In Autumn 2009, I was invited by a private collector to see an artefact that was mentioned as unique and very complex, and reportedly belonged to the cultural sphere of the Indus civilization. I do not have professional links with the antique market and the world of private collectors, but the descrip- tions I had of the find were so puzzling that for once I accepted the invitation to examine the new find. I was generously hosted by the family of the collector and what I saw fully rewarded the trip and the time. There I spend two whole days, looking in detail to the most amazing and better preserved terracotta group sculpture of the 3rd millennium cal BC I had ever seen, while a professional photographer and her assistant took the pictures you see in this book.
https://www.harappa.com/sites/default/files/pdf/Spiked-Throne.pdf (Full text of the book, 72 pages)
1.095.02 The vigilant and youthful Ten beget, through the wind, this embryo Agni, inherent (in all beings), sharp-visaged, universally renowned, shining among men; him they conduct (to every dwelling). [Ten: the ten regions of space, which generate lightning, as an embryo in the clouds, using the winds: agner hi va_yuh ka_ran.am, va_yor agnih, wind is the cause of fire, fire of wind. Tvas.t.uh = wind or its agency: dipta_nmadhyama_d va_yoh sa_kas.a_t, the brilliant central proximity of wind. Ten: the ten fingers which generate Agni through the act of attrition as an embryo in the sticks. vibhr.tram = deposited in all creatures,i.e. inherent].
1.095.03 They contemplate three places of his birth; one in the ocean, one in the heaven, one in the firmament; and, dividing the seasons of the year for the benefit of earthly creatures, he formed, in regular succession, the eastern quarter.
1.095.04 Which of you discerns the hidden Agni? a son, he begets his mothers by oblations; the germ of many (waters), he issues from the ocean, mighty and wise, the recipient of oblations. [hidden agni: latent heat in the waters, in the woods and in all fixed and moveable things; he begets his mothers: Agni, as lightning is the son of the waters collected in the clouds; he generates those waters by the oblations which he conveys; he issues from the ocean: upastha_t (smudra_t) nirgacchati, Agni is thought to rise in the morning in the shape of the sun from out of the ocean].
1.095.05 Appearing amongst them (the waters), the bright-shining (Agni) increases, rising above the flanks of the waving waters, spreading his own renown; both (heaven and earth) are alarmed, as the radiant Agni is born, and, approaching the lion, they pay him honour. [above the flanks of the waving waters: jihma_na_m apa_m upasthe, above, on the side, or tip, of the crooked waters; reference to Agni as the lightning; approaching the lion: sim.ha applied to Agni, implying sahanas'i_lam, abhibha_vana s'i_lam, ability to suffer or be overcome].
1.095.06 Both the auspicious ones (day and night or two pieces of wood rubbed together to produce flame) wait upon him like two female attendants, as lowing kine (follow their calves) by the paths (that they have gone); he has been the lord of might among the mighty, whom (the priests) on the right (of the altar) anoint.
1.095.07 Like the sun, he stretches forth his arms, and the formidable Agni, decorating both heaven and earth (with brightness), labours (in his duties); he draws up from everything the essential (moisture), and clothes (the earth) with new vestments (derived) from his maternal (rains).
1.095.08 Associated in the firmament with the moving waters, he assumes an excellent and lustrous form, and the wise sustainer (of all things) sweeps over the source (of the rains with his radiance), whence a concentration of light is spread abroad by the sportive deity. [budhna = antariks.a or firmament, as the source of the rains].
1.095.09 The vast and victorious radiance of you, the mighty one, pervades the firmament; Agni, who have been kindled by us, preserve us with all your undiminished and protecting glories.
1.095.10 He causes the waters to flow in a torrent through the sky, and with those pure waves he inundates the earth; he gathers all (articles of) food in the stomach, and for that purpose sojourns in the new-sprung parents (of the gain). [navasu prasus.u = in the new parents, or mothers; i.e. in the os.adhis, the annual crops which ripen after the rains and bear food, being impregnated by the terrestrial Agni].
1.095.11 Agni, who are the purifier, growing with the fuel we have supplied, blaze for the sake of (securing) food to us, who are possessed of wealth; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve it to us.
1. To fair goals travel Two unlike in semblance: each in succession nourishes an infant.
One bears a Godlike Babe of golden colour; bright and fairshining-, is he with the other.
2 Tvastars' ten daughters, vigilant and youthful, produced this Infant borne to sundry quarters.
They bear around him whose long flames are pointed, fulgent among mankind with native splendour.
3. Three several places of his birth they honour, in midair-, in the heaven, and in the waters.
Governing in the east of earthly regions, the seasons hath he stablished in their order.
4 Who of you knows this secret One? The Infant by his own nature hath brought forth his Mothers.
The germ of many, from the waters' bosom he goes forth, wise and great, of Godlike nature.
