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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    New evidence comprehensively debunks the 19th century’s colonial Aryan Invasion Theory and its late 20th century refinement, the Indo-Aryan Migration theory.
      
    The Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) needs no introduction. It is the bedrock upon which Indian history has been written. Its central thesis has three main components:
    1. India’s original inhabitants were “dark-skinned” Dravidians, who built a peaceful, highly developed, near-utopian urban civilization in western India and present-day Pakistan: the so-called Harappan or Indus valley civilization.
    1. India was invaded and conquered from the West by a nomadic people called the Indo-Aryans around 1500 BCE. These Indo-Aryans were of European origin (hence white-skinned), and spoke Vedic Sanskrit. They destroyed the indigenous Dravidian civilization, subjugated the natives, and forced them to migrate to India’s South.
    1. The Indo-Aryans then composed the Vedas, and imposed Hinduism and the caste system upon the hapless Dravidians and other indigenous peoples of India.
    First propounded by Max Müller, the AIT has been regarded as self-evident since the 19th century. In the late 20th century, it was refined into what is now known as the Indo-Aryan Migration theory (IAMT). According to this model, the Indo-Aryans migrated into India rather than invaded it, which nevertheless had the same effect on the indigenous peoples: their subjugation and the imposition of Indo-Aryan religion (Hinduism) and culture.

    The opposing view: Indigenous Aryans

    The opposing view, known variously as the Indigenous Aryans theory (IAT) and the Out of India theory (OIT), rejects the AIT/IAMT (henceforth AIT). It posits that the Indo-Aryan people and their languages originated in the Indian subcontinent and that the Indus valley civilization (Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization) was the Vedic civilization, not a Dravidian civilization as claimed in the AIT.
    Proponents of this theory cite archaeological evidence of civilizational and cultural continuity, and Indian literary sources such as the Puranas, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana – which contain extensive genealogies of kings that date back thousands of years – and which mainstream scholars reject as mythology.
    The question of the origin of the Indo-Aryans has become the most controversial, emotive, and polarizing debate in India today. It pits these two diametrically opposing narratives against one another.

    Scientific inquiry is the only way forward

    The scientific method requires researchers to take a theory seriously until it can be irrefutably demonstrated to be false using systematic observations, carefully controlled and replicable tests and experiments, scientific techniques, the application of logic, and hard evidence. Science is not concerned with narratives, ideologies, beliefs, dogma, or opinions. Science deals in empirical or measurable evidence and in hard facts. Conclusions are drawn based on scientific evidence, and can change in the face of new evidence.
    While India’s history textbooks continue to teach antiquated and unscientific 19th century concepts and ideas well into the 21st century, the world has moved on.
    The interrelated fields of population genetics, comparative genetics, archaeo-genetics, genomics, and genotyping have made it possible to gain an unprecedented insight into the nature of human genetic diversity. These are rapidly evolving disciplines, which, in the coming years and decades, will revolutionize our understanding of how our species evolved. These advances in genetics, as well as new archaeological investigations, have brought forth new evidence and presented us with new facts.
    What is the new evidence? What new facts have emerged? Let us find out.

    How old is Indian civilization? Archaeological evidence

    Radiocarbon dating has demonstrated that Bhirrana, a site on the banks of the now-defunct Sarasvati River, existed in the 6th millennium BCE (8,000 years before present). A more recent study proves that Bhirrana and other settlements in the Sarasvati valley are at least 9,500 years old, and possibly older [1].
    Bhirrana, the oldest known Harappan site, is at least 9,500 years old. Bhirrana, the oldest known Harappan site, is at least 9,500 years old.
    Sarkar et al’s study found that the Sarasvati was a mighty river along which Indian civilization’s earliest settlements were founded. It states that the monsoon declined monotonically after 5,000 BCE, gradually weakening the Sarasvati, which is known to have eventually dried out to a large extent around 1,500 BCE. The Harappan civilization thus gradually deurbanized due to declining monsoons, rather than collapsed abruptly. Smaller settlements continued, and eventually dispersed toward the Himalayan foothills, the Ganga-Yamuna plain, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.
    These results were obtained by studying just one site on the Sarasvati’s dry paleo-channel. More than 500 such sites are known to exist along the ancient river’s course, and there may be many more. Investigating more sites will give a better idea of the age of the civilization and possibly demonstrate that it is even older.
    The seasonal, intermittent Ghaggar-Hakra River is what is left of the once-mighty Sarasvati. The seasonal, intermittent Ghaggar-Hakra River is what is left of the once-mighty Sarasvati.

    Dating the Rig Veda using Sarkar et al’s study

    The Sarasvati is extensively mentioned in the Rig Veda, India’s foundational literary text. It is referred to as “greatest of rivers”, “glorious”, “loudly roaring”, and “mother of floods”. This clearly refers to a mighty river in its prime, not one in decline.
    This falsifies the AIT account that the Rig Veda was composed after a purported Aryan invasion/migration circa 1,500 BCE, and indicates that it was composed closer to 5,000 BCE when the river was last in its prime per the results of Sarkar et al’s study. This raises serious questions about the AIT’s validity.
    India’s “mainstream” historians dismiss the Rig Veda as mythology. This is a naive and subjective assumption that betrays an unscholarly bias on their part. If the Rig Veda is mythology, then so are Herodotus‘ fanciful and inaccurate Histories. Herodotus, however, continues to be cited as a reliable historian. This smacks of double standards. The Rig Veda is certainly less fanciful than Herodotus’ Histories. Moreover, it is a veritable treasure that gives us the earliest literary insight into human society and thought. As such, it must be taken seriously.

    Archaeology demonstrates Indian civilization’s continuity

    The renowned archaeologist Professor B. B. Lal, whose distinguished career spanned more than half a century, refutes the AIT, based on his extensive archaeological discoveries and research. He asserts that there is no evidence for warfare or invasion, and that the theory of Aryan migration too is a myth. He further states that “Vedic” and “Harappan” are respectively literary and material facets of the same civilization.
    In his book “The Rigvedic People: Invaders? Immigrants? or Indigenous?”, Professor Lal gives extensive archaeological evidence that many of the traditions and customs prevalent in the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization continue to exist in modern India [2]. He demonstrates that Yoga, the Shiva-linga-cum-yoni, the use of vermilion (sindura) in married women’s hair partition, the use of spiraled bangles among women in Haryana and Rajasthan, the folk tale of the thirsty crow, the Namaste greeting, Lord Shiva’s trident, and many other aspects of contemporary Hinduism and Indian culture originated in the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization. Similar evidence is provided in Michel Danino’s seminal work “The Lost River: On The Trail of the Sarasvati” [3].
    This refutes the theory that the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization was destroyed and supplanted with a “foreign” Hindu culture and civilization, and proves that modern India is a continuation of that ancient civilization. Dr. Vasant Shinde, another internationally renowned archaeologist, concurs.
    Nausharo, Baluchistan: Female figurines with vermilion at the parting of the hair, c. 2800 BCE.Nausharo, Baluchistan: Female figurines with vermilion at the parting of the hair, c. 2800 BCE.

    Genetic evidence demolishes the Aryan Invasion Theory

    The science of genetics has revolutionized the study of ancient history and given researchers an unprecedented ability to uncover the details of humanity’s past. India has lagged behind in genetic research, and the government of India has in the past prohibited foreign researchers from collecting genetic samples of Indians. This restriction has been removed of late, and, as a consequence, a new picture of Indian history is emerging.
    Consider the following:
    1. This research paper demonstrates the absence of any significant outside genetic influence in India for the past 10,000 – 15,000 years [4].
    1. This research paper excludes any significant patrilineal gene flow from East Europe to Asia, including India, at least since the mid-Holocene period (7,000 to 5,000 years ago) [5].
    1. This research paper rejects the possibility of an Aryan invasion/migration and concludes that Indian populations are genetically unique and harbor the second highest genetic diversity after Africans [6].
    These three research papers demolish the AIT. They conclusively and irrefutably prove that there was no Aryan invasion circa 1500 BCE.
    This is just the beginning of the revelations.

