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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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  • 02/23/17--20:59: Sarasvati Script Slides
  • 22 Slides are presented. Some hypothesis are suggested for further researches:

    Sarasvati Script is a continuum of Vedic culture of wealth-creation through yajña
    - Sarasvati Script Corpora constitute Bronze Age metalwork catalogues
    -Maritime Tin Route linking Hanoi and Haifa is posited which precedes the Silk Road by two millennia
    -Angus Maddison has shown that Bhāratamcontributed to 32% of Global GDP in 1 CE. This wealth of a nation should have been preceded by wealth-creation activities of BhāratamJanamfor 7 or 8 earlier millennia BCE.
    -   Impact of domesticated Cotton, rice and millet ca. 7thmillennium BCE in Bhāratam are contributory factors in wealth-creation economic activities, apart from śreṇi‘guild’ institutions evidenced as corporate forms for artha‘wealth-creation’ (consistent with the weltanschauung of dharma, ‘abhyudayam, general welfare through work-activities’.
    Bronze Age revolution occurred when Tin-Bronzes replaced the scarce arsenical bronzes
    The world’s largest source of tin is the Tin Belt of Himalayan River Basins: Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong which ground down granite rocks accumulating placer deposits of cassiterite (Tin ore)
    -Dong Son/Karen Bronze Drums with cireperduetympanums signify metalwork using Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts
    -The possibility of Munda-Austro-Asiatic links evidenced by Bhāratiyasprachbund(including Austro-Asiatic languages) (Sprachbund: language union where languages absorb language features from one another and make them their own)

    - Significance of mlecchitavikalpa(cipher-writing) as an art/science to be learned by youth according to Vidyāsamuddeśaof Vātsyāyana to explain Bhāratiyasprachbund























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    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/jqw4ltk

    Uṣā Usually means physical dawn. Dawning of spiritual knowledge could be considered as Uṣā (spiritual)(Jñānodaya).


    Uṣā is devata in the following Ṛca-s:

    RV 1.30, 1.48, 1.49, 1.92, 1.95 (?), 1.113, 1.123, 1.124,

    RV 3.61, 4.30, 4.51, 4.52, 5.79, 5.80, 6.64, 6.65, 7.41, 7.75 to 7.81, 8.47, 10.172


    RV 1.95 adores auṣas'relating to uṣas. This Rca holds the key linking her to artisanal work.

    Reference to त्वष्टृ’s ten daughters in RV 1.95.2

    The reference occurs in the context of devatāऔषस .

    त्वष्टृ [p= 464,1] m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृ) AV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम्अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुs i , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम्प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस् or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा 

    TBr. S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23 ; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर्आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. )


    RV 1.95.2 recites:

    Who are he ten daughters of त्वष्ट?  An asterism is called tvāṣṭ त्वाष्ट्र ष्ट्री 1 The asterism चित्रा;  rīत्वाष्ट्र a. [त्वष्टा देवताअस्यअण्] Belonging to Tvaṣṭṛi; U.6.3. (v. l.). 

    Derived fr. उषस्, ‘dawn’, औषसी, औषस refer to 1. several सामन्1s and 2. ten daughters of त्वष्टृ [p= 464,1] who is a form of the sun MBh. iii , 146 Hariv. 13143 BhP. iii , 6 , 15.

    त्वष्टृ is surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम्प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii

    Could the expression औषस refer to the generative energy of त्वष्ट and related to uṣas? If so, the reference औषस may explain the ‘dawn’ energy kindling agni to purify somabrought in the chariot by uas.

    त्वष्टृis father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ;

    औषस [p= 240,2] mf()n. (fr. उषस्) , relating to dawn , early , matutinal TBr. Ii; f. daybreak , morning S3Br. Vi; n. N. of several सामन्1s. (matutinal ‘of or occurring in the morning’).

    1.095.01 Two periods, of different complexions, revolve for their own purposes, and each in succession severally nourishes a son; in one, Hari is the receiver of oblations, in the other, the brilliant Agni is beheld. [viru_pe, of various nature; i.e. of various complexions: black and white, night and day. Day is the mother of fire, which is then, as it were, in an embryo state and is not fully manifested or born until it is dark; hence, the sun is in the womb of night, and is born, or shines, in the morning; Hari, or the sun, being manifested in the morning, is then to be worshipped; Agni, shining at night, is to be worshipped in the evening---tasma_ agnaye sa_yamhu_yate su_rya_ya pra_tar (Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a 2.1.2.6); aus.asagun.avis'is.t.o agni, s'uddho agnir va_: Agni endowed with the properties of dawn or the simple, discrete Agni].
    1.095.02 The vigilant and youthful Ten beget, through the wind, this embryo Agni, inherent (in all beings), sharp-visaged, universally renowned, shining among men; him they conduct (to every dwelling). [Ten: the ten regions of space, which generate lightning, as an embryo in the clouds, using the winds: agner hi va_yuh ka_ran.am, va_yor agnih, wind is the cause of fire, fire of wind. Tvas.t.uh = wind or its agency: dipta_nmadhyama_d va_yoh sa_kas.a_t, the brilliant central proximity of wind. Ten: the ten fingers which generate Agni through the act of attrition as an embryo in the sticks. vibhr.tram = deposited in all creatures,i.e. inherent].
    1.095.03 They contemplate three places of his birth; one in the ocean, one in the heaven, one in the firmament; and, dividing the seasons of the year for the benefit of earthly creatures, he formed, in regular succession, the eastern quarter. 
    1.095.04 Which of you discerns the hidden Agni? a son, he begets his mothers by oblations; the germ of many (waters), he issues from the ocean, mighty and wise, the recipient of oblations. [hidden agni: latent heat in the waters, in the woods and in all fixed and moveable things; he begets his mothers: Agni, as lightning is the son of the waters collected in the clouds; he generates those waters by the oblations which he conveys; he issues from the ocean: upastha_t (smudra_t) nirgacchati, Agni is thought to rise in the morning in the shape of the sun from out of the ocean].
    1.095.05 Appearing amongst them (the waters), the bright-shining (Agni) increases, rising above the flanks of the waving waters, spreading his own renown; both (heaven and earth) are alarmed, as the radiant Agni is born, and, approaching the lion, they pay him honour. [above the flanks of the waving waters: jihma_na_m apa_m upasthe, above, on the side, or tip, of the crooked waters; reference to Agni as the lightning; approaching the lion: sim.ha applied to Agni, implying sahanas'i_lam, abhibha_vana s'i_lam, ability to suffer or be overcome].
    1.095.06 Both the auspicious ones (day and night or two pieces of wood rubbed together to produce flame) wait upon him like two female attendants, as lowing kine (follow their calves) by the paths (that they have gone); he has been the lord of might among the mighty, whom (the priests) on the right (of the altar) anoint.
    1.095.07 Like the sun, he stretches forth his arms, and the formidable Agni, decorating both heaven and earth (with brightness), labours (in his duties); he draws up from everything the essential (moisture), and clothes (the earth) with new vestments (derived) from his maternal (rains).
    1.095.08 Associated in the firmament with the moving waters, he assumes an excellent and lustrous form, and the wise sustainer (of all things) sweeps over the source (of the rains with his radiance), whence a concentration of light is spread abroad by the sportive deity. [budhna = antariks.a or firmament, as the source of the rains].
    1.095.09 The vast and victorious radiance of you, the mighty one, pervades the firmament; Agni, who have been kindled by us, preserve us with all your undiminished and protecting glories.
    1.095.10 He causes the waters to flow in a torrent through the sky, and with those pure waves he inundates the earth; he gathers all (articles of) food in the stomach, and for that purpose sojourns in the new-sprung parents (of the gain). [navasu prasus.u = in the new parents, or mothers; i.e. in the os.adhis, the annual crops which ripen after the rains and bear food, being impregnated by the terrestrial Agni].
    1.095.11 Agni, who are the purifier, growing with the fuel we have supplied, blaze for the sake of (securing) food to us, who are possessed of wealth; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve it to us.

    Griffith: HYMN XCV. Agni 95


    1. To fair goals travel Two unlike in semblance: each in succession nourishes an infant.
    One bears a Godlike Babe of golden colour; bright and fairshining-, is he with the other.
    2 Tvastars' ten daughters, vigilant and youthful, produced this Infant borne to sundry quarters.
    They bear around him whose long flames are pointed, fulgent among mankind with native splendour.
    3. Three several places of his birth they honour, in midair-, in the heaven, and in the waters.
    Governing in the east of earthly regions, the seasons hath he stablished in their order.
    4 Who of you knows this secret One? The Infant by his own nature hath brought forth his Mothers.
    The germ of many, from the waters' bosom he goes forth, wise and great, of Godlike nature.
    5 Visible, fair, he grows in native brightness uplifted in the lap of waving waters.
    When he was born both Tvastars' worlds were frightened: they turn to him and reverence the Lion.
    6 The Two auspicious Ones, like women, tend him: like lowing cows they seek him in their manner.
    He is the Lord of Might among the mighty; him, on the right, they balm with their oblations.
    7 Like Savitar his arms with might he stretches; awful, he strives grasping the worlds' two
    borders.
    He forces out from all a brilliant vesture, yea, from his Mothers draws forth new raiment.
    8 He makes him a most noble form of splendour, decking him in his home with milk and waters.
    The Sage adorns the depths of air with wisdom: this is the meeting where the Gods are worshipped.
    9 Wide through the firmament spreads forth triumphant the far resplendent- strength of thee the
    Mighty.
    Kindled by us do thou preserve us, Agni, with all thy selfbright- undiminished succours.
    10 In dry spots he makes stream, and course, and torrent, and inundates the earth with floods that glisten.
    All ancient things within his maw he gathers, and moves among the new fresh sprouting- grasses.
    11 Fed with our fuel, purifying Agni, so blaze to us auspiciously for glory.
    This prayer of ours may Varuna grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.




    Four Rcas of Āngīrasa are succinct and precise statements on Uṣas: RV 10.172

    RV 1.30:

    20 What mortal, O immortal Dawn, enjoyeth thee? Where lovest thou?
    To whom, O radiant, dost thou go?
    21 For we have had thee in our thoughts whether anear or far away,
    Redhued- and like a dappled mare.
    22 Hither, O 
    Daughter of the Sky, come thou with these thy strengthenings,
    And send thou riches down to us.

    RV 1.48

    HYMN XLVIII. Dawn. 48


    1 DAWN on us with prosperity, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
    Dawn with great glory, Goddess, Lady of the Light, dawn thou with riches, Bounteous One.
    2 They, bringing steeds and kine, boongivers- of all wealth, have oft sped forth to lighten us.
    O Usas, waken up for me the sounds of joy: send us the riches of the great.
    3 Usas hath dawned, and now shall dawn, the Goddess, driver forth of cars
    Which, as she cometh nigh, have fixed their thought on her, like gloryseekers- on the flood.
    4 Here Kanva, chief of Kanvas' race, sings forth aloud the glories of the heroes' names,
    The. princes who, O Usas, as thou comest near, direct their thoughts to liberal gifts.
    5 Like a good matron Usas comes carefully tending everything:
    Rousing all life she stirs all creatures that have feet, and makes the birds of air fly up.
    6 She sends the busy forth, each man to his pursuit: delay she knows not as she springs.
    O rich in opulence, after thy dawning birds that have flown forth no longer rest.
    7 This Dawn hath yoked her steeds afar, beyond the rising of the Sun:
    Borne on a hundred chariots she, auspicious Dawn, advances on her way to Men.
    8 To meet her glance all living creatures bend them down: Excellent One, she makes the light.
    Usas, the Daughter of the Sky, the opulent, shines foes and enmities away.
    9 Shine on us with thy radiant light, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
    Bringing to us great store of high felicity, and beaming on our solemn rites.
    10 For in thee is each living creatures' breath and life, when, Excellent! thou dawnest forth.
    Borne on thy lofty car, O Lady of the Light, hear, thou of wondrous wealth, our call.
    11 O Usas, win thyself the strength which among men is wonderful.
    Bring thou thereby the pious unto holy rites, those who as priests sing praise to thee.
    12 Bring from the firmament, O Usas, all the Gods, that they may drink our Soma juice,
    And, being what thou art, vouchsafe us kine and steeds, strength meet for praise and hero might.
    13 May Usas whose auspicious rays are seen resplendent round about,
    Grant us great riches, fair in form, of all good things, wealth which light labour may attain.
    14 Mighty One, whom the Rsis of old time invoked for their protection and their help,
    O Usas, graciously answer our songs of praise with bounty and with brilliant light.
    15 Usas, as thou with light to day hast opened the twin doors of heaven,
    So grant thou us a dwelling wide and free from foes. O Goddess, give us food with kine.
    16 Bring us to wealth abundant, sent in every shape, to plentiful refreshing food,
    To allsubduing- splendour, Usas, Mighty One, to strength, thou rich in spoil and wealth.


    RV 1.49


    HYMN XLIX. Dawn. 49


    1 EEN' from above the skys' bright realm come, Usas, by auspicious ways:
    Let red steeds bear thee to the house of him who pours the Soma, juice.
    2 The chariot which thou mountest, fair of shape, O Usas light to move,
    Therewith, O Daughter of the Sky, aid men of noble fame today.
    3 Bright Usas, when thy times return, all quadrupeds and bipeds stir,
    And round about flock winged birds from all the boundaries of heaven.
    4 Thou dawning with thy beams of light illumest all the radiant realm.
    Thee, as thou art, the Kanvas, fain for wealth, have called with sacred songs.


    RV 1.92


    HYMN XCII. Dawn. 92


    1.    THESE Dawns have raised their banner; in the eastern half of the midair- they spread abroad
    their shining light.
    Like heroes who prepare their weapons for the war, onward they come bright red in hue, the Mother
    Cows.
    2 Readily have the purple beams of light shot up; the Red Cows have they harnessed, easy to be
    yoked.
    The Dawns have brought distinct perception as before: redhued-, they have attained their fulgent
    brilliancy.
    3 They sing their song like women active in their tasks, along their common path hither from far
    away,
    Bringing refreshment to the liberal devotee, yea, all things to the worshipper who pours the juice.
    4 She, like a dancer, puts her broidered garments on: as a cow yields her udder so she bares her
    breast.
    Creating light for all the world of life, the Dawn hath laid the darkness open as the cows their
    stall.
    5 We have beheld the brightness of her shining; it spreads and drives away the darksome monster.
    Like tints that deck the Post at sacrifices, Heavens' Daughter hath attained her wondrous
    splendour.
    6 We have overpast the limit of this darkness; Dawn breaking forth again brings clear perception.
    She like a flatterer smiles in light for glory, and fair of face hath wakened to rejoice us.
    7 The Gotamas have praised Heavens' radiant Daughter, the leader of the charm of pleasant voices.
    Dawn, thou conferrest on us strength with offspring and men, conspicuous with kine and horses.
    8 O thou who shinest forth in wondrous glory, urged onward by thy strength, auspicious Lady,
    Dawn, may I gain that wealth, renowned and ample, in brave sons, troops of slaves, farfamed- for
    horses.
    9 Bending her looks on all the world, the Goddess shines, widely spreading with her bright eye
    westward.
    Waking to motion every living creature, she understands the voice of each adorer.
    10 Ancient of days, again again born newly, decking her beauty with the selfsame- raiment.
    The Goddess wastes away the life of mortals, like a skilled hunter cutting birds in pieces.
    11 She hath appeared discovering heavens' borders: to the far distance she drives off her Sister.
    Diminishing the days of human creatures, the Lady shines with all her lovers' splendour.
    12 The bright, the blessed One shines forth extending her rays like kine, as a flood rolls his
    waters.
    Never transgressing the divine commandments, she is beheld visible with the sunbeams.
    13 O Dawn enriched with ample wealth, bestow on us the wondrous gift
    Wherewith we may support children and childrens' sons.
    14 Thou radiant mover of sweet sounds, with wealth of horses and of kine
    Shine thou on us this day, O Dawn auspiciously.
    15 O Dawn enriched with holy rites, yoke to thy car thy purple steeds,
    And then bring thou unto us all felicities.
    16 O Asvins wonderful in act, do ye unanimous direct
    Your chariot to our home wealthy in kine and gold.
    17 Ye who brought down the hymn from heaven, a light that giveth light to man,
    Do ye, O Asvins, bring strength hither unto us.
    18 Hither may they who wake at dawn bring, to drink Soma both the Gods
    Healthgivers- WonderWorkers-, borne on paths of gold.

    RV 1.113

    HYMN CXIII. Dawn. 113


    1. This light is come, amid all lights the fairest; born is the brilliant, farextending-
    brightness.
    Night, sent away for Savitars' uprising, hath yielded up a birthplace- for the Morning.
    2 The Fair, the Bright is come with her white offspring; to her the Dark One hath resigned her
    dwelling.
    Akin, immortal, following each other, changing their colours both the heavens move onward.
    3 Common, unending is the Sisters' pathway; taught by the Gods, alternately they travel.
    Fairformed-, of different hues and yet oneminded-, Night and Dawn clash not, neither do they
    travel.
    4 Bright leader of glad sounds, our eyes behold her; splendid in hue she hath unclosed the portals.
    She, stirring up the world, hath shown us riches: Dawn hath awakened every living creature.
    5 Rich Dawn, she sets afoot the coiledup- sleeper, one for enjoyment, one for wealth or worship,
    Those who saw little for extended vision. All living creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
    6 One to high sway, one to exalted glory, one to pursue his gain, and one his labour:
    All to regard their different vocations, all moving creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
    7 We see her there, the Child of Heaven apparent, the young Maid, flushing in her shining raiment.
    Thou sovran Lady of all earthly treasure, flush on us here, auspicious Dawn, this morning.
    8 She first of endless morns to come hereafter, follows the path of morns that have departed.
    Dawn, at her rising, urges forth the living him who is dead she wakes not from his slumber.
    9 As thou, Dawn, hast caused Agni to be kindled, and with the Suns' eye hast revealed creation.
    And hast awakened men to offer worship, thou hast performed, for Gods, a noble service.
    10 How long a time, and they shall be together, Dawns that have shone and Dawns to shine hereafter?
    She yearns for former Dawns with eager longing, and goes forth gladly shining with the others.
    11 Gone are the men who in the days before us looked on the rising of the earlier Morning.
    We, we the living, now behold her brightness and they come nigh who shall hereafter see her.
    12 Foechaser-, born of Law, the Laws' protectress, joygiver-, waker of all pleasant voices,
    Auspicious, bringing food for Gods enjoyment, shine on us here, most bright, O Dawn, this morning.
    13 From days eternal hath Dawn shone, the Goddess, and shows this light today-, endowed with
    riches.
    So will she shine on days to come immortal she moves on in her own strength, undecaying.
    14 In the skys' borders hath she shone in splendour: the Goddess hath thrown off the veil of
    darkness.
    Awakening the world with purple horses, on her wellharnessed- chariot Dawn approaches.
    15 Bringing all lifesustaining- blessings with her, showing herself she sends forth brilliant
    lustre.
    Last of the countless mornings that have vanished, first of bright morns to come hath Dawn arisen.
    16 Arise! the breath, the life, again hath reached us: darkness hath passed away and light
    approacheth.
    She for the Sun hath left a path to travel we have arrived where men prolong existence.
    17 Singing the praises of refulgent Mornings with his hymns' web the priest, the poet rises.
    Shine then today-, rich Maid, on him who lauds thee, shine down on us the gift of life and
    offspring.
    18 Dawns giving sons all heroes, kine and horses, shining upon the man who brings oblations,
    These let the Somapresser- gain when ending his glad songs louder than the voice of Vayu.
    19 Mother of Gods, Aditis' form of glory, ensign of sacrifice, shine forth exalted.
    Rise up, bestowing praise on our devotion allbounteous-, make us chief among the people.
    20 Whatever splendid wealth the Dawns bring with them to bless the man who offers praise and
    worship,
    Even that may Mitra, Varuna vouchsafe us, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.


    RV 1.123


    HYMN CXXIII. Dawn. 123


    1.    THE Daksinas' broad chariot hath been harnessed: this car the Gods Immortal have ascended.
    Fain to bring light to homes of men the noble and active Goddess hath emerged from darkness.
    2 She before all the living world hath wakened, the Lofty One who wins and gathers treasure.
    Revived and ever young on high she glances. Dawn hath come first unto our morning worship.
    3 If, Dawn, thou Goddess nobly born, thou dealest fortune this day to all the race of mortals,
    May Savitar the God, Friend of the homestead, declare before the Sun that we are sinless.
    4 Showing her wonted form each day that passeth, spreading the light she visiteth each dwelling.
    Eager for conquest, with bright sheen she cometh. Her portion is the best of goodly treasures.
    5 Sister of Varuna, sister of Bhaga, first among all sing forth, O joyous Morning.
    Weak be the strength of him who worketh evil: may we subdue him with our car the guerdon.
    6 Let our glad hymns and holy thoughts rise upward, for the flames brightly burning have ascended.
    The farrefulgent- Mornings make apparent the lovely treasures which the darkness covered.
    7 The one departeth and the other cometh: unlike in hue days', halves march on successive.
    One hides the gloom of the surrounding Parents. Dawn on her shining chariot is resplendent.
    8 The same in form today-, the same tomorrow, they still keep Varunas' eternal statute.
    Blameless, in turn they traverse thirty regions, and dart across the spirit in a moment.
    9 She who hath knowledge Of the first days' nature is born refulgent white from out the darkness.
    The Maiden breaketh not the law of Order, day by day coming to the place appointed.
    10 In pride of beauty like a maid thou goest, O Goddess, to the God who longs to win thee,
    And smiling youthful, as thou shinest brightly, before him thou discoverest thy bosom.
    11 Fair as a bride embellished by her mother thou showest forth thy form that all may see it.
    Blessed art thou O Dawn. Shine yet more widely. No other Dawns have reached what thou attainest.
    12 Rich in kine, horses, and all goodly treasures, in constant operation with the sunbeams,
    The Dawns depart and come again assuming their wonted forms that promise happy fortune.
    13 Obedient to the rein of Law Eternal give us each thought that more and more shall bless us.
    Shine thou on us today-, Dawn, swift to listen. With us be riches and with chiefs who worship.

    RV 1.124


    HYMN CXXIV. Dawn. 124


    1.    THE Dawn refulgent when the fire is kindled, and the Sun rising, far diffuse their brightness.
    Savitar, God, hath sent us forth to labour, each quadruped, each biped, to be active.
    2 Not interrupting heavenly ordinances, although she minisheth human generations.
    The last of endless morns that have departed, the first of those that come, Dawn brightly shineth.
    3 There in the eastern region she, Heavens' Daughter, arrayed in garments all of light, appeareth.
    Truly she followeth the path of Order, nor faileth, knowing well, the heavenly quarters.
    4 Near is she seen, as it were the Bright Ones' bosom: she showeth sweet things like a new
    songsinger-.
    She cometh like a fly awaking sleepers, of all returning dames most true and constant.
    5 There in the east half of the watery region the Mother of the Cows hath shown her ensign.
    Wider and wider still she spreadeth onward, and filleth full the laps of both heir Parents.
    6 She, verily, exceeding vast to look on debarreth from her light nor kin nor stranger.
    Proud of her spotless form she, brightly shining, turneth not from the high nor from the humble.
    7 She seeketh men, as she who hath no brother, mounting her car, as it were to gather riches.
    Dawn, like a loving matron for her husband, smiling and well attired, unmasks her beauty.
    8 The Sister quitteth, for the elder Sister, her place, and having looked on her departeth.
    She decks her beauty, shining forth with sunbeams, like women trooping to the festal meeting.
    9 To all these Sisters who ere now have vanished a later one each day in course succeedeth.
    So, like the past, with days of happy fortune, may the new Dawns shine forth on us with riches.
    10 Rouse up, O Wealthy One, the liberal givers; let niggard traffickers sleep on unwakened:
    Shine richly, Wealthy One, on those who worship, richly, glad.
    Dawn while wasting, on the singer.
    11 This young Maid from the east hath shone upon us; she harnesseth her team of bright red oxen.
    She will beam forth, the light will hasten hither, and Agni will be present in each dwelling.
    12 As the birds fly forth from their resting places, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
    Yea, to the liberal mortal who remaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.
    13 Praised through my prayer be ye who should be lauded. Ye have increased our wealth, ye Dawns
    who love us.
    Goddesses, may we win by your good favour wealth to be told by hundreds and by thousands.