5 Visible, fair, he grows in native brightness uplifted in the lap of waving waters.
When he was born both Tvastars' worlds were frightened: they turn to him and reverence the Lion.
6 The Two auspicious Ones, like women, tend him: like lowing cows they seek him in their manner.
He is the Lord of Might among the mighty; him, on the right, they balm with their oblations.
7 Like Savitar his arms with might he stretches; awful, he strives grasping the worlds' two
He forces out from all a brilliant vesture, yea, from his Mothers draws forth new raiment.
8 He makes him a most noble form of splendour, decking him in his home with milk and waters.
The Sage adorns the depths of air with wisdom: this is the meeting where the Gods are worshipped.
9 Wide through the firmament spreads forth triumphant the far resplendent- strength of thee the
Kindled by us do thou preserve us, Agni, with all thy selfbright- undiminished succours.
10 In dry spots he makes stream, and course, and torrent, and inundates the earth with floods that glisten.
All ancient things within his maw he gathers, and moves among the new fresh sprouting- grasses.
11 Fed with our fuel, purifying Agni, so blaze to us auspiciously for glory.
This prayer of ours may Varuna grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.
To whom, O radiant, dost thou go?
21 For we have had thee in our thoughts whether anear or far away,
Redhued- and like a dappled mare.
22 Hither, O Daughter of the Sky, come thou with these thy strengthenings,
And send thou riches down to us.
1 DAWN on us with prosperity, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
Dawn with great glory, Goddess, Lady of the Light, dawn thou with riches, Bounteous One.
2 They, bringing steeds and kine, boongivers- of all wealth, have oft sped forth to lighten us.
O Usas, waken up for me the sounds of joy: send us the riches of the great.
3 Usas hath dawned, and now shall dawn, the Goddess, driver forth of cars
Which, as she cometh nigh, have fixed their thought on her, like gloryseekers- on the flood.
4 Here Kanva, chief of Kanvas' race, sings forth aloud the glories of the heroes' names,
The. princes who, O Usas, as thou comest near, direct their thoughts to liberal gifts.
5 Like a good matron Usas comes carefully tending everything:
Rousing all life she stirs all creatures that have feet, and makes the birds of air fly up.
6 She sends the busy forth, each man to his pursuit: delay she knows not as she springs.
O rich in opulence, after thy dawning birds that have flown forth no longer rest.
7 This Dawn hath yoked her steeds afar, beyond the rising of the Sun:
Borne on a hundred chariots she, auspicious Dawn, advances on her way to Men.
8 To meet her glance all living creatures bend them down: Excellent One, she makes the light.
Usas, the Daughter of the Sky, the opulent, shines foes and enmities away.
9 Shine on us with thy radiant light, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
Bringing to us great store of high felicity, and beaming on our solemn rites.
10 For in thee is each living creatures' breath and life, when, Excellent! thou dawnest forth.
Borne on thy lofty car, O Lady of the Light, hear, thou of wondrous wealth, our call.
11 O Usas, win thyself the strength which among men is wonderful.
Bring thou thereby the pious unto holy rites, those who as priests sing praise to thee.
12 Bring from the firmament, O Usas, all the Gods, that they may drink our Soma juice,
And, being what thou art, vouchsafe us kine and steeds, strength meet for praise and hero might.
13 May Usas whose auspicious rays are seen resplendent round about,
Grant us great riches, fair in form, of all good things, wealth which light labour may attain.
14 Mighty One, whom the Rsis of old time invoked for their protection and their help,
O Usas, graciously answer our songs of praise with bounty and with brilliant light.
15 Usas, as thou with light to day hast opened the twin doors of heaven,
So grant thou us a dwelling wide and free from foes. O Goddess, give us food with kine.
16 Bring us to wealth abundant, sent in every shape, to plentiful refreshing food,
To allsubduing- splendour, Usas, Mighty One, to strength, thou rich in spoil and wealth.
HYMN XLIX. Dawn. 49
1 EEN' from above the skys' bright realm come, Usas, by auspicious ways:
Let red steeds bear thee to the house of him who pours the Soma, juice.
2 The chariot which thou mountest, fair of shape, O Usas light to move,
Therewith, O Daughter of the Sky, aid men of noble fame today.
3 Bright Usas, when thy times return, all quadrupeds and bipeds stir,
And round about flock winged birds from all the boundaries of heaven.
4 Thou dawning with thy beams of light illumest all the radiant realm.
Thee, as thou art, the Kanvas, fain for wealth, have called with sacred songs.
HYMN XCII. Dawn. 92
their shining light.
Like heroes who prepare their weapons for the war, onward they come bright red in hue, the Mother
2 Readily have the purple beams of light shot up; the Red Cows have they harnessed, easy to be
The Dawns have brought distinct perception as before: redhued-, they have attained their fulgent
3 They sing their song like women active in their tasks, along their common path hither from far
Bringing refreshment to the liberal devotee, yea, all things to the worshipper who pours the juice.
