziqquratD-stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") is a type of massive stone structure built in ancient Mesopotamia. It has the form of a terraced compound of successively receding stories or levels. Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, the now destroyed Etemenanki in BabylonChogha Zanbil in Khūzestān and Sialk...An example of a simple ziggurat is the White Temple of Uruk, in ancient Sumer. The ziggurat itself is the base on which the White Temple is set. Its purpose is to get the temple closer to the heavens, and provide access from the ground to it via steps. The Mesopotamians believed that these pyramid temples connected heaven and earth. In fact, the ziggurat at Babylon was known as Etemenankia or "House of the Platform between Heaven and Earth"...An example of an extensive and massive ziggurat is the Marduk ziggurat, of Etemenanki, of ancient Babylon. Unfortunately, not much of even the base is left of this massive 91 meter tall structure, yet archeological findings and historical accounts put this tower at seven multicolored tiers, topped with a temple of exquisite proportions. The temple is thought to have been painted and maintained an indigo color, matching the tops of the tiers. It is known that there were three staircases leading to the temple, two of which (side flanked) were thought to have only ascended half the ziggurat's height.
              Etemenanki, the name for the structure, is Sumerian and means "temple of the foundation of heaven and earth". The date of its original construction is unknown, with suggested dates ranging from the fourteenth to the ninth century BCE, with textual evidence suggesting it existed in the second millennium....According to Herodotus, at the top of each ziggurat was a shrine, although none of these shrines have survived.[1] One practical function of the ziggurats was a high place on which the priests could escape rising water that annually inundated lowlands and occasionally flooded for hundreds of kilometres, for example the 1967 flood.[6] Another practical function of the ziggurat was for security. Since the shrine was accessible only by way of three stairways,[7] a small number of guards could prevent non-priests from spying on the rituals at the shrine on top of the ziggurat, such as initiation rituals such as the Eleusinian mysteries, cooking of sacrificial food and burning of carcasses of sacrificial animals. Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex that included a courtyard, storage rooms, bathrooms, and living quarters, around which a city was built.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ziggurat ( George , Andrew (2007) "The Tower of Babel: Archaeology, history and cuneiform texts" Archiv für Orientforschung, 51 (2005/2006). pp. 75-95. http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/3858/2/TowerOfBabel.AfO.pdf A. Leo OppenheimAncient Mesopotamia, University of Chicago Press, (Chicago 1977), pages 112, 326-328.)

              The reconstructed facade of the Neo-Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur, near NasiriyahIraq

              Ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil

              Choghazanbil2.jpgZiggurat at Chogha Zanbil

              [quote]
              Outstanding Universal Value
              Brief Synthesis
               Located in ancient Elam (today Khuzestan province in southwest Iran), Tchogha Zanbil (Dur-Untash, or City of Untash, in Elamite) was founded by the Elamite king Untash-Napirisha (1275-1240 BCE) as the religious centre of Elam. The principal element of this complex is an enormous ziggurat dedicated to the Elamite divinities Inshushinak and Napirisha. It is the largest ziggurat outside of Mesopotamia and the best preserved of this type of stepped pyramidal monument. The archaeological site of Tchogha Zanbil is an exceptional expression of the culture, beliefs, and ritual traditions of one of the oldest indigenous peoples of Iran. Our knowledge of the architectural development of the middle Elamite period (1400-1100 BCE) comes from the ruins of Tchogha Zanbil and of the capital city of Susa 38 km to the north-west of the temple).
               The archaeological site of Tchogha Zanbil covers a vast, arid plateau overlooking the rich valley of the river Ab-e Diz and its forests. A “sacred city” for the king’s residence, it was never completed and only a few priests lived there until it was destroyed by the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal about 640 BCE. The complex was protected by three concentric enclosure walls: an outer wall about 4 km in circumference enclosing a vast complex of residences and the royal quarter, where three monumental palaces have been unearthed (one is considered a tomb-palace that covers the remains of underground baked-brick structures containing the burials of the royal family); a second wall protecting the temples (Temenus); and the innermost wall enclosing the focal point of the ensemble, the ziggurat.
               The ziggurat originally measured 105.2 m on each side and about 53 m in height, in five levels, and was crowned with a temple. Mud brick was the basic material of the whole ensemble. The ziggurat was given a facing of baked bricks, a number of which have cuneiform characters giving the names of deities in the Elamite and Akkadian languages. Though the ziggurat now stands only 24.75 m high, less than half its estimated original height, its state of preservation is unsurpassed. Studies of the ziggurat and the rest of the archaeological site of Tchogha Zanbil containing other temples, residences, tomb-palaces, and water reservoirs have made an important contribution to our knowledge about the architecture of this period of the Elamites, whose ancient culture persisted into the emerging Achaemenid (First Persian) Empire, which changed the face of the civilised world at that time.

              Criterion (iii)The ruins of Susa and of Tchogha Zanbil are the sole testimonies to the architectural development of the middle Elamite period (1400-1100 BCE). Criterion (iv)The ziggurat at Tchogha Zanbil remains to this day the best preserved monument of this type and the largest outside of Mesopotamia.
              [unquote]]

              http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/113

              Stupa, Dagoba, Chorten (Tibet) are synonyms. "A related architectural term is a chaitya, which is a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa.In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, and stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them...Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. The Mesopotamian ziggurats were not places for public worship or ceremonies. They were believed to be dwelling places for the gods and each city had its own patron god. Only priests were permitted on the ziggurat or in the rooms at its base, and it was their responsibility to care for the gods and attend to their needs. The priests were very powerful members of Sumerian and Assyro-Babylonian society."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stupa

              Mastaba

              The word 'mastaba' comes from the Arabic word for a bench of mud.

              The earliest ziggurats began as a platform (usually oval, rectangular or square), the ziggurat was a mastaba-like structure with a flat top. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. Each step was slightly smaller than the step below it. The facings were often glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks. The number of floors ranged from two to seven. "mastaba (/ˈmæstəbə/,[1] /ˈmɑːstɑːbɑː/ or /
              mɑːˈstɑːbɑː/) or pr-djt (meaning "house for eternity" or "eternal house" in Ancient Egyptian) is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with inward sloping sides, constructed out of mud-bricks (from the Nile River). These edifices marked the burial sites of many eminent Egyptians during Egypt's Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom. In the Old Kingdom epoch, local kings began to be buried in pyramids instead of in mastabas, although non-royal use of mastabas continued for over a thousand years. Egyptologists call these tombs mastaba, which is the Arabic word for "stone bench""https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mastaba


              Example of a mastaba


              History
              Heap of dust it is not
              Sialk is just one of thousands of structures of antiquity in Iran plundered by colonialists, thieves, incompetent authorities, and time itself

              By Nima Kasraie

              April 20, 2004
              iranian.com

              Upon visiting the oldest ziggurat in the world, one is only greeted with the solitary sound of dusty wind gusts. Here, tucked away in the suburbs of Kashan, sits the 7,500-year-old ziggurat of Sialk, a testament to ancient civilizations that flourished in Iran long before the Egyptian or Greek cultures blossomed. Like many other ruins in Iran, unfortunately, what is left of this per ancient edifice is only a big pile of crumbling bricks.
              This author is familiar with the efforts of dozens of historic preservation institutions as well as local, state, and federal organizations in Knoxville, that preserve and protect the heritage of eastern Tennessee. These institutions will do what it takes to make sure that a humble house built in the 1920s will receive historic overlay zoning and come under he protection of the law.
              In Sialk, on the other hand, what we see is a sign saying: "Please do not touch objects", and next to it another sign saying: "Items excavated here belong to the Stone Age". When the guard, sitting in a chair, isn't looking, you can easily lift the rope where the signs hang, and sneak a few pieces of millennia old ceramics, spear heads, or other items into your pocket.
              The guard won't care if you climb on top of the crumbling ziggurat itself, and while walking behind the ziggurat you can enjoy how it feels to kick 7000-year-old mud bricks to rubble. You can even ask the guard to let you see the "off limit" 5,500 year old skeletons unearthed at the foot of the ziggurat.

              Built by the Elamite civilization, Teppe Sialk was first excavated by a team of European archeologists in the 1930s. Like the thousands of other Iranian historical ruins, the treasures excavated here eventually found their way to museums such as the Louvre, the British Museum, the New York Metropolitan Museum, and private collectors -- including the three jars you see in this piece.
              What little is left of the two Sialk ziggurats is now threatened by the encroaching suburbs. It is not uncommon to see kids playing soccer amid the ruins.
              One cannot help but imagine that if Sialk were located in Tennessee, the ziggurat would have been fully preserved by three layers of vacuum-sealed Mission Impossible-type weathering protection systems, if not rebuilt and restored altogether like the cathedrals in Europe. Hollywood would have made several movies, using the monument as a device to further publicize the antiquity and sophistication of Western civilization.  
              The significance of the scientific and cultural achievements of the Elamites and their influence on other civilizations can be better understood when we learn that according to some scholars the first wheeled pitcher (or wheeled roller) is known to have been invented by the Elamites.
              Furthermore, the first arched roof and its covering, which are very important techniques in architecture were invented by the Elamites, and used in the mausoleum of Tepti-ahar around 1360 B.C. (unearthed in the excavations made at Haft Tappeh) nearly 1,500 years before such arches were used by the Romans.
              But the painful reality is that Sialk is just one of thousands of structures of antiquity in Iran plundered by colonialists, thieves, incompetent authorities, and time itself. Only the more famous ones come to attention when threatened, and a select few come under the protection of UNESCO.
              Other ancient structures of Persian heritage are not so lucky. The Sialk ziggurat at least has a guard or two protecting it, and Cultural Heritage Organization (hopefully) pays for the rope that supposedly prevents visitors from stealing the numerous excavated pieces. Others like the massive Sasani-era citadel of Nareen Ghal'eh (See photo) in Naeen have turned into a garbage dump by the locals. And many many others fare even worse than that.
              Protecting such heritage is a critical responsibility for everyone. Sometimes I feel ashamed when I hear about Italian or Japanese authorities voicing concern over the preservation of buildings in Iran. What are we doing? Turning ancient caravansarais into bus repair garages for TBT and IranPeyma?
              If there is one reason why Persian culture has managed to survive thousands of years of change and onslaught, it is because of the vast inheritance that we are now so easily giving away. The destruction of our monuments from Taq-I-Kasra near Baghdad to the tombs of Bukhara and Samarqand are only minor facets of this tragedy.
              The least we can do here in America, is document our culture by publishing articles, making websites, creating databases of information, photographs, and the fine arts, and spread the word around by calling for the help of other fellow Americans of Iranian heritage.
              Author
              Nima Kasraie is a graduate student in Physics at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

              स्तुप  m. (cf. स्तूप) a knot or tuft of hair &c (» स्त्/उकाVS. S3Br. Thus, the term stupa describes the architectural shape of the sacred place. The semantics of this word are renderd in Pali expressions to indicte a tumulus ornamented with a domed roof.. stu/pos Thūpika (adj.) [from thūpa. The ika applies to the whole compound] having domed roofs ("house -- tops") J vi.116 (of a Vimāna=dvādasayojanika maṇimayakañcanathūpika; cp. p. 117: pañcaṭhūpaŋ vimānaŋ, expld as pañcahi kūṭāgārehi samannāgataŋ). Thūpikata (adj.) [thūpa+kata] "made a heap," heaped of an alms -- bowl: so full that its contents bulge out over the top Vin iv.191.

              The rock cut and semi-brick construction ruins of Maha Chaitya(stupa) at BojjannakondaAndhra PradeshIndia

              Front view of the National Memorial Chorten or Stupa in Thimphu, Bhutan - September 2008. In Dzongkha this stupa is called Gongzok Chöten. It was built in memory of the Third King of Bhutan, Jigme Dorje Wangchuck. Inside the chorten is a temple with chapels that have images of the deities of the mandalas of Kagye, Gongdu and Phurba.

              One Hundred and Eight Stupas in NingxiaChina


              Jetavanaramaya stupa in AnuradhapuraSri Lanka is the largest brick structure in the world

              Shingardar stupa, Swat valley

              Stupa surrounded by four lion-crowned pillars, Gandhara, 2nd century CE


              Evidence for stupa predates Bauddham traditions by at least two millennia. 

              "Burial mounds containing relics were raised from earth and rock according to an age old custom that had survived from as early as Neolithic times. These burial mounds were also common during the lifetime of the Buddha and he instructed his disciples to erect them at cross-roads to commemorate great kings, sages and heroes. Naturally, after the death of the Buddha, a Stupa was to be raised in his honor, and eight of the mightiest princes fought for his ashes and bones. These relics were thus distributed to eight different kingdoms and Stupas were erected over them. During Ashoka's reign (c. 273-232 B.C.), they were redistributed and a portion is said to have been enshrined in the Great Stupa at Sanchi. It is perhaps only in Buddhism that a particular structure has been recommended by its founder for worship and salvation, for the Stupa enables the worshiper to not only think of the Buddha as an imminent reality (by regarding the Stupa as a visual manifestation of the Buddha), but also epitomizes his enlightenment and nirvana. In this way the Buddhist Stupa transcends its predecessor, the burial mound or tumulus, by shifting the emphasis from a particular relic to a higher transcendental actuality as realized by the Buddha, i.e. the Buddha's attainment and the worshiper's goal." http://www.history.upenn.edu/coursepages/hist086/material/sanchi.htm

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              https://tinyurl.com/yawch38l
              This notes presents some exquisite videos which provide an overview of the Sarasvati (also called Harappan or Indus Valley) Civilization. 
              In particular reference to the decipherment of Indus Script, the first video (Mysteries of Mohenjo-daro) provides an archaeological background to the Dholavira Signboard. 
              A simhāvalokanam'a lion's backward look' -- on the decipherment presented for over 8000 inscriptions of the civilization in Epigraphia Indus Script -- Hypertexts & Meanings (2017), finds validation of the decipherment as wealth-accounting ledgers of metalwork is reinforced by the message read on the Dholavira Signboard: The message of the signboard proclaims: Workshop for moltencast copper castings, mineral ores, metalware,metal tools, pots and pans, lathe, furnace, mint. 
              All messages of hypertextsof Indus Script proclaim wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork. Indus Script hypertexts of two pillars of Dholavira signify the message: copper metalcastings mint.
              S. KalyanaramanSarasvati Research CenterJanuary 18, 2018
              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPF1oR9yMNY (50:25) Mysteries of Mohenjo-Daro

              Published on Jul 10, 2016

              Thousands of years ago, the mysterious city of Mohenjo Daro was home to an unknown, advanced and prosperous civilization that used technology and constructed buildings that were unique to the ancient world. Artifacts, relics and ruins reveal startling evidence that the inhabitants of Mohenjo Daro possessed inventions that were far ahead of their time. How and from whom did these remarkable people acquire knowledge of such sophisticated technology? Why did this enigmatic civilization vanish? The history of the ancient world is full of secrets.