    RV 3.61


    HYMN LXI. Usas. 61


    1. O Usas, strong with strength, endowed witli knowledge, accept the singers' praise, O wealthy
    Lady.
    Thou, Goddess, ancient, young, and full of wisdom, movest, allbounteous-! as the Law ordaineth.
    2 Shine forth, O Morning, thou auspicious Goddess, on thy bright car awaking pleasant voices.
    Let docile horses of farreaching- splendour convey thee hitherward, the goldencoloured.
    3 Thou, Morning, turning thee to every creature, standest on high as ensign of the Immortal,
    To one same goal ever and ever wending now, like a wheel, O newlyborn-, roll hi ther.
    4 Letting her reins drop downward, Morning cometh, the wealthy Dame, the Lady of the dwelling;
    Bringing forth light, the Wonderful, the Blessed hath spread her from the bounds of earth and
    heaven.
    5 Hither invoke the radiant Goddess Morning, and bring with reverence your hymn to praise her.
    She, dropping sweets, hath set in heaven her brightness, and, fair to look on, hath beamed forth
    her splendour.
    6 From heaven, with hymns, the Holy One was wakened: brightly to both worlds came the wealthy Lady.
    To Morning, Agni, when she comes refulgent, thou goest forth soliciting fair riches.
    7 On Laws' firm base the speeder of the Mornings, the Bull, hath entered mighty earth and heaven.
    Great is the power of Varuna and Mitra, which, bright, hath spread in every place its splendour.


    RV 4.30


    8 And this heroic deed of might thou, Indra, also hast achieved,
    That thou didst smite to death the Dame, Heavens' Daughter, meditating ill.
    9 Thou, Indra, Mighty One, didst crush Usas, though Daughter of the Sky.
    When lifting up herself in pride.
    10 Then from her chariot Usas fled, affrighted, from her ruined car.
    When the strong God had shattered it.
    11 So there this car of Usas lay, broken to pieces, in Vipas,
    And she herself fled far away.


    RV 4.51, 4.52


    HYMN LI. Dawn. 51


    1. FORTH from the darkness in the region eastward this most abundant splendid light hatb mounted.
    Now verily the farrefulgent- Mornings, Daughters of Heaven, bring welfare to the people.
    2 The richlycoloured- Dawns have mounted eastward, like pillars planted at our sacrifices,
    And, flushing far, splendid and purifying, unbarred the portals of the fold of darkness.
    3 Dispelling gloom this day the wealthy Mornings urge liberal givers to present their treasures.
    In the unlightened depth of darkness round them let niggard traffickers sleep unawakened.
    4 O Goddesses, is this your car, I ask you, ancient this day, or is it new, ye Mornings,
    Wherewith, rich Dawns, ye seek with wealth Navagva, Dasagva Angira, the seventoned- singer?
    5 With horses harnessed by eternal Order, Goddesses, swiftly round the worlds ye travel,
    Arousing from their rest, O Dawns, the sleeping, and all that lives, man, bird, and beast, to
    motion.
    6 Which among these is eldest, and where is she through whom they fixed the Rbhus' regulations?
    What time the splendid Dawns go forth for splendour, they are not known apart, alike, unwasting.
    7 Blest were these Dawns of old, shining with succour, true with the truth that springs from holy
    Order;
    With whom the toiling worshipper, by praises, hymning and lauding, soon attained to riches.
    8 Hither from eastward all at once they travel, from one place spreading in the selfsame manner.
    Awaking, from the seat of holy Order the Godlike Dawns come nigh like troops of cattle.
    9 Thus they go forth with undiminished colours, these Mornings similar, in selfsame- fashion,
    Concealing the gigantic might of darkness with radiant bodies bright and pure and shining.
    10 O Goddesses, O Heavens' refulgent Daughters, bestow upon us wealth with store of children.
    As from our pleasant place of rest ye rouse us may we be masters of heroic vigour.
    11 Wellskilled- in lore of sacrifice, ye Daughters of Heaven, refulgent Dawns, I thus address you.
    May we be glorious among the people. May Heaven vouchsafe us this, and Earth the Goddess,


    HYMN LII. Dawn. 52


    1. THIS Lady, giver of delight, after her Sister shining forth, Daughter of Heaven, hath shown
    herself.-
    2 Unfailing, Mother of the Kine, in colour like a bright red mare,
    The Dawn became the Asvins' Friend.
    3 Yea, and thou art the Asvins' Friend, the Mother of the Kine art thou:
    O Dawn thou rulest over wealth.
    4 Thinking of thee, O joyous One, as her who driveth hate away,
    We woke to meet thee with our lauds.
    5 Our eyes behold thy blessed rays like troops of cattle loosed to feed.
    Dawn hath filled full the wide expanse.
    6 When thou hast filled it, Fulgent One! thou layest bare the gloom with light.
    After thy nature aid us, Dawn.
    7 Thou overspreadest heaven with rays, the dear wide region of midair-.
    With thy bright shining lustre, Dawn.


    RV 5.79


    HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79


    1. O HEAVENLY Dawn, awaken us to ample opulence today-
    Even as thou hast wakened us with Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy steeds!
    2 Daughter of Heaven, thou dawnedst on Sunitha Sucadrathas' son,
    So dawn thou on one mightier still, on Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    3 So, bringing treasure, dawn today- on us thou Daughter of the Sky,
    As thou, O mightier yet. didst shine for Satyatravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    4 Here round about thee are the priests who laud thee, Bright One, with their hymns,
    And men with gifts, O Bounteous Dame, splendid with wealth and offering much, highborn-!
    delightful with thy steeds!
    5 Whatever these thy bands perform to please thee or to win them wealth,
    even fain they gird us round and give rich gifts which Never are reft away, highborn-! delightful
    with thy steeds!
    6 Give to these wealthy patrons fame, O affluent Dawn, with hero sons,
    To these our princes who have brought rich gifts Never to be reft away, highborn! delightful with
    thy steeds!
    7 Bring lofty and resplendent fame, O thou munificent Dawn, to these
    Our wealthy patrons who bestow rich gifts on us of steeds and kine, highborn-! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    8 Bring us, O Daughter of the Sky, subsistence in our herds of kine,
    Together with the sunbeams, with the shine of pure refulgent flames, highborn! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    9 O Daughter of the Sky, shine forth; delay not to perform thy task.
    Let not the Sun with fervent heat consume thee like a robber foe, highborn-! delightful with the
    steeds!
    10 So much, and more exceedingly, O Dawn, it suits thee to bestow,
    Thou Radiant One who ceasest not to shine for those who sing thy praise, highborn! delightful with
    thy steeds!


    RV 5.80


    HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80


    1. THE singers welcome with their hymns and praises the Goddess Dawn who bringeth in the sunlight,
    Sublime, by Law true to eternal Order, bright on her path, redtinted-, farrefulgent-.
    2 She comes in front, fair, rousing up the people, making the pathways easy to be travelled.
    High, on her lofty chariot, allimpelling-, Dawn gives her splendour at the days' beginning.
    3 She, harnessing her car with purple oxen. injuring none, hath brought perpetual riches.
    Opening paths to happiness, the Goddess shines, praised by all, giver of every blessing.
    4 With changing tints she gleams in double splendour while from the eastward she displays her body.
    She travels perfectly the path of Order, nor fails to reach, as one who knows, the quarters.
    5 As conscious that her limbs are bright with bathing, she stands, as it were, erect that we may
    see her.
    Driving away malignity and darkness, Dawn, Child of Heaven, hath come to us with lustre.
    6 The Daughter of the Sky, like some chaste woman, bends, opposite to men, her forehead downward.
    The Maid, disclosing boons to him who worships, hath brought again the daylight as aforetime.


    RV 6.64, RV 6.65


    HYMN LXIV. Dawn. 64


    1. THE radiant Dawns have risen up for glory, in their white splendour like the waves of waters.
    She maketh paths all easy, fair to travel, and, rich, hath shown herself benign and friendly.
    2 We see that thou art good: far shines thy lustre; thy beams, thy splendours have flown up to
    heaven.
    Decking thyself, thou makest bare thy bosom, shining in majesty, thou Goddess Morning.
    3 Red are the kine and luminous that bear her the Blessed One who spreadeth through the distance.
    The foes she chaseth like a valiant archer, like a swift warrior she repelleth darkness.
    4 Thy ways are easy on the hills: thou passest Invincible! Se1fluminous-! through waters.
    So lofty Goddess with thine ample pathway, Daughter of Heaven, bring wealth to give us comfort.
    5 Dawn, bring me wealth: untroubled, with thine oxen thou bearest riches at thy will and pleasure;
    Thou who, a Goddess, Child of Heaven, hast shown thee lovely through bounty when we called thee
    early.
    6 As the birds fly forth from their restingplaces, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
    Yea, to the liberal mortal who rernaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.


    HYMN LXV. Dawn. 65


    1.    SHEDDING her light on human habitations this Child of Heaven hath called us from our slumber;
    She who at nighttime- with her argent lustre hath shown herself even through the shades of
    darkness.
    2 All this with redrayed- steeds have they divided: the Dawns on bright cars shine in wondrous
    fashion.
    They, bringing near the stately rites' commencement, drive far away the nights' surrounding
    shadows.
    3 Dawns, bringing hither, to the man who worships, glory and power and might and food and vigour,
    Opulent, with imperial sway like heroes, favour your servant and this day enrich him.
    4 Now is there treasure for the man who serves you, now for the hero, Dawns! who brings oblation;
    Now for the singer when he sings the praisesong-. Even to one like me ye brought aforetime.
    5 O Dawn who standest on the mountain ridges, Angirases now praise thy stalls of cattle.
    With prayer and holy hymn they burst them open: the heroes' calling on the Gods was fruitful.
    6 Shine on us as of old, thou Child of Heaven on, him, rich Maid! who serves like Bharadvaja.
    Give to the singer wealth with noble heroes, and upon us bestow widespreading- glory.

    RV 7.41


    HYMN XLI. Bhaga. 41


    6 To this our worship may all Dawns incline them, and come to the pure place like Dadhikravan.
    As strong steeds draw a chariot may they bring us hitherward Bhaga who discovers treasure.
    7 May blessed Mornings dawn on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
    Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    RV 7.75 to RV 7.81


    HYMN LXXV. Dawn. 75


    1. BORN in the heavens the Dawn hath flushed, and showing her majesty is come as Law ordaineth.
    She hath uncovered fiends and hateful darkness; best of Angirases, hath waked the pathways.
    2 Rouse us this day to high and happy fortune: to great felicity, O Dawn, promote us.
    Vouchsafe us manifold and splendid riches, famed among mortals, manbefriending- Goddess!
    3 See, lovely Mornings' everlasting splendours, bright with their varied colours, have approached
    us.
    Filling the region of midair-, producing the rites of holy worship, they have mounted.
    4 She yokes her chariot far away, and swiftly visits the lands where the Five Tribes are settled,
    Looking upon the works and ways of mortals, Daughter of Heaven, the worlds' Imperial Lady.
    5 She who is rich in spoil, the Spouse of Surya, wondrously opulent, rules all wealth and
    treasures.
    Consumer of our youth, the seers extol her: lauded by priests rich Dawn shines out refulgent.
    6 Apparent are the steeds of varied colour, the red steeds carrying resplendent Morning.
    On her alllovely- car she comes, the Fair One, and brings rich treasure for her faithful servant.
    7 True with the True and Mighty with the Mighty, with Gods a Goddess, Holy with the Holy,
    She brake strong fences down and gave the cattle: the kine were lowing as they greeted Morning.
    8 O Dawn, now give us wealth in kine and heroes, and horses, fraught with manifold enjoyment.
    Protect our sacred grass from mans' reproaches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXVI. Dawn. 76


    1. SAVITAR God of all men hath sent upward his light, designed for all mankind, immortal.
    Through the Gods power that Eye was first created. Dawn hath made all the universe apparent.
    2 I see the paths which Gods are wont to travel, innocuous paths made ready by the Vasus.
    Eastward the flag of Dawn hath been uplifted; she hath come hither over the tops of houses.
    3 Great is, in truth, the number of the Mornings which were aforetime at the Suns' uprising.
    Since thou, O Dawn, hast been beheld repairing as to thy love, as one no more to leave him.
    4 They were the Gods companions at the banquet, the ancient sages true to Law Eternal.
    The Fathers found the light that lay in darkness, and with effectual words begat the Morning.
    5 Meeting together in the same enclosure, they strive not, ofone mind, one with another.
    They never break the Gods eternal statutes, and injure none, in rivalry with Vasus.
    6 Extolling thee, Blest Goddess, the Vasisthas, awake at early mom, with lauds implore thee.
    Leader of kine and Queen of all that strengthens, shine, come as first to us, O highborn- Morning.
    7 She bringeth bounty and sweet charm of voices. The flushing Dawn is sung by the Vasisthas,
    Giving us riches famed to distant places. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXVIT. Dawn. 77


    1. SHE hath shone brightly like a youthful woman, stirring to motion every living creature.
    Agni hath come to feed on mortal? fuel. She hath made light and chased away the darkness.
    2 Turned to this All, farspreading-, she hath risen and shone in brightness with white robes about
    her.
    She hath beamed forth lovely with golden colours, Mother of kine, Guide of the days she bringeth.
    3 Bearing the Gods own Eye, auspicious Lady, leading her Courser white and fair to look on,
    Distinguished by her beanis- Dawn shines apparent, come forth to all the world with wondrous
    treasure.
    4 Draw nigh with wealth and dawn away the foeman: prepare for us wide pasture free from danger.
    Drive away those who hate us, bring us riches: pour bounty, opulent Lady, on the singer.
    5 Send thy most excellent beams to shine and light us, giving us lengthened days, O Dawn, O
    Goddess,
    Granting us food, thou who hast all things precious, and bounty rich in chariots, kine, and horses.
    6 O Usas, noblyborn-, Daughter of Heaven, whom the Vasisthas with their hymns make mighty,
    Bestow thou on us vast and glorious riches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXVIII. Dawn. 78


    1. WE have beheld her earliest lights approaching: her many glories part, on high, asunder.
    On car sublime, refulgent, wending hither, O Usas, bring the Wealth that makes us happy.
    2 The fire wellkindIed- sings aloud to greet her, and with their hymns the priests are chaming
    welcome.
    Usas approaches in her splendour, driving all evil darkness far away, the Goddess.
    3 Apparent eastward are those lights of Morning, sending out lustre, as they rise, around them.
    She hath brought forth Sun, sacrifice, and Agni, and far away hath fled detested darkness.
    4 Rich Daughter of the Sky, we all behold her, yea, all men look on Dawn as she is breaking.
    fler car that moves selfharnessed- hath she mounted, the car drawn onward by her wellyoked- horses.
    5 Inspired with loving thoughts this day to greet thee, we and our wealthy nobles have awakened.
    Show yourselves fruitful, Dawns, as ye are rising. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79


    1. ROUSING the lands where mens' Five Tribes are settled, Dawn hath disclosed the pathways of the
    people.
    She hath sent out her sheen with beauteous oxen. The Sun with light hath opened earth and heaven.
    2 They paint their bright rays on the skys' far limits. the Dawns come on like tribes arrayed for
    battle.
    Thy cattle, closely shutting up the darkness, as Savitar spreads his arms, give forth their lustre.
    3 Wealthy, most like to Indra, Dawn hath risen, and brought forth lauds that shall promote our
    welfare.
    Daughter of Heaven, a Goddess, she distributes, best of Angirases, treasures to the pious.
    4 Bestow on us, O Dawn, that ample bounty which thou didst send to those who sang thy praises;
    Thou whom with bellowings of a bull they quickened: thou didst unbar the firmset- mountains'
    portals.
    5 Impelling every God to grant his bounty sending to us the charm of pleasant voices,
    Vouchsafe us thoughts, for profit, as thou breakest. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80


    1 THE priests, Vasisthas, are the first awakened to welcome Usas with their songs and praises,
    Who makes surrounding regions part asunder and, shows apparent all existing creatures.
    2 Giving fresh life when she hath hid the darkness, this Dawn hath wakened there with newborn-
    lustre.
    Youthful and unrestrained she cometh forward: she hath turned thoughts to Sun and fire and worship.
    3 May blessed Mornings shine on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
    Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXXI. Dawn. 81


    1.    ADVANCING, sending forth her rays, the Daughter of the Sky is seen.
    Uncovering, that we may see, the mighty gloom, the friendly Lady makes the light.
    2 The Sun ascending, the refulgent Star, pours down his beams together with the Dawn.
    O Dawn, at thine arising, and the Suns', may we attain the share allotted us.
    3 Promptly we woke to welcome thee, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
    Thee, Bounteous One, who bringest all we long to have, and to the offerer health and wealth.
    4 Thou, dawning, workest fain to light the great world, yea, heaven, Goddess! that it may be seen.
    We yearn to be thine own, Dealer of Wealth: may we be to this Mother like her sons.
    5 Bring us that wondrous bounty, Dawn, that shall be famed most far away.
    What, Child of Heaven, thou hast of nourishment for man, bestow thou on us to enjoy.
    6 Give to our princes opulence and immortal fame, and strength in herds of kine to us.
    May she who prompts the wealthy, Lady of sweet strains, may Usas dawn our foes away.

    RV 8.47


    HYMN XLVII. Adityas. 47


    1. GREAT help ye give the worshipper, Varuna, Mitra, Mighty Ones! No sorrow ever reaches him whom
    ye, Adityas, keep from harm. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.
    2 O Gods, Adityas, well ye know the way to keep all woes afar.
    As the birds spread their sheltering wings, spread your protection over us.
    3 As the birds spread their sheltering wings let your protection cover us.
    We mean all shelter and defence, ye who have all things for your own.
    4 To whomsoever they, Most Wise, have given a home and means of life,
    Over the whole riches of this man they, the Adityas, have control.
    5 As drivers of the car avoid ill roads, let sorrows pass us by.
    May we be under Indras' guard, in the Adityas' favouring grace.
    6 For verily men sink and faint through loss of wealth which ye have given.
    Much hath he gained from you, O Gods, whom ye, Adityas, have approached.
    7 On him shall no fierce anger fall, no sore distress shall visit him,
    To whom, Adityas, ye have lent your shelter that extendeth far.
    8 Resting in you, O Gods, we are like men who fight in coats of mail.
    Ye guard us from each great offence, ye guard us from each lighter fault.
    9 May Aditi defend us, may Aditi guard and shelter us,
    Mother of wealthy Mitra and of Aryaman and Varuna.
    10 The shelter, Gods, that is secure, auspicious, free from malady,
    A sure protection, triply strong, even that do ye extend to us.
    11 Look down on us, Adityas, as a guide exploring from the bank.
    Lead us to pleasant ways as men lead horses to an easy ford.
    12 Ill be it for the demons' friend to find us or come near to us.
    But for the milchcow- be it well, and for the man who strives for fame.
    13 Each evil deed made manifest, and that which is concealed, O Gods,
    The whole thereof remove from us to Trita Aptya far away.
    14 Daughter of Heaven, the dream that bodes evil to us or to our kine,
    Remove, O Lady of the Light, to Trita Aptya far away.
    15 Even if, O Child of Heaven, it make a garland or a chain of gold,
    The whole bad dream, whatever it be, to Trita Aptya we consign.
    16 To him whose food and work is this, who comes to take his share therein,
    To Trita, and to Dvita, Dawn! bear thou the evil dream away.
    17 As we collect the utmost debt, even the eighth and sixteenth part,
    So unto Aptya we transfer together all the evil dream.
    18 Now have we conquered and obtained, and from our trespasses are free.
    Shine thou away the evil dream, O Dawn, whereof we are afraid. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.



    RV 10.172


    HYMN CLXXII. Dawn. 172

    1. WITH all thy beauty come: the kine approaching with full udders follow on thy path.
    2 Come with kind thoughts, most liberal, rousing the warriors' hymn of praise, with bounteous ones,
    3 As nourishers we tie the thread, and, liberal with our bounty, offer sacrifice.
    4 Dawn drives away her Sisters' gloom, and, through her excellence, makes her retrace her path.

    0 0

    Witnesses: Kansas bar shooting was racially motivated

    Jim Suhr, Associated PressPublished 4:10 a.m. ET Feb. 24, 2017 | Updated 40 minutes ago

    AP CORRECTION BAR SHOOTING OLATHE A USA MO(Photo: AP)

    OLATHE, Kan. (AP) — A man accused of opening fire in a crowded suburban Kansas City bar, killing one man and injuring two others in an attack that some witnesses said was racially motivated, was charged Thursday with murder and attempted murder.

    Authorities repeatedly declined at a news conference to say whether the shooting was a hate crime although local police said they were working with the FBI to investigate the case.

    A bartender at Austins Bar and Grill in Olathe, Kansas, said that Adam Purinton used "racial slurs" before he started shooting on Wednesday night as patrons were watching the University of Kansas-TCU basketball game on television.

    Srinivas Kuchibhotla, 32, died at an area hospital, police said. Alok Madasani, 32, and Ian Grillot, 24, were hospitalized and are in stable condition, they said. The Linkedin accounts for Kuchibhotla and Madasani say that they were engineers working at GPS-maker Garmin and had studied in India.

    A spokesman for India's External Affairs Ministry, Vikas Swarup, said that Kuchibhotla was an Indian national from the southern state of Telangana.

    Sushma Swaraj, India's External Affairs Minister, said Kuchibhotla's body will be transported to the city of Hyderabad, where his family lives.

    Local, county, state and federal law enforcement authorities attended the news conference where the murder charges were announced.

    Asked if the presence of federal authorities indicated the shooting could be considered a hate crime, FBI special agent Eric Jackson said it was too early to determine.

    "This was a violent crime and we want the best prosecution that relates to this because there are victims of this crime and we want the community to know that ... we're looking to make sure that the individual involved in this is held accountable for his actions."


    Bartender Garret Bohnen told the Kansas City Star that Kuchibhotla and Madasani stopped at Austins for a drink once or twice a week.

    "From what I understand when he was throwing racial slurs at the two gentlemen (Kuchibhotla and Madasani), Ian (Grillot) stood up for them," Bohnen said. "We're all proud of him."

    Witnesses also told the Star that Purinton, 51, yelled "get out of my country" before he opened fire.

    Grillot said in an interview from his hospital bed that when the shooting broke out, he hid until nine shots had been fired and he thought the suspect's gun magazine was empty.

    "I got up and proceeded to chase him down, try to subdue him," Grillot said in a video from the University of Kansas Health System posted on the Star website. "I got behind him and he turned around and fired a round at me."

    Grillot said that the bullet went through his hand and into his chest, just missing a major artery.

    "It's not about where he (victim) was from or his ethnicity," Grillot said. "We're all humans, so I just did what was right to do."

    GoFundMe pages were started to help pay expenses for all three of the victims.

    U.S. Sen. Jerry Moran of Kansas posted a statement on Facebook saying that he was very disturbed by the shooting.

    "I strongly condemn violence of any kind, especially if it is motivated by prejudice and xenophobia," Moran said.

    Purinton was taken into custody just after midnight on Thursday morning at an Applebee's about 70 miles to the southeast of Olathe in Clinton, Missouri, authorities said.

    Assistant Clinton Police Chief Sonny Lynch said an Applebee's bartender summoned police to the bar where the man was drinking because he said he'd been involved in a shooting. The unarmed Purinton was taken into custody and interviewed by detectives from Olathe.

    "He mentioned he had been involved in a shooting and we went out there and picked him up," Lynch said.

    The bar where the shooting took place was closed Thursday, with a sign in the door that said it would remain closed indefinitely.





    Hate groups explode on social media


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    Mirror:http://tinyurl.com/h4rnr7e
    Sculptural evidence for hieroglyphic hypertexts of Sarasvati Script


    Hieroglyphs/hypertexts of Sarasvati Script signify metalwork in rebus Meluhha cipher, not only on c. 8000 seals/tablets of Script Corpora, but also on sculptural friezes. An example is provided by a Susa spinner sculptural frieze. The plain-text message of the sculptural frieze is: copper alloy metal mintwork of Meluhha wheelwright


    Image result for susa spinner bitumen
    F ig. 141 La Fileuse (Lady spinning) Bitumen compound. H 9.3 cm. W. 13 cm. Neo-Elamite period, ca. 8th -7th century BCE. Susa. Sb 2834 (Louvre Museum) Excavated by Morgan.