    The family that conquered the world … originated in India

    In genetic terminology, a “haplogroup” is a group of individuals that share a common ancestor with a particular genetic mutation. A haplogroup pertains to a single line of descent which typically dates back several thousand years. In other words, a haplogroup is a large, extended family or clan, all of whose members have a shared ancestry. There are two types of haplogroups: Y-chromosome (patrilineal) haplogroups, and mtDNA (matrilineal) haplogroups. Haplogroups are identified by letters of the alphabet (A, B, C, etc.) and sub-groups are denoted by letters and numbers (A1, A1a, etc.).
    The Y-chromosomal (patrilineal) haplogroup R1a1a (also known as R-M17) is the world’s most successful extended family. Its members number in the high hundreds of millions, possibly over a billion. It is widespread across Eurasia, with high concentrations in Russia, Poland and Ukraine, as well as in the Indian subcontinent and the Tuva region of Asiatic Russia.
    R1a1a is closely associated with the spread of Indo-European languages across Eurasia. In India, R1a1a is identified as the haplogroup that represents the Indo-Aryan people. It records an uninterrupted lineage of males, from father to son, all of whom have descended from one common male ancestor.
    Distribution of haplogroup R1a1a (purple) in Eurasia. Distribution of haplogroup R1a1a (purple) in Eurasia.
    This research paper demonstrates that the R1a1* haplogroup, which is found throughout Eurasia, originated in India [7]. Here, the * refers to all subgroups of the parent haplogroup R1a1.
    The R1a* haplogroup which originated in India is at least 18,000 years old [7]. The R1a* haplogroup which originated in India is at least 18,000 years old [7].
    This more recent study published in 2015 confirms and refines the results of [7], demonstrating that the oldest examples of the haplogroup R1a are found in the Indian subcontinent and are approximately 15,450 years old [8].
    This is a momentous discovery. It proves that:
    1. The R1a haplogroup originated in India.
    1. The Indo-Aryan people have lived in India for at least 15,450 years, which invalidates the theory that the Indo-Aryans invaded India 3,500 years ago.
    1. The hundreds of millions of members (possibly over a billion) of the R1a family living across the world today – a very large fraction of humanity – are all descended from one single male ancestor who lived in India at least 15,450 years ago.
    This discovery demonstrates the close genetic (and hence linguistic and cultural) affinity of Indians with the Russian and Polish people, the Vikings and Normans, and with the ancient Scythians and Tocharians, among many others.
    This is irrefutable scientific proof that not only did the Indo-Aryan people originate in India over 15,450 years ago, but also that they expanded out of India and settled in lands far to the west in Europe. It thoroughly invalidates the AIT and IAMT.

    Contextualizing contradictory genetic studies

    While I have presented several research papers that invalidate the AIT, I would be remiss if I did not mention here that some other genetic studies claim that the AIT is correct. How does one interpret this?
    The answer is simple: None of these other studies has been able to disprove the results of [7] and [8], namely, that the oldest examples of the haplogroup R1a are found in the Indian subcontinent and are at least 15,450 years old. None of them has been able to find older examples of R1a anywhere else in the world.
    As long as the results of [7] and [8] stand, the AIT remains invalidated.

    The myth of the Aryan-Dravidian divide and the ‘high caste’-‘low caste’ divide

    The supposed Aryan-Dravidian divide is a mythThis Nature report, which cites three genetic studies, demonstrates that most Indians are genetically alike, belying the hypothesis of an Aryan-Dravidian dichotomy [9]. Other studies have also demonstrated that people in north India are no different from those in the south and that all share the same genetic lineage.
    The R1a1a haplogroup is found in high frequencies in north Indians as well as south Indians, in tribal communities, and in ‘low castes’ as well as in ‘high castes’.
    Claims that the Dravidians belong to a separate, non-Hindu civilization are also discredited by ancient Tamil Sangam literature, which dates back to c. 300 BCE. The Mahabharata is mentioned in the oldest Tamil Sangam literature. The Vedas and the Ramayana are also mentioned in Sangam literature. Sangam literature mentions the whole of India, starting from lands to “the north of the Himalayas”, which contradicts the claim that the Dravidians were confined to the south of India.
    The above evidence, taken together, demonstrates the genetic and cultural continuity of India from the north to the south, and proves that the artificial concepts of the “Aryan-Dravidian divide” and the ‘high caste’-‘low caste’ divide have no basis in fact.

    Literary Evidence for Westward Indo-Aryan expansion

    Consider the Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra, a Vedic text. Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra 18:44 records:
    “Amavasu migrated westward. His people are Gandhari, Parsu and Aratta.”
    This refers to a Vedic king called Amavasu, whose people are the Gandhari (Gandhara – Afghanistan), the Parsu (Persians) and the Aratta, who are tentatively identified as living in the vicinity of Mt. Ararat, which is located in Turkey (eastern Anatolia) and Armenia.
    Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra 18:44. Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra 18:44.
    Afghanistan (Gandhara) was historically part of the Indian civilization until the Islamic invasions. The name “Persia” comes from the ancient Parshva people (an Aryan clan). The word “Parshva” is derived from the Sanskrit/Avestan (Old Persian) word “Parshu”, which means “battle-axe”. There are clear linguistic and cultural similarities between India and Persia.
     paper
    The traditional Armenian name for Mt. Ararat is Masis. It is named after the legendary Armenian king Amasya. The name “Amasya” is linguistically related to the name “Amavasu” of the Indian king recorded in the Baudhayana Shrauta Sutra. This establishes literary evidence for the westward expansion of Indo-Aryans, via Afghanistan, to Persia, Armenia and Anatolia.
    The German Indologist M. Witzel and the Marxist historian Romila Thapar have in the past misinterpreted this passage to mean that Amavasu migrated eastward, which caused a heated controversy.

    Archaeological Evidence for Westward Indo-Aryan expansion

    The ancient kingdom of Mitanni, located in present-day Syria and Anatolia, had an Indo-Aryan, Sanskrit-speaking ruling class. Mitanni kings had Indo-Aryan names.
    The Mitanni kingdom, located in present-day Syria and Anatolia. The Mitanni kingdom, located in present-day Syria and Anatolia.
    The oldest recorded (Vedic) Sanskrit words are found in a horse training manual by a Mitanni horse master named Kikkuli. Although the text is written in the Hittite language, it appears that Kikkuli was not familiar enough with that language to use technical terms, which made it necessary for him to use the terminology of his own language (Vedic Sanskrit) instead.
    Horse master Kikkuli's horse training manual, notable for its Vedic Sanskrit terminology. Horse master Kikkuli’s horse training manual, notable for its Vedic Sanskrit terminology.
    Inscribed clay tablets discovered in Boğazkale, Anatolia (Turkey), record a royal treaty & invoke the Vedic gods Indra, Mitra, Nasatya & Varuna as witnesses. The Boğazkale clay tablets are dated to c. 1380 BCE. This is around the same time as Kikkuli’s horse training manual.
    Hittite capital city Hattusa, near Boğazkale, where the clay tablets were found. Hittite capital city Hattusa, near Boğazkale, where the clay tablets were found.
    Mitanni king Tushratta (Sanskrit: DashaRatha)'s letter to Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt. Mitanni king Tushratta (Sanskrit: DashaRatha)’s letter to Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt.
    The Mitanni belonged to the Indian-origin haplogroup R1a1a. This is clear evidence of a large-scale westward expansion of Sanskrit-speaking Indo-Aryans, and their presence as the ruling aristocracy in lands thousands of kilometers west of India. This quashes the asinine claim that the first speakers of Sanskrit were Syrians, a claim that would be laughable were it not portrayed as serious journalism in a mainstream publication.

    Genetic Evidence for Westward Indo-Aryan expansion

    Recent DNA evidence shows that Europe experienced a massive population influx from the east, beginning around 4,500 years from the present [10]. Several haplogroups were involved in this demic expansion, including the Indian-origin R1a1a. This was almost a total replacement event, which indicates that Indo-Aryans, among others, expanded westward into Europe and to a large extent replaced indigenous European males and their Y-chromosome strata.
    This indicates military expansion. Conquest.
    This genetic evidence indicates that several Y-chromosomal (patrilineal) lineages, one of which was the Indian-origin R1a1a, gave rise to the modern European population. Out of these lineages, R1a1a is the most widespread and numerous.

    The children of Goddess Danu.

    The primordial Rig Vedic river goddess Danu is the mother/progenitor of the Danava clan of Indo-Aryans. The Danavas revolted against the Devas, and were eventually defeated and banished. As it turns out, that was far from the end of their story.
    The word dānu means “fluid, drop” in Rig Vedic Sanskrit. The Avestan (old Iranian) word for “river” is “dānu”. The Scythian (Saka/Shaka) & Sarmatian words for “river” are also “dānu”.
    Now consider this: linguistically, the names of the European rivers DanubeDnieperDniestrDonDonets, Dunajec, Dvina/Daugava, and Dysna are all derived from the Rig Vedic Sanskrit root word “dānu”. These rivers flow across eastern & central Europe. These rivers, all named after the Rig Vedic goddess Danu, seem to trace the gradual westward migration through Europe of the Danava clan of Rig Vedic Indo-Aryans.
    So where did the Danavas eventually end up?
    According to Irish & Celtic mythology, the Irish & Celtic people are descended from a mother goddess – a river goddess – called Danu. The ancient (mythological) people of Ireland are called the Tuatha Dé Danann (Old Irish: “The peoples of the goddess Danu”).
    Is there genetic evidence to support this story? As it turns out, there is. The R1a1a haplogroup is rare in Ireland, at 2.5% of the population. This can be explained by the fact that Ireland has suffered many invasions since the Bronze Age, which would have led to the gradual replacement of the R1a1a haplogroup with those of the various invaders. The fact that R1a1a is still present in Ireland proves that people of Indo-Aryan origin settled there in the past.