               


              Hieroglyphs skambha, stambha signify kammaṭa 'mint', tã̄bā 'copper'.

              A statue of Uma, a Cham divinity holding two lingas by her hands.  National Museum of Vietnam History. Cf. two stone pillars of Dholavira. The sivalingas are signified by the orthography of the pillars: the pillars are octagonal अष्टाश्रि 'with 8 corners'.
              Adjacent to the ground in Dholavira, where two stambhas exist, is a raised place with an 8-shaped structure. This shape compares with a furnace of Harappa. he remnants of pillars are seen in the middle of the 8-shaped structure.
              Furnace. Harappa

              The two pillars are associated with the furnace which is celebrated as kole.l'smithy, forge' rebus: kole.l'temple'. T
              Image result for dholavira pillars

              Why two stambhas?

              dula'pair' rebus: dul'cast metal'stambha, skambha'pillar' rebus: tã̄bā 'copper' kammaṭa'mint'
              Thus, the two pillars of dholavira signify copper metalcastings mint.

              There are three proclamations on the signboard with three segments of messages:
              ḍato eraka sangaa

              1. Working in ore, molten cast copper, lathe (work)

              khāṇḍā aḍaren kōṇṭu eraka

              2. Native metal tools, pots and pans, metalware, engraving (molten cast copper)

               loa khuṇṭa eraka

              3. Coppersmith mint, furnace, workshop (molten cast copper)

              Thus, together, the message of the Dholavira Signboard is: 

              Workshop for moltencast copper castings, mineral ores, metalware,metal tools, pots and pans, lathe, furnace, mint

              Dholavira Signboard inscription of gypsum inlays on wood measures 3 m. long. Each of the 10 signs is 37 cm. high and 25 to 27 cm. wide and made of pieces of white gypsum inlays; the signs were apparently inlaid in a wooden plank. The conjecture is that this wooden plank was mounted on the Northern Gateway as a Signboard. 

              Dholavira Signboard

              The Signboard which adorned the Northern Gateway of the citadel of Dholavira was an announcement of the metalwork repertoire of dhokra kamarcire perdue metalcasters and other smiths working with metal alloys. The entire Indus Script Corpora are veritable metalwork catalogs. The phrase dhokra kamar is rendered on a tablet discovered at Dholavira presented in this monograph (earlier discussed at 
              http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2014/01/meluhha-hieroglyphs-1-dhokra-lost-wax.html ). The 10-hieroglyph inscription of Dholavira Signboard has been read rebus and presented at 
              http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/08/dholavira-gateway-to-meluhha-gateway-to.html

              Excerpts from Excavation Report on Dholavira released by ASI in 2015:

              "8.1 Inscriptions. Literacy of the Harappans is best exemplified in their inscriptions written in a script that is unparalleled in its characters hitherto unknown and undeciphered so far. These inscriptions are best represented on their seals and seals-impressions in addition to those engraved or painted on the objects of metal, terracotta, pottery, faience, ivory, bone and stone, albeit sometimes appearing in a single sign inscription or scratching particularly on pottery or terracotta objects. 8.1.1 Signboard. One of the most prominent discoveries from the excavations at Dholavira is the find of a 10 large sized signboard presently lying in the western chamber of North Gate. This inscription was found lying in the western chamber of north gate, and the nature of find indicates that it could have been fitted on a wooden signboard, most probably fitted above the lintel of the central passageway of the gate. The central passageway of north gate itself measures 3.5 m in width and the length of the inscription along with the wooden frame impression is also more or less same thereby indicating the probable location. The inscription consists of 10 large-sized letters of the typical Harappan script, and is actually gypsum inlays cut into various sizes and shapes, which were utilized to create each size as, indicated above. The exact meaning of the inscription is not known in the absence of decipherment of script." (pp.227-229, Section 8.1.1 Signboard)

              "The central passageway of north gate itself measures 3.5 m in width and the length of the inscription along with the wooden frame impression is also more or less same thereby indicating the probable location. The inscription consists of 10 large-sized letters of the typical Harappan script, and is actually gypsum inlays cut into various sizes and shapes, which were utilized to create each size as, indicated above. The exact meaning of the inscription is not known in the absence of decipherment of the script. (p.231)


              Fig. 8.2: Location of ten large sized inscription in North Gate

              Fig. 8.3: Close-up of inscription


              Fig. 8.4: Drawing showing the ten letters of inscription

              Fig. 8.5: Photograph showing the details of inscription in situ.

              Fig. 8.6: Close-up of some of the letters from the inscription

              The signboard deciphered in three segments from r.

              Segment 1: Working in ore, molten cast copper, brass metal casting, lathe (work)

              ḍato ‘claws or pincers of crab (Santali) rebus: dhatu ‘ore’ (Santali) 

              eraka ‘knave of wheel’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’ (Kannada) eraka ‘molten cast (metal)(Tulu). sanga'pair' Rebus: sangaa‘lathe’ (Gujarati) arā 'spoke of wheel' rebus: āra 'brass'
               Segment 2: Native metal tools, pots and pans, metalware, engraving (molten cast copper, brass)


              खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.

              aḍaren, ḍaren lid, cover (Santali) Rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.) aduru = gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Kannada) (Siddhānti Subrahmaya’ śāstri’s new interpretation of the Amarakośa, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p. 330) 

              koṇḍa bend (Ko.); Tu. Kōḍi  corner; kōṇṭu angle, corner, crook. Nk. kōnṭa corner (DEDR 2054b)  G. khū̃ṭṛī  f. ʻangleʼ Rebus:kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’(B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi) koḍ  = place where artisans work (G.) ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or.kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. Kū̃d ’ lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)  A. kundār, B. kũdār, ri, Or.Kundāru; H. kũderā m. ‘one who works a lathe, one who scrapes’,  f., kũdernā ‘to scrape, plane, round on a lathe’; kundakara— m. ‘turner’ (Skt.)(CDIAL 3297). कोंदण [ kōndaṇa ] n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems.(Marathi) খোদকার [ khōdakāra ] n an engraver; a carver. খোদকারি n. engraving; carving; interference in other’s work. খোদাই [ khōdāi ] n engraving; carving. খোদাই করা v. to engrave; to carve. খোদানো v. & n. en graving; carving. খোদিত [ khōdita ] a engraved. (Bengali) खोदकाम [ khōdakāma ] n Sculpture; carved work or work for the carver. खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f Sculpture, carving, engraving: also sculptured or carved work. खोदणावळ [ khōdaṇāvaḷa ] f (खोदणें) The price or cost of sculpture or carving. खोदणी [ khōdaṇī ] f (Verbal of खोदणें) Digging, engraving &c. 2 fig. An exacting of money by importunity. V लावमांड. 3 An instrument to scoop out and cut flowers and figures from paper. 4 A goldsmith’s die. खोदणें [ khōdaṇēṃ ] v c & i ( H) To dig. 2 To engrave. खोद खोदून विचारणें or –पुसणें To question minutely and searchingly, to probe. खोदाई [ khōdāī ] f (H.) Price or cost of digging or of sculpture or carving. खोदींव [ khōdīṃva ] p of खोदणें Dug. 2 Engraved, carved, sculptured. (Marathi)

              eraka ‘knave of wheel’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’ (Kannada) eraka ‘molten cast (metal)(Tulu).
              Segment 3:  Coppersmith mint, furnace, workshop (molten cast copper, brass)

              loa ’fig leaf; Rebus: loh ‘(copper) metal’ kamaḍha 'ficus religiosa' (Skt.); kamaṭa = portable furnace for melting precious metals (Te.); kampaṭṭam = mint (Ta.) The unique ligatures on the 'leaf' hieroglyph may be explained as a professional designation: loha-kāra 'metalsmith'kāruvu  [Skt.] n. 'An artist, artificer. An agent'.(Telugu)

              khuṇṭa 'peg’; khũṭi = pin (M.) rebus: kuṭi= furnace (Santali) kūṭa ‘workshop’ kuṇḍamu ‘a pit for receiving and preserving consecrated fire’ (Te.) kundār turner (A.); kũdār, kũdāri (B.)

              eraka ‘knave of wheel’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’ (Kannada) eraka ‘molten cast (metal)(Tulu).



              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43NJBdfJwQE (37:10) Indus Script

              Published on Aug 25, 2017
              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h8BJTggtwW0 (44:46)

              Deep learning based OCR engine for the Indus script


              Streamed live on May 13, 2017Of all the ancient inscriptions, the Indus script has long challenged epigraphists, in spite of the various advances in computing, computational epigraphy has not yet been applied to its fullest potential. The main bottleneck here is the lack of data that has to be manually compiled into a corpus for the computers to read, this needs expert level knowledge and several months of effort, but Satish Palaniappan and Ronojoy Adhikari applied deep learning to reduce this into just a few seconds and with no experts. They developed an OCR engine for the Indus script based on a deep-learnt pipeline architecture, to do this job for them.
              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUng-iHhSzU (3:14)Mohenjodaro 101
              Published on Sep 8, 2017Mohenjo Daro, built at the time of the pyramids and centuries before the Roman Baths, was the largest city of the Indus Civilization. Learn facts about this ancient city, including engineering feats like the Great Bath.

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbnxPY3D1Pg (2:38)

              Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (UNESCO/NHK)

              Published on Jun 3, 2010

              https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2ibUMQ5cgI (8:57)

              Drone view of Mohenjodaro (The Indus Valley Civilization)

              Published on Mar 22, 2017This is rare video which enabled you to watch Mohenjodaro, the oldest civilization of mankind, as bird’s eye. This video was recorded on 9th February 2017 on the occasion of International Conference on Mohenjodaro & Indus Valley Civilization arranged by “National Fund for Mohenjodaro”, Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Antiquities – Government of Sindh. Directed by: Amar Fayaz Buriro



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              Write-up of Louvre Museum about the Sit Shamshi bronze indicates the possible link with Chogha Zanbil where a ziggurat was discovered.  A remarkable bronze artifact was discovered called 'Table decorated with serpents and deities bearing vessels spouting streams of water'. This was perhaps brought to Susa from Chogha Zanbil.
               Chogha Zanbil. Ziggurat temple. Bult ca. 1250 BCE by the king Untash-Napirisha.

              It is possible that the Chogha Zanbil ziggurat was modeled after the Stupa in Mohenjo-daro. See: 

               


              I submit that this ornate table is an Indus Script hypertext: dul phaḍā bhaṭa lōkhāṇḍā 'metal casting manufactory, furnace, metal implements'.

              In this context, the Sit Shamshi bronze is a narrative explaining the metalwork processes in front of the temple, venerated as dagoba, dhatugarbha,  'earth mound as the womb of minerals'. The water ablutions depicted on the Sit Shamshi model of the temple are offerings venerating the pitṟ-s, 'ancestors' and asur, 'sun divinity'. A word cognate with shamas, 'sun' (Akkadian) is शुष्णः śuṣṇḥशुष्णः [शुष्-नः कित् Uṇ.3.12] 1 The sun.-2 Fire.-शुष्मः śuṣmḥ शुष्मः [शुष्-मन् किच्च] 1 The sun. -2 Fire. शाश्वत 'heaven , ether' (Samsktam).

              A vivid Meluhha hieroglyph 'overflowing pot' has rebus-metonymy reading:लोखंड [lōkhāṇḍā ] 'metalwork'khār खार् 'blacksmith'. manager, arranger, turner (in guild smithy) of metal tools, pots and pans. This orthographic metaphor of an over-flowing pot gets expanded expression on a Bronze Susa table of 14th cent. BCE signifying 6 persons holding overflowing pots together with two cobras. The entire artifact signifies Meluhha rebus reading: लोखंड [lōkhāṇḍā ] 'metalwork' khār खार् 'blacksmith'.

              Six overflowing pots: bhaṭa'six' rebus:  bhaṭa'furnace'

              फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

              The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

              Hieroglyph: kāṇḍə ‘water’ Wg. káṇṭä ʻ water -- channel ʼ, Woṭ. kaṇṭḗl f., Gaw. khāṇṭ*l, Bshk. kāṇḍə (CDIAL 2680). காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16)
              khaṇḍa ‘implements (metal)’ kanda'fire-altar'
              Hieroglyph: nagnagin 'species of snake' kari nangin 'species of black poisonous snake' (Santali) nāgá1 m. ʻ snake ʼ ŚBr. 2. ʻ elephant ʼ BhP. [As ʻ ele- phant ʼ shortened form of *nāga -- hasta -- EWA ii 150 with lit. or extracted from nāga -- danta -- ʻ elephant tusk, ivory ʼ < ʻ snake -- shaped tusk ʼ].1. Pa. nāga -- m. ʻ snake ʼ, NiDoc. nāǵa F. W. Thomas AO xii 40, Pk. ṇāya -- m., Gy. as.  JGLS new ser. ii 259; Or. naa ʻ euphem. term for snake ʼ; Si. naynayā ʻ snake ʼ. -- With early nasalization *nāṅga -- : Bshk. nāṅg ʻ snake ʼ. -- Kt. Pr. noṅ, Kal. nhoṅ ʻ name of a god < nāˊga -- or ← Pers. nahang NTS xv 283.2. Pa. nāga -- m. ʻ elephant ʼ, Pk. ṇāya -- m., Si. nā. śiśunāka -- .(CDIAL 7039)

              Rebus: nāga2 n. ʻ lead ʼ Bhpr. [Cf. raṅga -- 3] Sh. naṅ m. ʻ lead ʼ (< *nāṅga -- ?), K. nāg m. (< *nāgga -- ?).(CDIAL 7040)

              Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
              फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or स (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

              फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस

              फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 

              फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 

              फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 

              Image result for Table ornée de serpents et de divinités aux eaux jaillissantes bharatkalyan97
              Image result for Table ornée de serpents et de divinités aux eaux jaillissantes bharatkalyan97
              Image result for Table ornée de serpents et de divinités aux eaux jaillissantes bharatkalyan97
              Image result for Table ornée de serpents et de divinités aux eaux jaillissantes bharatkalyan97

              • Table ornée de serpents et de divinités aux eaux jaillissantes
                XIVe siècle avant J.-C.
                Suse, Tell de l'Acropole
              • Bronze
                H. 19.5 cm; W. 15.7 cm; L. 69.5 cm
              • Fouilles J. de Morgan, 1898 , 1898
                Sb 185
              • This table, edged with serpents and resting on deities carrying vessels spouting streams of water, was doubtless originally a sacrificial altar. The holes meant the blood would drain away as water flowed from the vessels. Water was an important theme in Mesopotamian mythology, represented particularly by the god Enki and his acolytes. This table also displays the remarkable skills of Elamite metalworkers.