    Hieroglyph (cipher-text): Spinner (kātī) lady rebus khātī 'wheelwright‘


    kola‘tiger’rebus: kol ‘working in iron’ kolhe ‘smelter’


    kulya 'fly whisk' rebus: kulya n. ʻ receptacle for burnt bones of a corpse ʼ MBh., A. kulā ʻwinnowing
     fan, hood of a snake ʼ; B. kul°lā ʻ winnowing basket or fan ʼ; Or.kulā ʻ winnowing fan ʼ, °lāi ʻsmall do. ʼ; Si. kulla, st. kulu -- ʻ winnowing basket or fan ʼ.(CDIAL 3350) Rebus: kolle'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron, blacksmith'. kolhe‘smelter’


    Hieroglyph: Pk. ṭaṁka -- m., °kā -- f. ʻ leg ʼ, S. ṭaṅga f., L. P. ṭaṅg f., Ku. ṭã̄g, N. ṭāṅ; Or. ṭāṅka ʻ leg, thigh ʼ, °ku ʻ thigh, buttock ʼ. 2. B. ṭāṅṭeṅri ʻ leg, thigh ʼ; Mth. ṭã̄gṭãgri ʻ leg, foot ʼ; Bhoj. ṭāṅṭaṅari ʻ leg ʼ, Aw. lakh. H. ṭã̄g f.; G. ṭã̄g f., °gɔ m. ʻ leg from hip to foot ʼ; M. ṭã̄g f. ʻ leg ʼ(CDIAL 5428).Rebus: A. ṭāṅī ʻ wedge ʼ  ṭaṅkaśālā -- , ṭaṅkakaś° f. ʻ mint ʼ lex. [ṭaṅka -- 1, śāˊlā -- ] N. ṭaksāl°ār, B. ṭāksālṭã̄k°ṭek°, Bhoj. ṭaksār, H. ṭaksāl°ār f., G. ṭãksāḷ f., M. ṭã̄ksālṭāk°ṭãk°ṭak°. -- Deriv. G. ṭaksāḷī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ, M. ṭāksāḷyā m. Brj. ṭaksāḷī, °sārī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ. (CDIAL 5434)


    aya, ayo ‘fish' rebus: aya'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfish-finʼ rebus: kammaṭa 'coiner, coinage, mint (Kannada) Note: कान्तkānta -अयसम् the loadstone ‘magnetite’; कृष्ण-अयसम्,’crude or black iron’;लोहा* यसany metal mixed with copper , (or) copper’ Br. Ka1tyS3r. लोहितlōhita -अयस् n. copper; -कृष्ण a. dark-red. Thus, ayas means ‘iron, metal’.


    baṭa six' Sh.gil. băṭ m. ʻstoneʼ, koh.băṭṭ m., jij. baṭ, pales. baṭ ʻmillstoneʼ; K. waṭh, dat. °ṭas m. ʻround stoneʼ, vüṭü f. ʻsmall do.ʼ; L. vaṭṭā m. ʻstoneʼ, khet. vaṭ ʻrockʼ; P. baṭṭ m. ʻa partic. weightʼ, vaṭṭāba°m. ʻstoneʼ, vaṭṭī f. ʻpebbleʼ; WPah.bhal. baṭṭ m. ʻsmall round stoneʼ; Or. bāṭi ʻstoneʼ; Bi. baṭṭā ʻstone roller for spices, grindstoneʼ. [CDIAL 11348] rebus: bhaṭa'furnace‘.



    S.Kalyanaraman Sarasvati Research Center February 24, 2017


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    http://tinyurl.com/zadb5cz
    pōḷa ‘zebu’ पोळ (p. 534) [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large.(Marathi)


    A zebu on a plaque from the Elamite Diyala Valley (Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. and D.T. Potts. 2001. Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran, 1967-1975: The Third Millennium. Cambridge: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, HarvardUniversity,p.225)


    Rebus 1: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4'.

    पोळ [ pōḷa ]  ‘magnetite (ore)’ (Asuri) पोलाद (p. 533) [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel (Marathi)


    Rebus 2: pol m. ʻgate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate': Ka. por̤al town, city. Te. prōlu, (inscr.) pr̤ōl(u) city. ? (DEDR 4555) पोवळ or पोंवळ [ pōvaḷa or pōṃvaḷa ] f पोवळी or पोंवळी f The court-wall of a temple. (Marathi) *pratōlika ʻ gatekeeper ʼ. [pratōlī -- ] H. pauliyā, pol°, pauriyā m. ʻ gatekeeper ʼ, G. poḷiyɔ m.(CDIAL 8632) pratōlī f. ʻ gate of town or fort, main street ʼ MBh. [Cf. tōlikā -- . -- Perh. conn. with tōraṇa -- EWA ii 361, less likely with *ṭōla -- ] Pk. paōlī -- f. ʻ city gate, main street ʼ; WPah. (Joshi) prauḷ m., °ḷi f., pauḷ m., °ḷi f. ʻ gateway of a chief ʼ, proḷ ʻ village ward ʼ; H. paul, pol m. ʻ gate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate ʼ, paulī f. ʻ gate ʼ; OG. poli f. ʻ door ʼ; G. poḷi f. ʻ street ʼ; M. pauḷ, poḷ f. ʻ wall of loose stones ʼ. -- Forms with -- r -- poss. < *pradura -- : OAw. paüri ʻ gatepost ʼ; H. paur, °rī, pãwar, °rī f. ʻ gate, door ʼ.WPah.poet. prɔ̈̄ḷ m., prɔḷo m., prɔḷe f. ʻ gate of palace or temple ʼ.(CDIAL 8633) Porin (adj.) [fr. pora=Epic Sk. paura citizen, see pura. Semantically cp. urbane>urbanus>urbs; polite= poli/ths>po/lis. For pop. etym. see DA i.73 & 282] belonging to a citizen, i. e. citizenlike, urbane, polite, usually in phrase porī vācā polite speech D i.4, 114; S i.189; ii.280=A ii.51; A iii.114; Pug 57; Dhs 1344; DA i.75, 282; DhsA 397. Cp. BSk. paurī vācā MVastu iii.322. Porisa2 (nt.) [abstr. fr. purisa, *pauruṣyaŋ, cp. porisiya and poroseyya] 1. business, doing of a man (or servant, cp. purisa 2), service, occupation; human doing, activity M i.85 (rāja˚); Vv 6311 (=purisa -- kicca VvA 263); Pv iv.324 (uṭṭhāna˚=purisa -- viriya, purisa -- kāra PvA 252). -- 2. height of a man M. i.74, 187, 365.(Pali) పౌరము [ pauramu ] pauramu. [Skt. from పుర.] adj. Belonging to a city or town (పురము.) పౌరసతులు the ladies of the place: citizens' wives. పౌరలోకము paura-lōkamu. n. The townsfolk, a body of citizens. పౌరుడు pauruḍu. n. A citizen. పౌరులు citizens, townsfolk.(Telugu)

    Toy animals made for the Pola festival especially celebrated by the Dhanoje Kunbis. (Bemrose, Colo. Derby - Russell, Robert Vane (1916). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India: volume IV. Descriptive articles on the principal castes and tribes of the Central Provinces. London: Macmillan and Co., limited. p. 40).


    Rebus: cattle festival: पोळा [ pōḷā ] m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. "Pola is a bull-worshipping festival celebrated by farmers mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra (especially among the Kunbis). On the day of Pola, the farmers decorate and worship their bulls. Pola falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (the new moon day) in the month of Shravana (usually in August)."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pola_(festival) Festival held on the day after Sankranti ( = kANum) is called pōlāla paNDaga (Telugu).

    After Figure 1. Major domestic cattle species: (a) Spanish Tudanca taurine and (b) Pullikulam zebu bull (photographs by Marleen Felius and Anno Fokkinga, 2008, 2005). After Fig. 7 Pictorial evidence of the origin and dispersal of zebu. (a) Harappa seal (National Museum, India, [70]), 5000–3500 BP; (b) detail of cylindrical chlorite vessel (Mesopotamia (mid-5th millennium BP, The British Museum, London); (c) detail of conic object from Tarut Island near the Eastern coast of the Arabian peninsula (Metropolitan Museum, NY) and (d) detail of a painting: inspection of cattle belonging to Nebamun, Thebes,ca. 3400 BP, The British Museum, London). http://www.mdpi.com/1424-2818/6/4/705/htm


    miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor’ mēṇḍha ‘ram’ mēṇḍha  m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- , mēṇḍa -- A. mersāg ʻ ram ʼ ( -- sāg < *chāgya -- ?), B. meṛā m., °ṛi f., Or. meṇḍhā, °ḍā m., °ḍhi f., H. meṛh, 

    meṛhā, mẽḍhā m., G. mẽḍhɔ, M. mẽḍhā m., Si. mäḍayā.2. Pk. meṁṭhī -- f. ʻ sheep ʼ; H. meṭhā m. ʻ ram ʼ.3. H. mejhukā m. ʻ ram ʼ.*mēṇḍharūpa -- , mēḍhraśr̥ṅgī -- .Addenda: mēṇḍha -- 2: A. also mer (phonet. mer) ʻ ram ʼ AFD 235.(CDIAL 10310)


    मेढा [mēḍhā ] 'polar star'

    मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked.


    Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) meḍ 'iron'meṛed-bica'iron stone ore'. meḍ Iron, iron implements (Ho)  meḍho = Samskritam. Van.ik saha_ya, a merchant's clerk (Des.) medhā‘yajna, dhanam’

    koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible ʼ (OP)(CDIAL 3546) rebus: koṭhrī ‘granary’,  koṭhrī  ‘temple treasury’:P. koṭhṛī f. ʻ room, house ʼ; Ku. koṭheṛī ʻ small room ʼ; H. koṭhrī f. ʻ room, granary ʼ; M. koṭhḍī f. ʻ room ʼ (CDIAL 3546)


    kuṭi 'woman water-carrier' (Telugu-English Dictionary by Paluri Sankaranarayana, 1990, AES) rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali)


    mr̤ēka, mēḻẖ ‘goat’ Ka. mēke she-goat; mē the bleating of sheep or goats. Te. mē̃ka, mēka goat. Kol. me·ke id. Nk. mēke id. Pa. mēva, (S.) mēya she-goat. Ga.(Oll.) mēge, (S.) mēge goat. Go. (M) mekā, (Ko.) mēka id. ? Kur. mēxnā (mīxyas) to call, call after loudly, hail. Malt. méqe to bleat. [Te. mr̤ēka (so correct) is of unknown meaning. Br. mēḻẖ is without etymology; see MBE 1980a.] / Cf. Skt. (lex.) meka- goat. (DEDR 5087)


    Rebus: mleccha-mukha ‘copper’ (Samskritam) milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali)Milakkha [cp. Ved. Sk. mleccha barbarian, root mlecch, onomat. after the strange sounds of a foreign tongue, cp. babbhara & mammana] a barbarian, foreigner, outcaste, hillman S v.466; J vi.207; DA i.176; SnA 236 (˚mahātissa -- thera Np.), 397 (˚bhāsā foreign dialect). The word occurs also in form milakkhu (q. v.). Milakkhu [the Prk. form (A -- Māgadhī, cp. Pischel, Prk. Gr. 105, 233) for P. milakkha] a non -- Aryan D iii.264; Th 1, 965 (˚rajana "of foreign dye" trsl.; Kern, Toev. s. v. translates "vermiljoen kleurig"). As milakkhuka at Vin iii.28, where Bdhgh expls by "Andha -- Damil'ādi.

    ranku‘antelope’ (Santali) Rebus: rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1]Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ,rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562)

    kulā ʻ winnowing fan, hood of a snake ʼ(Assamese) (CDIAL 3350) खोळ (p. 216) [ khōḷa ] A hooded cloak for children. (CDIAL 3942)

    Rebus: kol metal (Ta.) kol = pan~calōkam (five metals) (Tamil) kol ‘working in iron’, blacksmigth’; kolle ‘blacksmith’ kolhe ‘smelters’ kole.l ‘smithy, temple’ ; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·lKota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; konimi blacksmith;(Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollëblacksmith. 

    Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133) 


    kāṇḍə 
    ‘water’ Wg. káṇṭä ʻ water -- channel ʼ, Woṭ. kaṇṭḗl f., Gaw. khāṇṭ*l, Bshk. kāṇḍə (CDIAL 2680). காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவாயதுக்கியகுங்குமக்காண்டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16) காண்டம்¹ kāṇṭam Mountain, hill; மலை. (பிங்.) 2. cf. kāṇḍa. Jungle, desert, wilderness; காடு. (திவா.)kã̄ṭhẽn. ʻ arable land near the edge of a hill. ʼ(CDIAL 2680) Gaw. khaṇḍa ʻ hill pasture ʼ (see ab.); Bshk. khan m. ʻ hill ʼ, Tor. khān, (Grierson) khaṇḍ, Mai. khān, Chil. Gau. kān, Phal. khã̄ṇ; Sh. koh. khŭṇ m., gur. khonn, pales.khōṇə, jij. khɔ̈̄ṇ ʻ mountain ʼ, gil. (Lor.) kh*ln m. ʻ mountain pass ʼ.(CDIAL 3792)


    Rebus: khaṇḍa ‘implements (metal)’ *lōhōpaskara ʻ iron tools ʼ. [lōhá -- , upaskara -- 1]
    N. lokhar ʻ bag in which a barber keeps his tools ʼ; H. lokhar m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; -- X lauhabhāṇḍa -- : Ku. lokhaṛ ʻ iron tools ʼ; H.lokhaṇḍ m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻ tools, iron, ironware ʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ (LM 400 < -- khaṇḍa -- ).(CDIAL 11171) 
    लोखंडकाम (p. 723) [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. लोहोलोखंड (p. 723) [ lōhōlōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह & लोखंड) Iron tools, vessels, or articles in general. காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < kāṇḍa. Weapon; ஆயுதம். (சூடா.)

    After Figure 11: a. mountains landscape and waters; (upper part) a man under an arch with sun and crescent moon symbols; (lower part) man seated on his heels holding zebus; b. man holding a snake; c. two men (drinking) and zebus, on a small cylindrical vessel; d. Head of woman protruding from  jar, and snakes; 3. man falling from a tree to the trunk of which a zebu is tied; f. man with clas and bull-man playing with cheetahs, and a scorpion in the center (on a cylindrical vessel). 

    Leopards weight from Shahi-Tump (Baluchistan) made using cire perdue technique.  "The artefact was discovered in a grave, in the Kech valley, in Balochistan, southern part of present Pakistan. It belongs to the Shahi Tump - Makran civilisation (end of 4th millennium -- beginning of 3rd millennium BCe). Ht. 200 mm. weight: 13.5 kg. The shell has been manufactured by lost-wax foundry of a copper alloy (12.6%b, 2.6%As), then it has been filled up through lead (99.5%) foundry. The shell is engraved with figures of leopards hunting wild goats, made of polished fragments of shellfishes. No identification of the artefact's use has been given. Mille, B., R. besenval, D. Bourgarit, Early lost-wax casting in Balochistan (Pakistan): the 'Leopards Weight' from Shahi-Tump in Persiens antike Pracht, Bergau-Handwerk-Archaologie, T. Stollner, R. Slotta, A. Vatandoust, A. ed., p. 274-80. Bouchum: Deutsches Bergbau Museum, 2004. 

    An Indian on the eastern Apadana stairs, Persepolis. Carrying gold. 

    kuṭi 'woman water-carrier' (Telugu-English Dictionary by Paluri Sankaranarayana, 1990, AES)


    Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali)


    S.Kalyanaraman
    Saasvati Research Center February 25, 2017



    Susa, sacrifice of goat
    Relief with the sacrifice of goatca. Susa. 4000 BCE–ca. 3000 BCE Photo by  Marco Prins  Louvre Museum
    http://www.livius.org/pictures/iran/susa/susa-museum-pieces/susa-sacrifice-of-goat

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    A historical challenge has been posited. 
    What contributed to the status of Bhāratam as the which made the largest contribution to Global GDP in 1 CE? 
    Ancient Bhāratam Janam worked with magnetite ore [pōḷa] which gave the root for the famed crucible wootz steel called [pōlāda] n ( or P)  [pōlādi]  'steel'. Role of caṣāla (wheat chaff) in the process of carburizing metal alloys has been explained in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa See: http://tinyurl.com/grj2uqd


    A tentative answer is provided by the metallurgical contributions made during the 3rd to 1st milllennium BCE by Bhāratam janam (RV 3.53.12) lit. 'metalcaster folk' with artisanal excellence in making carburized metal implements, e.g. production of carburized or crucible steel. The quality of the swords made of ukku steel is of world-renown and a chronicle painting records gift of a sword by Purushottama to Alexander in 326 BCE after the Battle of the Hydaspes (or Jhelum). 
    Three hieroglyhs of Sarasvati Script (3rd millennium BCE) signify (round stone, scorpion, zebu): goṭa‘laterite ore’, bichi ‘hematite ore’, poa‘magnetite ore’. 
    Image result for zebu mohenjodaro sealMohenjo-daro Seals m1118 and Kalibangan 032, glyphs used are: Zebu (bos taurus indicus), fish, four-strokes (allograph: arrow). ayo 'fish' (Mu.) rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'alloy metal' (Rgveda) gaṇḍa 'four' kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus:khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS poa ‘zebu' rebus polad 'steel'poa ‘magnetite ore'. Thus, the Mohenjo-daro and Kalibangan seals inMeluhha Sarasvati Script cipher, signify plain-text message: poa ‘magnetite ore' PLUS ayas 'alloy metal' khaṇḍa 'implements'.


    A gloss identifiable as part of meluhha-mleccha repertoire occurs in Ṛgveda and in Tocharian. The word is ancugveda refers to cognate amśu as a synonym of Soma. Tocharian attests ancu as meaning, ‘iron’. (cf. Dictionary and Thesaurus of Tocharian A. Volume 1: a-j. Compiled by Gerd Carling in collaboration with Georges-Jean Pinault and Werner Winter, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz Verlag, 2009).
    Image result for sibri cylinder sealA cylinder seal with zebu and lion, Sibri {Jarrige) Hieroglyphs: aryeh 'lion' rebus: arā 'brass'; [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods. pōḷī, ‘dewlap, honeycomb’. Rebus: pola ‘magnetite ore’ (Munda. Asuri) [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon); Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, weapons, metalware'.

    Zebu + Indus ScriptIndus Script Corpora. A zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat. No. 8. baTa 'bird' Rebus: baTa 'furnace' (Santali)
    A zebu on a plaque from the Elamite Diyala Valley (Lamberg-Karlovsky and Potts 2001: 225).
    Image result for gadd seal 6Gadd seal 6. (cut down into Ur III mausolea from Larsa level; U. 16220), enstatite; Legrain, 1951, No. 632; Collon, 1987, Fig. 611 Cylinder seal; BM 122947;humped bull stands before a palm-tree, a thorny stone(?), tabernae montana (five-petalled fragrant flower); snake; person with long legs; behind the bull a scorpion ... Deciphered Indus writing: pola 'zebu, bos indicus'; pola ‘magnetite ore’ (Munda. Asuri); bichi 'scorpion'; 'hematite ore'; tagaraka 'tabernae montana'; tagara 'tin'; ranga 'thorny'; Rebus: pewter, alloy of tin and antimony; kankar., kankur. = very tall and thin, large hands and feet; kankar dare = a high tree with few branches (Santali) Rebus: kanka, kanaka = gold (Samskritam); kan = copper (Tamil) nAga 'snake' nAga 'lead' (Samskritam).

    Ancient Meluhha blacksmiths

    Ancient blacksmiths who started with the bronze age (ca. 7000 BCE) were aware of the iron-carbon phase diagram. This awareness was created during their forging work by observing color changes during heating and they could also test the hardness of produced metal by scratch tests. This process of scratching has an ancient Meluhha gloss: gota.Sa. gOta? `to scrape, scratch'.Mu. gOta? `to scrape, scratch'.KW gOta?@(M087)(Munda etyma). The same gloss was adopted to identify one of the mineral resources the ancient blacksmiths worked with: goṭa ‘laterite ore’.
    Bolad (alternatively spelled PuladPulatPolat, or Polad in Persian and Turkic languages) is common given name among the Inner Asian peoples. The meaning of the word Bolad is "steel". In Khalkha Mongolian form of the word is Bold                                                        

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolad_(given_name)

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    Sword maker of Damascus. 1900 photo.
    Purushottama gifts a UKKU sword to Alexander (SAIL Institute, Ranchi painting)
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    PorusPurushottama meets Alexander
    Alexander's retreat from Bharat campaign.


    A tool used to use the magnetic qualities of iron is a lodestone (which is a natural magnetic iron oxide mineral). Such a tool could have enabled ancient blacksmiths to identify and distinguish a type if iron ore called ‘magnetite’ called in Meluhha: pola (which yields the Russian bulat steel) made from Latin wootz (Meluhha ukku).

    CP Thornton had called for a paradigm shift in archaeometallurgical studies focusing on socio-cultural contexts. Consistent with this shift, in a remarkable monograph, Oleg D. Sherby and Jeffrey Wadworth underline the need for a fresh look at the categories called ‘bronze age’ and ‘iron age’. Reviewing the artistic accomplishments of Damascus steel swords using ultrahigh carbon steels (with 1.0 to 2.1% carbon), calling them hypereutectoid steels with improved mechanical properties, Oleg D. Sherby and Jeffrey Wadworth start with the question of ‘Iron Age’ the start of which received wisdom dates to 1000 BCE. They posit that possibility that iron age started well before the full bronze age, noting that ancient blacksmith had demonstrated the competence in three melting procedures needed to manufacture high-tin bronzes. They note: “The likelihood of wrought iron being utilized extensively at the start of, and even before, the copper and early Bronze Age is certainly supported by the fact that it is easier to produce. It would also have been motivated by the knowledge that wrought iron is considerably stronger than copper and early (unintentionally alloyed) bronze…wrought iron, even in its softest condition, has about the same hardness as hardened copper and early bronze. When wrought iron is cold or warm worked its hardness increases by a factor of two, making it considerably superior to copper and early bronze…When Damascus steels are warm worked their hardness is double that of warm worked wrought iron. Furthermore, Damascus steels can be heat treated to obtain very high hardness resulting in steels that are five times stronger than the strongest wrought iron. These steels represent a revolutionary change in the use of metals.”

    Oleg D. Sherby and Jeffrey Wadworth proceed to suggest a provocative sequence of the iron and bronze ages. They speculate that Iron and early Bronze ages began at a similar time period (i.e. 7000 BCE) in large villages which were the scene of human activity. “Examples are Jericho, and Catal Huyuk and Hallan Cemi in Turkey. The town of Jericho is reported to have had 2,500 inhabitants at the time of its prime in 7000 BCE. The story of Catal Huyuk in Turkey is equally impressive with a history dating back to at least 6000 BCE, with a population estimated at over 7,000 people. Evidence of open hearths abounded in these ancient cities. Waldbaum (JC Waldbaum, in: Theodore A. Wertime and James D. Muhly (Eds.), The coming of the Age of Iron, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1980, pp. 127-150) has documented fourteen iron objects at another four sites dating before 3000 BCE. The oldest object is a four-sided instrument from a gravesite at Samara in northern Iraq, dated ca.5000 BCE. The object, which appears to be a tool, was identified as man-made iron. The full Bronze Age and the iron-carbon (Damascus steel) age are…at about 2500 to 2000 BCE where alloying was deliberately introduced as a way of increasing the strength of copper and iron. In this period, melting and remelting was extensively used. Contemporary metallurgists and blacksmiths who have made wrought iron, often consider that such a product could have been made going back to the era of Neanderthal man who dominated the European and African scene from 300,000 to 40,000 years ago. The original wrought iron was probably made in an open hearth where strong winds were available to reduce the starting material, iron oxide ore, into iron according to the reaction: iron oxide + charcoal + oxygen = iron + liquid slag + CO2…iron oxide was mined in many places. Iron oxide is known as ochre and the most common oxide is hematite (Fe2O3).”






