    What the mountain of new evidence indicates

    It is clear that there is layer upon layer of archaeological, literary, linguistic, and, most importantly, genetic evidence that forms a consistent, repeated, and predictable pattern that debunks the Aryan Invasion Theory and supports the Indigenous Aryans Theory. These layers of evidence, taken together, paint a vast canvas and prove that:
    1. The Indo-Aryan people and languages originated in the Indian subcontinent.
    1. The Vedic civilization and the Indus valley civilization (Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization) are one and the same.
    1. The Rig Veda was composed closer to c. 5,000 BCE when the river Sarasvati was last in its prime, than to c. 1,500 BCE when it dried out. This makes the Rig Veda a strong candidate for being the world’s oldest known literature.
    1. Rather than being a religion of invaders, Hinduism is indigenous to India and has its origins in the very beginning of the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization.
    1. North Indians and South Indians are genetically and culturally alike. The Aryan-Dravidian divide is a myth; it has no basis in fact. The ‘high caste’-‘low caste’ divide also has no basis in fact.
    1. Indian civilization is a continuous, unbroken tradition that dates back to the very beginning of the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization, at least 9,500 years before present. This makes India not only the world’s oldest civilization, older than Mesopotamia and Egypt, but also the world’s oldest continuously existing civilization. This makes India the true Cradle of Civilization.
    1. Indo-Aryans carrying R1a1a lineages expanded westward thousands of years ago, conquering and populating territories as far west as Europe. They were the most successful conquerors in human history. Their descendants are the Slavs (Russians, Ukrainians, Czechs, Poles, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, etc.), the Scandinavians, and many others.
    In other words, the new evidence comprehensively debunks the 19th century’s colonial Aryan Invasion Theory and its late 20th century refinement, the Indo-Aryan Migration theory.

    Will the new evidence set the controversy to rest?

    The question of the origin of the Indo-Aryans concerns the very idea of India. It pits two diametrically opposing narratives against one another.
    The mainstream AIT/IAMT narrative, which portrays Indo-Aryan (Hindu) culture as hegemonic, racist, intolerant, rapacious, and inegalitarian, imposes an Indian version of “white guilt” on persons of Indo-Aryan ancestry, and engenders deep resentment and a desire to right historical wrongs among persons of Dravidian and “Dalit” ancestry – which manifests itself in various forms such as separatism and rejection of Hinduism and Indian culture, among others.
    This makes the AIT a powerful political tool which dovetails perfectly with the leftist, ‘secular’, and ‘liberal’ political narrative, as well as with the agendas of Dravidian nationalists, Dalit supremacists, missionaries, separatists, and other “Breaking India” forces, internal as well as external. As such, it has long been used to neatly divide India into dichotomous categories such as North and South Indians, Aryans and Dravidians, the fair skinned and the dark skinned, ‘high castes’ and Dalits, the privileged and the oppressed.
    It is difficult to overstate how much the AIT has strengthened the leftist narrative. The left/secular/liberal ecosystem derives much of its strength and power from its decades-old stranglehold on Indian academia, especially in the humanities (but also in other fields). Leftist academics staff or control most of India’s humanities departments. Leftist historians and academics monopolize academic discourse in India and marginalize dissenting voices. The leftist clique has ensured that every school, college, and university textbook teaches the AIT.
    India’s education system discourages students from asking questions and thinking on their own. This conditioning makes them accept the leftist narrative without question. As a consequence, several generations of Indians have grown up and spent their lives hating, or, at the very least, feeling ashamed of their culture and heritage.
    The AIT gives leftist academics the ideal rationale for denigrating Indian culture, exhorting ‘lower caste’ students to reject Hinduism and rebel against ‘the establishment’, encouraging female students to reject Hinduism for being patriarchal and misogynistic, calling into question India’s right to exist as a nation, and supporting anti-national and separatist movements, all on academic and scholarly grounds. This is the modus operandi by which several generations of unquestioning and impressionable students have been indoctrinated and recruited into the leftist movement.
    The AIT also gives India’s ‘liberals’ and secularists the perfect justification for promoting hatred and intolerance toward Indian culture while at the same time claiming to be liberal and progressive.
    The AIT is thus the academic premise underpinning the entire spectrum of methods the various “Breaking India” forces employ to attack India’s culture and undermine India’s integrity. It is their trump card. Take it away, and they have nothing else left.
    It is therefore vitally important for them that this theory remains the dominant narrative in India. This is the reason why, instead of investigating the Indigenous Aryans Theory (IAT) using all means available, India’s leftist historians and academics have for decades dismissed it out of hand as “Hindutva”. This is why they decry any attempt to alter the status quo (such as modernizing history textbooks) as “fascism” and “historical revisionism”, and why they have marginalized scholars such as the distinguished archeologist B. B. Lal, whose immense body of work has never been allowed to make it to Indian textbooks.
    I therefore expect India’s “eminent” leftist historians to either ignore the results of the research papers and studies cited herein (as they have largely done thus far), or to respond with cherry-picked data and flawed logic as has long been their wont.
    Some attempts to raise questions about the validity of genetic studies have already been made. Consider this opinion piece, wherein Romila Thapar declaims that genetics and DNA analysis are “not of much help to social historians” as, according to her, “Aryan is a social construct and therefore genetic information is unlikely to be useful unless the parameters defining the groups for analysis undergo some rethinking” [11].
    Her Eminence could not be more wrong. The term “Arya” (which is anglicized to “Aryan”) is an ethnic self-designation, not a “social construct”. It is one that both the ancient Indians and Persians used for themselves. Ethnicities are ideally suited for genetic investigation. If there is any confusion about the meaning of this term, it is because ideologues like Thapar have used their academic positions to systematically obfuscate its real meaning and give it political and ideological color.
    This article [11] is typical of India’s leftist academics: devoid of original research, based on other people’s work, presents a subjective opinion rather than hard results, and uses far-fetched and convoluted logic to make biased and untenable arguments that are unsupported by scientific evidence.

    The way forward: India must take ownership of research

    It is well-established that India’s population is genetically unique and harbors the second highest genetic diversity after that of Africa. Research into India’s genetics has not been given much importance and is still in its infancy. Much of it is authored by foreign authors and conducted from outside India. This must change. India must take ownership of the research into its past, the same way China has done for itself. In order to achieve this, India must do the following.
    First, India must conceive and launch a large-scale project whose objectives are:
    1. To establish a detailed catalog of the genetic variation in India’s population.
    1. To correlate Indian genetics with those in other regions of Eurasia.
    1. To map migration patterns in and out of India.
    To do this, India needs to develop world-class genetics research groups and establish state-of-the-art genetic testing laboratories. At present, Indian researchers have to send genetic material abroad for testing.
    Second, the DNA of skeletons found in Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization sites such as Rakhigarhi must be analyzed in order to determine their ancestry and genetics. Although there is undeniable evidence that the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization is the same as the Vedic civilization, its genetics are the one missing piece of the puzzle. If the R1a1a haplogroup is detected in these skeletons, it will end the debate over the civilization’s origins and language, once and for all.
    DNA from four such skeletons was extracted in 2015 and the material was sent to South Korea for DNA testing. The results were expected to be published in 2016, but have not yet seen the light of day. Research such as this must be prioritized and fast-tracked.
    Third, the well-known technique of forensic facial reconstruction should be employed to recreate the faces of individuals whose skeletons have been found in various Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization sites, so that we may learn what our ancestors looked like. Many of these skeletons are kept in various museums throughout the country. Forensic facial reconstruction is a routine, straightforward and inexpensive technique which has existed for decades, and which was recently employed to reconstruct the face of Richard III of England. It is inexplicable that the ASI has not done this yet.
    Fourth, Indian textbooks must be modernized. They must be expunged of the blatant leftist slant that has plagued them for decades. History textbooks especially need to be decontaminated. Education must be based upon hard facts and scientific evidence; it must not be allowed to be used as a political tool.
    Finally, the leftist choke-hold on Indian academia must end. The leftist clique has succeeded in propagandizing generations of otherwise intelligent Indians, conditioning them to unquestioningly buy into their fringe narrative. Its institutionalized sophistry has indoctrinated countless students into supporting Pakistan’s stand on Kashmir and China’s stand on Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh, championing separatist and anarchist movements, and questioning India’s right to exist as a nation.
    Education and academia must deal in knowledge, not narratives. Knowledge must remain pure, it must not be allowed to be influenced by ideology and politics. This requires large-scale systemic reforms, which is a topic for another article.