4 She, like a dancer, puts her broidered garments on: as a cow yields her udder so she bares her
Creating light for all the world of life, the Dawn hath laid the darkness open as the cows their
5 We have beheld the brightness of her shining; it spreads and drives away the darksome monster.
Like tints that deck the Post at sacrifices, Heavens' Daughter hath attained her wondrous
6 We have overpast the limit of this darkness; Dawn breaking forth again brings clear perception.
She like a flatterer smiles in light for glory, and fair of face hath wakened to rejoice us.
7 The Gotamas have praised Heavens' radiant Daughter, the leader of the charm of pleasant voices.
Dawn, thou conferrest on us strength with offspring and men, conspicuous with kine and horses.
8 O thou who shinest forth in wondrous glory, urged onward by thy strength, auspicious Lady,
Dawn, may I gain that wealth, renowned and ample, in brave sons, troops of slaves, farfamed- for
9 Bending her looks on all the world, the Goddess shines, widely spreading with her bright eye
Waking to motion every living creature, she understands the voice of each adorer.
10 Ancient of days, again again born newly, decking her beauty with the selfsame- raiment.
The Goddess wastes away the life of mortals, like a skilled hunter cutting birds in pieces.
11 She hath appeared discovering heavens' borders: to the far distance she drives off her Sister.
Diminishing the days of human creatures, the Lady shines with all her lovers' splendour.
12 The bright, the blessed One shines forth extending her rays like kine, as a flood rolls his
Never transgressing the divine commandments, she is beheld visible with the sunbeams.
13 O Dawn enriched with ample wealth, bestow on us the wondrous gift
Wherewith we may support children and childrens' sons.
14 Thou radiant mover of sweet sounds, with wealth of horses and of kine
Shine thou on us this day, O Dawn auspiciously.
15 O Dawn enriched with holy rites, yoke to thy car thy purple steeds,
And then bring thou unto us all felicities.
16 O Asvins wonderful in act, do ye unanimous direct
Your chariot to our home wealthy in kine and gold.
17 Ye who brought down the hymn from heaven, a light that giveth light to man,
Do ye, O Asvins, bring strength hither unto us.
18 Hither may they who wake at dawn bring, to drink Soma both the Gods
Healthgivers- WonderWorkers-, borne on paths of gold.
1. This light is come, amid all lights the fairest; born is the brilliant, farextending-
Night, sent away for Savitars' uprising, hath yielded up a birthplace- for the Morning.
2 The Fair, the Bright is come with her white offspring; to her the Dark One hath resigned her
Akin, immortal, following each other, changing their colours both the heavens move onward.
3 Common, unending is the Sisters' pathway; taught by the Gods, alternately they travel.
Fairformed-, of different hues and yet oneminded-, Night and Dawn clash not, neither do they
4 Bright leader of glad sounds, our eyes behold her; splendid in hue she hath unclosed the portals.
She, stirring up the world, hath shown us riches: Dawn hath awakened every living creature.
5 Rich Dawn, she sets afoot the coiledup- sleeper, one for enjoyment, one for wealth or worship,
Those who saw little for extended vision. All living creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
6 One to high sway, one to exalted glory, one to pursue his gain, and one his labour:
All to regard their different vocations, all moving creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
7 We see her there, the Child of Heaven apparent, the young Maid, flushing in her shining raiment.
Thou sovran Lady of all earthly treasure, flush on us here, auspicious Dawn, this morning.
8 She first of endless morns to come hereafter, follows the path of morns that have departed.
Dawn, at her rising, urges forth the living him who is dead she wakes not from his slumber.
9 As thou, Dawn, hast caused Agni to be kindled, and with the Suns' eye hast revealed creation.
And hast awakened men to offer worship, thou hast performed, for Gods, a noble service.
10 How long a time, and they shall be together, Dawns that have shone and Dawns to shine hereafter?
She yearns for former Dawns with eager longing, and goes forth gladly shining with the others.
11 Gone are the men who in the days before us looked on the rising of the earlier Morning.
We, we the living, now behold her brightness and they come nigh who shall hereafter see her.
12 Foechaser-, born of Law, the Laws' protectress, joygiver-, waker of all pleasant voices,
Auspicious, bringing food for Gods enjoyment, shine on us here, most bright, O Dawn, this morning.
13 From days eternal hath Dawn shone, the Goddess, and shows this light today-, endowed with
So will she shine on days to come immortal she moves on in her own strength, undecaying.
14 In the skys' borders hath she shone in splendour: the Goddess hath thrown off the veil of
Awakening the world with purple horses, on her wellharnessed- chariot Dawn approaches.
15 Bringing all lifesustaining- blessings with her, showing herself she sends forth brilliant
Last of the countless mornings that have vanished, first of bright morns to come hath Dawn arisen.