    Bulat steel blade of a knife "Bulat is a type of steel alloy known in Russia from medieval times; regularly being mentioned in Russian legends as the material of choice for cold steel. The name булат is a Russian transliteration of the Persian word fulad, meaning steel. This type of steel was used by the armies of nomadic peoples. Bulat steel was the main type of steel used for swords in the armies of Genghis Khan, the great emperor of the Mongolian Empire. The technique used in making wootz steel has been lost for centuries and the bulat steel used today makes use of a more recently developed technique...Carbon steel consists of two components: pure iron, in the form of ferrite, and cementite or iron carbide, a compound of iron and carbon. Cementite is very hard and brittle; its hardness is about 640 by the Brinell hardness test, whereas ferrite is only 200. The amount of the carbon and the cooling regimen determine the crystalline and chemical composition of the final steel. In bulat, the slow cooling process allowed the cementite to precipitate as micro particles in between ferrite crystals and arrange in random patterns. The color of the carbide is dark while steel is grey. This mixture is what leads to the famous patterning of Damascus steel.Cementite is essentially a ceramic, which accounts for the sharpness of the Damascus (and bulat) steel. "
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulat_steel

    Picture shows 18th-century Persian-forged sword made from DamascusCrucible steels, such as wootz steel and Damascus steel, exhibit unique banding patterns because of the intermixed ferrite and cementite alloys in the steel. "Wootz steel is a crucible steel characterized by a pattern of bands, which are formed by sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix in higher carbon steel, or by ferrite and pearlite banding in lower carbon steels. It is the pioneering steel alloy matrix developed in Southern India in the 6th century BCE and exported globally. It was also known in the ancient world by many different names including Wootz, Ukku, Hindvi Steel, Hinduwani Steel, Teling Steel and Seric Iron...Wootz steel originated in India.There are several ancient Tamil, Greek, Chinese and Roman literary references to high carbon Indian steel since the time of Alexander's India campaignThe crucible steel production process started in the 6th century BCE,at production sites of Kodumanal in Tamil NaduGolconda in TelanganaKarnataka and Sri Lanka and exported globally; the Tamils of the Chera Dynasty producing what was termed the finest steel in the world, i.e. Seric Iron to the Romans, Egyptians, Chinese and Arabs by 500 BCE The steel was exported as cakes of steely iron that came to be known as "Wootz." The Tamilakam method was to heat black magnetite ore in the presence of carbon in a sealed clay crucible inside a charcoal furnace. An alternative was to smelt the ore first to give wrought iron, then heated and hammered to be rid of slag. The carbon source was bamboo and leaves from plants such as Avārai.... A 200 BCE Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts and production processes to the island from the classical period.The Arabs introduced the South Indian/Sri Lankan wootz steel to Damascus, where an industry developed for making weapons of this steel. The 12th century Arab traveler Edrisi mentioned the "Hinduwani" or Indian steel as the best in the world...Another sign of its reputation is seen in a Persian phrase – to give an "Indian answer", meaning "a cut with an Indian sword." (Manning, Charlotte Speir. Ancient and Medieval India2. p. 365.) Wootz steel was widely exported and traded throughout ancient Europe and the Arab world, and became particularly famous in the Middle East. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wootz_steel

    Wootz was imported into the Middle East from Im India. (Jeffrey Wadsworth and Oleg D. Sherby (1980). "On the Bulat – Damascus Steel Revisited". Prog. Mater. Sci. 25 (1): 35–68)

    urukku, n. < -. [T. ukku, K. urku, M. urukku.] 1. Steel; . ( .) 2. Anything melted, product of liquefaction; . ( . . 91). urukku-t-taṭṭār , n. < id. +. Goldsmiths; . ( . 5, 31, .) urukku-maṇal , n. < - +. Iron ore, iron-sand; . (W.) - uruku-, 5 v. intr. [M. uruhu.] 1. To dissolve with heat; to melt, liquefy; to be fused; . eḵkam, n. < -. 1. Sharpness, pointedness; . ( . . 12). 2. Any weapon made of steel; . ( .) 3. Sword; . ( . 19). 4. Lance; . ( . 119). 5. Discus; . ( .) 6. Javelin; . ( .) 7. Trident; . ( . . 11.) ² eḵku

    , n. < -. 1. Edge, pointedness, keenness; . ( , 773). 2. Acuteness of intellect, mental acumen; . ( , 137). 3. Steel; . ( .) 4. Weapon in general; . ( .) 5. Lance; . ( . 10, 109). - eḵku-paṭu-, v. intr. < id. +. To melt; to soften; . ( . 15, 210, ) உருக்கு² urukku, n. < உருக்கு-. [T. ukku, K. urku, M. urukku.] 1. Steel; எஃகு. (சூடா.) 2. Anything melted, product of liquefaction; உருக் கினபொருள். செப்புருக் கனைய (கம்பரா. கார்கா. 91).உருக்குத்தட்டார் urukku-t-taṭṭār
    n. < id. +. Goldsmiths; பொற்கொல்லர். (சிலப். 5, 31, உரை.)உருக்குமணல் urukku-maṇal
    n. < உருக் கு- +. Iron ore, iron-sand; அயமணல். (W.) எஃகம் eḵkam
    n. < எஃகு-. 1. Sharpness, pointedness; கூர்மை. எஃகவேற் புங்கவன் (கந்தபு. அவைய. 12). 2. Any weapon made of steel; உருக்காயுதப் பொது. (சூடா.) 3. Sword; வ��ள். எஃகம் புலியுறைகழிப்பு (பதிற்றுப். 19). 4. Lance; வேல். புலவுவாயெஃகம் (பெரும்பாண். 119). 5. Discus; சக்கரம். (திவா.) 6. Javelin; பிண்டி பாலம். (திவா.) 7. Trident; சூலம். (கம்பரா. மந் தரை. 11.)எஃகு² eḵku
    n. < எஃகு-. 1. Edge, pointedness, keenness; கூர்மை. ஒன்றுற்றக்கா லூராண்மை மற்றத னெஃகு (குறள், 773). 2. Acuteness of intellect, mental acumen; மதிநுட்பம். இகலில ரெஃகுடையார் தம்முட் குழீஇ (நாலடி, 137). 3. Steel; உருக்கு. (சூடா.) 4. Weapon in general; ஆயுதப்பொது. (பிங்.) 5. Lance; வேல். எஃகொடு வாண்மா றுழக்கி (பரிபா. 10, 109).

    "In the Muslim world of the 9th-12th centuries CE, the production of fuladh, a Persian word, has been described by Al-Kindi, Al-Biruni and Al-Tarsusi, from narm-ahanand shaburqan, two other Persian words representing iron products obtained by direct reduction of the ore. Ahan means iron. Narm-ahan is a soft iron and shaburqan a harder one or able to be quench-hardened. Old nails and horse-shoes were also used as base for fuladh preparation. It must be noticed that, according to Hammer- Purgstall, there was no Arab word for steel, which explain the use of Persian words. Fuladh prepared by melting in small crucibles can be considered as a steel in our modem classification, due to its properties (hardness, quench hardened ability, etc.). The word fuladh means "the purified" as explained by Al-Kindi. This word can be found as puladh, for instance in Chardin (1711 AD) who called this product; poulad jauherder, acier onde, which means "watering steel", a characteristic of what was called Damascene steel in Europe."

    The magnetite ore stones are identified as pola iron by Meluhha speakers.  अयस्कान्त [p= 85,1] m. 
    (g. कस्का*दि) , " iron-lover " , the loadstone (cf. कान्ता*यसRagh. xvii , 63 , &c;  ayaskānta m S (The iron gem.) The loadstone. (Marathi) Lodestone or Loadstone or Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring igneous and metamorphic rocks with black or brownish-black with a metallic luster. 

    Lodestones are naturally-occurring magnets, which can attract iron. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite.


    [quote]Magnetite, a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides, is one of the more common meteor-wrongs. Magnetite displays a black exterior and magnetic properties....A piece of intensely magnetic magnetite was used as an early form of magnetic compass. Iron, steel and ordinary magnetite are attracted to a magnetic field, including the Earth's magnetic field. Only magnetite with a particular crystalline structure, lodestone, can act as a natural magnet and attract and magnetize iron. The name "magnet" comes from lodestones found in a place called Magnesia. [unquote] http://meteorite-identification.com/Hot%20Rocks/magnetite.html

    See: Srinivasan, Sharada; Ranganathan, Srinivasa (2004). "India's Legendary Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World"Iron & Steel Heritage of India. Bangalore: National Institute of Advanced Studies: 69–82. 

    See: http://tinyurl.com/nsfgedh Pōlāda: archaeometallurgy of ancient Indian metalwork. Signified on Indus Script Corpora by hieroglyph: zebu, bos indicus
    See: http://met.iisc.ernet.in/~rangu/text.pdf (india's legendary 'wootz' steel - Materials Engineering)

    Wootz Steel as the Acme of Mankind’s Metallurgical Heritage 

    “Wootz was the first high-quality steel made anywhere in the world. According to reports of travelers to the East, the Damascus swords were made by forging small cakes of steel that were manufactured in Southern India. This steel was called wootz steel. It was more than a thousand years before steel as good was made in the West.” -J. D. Verhoeven and A. Pendray, Muse, 1998 
    ... ‘…’pulad’ of Central Asia. The oasis of Merv where crucible steel was also made by the medieval period lies in this region. The term ‘pulad’ appears in Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism and in a Manicheen text of Chinese Turkestan. There are many variations of this term ranging from the Persian ‘polad’, the Mongolian ‘bolat’ and ‘tchechene’, the Russian ‘bulat’, the Ukrainian and Armenian ‘potovat’, Turkish and Arab ‘fulad’, ‘farlad’ in Urdu and ‘phaulad’ in Hindi. It is this bewildering variety of descriptions that was used in the past that makes a study of this subject so challenging.’ (p.30)

    PWLẠD (پولاد) > BOLD RUSSIAN (ПОЛАД) Origin: PERSIAN (TĀJĪK)  /  MONGOLIAN 
    INDO-EUROPEAN > INDO-IRANIAN > INDO-ARYAN 
    This name derives from the Mongolian (Qalq-a ayalγu) “Bold”, from the Persian (Tājīk) "pwlạd", meaning “steel”. Bolad († 1313), was a Mongol minister of the Yuan Dynasty, and later served in the Ilkhanate as the representative of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and cultural adviser to the Ilkhans. Geographical spread:
    http://www.name-doctor.com/name-polad-meaning-of-polad-25852.html
    See: http://tinyurl.com/zadb5cz
    Rebus 1: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4'.

    पोळ [ pōḷa ]  ‘magnetite (ore)’ (Asuri) पोलाद (p. 533) [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel (Marathi)


    Rebus 2: pol m. ʻgate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate': Ka. por̤al town, city. Te. prōlu, (inscr.) pr̤ōl(u) city. ? (DEDR 4555) पोवळ or पोंवळ [ pōvaḷa or pōṃvaḷa ] f पोवळी or पोंवळी f The court-wall of a temple. (Marathi) *pratōlika ʻ gatekeeper ʼ. [pratōlī -- ] H. pauliyā, pol°, pauriyā m. ʻ gatekeeper ʼ, G. poḷiyɔ m.(CDIAL 8632) pratōlī f. ʻ gate of town or fort, main street ʼ MBh. [Cf. tōlikā -- . -- Perh. conn. with tōraṇa -- EWA ii 361, less likely with *ṭōla -- ] Pk. paōlī -- f. ʻ city gate, main street ʼ; WPah. (Joshi) prauḷ m., °ḷi f., pauḷ m., °ḷi f. ʻ gateway of a chief ʼ, proḷ ʻ village ward ʼ; H. paul, pol m. ʻ gate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate ʼ, paulī f. ʻ gate ʼ; OG. poli f. ʻ door ʼ; G. poḷi f. ʻ street ʼ; M. pauḷ, poḷ f. ʻ wall of loose stones ʼ. -- Forms with -- r -- poss. < *pradura -- : OAw. paüri ʻ gatepost ʼ; H. paur, °rī, pãwar, °rī f. ʻ gate, door ʼ.WPah.poet. prɔ̈̄ḷ m., prɔḷo m., prɔḷe f. ʻ gate of palace or temple ʼ.(CDIAL 8633) Porin (adj.) [fr. pora=Epic Sk. paura citizen, see pura. Semantically cp. urbane>urbanus>urbs; polite= poli/ths>po/lis. For pop. etym. see DA i.73 & 282] belonging to a citizen, i. e. citizenlike, urbane, polite, usually in phrase porī vācā polite speech D i.4, 114; S i.189; ii.280=A ii.51; A iii.114; Pug 57; Dhs 1344; DA i.75, 282; DhsA 397. Cp. BSk. paurī vācā MVastu iii.322. Porisa2 (nt.) [abstr. fr. purisa, *pauruṣyaŋ, cp. porisiya and poroseyya] 1. business, doing of a man (or servant, cp. purisa 2), service, occupation; human doing, activity M i.85 (rāja˚); Vv 6311 (=purisa -- kicca VvA 263); Pv iv.324 (uṭṭhāna˚=purisa -- viriya, purisa -- kāra PvA 252). -- 2. height of a man M. i.74, 187, 365.(Pali) పౌరము [ pauramu ] pauramu. [Skt. from పుర.] adj. Belonging to a city or town (పురము.) పౌరసతులు the ladies of the place: citizens' wives. పౌరలోకము paura-lōkamu. n. The townsfolk, a body of citizens. పౌరుడు pauruḍu. n. A citizen. పౌరులు citizens, townsfolk.(Telugu)

    Toy animals made for the Pola festival especially celebrated by the Dhanoje Kunbis. (Bemrose, Colo. Derby - Russell, Robert Vane (1916). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India: volume IV. Descriptive articles on the principal castes and tribes of the Central Provinces. London: Macmillan and Co., limited. p. 40).


    Rebus: cattle festival: पोळा [ pōḷā ] m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. "Pola is a bull-worshipping festival celebrated by farmers mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra (especially among the Kunbis). On the day of Pola, the farmers decorate and worship their bulls. Pola falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (the new moon day) in the month of Shravana (usually in August)."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pola_(festival)  Festival held on the day after Sankranti ( = kANum) is called pōlāla paNDaga (Telugu).

    After Figure 1. Major domestic cattle species: (a) Spanish Tudanca taurine and (b) Pullikulam zebu bull (photographs by Marleen Felius and Anno Fokkinga, 2008, 2005). After Fig. 7 Pictorial evidence of the origin and dispersal of zebu. (a) Harappa seal (National Museum, India, [70]), 5000–3500 BP; (b) detail of cylindrical chlorite vessel (Mesopotamia (mid-5th millennium BP, The British Museum, London); (c) detail of conic object from Tarut Island near the Eastern coast of the Arabian peninsula (Metropolitan Museum, NY) and (d) detail of a painting: inspection of cattle belonging to Nebamun, Thebes,ca. 3400 BP, The British Museum, London). http://www.mdpi.com/1424-2818/6/4/705/htm

    Map of Iran, with Jiroft, Konār Ṣandal, and sites of the 3rd millenium BCE with chlorite vessels.

    Zebu. a.details of decoration on a tronconical vessel, b. line of zebus led by a man c-d.lying zebus

    a.       Mountains landscape and waters, (upper part) a man under an arch with sun and crescent moon symbols; (lower part) man seated on his heels holding zebus; b. man holding a snake; c. two men (drinking) and zebus, on a small cylindrical vessel; d. head of woman protruding from a jar, and snakes; 3. Man falling from a tree to the trunk, of which a zebu is tid; f. man with claws and bullman playing with cheetahs, and a scorpion in the center (on a cylindrical vessel).


    kokkolha 'leopard' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter'. kul ‘tiger’ (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha — m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ, °lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā, °lā m. krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu — m. Pāṇ. [√kruś] Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka — and kotthu -- , °uka — m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. koṭṭhu — m.; Si. koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42 (CDIAL 3615). कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pañcaloha’ (Ta.) 

    dāˊman1 ʻ rope ʼ RV. 2. *dāmana -- , dāmanī -- f. ʻ long rope to which calves are tethered ʼ Hariv. 3. *dāmara -- .[*dāmara -- is der. fr. n/r n. stem. -- √2] 1. Pa. dāma -- , inst. °mēna n. ʻ rope, fetter, garland ʼ, Pk. dāma -- n.; Wg. dām ʻ rope, thread, bandage ʼ; Tir. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Paš.lauṛ. dām ʻ thick thread ʼ, gul. dūm ʻ net snare ʼ (IIFL iii 3, 54 ← Ind. or Pers.); Shum. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Sh.gil. (Lor.) dōmo ʻ twine, short bit of goat's hair cord ʼ, gur. dōm m. ʻ thread ʼ (→ Ḍ. dōṅ ʻ thread ʼ); K. gu -- dômu m. ʻ cow's tethering rope ʼ; P. dã̄udāvã̄ m. ʻ hobble for a horse ʼ; WPah.bhad. daũ n. ʻ rope to tie cattle ʼ, bhal. daõ m., jaun. dã̄w; A. dāmā ʻ peg to tie a buffalo -- calf to ʼ; B. dāmdāmā ʻ cord ʼ; Or. duã̄ ʻ tether ʼ, dāĩ ʻ long tether to which many beasts are tied ʼ; H. dām m.f. ʻ rope, string, fetter ʼ, dāmā m. ʻ id., garland ʼ; G. dām n. ʻ tether ʼ, M. dāvẽ n.; Si. dama ʻ chain, rope ʼ, (SigGr) dam ʻ garland ʼ. -- Ext. in Paš.dar. damaṭāˊ°ṭīˊ, nir. weg. damaṭék ʻ rope ʼ, Shum. ḍamaṭik, Woṭ. damṓṛ m., Sv. dåmoṛīˊ; -- with -- ll -- : N. dāmlo ʻ tether for cow ʼ, dã̄walidāũlidāmli ʻ bird -- trap of string ʼ, dã̄waldāmal ʻ coeval ʼ (< ʻ tied together ʼ?); M. dã̄vlī f. ʻ small tie -- rope ʼ.2. Pk. dāvaṇa -- n., dāmaṇī -- f. ʻ tethering rope ʼ; S. ḍ̠āvaṇuḍ̠āṇu m. ʻ forefeet shackles ʼ, ḍ̠āviṇīḍ̠āṇī f. ʻ guard to support nose -- ring ʼ; L. ḍã̄vaṇ m., ḍã̄vaṇīḍāuṇī (Ju. ḍ̠ -- ) f. ʻ hobble ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ strip at foot of bed, triple cord of silk worn by women on head ʼ, awāṇ. dāvuṇ ʻ picket rope ʼ; P. dāuṇdauṇ, ludh. daun f. m. ʻ string for bedstead, hobble for horse ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ gold ornament worn on woman's forehead ʼ; Ku. dauṇo m., °ṇī f. ʻ peg for tying cattle to ʼ, gng. dɔ̃ṛ ʻ place for keeping cattle, bedding for cattle ʼ; A. dan ʻ long cord on which a net or screen is stretched, thong ʼ, danā ʻ bridle ʼ; B. dāmni ʻ rope ʼ; Or. daaṇa ʻ string at the fringe of a casting net on which pebbles are strung ʼ,dāuṇi ʻ rope for tying bullocks together when threshing ʼ; H. dāwan m. ʻ girdle ʼ, dāwanī f. ʻ rope ʼ, dã̄wanī f. ʻ a woman's orna<->ment ʼ; G. dāmaṇḍā° n. ʻ tether, hobble ʼ, dāmṇũ n. ʻ thin rope, string ʼ, dāmṇī f. ʻ rope, woman's head -- ornament ʼ; M. dāvaṇ f. ʻ picket -- rope ʼ. -- Words denoting the act of driving animals to tread out corn are poss. nomina actionis from *dāmayati2. 3. L. ḍãvarāvaṇ, (Ju.) ḍ̠ã̄v° ʻ to hobble ʼ; A. dāmri ʻ long rope for tying several buffalo -- calves together ʼ, Or. daũ̈rādaürā ʻ rope ʼ; Bi.daũrī ʻ rope to which threshing bullocks are tied, the act of treading out the grain ʼ, Mth. dã̄mardaũraṛ ʻ rope to which the bullocks are tied ʼ; H. dã̄wrī f. ʻ id., rope, string ʼ, dãwrī f. ʻ the act of driving bullocks round to tread out the corn ʼ. -- X *dhāgga<-> q.v. *dāmayati2; *dāmakara -- , *dāmadhāra -- ; uddāma -- , prōddāma -- ; *antadāmanī -- , *galadāman -- , *galadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāman -- , *gōḍḍadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāmara -- .
    dāmán -- 2 m. (f.?) ʻ gift ʼ RV. [√1]. See dāˊtu -- . *dāmana -- ʻ rope ʼ see dāˊman -- 1.
    Addenda: dāˊman -- 1. 1. Brj. dã̄u m. ʻ tying ʼ. 3. *dāmara -- : Brj. dã̄wrī f. ʻ rope ʼ.(CDIAL 6283)*dāmayati2 ʻ ties with a rope ʼ. [dāˊman -- 1] Bi. dã̄wab ʻ to drive bullocks trading out grain ʼ, H. dāwnādã̄nā; G. dāmvũ ʻ to tie with a cord ʼ. -- Nomina actionis from this verb rather than derived directly from dāˊman -- 1, dāmanī -- (but cf. Bi. daũrī < *dāmara<-> denoting both ʻ rope ʼ and nomen actionis): N. (Tarai)dāuni ʻ threshing ʼ, Bi. daunī ʻ treading out corn ʼ, Mth. dāuni; -- Ku. daĩ f. ʻ driving oxen or buffaloes to tread out grain ʼ, N. dāĩdã̄i, Bi.dawã̄hī, Mth. damāhī; H. dāẽ f. ʻ tying a number of bullocks together for treading corn, the treading out, the unthreshed corn. ʼ -- S. ḍ̠āiṇu ʻ to shackle the forelegs ʼ and P. dāuṇā ʻ to hobble horse oṛ ass ʼ rather < *dāyayati.(CDIAL 6285)


    Rebus: 'smelter': M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773) 

    kulā ʻhood of a snakeʼ(Assamese) (CDIAL 3350) खोळ (p. 216) [ khōḷa ] A hooded cloak for children. (CDIAL 3942)Rebus: kol metal (Ta.) kol = pan~calōkam (five metals) (Tamil) kol ‘working in iron’, blacksmigth’; kolle ‘blacksmith’ kolhe ‘smelters’ kole.l ‘smithy, temple’ ; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·lKota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; konimi blacksmith;(Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollëblacksmith. 
    Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133) 


    S.Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    February 25, 2017


      0 0


      See: http://tinyurl.com/jqw4ltk  Itihāsa of Uā,औषस and links to artisanal work of त्वष्टृ’s ten daughters 

      Maybe, some of these daughters are venerated and signified as Utsava bera on this terracotta artifact of Sarasvati Civilization? Unfathomable are the metaphors in ādibhautika, ādidaivika and ādhyātmika/turiya levels of representation in the Ṛcas of Ṛgveda.


      The Ṛcas which adore Uṣā,औषस in Ṛgveda are embedded for ready reference.

      Lady of the spiked throne. If this not a spiked throne but rays of the Sun, the lady may be Uṣā,औषस of Ṛgveda. प्र- √ भा 1 a [p= 683,3] P. -भाति , to shine forth , begin to become light , shine , gleam RV. &c  ; to appear , seem , look like (nom. with or without इव) MBh. Ka1v. &c  ; to illuminate , enlighten TUp.; N. of a शक्ति Hcat.; of the city of कुबेर L.

      Detail of the bull's head.
      Bull is the boat. May signify Surya.
      A chariot for utsava bera, procession?




      The Power of a Lost Ritual

      An exceptional and controversial recent find in a private collection is analyzed by a leading Italian archaeologist in this fully illustrated complete volume. With many potential implications for understanding ancient Indus culture.