    In Conclusion

    There is now a mountain of scientific evidence that proves that the Aryan Invasion Theory or its migration version is a myth. It is fiction. It belongs in the big league of unscientific theories (which some still believe in), alongside creationism, anti-evolutionism, the myth of Noah’s ark, and flat earth theory.
    The evidence shows that India is much more than a nation. It is the world’s oldest civilization.
    India wasn’t born in 1947. Our great civilization was born at least nine and a half millennia ago according to archaeological evidence, and fifteen and a half millennia ago according to genetic evidence. The records of our great ancestors’ deeds are lost, destroyed in the fires and the depredations of the past millennium. The least we can do to honor our ancestors is to strive to rediscover the truth about them.
    Who were the first Indians? When did they first arrive in India? Where from? What were their lives like? What was their society like? How did ancient Indian civilization evolve? What knowledge did they possess? What kind of science did they have? What discoveries did they make? What technologies did they develop? How did they build the largest ancient urban civilization the world has ever seen? What did they call their great cities? What language did they speak? Did they really develop a proto-democracy thousands of years before the Greeks? What kind of future did they envisage for India? What lessons can we learn from them?
    These are the questions our “eminent” historians have not deigned to ask for the past seven decades. These are the answers we must seek, in order to rediscover our roots and understand who we really are.
    The truth is out there. Its clues lie buried under our footsteps, scattered in our languages and our literature, and hidden deep in our DNA. Science is the key. We now possess the know-how and the technology to investigate and unravel the mystery. It is time to utilize it.
    India’s rediscovery of its past has only begun. Exciting times are ahead.
    References
    1. Sarkar A. et al. Oxygen isotope in archaeological bioapatites from India: Implications to climate change and decline of Bronze Age Harappan civilization. Sci. Rep. 6, 26555; doi: 10.1038/srep26555 (2016).
    1. Lal B. B. The Rigvedic People: Invaders? Immigrants? or Indigenous? Aryan Books International; First Edition (2015).
    1. Danino M. The Lost River: On The Trail of the Sarasvati. Penguin Books (2010).
    1. Sengupta S. et al. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution Y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;78:202–21.
    1. Underhill P. A. et al. Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:479–84. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.194.
    1. Tamang R., Thangaraj K. Genomic view on the peopling of India. Investig. Genet., 3, 20. (2012).
    1. Sharma S. et al. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system. Journal of Human Genetics (2009) 54, 47–55; doi:10.1038/jhg.2008.2
    1. Lucotte G. (2015) The Major Y-Chromosome Haplotype XI – Haplogroup R1a in Eurasia. Hereditary Genet 4:150. doi: 10.4172/2161-1041.1000150
    1. Dolgin E. Indian ancestry revealed (2009). doi:10.1038/news.2009.935
    1. Haak W. et al. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature. 2015;522(7555):207–11. doi: 10.1038/nature14317.
    1. Thapar R. Can Genetics Help Us Understand Indian Social History? Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 2014;6(11):a008599. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a008599.Satish N 
      • First of all thanks to the author Sri. Chavda for coming up with this informational, persuasive article. The unfortunate life of Indians is that they were ruled by brown Sepoys even after 1947 and their accademia hijacked by Mao-Marx slaves. Our previous generation have done a great disservice for the nation by repeatedly electing these scoundrels And When we show some sense and elect a Nationalist Govt, they too succumb to "fear of perception" created by Media and Mao-Marx 'Intellectual' circuit that rants 'Hindutva' or "Secularism Khatre me hain". This propaganda is to prevent any sincere effort to rediscover our past!
        If our Leaders leave that fear and choose to be unabashed Bharatiya then more funds, more scientific research with all the wherewithal such projects require can be provided. Nationalists shall not loose heart and continue pursuing our Government, Leaders for undertaking it. Individually too, have we ever tried to find out our past say, 7-8 generations ? The same negligence transcended on our Leaders too!
          • Avatar
            After a very long time we have an authoritative, scientifically based , & employing logical arguments article to demolish the crap that we have been served until now by the Leftist+British+W.European historians. I cannot thank the author enough for such a brilliant analysis, that it felt to me as if a veil has been lifted. I second the suggestion made in this comments section that the author needs to think hard about putting together all this (& maybe more if he has) material in a book form & publish it. This is very essential as in KaliYuga, propaganda is dished out as truth and can only be countered by wider dissemination.
              • Avatar
                This article requires to be printed and published as a separate book-let, like the smaller version of Michel Danino's book " The Invasion That Never Was". It requires to be widely distributed among school and college students .
                  • Avatar
                    Scientifically researched history facts makes the historical events more trustworthy digest unlike the past manipulated and wrongly presented Aryan & Dravidian myths.The author of this blog Mr.A.L.Chavda needs to be commended for his extensive analysis of the subject and I am sharing the article.
                      • Avatar
                        very informative articles unlike leftist rants which are based on assumptions. romilla tapar types are the examples of assumption BS JUST LIKE irfanhabib
                          • Avatar
                            Good well researched article.
                              • Avatar
                                I do not have suitable words of gratitude to express it for this fantastic article which may help the humanity at large. Thanks a lot !
                                  • Avatar
                                    I agree there is a lot of propaganda going around for many decades with our schools still teaching colonial literature.
                                    At the same time, I have some questions regarding the author jumping to certain conclusions from certain facts. I am hoping someone reading this will kindly be able to answer / discuss.
                                    case 1. source [8] Lucotte G. (2015) 
                                    Fact: and I quote from that paper, words inside bracket are mine : "For Z93 (which is a subgroup of R1a), the 192 PakistanoIndians chosen for the estimation give an approximate TMRCA (the most recent common ancestor)=15,5 Kyears" and "all our South Asian populations are Z93, while almost all our European populations are Z280". 
                                    From this fact, our author concludes that R1a originated in India and all R1a holders in the world currently descended from him.
                                    How can one conclude that from this fact? First of all, Z93 is found outside India too. In fact, the current highest concentration of Z93 is not in india or pakistan. All it proves is that a very old gene is present in current Indians. That doesnt mean that gene originated in India. It could have originated outside and come to India in large numbers (Aryan Migration Theory).
                                    case 2. source [2] Lal B. B. (2015)
                                    Fact: Many traditions present in Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) are still present in modern India.
                                    Conclusion: This refutes the theory that the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization was destroyed and supplanted with a “foreign” Hindu culture and civilization.
                                    Again, how? When Sarasvati dried up, IVC, moved elsewhere, east / south. Around the same time (4-5k years ago), Aryan arrived in India (not invaded, but just migrated or mingled). Hence we see both Aryan and IVC customs followed in India.
                                    I am here to learn about the origins of my countrymen. I am open to discuss any of this.
                                      see more
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                                        The best way to defeat the leftist propaganda is for Hindus to take up dissemination of this information independently without government support or recognition. Schools and colleges with better standard and indigenous curriculum must be started without government recognition. The truth will emerge over a period of time and recognition will then follow. That I think is the only way to defeat the leftist. Prof.vaidyanathan has already suggested this approach. It's high time Hindus start such an education system.
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                                            Dear Sir,
                                            Mere words expressed in gratitude shall do no justice for such a well-researched article.
                                            In this context, I would like to request you and the august readers of this forum to refer to the tome by Professor Edward Pokoke titled India in Greece, way back in 1851 - 52. This English native had a deep knowledge of Greek, Latin, Arabic, Persian, Samskritam, Pali, etc. He discusses at length a continuous, several centuries – possibly millenia - long migration of the people of North Western Indian, Northern Indian and Central Indian communities to Europe, West Asia, Egypt and all the way to the Pacific, prior to the advent of the City States of Greece and the pre-Christian Roman Empire. He
                                            extensively uses comparative philology in support of his arguments, using Pali and Samskritam and relating them to ancient Greek and Latin terms.
                                            This was the topic of discussion in many a modern European University, in the departments of History and Anthropology, prior to the imposition of the fake Aryan Invasion Theory by the British-European Colonial and Christian Theological
                                            appointees; evidently the latter got established on the firmament due to the brute-force methods adopted by the Colonial Administration first and by the pliant leftist polity in the post-Independence times next, while the former stayed on bookshelves of old libraries in Europe and eventually went out of print.
                                            Another major reason for this sorry state of affairs we find ourselves in is the lack of interest, lack of encouragement and lack of funding into the studies of Humanities in India, especially in matters related to linguistics (Samskritam, Pali, Prakrutham, Old Tamizh, Old Telugu, Maithily, Bhojpuri, etc.) and ancient history, ancient agronomics, ancient politics, Epigraphy and Archeology expounded by our own ancient authors, pre-Colonial, non-Nehruvian and non-Communist authors.
                                            Lack of knowledge of those ancient languages of the land has cost us a lot more than any other factor. (And I admit that this applies to this correspondent too.)
                                            (Regarding the DNA evidence that traces the entire Western Civilization to a single family and one man, - from Tajikisthan – this correspondent watched a two part documentary on the Public Channel TV-13 in New York, about 10 years ago. They have not re-telecast this particular documentary. Nor was it available for purchase in any stores.)
                                            With Best Regards,
                                            Subramaniam Narasimhan
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                                            śabda-jāti (word sounds), artha-jāti (wealth-repository words) of Meluhha metalwork are paired in Indus Script hypertexts and hieroglyphs.

                                            This monograph demonstrates how animal hieroglyphs/hypertext expressions of Indus Script pair such śabda-jāti and artha-jāti words.

                                            saṃghāṭa 'word cluster' (Pali) in śabda-jāti, artha-jāti pairs.

                                            सांगडणें (p. 495) sāṅgaḍaṇēṃ v c (सांगड) To link, join, or unite together (boats, fruits, animals);  सांगड (p. 495) sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S) A float composed of two canoes or boats bound together: also a link of two pompions &c. to swim or float by. 2 f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together. 

                                            An example of सांगड (p. 495) sāṅgaḍa'joined animals to form a body is a Dwaraka seal in turbinella pyrum.
                                            This seal has a bovine body with  attached heads of antelope, one-horned young bull and an ox. Each animal head is a hieroglyph. 