                A sacrificial table

                The table, edged with two serpents, rested on three sides on five figures that were probably female deities. Only the busts and arms of the figures survive. The fourth side of the table had an extension, which must have been used to slot the table into a wall. The five busts are realistic in style. Each of the deities was holding an object, since lost, which was probably a water vessel, cast separately and attached by a tenon joint. Water played a major role in such ceremonies and probably gushed forth from the vessels. Along the sides of the table are sloping surfaces leading down to holes, allowing liquid to drain away. This suggests that the table was used for ritual sacrifices to appease a god. It was believed that men were created by the gods and were responsible for keeping their temples stocked and providing them with food. The sinuous lines of the two serpents along the edge of the table mark off holes where the blood of the animals, sacrificed to assuage the hunger of the gods, would have drained away.

                The importance of water in Mesopotamian mythology

                In Mesopotamia, spirits bearing vessels spouting streams of water were the acolytes of Enki/Ea, the god of the Abyss and of fresh water. The fact that they figure in this work reflects the extent of the influence of Mesopotamian mythology in Susa. Here, they are associated with another Chtonian symbol, the snake, often found in Iranian iconography. The sinuous lines of the serpents resemble the winding course of a stream. It is thought that temples imitated the way streams well up from underground springs by the clever use of underground channels. Water - the precious liquid - was at the heart of Mesopotamian religious practice, being poured out in libations or used in purification rites.

                Objects made for a new religious capital

                Under Untash-Napirisha, the founder of the Igihalkid Dynasty, the Elamite kingdom flourished. He founded a new religious capital, Al-Untash - modern-day Chogha Zanbil - some 40 kilometers southeast of Susa. However, the project was short-lived. His successors soon brought large numbers of religious objects back to Susa, the former capital. This table was certainly among them. Its large size and clever drainage system reflect the remarkable achievements of metalworking at the time.

                Bibliography

                Amiet Pierre, Suse 6000 ans d'histoire, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1988, pp.98-99 ; fig. 57.
                Miroschedji Pierre de, "Le dieu élamite au serpent", in : Iranica antiqua, vol.16, 1981, Gand, Ministère de l'Éducation et de la Culture, 1989, pp.16-17, pl. 10, fig.3.
              Model of a temple, called the Sit-shamshi, made for the ceremony of the rising sun
              12th century BC
              Tell of the Acropolis, Susa
              • Bronze
              • J. de Morgan excavations, 1904-05
                Sb 2743
              • Louvre Museum's description of the narrative:
              • This large piece of bronze shows a religious ceremony. In the center are two men in ritual nudity surrounded by religious furnishings - vases for libations, perhaps bread for offerings, steles - in a stylized urban landscape: a multi-tiered tower, a temple on a terrace, a sacred wood. In the Middle-Elamite period (15th-12th century BC), Elamite craftsmen acquired new metallurgical techniques for the execution of large monuments, statues and reliefs.

                A ceremony

                Two nude figures squat on the bronze slab, one knee bent to the ground. One of the figures holds out open hands to his companion who prepares to pour the contents of a lipped vase onto them. The scene takes place in a stylized urban landscape, with reduced-scale architectural features: a tiered tower or ziggurat flanked with pillars, a temple on a high terrace. There is also a large jar resembling the ceramic pithoi decorated with rope motifs that were used to store water and liquid foodstuffs. An arched stele stands by some rectangular basins. Rows of dots in relief may represent solid foodstuffs on altars, and jagged sticks represent trees. The men's bodies are delicately modeled, their faces clean-shaven, and their shaved heads speckled with the shadow of the hair. Their facial expression is serene, their eyes open, the hint of a smile on their lips. An inscription tells us the name of the piece's royal dedicator and its meaning in part: "I Shilhak-Inshushinak, son of Shutruk-Nahhunte, beloved servant of Inshushinak, king of Anshan and Susa [...], I made a bronze sunrise."

                Chogha Zambil: a religious capital

                The context of this work found on the Susa acropolis is unclear. It may have been reused in the masonry of a tomb, or associated with a funerary sanctuary. It appears to be related to Elamite practices that were brought to light by excavations at Chogha Zambil. This site houses the remains of a secondary capital founded by the Untash-Napirisha dynasty in the 14th century BC, some ten kilometers east of Susa (toward the rising sun). The sacred complex, including a ziggurat and temples enclosed within a precinct, featured elements on the esplanade, rows of pillars and altars. A "funerary palace," with vaulted tombs, has also been found there.

                The royal art of the Middle-Elamite period

                Shilhak-Inshushinak was one of the most brilliant sovereigns of the dynasty founded by Shutruk-Nahhunte in the early 12th century BC. Numerous foundation bricks attest to his policy of construction. He built many monuments in honor of the great god of Susa, Inshushinak. The artists of Susa in the Middle-Elamite period were particularly skilled in making large bronze pieces. Other than the Sit Shamshi, which illustrates the complex technique of casting separate elements joined together with rivets, the excavations at Susa have produced one of the largest bronze statues of Antiquity: dating from the 14th century BC, the effigy of "Napirasu, wife of Untash-Napirisha," the head of which is missing, is 1.29 m high and weighs 1,750 kg. It was made using the solid-core casting method. Other bronze monuments underscore the mastery of the Susa metallurgists: for example, an altar table surrounded by snakes borne by divinities holding vases with gushing waters, and a relief depicting a procession of warriors set above a anel decorated with engravings of birds pecking under trees. These works, today mutilated, are technical feats. They prove, in their use of large quantities of metal, that the Susians had access to the principal copper mines situated in Oman and eastern Anatolia. This shows that Susa was located at the heart of a network of circulating goods and long-distance exchange. https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/sit-shamshi

              Sit Shamshi discovered in the area of the Ninhursag temple, Susa(After Plate 7.21 DT Potts, 2015, Archaeology of Elam, Cambridge University Press) Photo: Dr. JavierAlvarez-Mon)

              The narrative: one kneeling adorant holds a spoutedd vessel; the other has extended hands, flat, palms up. They are seated between two stepped structures, comparable to the ziggurat at Choga Zanbil. "

              F. Malbran-Labat suggested that it represents a funerary ceremony for kings interred nearby, celebrated at dawn on a sacred esplanade by two priests performing a rite of ablution (Malbran-Labat 1995: 214 loc. cit. in DT Potts, opcit.)." Ruler of Susa, Shilhak Inshushinak, identifies himself giving his titles, writes in the inscription: I have made a bronze sunrise (sit shamshi). Alternative interpretation of Gian Pietro Basello is at 


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              https://tinyurl.com/y9l5hkn8

              This is a continuation of the monograph: Overflowing pot on tens of Ancient Near East artifacts, an Indus Script hypertext signifies production of metal implements https://tinyurl.com/y8kq53kl which deciphered the rebus reading of overflowing pot: lokhãḍ 'tools,iron, ironware'. This decipherment is validated by the decipherment of Indus Script hypertexts of Ibni-sharrum cylinder seal (ca. 2200 BCE).
              There are some seals with clear Indus themes among Dept. of Near Eastern Antiquities collections at the Louvre in Paris, France, among them the Cylinder Seal of Ibni-Sharrum, described as "one of the most striking examples of the perfection attained by carvers in the Agade period [2350–2170 BCE].
              https://www.harappa.com/category/blog-subject/seals
              Image result for ibni sharrum indus script
              Ibni-Sharrum cylinder seal shows a kneeling person with six curls of hair.Cylinder seal of Ibni-sharrum, a scribe of Shar-kali-sharri (left) and impression (right), ca. 2183–2159 B.C.; Akkadian, reign of Shar-kali-sharri. Lower register signifies flow of water.

              Numeral bhaṭa 'six' is an Indus Script cipher, rebus bhaṭa ‘furnace’; baṭa 'iron'. Rebus: bhaḍa -- m. ʻ soldier ʼ, bhuaga 'worshipper in a temple' (Note the worshipful pose of the person offering the overflowing pot).

              bhr̥ta ʻ carried, brought ʼ MBh. 2. ʻ hired, paid ʼ Mn., m. ʻ hireling, mercenary ʼ Yājñ.com., bhr̥taka -- m. ʻ hired servant ʼ Mn.: > MIA. bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hired soldier, servant ʼ MBh. [√bhr̥1. Ash. 3 sg. pret. bəṛə, f. °ṛī ʻ brought ʼ, Kt. bŕå; Gaw. (LSI) bṛoet ʻ they begin ʼ.2. Pa. bhata -- ʻ supported, fed ʼ, bhataka -- m. ʻ hired servant ʼ, bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hireling, servant, soldier ʼ; Aś.shah. man. kāl. bhaṭa -- ʻ hired servant ʼ, kāl. bhaṭaka -- , gir. bhata -- , bhataka -- ; Pk. bhayaga -- m. ʻ servant ʼ, bhaḍa -- m. ʻ soldier ʼ, bhaḍaa -- m. ʻ member of a non -- Aryan tribe ʼ; Paš. buṛīˊ ʻ servant maid ʼ IIFL iii 3, 38; S. bhaṛu ʻ clever, proficient ʼ, m. ʻ an adept ʼ; Ku. bhaṛ m. ʻ hero, brave man ʼ, gng. adj. ʻ mighty ʼ; B. bhaṛ ʻ soldier, servant, nom. prop. ʼ, bhaṛil ʻ servant, hero ʼ; Bhoj. bhar ʻ name of a partic. low caste ʼ; G. bhaṛ m. ʻ warrior, hero, opulent person ʼ, adj. ʻ strong, opulent ʼ, ubhaṛ m. ʻ landless worker ʼ (G. cmpd. with u -- , ʻ without ʼ, i.e. ʻ one without servants ʼ?); Si. beḷē ʻ soldier ʼ < *baḷaya, st. baḷa -- ; -- Pk. bhuaga -- m. ʻ worshipper in a temple ʼ, G. bhuvɔ m. (rather than < bhūdēva -- ). *bhārta -- ; abhr̥ta -- ; subhaṭa -- .Addenda: bhr̥ta -- : S.kcch. bhaṛ ʻ brave ʼ; Garh. (Śrīnagrī dial.) bhɔṛ, (Salānī dial.) bhe ʻ warrior ʼ.(CDIAL 9588)


              Hieroglyhph: buffalo: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku -- ?).(CDIAL 10538, 10559) Rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567) తుత్తము [ tuttamu ] or తుత్తరము tuttamu. [Tel.] n. sulphate of zinc. మైలతుత్తము sulphate of copper, blue-stone.తుత్తినాగము [ tuttināgamu ] tutti-nāgamu. [Chinese.] n. Pewter. Zinc. లోహవిశేషము (Telugu) (Spelter is commercial crude smelted zinc.
              • a solder or other alloy in which zinc is the main constituent.)

              Note on spelter: "Spelter, while sometimes used merely as a synonym for zinc, is often used to identify a zinc alloy. In this sense it might be an alloy of equal parts copper and zinc, i.e. a brass, used for hard soldering and brazing, or as an alloy, containinglead, that is used instead of bronze. In this usage it was common for many 19th-century cheap, cast articles such as candlesticks and clock cases...The word "pewter" is thought to be derived from the word "spelter". Zinc ingots formed by smelting might also be termed spelter.Skeat, Walter William (1893), An etymological dictionary of the English language (2nd ed.), Clarendon Press, pp. 438–439. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spelter French Bronze is a form of bronze typically consisting of 91% copper, 2% tin, 6% zinc, and 1% lead.(Ripley, George; Dana, Charles Anderson (1861). The New American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge 3. D. Appleton and Co. p. 729.) "The term French bronze was also used in connection with cheap zinc statuettes and other articles, which were finished to resemble real bronze, and some older texts call the faux-bronze finish itself "French bronze". Its composition was typically 5 parts hematite powder to 8 parts lead oxide, formed into a paste with spirits of wine. Variations in tint could be obtained by varying the proportions. The preparation was applied to the article to be bronzed with a soft brush, then polished with a hard brush after it had dried." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Bronze ( Watt, Alexander (1887). Electro-Metallurgy Practically Treated. D. Van Nostrand. pp. 211–212.)

               "The term latten referred loosely to the copper alloys such as brass or bronze that appeared in the Middle Ages and through to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was used for monumental brasses, in decorative effects on borders, rivets or other details of metalwork (particularly armour), in livery and pilgrim badges or funerary effigies. Metalworkers commonly formed latten in thin sheets and used it to make church utensils. Brass of this period is made through the calamine brass process, from copper and zinc ore. Later brass was made with zinc metal from Champion's smelting process and is not generally referred to as latten. This calamine brass was generally manufactured as hammered sheet or "battery brass" (hammered by a "battery" of water-powered trip hammers) and cast brass was rare. "Latten" also refers to a type of tin plating on iron (or possibly some other base metal), which is known as white latten; and black latten refers to laten-brass, which is brass milled into thin plates or sheets. The term "latten" has also been used, rarely, to refer to lead alloys. In general, metal in thin sheets is said to be latten such as gold latten; and lattens (plural) refers to metal sheets between 1/64" and 1/32" in thickness." ( Funerary crozier of the Bishops of St Davids, on display at St David's Cathedral, West Wales) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latten

              Cylinder seal impression of Ibni-sharrum, a scribe of Shar-kalisharri ca. 2183–2159 BCE The inscription reads “O divine Shar-kali-sharri, Ibni-sharrum the scribe is your servant.” Cylinder seal. Serpentine/Chlorite. AO 22303 H. 3.9 cm. Dia. 2.6 cm.  

              <lo->(B)  {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''.  See <lo-> `to be left over'.  @B24310.  #20851. Re<lo->(B)  {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''.  See <lo-> `to be left over'. (Munda ) Rebus: loh ‘copper’ (Hindi) Glyph of flowing water in the second register: காண்டம் kāṇṭam , n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர்; kāṇṭam ‘ewer, pot’ கமண்டலம். (Tamil) Thus the combined rebus reading: Ku. lokhaṛ  ʻiron tools ʼ; H. lokhaṇḍ  m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ(CDIAL 11171). The kneeling person’s hairstyle has six curls. bhaṭa ‘six’; rebus: bhaṭa‘furnace’. मेढा mēḍhā A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) Thus, the orthography denotes meḍ bhaṭa ‘iron furnace’.