16 Arise! the breath, the life, again hath reached us: darkness hath passed away and light
She for the Sun hath left a path to travel we have arrived where men prolong existence.
17 Singing the praises of refulgent Mornings with his hymns' web the priest, the poet rises.
Shine then today-, rich Maid, on him who lauds thee, shine down on us the gift of life and
18 Dawns giving sons all heroes, kine and horses, shining upon the man who brings oblations,
These let the Somapresser- gain when ending his glad songs louder than the voice of Vayu.
19 Mother of Gods, Aditis' form of glory, ensign of sacrifice, shine forth exalted.
Rise up, bestowing praise on our devotion allbounteous-, make us chief among the people.
20 Whatever splendid wealth the Dawns bring with them to bless the man who offers praise and
Even that may Mitra, Varuna vouchsafe us, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.
HYMN CXXIII. Dawn. 123
Fain to bring light to homes of men the noble and active Goddess hath emerged from darkness.
2 She before all the living world hath wakened, the Lofty One who wins and gathers treasure.
Revived and ever young on high she glances. Dawn hath come first unto our morning worship.
3 If, Dawn, thou Goddess nobly born, thou dealest fortune this day to all the race of mortals,
May Savitar the God, Friend of the homestead, declare before the Sun that we are sinless.
4 Showing her wonted form each day that passeth, spreading the light she visiteth each dwelling.
Eager for conquest, with bright sheen she cometh. Her portion is the best of goodly treasures.
5 Sister of Varuna, sister of Bhaga, first among all sing forth, O joyous Morning.
Weak be the strength of him who worketh evil: may we subdue him with our car the guerdon.
6 Let our glad hymns and holy thoughts rise upward, for the flames brightly burning have ascended.
The farrefulgent- Mornings make apparent the lovely treasures which the darkness covered.
7 The one departeth and the other cometh: unlike in hue days', halves march on successive.
One hides the gloom of the surrounding Parents. Dawn on her shining chariot is resplendent.
8 The same in form today-, the same tomorrow, they still keep Varunas' eternal statute.
Blameless, in turn they traverse thirty regions, and dart across the spirit in a moment.
9 She who hath knowledge Of the first days' nature is born refulgent white from out the darkness.
The Maiden breaketh not the law of Order, day by day coming to the place appointed.
10 In pride of beauty like a maid thou goest, O Goddess, to the God who longs to win thee,
And smiling youthful, as thou shinest brightly, before him thou discoverest thy bosom.
11 Fair as a bride embellished by her mother thou showest forth thy form that all may see it.
Blessed art thou O Dawn. Shine yet more widely. No other Dawns have reached what thou attainest.
12 Rich in kine, horses, and all goodly treasures, in constant operation with the sunbeams,
The Dawns depart and come again assuming their wonted forms that promise happy fortune.
13 Obedient to the rein of Law Eternal give us each thought that more and more shall bless us.
Shine thou on us today-, Dawn, swift to listen. With us be riches and with chiefs who worship.
HYMN CXXIV. Dawn. 124
Savitar, God, hath sent us forth to labour, each quadruped, each biped, to be active.
2 Not interrupting heavenly ordinances, although she minisheth human generations.
The last of endless morns that have departed, the first of those that come, Dawn brightly shineth.
3 There in the eastern region she, Heavens' Daughter, arrayed in garments all of light, appeareth.
Truly she followeth the path of Order, nor faileth, knowing well, the heavenly quarters.
4 Near is she seen, as it were the Bright Ones' bosom: she showeth sweet things like a new
She cometh like a fly awaking sleepers, of all returning dames most true and constant.
5 There in the east half of the watery region the Mother of the Cows hath shown her ensign.
Wider and wider still she spreadeth onward, and filleth full the laps of both heir Parents.
6 She, verily, exceeding vast to look on debarreth from her light nor kin nor stranger.
Proud of her spotless form she, brightly shining, turneth not from the high nor from the humble.
7 She seeketh men, as she who hath no brother, mounting her car, as it were to gather riches.
Dawn, like a loving matron for her husband, smiling and well attired, unmasks her beauty.
8 The Sister quitteth, for the elder Sister, her place, and having looked on her departeth.
She decks her beauty, shining forth with sunbeams, like women trooping to the festal meeting.
9 To all these Sisters who ere now have vanished a later one each day in course succeedeth.
So, like the past, with days of happy fortune, may the new Dawns shine forth on us with riches.
10 Rouse up, O Wealthy One, the liberal givers; let niggard traffickers sleep on unwakened:
Shine richly, Wealthy One, on those who worship, richly, glad.
Dawn while wasting, on the singer.
11 This young Maid from the east hath shone upon us; she harnesseth her team of bright red oxen.
She will beam forth, the light will hasten hither, and Agni will be present in each dwelling.
12 As the birds fly forth from their resting places, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
Yea, to the liberal mortal who remaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.