                                            barad, balad 'ox' rebus: bharata 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'; 

                                            ranku 'antelope' or melh 'goat' rebus: ranku 'tin' milakku, mleccha 'copper'; 

                                            konda'young bull' rebus konda'engraver, sculptor'; खोंड (p. 216) [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: खोदणी (p. 216) [ khōdaṇī ] f (Verbal of खोदणें) Digging, engraving &c. 2 fig. An exacting of money by importunity. v लाव, मांड. 3 An instrument to scoop out and cut flowers and figures from paper. 4 A goldsmith's die.खोदणें (p. 216) [ khōdaṇēṃ ] v c & i ( H) To dig. 2 To engrave.खोदींव (p. 216) [ khōdīṃva ] p of खोदणें Dug. 2 Engraved, carved, sculptured. खोदणावळ (p. 216) [ khōdaṇāvaḷa ] f (खोदणें) The price or cost of sculpture or carving

                                            Thus by the device of sāngaa'joined animal' rebus: sangara'trade' is signified in copper, tin and alloy metal of copper, pewter, tin.

                                            Similarly, other animal hieroglyphs signify other sangara, 'trade' categories.

                                            ayo 'fish' rebus: aya'iron'ayas'alloy metal' (Rigveda)
                                            h976c

                                            h976b

                                            h976a

                                            h976 Text of inscription

                                            h728a
                                            h728b kuṭhi'tree' rebus: kuṭhi'smelter'.


                                            karibha, ibha'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'ibbo'merchant'.




                                            Tell AsmarCylinder seal modern impression [elephant, rhinoceros and gharial (alligator) on the upper register] bibliography and image source: Frankfort, Henri: Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region. Oriental Institute Publications 72. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, no. 642. Museum Number: IM14674 3.4 cm. high. Glazed steatite. ca. 2250 - 2200 BCE. ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron'.gaṇḍa, kāṇḍā 'rhinoceros' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  karā 'crocodile' Rebus: khar 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) Alternative: ghariyal 'crocodile' karibha 'trunk of elephant' rebus: karb 'iron'.



                                            m1486B Text 1711
                                            Obverse: karibha 'trunk of elephant' ibha 'elephant' rebus: kariba 'iron' ib 'iron'  PLUS pattar 'trough' rebus: pattar 'guild, goldsmith guild'; rebus: pattharika'merchant'
                                            Image result for daimabad sealDaimabad seal
                                            Sign 342 Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी [p= 257,3] f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karNI, 'Supercargo responsible for trading cargo of a vessel'.
                                            rāngo ‘water buffalo bull’ (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 10559) Rebus: rango ‘pewter’. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).  Hieroglyhph: buffalo: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku -- ?).(CDIAL 10538, 10559) Rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567) తుత్తము [ tuttamu ] or తుత్తరము tuttamu. [Tel.] n.sulphate of zinc. మైలతుత్తము sulphate of copper, blue-stone.తుత్తినాగము [ tuttināgamu ] tutti-nāgamu. [Chinese.] n. Pewter. Zinc. లోహవిశేషము (Telugu)
                                            Impression of a steatite stamp seal (2300-1700 BCE) with a water-buffalo and acrobats. Buffalo attack or bull-leaping scene, Banawali (after UMESAO 2000:88, cat. no. 335). A figure is impaled on the horns of the buffalo; a woman acrobat wearing bangles on both arms and a long braid flowing from the head, leaps over the buffalo bull. The action narrative is presented in five frames of the acrobat getting tossed by the horns, jumping and falling down.Two Indus script glyphs are written in front of the buffalo. (ASI BNL 5683).

                                            Rebus readings of hieroglyphs: ‘1. arrow, 2. jag/notch, 3. buffalo, 4.acrobatics’:


                                            1.     kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ)

                                            2.     खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.


                                            3. rāngo ‘water buffalo bull’ (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 10559) Rebus: rango ‘pewter’. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).  


                                            4. ḍullu to fall off; ḍollu to roll over (DEDR 2698) Te. ḍul(u)cu, ḍulupu to cause to fall; ḍollu to fall; ḍolligillu to fall or tumble over (DEDR 2988) డొలుచు [ḍolucu] or  ḍoluṭsu. [Tel.] v. n. To tumble head over heels as dancing girls do (Telugu) Rebus 1: dul ‘to cast in a mould’; dul mṛht, dul mee, 'cast iron'; koe mee ‘forged iron’ (Santali) Bshk. ḍōl ʻ brass pot (CDIAL 6583). Rebus 2: WPah. ḍhōˋḷ m. ʻstoneʼ, ḍhòḷṭɔ m. ʻbig stone or boulderʼ, ḍhòḷṭu ʻsmall id.ʼ Him.I 87(CDIAL 5536). Rebus: K. ḍula m. ʻ rolling stoneʼ(CDIAL 6582). 

                                            The Meluhha gloss for 'five' is: taṭṭal Homonym is: ṭhaṭṭha brass (i.e. alloy of copper + zinc). Glosses for zinc are: sattu (Tamil), satta, sattva (Kannada) jasth जसथ् ।रपु m. (sg. dat. jastas ज्तस), zinc, spelter; pewter; zasath ् ज़स््थ् ्or zasuth ज़सुथ ्। रप m. (sg. dat. zastas ु ज़्तस),् zinc, spelter, pewter (cf. Hindī jast). jastuvu; । रपू्भवः adj. (f. jastüvü), made of zinc or pewter.(Kashmiri). Hence the hieroglyph: svastika repeated five times. Five svastika are thus read: taṭṭal sattva Rebus: zinc (for) brass (or pewter).



                                            *ṭhaṭṭha1 ʻbrassʼ. [Onom. from noise of hammering brass?]N. ṭhaṭṭar ʻ an alloy of copper and bell metal ʼ. *ṭhaṭṭhakāra ʻ brass worker ʼ. 1.Pk. ṭhaṭṭhāra -- m., K. ṭhö̃ṭhur m., S. ṭhã̄ṭhāro m., P. ṭhaṭhiār°rā m.2. P. ludh. ṭhaṭherā m., Ku. ṭhaṭhero m., N. ṭhaṭero, Bi. ṭhaṭherā, Mth. ṭhaṭheri, H.ṭhaṭherā m.(CDIAL 5491, 5493).


                                            h182A, h182B
                                            The drummer hieroglyph is associated with svastika glyph on this tablet (har609) and also on h182A tablet of Harappa with an identical text.


                                            Text of inscription: karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, bangles Rebus: khārखार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) PLUS dula'two' rebus: dul'metal casting'. Thus, metalcaster blacksmith. PLUS karika 'rim of jar' rebus:  karika 'scribe, engraver'; helmsman, karṇī 'supercargo (merchant representative in charge of cargo of shipment)'.

                                            dhollu ‘drummer’ (Western Pahari) Rebus: dul ‘cast metal’. The 'drummer' hieroglyph thus announces a cast metal. The technical specifications of the cast metal are further described by other hieroglyphs on side B and on the text of inscription (the text is repeated on both sides of Harappa tablet 182).

                                            kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'alloy of five metals, pancaloha' (Tamil). ḍhol ‘drum’ (Gujarati.Marathi)(CDIAL 5608) Rebus: large stone; dul ‘to cast in a mould’. Kanac ‘corner’ Rebus: kancu ‘bronze’. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. kanka ‘Rim of jar’ (Santali); karṇaka  rim of jar’(Skt.) Rebus:karṇaka ‘scribe’ (Telugu); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) Thus, the tablets denote blacksmith's alloy cast metal accounting including the use of alloying mineral zinc -- satthiya 'svastika' glyph.

                                            S. Kalyanaraman
                                            Sarasvati Research Center
                                            May 8, 2017


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                                            Below the rim of the Susa storage pot, the contents are described in Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts: 1. Flowing water; 2. fish with fin; 3. aquatic bird tied to a rope Rebus readings of these hieroglyphs/hypertexts signify metal implements from the Meluhha mint.




                                            Clay storage pot discovered in Susa (Acropole mound), ca. 2500-2400 BCE (h. 20 ¼ in. or 51 cm). Musee du Louvre. Sb 2723 bis (vers 2450 avant J.C.)

                                            The hieroglyphs and Meluhha rebus readings on this pot from Meluhha are: 1. kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: khāṇḍā 'metal equipment'; 2. aya, ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal alloy'; khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kammaṭ a 'mint, coiner, coinage' 3.  करड m. a sort of duck -- f. a partic. kind of bird ; S. karaṛa -ḍhī˜gu m. a very large aquatic bird (CDIAL 2787) karaṇḍa‘duck’ (Samskrtam) rebus: karaḍā 'hard alloy'; PLUS 4. meṛh 'rope tying to post, pillar’ rebus meḍ‘iron’ med ‘copper’ (Slavic)

                                            Susa pot is a ‘Rosetta stone’ for Sarasvati Script


                                            Water (flow)

                                            Fish fish-fin

                                            aquatic bird on wave (indicating aquatic nature of the bird), tied to rope, water

                                            kāṇḍa 'water'   rebus: kāṇḍa 'implements

                                            The vase a la cachette, shown with its contents. Acropole mound, Susa.[20]

                                            It is a remarkable 'rosetta stone' because it validates the expression used by Panini: ayaskāṇḍa अयस्--काण्ड [p= 85,1] m. n. " a quantity of iron " or " excellent iron " , (g. कस्का*दि q.v.). The early semantics of this expression is likely to be 'metal implements compared with the Santali expression to signify iron implements: meď 'copper' (Slovāk), mẽṛhẽt,khaṇḍa (Santali)  मृदु mṛdu,’soft iron’ (Samskrtam).