              Akkadian Cylinder Seal (c. 2200 B.C. showing Gilgamesh slaying the bull of heaven, with Enkidu? Also from Dury; both in British Museum.
              Akkadian Cylinder Seal (c. 2200 B.C. showing Gilgamesh slaying the bull of heaven, with Enkidu? Also from Dury; both in British Museum)


              Gilgamesh and Enkidu struggle of the celestial bull and the lion (cylinder seal-print Approx. 2,400 BC, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore)

              http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1999.325.4 (Bos gaurus shown with greater clarity) http://art.thewalters.org/viewwoa.aspx?id=33263 In the two scenes on this cylinder seal, a heroic figure with heavy beard and long curls holds off two roaring lions, and another hero struggles with a water buffalo. The inscription in the panel identifies the owner of this seal as "Ur-Inanna, the farmer."

              Clay sealing from private collection with water buffalo, crescent-star, apparently Akkadian period.

              मेढ [ mēḍha ]The polar star. (Marathi) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Munda.Ho.) 
              मेंढसर [mēṇḍhasara] m A bracelet of gold thread. (Marathi) 


              On many hierolyph multiplexes, water-buffalo (rã̄go) is associated with kANDa 'overflowing water'. The rebus renderings are: rāṅgā khaNDA 'zinc alloy implements'. The semantics of khaNDa 'implements' is attested in Santali: me~r.he~t khaNDa 'iron implements'. 


              Santali glosses

              A lexicon suggests the semantics of Panini's compound अयस्--काण्ड [p= 85,1]  m. n. " a quantity of iron " or " excellent iron " , (g. कस्का*दि q.v.)( Pa1n2. 8-3 , 48)(Monier-Williams).


              From the example of a compound gloss in Santali, I suggest that the suffix -kANDa in Samskritam should have referred to 'implements'. Indus Script hieroglyphs as hypertext components to signify kANDa 'implements' are: kANTa, 'overflowing water' kANDa, 'arrow' gaNDa, 'four short circumscript strokes'.

              Mohenjodaro seal m0304
              This profile of face on m0304 compares with the three faces topped by a horn PLUS twigs, on another seal. Material: tan steatite; Dimensions: 2.65 x 2.7 cm, 0.83 to 0.86 thickness Mohenjo-daro, DK 12050 Islamabad Museum, NMP 50.296 Mackay 1938: 335, pl. LXXXVII, 222 Hypertext: three faces, mũh 'face' Rebus mũhã̄ 'iron furnace output' kolom 'three' (faces) rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' *tiger's mane on face: The face is depicted with bristles of hair, representing a tiger’s mane. ḍā, cūlā, cūliyā tiger’s mane (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4883) Rebus: cuḷḷai = potter’s kiln, furnace (Ta.); cūḷai furnace, kiln, funeral pile (Ta.); cuḷḷa potter’s furnace; cūḷa brick kiln (Ma.); cullī fireplace (Skt.); cullī, ullī id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4879; DEDR 2709). sulgao, salgao to light a fire; sen:gel, sokol fire (Santali.lex.) hollu, holu = fireplace (Kuwi); soḍu fireplace, stones set up as a fireplace (Mand.); ule furnace (Tu.)(DEDR 2857). 

              Hypertext: shoggy face with brisltles of hair on the face of the person: sodo bodo, sodro bodro adj. adv. rough, hairy, shoggy, hirsute, uneven; sodo [Persian. sodā, dealing] trade; traffic; merchandise; marketing; a bargain; the purchase or sale of goods; buying and selling; mercantile dealings (G.lex.)sodagor = a merchant, trader; sodāgor (P.B.) id. (Santali)

              Hypertext: wristlets on arms: karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, bangles (Gujarati) rebus: khār 'blacksmith'.



              Image result for pasupati indus sealHseal (m0304). Image result for bharatkalyan97 haystackThe platform is a plank atop a pair of haystacks. Indus Script hypertexts of the bottom register: polā 'haystacks' rebus: polā 'magnetite, ferrite ore'. The plank or slab of the platform is pāṭa ʻ plain, throne ʼ (Oriya), paṭṭa rebus: फड phaḍa 'metals manufactory guild'. miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, iron castings.

              Hypertext: kũdā kol 'tiger jumping' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'

              Hypertext: कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread' rebus: कर्णक kárṇaka, 'helmsman' kannā 'legs spread' rebus: karṇadhāra m. ʻ helmsman ʼ Suśr. [kárṇa -- , dhāra -- 1]Pa. kaṇṇadhāra -- m. ʻ helmsman ʼ; Pk. kaṇṇahāra -- m. ʻ helmsman, sailor ʼ; H. kanahār m. ʻ helmsman, fisherman ʼ.(CDIAL 2836)

              Hieroglyph: karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'

              Hieroglyph: kaṇḍa 'rhinoceros' gaṇḍá4 m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ lex., °aka -- m. lex. 2. *ga- yaṇḍa -- . [Prob. of same non -- Aryan origin as khaḍgá -- 1: cf. gaṇōtsāha -- m. lex. as a Sanskritized form ← Mu. PMWS 138] 1. Pa. gaṇḍaka -- m., Pk. gaṁḍaya -- m., A. gãr, Or. gaṇḍā.2. K. gö̃ḍ m., S. geṇḍo m. (lw. with g -- ), P. gaĩḍā m., °ḍī f., N. gaĩṛo, H. gaĩṛā m., G. gẽḍɔ m., °ḍī f., M. gẽḍā m.
              Addenda: gaṇḍa -- 4. 2. *gayaṇḍa -- : WPah.kṭg. geṇḍɔ mirg m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ, Md. genḍā ← H.(CDIAL 4000) rebus: kāṇḍa 'implements'

              Hieroglyph:  rã̄go 'water-buffalo' rebus: Pk. raṅga 'tin' P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼOr. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅgaada -- m. ʻ borax ʼ lex.Kho. (Lor.) ruṅ ʻ saline ground with white efflorescence, salt in earth ʼ  *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) ranga 'alloy of copper, zinc, tin'

              Hypertext: penance; kamaḍha 'penance', rebus: kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.) 'mint, coiner, coinage' Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236)

              Hypertext: ṭhaṭera ‘buffalo horns’ rebus: hã̄ṭhāro, ṭhaṭherā 'brassworker';  haṭṭhāra 'brass worker' (Prakritam) K. hö̃hur m., S. hã̄ṭhāro m., P. hahiār°rā m.2. P. ludh. haherā m., Ku. hahero m., N. haero, Bi. haherā, Mth. haheri, H. haherā m(CDIAL 5473).


              Hypertext: bunch of twigs on horns: The bunch of twigs = kūdīkūṭī (Samskrtam) kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda(AV 5.19.12) and KauśikaSūtra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield,American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss anBohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace‘; koṭe ‘forged metal’ (Santali)

              See: 

               http://tinyurl.com/h4a3qwf


              त्रि--शिरस् [p= 460,3] mfn. n. कुबेर L.; three-pointed MBh. xiii R. iv; three-headed (त्वाष्ट्र , author of RV. x , 8.) Ta1n2d2yaBr. xvii Br2ih. KaushUp. MBh. Ka1m. (Monier-Williams) Triśiras, son of tvaṣṭṛ त्वष्टृ m. [त्वक्ष्-तृच्] 1 A carpenter, builder, workman, त्वष्ट्रेव विहितं यन्त्रम् Mb.12.33.22. -2 Viśvakarman, the architect of the gods. [Tvaṣtṛi is the Vulcan of the Hindu mythology. He had a son named Triśiras and a daughter called संज्ञा, who was given in marriage to the sun. But she was unable to bear the severe light of her husband, and therefore Tvaṣtṛi mounted the sun upon his lathe, and carefully trimmed off a part of his bright disc; cf. आरोप्य चक्रभ्रमिमुष्णतेजास्त्वष्ट्रेव यत्नो- ल्लिखितो विभाति R.6.32. The part trimmed off is said to have been used by him in forming the discus of Viṣṇu, the Triśūla of Śiva, and some other weapons of the gods.] पर्वतं चापि जग्राह क्रुद्धस्त्वष्टा महाबलः Mb.1.227. 34. -3 Prajāpati (the creator); यां चकार स्वयं त्वष्टा रामस्य महिषीं प्रियाम् Mb.3.274.9. -4 Āditya, a form of the sun; निर्भिन्ने अक्षिणी त्वष्टा लोकपालो$विशद्विभोः Bhāg.3.6.15.

              Thus, the messsage of the Mohenjo-daro seal is a proclamation by the scribe, of iron workings displayed on the bottom register of the seal with a slab atop haystacks.

              Decipherment the text of the inscription on seal m0304:
              Text 2420 on m0304


              Line 2 (bottom): 'body' glyph. mēd ‘body’ (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)


              Line 1 (top):


              'Body' glyph plus ligature of 'splinter' shown between the legs: mēd ‘body’ (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) sal ‘splinter’; Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) Thus, the ligatured glyph is read rebus as: meḍ sal 'iron (metal) workshop'.


              Sign 216 (Mahadevan). ḍato ‘claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs’; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Vikalpa: erā ‘claws’; Rebus: era ‘copper’. Allograph: kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.) kamat.ha = fig leaf, religiosa (Skt.)


              Sign 229. sannī, sannhī = pincers, smith’s vice (P.) śannī f. ʻ small room in a house to keep sheep in ‘ (WPah.) Bshk. šan, Phal.šān ‘roof’ (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12326). seṇi (f.) [Class. Sk. śreṇi in meaning "guild"; Vedic= row] 1. a guild Vin iv.226; J i.267, 314; iv.43; Dāvs ii.124; their number was eighteen J vi.22, 427; VbhA 466. ˚ -- pamukha the head of a guild J ii.12 (text seni -- ). -- 2. a division of an army J vi.583; ratha -- ˚ J vi.81, 49; seṇimokkha the chief of an army J vi.371 (cp. senā and seniya). (Pali)


              Sign 342. kaṇḍa kanka 'rim of jar' (Santali): karṇaka rim of jar’(Skt.) Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ (Te.); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) copper fire-altar scribe (account)(Skt.) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) Thus, the 'rim of jar' ligatured glyph is read rebus: fire-altar (furnace) scribe (account) karNI 'supercargo' (Marathi)


              Sign 344. Ligatured glyph: 'rim of jar' ligature + splinter (infixed); 'rim of jar' ligature is read rebus: kaṇḍa karṇaka 'furnace scribe (account)'. 


              sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) *ஆலை³ ālai, n. < šālā. 1. Apartment, hall; சாலை. ஆலைசேர் வேள்வி (தேவா. 844. 7). 2. Elephant stable or stall; யானைக்கூடம். களிறு சேர்ந் தல்கிய வழுங்க லாலை (புறநா. 220, 3).ஆலைக்குழி ālai-k-kuḻi, n. < ஆலை¹ +. Receptacle for the juice underneath a sugar-cane press; கரும்பாலையிற் சாறேற்கும் அடிக்கலம்.*ஆலைத்தொட்டி ālai-t-toṭṭi, n. < id. +. Cauldron for boiling sugar-cane juice; கருப்பஞ் சாறு காய்ச்சும் சால்.ஆலைபாய்-தல் ālai-pāy-, v. intr. < id. +. 1. To work a sugar-cane mill; ஆலையாட்டுதல். ஆலைபாயோதை (சேதுபு. நாட்டு. 93). 2. To move, toss, as a ship; அலைவுறுதல். (R.) 3. To be undecided, vacillating; மனஞ் சுழலுதல். நெஞ்ச மாலைபாய்ந் துள்ள மழிகின்றேன் (அருட்பா,) Vikalpa: sal ‘splinter’; rebus: workshop (sal)’ ālai ‘workshop’ (Ta.) *ஆலை³ ālai, n. < šālā. 1. Apartment, hall; சாலை. ஆலைசேர் வேள்வி (தேவா. 844. 7). 2. Elephant stable or stall; யானைக்கூடம். களிறு சேர்ந் தல்கிய வழுங்க லாலை (புறநா. 220, 3).ஆலைக்குழி ālai-k-kuḻi, n. < ஆலை¹ +. Receptacle for the juice underneath a sugar-cane press; கரும்பாலையிற் சாறேற்கும் அடிக்கலம்.*ஆலைத்தொட்டி ālai-t-toṭṭi, n. < id. +. Cauldron for boiling sugar-cane juice; கருப்பஞ் சாறு காய்ச்சும் சால்.ஆலைபாய்-தல் ālai-pāy-, v. intr. < id. +. 1. To work a sugar-cane mill; ஆலையாட்டுதல். ஆலைபாயோதை (சேதுபு. நாட்டு. 93) Thus, together with the 'splinter' glyph, the entire ligature 'rim of jar + splinter/splice' is read rebus as: furnace scribe (account workshop). Sign 59. ayo, hako 'fish'; a~s = scales of fish (Santali); rebus: aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.) Sign 342. kaṇḍa karṇaka 'rim of jar'; rebus: 'furnace scribe (account)'. Thus the inscription reads rebus: iron, iron (metal) workshop, copper (mineral) guild, fire-altar (furnace) scribe (account workshop), metal furnace scribe (account) As the decoding of m0304 seal demonstrates, the Indus hieroglyphs are the professional repertoire of an artisan (miners'/metalworkers') guild detailing the stone/mineral/metal resources/furnaces/smelters of workshops (smithy/forge/turners' shops).


              0 0

              https://tinyurl.com/yafzhhyp

              This is a continuation of the monograph: Overflowing pot on tens of Ancient Near East artifacts, an Indus Script hypertext signifies production of metal implements https://tinyurl.com/y8kq53kl which deciphered the rebus reading of overflowing pot: lokhãḍ 'tools,iron, ironware'. This decipherment is validated by the decipherment of Indus Script hypertexts of Ibni-sharrum cylinder seal (ca. 2200 BCE).

              The overflowing pot hypertext of Indus Script is also shown on a jasper cylinder seal discussed in this monograph. The cylinder seal shows the name in Akkadian cuneiform syllabic script as: Shalpum, son  of Shalum. Rest of the message is in Indus Script hypertexts to signify the following ten rebus readings describing the metalwork competence of kuhāru 'armourer', kamar'blacksmith, artificer' and trade of metalwork objects (creating wealth).