13 Praised through my prayer be ye who should be lauded. Ye have increased our wealth, ye Dawns
who love us.
Goddesses, may we win by your good favour wealth to be told by hundreds and by thousands.
HYMN LXI. Usas. 61
1. O Usas, strong with strength, endowed witli knowledge, accept the singers' praise, O wealthy
Thou, Goddess, ancient, young, and full of wisdom, movest, allbounteous-! as the Law ordaineth.
2 Shine forth, O Morning, thou auspicious Goddess, on thy bright car awaking pleasant voices.
Let docile horses of farreaching- splendour convey thee hitherward, the goldencoloured.
3 Thou, Morning, turning thee to every creature, standest on high as ensign of the Immortal,
To one same goal ever and ever wending now, like a wheel, O newlyborn-, roll hi ther.
4 Letting her reins drop downward, Morning cometh, the wealthy Dame, the Lady of the dwelling;
Bringing forth light, the Wonderful, the Blessed hath spread her from the bounds of earth and
5 Hither invoke the radiant Goddess Morning, and bring with reverence your hymn to praise her.
She, dropping sweets, hath set in heaven her brightness, and, fair to look on, hath beamed forth
6 From heaven, with hymns, the Holy One was wakened: brightly to both worlds came the wealthy Lady.
To Morning, Agni, when she comes refulgent, thou goest forth soliciting fair riches.
7 On Laws' firm base the speeder of the Mornings, the Bull, hath entered mighty earth and heaven.
Great is the power of Varuna and Mitra, which, bright, hath spread in every place its splendour.
8 And this heroic deed of might thou, Indra, also hast achieved,
That thou didst smite to death the Dame, Heavens' Daughter, meditating ill.
9 Thou, Indra, Mighty One, didst crush Usas, though Daughter of the Sky.
When lifting up herself in pride.
10 Then from her chariot Usas fled, affrighted, from her ruined car.
When the strong God had shattered it.
11 So there this car of Usas lay, broken to pieces, in Vipas,
And she herself fled far away.
RV 4.51, 4.52
HYMN LI. Dawn. 51
1. FORTH from the darkness in the region eastward this most abundant splendid light hatb mounted.
Now verily the farrefulgent- Mornings, Daughters of Heaven, bring welfare to the people.
2 The richlycoloured- Dawns have mounted eastward, like pillars planted at our sacrifices,
And, flushing far, splendid and purifying, unbarred the portals of the fold of darkness.
3 Dispelling gloom this day the wealthy Mornings urge liberal givers to present their treasures.
In the unlightened depth of darkness round them let niggard traffickers sleep unawakened.
4 O Goddesses, is this your car, I ask you, ancient this day, or is it new, ye Mornings,
Wherewith, rich Dawns, ye seek with wealth Navagva, Dasagva Angira, the seventoned- singer?
5 With horses harnessed by eternal Order, Goddesses, swiftly round the worlds ye travel,
Arousing from their rest, O Dawns, the sleeping, and all that lives, man, bird, and beast, to
6 Which among these is eldest, and where is she through whom they fixed the Rbhus' regulations?
What time the splendid Dawns go forth for splendour, they are not known apart, alike, unwasting.
7 Blest were these Dawns of old, shining with succour, true with the truth that springs from holy
With whom the toiling worshipper, by praises, hymning and lauding, soon attained to riches.
8 Hither from eastward all at once they travel, from one place spreading in the selfsame manner.
Awaking, from the seat of holy Order the Godlike Dawns come nigh like troops of cattle.
9 Thus they go forth with undiminished colours, these Mornings similar, in selfsame- fashion,
Concealing the gigantic might of darkness with radiant bodies bright and pure and shining.
10 O Goddesses, O Heavens' refulgent Daughters, bestow upon us wealth with store of children.
As from our pleasant place of rest ye rouse us may we be masters of heroic vigour.
11 Wellskilled- in lore of sacrifice, ye Daughters of Heaven, refulgent Dawns, I thus address you.
May we be glorious among the people. May Heaven vouchsafe us this, and Earth the Goddess,
HYMN LII. Dawn. 52
1. THIS Lady, giver of delight, after her Sister shining forth, Daughter of Heaven, hath shown
2 Unfailing, Mother of the Kine, in colour like a bright red mare,
The Dawn became the Asvins' Friend.
3 Yea, and thou art the Asvins' Friend, the Mother of the Kine art thou:
O Dawn thou rulest over wealth.
4 Thinking of thee, O joyous One, as her who driveth hate away,
We woke to meet thee with our lauds.
5 Our eyes behold thy blessed rays like troops of cattle loosed to feed.
Dawn hath filled full the wide expanse.
6 When thou hast filled it, Fulgent One! thou layest bare the gloom with light.
After thy nature aid us, Dawn.
7 Thou overspreadest heaven with rays, the dear wide region of midair-.
With thy bright shining lustre, Dawn.
HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79
1. O HEAVENLY Dawn, awaken us to ample opulence today-
Even as thou hast wakened us with Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy steeds!
2 Daughter of Heaven, thou dawnedst on Sunitha Sucadrathas' son,
So dawn thou on one mightier still, on Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
3 So, bringing treasure, dawn today- on us thou Daughter of the Sky,
As thou, O mightier yet. didst shine for Satyatravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
4 Here round about thee are the priests who laud thee, Bright One, with their hymns,
And men with gifts, O Bounteous Dame, splendid with wealth and offering much, highborn-!
delightful with thy steeds!
5 Whatever these thy bands perform to please thee or to win them wealth,
even fain they gird us round and give rich gifts which Never are reft away, highborn-! delightful
with thy steeds!
6 Give to these wealthy patrons fame, O affluent Dawn, with hero sons,
To these our princes who have brought rich gifts Never to be reft away, highborn! delightful with
7 Bring lofty and resplendent fame, O thou munificent Dawn, to these
Our wealthy patrons who bestow rich gifts on us of steeds and kine, highborn-! delightful with thy
8 Bring us, O Daughter of the Sky, subsistence in our herds of kine,
Together with the sunbeams, with the shine of pure refulgent flames, highborn! delightful with thy
9 O Daughter of the Sky, shine forth; delay not to perform thy task.
Let not the Sun with fervent heat consume thee like a robber foe, highborn-! delightful with the
10 So much, and more exceedingly, O Dawn, it suits thee to bestow,
Thou Radiant One who ceasest not to shine for those who sing thy praise, highborn! delightful with
HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80
1. THE singers welcome with their hymns and praises the Goddess Dawn who bringeth in the sunlight,
Sublime, by Law true to eternal Order, bright on her path, redtinted-, farrefulgent-.
2 She comes in front, fair, rousing up the people, making the pathways easy to be travelled.
High, on her lofty chariot, allimpelling-, Dawn gives her splendour at the days' beginning.
3 She, harnessing her car with purple oxen. injuring none, hath brought perpetual riches.
Opening paths to happiness, the Goddess shines, praised by all, giver of every blessing.
4 With changing tints she gleams in double splendour while from the eastward she displays her body.
She travels perfectly the path of Order, nor fails to reach, as one who knows, the quarters.
5 As conscious that her limbs are bright with bathing, she stands, as it were, erect that we may
Driving away malignity and darkness, Dawn, Child of Heaven, hath come to us with lustre.
6 The Daughter of the Sky, like some chaste woman, bends, opposite to men, her forehead downward.
The Maid, disclosing boons to him who worships, hath brought again the daylight as aforetime.
RV 6.64, RV 6.65
HYMN LXIV. Dawn. 64
1. THE radiant Dawns have risen up for glory, in their white splendour like the waves of waters.
She maketh paths all easy, fair to travel, and, rich, hath shown herself benign and friendly.
2 We see that thou art good: far shines thy lustre; thy beams, thy splendours have flown up to
Decking thyself, thou makest bare thy bosom, shining in majesty, thou Goddess Morning.
3 Red are the kine and luminous that bear her the Blessed One who spreadeth through the distance.
The foes she chaseth like a valiant archer, like a swift warrior she repelleth darkness.
4 Thy ways are easy on the hills: thou passest Invincible! Se1fluminous-! through waters.
So lofty Goddess with thine ample pathway, Daughter of Heaven, bring wealth to give us comfort.
5 Dawn, bring me wealth: untroubled, with thine oxen thou bearest riches at thy will and pleasure;
Thou who, a Goddess, Child of Heaven, hast shown thee lovely through bounty when we called thee
6 As the birds fly forth from their restingplaces, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
Yea, to the liberal mortal who rernaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.
HYMN LXV. Dawn. 65
She who at nighttime- with her argent lustre hath shown herself even through the shades of
2 All this with redrayed- steeds have they divided: the Dawns on bright cars shine in wondrous
They, bringing near the stately rites' commencement, drive far away the nights' surrounding
3 Dawns, bringing hither, to the man who worships, glory and power and might and food and vigour,
Opulent, with imperial sway like heroes, favour your servant and this day enrich him.
4 Now is there treasure for the man who serves you, now for the hero, Dawns! who brings oblation;
Now for the singer when he sings the praisesong-. Even to one like me ye brought aforetime.
5 O Dawn who standest on the mountain ridges, Angirases now praise thy stalls of cattle.
With prayer and holy hymn they burst them open: the heroes' calling on the Gods was fruitful.
6 Shine on us as of old, thou Child of Heaven on, him, rich Maid! who serves like Bharadvaja.
Give to the singer wealth with noble heroes, and upon us bestow widespreading- glory.
HYMN XLI. Bhaga. 41
6 To this our worship may all Dawns incline them, and come to the pure place like Dadhikravan.
As strong steeds draw a chariot may they bring us hitherward Bhaga who discovers treasure.