                                            Santali glosses.

                                            Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs painted on the jar are: fish, quail and streams of water; 

                                            aya 'fish' (Munda) rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda) khambhaṛā 'fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint' Thus, together ayo kammaṭa, 'metals mint'

                                            baṭa 'quail' Rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'.

                                            karaṇḍa 'duck' (Sanskrit) karaṛa 'a very large aquatic bird' (Sindhi) Rebus: करडा karaḍā 'Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c'. (Marathi) PLUS meRh 'tied rope' meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formeḍinto an equilateral lump a little pointed at each end;  mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)

                                            Thus, read together, the proclamation on the jar by the painted hieroglyphs is: baṭa meṛh karaḍā ayas kāṇḍa 'hard alloy iron metal implements out of the furnace (smithy)'.


                                            This is a jar closed with a ducted bowl. The treasure called "vase in hiding" was initially grouped in two containers with lids. The second ceramic vessel was covered with a copper lid. It no longer exists leaving only one. Both pottery contained a variety of small objects form a treasure six seals, which range from Proto-Elamite period (3100-2750 BCE) to the oldest, the most recent being dated to 2450 BCE (First Dynasty of Ur).


                                            Therefore it is possible to date these objects, this treasure. Everything included 29 vessels including 11 banded alabaster, mirror, tools and weapons made of copper and bronze, 5 pellets crucibles copper, 4 rings with three gold and a silver, a small figurine of a frog lapis lazuli, gold beads 9, 13 small stones and glazed shard.


                                            "In the third millenium Sumerian texts list copper among the raw materials reaching Uruk from Aratta and all three of the regions Magan, Meluhha and Dilmun are associated with copper, but the latter only as an emporium. Gudea refers obliquely to receiving copper from Dilmun: 'He (Gudea) conferred with the divine Ninzaga (= Enzak of Dilmun), who transported copper like grain deliveries to the temple builder Gudea...' (Cylinder A: XV, 11-18, Englund 1983, 88, n.6). Magan was certainly a land producing the metal, since it is occasionally referred to as the 'mountain of copper'. It may also have been the source of finished bronze objects." 


                                            "Susa... profound affinity between the Elamite people who migrated to Anshan and Susa and the Dilmunite people... Elam proper corresponded to the plateau of Fars with its capital at Anshan. We think, however that it probably extended further north into the Bakhtiari Mountains... likely that the chlorite and serpentine vases reached Susa by sea... From the victory proclamations of the kings of Akkad we also learn that the city of Anshan had been re-established, as the capital of a revitalised political ally: Elam itself... the import by Ur and Eshnunna of inscribed objects typical of the Harappan culture provides the first reliable chronological evidence. [C.J. Gadd, Seals of ancient style found at Ur, Proceedings of the British Academy, XVIII, 1932; Henry Frankfort, Tell Asmar, Khafaje and Khorsabad, OIC, 16, 1933, p. 50, fig. 22). It is certainly possible that writing developed in India before this time, but we have no real proof. Now Susa had received evidence of this same civilisation, admittedly not all dating from the Akkadian period, but apparently spanning all the closing years of the third millennium (L. Delaporte, Musee du Louvre. Catalogues des Cylindres Orientaux..., vol. I, 1920pl. 25(15), S.29. P. Amiet, Glyptique susienne,MDAI, 43, 1972, vol. II, pl. 153, no. 1643)... B. Buchanan has published a tablet dating from the reign of Gungunum of Larsa, in the twentieth century BC, which carries the impression of such a stamp seal. (B.Buchanan, Studies in honor of Benno Landsberger, Chicago, 1965, p. 204, s.). The date so revealed has been wholly confirmed by the impression of a stamp seal from the group, fig. 85, found on a Susa tablet of the same period. (P. Amiet, Antiquites du Desert de Lut, RA, 68, 1974, p. 109, fig. 16. Maurice Lambert, RA, 70, 1976, p. 71-72). It is in fact, a receipt of the kind in use at the beginning of the Isin-Larsa period, and mentions a certain Milhi-El, son of Tem-Enzag, who, from the name of his god, must be a Dilmunite. In these circumstances we may wonder if this document had not been drawn up at Dilmun and sent to Susa after sealing with a local stamp seal. This seal is decorated with six tightly-packed, crouching animals, characterised by vague shapes, with legs under their bodies, huge heads and necks sometimes striped obliquely. The impression of another seal of similar type, fig. 86, depicts in the centre a throned figure who seems to dominate the animals, continuing a tradition of which examples are known at the end of the Ubaid period in Assyria... Fig. 87 to 89 are Dilmun-type seals found at Susa. The boss is semi-spherical and decorated with a band across the centre and four incised circles. [Pierre Amiet, Susa and the Dilmun Culture, pp. 262-268].

                                            . This monograph presented the framework for Mlecchita vikalpa (Meluhha cipher) with examples of animal hieroglyphs as rebus representations of metalwork wealth repository.

                                            More examples of this cipher from Indus Script Corpora are presented.

                                            Black drongo bird
                                            Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) IMG 7702 (1)..JPG
                                            A Black drongo in Rajasthan state, northern India

                                            పసి (p. 730) pasi pasi. [from Skt. పశువు.] n. Cattle. పశుసమూహము, గోగణము. The smell of cattle, పశ్వాదులమీదిగాలి, వాసన. పసిపట్టు pasi-paṭṭu. To scent or follow by the nose, as a dog does a fox. పసిగొను to trace out or smell out. వాసనపట్టు. మొసలి కుక్కను పసిపట్టి when the crocodile scented the dog. పసులు pasulu. n. plu. Cattle, గోవులు. పసిగాపు pasi-gāpu. n. A herdsman, గోపకుడు పసితిండి pasi-tinḍi. n. A tiger, పెద్దపులి. పసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu. n. The Black Drongo or King crow, Dicrurusater. (F.B.I.) ఏట్రింత. Also, the Adjutant. తోకపసులపోలిగాడు the Raquet-tailed Drongo shrike. Jerdon. No. 55. 56. 59. కొండ పనులపోలిగాడు the White bellied Drongo, Dicrurus coerulescens. వెంటికపనుల పోలిగాడు the Hair-crested Drongo, Chibia hottentotta. టెంకిపనుల పోలిగాడు the larger Racket-tailed Drongo, Dissemurus paradiseus (F.B.I.) పసులవాడు pasula-vāḍu. n. A herdsman, గొల్లవాడు. 

                                            "With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals."(Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 155–157.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_drongo

                                            Hieroglyph: eagle పోలడు [ pōlaḍu ] , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)(Telugu) पोळ pōḷa 'zebu'& pōlaḍu 'black drongo' signify polad 'steel

                                            Image result for bird zebu fish bull indus sealA zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' pōlaḍu, 'black drongo' rebus: pōlaḍ 'steel'; पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' of Sarasvati Script corpora is rebus:pōlāda'steel', pwlad (Russian), fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto) 
                                            pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore) pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel' The semantics of bull (zebu) PLUS black drongo bird are the reason why the terracotta bird is shown with a bull's head as a phonetic determinative to signify 'steel/magnetite ferrite ore'. పోలడు (p. 820) pōlaḍu , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)  rebus: pōlaḍu 'steel' (Russian. Persian) PLUS
                                            wings/plumage

                                            Image result for bird zebu fish bull indus sealm1118
                                            Image result for indus script bird zebu bullfish
                                            kaṇḍa 'arrow' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. ayaskāṇḍa is a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish + arrow may denote metalware tools, pots and pans.
                                            ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfish-finʼ rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Ta.) kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.)
                                            h1953A

                                            h1953B
                                            Jiroft artifact. Two zebu PLUS twisted cord mēḍhā 'twist' rebus: 'iron' PLUS पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' of Sarasvati Script corpora is rebus:pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian), PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, पोळ pōḷa, 'iron, ferrite, magnetite' metal casting.


                                             पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' PLUS పోలడు [ pōlaḍu ] 'black drongo' PLUS dula 'two' rebus:pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian) PLUS dul 'metal casting'. PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bronze'. Thus, a dealer in bronze and steel castings.

                                            Image result for indus script bird zebu bullfish
                                            https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/3c/b7/f4/3cb7f4ae7e203a66aa49f90ce546ad38.jpg
                                            <ayu?>(A) {N} ``^fish’’. #1370. <yO>\\<AyO>(L) {N} ``^fish’’. #3612. <kukkulEyO>,,<kukkuli-yO>(LMD) {N} ``prawn’’. !Serango dialect. #32612. <sArjAjyO>,,<sArjAj>(D) {N} ``prawn’’. #32622. <magur-yO>(ZL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish’’. *Or.<>. #32632. <ur+Gol-Da-yO>(LL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish’’. #32642.<bal.bal-yO>(DL) {N} ``smoked fish’’. #15163.(Munda)

                                            अयो (in comp. for अयस्) अयस् n. iron , metal RV. an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10; gold Naigh.steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron; Goth. eisarn; Mod. Germ.  Eisen.])अयस्--काण्ड m. n. " a quantity of iron " or " excellent iron " , (g. कस्का*दि q.v.)(Monier-Williams, p. 85)

                                            koḍe‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) PLUS barad, balad'ox' rebus: bharata 'alloy of pewter, copper, tin'.