              1. phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers 

              2. ḍã̄g  m. ʻclub, mace'(Kashmiri) rebus: āro blacksmith’ (Nepalese)

              3. ayo 'fish' PLUS khambhaṛā'fish=fin' rebus: aya kammaṭa 'blacksmith supercargo, copper, gold, metal implements, mint'

              4. baa 'six' Rebus: baṭa 'iron' (Gujarati) bhaṭa 'furnace' PLUS  meḍh 'curl' Rebus: meḍ 'iron'; baa 'six' Rebus: baṭa a 'worshipperPk. bhuaga -- m. ʻworshipper in a temple'; meṇḍa'bending on one knee' Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)

              6. lokāṇḍa'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhaṇḍa 'metal implements, excellent implements'

              7. arka'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka'copper, gold, moltencast'

              8. kamar'moon' Rebus: kamar'blacksmith' कर्मार [p= 259,3]  an artisan , mechanic , artificer; a blacksmith &c RV. x , 72 , 2 AV. iii , 5 , 6 VS. Mn. iv , 215 &c (Monier-Williams); kohāri'crucible' Rebus: kohāri 'treasurer, warehouse'; kuhāru'armourer' If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: قمر ḳamar قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See سپوږمي or سپوګمي (Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'

              9. kanda kanka'rim of pot' rebus: kanda 'fire-altar' PLUS कारणी or कारणीक 'supercargo of a ship' (Marathi) of ingots are held in a conical jar (storage pot).

              10. mūhā mẽṛhẽt 'iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends.' (Note ingots in storage pot superfixed on the crucible hieroglyph).


               


              Jasper cylinder seal is a stunning example of the power of hypertexts (using hieroglyph-multiplexes) to convey precise, detailed technical information.

              The cylinder seal, 2.8 cm. high and 1.6 cm dia, signifies -- in an extraordinarily crisp hypertext, within limited writing space-- Indus script proclamations of iron, copper, gold-smithy, mint-work. ḍhangar bhaṭa पेढी  'blacksmith furnace shop' kamar कारणी arka lokhaṇḍa aya kammaṭa 'blacksmith supercargo, copper, gold, metal implements, mint' [কর্মকার ]  (p. 0208) [ karmakāra ] n a blacksmith, an ironsmith; (rare) an ironmonger. (Sailendra Biswas, Samsad Bengali-English Dictionary].

              A cobrahood is shown at the left-most register of the cylinder seal impression. फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

              The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
              Cylinder Seal with Kneeling Nude Heroes, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression).Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm) cylinder Seal with four hieroglyphs and four kneeling persons (with six curls on their hair) holding flagposts, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Mesopotamia. Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression). Cuneiform inscription: Sharpum, son of Shallum. The rest of the hieroglyph-multiplexes are a cypher signifying Sharpum's occupation as a merchant with diverse metallurgical competence.


              The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. moon or crucible PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing water, 4. fish (with fins emphasised). A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held. 



              kohāri 'crucible' Rebus: kohāri 'treasurer, warehouse'; kuhāru 'armourer' If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: قمر ḳamar قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See سپوږمي or سپوګمي (Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'

              कारणी or कारणीक 'supercargo of a ship' (Marathi) of ingots are held in a conical jar (storage pot).


              The leftmost hieroglyph shows ingots in a conical-bottom storage jar (similar to the jar shown on Warka vase (See Annex: Warka vase), delivering the ingots to the temple of Inanna). Third from left, the overflowing pot is similar to the hieroglyph shown on Gudea statues. Fourth from left, the fish hieroglyph is similar to the one shown on a Susa pot containing metal tools and weapons. (See Susa pot hieroglyphs of bird and fish: Louvre Museum) 

              Hieroglyph: meṇḍā ʻlump, clotʼ (Oriya) On mED 'copper' in Eurasian languages see Annex A: Warka vase). mūhā mẽṛhẽt 'iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends.' (Note ingots in storage pot superfixed on the crucible hieroglyph).

              The key hieroglyph is the hood of a snake seen as the left-most hieroglyph on this rolled out cylinder seal impression. I suggest that this denotes the following Meluhha gloss: 

              Alternative: Hierogyph: A. kulā 'hood of serpent' Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith'; kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron'

              Four flag-posts(reeds) with rings on top held by the kneeling persons define the four components of the iron smithy/forge.  

              The four persons carry four maces with rings on top register. The maces are comparable in shape to the mace held by a bull-man on a terracotta plaque (British Museum number103225, see picture appended with decipherment). The mace is:  ḍã̄g (Punjabi) ḍhaṅgaru 'bull' (Sindhi) -- as a phonetic determinant; rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’. Mth. ṭhākur ʻ blacksmith ʼ (CDIAL 5488).

              The four persons (kamar) may be recognized as soldiers based on the Pashto gloss: kamar kīsaʿh, s.f. (3rd) A waist-belt with powder horn, and other furniture for a soldier. 

              Hieroglyph: meṇḍa 'bending on one knee': మండి [ maṇḍi ] or మండీ manḍi. [Tel.] n. Kneeling down with one leg, an attitude in archery, ఒక కాలితో నేలమీద మోకరించుట
              ఆలీఢపాదముमेट [ mēṭa ] n (मिटणें) The knee-joint or the bend of the knee. मेटेंखुंटीस बसणें To kneel down. Ta. maṇṭi kneeling, kneeling on one knee as an archerMa. maṇṭuka to be seated on the heels. Ka. maṇḍi what is bent, the knee. Tu. maṇḍi knee. Te. maṇḍĭ̄ kneeling on one knee. Pa. maḍtel knee; maḍi kuḍtel kneeling position. Go. (L.) meṇḍā, (G. Mu. Ma.) minḍa knee (Voc. 2827). Konḍa (BB) meḍa, meṇḍa id.  Pe. menḍa id.  Manḍ.  menḍe id.  Kui menḍa id.  Kuwi (F.) menda, (S. Su. P.) menḍa, (Isr.) meṇḍa id. Cf. 4645 Ta. maṭaṅku (maṇi-forms). / ? Cf. Skt. maṇḍūkī- part of an elephant's hind leg; Mar. meṭ knee-joint. (DEDR 4677) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)

              The four persons are worshippers in a kneeling posture:  baa 'six' Rebus: baṭa a 
              'worshipperPk. bhuaga -- m. ʻ worshipper in a temple ʼ, G. bhuvɔ m. (rather than < bhūdēva -- ). rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hired soldier, servant ʼ MBh. Pali. bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hireling, servant, soldier ʼKu.bhaṛ m. ʻ hero, brave man ʼ, gng. adj. ʻ mighty ʼ; B. bhaṛ ʻ soldier, servant, nom. prop. ʼS.kcch. bhaṛ ʻ brave ʼ; Garh. (Śrīnagrī dial.) bhɔṛ, (Salānī dial.) bhe ʻ warrior ʼ.(CDIAL 9588) Ku. bhaṛau ʻ song about the prowess of ancient heroes ʼ.(CDIAL 9590)

              The kamar is semantically reinforced by orthographic determinative of six curls of hair: baa'six' Rebus: baṭa 'iron' (Gujarati) bhaṭa 'furnace' PLUS  meḍh 'curl' Rebus: meḍ 'iron' to signify that the message conveyed is of four smelters for iron (metal).

              Numeral bhaṭa 'six' is an Indus Script cipher, rebus bhaṭa ‘furnace’; baṭa 'iron'. Rebus: bhaḍa -- m. ʻ soldier ʼ, bhuaga 'worshipper in a temple' (Note the worshipful pose of the person offering the overflowing pot).

              bhr̥ta ʻ carried, brought ʼ MBh. 2. ʻ hired, paid ʼ Mn., m. ʻ hireling, mercenary ʼ Yājñ.com., bhr̥taka -- m. ʻ hired servant ʼ Mn.: > MIA. bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hired soldier, servant ʼ MBh. [√bhr̥1. Ash. 3 sg. pret. bəṛə, f. °ṛī ʻ brought ʼ, Kt. bŕå; Gaw. (LSI) bṛoet ʻ they begin ʼ.2. Pa. bhata -- ʻ supported, fed ʼ, bhataka -- m. ʻ hired servant ʼ, bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hireling, servant, soldier ʼ; Aś.shah. man. kāl. bhaṭa -- ʻ hired servant ʼ, kāl. bhaṭaka -- , gir. bhata -- , bhataka -- ; Pk. bhayaga -- m. ʻ servant ʼ, bhaḍa -- m. ʻ soldier ʼ, bhaḍaa -- m. ʻ member of a non -- Aryan tribe ʼ; Paš. buṛīˊ ʻ servant maid ʼ IIFL iii 3, 38; S. bhaṛu ʻ clever, proficient ʼ, m. ʻ an adept ʼ; Ku. bhaṛ m. ʻ hero, brave man ʼ, gng. adj. ʻ mighty ʼ; B. bhaṛ ʻ soldier, servant, nom. prop. ʼ, bhaṛil ʻ servant, hero ʼ; Bhoj. bhar ʻ name of a partic. low caste ʼ; G. bhaṛ m. ʻ warrior, hero, opulent person ʼ, adj. ʻ strong, opulent ʼ, ubhaṛ m. ʻ landless worker ʼ (G. cmpd. with u -- , ʻ without ʼ, i.e. ʻ one without servants ʼ?); Si. beḷē ʻ soldier ʼ < *baḷaya, st. baḷa -- ; -- Pk. bhuaga -- m. ʻ worshipper in a temple ʼ, G. bhuvɔ m. (rather than < bhūdēva -- ). *bhārta -- ; abhr̥ta -- ; subhaṭa -- .Addenda: bhr̥ta -- : S.kcch. bhaṛ ʻ brave ʼ; Garh. (Śrīnagrī dial.) bhɔṛ, (Salānī dial.) bhe ʻ warrior ʼ.(CDIAL 9588)

              The semantics of khaṇḍa'implements' is attested in Santali: mht khaṇḍa'iron implements'. 


              Santali glosses

              A lexicon suggests the semantics of Panini's compound अयस्--काण्ड [p= 85,1]  m. n. " a quantity of iron " or " excellent iron " , (g. कस्का*दि q.v.)( Pa1n2. 8-3 , 48)(Monier-Williams).


              The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. moon PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing water, 4. fish A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held. 

              kamar 'moon' Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'
              arka 'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka 'copper, gold, moltencast'
              lok
              āṇḍa 'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhaṇḍa 'metal implements, excellent implements'

              aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda) khambhaṛā m. ʻ fin ʼ (Lahnda) kammaṭa 'coiner, coinage, mint' (Note on the emphasis on the fins of the fish)
              Hieroglyph: मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl.(Marathi. Molesworth)Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)
              ba
              a 'six' Rebus: bhaa 'furnace' PLUS meh 'curl' Rebus: me 'iron'


              This is a proclamation of four shops, पेढी (Gujarati. Marathi). पेंढें rings Rebus: पेढी shop.āra ‘serpent’ Rebus; āra ‘brass’. kara'double-drum' Rebus: kara'hard alloy'.


              Citation
              "Cylinder seal with kneeling nude heroes [Mesopotamia]" (L.1992.23.5) In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/L.1992.23.5. (October 2006)
              Four representations of a nude hero with six sidelocks of hair appear on this cylinder seal. Each wears a three-strand belt with a tassel. In all cases, the hero kneels on one knee and with both hands holds up a gatepost standard in front of his raised leg. Two vertical lines of inscription, one placed before a hero and another placed behind a second hero, give the name as Shatpum, son of Shallum, but do not provide an official title. Placed vertically in the field, a serpent appears behind one hero. In the spaces between the tops of the standards are four symbols: a sun disk, a lunar crescent, a fish, and a vase with flowing streams of water.

              The nude hero is often shown with this very explicit type of gatepost, which perhaps is the emblem of a specific god or group of deities. The heroes with gateposts, the flowing vase, and the fish suggest that the iconography of this seal is somehow connected with Ea, god of sweet water and wisdom. However, the meaning of individual symbols could change in different contexts. The sun, moon, vase, and fish are undoubtedly astral or planetary symbols—the vase with streams and the fish are forerunners of what in much later times become zodiacal signs.
              http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/L.1992.23.5
              Girsu (Tlloh) archaeological find. 11 ft. tall copper plated flagpost.  This may relate to a period when  Girsu (ca. 2900-2335 BCE) was the capital of Lagash at the time of Gudea.

              Hieroglyph: ढाल (p. 356) [ ḍhāla ] The grand flag of an army directing its march and encampments: also the standard or banner of a chieftain: also a flag flying on forts &c. v दे. ढालकाठी (p. 356) [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. 2 fig. The leading and sustaining member of a household or other commonwealthढालपट्टा (p. 356) [ ḍhālapaṭṭā ] m (Shield and sword.) A soldier's accoutrements comprehensively.ढालाईत (p. 356) [ ḍhālāīta ]  That bears the great flag with proceeds in front of an army in march.ढाळणें (p. 356) [ ḍhāḷaṇēṃ ] v c (Active of ढळणें) To wave over or around (a fan, brush &c.) Ex. सेवक वरि ढाळति चामरें ॥.ढालकरी (p. 356) [ ḍhālakarī ] m The bearer or or attendant upon the ढाल of an army or a cheiftain. 2 fig. The staff, support, or upholding person of a family or community. (Marathi) ḍhālā a tall banner (Kannada) 

              Rebus: ḍhālu 'cast, mould' (Kannada) J. ḍhāḷṇu ʻ to cause to melt ʼ; P.ḍhalṇā ʻ to be poured out, fall, melt ʼ(CDIAL 5582) ढाळ (p. 356) [ ḍhāḷa ] Cast, mould, form (as ofmetal vessels, trinkets &c.(Marathi)

              قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. 