7 May blessed Mornings dawn on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
RV 7.75 to RV 7.81
HYMN LXXV. Dawn. 75
1. BORN in the heavens the Dawn hath flushed, and showing her majesty is come as Law ordaineth.
She hath uncovered fiends and hateful darkness; best of Angirases, hath waked the pathways.
2 Rouse us this day to high and happy fortune: to great felicity, O Dawn, promote us.
Vouchsafe us manifold and splendid riches, famed among mortals, manbefriending- Goddess!
3 See, lovely Mornings' everlasting splendours, bright with their varied colours, have approached
Filling the region of midair-, producing the rites of holy worship, they have mounted.
4 She yokes her chariot far away, and swiftly visits the lands where the Five Tribes are settled,
Looking upon the works and ways of mortals, Daughter of Heaven, the worlds' Imperial Lady.
5 She who is rich in spoil, the Spouse of Surya, wondrously opulent, rules all wealth and
Consumer of our youth, the seers extol her: lauded by priests rich Dawn shines out refulgent.
6 Apparent are the steeds of varied colour, the red steeds carrying resplendent Morning.
On her alllovely- car she comes, the Fair One, and brings rich treasure for her faithful servant.
7 True with the True and Mighty with the Mighty, with Gods a Goddess, Holy with the Holy,
She brake strong fences down and gave the cattle: the kine were lowing as they greeted Morning.
8 O Dawn, now give us wealth in kine and heroes, and horses, fraught with manifold enjoyment.
Protect our sacred grass from mans' reproaches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
HYMN LXXVI. Dawn. 76
1. SAVITAR God of all men hath sent upward his light, designed for all mankind, immortal.
Through the Gods power that Eye was first created. Dawn hath made all the universe apparent.
2 I see the paths which Gods are wont to travel, innocuous paths made ready by the Vasus.
Eastward the flag of Dawn hath been uplifted; she hath come hither over the tops of houses.
3 Great is, in truth, the number of the Mornings which were aforetime at the Suns' uprising.
Since thou, O Dawn, hast been beheld repairing as to thy love, as one no more to leave him.
4 They were the Gods companions at the banquet, the ancient sages true to Law Eternal.
The Fathers found the light that lay in darkness, and with effectual words begat the Morning.
5 Meeting together in the same enclosure, they strive not, ofone mind, one with another.
They never break the Gods eternal statutes, and injure none, in rivalry with Vasus.
6 Extolling thee, Blest Goddess, the Vasisthas, awake at early mom, with lauds implore thee.
Leader of kine and Queen of all that strengthens, shine, come as first to us, O highborn- Morning.
7 She bringeth bounty and sweet charm of voices. The flushing Dawn is sung by the Vasisthas,
Giving us riches famed to distant places. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
HYMN LXXVIT. Dawn. 77
1. SHE hath shone brightly like a youthful woman, stirring to motion every living creature.
Agni hath come to feed on mortal? fuel. She hath made light and chased away the darkness.
2 Turned to this All, farspreading-, she hath risen and shone in brightness with white robes about
She hath beamed forth lovely with golden colours, Mother of kine, Guide of the days she bringeth.
3 Bearing the Gods own Eye, auspicious Lady, leading her Courser white and fair to look on,
Distinguished by her beanis- Dawn shines apparent, come forth to all the world with wondrous
4 Draw nigh with wealth and dawn away the foeman: prepare for us wide pasture free from danger.
Drive away those who hate us, bring us riches: pour bounty, opulent Lady, on the singer.
5 Send thy most excellent beams to shine and light us, giving us lengthened days, O Dawn, O
Granting us food, thou who hast all things precious, and bounty rich in chariots, kine, and horses.
6 O Usas, noblyborn-, Daughter of Heaven, whom the Vasisthas with their hymns make mighty,
Bestow thou on us vast and glorious riches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
HYMN LXXVIII. Dawn. 78
1. WE have beheld her earliest lights approaching: her many glories part, on high, asunder.
On car sublime, refulgent, wending hither, O Usas, bring the Wealth that makes us happy.
2 The fire wellkindIed- sings aloud to greet her, and with their hymns the priests are chaming
Usas approaches in her splendour, driving all evil darkness far away, the Goddess.
3 Apparent eastward are those lights of Morning, sending out lustre, as they rise, around them.
She hath brought forth Sun, sacrifice, and Agni, and far away hath fled detested darkness.
4 Rich Daughter of the Sky, we all behold her, yea, all men look on Dawn as she is breaking.
fler car that moves selfharnessed- hath she mounted, the car drawn onward by her wellyoked- horses.
5 Inspired with loving thoughts this day to greet thee, we and our wealthy nobles have awakened.
Show yourselves fruitful, Dawns, as ye are rising. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79
1. ROUSING the lands where mens' Five Tribes are settled, Dawn hath disclosed the pathways of the
She hath sent out her sheen with beauteous oxen. The Sun with light hath opened earth and heaven.