                                            Composite animal as a hypertext expression of composite artha-jāti (wealth-repository)

                                            The composite animal is a breath-taking example of creating a repository of wealth of a variety of metalwork artifacts.

                                            Mohenjodaro seal (m0302).
                                            The composite animal glyph is one example to show that rebus method has to be applied to every glyphic element in the writing system. 

                                            The glyphic elements of the composite animal shown together with the glyphs of fish, fish ligatured with lid, arrow (on Seal m0302) are:
                                            --ram or sheep (forelegs denote a bovine)
                                            --neck-band, ring
                                            --bos indicus (zebu)(the high horns denote a bos indicus)
                                            --elephant (the elephant's trunk ligatured to human face)
                                            --tiger (hind legs denote a tiger)
                                            --serpent (tail denotes a serpent)
                                            --human face
                                            All these glyphic elements are decoded rebus:
                                            meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120); 
                                            kaḍum ‘neck-band, ring’ 
                                            adar ḍangra ‘zebu’
                                            ibha ‘elephant’ (Skt.); rebus: ib ‘iron’ (Ko.)
                                            kolo ‘jackal’ (Kon.)
                                            moṇḍ the tail of a serpent (Santali) Rebus: Md. moḍenī ʻ massages, mixes ʼ. Kal.rumb. moṇḍ -- ʻ to thresh ʼ, urt. maṇḍ -- ʻ to soften ʼ (CDIAL 9890) Thus, the ligature of the serpent as a tail of the composite animal glyph is decoded as: polished metal (artifact).
                                            mũhe ‘face’ (Santali); mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali)
                                            கோடு kōṭu : •நடுநிலை நீங்குகை. கோடிறீக் கூற் றம் (நாலடி, 5). 3. [K. kōḍu.] Tusk; யானை பன்றிகளின் தந்தம். மத்த யானையின் கோடும் (தேவா. 39, 1). 4. Horn; விலங்கின் கொம்பு. கோட்டிடை யாடினை கூத்து (திவ். இயற். திருவிருத். 21). 
                                            Ta. kōṭu (in cpds. kōṭṭu-) horn, tusk, branch of tree, cluster, bunch, coil of hair, line, diagram, bank of stream or pool; kuvaṭu branch of a tree; kōṭṭāṉ, kōṭṭuvāṉ rock horned-owl (cf. 1657 Ta. kuṭiñai). Ko. kṛ (obl. kṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kwṛ (obl. kwṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn. Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn (DEDR 2200)
                                            meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)
                                            khāḍ ‘trench, firepit’
                                            aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.) ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.)
                                            kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pancaloha’ (Ta.)
                                            mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)
                                            mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali)
                                            koḍ = the place where artisans work (G.) 
                                            Orthographically, the glytic compositions add on the characteristic short tail as a hieroglyph (on both ligatured signs and on pictorial motifs)
                                            xolā = tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDr 2135). Rebus: kol ‘pañcalōha’ (Ta.)கொல் kol, n. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. மின் வெள்ளி பொன் கொல்லெனச் சொல்லும் (தக்கயாகப். 550). 2. Metal; உலோகம். (நாமதீப. 318.) கொல்லன் kollaṉ, n. < T. golla. Custodian of treasure; கஜானாக்காரன். (P. T. L.) கொல்லிச்சி kollicci, n. Fem. of கொல்லன். Woman of the blacksmith caste; கொல்லச் சாதிப் பெண். (யாழ். அக.) The gloss kollicci is notable. It clearly evidences that kol was a blacksmith. kola ‘blacksmith’ (Ka.); Koḍ. kollë blacksmith (DEDR 2133). Vikalpa: dumbaदुम्ब or (El.) duma दुम । पशुपुच्छः m. the tail of an animal. (Kashmiri) Rebus: ḍōmba ?Gypsy (CDIAL 5570). 

                                            S. Kalyanaraman
                                            Sarasvati Research Center
                                            May 8, 2017




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                                            Maha Bodhi temple, Bodh Gaya.

                                            May 10 is Buddha Purnima. These pics tell us how Buddha unites India with S.E. Asia and the Far East.
                                             
                                            1. Buddha and his Message by Swami Vivekananda - http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Buddha-and-His-Message-1.aspx
                                             
                                            2. Bodh Gaya Temple – also see part 2 shows Cave where Buddha meditated. http://www.esamskriti.com/photo-detail/Bodh-Gaya-Temple.aspx
                                             
                                            3. Sarnath is where Buddha gave sermons to his first five companions http://www.esamskriti.com/photo-detail/Sarnath.aspx
                                             
                                             
                                            5. Harmonious blend of Hinduism, Buddhism and Shinto strains in Japan by Sanjay Rao - http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Harmonious-blend-of-Hinduism,-Buddhism-and-Shinto-strains-in-Japan-1.aspx
                                             
                                             
                                            6. King Ashoka’s daughter took a Bodhi tree sapling from Bodh Gaya to Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. Anuradhapura by Vinita Agarwal -http://www.esamskriti.com/around-world/Anuradhapura.aspx
                                             
                                            7. Introduction to Buddhism by Dr Satish Kapoor http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Introduction-to-Buddhism-1.aspx
                                             
                                            8. Mcleodganj home of Dalai Lama - http://www.esamskriti.com/photo-detail/Mcleodganj.aspx
                                             
                                            9. Sleeping Buddha in Ayutthaya, Thailand - http://www.esamskriti.com/theme-detail/Ayutthaya.aspx
                                             
                                            10. Great Buddha Statue in Bodh Gaya - http://www.esamskriti.com/theme-detail/Great-Buddha-Statue.aspx
                                             
                                             
                                            12. Gautam Buddha points out to the weaknesses of Human Nature by Sanjay Rao  http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Gautama-Buddha-points-to-the-weakness-of-human-nature-1.aspx
                                             
                                            13. Devotees from S.E. Asia and Far East at Bodh Gaya  http://www.esamskriti.com/photo-detail/Bodh-Gaya-Temple-3.aspx
                                             
                                             
                                            15. Pictures of Northern frontiers of Buddhism by Benoy Bahl http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Pictures-of-Northern-Frontiers-of-Buddhism-1.aspx
                                             
                                            16. Etymology of Samantabhadri, Prajaparamita, Palden Lahmo and Taras names and parallel Hindu Goddesses by Sanjay Raohttp://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Etymology-of-Samantabhadri,-Prajaparamita,-Palden-Lahmo-and-Taras-names-and-parallel-Hindu-Goddesses-1.aspxThe attempt of this article is to collate as many Buddhist Goddesses as I could and Hindu Goddesses that are identical and show the reader how similar both systems are at the core, almost identical, with very marginal visual and name variations.
                                             
                                            17. Ambedkar erred, Buddha was a Hindu by Sandhya Jain http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Ambedkar-erred,-Buddha-was-Hindu-1.aspx

                                            Thanks to Shri Sanjeev Nayyar.

                                            Kalyanaraman

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                                            Why is a tributary of Vedic river Sarasvati called Gaggar?

                                            Blacksmith artificers blow gaggarī 'blacksmiths' bellows', the forge in over two thousand settlements along Sarasvatī river basin; hence vernacular name of river is kammāra gaggarī'blacksmith's bellows'. 

                                            Working with bellows is the principal wealth-creation activity of the people of metalwork guild in the settlements.

                                            Indus Script Corpora wich is Meluhha repository of metalwork along the riverbasin, justifies the name.

                                            Gaggarī'blacksmith's bellows' may give the name gaggar to the river (Sarasvati) A synonym for this word is dhma, dhama. Dhamaka means a 'blacksmith blowing the forge'. धामन् [p= 514,3] site of the sacred fire and the सोम RV. &c; n. dwelling-place , house , abode , domain RV. &c &c (esp. seat of the gods cf. मध्यमं धाम विष्णोः S3ak. [ Pi. ?? iv , 5

                                            Gaggara [Vedic gargara throat, whirlpool. *gṷer to sling down, to whirl, cp. Gr. ba/raqron, Lat. gurges, gurgulio, Ohg. querechela "kehle"] 1. roaring, only in f. gaggarī a blacksmith's bellows: kammāra˚, in simile M i.243; i.106; Vism 287. -- 2. (nt.) cackling, cawing, in haŋsa˚ the sound of geese J v.96 (expl. by haŋsamadhurassara). (Pali) gárgara1 m. ʻ whirlpool ʼ AV., ʻ a musical instrument ʼ RV. (Sāy.) [Same as gargara -- 2?] Pa. gaggara -- n. ʻ cackling of geese ʼ, gaggaraka -- , °alaka -- m. ʻ whirlpool ʼ; Pk. gaggara -- ʻ making an inarticulate noise ʼ.(CDIAL 4042)  *gargarāyati ʻ roars ʼ. [gárgara -- 1: onom. cf. *gaṅ- garītiPa. gaggarāyati ʻ whirls, roars (of waves) ʼ; K. gagarāy f. ʻ thunder ʼ.(CDIAL 4045)