              See سپوږمي or سپوګمي رښړه rabaṟṟṉaʿh, s.f. (3rd) Moonshine, the light of the moon, moonlight. Pl. يْ ey. See سپوږمي (Pashto) 

              Rebus: karmāˊra m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ RV. [EWA i 176 < stem *karmar -- ~ karman -- , but perh. with ODBL 668 ← Drav. cf. Tam. karumā ʻ smith, smelter ʼ whence meaning ʻ smith ʼ was transferred also to karmakāra -- ] Pa. kammāra -- m. ʻ worker in metal ʼ; Pk. kammāra -- , °aya -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, A. kamār, B. kāmār; Or. kamāra ʻ blacksmith, caste of non -- Aryans, caste of fishermen ʼ; Mth. kamār ʻ blacksmith ʼ, Si. kam̆burā.*karmāraśālā -- .Addenda: karmāˊra -- : Md. kan̆buru ʻ blacksmith ʼ.(CDIAL 2898) కమ్మటము [ kammaṭamu ] Same as కమటముకమ్మటీడు kammaṭīḍu. [Tel.] A man of the goldsmith caste.కమ్మరము [ kammaramu ] kammaramu. [Tel.] n. Smith's work, iron work. కమ్మరవాడుకమ్మరి or కమ్మరీడు kammara-vāḍu. n. An iron-smith or blacksmith. బైటికమ్మరవాడు an itinerant blacksmith. (Telugu) Kammāra [Vedic karmāra] a smith, a worker in metals generally D ii.126, A v.263; a silversmith Sn 962= Dh 239; J i.223; a goldsmith J iii.281; v.282. The smiths in old India do not seem to be divided into black -- , gold -- and silver -- smiths, but seem to have been able to work equally well in iron, gold, and silver, as can be seen e. g. from J iii.282 and VvA 250, where the smith is the maker of a needle. They were constituted into a guild, and some of them were well -- to -- do as appears from what is said of Cunda at D ii.126; owing to their usefulness they were held in great esteem by the people and king alike J iii.281.   -- uddhana a smith's furnace, a forge J vi.218; -- kula a smithy M i.25; kūṭa a smith's hammer Vism 254; -- gaggarī a smith's bellows S i.106; J vi.165; Vism 287 (in comparison); -- putta "son of a smith," i. e. a smith by birth and trade D ii.126; A v.263; as goldsmith J vi.237, Sn 48 (Nd2 ad loc.: k˚ vuccati suvaṇṇakāro); -- bhaṇḍu (bhaṇḍ, cp. Sk. bhāṇḍika a barber) a smith with a bald head Vin i.76; -- sālā a smithy Vism 413; Mhvs 5, 31.(Pali)

              <kamar>(B),<karma>(B)  {N} ``^black^smith''.  Fem. <kamar-boi>'.  *Des.  @B05220.  #16371.  <kamar=gana>(B)  {N} ``^bellows of a ^black^smith''.  *Des.  |<gana> `'.  @B05230.  #10713.<kamar>(P)  {N} ``^blacksmith''.  *Sa., Mu.<kamar>, Sad.<kAmAr>, B.<kamarO>, O.<kOmarA>; cf. Ju.<kamar saRe>, ~<kOjOG>.  %16041.  #15931.  <kamar saRe>(P)  {N} ``blacksmith's shop''.  |<saRe> `shop'.  %16050.  #15940. (Munda etyma)
              Baked clay plaque showing a bull-man holding a post.British Museum number103225 Baked clay plaque showing a bull-man holding a post. Old Babylonian 2000BC-1600BCE Length: 12.8 centimetres Width: 7 centimetres Barcelona 2002 cat.181, p.212 BM Return 1911 p. 66 

              Hieroglyph: ã̄g m. ʻ club, mace ʼ(Kashmiri) Rebus: K. angur (dat. °garas) m. ʻ fool ʼ; P. agar m. ʻ stupid man ʼ; N. āro ʻ term of contempt for a blacksmith ʼ, āre ʻ large and lazy ʼ; A.aurā ʻ living alone without wife or children ʼ; H. ã̄garã̄grā m. ʻ starveling ʼ.N. igar ʻ contemptuous term for an inhabitant of the Tarai ʼ; B. igar ʻ vile ʼ; Or. igara ʻ rogue ʼ, °rā ʻ wicked ʼ; H. igar m. ʻ rogue ʼ; M. ĩgar m. ʻ boy ʼ.(CDIAL 5524)

              I ډانګ ḏḏāng, s.m. (2nd) A club, a stick, a bludgeon. Pl. ډانګونه ḏḏāngūnah. ډانګ لکئِي ḏḏāng lakaʿī, s.f. (6th) The name of a bird with a club-tail. Sing. and Pl. See توره آنا ډانګورئِي ḏḏāngoraʿī, s.f. (6th) A small walking- stick, a small club. Sing. and Pl. (The dimin. of the above). (Pashto) ḍã̄g डाँग् । स्थूलदण्डः m. a club, mace (Gr.Gr. 1); a blow with a stick or cudgel (Śiv. 13); a walking-stick. Cf. ḍã̄guvu. -- dini -- दिनि&below; । ताडनम् m. pl. inf. to give clubs; to give a drubbing, to flog a person as a punishment. (Kashmiri) ḍakka2 ʻ stick ʼ. 2. *ḍaṅga -- 1. [Cf. other variants for ʻ stick ʼ: ṭaṅka -- 3, *ṭiṅkara -- , *ṭhiṅga -- 1, *ḍikka -- 1 (*ika -- )]1. S. ḍ̠aku m. ʻ stick put up to keep a door shut ʼ, ḍ̠akaru ʻ stick, straw ʼ; P. akkā m. ʻ straw ʼ, akkrā m. ʻ bit (of anything) ʼ; N. ã̄klo ʻ stalk, stem ʼ.2. Pk. agā -- f. ʻ stick ʼ; A. ā ʻ thick stick ʼ; B. ā ʻ pole for hanging things on ʼ; Or. āga ʻ stick ʼ; H. ã̄g f. ʻ club ʼ (→ P. ã̄g f. ʻ stick ʼ; K. ã̄g m. ʻ club, mace ʼ); G. ã̄g f., °gɔ,ãgorɔ 
              m., °rũ n. ʻ stick ʼ; M. ãgar n. ʻ short thick stick ʼ, ã̄gī f. ʻ small branch ʼ, ã̄gśī f.Addenda: *ḍakka -- 2. 2. *ḍaṅga -- 1: WPah.kṭg. āg f. (obl. -- a) ʻ stick ʼ, agṛɔ m. ʻ stalk (of a plant) ʼ; -- poss. kṭg. (kc.) agrɔ m. ʻ axe ʼ, poet. agru m., °re f.; J. ã̄grā m. ʻ small weapon like axe ʼ, P. agorī f. ʻ small staff or club ʼ (Him.I 84).(CDIAL 6520) 

              Allograph Hieroglyph:  hagaru, higaru m. ʻlean emaciated beastʼ(Sindhi) 

              Rebus: dhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili) hangra bull’. Rebus: hangarblacksmith’.
              Mth. hākur ʻ blacksmith ʼ (CDIAL 5488) N. āro ʻ term of contempt for a blacksmith ʼ 
              S. hagaru m. ʻ lean emaciated beast ʼ ;  L. (Shahpur) hag̠g̠ā ʻ small weak ox ʼ(CDIAL 5324).

              0 0

              Silver amulet and bracelet(?) Excavated from Kalibangan site, ~3-2nd millenium BCE Note fishes embossed on amulet.

              https://tinyurl.com/y8jzn4yu

              Thanks to @wiavastukala for posting this exquisite image and information.

              The silver token (RGR3949 Kalibangan) with Indus Script hypertext is a wealth metalwork accounting ledger.

              karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, banglesRebus: khr'blacksmith, iron worker' (Kashmiri).

              meḍhi 'plait' rebus: meḍ 'iron' 
              dhāī  ʻwisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twistedʼ Rebus: dhāˊtu‘mineral ore’
              khambhaṛā‘fish fin’ rebus: kammaṭa‘mint, coiner’, ayo‘fish’ rebus: ayas‘alloy metal’ dula ‘pair’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’

              S. Kalyanaraman
              Sarasvati Research Centre
              January 20, 2018

              0 0

              https://tinyurl.com/ybn6534j


              Eastern Badia archaeological project in Jordan's black desert dates the site to 7th millennium BCE. On January 4, 2018 the following structure with pillar has been highlighted.

              Excavated Late Neolithic building with standing pillars, on slope of Mesa 7, at Wadi Al Qattafi (Photo courtesy of Yorke Rowan and Eastern Badia Archaeological Project)

              I suggesst that this building with standing pillars on slope of Mesa 7 is virtually identical to a structure found in Dholavira. Dholavira archaeology reveals further detailed information about the possible function of the stone structure with standing pillars. A pair of pillars fronted this building in Dholavira.

              I have suggested that the pair of pillars and the stone structural building with a standing pillar are related to smithy/forge work, consistent with the decipherment of over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions as hypertexts which signify wealth metalwork accounting ledgers. 

              That a similar structure of Eastern Badia in Jordan's Black Deseert dated to 7th millennium bears a striking resemblance should make researches pause. In the context of R̥gveda tradition, an octagonal pillar discovered in Binjor archaeological site on Sarasvati River Basin points to the use of a skambha as a fiery pillar of light and flame to infuse (godhuma caṣāla) carbon into molten metal in a furnace to harden the metal.

              Clearly, further researches are called for tracing the shape, form and function of Eastern Badia neolithic building of 7th millennium BCE with the Dholavira archaeological finds which clearly relate to the Tin-Bronze Revolution, including the message of the Dholavira Sign Board.

              Binjor discovery of aṣṭāśri skambha, Indus Script seal with inscription (detailed metalwolrk wealth creation ledger) attesting to performance of Soma Yajña. The octagonal shape of the pillar becomes the Rudrabhāga of Śivalinga.
              Linga with One Face of Shiva (Ekamukhalinga), Mon–Dvaravati period, 7th–early 8th century. Thailand (Phetchabun Province, Si Thep) Stone; H. 55 1/8 in



              Indus Script hypertexts of two pillars of Dholavira signify the message: copper metalcastings mint.

               


              Hieroglyphs skambha, stambha signify kammaṭa 'mint', tã̄bā 'copper'.

              A statue of Uma, a Cham divinity holding two lingas by her hands.  National Museum of Vietnam History. Cf. two stone pillars of Dholavira. The sivalingas are signified by the orthography of the pillars: the pillars are octagonal अष्टाश्रि 'with 8 corners'.
              Adjacent to the ground in Dholavira, where two stambhas exist, is a raised place with an 8-shaped structure. This shape compares with a furnace of Harappa. he remnants of pillars are seen in the middle of the 8-shaped structure.
              Furnace. Harappa

              The two pillars are associated with the furnace which is celebrated as kole.l 'smithy, forge' rebus: kole.l'temple'. T
              Image result for dholavira pillars

              Why two stambhas?

              dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' stambha, skambha 'pillar' rebus: tã̄bā 'copper' kammaṭa 'mint'
              Thus, the two pillars of dholavira signify copper metalcastings mint.


              See: The Late Neolithic colonization of the Eastern Badia of Jordan by Gary Rollefson1, Yorke Rowan2 1 and Alexander Wasse https://www.whitman.edu/Documents/Academics/Division-I/Levant%2046(2).pdf Pioneering research by Betts and by Garrard in the eastern steppe and desert of Jordan demonstrated the presence of Late Neolithic (c. 7000–5000 cal BC) pastoral exploitation of this currently arid/hyper-arid region, but the scale of Late Neolithic presence in the area was difficult to assess from the reports of their surveys and excavations. Recent investigations by the Eastern Badia Archaeological Project at Wisad Pools and the Wadi al-Qattafi in the Black Desert have shown that conditions during the latter half of the 7th millennium and into the 6th, permitted substantial numbers of pastoralists to occupy substantial dwellings recurrently, in virtual village settings, for considerable amounts of time on a seasonal basis, relying heavily on the hunting of wild animals and perhaps practising opportunistic agriculture in addition to herding caprines.


              See:  Eastern Badia archaeological project: Maitland’s Mesa, Jordan by Yorke M..Rowan

               https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/ar/11-20/12-13/12-13_Eastern_Badia.pdf


              Piles of rocks in Jordan’s Black Desert offer clues to ancient past


              By Saeb Rawashdeh - Jan 04,2018 - Last updated at Jan 04,2018


              Excavated Late Neolithic building with standing pillars, on slope of Mesa 7, at Wadi Al Qattafi (Photo courtesy of Yorke Rowan and Eastern Badia Archaeological Project)


              AMMAN — When a group of scholars in 2008 began to work together in the Black Desert (eastern Jordan), they found many piles of rocks that once were structures.
              “Initially it was easy to miss them,” said Yorke Rowan, an anthropological archaeologist who received his PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.
              He, and fellow scholars Alex Wasse and Gary Rollefson found doorways under collapsed basalt rubbles, Rowan recalled, noting that “we thought that perhaps they were similar to the burial structures in the Sinai known as nawamis [circular pre-historic stone tombs] that date to the 4th millennium BC”.
              “The first one we excavated at Maitland’s Mesa [M-4] at Wadi Al Qattafi [ around 130km east of Amman], turned out to be a structure dated to the Late Neolithic, a type of structure that we didn’t know from the region. It seemed to have a corbelled, low roof, with exterior storage space that was still standing [with roof and stone pillar],” the scholar explained. 
              As they excavated a few more of these structures at Qattafi and Wisad Pools [further to the east], they began to realise that there were hundreds of these structures, at Qattafi and Wisad Pools [and probably other places in the desert too], he elaborated. 
              “No one had ever studied these, or even commented on them, as far as I know. We started by taking notes, photographing, and taking GPS points,” Rowan said.
              However, most photos from the ground looked similar — piles of black basalt rocks — and to properly survey so many collapsed structures accurately would take years, the researcher noted. 
              “Our colleague, Austin ‘Chad’ Hill, suggested that he could begin to map these structures using inexpensive drones that he could build himself — he has been building model planes and flying them since he was a kid, “ Rowan said, adding that by putting cameras on the model airplanes, flying methodically over an area and using the geolocation of the photographs, highly accurate maps can be constructed by orthorectifying the images (correcting them for distortion).
              The team has completed the survey of an area along Wadi Al Qattafi, about 32 square kilometres. He stressed that they still must mark all the structures, but Chad has completed the processing of the thousands of images they collected from the UAVs. 
              “We knew that there were kites [the hunting traps] in the desert, as this have been noted by many flying over the area for many decades; we knew that there were some in and around the Wadi Qattafi area, but our aerial survey discovered more of these kites because they are so difficult to spot from the ground,” he pointed out.
              Furthermore, scholars have also used the drones, on a much smaller scale, at Wisad Pools to map the rock art. 
              There are over 400 petroglyphs (pecked rock art) in a small concentrated area right around the pools, where animals would have come for water, he continued.
              The expert said: “The most prominent type of animals represented are ibex, followed by other horned animals. Only a few humans are represented. What is surprising is how many kites are pecked into the rocks!”
              On the other hand, the ghura huts which they recognised at the top of Maitland’s Mesa, are even more difficult, Rowan said.
              “We excavated two of them, but found very little inside: No animal bones, no burned material, and no objects that could tell us when they were built. We also don’t believe that they had a stone roof because the huts are built with very small basalt rocks, and the walls wouldn’t have been more than half a metre high,” he emphasised.
              Possibly a skin was held in place by these rocks, and the ghura hut was a small, simple shelter with a skin roof, he speculated, adding that recently “our colleague Bernd Mueller-Neuhof excavated very similar structures to the north, and he found some carbonised material that suggests these date to the mid-4th millennium BC, or the transitional period between the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age”. 
              “Since most of what we have explored is not funerary, I can’t really say too much yet about the burial of the dead; we do have evidence that later people would sometimes build their tombs on top of a collapsed Neolithic structure, presumably to increase the height and prominence of the later tomb,” the scholar highlighted.
              One of these included some nice objects, such as a bronze spear head, earrings, and beads that seem to date to the end of the Late Bronze Age or early Iron Age, Rowan stressed.
              The Eastern Badia Archaeological Project scholars have long-term plans for the area that includes additional mapping of the buildings and kites, and they really want to supplement that with geomorphological study to understand if there used to be soils that would better support grasses and other plants, and animals, he underlined. 
              Ultimately, their team hopes to put together a website in Arabic and English so that people can appreciate the beauty of the remote region, since few can reach the area.
              “In addition, we have to finish studying the animal bones [Alex Wasse is analysing those] and gather more data from residue studies and botanical traces. Our colleague Britz Lorentzen identified oak from our excavations at the largest building at Wisad Pools, suggesting that oak trees may have grown there during the Neolithic period. This small piece of wood is exciting, but we’ll need more information before we can build a whole new story about prehistory in the Black Desert,” Rowan concluded. 

              http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/piles-rocks-jordan%E2%80%99s-black-desert-offer-clues-ancient-past


              Yorke Rowan and Eastern Badia Archaeological Project Featured in Jordan Times



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              https://tinyurl.com/y84rmf5m

              Cassiterite SnO2 oxide tin is he principal source of tin mineral. Cassiterite forms as placer deposits in river basins due to the grinding down of granite rocks by the river flows. Ancient tin and gold were sourced from placer deposits..