2 They paint their bright rays on the skys' far limits. the Dawns come on like tribes arrayed for
Thy cattle, closely shutting up the darkness, as Savitar spreads his arms, give forth their lustre.
3 Wealthy, most like to Indra, Dawn hath risen, and brought forth lauds that shall promote our
Daughter of Heaven, a Goddess, she distributes, best of Angirases, treasures to the pious.
4 Bestow on us, O Dawn, that ample bounty which thou didst send to those who sang thy praises;
Thou whom with bellowings of a bull they quickened: thou didst unbar the firmset- mountains'
5 Impelling every God to grant his bounty sending to us the charm of pleasant voices,
Vouchsafe us thoughts, for profit, as thou breakest. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80
1 THE priests, Vasisthas, are the first awakened to welcome Usas with their songs and praises,
Who makes surrounding regions part asunder and, shows apparent all existing creatures.
2 Giving fresh life when she hath hid the darkness, this Dawn hath wakened there with newborn-
Youthful and unrestrained she cometh forward: she hath turned thoughts to Sun and fire and worship.
3 May blessed Mornings shine on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.
HYMN LXXXI. Dawn. 81
Uncovering, that we may see, the mighty gloom, the friendly Lady makes the light.
2 The Sun ascending, the refulgent Star, pours down his beams together with the Dawn.
O Dawn, at thine arising, and the Suns', may we attain the share allotted us.
3 Promptly we woke to welcome thee, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
Thee, Bounteous One, who bringest all we long to have, and to the offerer health and wealth.
4 Thou, dawning, workest fain to light the great world, yea, heaven, Goddess! that it may be seen.
We yearn to be thine own, Dealer of Wealth: may we be to this Mother like her sons.
5 Bring us that wondrous bounty, Dawn, that shall be famed most far away.
What, Child of Heaven, thou hast of nourishment for man, bestow thou on us to enjoy.
6 Give to our princes opulence and immortal fame, and strength in herds of kine to us.
May she who prompts the wealthy, Lady of sweet strains, may Usas dawn our foes away.
HYMN XLVII. Adityas. 47
1. GREAT help ye give the worshipper, Varuna, Mitra, Mighty Ones! No sorrow ever reaches him whom
ye, Adityas, keep from harm. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.
2 O Gods, Adityas, well ye know the way to keep all woes afar.
As the birds spread their sheltering wings, spread your protection over us.
3 As the birds spread their sheltering wings let your protection cover us.
We mean all shelter and defence, ye who have all things for your own.
4 To whomsoever they, Most Wise, have given a home and means of life,
Over the whole riches of this man they, the Adityas, have control.
5 As drivers of the car avoid ill roads, let sorrows pass us by.
May we be under Indras' guard, in the Adityas' favouring grace.
6 For verily men sink and faint through loss of wealth which ye have given.
Much hath he gained from you, O Gods, whom ye, Adityas, have approached.
7 On him shall no fierce anger fall, no sore distress shall visit him,
To whom, Adityas, ye have lent your shelter that extendeth far.
8 Resting in you, O Gods, we are like men who fight in coats of mail.
Ye guard us from each great offence, ye guard us from each lighter fault.
9 May Aditi defend us, may Aditi guard and shelter us,
Mother of wealthy Mitra and of Aryaman and Varuna.
10 The shelter, Gods, that is secure, auspicious, free from malady,
A sure protection, triply strong, even that do ye extend to us.
11 Look down on us, Adityas, as a guide exploring from the bank.
Lead us to pleasant ways as men lead horses to an easy ford.
12 Ill be it for the demons' friend to find us or come near to us.
But for the milchcow- be it well, and for the man who strives for fame.
13 Each evil deed made manifest, and that which is concealed, O Gods,
The whole thereof remove from us to Trita Aptya far away.
14 Daughter of Heaven, the dream that bodes evil to us or to our kine,
Remove, O Lady of the Light, to Trita Aptya far away.
15 Even if, O Child of Heaven, it make a garland or a chain of gold,
The whole bad dream, whatever it be, to Trita Aptya we consign.
16 To him whose food and work is this, who comes to take his share therein,
To Trita, and to Dvita, Dawn! bear thou the evil dream away.
17 As we collect the utmost debt, even the eighth and sixteenth part,
So unto Aptya we transfer together all the evil dream.
18 Now have we conquered and obtained, and from our trespasses are free.
Shine thou away the evil dream, O Dawn, whereof we are afraid. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.
2 Come with kind thoughts, most liberal, rousing the warriors' hymn of praise, with bounteous ones,
3 As nourishers we tie the thread, and, liberal with our bounty, offer sacrifice.
4 Dawn drives away her Sisters' gloom, and, through her excellence, makes her retrace her path.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JS_KRgl5tA (5:17) Published on Dec 23, 2016