      From the Preface

      In Autumn 2009, I was invited by a private collector to see an artefact that was mentioned as unique and very complex, and reportedly belonged to the cultural sphere of the Indus civilization. I do not have professional links with the antique market and the world of private collectors, but the descrip- tions I had of the find were so puzzling that for once I accepted the invitation to examine the new find. I was generously hosted by the family of the collector and what I saw fully rewarded the trip and the time. There I spend two whole days, looking in detail to the most amazing and better preserved terracotta group sculpture of the 3rd millennium cal BC I had ever seen, while a professional photographer and her assistant took the pictures you see in this book.

      . . . in this case the find is so exceptional, and its archaeological and historical implica- tions so important, that to bury forever the information in the shelves of a private collector would only add damage to damage. After consulting with several colleagues, I decided to publish it. The only purpose of this book is to make the find available to the specialists and to open a discussion on its meaning.

      https://www.harappa.com/content/lady-spiked-throne

      https://www.harappa.com/sites/default/files/pdf/Spiked-Throne.pdf (Full text of the book, 72 pages)

      See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2012/06/lady-of-spiked-throne-massimo-vidale.html

      See: http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/lady-spiked-throne-and-her-mysterious-entourage-002216?nopaging=1
      enthroned lady.jpg
      Total Number of figurines -- riders -- on the boat or chariot: 15. Lady with rays emanting is seated in the middle. On either side of the cabin, 4 male and 4 female figures are seated on cube-like stools (like two rows of rowers or holding reins of the bull which draws the chariot).
      6 other male figurines are standing on the sides, 4 in a cabin and 2 in front, as a sort of entourage.
      See: https://cogniarchae.wordpress.com/2016/08/02/the-lady-of-the-spiked-throne-decoding-the-symbols/
      See: http://learning.brac.net/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=736:eshika-dutta&limitstart=10

      Uṣā Usually means physical dawn. Dawning of spiritual knowledge could be considered as Uṣā (spiritual)(Jñānodaya).


      Uṣā is devata in the following Ṛca-s:

      RV 1.30, 1.48, 1.49, 1.92, 1.95 (?), 1.113, 1.123, 1.124,

      RV 3.61, 4.30, 4.51, 4.52, 5.79, 5.80, 6.64, 6.65, 7.41, 7.75 to 7.81, 8.47, 10.172


      RV 1.95 adores auṣas 'relating to uṣas. This Rca holds the key linking her to artisanal work.

      Reference to त्वष्टृ’s ten daughters in RV 1.95.2

      The reference occurs in the context of devat ā औषस .

      त्वष्टृ [p= 464,1] m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृ) AV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम् अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुs i , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस् or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा 

      TBr. S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23 ; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर् आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. )


      RV 1.95.2 recites:

      Who are he ten daughters of त्वष्ट?  An asterism is called tvāṣṭ त्वाष्ट्र ष्ट्री 1 The asterism चित्रा;  rī त्वाष्ट्र a. [त्वष्टा देवताअस्य अण्] Belonging to Tvaṣṭṛi; U.6.3. (v. l.). 

      Derived fr. उषस्, ‘dawn’, औषसी, औषस refer to 1. several सामन्1s and 2. ten daughters of त्वष्टृ [p= 464,1] who is a form of the sun MBh. iii , 146 Hariv. 13143 BhP. iii , 6 , 15.

      त्वष्टृ is surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii

      Could the expression औषस refer to the generative energy of त्वष्ट and related to uṣas? If so, the reference औषस may explain the ‘dawn’ energy kindling agni to purify somabrought in the chariot by uas.

      त्वष्टृ is father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ;

      औषस [p= 240,2] mf()n. (fr. उषस्) , relating to dawn , early , matutinal TBr. Ii; f. daybreak , morning S3Br. Vi; n. N. of several सामन्1s. (matutinal ‘of or occurring in the morning’).

      1.095.01 Two periods, of different complexions, revolve for their own purposes, and each in succession severally nourishes a son; in one, Hari is the receiver of oblations, in the other, the brilliant Agni is beheld. [viru_pe, of various nature; i.e. of various complexions: black and white, night and day. Day is the mother of fire, which is then, as it were, in an embryo state and is not fully manifested or born until it is dark; hence, the sun is in the womb of night, and is born, or shines, in the morning; Hari, or the sun, being manifested in the morning, is then to be worshipped; Agni, shining at night, is to be worshipped in the evening---tasma_ agnaye sa_yamhu_yate su_rya_ya pra_tar (Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a 2.1.2.6); aus.asagun.avis'is.t.o agni, s'uddho agnir va_: Agni endowed with the properties of dawn or the simple, discrete Agni].
      1.095.02 The vigilant and youthful Ten beget, through the wind, this embryo Agni, inherent (in all beings), sharp-visaged, universally renowned, shining among men; him they conduct (to every dwelling). [Ten: the ten regions of space, which generate lightning, as an embryo in the clouds, using the winds: agner hi va_yuh ka_ran.am, va_yor agnih, wind is the cause of fire, fire of wind. Tvas.t.uh = wind or its agency: dipta_nmadhyama_d va_yoh sa_kas.a_t, the brilliant central proximity of wind. Ten: the ten fingers which generate Agni through the act of attrition as an embryo in the sticks. vibhr.tram = deposited in all creatures,i.e. inherent].
      1.095.03 They contemplate three places of his birth; one in the ocean, one in the heaven, one in the firmament; and, dividing the seasons of the year for the benefit of earthly creatures, he formed, in regular succession, the eastern quarter. 
      1.095.04 Which of you discerns the hidden Agni? a son, he begets his mothers by oblations; the germ of many (waters), he issues from the ocean, mighty and wise, the recipient of oblations. [hidden agni: latent heat in the waters, in the woods and in all fixed and moveable things; he begets his mothers: Agni, as lightning is the son of the waters collected in the clouds; he generates those waters by the oblations which he conveys; he issues from the ocean: upastha_t (smudra_t) nirgacchati, Agni is thought to rise in the morning in the shape of the sun from out of the ocean].
      1.095.05 Appearing amongst them (the waters), the bright-shining (Agni) increases, rising above the flanks of the waving waters, spreading his own renown; both (heaven and earth) are alarmed, as the radiant Agni is born, and, approaching the lion, they pay him honour. [above the flanks of the waving waters: jihma_na_m apa_m upasthe, above, on the side, or tip, of the crooked waters; reference to Agni as the lightning; approaching the lion: sim.ha applied to Agni, implying sahanas'i_lam, abhibha_vana s'i_lam, ability to suffer or be overcome].
      1.095.06 Both the auspicious ones (day and night or two pieces of wood rubbed together to produce flame) wait upon him like two female attendants, as lowing kine (follow their calves) by the paths (that they have gone); he has been the lord of might among the mighty, whom (the priests) on the right (of the altar) anoint.
      1.095.07 Like the sun, he stretches forth his arms, and the formidable Agni, decorating both heaven and earth (with brightness), labours (in his duties); he draws up from everything the essential (moisture), and clothes (the earth) with new vestments (derived) from his maternal (rains).
      1.095.08 Associated in the firmament with the moving waters, he assumes an excellent and lustrous form, and the wise sustainer (of all things) sweeps over the source (of the rains with his radiance), whence a concentration of light is spread abroad by the sportive deity. [budhna = antariks.a or firmament, as the source of the rains].
      1.095.09 The vast and victorious radiance of you, the mighty one, pervades the firmament; Agni, who have been kindled by us, preserve us with all your undiminished and protecting glories.
      1.095.10 He causes the waters to flow in a torrent through the sky, and with those pure waves he inundates the earth; he gathers all (articles of) food in the stomach, and for that purpose sojourns in the new-sprung parents (of the gain). [navasu prasus.u = in the new parents, or mothers; i.e. in the os.adhis, the annual crops which ripen after the rains and bear food, being impregnated by the terrestrial Agni].
      1.095.11 Agni, who are the purifier, growing with the fuel we have supplied, blaze for the sake of (securing) food to us, who are possessed of wealth; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve it to us.

      Griffith: HYMN XCV. Agni 95


      1. To fair goals travel Two unlike in semblance: each in succession nourishes an infant.
      One bears a Godlike Babe of golden colour; bright and fairshining-, is he with the other.
      2 Tvastars' ten daughters, vigilant and youthful, produced this Infant borne to sundry quarters.
      They bear around him whose long flames are pointed, fulgent among mankind with native splendour.
      3. Three several places of his birth they honour, in midair-, in the heaven, and in the waters.
      Governing in the east of earthly regions, the seasons hath he stablished in their order.
      4 Who of you knows this secret One? The Infant by his own nature hath brought forth his Mothers.
      The germ of many, from the waters' bosom he goes forth, wise and great, of Godlike nature.
      5 Visible, fair, he grows in native brightness uplifted in the lap of waving waters.
      When he was born both Tvastars' worlds were frightened: they turn to him and reverence the Lion.
      6 The Two auspicious Ones, like women, tend him: like lowing cows they seek him in their manner.
      He is the Lord of Might among the mighty; him, on the right, they balm with their oblations.
      7 Like Savitar his arms with might he stretches; awful, he strives grasping the worlds' two
      borders.
      He forces out from all a brilliant vesture, yea, from his Mothers draws forth new raiment.
      8 He makes him a most noble form of splendour, decking him in his home with milk and waters.
      The Sage adorns the depths of air with wisdom: this is the meeting where the Gods are worshipped.
      9 Wide through the firmament spreads forth triumphant the far resplendent- strength of thee the
      Mighty.
      Kindled by us do thou preserve us, Agni, with all thy selfbright- undiminished succours.
      10 In dry spots he makes stream, and course, and torrent, and inundates the earth with floods that glisten.
      All ancient things within his maw he gathers, and moves among the new fresh sprouting- grasses.
      11 Fed with our fuel, purifying Agni, so blaze to us auspiciously for glory.
      This prayer of ours may Varuna grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.




      Four Rcas of Āngīrasa are succinct and precise statements on Uṣas: RV 10.172

      RV 1.30:

      20 What mortal, O immortal Dawn, enjoyeth thee? Where lovest thou?
      To whom, O radiant, dost thou go?
      21 For we have had thee in our thoughts whether anear or far away,
      Redhued- and like a dappled mare.
      22 Hither, O 
      Daughter of the Sky, come thou with these thy strengthenings,
      And send thou riches down to us.

      RV 1.48

      HYMN XLVIII. Dawn. 48


      1 DAWN on us with prosperity, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
      Dawn with great glory, Goddess, Lady of the Light, dawn thou with riches, Bounteous One.
      2 They, bringing steeds and kine, boongivers- of all wealth, have oft sped forth to lighten us.
      O Usas, waken up for me the sounds of joy: send us the riches of the great.
      3 Usas hath dawned, and now shall dawn, the Goddess, driver forth of cars
      Which, as she cometh nigh, have fixed their thought on her, like gloryseekers- on the flood.
      4 Here Kanva, chief of Kanvas' race, sings forth aloud the glories of the heroes' names,
      The. princes who, O Usas, as thou comest near, direct their thoughts to liberal gifts.
      5 Like a good matron Usas comes carefully tending everything:
      Rousing all life she stirs all creatures that have feet, and makes the birds of air fly up.
      6 She sends the busy forth, each man to his pursuit: delay she knows not as she springs.
      O rich in opulence, after thy dawning birds that have flown forth no longer rest.
      7 This Dawn hath yoked her steeds afar, beyond the rising of the Sun:
      Borne on a hundred chariots she, auspicious Dawn, advances on her way to Men.
      8 To meet her glance all living creatures bend them down: Excellent One, she makes the light.
      Usas, the Daughter of the Sky, the opulent, shines foes and enmities away.
      9 Shine on us with thy radiant light, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
      Bringing to us great store of high felicity, and beaming on our solemn rites.
      10 For in thee is each living creatures' breath and life, when, Excellent! thou dawnest forth.
      Borne on thy lofty car, O Lady of the Light, hear, thou of wondrous wealth, our call.
      11 O Usas, win thyself the strength which among men is wonderful.
      Bring thou thereby the pious unto holy rites, those who as priests sing praise to thee.
      12 Bring from the firmament, O Usas, all the Gods, that they may drink our Soma juice,
      And, being what thou art, vouchsafe us kine and steeds, strength meet for praise and hero might.
      13 May Usas whose auspicious rays are seen resplendent round about,
      Grant us great riches, fair in form, of all good things, wealth which light labour may attain.
      14 Mighty One, whom the Rsis of old time invoked for their protection and their help,
      O Usas, graciously answer our songs of praise with bounty and with brilliant light.
      15 Usas, as thou with light to day hast opened the twin doors of heaven,
      So grant thou us a dwelling wide and free from foes. O Goddess, give us food with kine.
      16 Bring us to wealth abundant, sent in every shape, to plentiful refreshing food,
      To allsubduing- splendour, Usas, Mighty One, to strength, thou rich in spoil and wealth.


      RV 1.49


      HYMN XLIX. Dawn. 49


      1 EEN' from above the skys' bright realm come, Usas, by auspicious ways:
      Let red steeds bear thee to the house of him who pours the Soma, juice.
      2 The chariot which thou mountest, fair of shape, O Usas light to move,
      Therewith, O Daughter of the Sky, aid men of noble fame today.
      3 Bright Usas, when thy times return, all quadrupeds and bipeds stir,
      And round about flock winged birds from all the boundaries of heaven.
      4 Thou dawning with thy beams of light illumest all the radiant realm.
      Thee, as thou art, the Kanvas, fain for wealth, have called with sacred songs.


      RV 1.92


      HYMN XCII. Dawn. 92


      1.    THESE Dawns have raised their banner; in the eastern half of the midair- they spread abroad
      their shining light.
      Like heroes who prepare their weapons for the war, onward they come bright red in hue, the Mother
      Cows.
      2 Readily have the purple beams of light shot up; the Red Cows have they harnessed, easy to be
      yoked.
      The Dawns have brought distinct perception as before: redhued-, they have attained their fulgent
      brilliancy.
      3 They sing their song like women active in their tasks, along their common path hither from far
      away,
      Bringing refreshment to the liberal devotee, yea, all things to the worshipper who pours the juice.
      4 She, like a dancer, puts her broidered garments on: as a cow yields her udder so she bares her
      breast.
      Creating light for all the world of life, the Dawn hath laid the darkness open as the cows their
      stall.
      5 We have beheld the brightness of her shining; it spreads and drives away the darksome monster.
      Like tints that deck the Post at sacrifices, Heavens' Daughter hath attained her wondrous
      splendour.
      6 We have overpast the limit of this darkness; Dawn breaking forth again brings clear perception.
      She like a flatterer smiles in light for glory, and fair of face hath wakened to rejoice us.
      7 The Gotamas have praised Heavens' radiant Daughter, the leader of the charm of pleasant voices.
      Dawn, thou conferrest on us strength with offspring and men, conspicuous with kine and horses.
      8 O thou who shinest forth in wondrous glory, urged onward by thy strength, auspicious Lady,
      Dawn, may I gain that wealth, renowned and ample, in brave sons, troops of slaves, farfamed- for
      horses.
      9 Bending her looks on all the world, the Goddess shines, widely spreading with her bright eye
      westward.
      Waking to motion every living creature, she understands the voice of each adorer.
      10 Ancient of days, again again born newly, decking her beauty with the selfsame- raiment.
      The Goddess wastes away the life of mortals, like a skilled hunter cutting birds in pieces.
      11 She hath appeared discovering heavens' borders: to the far distance she drives off her Sister.
      Diminishing the days of human creatures, the Lady shines with all her lovers' splendour.
      12 The bright, the blessed One shines forth extending her rays like kine, as a flood rolls his
      waters.
      Never transgressing the divine commandments, she is beheld visible with the sunbeams.
      13 O Dawn enriched with ample wealth, bestow on us the wondrous gift
      Wherewith we may support children and childrens' sons.
      14 Thou radiant mover of sweet sounds, with wealth of horses and of kine
      Shine thou on us this day, O Dawn auspiciously.
      15 O Dawn enriched with holy rites, yoke to thy car thy purple steeds,
      And then bring thou unto us all felicities.
      16 O Asvins wonderful in act, do ye unanimous direct
      Your chariot to our home wealthy in kine and gold.
      17 Ye who brought down the hymn from heaven, a light that giveth light to man,
      Do ye, O Asvins, bring strength hither unto us.
      18 Hither may they who wake at dawn bring, to drink Soma both the Gods
      Healthgivers- WonderWorkers-, borne on paths of gold.

      RV 1.113

      HYMN CXIII. Dawn. 113


      1. This light is come, amid all lights the fairest; born is the brilliant, farextending-
      brightness.
      Night, sent away for Savitars' uprising, hath yielded up a birthplace- for the Morning.
      2 The Fair, the Bright is come with her white offspring; to her the Dark One hath resigned her
      dwelling.
      Akin, immortal, following each other, changing their colours both the heavens move onward.
      3 Common, unending is the Sisters' pathway; taught by the Gods, alternately they travel.
      Fairformed-, of different hues and yet oneminded-, Night and Dawn clash not, neither do they
      travel.
      4 Bright leader of glad sounds, our eyes behold her; splendid in hue she hath unclosed the portals.
      She, stirring up the world, hath shown us riches: Dawn hath awakened every living creature.
      5 Rich Dawn, she sets afoot the coiledup- sleeper, one for enjoyment, one for wealth or worship,
      Those who saw little for extended vision. All living creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
      6 One to high sway, one to exalted glory, one to pursue his gain, and one his labour:
      All to regard their different vocations, all moving creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
      7 We see her there, the Child of Heaven apparent, the young Maid, flushing in her shining raiment.
      Thou sovran Lady of all earthly treasure, flush on us here, auspicious Dawn, this morning.
      8 She first of endless morns to come hereafter, follows the path of morns that have departed.
      Dawn, at her rising, urges forth the living him who is dead she wakes not from his slumber.
      9 As thou, Dawn, hast caused Agni to be kindled, and with the Suns' eye hast revealed creation.
      And hast awakened men to offer worship, thou hast performed, for Gods, a noble service.
      10 How long a time, and they shall be together, Dawns that have shone and Dawns to shine hereafter?
      She yearns for former Dawns with eager longing, and goes forth gladly shining with the others.
      11 Gone are the men who in the days before us looked on the rising of the earlier Morning.
      We, we the living, now behold her brightness and they come nigh who shall hereafter see her.
      12 Foechaser-, born of Law, the Laws' protectress, joygiver-, waker of all pleasant voices,
      Auspicious, bringing food for Gods enjoyment, shine on us here, most bright, O Dawn, this morning.
      13 From days eternal hath Dawn shone, the Goddess, and shows this light today-, endowed with
      riches.
      So will she shine on days to come immortal she moves on in her own strength, undecaying.
      14 In the skys' borders hath she shone in splendour: the Goddess hath thrown off the veil of
      darkness.
      Awakening the world with purple horses, on her wellharnessed- chariot Dawn approaches.
      15 Bringing all lifesustaining- blessings with her, showing herself she sends forth brilliant
      lustre.
      Last of the countless mornings that have vanished, first of bright morns to come hath Dawn arisen.
      16 Arise! the breath, the life, again hath reached us: darkness hath passed away and light
      approacheth.
      She for the Sun hath left a path to travel we have arrived where men prolong existence.
      17 Singing the praises of refulgent Mornings with his hymns' web the priest, the poet rises.
      Shine then today-, rich Maid, on him who lauds thee, shine down on us the gift of life and
      offspring.
      18 Dawns giving sons all heroes, kine and horses, shining upon the man who brings oblations,
      These let the Somapresser- gain when ending his glad songs louder than the voice of Vayu.
      19 Mother of Gods, Aditis' form of glory, ensign of sacrifice, shine forth exalted.
      Rise up, bestowing praise on our devotion allbounteous-, make us chief among the people.
      20 Whatever splendid wealth the Dawns bring with them to bless the man who offers praise and
      worship,
      Even that may Mitra, Varuna vouchsafe us, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.


      RV 1.123


      HYMN CXXIII. Dawn. 123


      1.    THE Daksinas' broad chariot hath been harnessed: this car the Gods Immortal have ascended.
      Fain to bring light to homes of men the noble and active Goddess hath emerged from darkness.
      2 She before all the living world hath wakened, the Lofty One who wins and gathers treasure.
      Revived and ever young on high she glances. Dawn hath come first unto our morning worship.
      3 If, Dawn, thou Goddess nobly born, thou dealest fortune this day to all the race of mortals,
      May Savitar the God, Friend of the homestead, declare before the Sun that we are sinless.
      4 Showing her wonted form each day that passeth, spreading the light she visiteth each dwelling.
      Eager for conquest, with bright sheen she cometh. Her portion is the best of goodly treasures.
      5 Sister of Varuna, sister of Bhaga, first among all sing forth, O joyous Morning.
      Weak be the strength of him who worketh evil: may we subdue him with our car the guerdon.
      6 Let our glad hymns and holy thoughts rise upward, for the flames brightly burning have ascended.
      The farrefulgent- Mornings make apparent the lovely treasures which the darkness covered.
      7 The one departeth and the other cometh: unlike in hue days', halves march on successive.
      One hides the gloom of the surrounding Parents. Dawn on her shining chariot is resplendent.
      8 The same in form today-, the same tomorrow, they still keep Varunas' eternal statute.
      Blameless, in turn they traverse thirty regions, and dart across the spirit in a moment.
      9 She who hath knowledge Of the first days' nature is born refulgent white from out the darkness.
      The Maiden breaketh not the law of Order, day by day coming to the place appointed.
      10 In pride of beauty like a maid thou goest, O Goddess, to the God who longs to win thee,
      And smiling youthful, as thou shinest brightly, before him thou discoverest thy bosom.
      11 Fair as a bride embellished by her mother thou showest forth thy form that all may see it.
      Blessed art thou O Dawn. Shine yet more widely. No other Dawns have reached what thou attainest.
      12 Rich in kine, horses, and all goodly treasures, in constant operation with the sunbeams,
      The Dawns depart and come again assuming their wonted forms that promise happy fortune.
      13 Obedient to the rein of Law Eternal give us each thought that more and more shall bless us.
      Shine thou on us today-, Dawn, swift to listen. With us be riches and with chiefs who worship.

      RV 1.124


      HYMN CXXIV. Dawn. 124


      1.    THE Dawn refulgent when the fire is kindled, and the Sun rising, far diffuse their brightness.
      Savitar, God, hath sent us forth to labour, each quadruped, each biped, to be active.
      2 Not interrupting heavenly ordinances, although she minisheth human generations.
      The last of endless morns that have departed, the first of those that come, Dawn brightly shineth.
      3 There in the eastern region she, Heavens' Daughter, arrayed in garments all of light, appeareth.
      Truly she followeth the path of Order, nor faileth, knowing well, the heavenly quarters.
      4 Near is she seen, as it were the Bright Ones' bosom: she showeth sweet things like a new
      songsinger-.
      She cometh like a fly awaking sleepers, of all returning dames most true and constant.
      5 There in the east half of the watery region the Mother of the Cows hath shown her ensign.
      Wider and wider still she spreadeth onward, and filleth full the laps of both heir Parents.
      6 She, verily, exceeding vast to look on debarreth from her light nor kin nor stranger.
      Proud of her spotless form she, brightly shining, turneth not from the high nor from the humble.
      7 She seeketh men, as she who hath no brother, mounting her car, as it were to gather riches.
      Dawn, like a loving matron for her husband, smiling and well attired, unmasks her beauty.
      8 The Sister quitteth, for the elder Sister, her place, and having looked on her departeth.
      She decks her beauty, shining forth with sunbeams, like women trooping to the festal meeting.
      9 To all these Sisters who ere now have vanished a later one each day in course succeedeth.
      So, like the past, with days of happy fortune, may the new Dawns shine forth on us with riches.
      10 Rouse up, O Wealthy One, the liberal givers; let niggard traffickers sleep on unwakened:
      Shine richly, Wealthy One, on those who worship, richly, glad.
      Dawn while wasting, on the singer.
      11 This young Maid from the east hath shone upon us; she harnesseth her team of bright red oxen.
      She will beam forth, the light will hasten hither, and Agni will be present in each dwelling.
      12 As the birds fly forth from their resting places, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
      Yea, to the liberal mortal who remaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.
      13 Praised through my prayer be ye who should be lauded. Ye have increased our wealth, ye Dawns
      who love us.
      Goddesses, may we win by your good favour wealth to be told by hundreds and by thousands.