              The alluvial deposits of cassiterite, tin ore, are black or purple or otherwise dark, this feature enabled early prospectors to identify tin source to alloy with copper to create brohze. This alloying was a revolutionary invention which overcame the short supply of naturally occurring arsenical bronze deposits. Another alloy invented during the Tin-Bronze Revoluton from 4th millennium BCE isbrass which is an alloy of zinc and copper.

              These alloys are best exemplified by Indus Script hypertexts found in over 8000 inscriptions from ca. 3300 BCE. Two hieroglyphs are unique:

              1. Spoked wheel
              3. Water-buffalo
              Image result for spoked wheel indus scriptIndus Script Hypertexts of Dholavira Signboard (with four occurrences of 'spoked-wheel' hieroglyph). For decipherment of Signboard message see: 

               



              Image result for spoked wheel indus scriptPlano convex molded tablet showing a female deity battling two tigers and standing above an elephant. A single Indus script depicting a spoked wheel is above the head of the deity. Discovered in Harappa, 1997. https://www.harappa.com/answers/what-current-thinking-female-diety-outstretched-arms-ancient-indus-egyptian-and-mesopotamian

              arā 'spoke of wheel' rebus: āra 'brass' eraka 'knave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast copper', arka 'gold'.
              Image result for buffalo ibni sharrum indus scriptCylinder Seal of Ibni-Sharrum Agade period, reign of Sharkali-Sharri (c. 2217-2193 BCE)Mesopotamia Serpentine H. 3.9 cm; Diam. 2.6 cm Formerly in the De Clercq collection; gift of H. de Boisgelin, 1967 AO 22303 "A scene testifying to relations with distant lands Buffaloes are emblematic animals in glyptic art in the Agade period. They first appear in the reign of Sargon, indicating sustained relations between the Akkadian Empire and the distant country of Meluhha, that is, the present Indus Valley, where these animals come from. These exotic creatures were probably kept in zoos and do not seem to have been acclimatized in Iraq at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. Indeed, it was not until the Sassanid Empire that they reappeared. The engraver has carefully accentuated the animals' powerful muscles and spectacular horns, which are shown as if seen from above, as they appear on the seals of the Indus."

              http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/cylinder-seal-ibni-sharrum
              For decipherment, see: 

               

              Ibni-Sharrum cylinder seal shows a kneeling person with six curls of hair.Cylinder seal of Ibni-sharrum, a scribe of Shar-kali-sharri (left) and impression (right), ca. 2183–2159 B.C.; Akkadian, reign of Shar-kali-sharri. Lower register signifies flow of water.

              Numeral bhaṭa 'six' is an Indus Script cipher, rebus bhaṭa ‘furnace’; baṭa 'iron'. Rebus: bhaḍa -- m. ʻ soldier ʼ, bhuaga 'worshipper in a temple' (Note the worshipful pose of the person offering the overflowing pot).

              bhr̥ta ʻ carried, brought ʼ MBh. 2. ʻ hired, paid ʼ Mn., m. ʻ hireling, mercenary ʼ Yājñ.com., bhr̥taka -- m. ʻ hired servant ʼ Mn.: > MIA. bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hired soldier, servant ʼ MBh. [√bhr̥1. Ash. 3 sg. pret. bəṛə, f. °ṛī ʻ brought ʼ, Kt. bŕå; Gaw. (LSI) bṛoet ʻ they begin ʼ.2. Pa. bhata -- ʻ supported, fed ʼ, bhataka -- m. ʻ hired servant ʼ, bhaṭa -- m. ʻ hireling, servant, soldier ʼ; Aś.shah. man. kāl. bhaṭa -- ʻ hired servant ʼ, kāl. bhaṭaka -- , gir. bhata -- , bhataka -- ; Pk. bhayaga -- m. ʻ servant ʼ, bhaḍa -- m. ʻ soldier ʼ, bhaḍaa -- m. ʻ member of a non -- Aryan tribe ʼ; Paš. buṛīˊ ʻ servant maid ʼ IIFL iii 3, 38; S. bhaṛu ʻ clever, proficient ʼ, m. ʻ an adept ʼ; Ku. bhaṛ m. ʻ hero, brave man ʼ, gng. adj. ʻ mighty ʼ; B. bhaṛ ʻ soldier, servant, nom. prop. ʼ, bhaṛil ʻ servant, hero ʼ; Bhoj. bhar ʻ name of a partic. low caste ʼ; G. bhaṛ m. ʻ warrior, hero, opulent person ʼ, adj. ʻ strong, opulent ʼ, ubhaṛ m. ʻ landless worker ʼ (G. cmpd. with u -- , ʻ without ʼ, i.e. ʻ one without servants ʼ?); Si. beḷē ʻ soldier ʼ < *baḷaya, st. baḷa -- ; -- Pk. bhuaga -- m. ʻ worshipper in a temple ʼ, G. bhuvɔ m. (rather than < bhūdēva -- ). *bhārta -- ; abhr̥ta -- ; subhaṭa -- .Addenda: bhr̥ta -- : S.kcch. bhaṛ ʻ brave ʼ; Garh. (Śrīnagrī dial.) bhɔṛ, (Salānī dial.) bhe ʻ warrior ʼ.(CDIAL 9588)

              Hieroglyhph: buffalo: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku -- ?).(CDIAL 10538, 10559) Rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567) తుత్తము [ tuttamu ] or తుత్తరము tuttamu. [Tel.] n. sulphate of zinc. మైలతుత్తము sulphate of copper, blue-stone.తుత్తినాగము [ tuttināgamu ] tutti-nāgamu. [Chinese.] n. Pewter. Zinc. లోహవిశేషము (Telugu) (Spelter is commercial crude smelted zinc.
              • a solder or other alloy in which zinc is the main constituent.)

              Note on spelter: "Spelter, while sometimes used merely as a synonym for zinc, is often used to identify a zinc alloy. In this sense it might be an alloy of equal parts copper and zinc, i.e. a brass, used for hard soldering and brazing, or as an alloy, containinglead, that is used instead of bronze. In this usage it was common for many 19th-century cheap, cast articles such as candlesticks and clock cases...The word "pewter" is thought to be derived from the word "spelter". Zinc ingots formed by smelting might also be termed spelter.Skeat, Walter William (1893), An etymological dictionary of the English language (2nd ed.), Clarendon Press, pp. 438–439. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spelter French Bronze is a form of bronze typically consisting of 91% copper, 2% tin, 6% zinc, and 1% lead.(Ripley, George; Dana, Charles Anderson (1861). The New American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge 3. D. Appleton and Co. p. 729.) "The term French bronze was also used in connection with cheap zinc statuettes and other articles, which were finished to resemble real bronze, and some older texts call the faux-bronze finish itself "French bronze". Its composition was typically 5 parts hematite powder to 8 parts lead oxide, formed into a paste with spirits of wine. Variations in tint could be obtained by varying the proportions. The preparation was applied to the article to be bronzed with a soft brush, then polished with a hard brush after it had dried." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Bronze ( Watt, Alexander (1887). Electro-Metallurgy Practically Treated. D. Van Nostrand. pp. 211–212.)

               "The term latten referred loosely to the copper alloys such as brass or bronze that appeared in the Middle Ages and through to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It was used for monumental brasses, in decorative effects on borders, rivets or other details of metalwork (particularly armour), in livery and pilgrim badges or funerary effigies. Metalworkers commonly formed latten in thin sheets and used it to make church utensils. Brass of this period is made through the calamine brass process, from copper and zinc ore. Later brass was made with zinc metal from Champion's smelting process and is not generally referred to as latten. This calamine brass was generally manufactured as hammered sheet or "battery brass" (hammered by a "battery" of water-powered trip hammers) and cast brass was rare. "Latten" also refers to a type of tin plating on iron (or possibly some other base metal), which is known as white latten; and black latten refers to laten-brass, which is brass milled into thin plates or sheets. The term "latten" has also been used, rarely, to refer to lead alloys. In general, metal in thin sheets is said to be latten such as gold latten; and lattens (plural) refers to metal sheets between 1/64" and 1/32" in thickness." ( Funerary crozier of the Bishops of St Davids, on display at St David's Cathedral, West Wales) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latten

              Cylinder seal impression of Ibni-sharrum, a scribe of Shar-kalisharri ca. 2183–2159 BCE The inscription reads “O divine Shar-kali-sharri, Ibni-sharrum the scribe is your servant.” Cylinder seal. Serpentine/Chlorite. AO 22303 H. 3.9 cm. Dia. 2.6 cm.  

              <lo->(B)  {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''.  See <lo-> `to be left over'.  @B24310.  #20851. Re<lo->(B)  {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''.  See <lo-> `to be left over'. (Munda ) Rebus: loh ‘copper’ (Hindi) Glyph of flowing water in the second register: காண்டம் kāṇṭam , n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர்; kāṇṭam ‘ewer, pot’ கமண்டலம். (Tamil) Thus the combined rebus reading: Ku. lokhaṛ  ʻiron tools ʼ; H. lokhaṇḍ  m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ(CDIAL 11171). The kneeling person’s hairstyle has six curls. bhaṭa ‘six’; rebus: bhaṭa‘furnace’. मेढा mēḍhā A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) Thus, the orthography denotes meḍ bhaṭa ‘iron furnace’.
              Image result for buffalo indus script
              Impression of a steatite stamp seal (2300-1700 BCE) with a water-buffalo and acrobats. Buffalo attack or bull-leaping scene, Banawali (after UMESAO 2000:88, cat. no. 335). A figure is impaled on the horns of the buffalo; a woman acrobat wearing bangles on both arms and a long braid flowing from the head, leaps over the buffalo bull. The action narrative is presented in five frames of the acrobat getting tossed by the horns, jumping and falling down.Two Indus script glyphs are written in front of the buffalo. (ASI BNL 5683).

              Rebus readings of hieroglyphs: ‘1. arrow, 2. jag/notch, 3. buffalo, 4.acrobatics’:


              1.     kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ)

              2.     खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.


              3. rāngo ‘water buffalo bull’ (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 10559) 

              Rebus: rango ‘pewter’. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).  

              4. ḍullu to fall off; ḍollu to roll over (DEDR 2698) Te. ḍul(u)cu, ḍulupu to cause to fall; ḍollu to fall; ḍolligillu to fall or tumble over (DEDR 2988) డొలుచు [ḍolucu] or  ḍoluṭsu. [Tel.] v. n. To tumble head over heels as dancing girls do (Telugu) Rebus 1: dul ‘to cast in a mould’; dul mṛht, dul mee, 'cast iron'; koe mee ‘forged iron’ (Santali) Bshk. ḍōl ʻ brass pot (CDIAL 6583). Rebus 2: WPah. ḍhōˋḷ m. ʻstoneʼ, ḍhòḷṭɔ m. ʻbig stone or boulderʼ, ḍhòḷṭu ʻsmall id.ʼ Him.I 87(CDIAL 5536). Rebus: K. ḍula m. ʻ rolling stoneʼ(CDIAL 6582). 

              Hieroglyph:  धातु [p= 513,3] m. layer , stratum Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. constituent part , ingredient (esp. [ and in RV. only] ifc. , where often = " fold " e.g. त्रि-ध्/आतु , threefold &c ; cf.त्रिविष्टि- , सप्त- , सु-) RV. TS. S3Br. &c (Monier-Williams) dhāˊtu  *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.).; S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773) tántu m. ʻ thread, warp ʼ RV. [√tan] Pa. tantu -- m. ʻ thread, cord ʼ, Pk. taṁtu -- m.; Kho. (Lor.) ton ʻ warp ʼ < *tand (whence tandeni ʻ thread between wings of spinning wheel ʼ); S. tandu f. ʻ gold or silver thread ʼ; L. tand (pl. °dũ) f. ʻ yarn, thread being spun, string of the tongue ʼ; P. tand m. ʻ thread ʼ, tanduā°dūā m. ʻ string of the tongue, frenum of glans penis ʼ; A. tã̄t ʻ warp in the loom, cloth being woven ʼ; B. tã̄t ʻ cord ʼ; M. tã̄tū m. ʻ thread ʼ; Si. tatu°ta ʻ string of a lute ʼ; -- with -- o, -- ā to retain orig. gender: S. tando m. ʻ cord, twine, strand of rope ʼ; N. tã̄do ʻ bowstring ʼ; H. tã̄tā m. ʻ series, line ʼ; G. tã̄tɔ m. ʻ thread ʼ; -- OG. tāṁtaṇaü m. ʻ thread ʼ < *tāṁtaḍaü, G.tã̄tṇɔ m.(CDIAL 5661)

              Rebus: M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; (CDIAL 6773) धातु  primary element of the earth i.e. metal , mineral, ore (esp. a mineral of a red colour) Mn. MBh. &c element of words i.e. grammatical or verbal root or stem Nir. Pra1t. MBh. &c (with the southern Buddhists धातु means either the 6 elements [see above] Dharmas. xxv ; or the 18 elementary spheres [धातु-लोक] ib. lviii ; or the ashes of the body , relics L. [cf. -गर्भ]) (Monier-Williams. Samskritam). 

              Image result for buffalo indus script

              Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku -- ?)(CDIAL 10538) ranku'liquid measure', ranku'antelope' (Santali) rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562)*raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567) ranku'tin' (Santali)

              Cassiterite and quartz crystals
              The world's largest tin belt is in the river basins of Himalayan rivers: Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween.