      RV 3.61


      HYMN LXI. Usas. 61


      1. O Usas, strong with strength, endowed witli knowledge, accept the singers' praise, O wealthy
      Lady.
      Thou, Goddess, ancient, young, and full of wisdom, movest, allbounteous-! as the Law ordaineth.
      2 Shine forth, O Morning, thou auspicious Goddess, on thy bright car awaking pleasant voices.
      Let docile horses of farreaching- splendour convey thee hitherward, the goldencoloured.
      3 Thou, Morning, turning thee to every creature, standest on high as ensign of the Immortal,
      To one same goal ever and ever wending now, like a wheel, O newlyborn-, roll hi ther.
      4 Letting her reins drop downward, Morning cometh, the wealthy Dame, the Lady of the dwelling;
      Bringing forth light, the Wonderful, the Blessed hath spread her from the bounds of earth and
      heaven.
      5 Hither invoke the radiant Goddess Morning, and bring with reverence your hymn to praise her.
      She, dropping sweets, hath set in heaven her brightness, and, fair to look on, hath beamed forth
      her splendour.
      6 From heaven, with hymns, the Holy One was wakened: brightly to both worlds came the wealthy Lady.
      To Morning, Agni, when she comes refulgent, thou goest forth soliciting fair riches.
      7 On Laws' firm base the speeder of the Mornings, the Bull, hath entered mighty earth and heaven.
      Great is the power of Varuna and Mitra, which, bright, hath spread in every place its splendour.


      RV 4.30


      8 And this heroic deed of might thou, Indra, also hast achieved,
      That thou didst smite to death the Dame, Heavens' Daughter, meditating ill.
      9 Thou, Indra, Mighty One, didst crush Usas, though Daughter of the Sky.
      When lifting up herself in pride.
      10 Then from her chariot Usas fled, affrighted, from her ruined car.
      When the strong God had shattered it.
      11 So there this car of Usas lay, broken to pieces, in Vipas,
      And she herself fled far away.


      RV 4.51, 4.52


      HYMN LI. Dawn. 51


      1. FORTH from the darkness in the region eastward this most abundant splendid light hatb mounted.
      Now verily the farrefulgent- Mornings, Daughters of Heaven, bring welfare to the people.
      2 The richlycoloured- Dawns have mounted eastward, like pillars planted at our sacrifices,
      And, flushing far, splendid and purifying, unbarred the portals of the fold of darkness.
      3 Dispelling gloom this day the wealthy Mornings urge liberal givers to present their treasures.
      In the unlightened depth of darkness round them let niggard traffickers sleep unawakened.
      4 O Goddesses, is this your car, I ask you, ancient this day, or is it new, ye Mornings,
      Wherewith, rich Dawns, ye seek with wealth Navagva, Dasagva Angira, the seventoned- singer?
      5 With horses harnessed by eternal Order, Goddesses, swiftly round the worlds ye travel,
      Arousing from their rest, O Dawns, the sleeping, and all that lives, man, bird, and beast, to
      motion.
      6 Which among these is eldest, and where is she through whom they fixed the Rbhus' regulations?
      What time the splendid Dawns go forth for splendour, they are not known apart, alike, unwasting.
      7 Blest were these Dawns of old, shining with succour, true with the truth that springs from holy
      Order;
      With whom the toiling worshipper, by praises, hymning and lauding, soon attained to riches.
      8 Hither from eastward all at once they travel, from one place spreading in the selfsame manner.
      Awaking, from the seat of holy Order the Godlike Dawns come nigh like troops of cattle.
      9 Thus they go forth with undiminished colours, these Mornings similar, in selfsame- fashion,
      Concealing the gigantic might of darkness with radiant bodies bright and pure and shining.
      10 O Goddesses, O Heavens' refulgent Daughters, bestow upon us wealth with store of children.
      As from our pleasant place of rest ye rouse us may we be masters of heroic vigour.
      11 Wellskilled- in lore of sacrifice, ye Daughters of Heaven, refulgent Dawns, I thus address you.
      May we be glorious among the people. May Heaven vouchsafe us this, and Earth the Goddess,


      HYMN LII. Dawn. 52


      1. THIS Lady, giver of delight, after her Sister shining forth, Daughter of Heaven, hath shown
      herself.-
      2 Unfailing, Mother of the Kine, in colour like a bright red mare,
      The Dawn became the Asvins' Friend.
      3 Yea, and thou art the Asvins' Friend, the Mother of the Kine art thou:
      O Dawn thou rulest over wealth.
      4 Thinking of thee, O joyous One, as her who driveth hate away,
      We woke to meet thee with our lauds.
      5 Our eyes behold thy blessed rays like troops of cattle loosed to feed.
      Dawn hath filled full the wide expanse.
      6 When thou hast filled it, Fulgent One! thou layest bare the gloom with light.
      After thy nature aid us, Dawn.
      7 Thou overspreadest heaven with rays, the dear wide region of midair-.
      With thy bright shining lustre, Dawn.


      RV 5.79


      HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79


      1. O HEAVENLY Dawn, awaken us to ample opulence today-
      Even as thou hast wakened us with Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy steeds!
      2 Daughter of Heaven, thou dawnedst on Sunitha Sucadrathas' son,
      So dawn thou on one mightier still, on Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
      steeds!
      3 So, bringing treasure, dawn today- on us thou Daughter of the Sky,
      As thou, O mightier yet. didst shine for Satyatravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
      steeds!
      4 Here round about thee are the priests who laud thee, Bright One, with their hymns,
      And men with gifts, O Bounteous Dame, splendid with wealth and offering much, highborn-!
      delightful with thy steeds!
      5 Whatever these thy bands perform to please thee or to win them wealth,
      even fain they gird us round and give rich gifts which Never are reft away, highborn-! delightful
      with thy steeds!
      6 Give to these wealthy patrons fame, O affluent Dawn, with hero sons,
      To these our princes who have brought rich gifts Never to be reft away, highborn! delightful with
      thy steeds!
      7 Bring lofty and resplendent fame, O thou munificent Dawn, to these
      Our wealthy patrons who bestow rich gifts on us of steeds and kine, highborn-! delightful with thy
      steeds!
      8 Bring us, O Daughter of the Sky, subsistence in our herds of kine,
      Together with the sunbeams, with the shine of pure refulgent flames, highborn! delightful with thy
      steeds!
      9 O Daughter of the Sky, shine forth; delay not to perform thy task.
      Let not the Sun with fervent heat consume thee like a robber foe, highborn-! delightful with the
      steeds!
      10 So much, and more exceedingly, O Dawn, it suits thee to bestow,
      Thou Radiant One who ceasest not to shine for those who sing thy praise, highborn! delightful with
      thy steeds!


      RV 5.80


      HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80


      1. THE singers welcome with their hymns and praises the Goddess Dawn who bringeth in the sunlight,
      Sublime, by Law true to eternal Order, bright on her path, redtinted-, farrefulgent-.
      2 She comes in front, fair, rousing up the people, making the pathways easy to be travelled.
      High, on her lofty chariot, allimpelling-, Dawn gives her splendour at the days' beginning.
      3 She, harnessing her car with purple oxen. injuring none, hath brought perpetual riches.
      Opening paths to happiness, the Goddess shines, praised by all, giver of every blessing.
      4 With changing tints she gleams in double splendour while from the eastward she displays her body.
      She travels perfectly the path of Order, nor fails to reach, as one who knows, the quarters.
      5 As conscious that her limbs are bright with bathing, she stands, as it were, erect that we may
      see her.
      Driving away malignity and darkness, Dawn, Child of Heaven, hath come to us with lustre.
      6 The Daughter of the Sky, like some chaste woman, bends, opposite to men, her forehead downward.
      The Maid, disclosing boons to him who worships, hath brought again the daylight as aforetime.


      RV 6.64, RV 6.65


      HYMN LXIV. Dawn. 64


      1. THE radiant Dawns have risen up for glory, in their white splendour like the waves of waters.
      She maketh paths all easy, fair to travel, and, rich, hath shown herself benign and friendly.
      2 We see that thou art good: far shines thy lustre; thy beams, thy splendours have flown up to
      heaven.
      Decking thyself, thou makest bare thy bosom, shining in majesty, thou Goddess Morning.
      3 Red are the kine and luminous that bear her the Blessed One who spreadeth through the distance.
      The foes she chaseth like a valiant archer, like a swift warrior she repelleth darkness.
      4 Thy ways are easy on the hills: thou passest Invincible! Se1fluminous-! through waters.
      So lofty Goddess with thine ample pathway, Daughter of Heaven, bring wealth to give us comfort.
      5 Dawn, bring me wealth: untroubled, with thine oxen thou bearest riches at thy will and pleasure;
      Thou who, a Goddess, Child of Heaven, hast shown thee lovely through bounty when we called thee
      early.
      6 As the birds fly forth from their restingplaces, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
      Yea, to the liberal mortal who rernaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.


      HYMN LXV. Dawn. 65


      1.    SHEDDING her light on human habitations this Child of Heaven hath called us from our slumber;
      She who at nighttime- with her argent lustre hath shown herself even through the shades of
      darkness.
      2 All this with redrayed- steeds have they divided: the Dawns on bright cars shine in wondrous
      fashion.
      They, bringing near the stately rites' commencement, drive far away the nights' surrounding
      shadows.
      3 Dawns, bringing hither, to the man who worships, glory and power and might and food and vigour,
      Opulent, with imperial sway like heroes, favour your servant and this day enrich him.
      4 Now is there treasure for the man who serves you, now for the hero, Dawns! who brings oblation;
      Now for the singer when he sings the praisesong-. Even to one like me ye brought aforetime.
      5 O Dawn who standest on the mountain ridges, Angirases now praise thy stalls of cattle.
      With prayer and holy hymn they burst them open: the heroes' calling on the Gods was fruitful.
      6 Shine on us as of old, thou Child of Heaven on, him, rich Maid! who serves like Bharadvaja.
      Give to the singer wealth with noble heroes, and upon us bestow widespreading- glory.

      RV 7.41


      HYMN XLI. Bhaga. 41


      6 To this our worship may all Dawns incline them, and come to the pure place like Dadhikravan.
      As strong steeds draw a chariot may they bring us hitherward Bhaga who discovers treasure.
      7 May blessed Mornings dawn on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
      Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


      RV 7.75 to RV 7.81


      HYMN LXXV. Dawn. 75


      1. BORN in the heavens the Dawn hath flushed, and showing her majesty is come as Law ordaineth.
      She hath uncovered fiends and hateful darkness; best of Angirases, hath waked the pathways.
      2 Rouse us this day to high and happy fortune: to great felicity, O Dawn, promote us.
      Vouchsafe us manifold and splendid riches, famed among mortals, manbefriending- Goddess!
      3 See, lovely Mornings' everlasting splendours, bright with their varied colours, have approached
      us.
      Filling the region of midair-, producing the rites of holy worship, they have mounted.
      4 She yokes her chariot far away, and swiftly visits the lands where the Five Tribes are settled,
      Looking upon the works and ways of mortals, Daughter of Heaven, the worlds' Imperial Lady.
      5 She who is rich in spoil, the Spouse of Surya, wondrously opulent, rules all wealth and
      treasures.
      Consumer of our youth, the seers extol her: lauded by priests rich Dawn shines out refulgent.
      6 Apparent are the steeds of varied colour, the red steeds carrying resplendent Morning.
      On her alllovely- car she comes, the Fair One, and brings rich treasure for her faithful servant.
      7 True with the True and Mighty with the Mighty, with Gods a Goddess, Holy with the Holy,
      She brake strong fences down and gave the cattle: the kine were lowing as they greeted Morning.
      8 O Dawn, now give us wealth in kine and heroes, and horses, fraught with manifold enjoyment.
      Protect our sacred grass from mans' reproaches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


      HYMN LXXVI. Dawn. 76


      1. SAVITAR God of all men hath sent upward his light, designed for all mankind, immortal.
      Through the Gods power that Eye was first created. Dawn hath made all the universe apparent.
      2 I see the paths which Gods are wont to travel, innocuous paths made ready by the Vasus.
      Eastward the flag of Dawn hath been uplifted; she hath come hither over the tops of houses.
      3 Great is, in truth, the number of the Mornings which were aforetime at the Suns' uprising.
      Since thou, O Dawn, hast been beheld repairing as to thy love, as one no more to leave him.
      4 They were the Gods companions at the banquet, the ancient sages true to Law Eternal.
      The Fathers found the light that lay in darkness, and with effectual words begat the Morning.
      5 Meeting together in the same enclosure, they strive not, ofone mind, one with another.
      They never break the Gods eternal statutes, and injure none, in rivalry with Vasus.
      6 Extolling thee, Blest Goddess, the Vasisthas, awake at early mom, with lauds implore thee.
      Leader of kine and Queen of all that strengthens, shine, come as first to us, O highborn- Morning.
      7 She bringeth bounty and sweet charm of voices. The flushing Dawn is sung by the Vasisthas,
      Giving us riches famed to distant places. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


      HYMN LXXVIT. Dawn. 77


      1. SHE hath shone brightly like a youthful woman, stirring to motion every living creature.
      Agni hath come to feed on mortal? fuel. She hath made light and chased away the darkness.
      2 Turned to this All, farspreading-, she hath risen and shone in brightness with white robes about
      her.
      She hath beamed forth lovely with golden colours, Mother of kine, Guide of the days she bringeth.
      3 Bearing the Gods own Eye, auspicious Lady, leading her Courser white and fair to look on,
      Distinguished by her beanis- Dawn shines apparent, come forth to all the world with wondrous
      treasure.
      4 Draw nigh with wealth and dawn away the foeman: prepare for us wide pasture free from danger.
      Drive away those who hate us, bring us riches: pour bounty, opulent Lady, on the singer.
      5 Send thy most excellent beams to shine and light us, giving us lengthened days, O Dawn, O
      Goddess,
      Granting us food, thou who hast all things precious, and bounty rich in chariots, kine, and horses.
      6 O Usas, noblyborn-, Daughter of Heaven, whom the Vasisthas with their hymns make mighty,
      Bestow thou on us vast and glorious riches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


      HYMN LXXVIII. Dawn. 78


      1. WE have beheld her earliest lights approaching: her many glories part, on high, asunder.
      On car sublime, refulgent, wending hither, O Usas, bring the Wealth that makes us happy.
      2 The fire wellkindIed- sings aloud to greet her, and with their hymns the priests are chaming
      welcome.
      Usas approaches in her splendour, driving all evil darkness far away, the Goddess.
      3 Apparent eastward are those lights of Morning, sending out lustre, as they rise, around them.
      She hath brought forth Sun, sacrifice, and Agni, and far away hath fled detested darkness.
      4 Rich Daughter of the Sky, we all behold her, yea, all men look on Dawn as she is breaking.
      fler car that moves selfharnessed- hath she mounted, the car drawn onward by her wellyoked- horses.
      5 Inspired with loving thoughts this day to greet thee, we and our wealthy nobles have awakened.
      Show yourselves fruitful, Dawns, as ye are rising. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


      HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79


      1. ROUSING the lands where mens' Five Tribes are settled, Dawn hath disclosed the pathways of the
      people.
      She hath sent out her sheen with beauteous oxen. The Sun with light hath opened earth and heaven.
      2 They paint their bright rays on the skys' far limits. the Dawns come on like tribes arrayed for
      battle.
      Thy cattle, closely shutting up the darkness, as Savitar spreads his arms, give forth their lustre.
      3 Wealthy, most like to Indra, Dawn hath risen, and brought forth lauds that shall promote our
      welfare.
      Daughter of Heaven, a Goddess, she distributes, best of Angirases, treasures to the pious.
      4 Bestow on us, O Dawn, that ample bounty which thou didst send to those who sang thy praises;
      Thou whom with bellowings of a bull they quickened: thou didst unbar the firmset- mountains'
      portals.
      5 Impelling every God to grant his bounty sending to us the charm of pleasant voices,
      Vouchsafe us thoughts, for profit, as thou breakest. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


      HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80


      1 THE priests, Vasisthas, are the first awakened to welcome Usas with their songs and praises,
      Who makes surrounding regions part asunder and, shows apparent all existing creatures.
      2 Giving fresh life when she hath hid the darkness, this Dawn hath wakened there with newborn-
      lustre.
      Youthful and unrestrained she cometh forward: she hath turned thoughts to Sun and fire and worship.
      3 May blessed Mornings shine on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
      Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


      HYMN LXXXI. Dawn. 81


      1.    ADVANCING, sending forth her rays, the Daughter of the Sky is seen.
      Uncovering, that we may see, the mighty gloom, the friendly Lady makes the light.
      2 The Sun ascending, the refulgent Star, pours down his beams together with the Dawn.
      O Dawn, at thine arising, and the Suns', may we attain the share allotted us.
      3 Promptly we woke to welcome thee, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
      Thee, Bounteous One, who bringest all we long to have, and to the offerer health and wealth.
      4 Thou, dawning, workest fain to light the great world, yea, heaven, Goddess! that it may be seen.
      We yearn to be thine own, Dealer of Wealth: may we be to this Mother like her sons.
      5 Bring us that wondrous bounty, Dawn, that shall be famed most far away.
      What, Child of Heaven, thou hast of nourishment for man, bestow thou on us to enjoy.
      6 Give to our princes opulence and immortal fame, and strength in herds of kine to us.
      May she who prompts the wealthy, Lady of sweet strains, may Usas dawn our foes away.

      RV 8.47


      HYMN XLVII. Adityas. 47


      1. GREAT help ye give the worshipper, Varuna, Mitra, Mighty Ones! No sorrow ever reaches him whom
      ye, Adityas, keep from harm. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.
      2 O Gods, Adityas, well ye know the way to keep all woes afar.
      As the birds spread their sheltering wings, spread your protection over us.
      3 As the birds spread their sheltering wings let your protection cover us.
      We mean all shelter and defence, ye who have all things for your own.
      4 To whomsoever they, Most Wise, have given a home and means of life,
      Over the whole riches of this man they, the Adityas, have control.
      5 As drivers of the car avoid ill roads, let sorrows pass us by.
      May we be under Indras' guard, in the Adityas' favouring grace.
      6 For verily men sink and faint through loss of wealth which ye have given.
      Much hath he gained from you, O Gods, whom ye, Adityas, have approached.
      7 On him shall no fierce anger fall, no sore distress shall visit him,
      To whom, Adityas, ye have lent your shelter that extendeth far.
      8 Resting in you, O Gods, we are like men who fight in coats of mail.
      Ye guard us from each great offence, ye guard us from each lighter fault.
      9 May Aditi defend us, may Aditi guard and shelter us,
      Mother of wealthy Mitra and of Aryaman and Varuna.
      10 The shelter, Gods, that is secure, auspicious, free from malady,
      A sure protection, triply strong, even that do ye extend to us.
      11 Look down on us, Adityas, as a guide exploring from the bank.
      Lead us to pleasant ways as men lead horses to an easy ford.
      12 Ill be it for the demons' friend to find us or come near to us.
      But for the milchcow- be it well, and for the man who strives for fame.
      13 Each evil deed made manifest, and that which is concealed, O Gods,
      The whole thereof remove from us to Trita Aptya far away.
      14 Daughter of Heaven, the dream that bodes evil to us or to our kine,
      Remove, O Lady of the Light, to Trita Aptya far away.
      15 Even if, O Child of Heaven, it make a garland or a chain of gold,
      The whole bad dream, whatever it be, to Trita Aptya we consign.
      16 To him whose food and work is this, who comes to take his share therein,
      To Trita, and to Dvita, Dawn! bear thou the evil dream away.
      17 As we collect the utmost debt, even the eighth and sixteenth part,
      So unto Aptya we transfer together all the evil dream.
      18 Now have we conquered and obtained, and from our trespasses are free.
      Shine thou away the evil dream, O Dawn, whereof we are afraid. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.



      RV 10.172


      HYMN CLXXII. Dawn. 172

      1. WITH all thy beauty come: the kine approaching with full udders follow on thy path.
      2 Come with kind thoughts, most liberal, rousing the warriors' hymn of praise, with bounteous ones,
      3 As nourishers we tie the thread, and, liberal with our bounty, offer sacrifice.
      4 Dawn drives away her Sisters' gloom, and, through her excellence, makes her retrace her path.

      S. Kalyanaraman
      Sarasvati Research Center February 25, 2017

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JS_KRgl5tA (5:17) Published on Dec 23, 2016
      Questo video contiene mie personali opinioni che non rispecchiano quelle dell'archeologo Massimo Vidale.Per approfondimenti vi lascio linkhttp://www.academia.edu/3877543/M._Vi...

      0 0


      I suggest that the ratha reported by Massimo Vidale from Sarasvati Civilization ca. 2700 BCE is पुष्य--रथ of इन्द्र--मह Indra festival carrying गण--देवता, उषा and two Aśvinīkumāras.

       


      An expression used in 
      Ṛgveda Ṛca 1.122.2 is:.uṣāsānaktamउषासानक्तम् Ved. Dawn and night; उषासानक्ता पुरुधा विदाने (RV 1.122.2) 

      I suggest that the artifact signifies उस्र usra in Ṛgveda refers to uṣā, a bull, two Aśvinīkumāras. These divinities together गणदेवता constitute the eight rowers occupying the boat/chariot. पुष्य--रथ [p= 640,2] m. the asterism पुष्य as a car S3is3.a carriage for pleasure ib. (cf. पुष्प-र्°).

      The chariot could be used on festive occasions: puṣyaratha m. ʻ a carriage for pleasure ʼ Śiś. [Cf. puṣparatha -- m. R. -- púṣya -- 1, rátha -- ]Pa. pussaratha -- , phu° m.; Si. pusriya ʻ a kind of cart ʼ, puyariya ʻ chariot used on festive occasions ʼ.(CDIAL 8309) रथ 1 [p= 865,2]
      m. ( √4. ) " goer " , a chariot , car , esp. a two-wheeled war-chariot (lighter and swifter than the अनस्q.v.) , any vehicle or equipage or carriage (applied also to the vehicles of the gods) , waggon , cart RV. &c (ifc. f().प्रिय--रथ [p= 710,2] [L=140577] m. (prob.) (प्रिय्/अ-) , N. of a man RV. i , 122 , 7 (accord. to Sa1y. mfn. = प्रीयमाण-रथ-युक्त).

      Image result for lady spiked throneImage result for lady spiked throneImage result for lady spiked throneImage result for lady spiked throneImage result for lady spiked throne

      I submit that the figures taken on utsava bera, temple procession may relate to some of the metaphors used in this Ṛca 1.122.2. The entire scene may signify 

      वामन vāmana :Venerable; मध्ये वामनमासीनं विश्वेदेवा उपासते Kaṭh.5.3. The eight rowers seated on the boat/ratha could signify some of the divinities of  विश्वेदेवा  viśvedevā ceremony and constitute one of the 9 गणs enumerated under गणदेवता 

      उस्रा [p= 220,3] f. ( Un2. ii , 13) morning light , daybreak , brightness RV.(personified as a red cow); a cow RV. AV. xii , 3 , 73 MBh. xiii Nir. &cm. the sun;m. an ox , bull RV. vi , 12 , 4 VS. iv , 33; m. N. of the अश्विन्RV. ii , 39 , 3 ; iv , 62 , 1 ; vii , 74 , 1.  usrá m. ʻ ray, sun, day ʼ, usŕ̊ -- f. ʻ morning light ʼ, usrāˊ -- f. ʻ daybreak, cow ʼ RV. [√vas3Pk. usa -- m. ʻ ray ʼ, ussā -- f. ʻ cow ʼ; M. ustẽ n. ʻ first morning light ʼ ( - tẽ < tḗjas -- ).(CDIAL 2399)

      गण--देवता [p= 343,1] f. pl. troops of deities who generally appear in classes (आदित्यs , विश्वs , वसुs , तुषितs , आभास्वरs , अनिलs , महाराजिकs , साध्यs , and रुद्रs) L.

      The two guards of उषा seated on the throne may signify two Aśvin.

      उस्र usra a. 1 Relating to, or seen in, the morning. -2 Bright, shining. -स्रः 1 A ray (of light), beam; सर्वैरुस्रैः समग्रैस्त्वमिव नृपगुणैर्दीप्यते सप्तसप्तिः M.2.13; R.4.66; Ki.5.31,34. शीर्षपुष्पोच्छ्रितैरुस्रैरुत्तंसितशिरोरुहाम्; Parṇāl. 4.36. -2 A bull; Rv.6.12.4. -3 A god. -4 The sun. -5 A day. -6 The two Aśvinīkumāras; Rv.2.39.3. -स्रा 1 Morning, dawn. -2 Light; bright sky. -3 A cow; स्वयमुस्राश्च दुह्यन्ते Mb.12.263.31. -4 The earth. -Comp. -धन्वन् a. having a bright bow. -m. N. of Indra. -यामन् a. going out early in the morning (as the Aśvins); Rv.7.74.1.

      इन्द्रः उत्सवः a festival honouring Indra.-ऋषभ a. having Indra as a bull, or impregnated by Indra, an epithet of the earth. इन्द्रऋषभा द्रविणे नो दधातु Av.12.1.6. इन्द्र--मह [p= 166,3]m. a festival in honour of इन्द्र MBh. Hariv. &c; इन्द्र--मख [p= 166,3]m. a sacrifice to इन्द्र.
       
      उषा signified by the prabha (spiked rays of the sun) may be सूर्या f. the daughter of सूर्य or the Sun (» RV. i , 116 , 17 ; also described as daughter of प्रजापति or of सवितृ and wife of the अश्विन्s , and in other places as married to सोम ; in RV. i , 119 , 2 she is called ऊर्जानी , and in vi , 55 , 4 , vi , 58 , 4 the sister of पूषन् [q.v.] , who is described as loving her , and receiving her as a gift from the gods ; accord. to some she represents a weak manifestation of the Sun ; सूर्या सावित्री is regarded as the authoress of the सूर्या-सूक्त RV. x , 85RV. AV. AitBr. Kaus3.;f. = वाच् Naigh. i , 11; f. = सूर्या-सू*क्ता (q.v.S3a1n3khGr2.; f. a new bride.

      अ-घ्न्य  (2 , 3) or अ-घ्न्य्/अ (2 , 3), m. " not to be killed " , a bull; f. a cow RV. AV.

      The bull as the boat/chariot: वृषन् [p= 1012,3] mfn. (acc. व्/ऋषाणम् nom. pl. °षाणस् ; prob. originally " raining , sprinkling , impregnating ") manly , vigorous , powerful , strong , mighty , great (applied to animate and inanimate objects) RV. AV. VS. Br. (superl. -तम); m. a man , male , any male animal , a bull , stallion &c (also N. of various gods , as implying strength , esp. of इन्द्र and the मरुत्s) ib.

      विश्व [p= 992,2] m. pl. (व्/इश्वे , with or scil. देव्/आस् cf. विश्वे-देव , p.995) " all the gods collectively " or the " All-gods " (a partic. class of gods , forming one of the 9 गणs enumerated under गणदेवता q.v. ; accord. to the विष्णु and other पुराणs they were sons of विश्वा , daughter of दक्ष , and their names are as follow , 1. वसु , 2. सत्य , 3. क्रतु , 4. दक्ष , 5. काल , 6. काम , 7. धृति , 8. कुरु , 9. पुरू-रवस् , 10. माद्रवस् [?] ; two others are added by some , viz. 11. रोचक or लोचन , 12. ध्वनि [or धूरि ; or this may make 13]: they are particularly worshipped at श्राद्धs and at the वैश्वदेव ceremony [Religious Thought and Life in India, also called 'ब्राह्मन् ism and हिन्दू ism,' (RTL) by Sir M. Monier-Williams, page 416] ; moreover accord. to मनु [iii , 90 , 121] , offerings should be made to them daily - these privileges having been bestowed on them by ब्रह्मा and the पितृs , as a reward for severe austerities they had performed on the हिमा*लय: sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the expression विश्वे देवाः refers to all the gods or to the particular troop of deities described above ) RV. &c

      सूर्य a [p= 1243,2] m. the sun or its deity (in the वेद the name सूर्य is generally distinguished from सवितृ [q.v.] , and denotes the most concrete of the solar gods , whose connection with the luminary is always present to the poet's mind ; in Nir. vii , 5 he is regarded as one of the original Vedic triad , his place being in the sky , while that of अग्नि is on the earth , and that of इन्द्र is in the atmosphere ; ten hymns in the RV. are entirely in praise of सूर्य e.g. i , 50 , i , 115 &c , also AV. xiii , 2 ; he moves through the sky in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares [see सप्ता*श्व , हरित् , हरिद्-श्व] ; in the later mythology सूर्य is identified with सवितृ as one of the 12 आदित्यs or emblems of the Sun in the 12 months of the year , and his seven-horsed chariot is said to be driven by अरुण or the Dawn as its charioteer , who is represented without legs ; the Sun , whether named सूर्य or विवस्वत् , has several wives » सूर्या below) RV. &c (cf. IW. 11 ; 16 &c RTL. 341)



      1.122.01 Present, mild-tempered (priests), the sacrificial viands which you have prepared, to there warm-showering Rudra. I praise him who, with his heroid (followers) as (with shafts) from a quiver, expelled (the asuras) from heaven; and (I praise) the Maruts, (who abide) between heaven and earth. [Mild-tempered: raghu-manyavah,of light or little anger; fr. raghu = laghu, light and manyu = anger. The second pa_da: lit. 'I have praised of the expeller from heaven with arrows as if from a quiver the Maruts of heaven and earth'].
      1.122.02 Animated by our diversified praise, hasten, Morning and Night, to attend to our first invocation, as a wife (to the first call of her husband); and may the--Dawn, beautiful with the lustre of the (rising) Sun, and robbing like the Sun (her) vast expanse with golden rays, (come to our early rite). [Stari_h = what covers or expands, smoke; the Sun invested or clothed with light, or destructive of foes: s'atru_n.a_m him.sakah tejasa_channo va_ A_dityah].
      1.122.03 May the circumambient divinity, the wearer of various forms, grant us delight; may the wind, the shedder of rain, grant us delight; do you, Indra and Parvata, sharpen our (intellects), and may all the gods show us favour. [Agni = vasarha_n, i.e. assuming various vestures (vasa) or forms (ga_rhapatya and other fires); or, as destroyingthe vesture of the earth--the trees; or, as causing the revolutions of day and night].
      1.122.04 Whenever I, the son of Us'ij, worship with my offerings (of food) those two (As'vins) who eat and drink (of oblations and libations) at (the season) of the world-whitening (dawn); do you, Priests, glorify the grandson of the waters (Agni), and render (the divinities of the day and night) the mothers (as it were) of the man who repeats their praise. [Trees and shrubs spring up from the moisture of the waters, and fire proceeds from timber;hence, Agni is the grandson of the waters; or son of the waters (Manu, IX. 321)].
      1.122.05 I, the son of Us'ij, address to you (As'vins) audible praises, in like manner as Ghos.a_ praised you for the removal of her white-tinted (skin); I glorify (gods) the bountiful Pu_s.an (associated) with you, and I proclaim the munificence of Agni.
      1.122.06 Mitra and Varun.a, hear these my invocations, and moreover listen to those (that are) everywhere (uttered) in the chamber of sacrifice; and may Sindhu, the renowned bestower of wealth, hear us, (fertilizing our) broad fields with water. [Sindhu: deity presiding over water, jala_bhima_ni devah].
      1.122.07 I praise you, Mitra and Varun.a, for your gift of numerous cattle to the Pajra, and (from those praises) may abundant food (proceed). May (the gods), bestowing nourishment on me, come quickly unimpeded, (each) in his famous and favourite car. [Kaks.i_vat, of the family of Pajra; s'rutarathe priyarathe (mayi): 'on me possessing a famous car'].
      1.122.08 I laud the treasures of that opulent (assemblyof the gods); may we, men who (are blessed) with excellent descendants, partake of them together; the assembly conferring upon the Pajras abundant food, has been my benefactor, and has made me the master of horses and chariots. [mahimaghasya ra_dhas = the riches of that, or of him, who or which ispossessed of great wealth; i.e., deva-san:gha, the assembly or company of the gods; the assembly: the text ahs: jano yah, the man who; yas'ca deva san:ghah, the assembly of the gods which].
      1.122.09 The man who does you wrong, Mitra and Varun.a, who injures you in any way, who does not present you with oblations, contracts for himself sickness in his heart; but he who, performing worship, (celebrates it) with praises. [aks.n.aya_ dhruk: cakren.a, ma_rgen.a druhyati, offends by a wheel, or a way; this is the equivalent of anyatha_ prakaren.a, in another manner; yaks.mam hr.daye nidhatte:he places or deposits consumption in the heart; but yaks.ma = vya_dhi, sickness in general; a reference, perhaps, to the sense of mortification experienced by those who neglect the gods on observing the blessings which recompense devotion.
      1.122.10 He, borne by well-trained horses, endowed with surpassing strength, renowned above men, munificent in gifts, moves a hero, ever undaunted in all combats, (even) against mightymen.
      1.122.11 Royal bestowers of delight, listen to the invocation of (your) undying worshipper, and then come hither, that you who traverse the sky may be propitiated by the greatness of the (sacrificial) wealth presented to you by the sacrificer, who acknowledges no other protector. [amr.tasya nahus.o havam sureh = a_hava_nam amarn.asya stotra_diprerakasya manus.yasya mama, the invocation of me, a mortal, instigating praises and the like, not dying. Alternative rendering: the invocation of the immortal (deity) by me, a mortal worshipper].
      1.122.12 The gods have declared: we confer present vigour upon the worshipper (who invokes us) to partake of the (ibation). May all (the gods) in whom splendour and riches abound, bestow (abundant) food at (solemn) sacrifices. [das'ataya = a decade: food, by which the vigour of the ten senses is augment; or Soma offered in ten ladles. Alternative rendering of the second pa_da:  May all the gods partake of the abundant food (or Soma) at those sacrifices in which the priests are the distributors of the riches of copious libations].
      1.122.13 We rejoice tha tfor the satisfaction of the ten (organs of sense), the (priests) bearing the twice five (ladles of) sacrificial food, proceed (to the altar). What can Is.t.as'va, (what can) Is.t.aras'mi, (what can) those who are now lords of the earth, achieve (with respect) to the leaders of men, the conquerors of their foes? [das'ataya = das'atayasya dha_se, i.e. the ten indriyas,or organs of sense; twice five: ten ladles by the Soma is thrown on the fire; or, the ten articles offered in sacrifices, such as honey,butter, curds, milk, water, grain, offered to fire at the as'vamedha; whaat can those: what can the princes who are named, or any other princes, do against those who enjoy the protection of Mitra and Varun.a].
      1.122.14 May all the gods favour us with a person decorated with golden earrings and jewel necklace; may the venerable (company of the deities) be propitiated by the praises issuing (from the mouth of the worshipper); may our offerings be acceptable to them, and (may they be pleased) with both (our praises and offerings). [arn.as = ru_pe, form; i.e., a son; may they be pleased with both = may they reward us in both worlds; the text has only ubhayes.u, in both].
      1.122.15 The four (silly) sons of Mas'ar's'a_ra, the three of the victorious monarch A_yavasa (annoy) me. Let your spacious and bright-rayed chariot, Mitra and Varun.a, blaze (before them) like the sun (filling them with fear). [s'is'vah = s'is'avah, infant, i.e. infantile, childish].
      Griffith: HYMN CXXII Visvedevas. 122
      1. SAY, bringing sacrifice to bounteous Rudra, This juice for drink to you whose wrath is fleeting!
      With Dyaus the Asuras' Heroes I have lauded the Maruts as with prayer to Earth and Heaven.
      2 Strong to exalt the early invocation are Night and Dawn who show with varied aspect.
      The Barren clothes her in widewoven- raiment, and fair Morn shines with Suryas' golden splendour.
      3 Cheer us the Roamer round, who strikes at morning, the Wind delight us, pourer forth of waters!
      Sharpen our wits, O Parvata and Indra. May all the Gods vouchsafe to us this favour.
      4 And Ausija shall call for me that famous Pair who enjoy and drink, who come to brighten.
      Set ye the Offspring of the Floods before you; both Mothers of the Living One who beameth.
      5 For you shall Ausija call him who thunders, as, to win Arjunas' assent, cried Ghosa.
      I will invoke, that Pusan may be bounteous to you, the rich munificence of Agni.
      6 Hear, MitraVaruna-, these mine invocations, hear them from all men in the hall of worship.
      Giver of famous gifts, kind hearer, Sindhu who gives fair fields, listen with all his waters!
      7 Praised, MitraVaruna! is your gift, a hundred cows to the Prksayamas and the Pajra.
      Presented by carfamous- Priyaratha, supplying nourishment, they came directly.
      8 Praised is the gift of him the very wealthy: may we enjoy it, men with hero children:
      His who hath many gifts to give the Pajras, a chief who makes me rich in cars and horses.
      9 The folk, O MitraVaruna-, who hate you, who sinfully hating pour you no libations,
      Lay in their hearts, themselves, a wasting sickness, whereas the righteous gaineth all by worship.
      10 That man, most puissant, wondrously urged onward, famed among heroes, liberal in giving,
      Moveth a warrior, evermore undaunted in all encounters even with the mighty.
      11 Come to the mans', the sacrificers' calling: hear, Kings of Immortality, joygivers-!
      While ye who speed through clouds decree your bounty largely, for fame, to him the chariot rider.
      12 Vigour will we bestow on that adorer whose tenfold draught we come to taste, so spake they.
      May all in whom rest splendour and great riches obtain refreshment in these sacrifices.
      13 We will rejoice to drink the tenfold present when the twicefive come bearing sacred viands.
      What can he do whose steeds and reins are choicest? These, the allpotent-, urge brave men to
      conquest.
      14 The sea and all the Deities shall give us him with the golden ear and neck bejewelled.
      Dawns, hasting to the praises of the pious, be pleased with us, both offerers and singers.
      15 Four youthful sons of Masarsara vex me, three, of the king, the conquering Ayavasa.
      Now like the Sun, O Varuna and Mitra, your car hath shone, longshaped- and reined with splendour.


      S. Kalyanaraman
      Sarasvati Research Center
      February 27, 2017


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      I suggest that a hypertext of two joined hieroglyphs: 'lathe PLUS portable furnace' is signified (as sangaḍa 'joining of parts') on a frequently occurring pictorial motif in front of one-horned youngbull. The hypertext is  shown often on inscriptions of Sarasvati Script Corpora, and are read rebus in Meluhha to signify metalwork.. 
      As a corollary,the identification of 'standard device' as a 'filter' is rejected. To view/interpret the pictorial signifiers as a filtering process is an erroneous reconstruction.The pictorial signifiers point to a drilling, circular motion with smoke emanating from surface of a bowl.
       Two  Ṛcas are signifiers of Indra standards, perhaps Indra dhvaja held aloft: RV 1.10.1 and RV 4. 24.10.

      RV 1.010.01 The chanters (of the Soma) hymn you, S'atakratu; the reciters of the R.k praise you, who are worthy of praise; the Bra-hman.as raise you aloft, like a bamboo pole. [ga_yatrin.ah = lit. those who use ga_yatri_ metre: udga_ta_, chanter of Sa_ma hymns; arkin.ah = reciters of the r.ca_: hota_; bra_man.ah = brahma_ of a sacrifice, a priest so denominated and other bra_hman.as (or, utterers of prayer. tva_ va"m.s'am iva udyemire, they have raised you like a bamboo (vam.s'o vanas'ayo bhavati vanana_cchru_yata iti va_ (Nirukta. 5.5); they have elevated Indra, as tumblers raise a bamboo pole, on the summit of which they balance themselves; vam.s'a = family (i.e. as ambitious persons raise their family to consequence)].

      RV 1.10.1 THE chanters hymn thee, they who say the word of praise magnify thee.

      The priests have raised thee up on high, O Satakratu, like a pole.

      Griffith: 4.24.10 Who for ten milchkine- purchaseth from me this Indra who is mine?
      When he hath slain the Vrtras let the buyer give him back to me.



      Image result for ancient mace indusAncient Luristan Bronze Mace 1000 BCE.



      Vāmana Purāṇa compares Indra-dhavaja with a parigham, 'mace' tied around, 'paṭṭobaddham' with drapery. This suggests the possibility that the Indra-dhavaja was shaped with a curved-head at the top. This is consistent with the shape of sangaḍa, a standard device hypertext shown often in fron of a one-horned young bull on hundreds of Sarasvati Script inscriptions.
      Parts of the 'standard device' which is a hypertext composed of two main parts: top part is a gimlet; the bottom bowl is sã̄gāḍ, 'a portable furnace] sanghāḍo, śagaḍī = lathe (Gujaratisā̃gāḍo, sãgaḍa (lathe/portable furnaceసంగడి sangaḍi The numbered parts are interpreted NOT as a filter but a lathe ligatured to a portable furnace: Hence, the parts 1 to 12 are explained: 1. Top hook (handle); 2. gimlet; 3. wavy lines signify turning lathe; 4. slanted lines signify circular motion of the gimlet; 5. the sharp drill-point of the gimlet; 6. bead or other objects being drilled by lathe-action; 7. smoke emanating from the portable furnace bowl; 8. bottom bow of rhe furnace; 9. Perforations as dotted circles are two signifiers: a. perforated beads; b.strands of fiber or rope. dhāī 'strands or fibers (of rope)' rebus: dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ*CDUA6773); 10.  Small circles signifying globules of burning charcoal; 11. stafff or flagpost; 12. base for the two hieroglyph-structure atop the flagpost. After Figure 38,3 in Mahadevan, The sacred filter standard facing the unicorn,in:Asko Parpola, ed., 1993, South Asian Archaeology, Vol. 2, Helsinki, pp. 435-445 http://45.113.136.87/wp-content/uploads/19-The-Sacred-filter-standard-facing-the-unicorn.-more-evidence.-In-South-Asian-Archaeology-1993..pdf
      Reconstruction of a drill based on analogical comparisons with the drills used nowadays at Nagara, Gujarat, India: Upper pivot in copper is centered with the drill-head and inserted into a coconut shell. Wooden haft is used with a bow-string to churn. The phtanite drill-head is secured in the haft-hole with a thin coiling thread. The tip of the drill's working end shows the characteristic feature of the shallow hemispherical depression: a 'dotted circle'. (After Vidale, M., 1987. Some aspects of lapidary craft at Moenjodaro in the light of the surface record of Moneer South east Area. In M. Jansen and G. Urban (eds.), Interim Reports, Vol. 2, 113-150. Aachen).
      Piperno, Marcello, Micro-drilling at Shahr-i Sokhta; the making and use of the lithic drill-heads, in: Hammond, Norman Ed., South Asian Archaeology, 1973, Pl. 9.2 and 9.3  "granite drill heads used to perforate beads, prepare stone seals... use of the "bow drill" or the "pump drill" which revolved the point of the drill in an alternating rotary motion...the level of technical performance reached in this micro-drilling work was peculiar to a class of highly-specialized craftsmen who must have enjoyed a considerable social and economic position in the life of Shahr-i Sokhta." (p.128) [ca. 2700-2300 BCE.]

      Hypertext pictorial motif on Sarasvati Script Corpora. After Figs. 39.1 and 39.2 in Mahadevan opcit.

      Image result for ancient lathe gimletComponents: top register: lathe with pointed gimlet in churning motion; bottom register: portable furnace/crucible with smoke emanating from the surface Carved ivory standard in the middle [From Richard H. Meadow and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Harappa Excavations 1993: the city wall and inscribed materials, in: South Asian Archaeology ; Fig. 40.11, p. 467. Harappa 1990 and 1993: representations of 'standard'; 40.11a: H90-1687/3103-1: faience token; 40.11bH93-2092/5029-1: carved ivory standard fragment (split in half, made on a lathe and was probably cylindrical in shape; note the incisions with a circle motif while a broken spot on the lower portion indicates where the stand shaft would have been (found in the area of the 'Mughal Sarai' located to the south of Mound E across the Old Lahore-Multan Road); 40.11c H93-2051/3808-2:faience token)


      Image result for indus harappa drillDetails of drilling apparatu presently used for Khambhat. A is a coconut shell used for holding and pressing the drill operated with a bow, B are the holes left by the upper pivot of the drill shaft, C; D is wooden stick bearing the traces E, left by the wear of the string of the bow. The extremity of the drill shaft is covered by string (F). The shape of the steel drill head G, bearing on the tip two minute diamonds (H) closely rsembles the shape of ernestite drills used by Indus bead makers (K). In the Moneer workshop(s), broken drill-heads were probably recycled as upper pivot for the shaft (I,J). The tip of the drill heds have  distinct circular depression L. (After Fig. 9 Bhan, 2014) 2: the manufacturing sequence of ernestite drill heads (After Kenoyer & Vidale, 1992).




      Phtanite drill-heads from the surface of MNSE area, Moenjodaro (Massimo Vidale, 1987, p. 147)

      A variant of this hypertext pictorial motif occurs on punch-marked coins:

      Shapes of bowl variants compare with the bottom bowl (portable furnace) of sã̄gāḍ, 'standard device' as variants of Indra-dhavaja on ancient coins, Karur seal and Ujjain glass sealings (After Figurres 39.6 to 39.9 in Mahadevan, opcit.)

      The variant structures are comparable to a forge/anvil. .
      Related image

      Image result for ancient forgeRelated imageImage result for ancient forge
      Like the flag that will be raised in honour of Indra during the month of ashvin on a full-moon day, but thrown onto earth along with its flagstaff after the festival, Vali with depleted energy and dissipated vitality slowly fell onto ground, and with tears blocking throat he moaned piteously. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa 4-16-37]
      This indra dhvaja ustava , festival of Indra's flagstaff will be undertaken after the sixth lunar month of year, usually after summer in order to appease Indra to cause rains. On full-moon day in Ashvayuja month [October-November] this will be performed and after the ritual the flag / flagstaff will be thrown to ground.
      ध्वज [p= 522,1]  ध्वज्) a banner , flag , standard (ifc. f().RV. &c. Brhat Samhitā calls the dvhaja  Indra-dhvaja sampad,'glory of Indra's flag'(BS 43). MBh 1.57 calls thedhvaja as yaṣṭi (iṣṭapradānam), refers to Indra’s festival as maha (v.23), utsava śakrasya (v.26).


      Nāṭyaśāstra 1.54 to 1.59:

      http://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_z_misc_major_works/natya01.pdf
      Trans.

      The Banner festival of Indra and the first production of a play

      1.53-55. On these words, Brahman said, ‘A vey suitble time for the production of a play has come: the Banner Festival of Indra has just begun; make use of the Nāṭyaveda now on this occasion.”


      1.55-58. I then went to that festival in honour of Indra’s victory which took place after the Dānavas and the Asuras (enemies of the gods) were killed. In this festival where jubilant gods assembled in great numbers I performed for their satisfaction the holy Benediction (nāndi) consisting blessings with words in their eightfold aspects (aṣṭānga, lit. of eight limbs). Afterwards I devised an initiation of the situation in which the Daityas were defeated by gods (and), which represented (sometimes) an altercation and tumult and (sometimes) mutual cutting off and piercing (of limbs or bodies).

      1.58-61. Then Brahman as well as other gods were pleased with the performance and gave us all sorts of gifts as a token of joy that filled their mind. First of all the pleased Indra (Sakra) gave his auspicious banner, then Brahman a blacksmith's forge (Kuṭilaka) and Varuṇa a golden pitcher (bhṛngāra), Surya (the sun-god) gave an umbrella, Siva success (siddhi), and Vāyu (the wind-god) a fan. Viṣṇu gave us a lion-seat (simhāsana), Kuvera a crown, and the goddess Sarasvati gave visibility as well as audibility. (NOTE: Does Indra-dhvaja signify  कुटिलिका f. a tool used by a blacksmith Pa1n2. 4-4 , 18 Ka1s3.? Or is it a signifier of a forge?) कुटिल kuṭila, katthīl'curve'kuṭila'bent' (CDIAL 3230) Rebus:kuṭila  'bronze' (8 parts copper, 2 parts tin).