              Current archaeological debate is concerned with the origins of tin in the earliest Bronze Age cultures of the Near East (Penhallurick 1986Cierny & Weisgerber 2003Dayton 1971Giumlia-Mair 2003Muhly 1979Muhly 1985).

              Map showing the location of known tin deposits exploited during ancient times

              Penhallurick, R.D. (1986), Tin in Antiquity: its Mining and Trade Throughout the Ancient World with Particular Reference to Cornwall, London: The Institute of Metals.
              Cierny, J.; Weisgerber, G. (2003), "The "Bronze Age tin mines in Central Asia", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 23–31.
              Dayton, J.E. (1971), "The problem of tin in the ancient world", World Archaeology3 (1), pp. 49–70.
              Giumlia-Mair, A. (2003), "Iron Age tin in the Oriental Alps", in Giumlia-Mair, A.; Lo Schiavo, F., The Problem of Early Tin, Oxford: Archaeopress, pp. 93–108.
              • Muhly, J.D. (1979), "The evidence for sources of and trade in Bronze Age tin", in Franklin, A.D.; Olin, J.S.; Wertime, T.A., The Search for Ancient Tin, Washington, D.C.: A seminar organized by Theodore A. Wertime and held at the Smithsonian Institution and the National Bureau of Standards, Washington D.C. March 14–15, 1977, pp. 43–48.
              • Muhly, J.D. (1985), "Sources of tin and the beginnings of bronze metallurgy", Journal of American Archaeology89 (2), pp. 275–291.

              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin_sources_and_trade_in_ancient_times

              The validation of the posited hypothesis of an Ancient Tin Route from Hanoi to Haifa comes from the appearance of Indus Script hypertexts on ancient Dong Son/Karen bronze drums:
               

              maraka'peacock' Rebus: marakaka loha 'copper alloy, calcining metal'.
              karibha'elephant' rebus: karba'iron'
              Kur. mūxā frog. Malt. múqe id. / Cf. Skt. mūkaka- id. (DEDR 5023) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' 
              kanku'crane, egret, heron' rebus: kangar 'portable furnace'
              arka'sun' rebus: eraka'moltencast copper', arka'gold'.








              S. Kalyanaraman
              Sarasvati Research Center
              January 22, 2018

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              https://tinyurl.com/y9f9zeu8

              I am thankful to Partha Desikan for the following comment in reference to my note: Ancient Far East sources of tin for Tin-Bronze Revolution of 4th millennium BCE validated by Indus Script hypertexts https://tinyurl.com/y84rmf5m

              "While at the very beginning of Kalidasa's Kumarasambhava, there is a reference to Himalayas becoming the vatsa for the Earth when she was milked by Meru for gems and herbe, the possible earlier reference to the story would seems to occur in Drona parva of book 7 of the Mahabharata. There several deifferent sets of milker and calf are assigned by Prithu to milk the earth. And when it is the turn of the mountains to do the milking," the Eastern hill, whereon the Sun rises, became the calf; the prince of mountains, viz., Meru, became the milker; the diverse gems and deciduous herbs became the milk." This could easily have been the mineral belt which would have included other precious gems and also Cassiterite."

              The textual context of the citation provided by Partha Desikan is as follows in the excerpt from Kisari Mohan Ganguly's translation of the Mahābhārata

              Mahābhārata

              Book 7: Drona Parva 
              Kisari Mohan Ganguli, tr. [1883-1896]
              Abhimanyu-vadha Parva

              SECTION LXIX
              [quote]

              During the time of Prithu, the earth, without being cultivated, yielded crops in sufficiency. All the kine, again, yielded milk whenever they were touched. Every lotus was full of honey. The Kusa blades were all of gold, agreeable to the touch, and otherwise delightful. And the subjects of Prithu made clothes of these blades and the beds also on which they lay. All the fruits were soft and sweet and like unto Amrita (in taste). And these constituted the food of his subjects, none amongst whom had ever to starve. And all men in Prithu's time were hale and hearty. And all their wishes were crowned with fruition. They had nothing to fear. On trees, or in caves, they dwelt as they liked. His dominions were not distributed into provinces and towns. The people lived happily and in joy as each desired. When king Prithu went to the sea, the waves became solid. The very mountains used to yield him openings that he might pass through them. The standard of his car never broke (obstructed by anything). Once on a time, the tall trees of the forest, the mountains, the gods, the Asuras, men, the snakes, the seven Rishis, the Apsaras, and the Pitris, all came to Prithu, seated at his ease, and addressing him, said, 'Thou art our Emperor. Thou art our king. Thou art our protector and Father. Thou art our Lord. Therefore, O great king, give us boons after our own hearts, through which we may, for ever, obtain gratification and joy.' Unto them Prithu, the son of Vena, said, So be it. Then taking up his Ajagava bow (The bow of Siva, otherwise called Pinaka.) and some terrible arrows the like of which existed not, he reflected for a moment. He then addressed the Earth, saying, 'Coming quickly, O Earth! Yield to these the milk they desire. From that, blessed be thou, I will give them the food they solicit.' Thus addressed by him, the Earth said, 'It behoveth thee, O hero, to regard me as thy daughter.' Prithu answered, So be it!--And then that great ascetic, his passions under control, made all arrangements (for milking the Earth. Then the entire assemblage of creatures began to milk the Earth). And first of all, the tall trees of the forest rose for milking her, The Earth then, full of affection, stood there desiring a calf, a milker, and vessels (wherein to hold the milk). Then the blossoming Sala became the calf, the Banian became the milker, torn buds became the milk, and the auspicious fig tree became the vessel. (Next, the mountains milked her). The Eastern hill, whereon the Sun rises, became the calf; the prince of mountains, viz., Meru, became the milker; the diverse gems and deciduous herbs became the milk; and the stones became the vessels (for holding that milk). Next, one of the gods became the milker, and all things capable of bestowing energy and strength became the coveted milk. The Asuras then milked the Earth, having wine for their milk, and using an unbaked pot for their vessel. In that act, Dwimurddhan became the milker, and Virochana, the calf. The human beings milked the Earth for cultivation and crops. The self-created Manu became their calf, and Prithu himself the milker. Next, the Snakes milked the Earth, getting poison as the milk, and using a vessel made of a gourd, Dhritarashtra became the milker, and Takshaka the calf. The seven Rishis, capable of producing everything by their fiat, (Aklishtakarman, literally, one who is never fatigued with work; hence one capable of obtaining the results of action by a mere fiat of the will. It may also mean, of unspotted acts.) then milked the Earth, getting the Vedas as their milk. Vrihaspati became the milker, the Chhandas were the vessel, and the excellent Soma, the calf. The Yakshas, milking the Earth, got the power of disappearance at will as the milk in an unbaked pot. Vaisravana (Kuvera) became their milker, and Vrishadhvaja their calf. The Gandharvas and the Apsaras milked all fragrant perfumes in a vessel made of a lotus-leaf. Chitraratha became their calf, and the puissant Viswaruchi their milker. The Pitris milked the Earth, getting Swaha as their milk in a vessel of silver. Yama, the son of Vivaswat, became their calf, and (the Destroyer Antaka) their milker. Even thus was the Earth milked by that assemblage of creatures who all got for milk what they each desired. The very calves and vessels employed by them are existing to this day and may always be seen. The powerful Prithu, the son of Vena, performing various sacrifices, gratified all creatures in respect of all their desires by gifts of articles agreeable to their hearts. And he caused golden images to be made of every article on earth, and bestowed them all on the Brahmanas as his great Horse-sacrifice, (Parthivasi.e., relating to the earth.) The king caused six and sixty thousand elephants to be made of gold, and all those he gave away unto the Brahmanas. And this whole earth also the king caused to be decked with jewels and gems and gold, and gave her away unto the Brahmanas. When he died, O Srinjaya, who was superior to thee as regards the four cardinal virtues and who, superior to thee, was, therefore, much superior to thy son thou shouldst not, saying 'Oh, Swaitya, Oh, Swaitya,' grieve for the latter who performed no sacrifice and made no sacrificial present.'" [unquote]

              http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m07/m07066.htm

              This excerpt provides a vivid account of the wealth proceeds of  samudramanthanam by asura and deva.

              I agree with Partha Desikan that the references in the Great Epic to the proceedes milked from the Earth byPitr̥-s included many minerals ("jewels and gems and gold...").

              I suggest that the Indus Script hypertexts on over 8000 inscriptions are wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork.
              Image result for spoked wheel indus scriptPlano convex molded tablet showing a female deity battling two tigers and standing above an elephant. A single Indus script depicting a spoked wheel is above the head of the deity. Discovered in Harappa, 1997. https://www.harappa.com/answers/what-current-thinking-female-diety-outstretched-arms-ancient-indus-egyptian-and-mesopotamian

              arā 'spoke of wheel' rebus: āra 'brass' eraka 'knave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast copper', arka 'gold'.

              karibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron'
              Head of woman with one eye who thwarts to rearing jackals (tigers)
              kola 'woman' rebus: kol 'working in iron'
              tau'thwartTa. taṭu (-pp-, -tt-) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist; Ma. taṭa resistance, warding off (as with a shield), what impedes, resists, stays, or stops, a prop; taṭa-kūṭuka to hinder; taṭaṅṅalhindrance, stoppage; taṭaccal impeding, stop, stumbling; taṭayuka to be obstructed, stop between, stop; taṭavu what resists, wards off, a prison; taṭassu obstruction, hindrance; taṭukkuka to stop, hinder; taṭekka to stop; taṭṭuka to ward off, beat off, oppose. Ko. taṛv- (taṛt-) to obstruct, stop; taṛ, taṛv obstruction. To. taṛf- (taṛt-) to delay, prevent, screen; taṛprevention, screen; taḍgïl hindrance, obstruction, delay. Ka. taḍa impeding, check, impediment, obstacle, delay;(DEDR 3031) ḍāṭnā ʻ to threaten, check, plug ʼ (→ P. ḍāṭṇā ʻ to check, cram ʼ(M.);  B. ḍã̄ṭā ʻ to threaten ʼ; Or. ḍāṇṭibā ʻ to check ʼ; H. ḍã̄ṭnā ʻ to threaten, check, plug ʼ (→ N. ḍã̄ṭnu ʻ to threaten ʼ, (Tarai) dã̄ṭnu). (CDIAL 6618) rebus: dhatu'mineral'.
              kāṇa काण 'one-eyed'  RV. x , 155 , 1 AV. xii , 4 , 3 TS. ii , 5 , 1 , 7 Mn. MBh. PLUS  Pa. vaṭṭa -- ʻ round ʼ, n. ʻ circle ʼ; Pk. vaṭṭa -- , vatta -- , vitta -- , vutta -- ʻ round ʼ(CDIAL 12069) rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236) கண்வட்டம் kaṇ-vaṭṭam  Mint; நாணயசாலை. கண்வட்டக்கள்ளன் (ஈடு.)

              Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H. kolhā°lām. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ°lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā°lā m.(CDIAL 3615) rebus: kol 'working in iron'

              dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron', kolle 'blackmith', kolhe 'smelter'.

              Thus, the message of the inscription on this side of the plano convex Harappa tablet is: mint metalcasting work of iron, brass and minerals

              S. Kalyanaraman
              Sarasvati Research Center
              January 22, 2018

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              This is an addendum to Eastern Badia Jordan's black desert stone pillar 7th millennium BCE? compares with Dholavira stone pillars, attest smithy/forge Indus Script hypertexts 

              The Agaria by Verrier ElwinHardcover – 1862


              Russell, R. V., and Hira Lal (1916). "Agaria." InThe Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India,by R. V. Russell and Hira Lal. Vol. 2, 3-8. Nagpur: Government Printing Press. Reprint. 1969. Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications.

              Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Agaria.html#ixzz54z2PzoiV


              Songs and verses are predominantly used by traditional craft-communities to store and perpetuate important social and technological information. These simple and easy-to-memorize songs are often employed as learning tools to teach crucial technical and cultural aspects of the craft to an apprentice. The songs and verses often outlive the craft in the individual or collective memory of the members of the craft-community and provide a critical entry point for the anthropologists attempting to understand the socio-cultural and technical aspects of past craft-production.
              Here I am reproducing two songs related to iron-smelting, that was collected during my research fieldwork with the Asur tribe in Jharkhand.The first one is a hymn or khobra to the Sansi (tongs) and Kutasi (hammer), sung at the beginning of the annual Sansi-Kutasi festival, still observed by the Asurs in March every year. This song depicts the anxieties of the Asur iron-smelters. The second one is a smelting-song. It was one among many songs sung while collecting ores, making charcoal, preparing the furnace or smelting iron. This song, like many other smelting-songs recorded, primarily in Africa, has a theatrical element attached to it. Unlike the previous one, this song cannot just be sung, it needs to be enacted, or physically performed. The songs are originally in Asuri, which is not a written language, and currently endangered. I translated these songs into Hindi with the help of my Asur interlocutors, who all speak the language. The English translation given here, are mine.

              Song 1
              Khobra to SansiKutasi
              I
              O sacred Dhemna (tongs) and Dhemni (hammer)
              See we’ve assembled today to sing thy praise
              II
              O please take good care of us
              So that our bodies are not brunt by the sparks of fire while we work
              III
              And even if the sparks touch our bodies
              Let there be no burns and let there be no pain
              IV
              Today we have thus assembled
              To offer our prayers to Sansi-Kutasi
              Please take care of us [o Sansi-Kutasi]
              V
              Please also see that the chapua [bellows]
              sansi-kutasi-chulha [tongs-hammer-furnace] and hasa [charcoal]
              Produces good iron together
              Song 2
              The Smelting-song
              I
              We’re making hasa [charcoal] on the hills
              We’re burning hasa on the hills
              II
              Hasa ready!
              We make loha [iron] in a kuthi [smelting-house] on the hills
              We forge our tools in the kuthi on the hills
              III
              Lo!
              Take sansi-kutasi in front
              Hang the ghana [sledgehammer] over your shoulder
              Now let’s forge the pal [ploughshare]
              IV
              Come on!
              Hurry up!
              The hasa becomes cold in the forest

              The Agaria*
              BY S. SRIKANTAIYA
              This companion volume to the Baiga on the life, customs, jurisprudence and other aspects of the life of the dwellers of the Maikal Hills and the lonely zamindaries of Bilaspur, whom Mr. Elwin calls ‘The Agaria’, i.e. black-smiths or iron smelters, is a distinctive contribution to Indian, Ethnology–a result of close association, steady perseverance and intimate personal knowledge., Though the several customs and habits of the Agaria are similar to those of the primitive tribes of the neighbourhood, still the Agar