      This Indra makha festival occurred on the twelfth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Bhādra. Dhvaja-maha is a Prakrt form of makha ‘yajña’. 

      मख 1 [p= 772,1] m. a feast , festival , any occasion of joy or festivity RV. S3a1n3khGr2.; m. a sacrifice , sacrificial oblation S3Br. &c ( Naigh. iii , 17); m. (prob.) N. of a mythical being (esp. in मखस्यशिरः , " मख's head ") RV. VS. S3Br. (cf. also comp.)l mfn. (prob. connected with √1. मह् or √ मंह्) jocund , cheerful , sprightly , vigorous , active , restless (said of the मरुत्s and other gods) RV. Br.


      (The Nāṭyaśāstra, a treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy and Histrionics ascribed to Bharata Muni,tr. By Manomohan Ghosh, 1950, Royal Asiatic Society, Kolkata.)


      Eran-Vidisha: 300 BC, Copper, 6-arm;ujjaini;indra-dhwaja symbols

      S. Kalyanaraman
      Sarasvati Research Center
      February 27, 2017




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      PC lies to CBI in exposed

      ALL KNEW, CHIDAMBARAM DIDN’T

      Monday, 27 February 2017 | J Gopikrishnan

      Rate : 4/5                Like : 5
      The Aircel-Maxis scam took a different turn, when BJP leader Subramanian Swamy came out with money trail to companies linked to Chidambaram's son Karti, and blatant FIPB violations. P Chidambaram’s defence is hollow and unbelievable

      Former Finance Minister P Chidambaram was economical with the truth when he told the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) that he was not aware that Malaysian company Maxis’ investment in Aircel was above Rs 600 crore, when he approved the Foreign Investment Promotion Board’s (FIPB) recommendation on March 7, 2006. 

      Chidambaram stated to this to the CBI when he was questioned on December 6, 2014. Certain senior Finance Ministry officials made similar statements to the probe agency.

      This writer recently paid a visit to the Parliament library to check newspaper archives in a bid to understand what had been reported in the media during those days about Maxis’ takeover of Aircel. Every major newspaper in India had, on December 31, 2005, reported in a big way that Maxis was going to invest one billion dollars in Aircel. Some newspapers reported the exact value at $I.08 billion in headlines; some even converted the value in rupees (those days, a dollar was equivalent to Rs 45), saying that the foreign investment was Rs 4,700 crore. Business dailies splashed it on the front page and other newspapers reported prominently in their business section. They appeared on the same day after Maxis and Aircel conducted a joint Press conference in Mumbai on December 30, 2005, about the billion-dollar acquisition plan.

      The photo montage of the main newspapers reports on December 31, 2005 is placed along with this article. Apart from Indian and Malaysian newspapers, international newspapers such as the Financial Times and the Wall Street Journal reported this deal in detail. An Internet search shows that television channels too widely reported the deal.

      In January and February 2006 too, most newspapers were reporting regularly on the acquisition details and on the file movements at the FIPB. What was the basic illegality in the Aircel-Maxis scam? Those days, the FIPB could approve foreign investments up to Rs 600 crore. As per Rule (Finance Ministry Order dated February 18, 2003), the Finance Minister had to send the proposals above Rs 600 crore to the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA). Then Finance Minister was the Chairman of CCEA too. The subsequent Maxis investment of Rs 675 crore in Maran family-run Sun TV group details had been sent by Chidambaram to the CCEA.
      Why did Chidambaram did not send the proposal of Maxis’ investment in Aircel to the CCEA? Those days, Saudi Telecom had more than 25 per cent shares in Maxis. Saudi Telecom also has major shareholding in Pakistan Tele Communication Limited (PTCL) and our security agencies would have definitely objected Maxis’ entry in India, if the file reached the CCEA.

      Newspapers had reported that Maxis was going to invest Rs 4,700 crore on December 31, 2005. But Maxis, in its application to the FIPB on January 25, 2006, stated only $800 million (Rs 3,600 crore) of investment in Aircel. Now, the  Comptroller and Auditor-General’s P&T Audit wing found that the actual money which had come to India was Rs 4,769 crore from Maxis. Where did the balance of Rs 1,200 crore disappear?

      What is the CBI doing with these open-and-shut findings? The CBI was trying limit the case to former Telecom Minister Dayanidhi Maran, based on a doubtful complaint by Aircel promoter C Sivasankaran, who alleged that Maran arm-twisted him into selling Aircel to Maxis. The December 31, 2005, news reports in the media exposes that both Sivasankaran and the Maxis owners conducted Press conferences in Mumbai to announce the billion-dollar acquisition deal. This shows that everyone in the Finance and the Telecom Ministries was aware of the deal’s amount. The question then is: Why had the CBI believed in Sivasankaran’s theory of arm-twisting in April 2011. The Congress was enjoying the diminishing profile of alliance partner DMK, when A Raja and Kanimozhi were allegedly involved  in the 2G scam.

      But the Aircel-Maxis scam took a different turn, when BJP leader Subramanian Swamy, in April 2012, came out with money trail of Rs 26 lakh to companies linked to Chidambaram’s son Karti, and blatant FIPB violations. Apart from the violation of not sending the file to CCEA, Maxis also lied to the Indian authorities. Those days, a maximum of 74 per cent was the limit of foreign investment in telecom companies. But after the illegal FIPB clearance, Maxis declared to the Malaysian Stock Exchange that it had acquired 99.3 per cent shares in Aircel by striking an alliance with a Chennai-based hospital group of companies. This shows that Sivasankaran was perhaps illegally offloading his entire shares to Maxis. It’s astonishing that the country’s premier probe agency believed his story of arm-twisting.

      Another big fraud was the stark variation in the valuation of shares. 74 per cent of Aircel was valued at around Rs 3,600 crore and the rest 26 per cent was valued at a pittance of around Rs 30 crore! The CAG’s finding in 2015 of the actual money flow of Maxis of Rs 4,769 crore shows that around Rs 1,200 crore came to India was nothing but black money or kickbacks as part of the deal.

       In a nutshell, all, including Chidambaram, Maran, Sivasankaran and Maxis owner T Ananda Krishnan, were allegedly part and parcel of a dubious deal to mislead Government of India, violating provisions of the Prevention of Corruption Act and the Prevention of Money Laundering Act.   

      After Chidambaram and son Karti’s names cropped up, the CBI went into silent mode, leading to Maran’s discharge from ‘arm-twisting’ charges, by the 2G court. While declaring Chidambaram’s ‘illegalities’ in the deal in the chargesheet in August 2014, the CBI never provided proof to the court.  The joint raid of the Enforcement Directorate (ED) and the Income Tax department unearthed two-lakh-dollar money flow from Maxis’ three subsidiary companies to Karti’s company, Chess Management Services Private Limited. The raid also exposed 21 secret foreign bank accounts of Karti Chidambaram and companies linked to him, and their huge assets, hotels, vineyards and farm houses in 14 countries. The question is: What has prevented our agencies to act on these stunning details of black money allegedly stashed by Chidambaram’s family? 
      The Central Bureau of Investigation is now acting as a mute spectator in Subramanian Swamy’s case in the Supreme Court. The apex court’s main question to Swamy is: Was Chidambaram aware that the deal was above secret 600 crore when he illegally approved it in March 2006? Newspaper reports detailed it on December 31, 2005, and subsequent reports in January and February 2006 wrote of it. The entire world was aware of this billion-dollar deal. It cannot be believed that Chidambaram was unaware of of the fact that the amount exceeded the limit for approval at his end.  





































































































      (The writer is Special Correspondent, The Pioneer) http://www.dailypioneer.com/columnists/oped/all-knew-chidambaram-didnt.html

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      A new book by Vedāyana Bhāradvāja is: Treatise on Ṛgveda which is path-breaking. I excerpt from Appendix I of this book and embed a list of names of ṣi-s of Ṛgveda and the meanings of these names.

      A Ṛṣikā named  वागांभृणी vāgāmbhṛṇī who saw RV 10.125 Sūkta with devatā ātmā is so called because vāk is yajñasya ātmā  


      The challenge is: how to fathom the meanings of vāk, 'speech' in the mantras of Ṛgveda Ṛca-s? This pilgrimage to unravel meaning is crucial because vāk is yajñasya ātmā.


      Ṛgveda is a sacred document which has to be read with śraddhā. The document has1,028 sūkta and 10,600 Ṛcas which are also called mantra, organized into ten books (Mandalas). Who compiled the text? Veda Vyāsa (वेदव्यास, veda-vyāsa, "the one who classified the Vedas"); he is also referred to as Krishna Dvaipāyana (referring to his complexion and birthplace). 

      श्रद्धा f. faith , trust , confidence , trustfulness , faithfulness , belief in (loc. or comp. ; श्रद्धया- √गम् , " to believe in " , with gen. DivyA7v. ), trust , confidence , loyalty (Faith or Faithfulnesses is often personified and in RV. x , 151 invoked as a deity ; in TBr. she is the daughter of प्रजा-पति , and in S3Br. of the Sun ; in MBh. she is the daughter of दक्ष and wife of धर्म ; in Ma1rkP. she is the mother of काम , and in BhP. the daughter of कर्दम and wife of अङ्गिरस् or मनुRV. &c

      ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, from ṛc "praise, shine" derived from the root ṛc "to praise", cf. Dhātupātha 28.19. Monier-Williams translates "a Veda of Praise or Hymn-Veda". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigveda

      Sūkta (RV 10.125 devatā ātmā) is by a Ṛṣikā named  वागांभृणी vāgāmbhṛṇī. The name suggests that she is vāk, daughter of Ṛṣi Ambhṛṇa. अम्भस् [p= 84,1]n. (cf. अभ्र्/अ , /अम्बु) , water RV. &c , the celestial waters AitUp.; power , fruit fulness VS. and AV.;pl. (आंसि) collective N. for gods , men , Manes , and असुरTBr. and VP. , (hence) (अस्sg. the number " four ". thus, vāgāmbhṛṇī means 'power of speech'. The sūkta (RV 10.125) of the  Ṛṣikā is addressed as a soliloquy to devatā ātmā,

      Thus the soliloquy of vāk is a devotional prayer to devatā ātmā, vāk isātmā, vāk is yajñasya ātmā.

      10.125.01 I proceed with the Rudras, with the Vasus, with the A_dityas, and with the Vis'vedeva_s; I support both Mitra and Varun.a, Agni and Indra, and the two As'vins.[Deity Prama_tma_: the word, or first of creatures].
      10.125.02 I support the foe-destroying Soma, Tvas.t.a_, Pu_s.an and Bhaga; I bestow wealth upon the institutor of the rite offering the oblation, deserving of careful protection, pouring forth the libation.
      10.125.03 I am the sovereign queen, the mover, collectress of treasures, cognizant (of the Supreme Being), the chief of objects of worship; as such the gods have put me in many places, abiding in manifold conditions, entering into numerous (forms. 
      10.125.04 He who eats food (eats) through me; he who sees, who breathes, who hears what is spoken, does so through me; those who are ignorant of me perish; hear you who have hearing, I tell that which is deserving of belief.
      10.125.05 I verily of myself declare this which is approved of by both gods and men; whomsoever I will, I render formidable, I make him a Brahma_, a r.s.i, or a sage. [A Brahman: Brahma_, the creator].
      10.125.06 I bend the bow of Rudra, to slay the destructive enemy of the Bra_hman.as, I wage war with (hostile) men. I pervade heaven and earth.
      10.125.07 I bring forth the paternal (heaven) upon the brow of this (Supreme Being), my birthplace is in the midst of the waters; from thence I spread through all beings, and touch this heaven with my body.
      10.125.08 I breathe forth like the wind giving form to all created worlds; beyond the heaven, beyond this earth (am I), so vast am I in greatness.


      Vyasa narrates the Mahābhārata to Ganeśa, his scribe, Angkor Wat
      वेद--व्यास [p= 1016,1] m. " arranger of the वेद " , N. of व्यास or बादरायण MBh. Hariv. &c
      द्वैपायन [p= 507,3]m. ( Pa1n2. 4-1 , 99) " island-born " , N. of व्यास (author or compiler of the वेदs and पुराणs , the place of his nativity being a small island in the Ganges) MBh. Hariv. &c; कृष्ण--द्वैपायन [p= 307,1]m. " black islander " , N. of व्यास (compiler of the MBh. and of the पुराणs ; so named because of his dark complexion and because he was brought forth by सत्यवती on a द्वीप or island in the Ganges) MBh. Hariv. Ba1dar. iii , 3 , 32 Sch. VP.

      The world heritage of enchanting divine reverberations are presently available in high-fidelity (HI-FI) voice recordings of high quality CDs(MP3). The ancestors who preserved the heritage ensured that the transmission was error-free

      Hi-Fi transmission
      [quote] 
      The fullest benefit from the Vedic mantras can result only if no word is changed; no unauthorised upward or downward drift in the note occurs in the recitation. Hence the numerous safeguards. How much time it should take to utter each word is indicated by resort to the notation by "maatras"-the time it takes to pronounce a short vowel. How to regulate breathing so that the vibrations can occur at what part of the body to give birth to the pure word sound is also laid down in the Vedānga śikā. The Taitreeya Upanishad, for e.g., begins with śikā thus:

      Seeksham Vyakyā syāmah - Vara Svarah - Mātrābalam - Sāma Santānah
      शिक्षा śikā deals with Vara, Swara, Mātra, Strength, Sāma and Santānah

      A fool-proof method is to chant each mantra in various patterns and combinations known as 
      Vākya, Pada, Krama, Jaṭa, Māla, Sikha, Rekha, Dhvaja, Daṇḍa, Ratha, Ghana, etc. 


      Some learned pandits are called "Ghanapāṭhis". This means that they are learned in the Vedas to the extent of chanting of the Vedas in the pattern called "Ghanam". When we listen to a Ghanapāṭhi reciting Vedas in Ghana form, we note that he repeats the in various ways back and forth and in different patterns. This would be pleasant to the ears and creates a sense of happiness within. It would seem that the natural grandeur of the Veda mantras is heightened, as it were. So would be the effect of recitation in the other prescribed patterns of Kramam, Jata, Sikha, Maala, etc. But the main object of reciting them is to make no mistake in the original meaning and sound pattern of the words.


      Vkya Pṭha or Samhita Pãtha is to recite the mantras in a sentence straight. When mantras come in sentences, some of the words therein have to be conjoined in chanting. To recite the Veda mantras, pada by pada or word by word, instead of joining the words and stringing them together is Pada Pṭha . Pada Pṭha occurs after Samhita pāṭha. In pada pāṭha  the sentence is broken down to "words" or pada. This gives the student of the Vedas the knowledge of each word in a sentence.


      In Krama 
      pāṭha, the first word of the mantra is added to the second, the second to the third, the third to the fourth and so on, until the whole sentence of the mantras is completed. This paatha or method of recitation helps the student understand not only the individual words but also how two words can be combined in recitation and what modification occurs in swara in such a combination.

      In certain ancient edicts, notably gift deeds, at the end of the name of some illustrious persons, there would be a suffix "Krama Vit". Like "Veda Vit", "Krama Vit" means that the person is well versed in reciting the Vedas by the Krama 
      pāṭha methods.There are many such edicts in South India.

      In Jata pāṭha, the first word and the second are first recited together and then the words are recited in a reverse order and then again in the original order. Whereas in the Krama type of recitation the order of words is 1-2 ; 2-3 ; 3-4 ; 4-5 and so on, in the Jaṭa pāṭha, the order will be 1-2-2-1-1-2, 2-3-3-2-2-3, 3-4-4-3-3-4, 4-5-5-4-4-5 and so on. Just as two words are repeated forwards and backwards in the Jaa pāṭha, the Śikha pāṭha three words to be so linked. 


      In Ghana 
      Pha the combination will be:

      1-2-2-1-1-2-3-3-2-1-1-2-3
      2-3-3-2-2-3-4-4-3-2-2-3-4
      3-4-4-3-3-4-5-5-4-3-3-4-5


      The chanting will go like this: 
      1-2-2-1-1-2-3-3-2-1-1-2-3 2-3-3-2-2-3-4-4-3-2-2-3-4 3-4-4-3-3-4-5-5-4-3-3-4-5 ........... and so on till the end of the Veda ......
      Chanted in Ghanam style as above, Rig Veda may take over 450 hours to chant and occupy nearly 300 cassettes!

      Just as in a laboratory, a life giving elixir is preserved with the utmost care, the Veda mantras, which are for universal benefit, have been preserved by the ancients, without resort to writing by such methods of recitation. It must be remembered that, while chanting words backwards and forwards, the swaras of each have to be properly preserved and the student learns how the combination of words affect the swaras. The Samhita 
      Pha and Pada pāṭha are called Prakti ( or natural ) pāṭhas, as the words of the mantras occur in normal sequence. The rest are called Vikti ( or artificial and not natural ) Phas. In Krama, although the words do not occur in the natural order of one, two and three, since they do not revert like one after two and two after three, it cannot be called fully Vikti or artificial. The Viktis are eight in number: 

      Jaā mālā śikha rekha dhvajo daṇḍo ratho Ghanah
      Ityaṣṭa viktayah proktah kramapūrva maharibhih

      The above system of complicated recitation was devised in very earl times in order to peserve the purity of the word, sound, intonation, pronunciation, accent and sound combination of the Vedas. By repeating the words in manifold ways, the correct tally of the words was also kept which naturally ensured the purity of the texts. To enable the scholars to take up the difficult methods of recitation, it was even laid down that the more difficult methods of chanting earned the chanter more punya or merit
      .[unquote]

      gveda (padapāṭha) manuscript in Devanāgari, early 19th century. After a scribal benediction ("śrīgaṇéśāyanamaḥ ;; Aum(3) ;;"), the first line has the opening words of RV.1.1.1 (agniṃ ; iḷe ; puraḥ-hitaṃ ; yajñasya ; devaṃ ; ṛtvijaṃ). The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red. gveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c., 4 vols., 795 ff. (complete), 10x20 cm, single column, (7x17 cm), 10 lines in Devanāgari script with deletions in yellow, Vedic accents, corrections etc in red. Binding: India, 19th c., blind-stamped brown leather, gilt spine, sewn on 5 cords, marbled endleaves Provenance: 1. Eames Collection, Chicago, no. 1956; 2. Newberry Library, Chicago, ORMS 960 (acq.no. 152851-152854) (ca. 1920-1994); 3. Sam Fogg cat. 17(1996):42.

      Excerpts of pages 102 to 116 of Vedāyana Bhāradvāja's: Treatise on Ṛgveda 















      S.Kalyanaraman
      Sarasvati Research Center
      February 28, 2017


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      Tamil Identity - Why the ancient battle with Sanskrit is useless
       February 28, 2017 Times of India
      
      
      Even As The State Steps Into A Crucial, Probably Defining, Phase In Its History, Tamil Identity Remains The Core Principle Of Its Politics And Society. Through A Series Of Articles, We Present Varying Perspectives On This Idea In Today's World
      Without attempting to write a re view of David Shulman's new book `Tamil -A Biography', one may endeavour to see what the book by an internationally renowned biographer on the inner lives of the Tamils has to offer on the issue of Tamil identity politics.

      The reason is simple -any book that attempts to narrate the cultural history of Tamil language cannot overlook the important efforts taken by Tamils in history to carve a separate identity for themselves through the language. But, Shulman anticipates and preempts such an engagement with his book when he writes in the preface, “Almost everything about Tamil is contentious. Some of the most important questions cannot be answered. We have rather tentative notions about chronology and, in this generation, fierce disputes about identity (not my favourite word). I have had to leave vast swathes of Tamil out of these pages for want of knowledge and want of space. Almost every Tamil reader will see, perhaps before all else, what is missing?“ But, what if we are enticed by what is there in the book than being disappointed by what is missing?
      Shulman's explicit refusal to engage with Tamil identity politics in his cultural history of Ta mil is partly because the issue is about desire and aspiration for Tamil to be older and distinctive from Sanskrit, and its moorings are in ideology , emotions and perceptions whereas scholarship is about truth. Shulman acknowledges that “the long and complex relations between these two languages is a major theme throughout the book; this theme is still clearly alive and full of passion in current debates about language and culture in the Tamil world, and there is I think room for a historical-linguistic reading of what Tamil once was, what it is or should be today. In modern South India, Tamil has become a major criterion for collective identity often seen now as forged in opposition to Sanskrit and an invasive north Indian culture and ideology .I will touch on these issues in the final chapter; clearly, the historical record has powerful implications for present-day politics and selfdefinition.“

      What do these historical records tell us? Shulman concludes, “there is no evidence to support ancient Tamil ever existed in some pure state, isolated from Sanskrit or North Indian culture.“ He tries to adopt two narratives for his biography of Tamil. One narrative thread tells the evolution of Tamil's distinctive modes of speak ing, thinking and singing. The second narrative deals with Tamil being the shaping force within Hinduism in particular through the Bhakti movement. Shulman's forte is in the treatment of the narratives both from the inside and outside. From the insider's perspective, Shulman really scores while concluding that Tamil is more than a language, it is a body of knowledge -much of it intrinsic to an ancient culture and sensibility. It is a kind of grammar, not merely of the language in its spoken and written forms, but the creative potential of its speakers.
      Shulman's twin narratives are in a way congenial to Tamil identity politics, but they shift the focus to a more nuanced civilisational argument. First of all, by liberating Tamil identity claims from the useless discourses of Tamil versus Sanskrit, Shulman makes us see the exchanges between the two languages. By organising Tamil's biography in the form of a Carnatic kriti, however incongruous the Dravidian leaning scholars might feel, Shulman foregrounds Isai Tamil, one of the three salient constituents of Tamil. This is in agreement with the general argument of the book which makes a case for the distinctiveness of Tamil poetics, its modalities and the creative potentialities Tamil offers for its native speakers. Shulman's conception of Tamil is contemporary and inclusive, and it expands to include all spoken and caste dialects. By placing the future of Tamil in grammar, poetics, and poets, Shulman demands a civilisational responsibility from the politics of Tamil identity and its constituent republic of poets. By turning every speaker of Tamil into a poet, Shulman has proved that if at all there is something uncontentious about Tamil, it is its poetics, grammar, poetry and its attendant sensibilities. It is an inheritance Tamil identity politics should cherish.
      (The author is a folklorist and an art critic)


      
      



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      Sri Rāma and Sri Krishna are the ātmā of Itihāsa of Bhāratam Janam.


      There can be no Itihāsa of Bhāratam Janam without the narratives of Sri Rama and Sri Krishna which are "still living and throbbing in the lives of the Indian people," to cite Sukthankar.


      Together with the book review of Meenakshi Jain's work on 'The Battle for Rama', I publish excerpts from Sukthankar's lectures posthumously published with the title: On the meaning of the Mahābhārata 

      The meaning of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata is the quintessemtial essemce of Itihāsa of Bhāratiya identity. A remarkable divinity links the two epics: Ānjaneya also called  Hanumān.

      Hanumān is an ardent devotee of Rama Arjuna displays 
      Hanumān. on his chariot flag. See other narratives in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanuman#Appearance_in_the_Mahabharata

      The Battle for Rama reviewed in this note is thus the battle for a statement of hāratiya identity.

      Sukthankar states about the two Epics, Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa: what is more remarkable still is that this epic - along with the ramAyaNa -- is still living and throbbing in the lives of the indian people -- not merely of the intelligentsia, but also of the illiterate and inarticulate masses, the "hewers of wood and the carriers of water."

      No power on earth can take Sri Rama and Sri Krishna from the collective memories of over 2 billion people of the Indian Ocean Community since their itihāsa defines dharma-dhamma which is the weltanschauung of these people.. Visvāmitra refers to Rāma as vigrahavān dharmah.'enbodiment of dharma'. Sri Krishna is revered as Gitāchārya of Bhagavadgīta which is the quintessential statement of dharma. 

      Bhāratiya Itihāsa has to be narrated with the narratives of Sri Rāma and Sri Krishna.

      S. Kalyanaraman
      Sarasvati Research Center February 28, 2017