                                            ध्म [p= 520,3] mfn. blowing , a blower (cf. तूण- , शङ्क-); धम [p= 509,3] mfn.
                                            blowing , melting (ifc. ; cf. करं- , खरिं- , जलं- &c ); धमक [p= 509,3]m. " a blower " , blacksmith (as blowing the forge) Un2. ii , 35 Sch.(Monier-Williams) dama 5 m. a pair of bellows;  दमन्; 1 p.p. domu, to blow up a fire (with bellows or the mouth); as vb. impers. in past tenses (past domun द&above;मुन्), to roar (of wind or a blast of air on fire) (Gr.Gr. xxxviii); to roar (as a wild beast) (Śiv. 1854).(Kashmiri)

                                            *dāmakara ʻ string -- maker ʼ. [dāˊman -- 1, kará -- 1L. dāvurdãvar, mult. ḍã̄var (Ju. ḍ̠ -- ) m. ʻ spider ʼ(CDIAL 6281)dāˊman1 ʻ rope ʼ RV. 2. *dāmana -- , dāmanī -- f. ʻ long rope to which calves are tethered ʼ Hariv. 3. *dāmara -- . [*dāmara -- is der. fr. n/r n. stem. -- √21. Pa. dāma -- , inst. °mēna n. ʻ rope, fetter, garland ʼ, Pk. dāma -- n.; Wg. dām ʻ rope, thread, bandage ʼ; Tir. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Paš.lauṛ. dām ʻ thick thread ʼ, gul. dūm ʻ net snare ʼ (IIFL iii 3, 54 ← Ind. or Pers.); Shum. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Sh.gil. (Lor.) dōmo ʻ twine, short bit of goat's hair cord ʼ, gur. dōm m. ʻ thread ʼ (→ Ḍ. dōṅ ʻ thread ʼ); K. gu -- dômu m. ʻ cow's tethering rope ʼ; P. dã̄udāvã̄ m. ʻ hobble for a horse ʼ; WPah.bhad. daũ n. ʻ rope to tie cattle ʼ, bhal. daõ m., jaun. dã̄w; A. dāmā ʻ peg to tie a buffalo -- calf to ʼ; B. dāmdāmā ʻ cord ʼ; Or. duã̄ ʻ tether ʼ, dāĩ ʻ long tether to which many beasts are tied ʼ; H. dām m.f. ʻ rope, string, fetter ʼ, dāmā m. ʻ id., garland ʼ; G. dām n. ʻ tether ʼ, M. dāvẽ n.; Si. dama ʻ chain, rope ʼ, (SigGr) dam ʻ garland ʼ. -- Ext. in Paš.dar. damaṭāˊ°ṭīˊ, nir. weg. damaṭék ʻ rope ʼ, Shum. ḍamaṭik, Woṭ. damṓṛ m., Sv. dåmoṛīˊ; -- with -- ll -- : N. dāmlo ʻ tether for cow ʼ, dã̄walidāũlidāmli ʻ bird -- trap of string ʼ, dã̄waldāmal ʻ coeval ʼ (< ʻ tied together ʼ?); M. dã̄vlī f. ʻ small tie -- rope ʼ.2. Pk. dāvaṇa -- n., dāmaṇī -- f. ʻ tethering rope ʼ; S. ḍ̠āvaṇuḍ̠āṇu m. ʻ forefeet shackles ʼ, ḍ̠āviṇīḍ̠āṇī f. ʻ guard to support nose -- ring ʼ; L. ḍã̄vaṇ m., ḍã̄vaṇīḍāuṇī (Ju. ḍ̠ -- ) f. ʻ hobble ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ strip at foot of bed, triple cord of silk worn by women on head ʼ, awāṇ. dāvuṇ ʻ picket rope ʼ; P. dāuṇdauṇ, ludh. daun f. m. ʻ string for bedstead, hobble for horse ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ gold ornament worn on woman's forehead ʼ; Ku. dauṇo m., °ṇī f. ʻ peg for tying cattle to ʼ, gng. dɔ̃ṛ ʻ place for keeping cattle, bedding for cattle ʼ; A. dan ʻ long cord on which a net or screen is stretched, thong ʼ, danā ʻ bridle ʼ; B. dāmni ʻ rope ʼ; Or. daaṇa ʻ string at the fringe of a casting net on which pebbles are strung ʼ, dāuṇi ʻ rope for tying bullocks together when threshing ʼ; H. dāwan m. ʻ girdle ʼ, dāwanī f. ʻ rope ʼ, dã̄wanī f. ʻ a woman's orna<-ment ʼ; G. dāmaṇḍā° n. ʻ tether, hobble ʼ, dāmṇũ n. ʻ thin rope, string ʼ, dāmṇī f. ʻ rope, woman's head -- ornament ʼ; M. dāvaṇ f. ʻ picket -- rope ʼ. -- Words denoting the act of driving animals to tread out corn are poss. nomina actionis from *dāmayati2.3. L. ḍãvarāvaṇ, (Ju.) ḍ̠ã̄v° ʻ to hobble ʼ; A. dāmri ʻ long rope for tying several buffalo -- calves together ʼ, Or. daũ̈rādaürā ʻ rope ʼ; Bi. daũrī ʻ rope to which threshing bullocks are tied, the act of treading out the grain ʼ, Mth. dã̄mardaũraṛ ʻ rope to which the bullocks are tied ʼ; H. dã̄wrī f. ʻ id., rope, string ʼ, dãwrī f. ʻ the act of driving bullocks round to tread out the corn ʼ. -- X *dhāgga<-> q.v.*dāmayati2; *dāmakara -- , *dāmadhāra -- ; uddāma -- , prōddāma -- ; *antadāmanī -- , *galadāman -- , *galadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāman -- , *gōḍḍadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāmara -- .dāmán -- 2 m. (f.?) ʻ gift ʼ RV. [√1]. See dāˊtu -- .*dāmana -- ʻ rope ʼ see dāˊman -- 1.Addenda: dāˊman -- 1. 1. Brj. dã̄u m. ʻ tying ʼ.3. *dāmara -- : Brj. dã̄wrī f. ʻ rope ʼ.(CDIAL 6283)

                                            Hieroglyph:  dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox ʼ(WPah.) damya ʻ tameable ʼ, m. ʻ young bullock to be tamed ʼ Mn. [~ *dāmiya -- . -- √dam]Pa. damma -- ʻ to be tamed (esp. of a young bullock) ʼ; Pk. damma -- ʻ to be tamed ʼ; S. ḍ̠amu ʻ tamed ʼ; -- ext. -- ḍa -- : A. damrā ʻ young bull ʼ, dāmuri ʻ calf ʼ; B. dāmṛā ʻ castrated bullock ʼ; Or. dāmaṛī ʻ heifer ʼ, dāmaṛiā ʻ bullcalf, young castrated bullock ʼ, dāmuṛ°ṛi ʻ young bullock ʼ. Addenda: damya -- : WPah.kṭg. dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox ʼ.(CDIAL 6184)

                                            This is a semantic determinative of the hieroglyph dāma 'rope' (Prakrtam)

                                            Both hieroglyphs -- young ungelt ox or calf and rope are signified on the votive bas relief of Dudu.


                                            • Votive relief of Dudu, priest of Ningirsu, in the days of King Entemena of Lagash.
                                            • Mésopotamie, room 1a: La Mésopotamie du Néolithique à l'époque des Dynasties archaïques de SumerRichelieu, ground floor.
                                              This work is part of the collections of the Louvre (Department of Near Eastern Antiquities).
                                              Louvre Museum: excavated by Ernest de Sarzec. Place: Girsu (modern city of Telloh, Iraq). Musée du Louvre, Atlas database: entry 11378 Votive relief of Dudu, priest of Ningirsu, in the days of King Entemena of Lagash. Oil shale, ca. 2400 BC. Found in Telloh, ancient city of Girsu. |H. 25 cm (9 ¾ in.), W. 23 cm (9 in.), D. 8 cm (3 in.) 
                                            Technical description Votive bas-relief of Dudu, priest of Ningirsu in the time of Entemena, prince of Lagash C. 2400 BCE Tello (ancient Girsu) Bituminous stone H. 25 cm; W. 23 cm; Th. 8 cm De Sarzec excavations, 1881 AO 2354 Plaques perforated in the center and decorated with scenes incised or carved in relief were particularly widespread in the Second and Third Early Dynastic Periods (2800-2340 BC), and have been found at many sites in Mesopotamian and more rarely in Syria or Iran. The perforated plaque of Dudu, high priest of Ningirsu in the reign of Entemena, prince of Lagash (c.2450 BC), belongs to this tradition. It has some distinctive features, however, such as being made of bitumen.This plaque belongs to the category of perforated plaques, widespread throughout Phases I and II of the Early Dynastic Period, c.2800-2340BC, and found at many sites in Mesopotamia (especially in the Diyala region), and more rarely in Syria (Mari) and Iran (Susa). Some 120 examples are known, of which about 50 come from religious buildings. These plaques are usually rectangular in form, perforated in the middle and decorated with scenes incised or carved in relief. They are most commonly of limestone or gypsum: this plaque, being of bitumen, is an exception to the rule. The precise function of such plaques is unknown, and the purpose of the central perforation remains a mystery. pe: मेढा [ mēḍhā ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl.(Marathi)(CDIAL 10312).L. meṛh f. ʻrope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floorʼ(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) मेढा [ mēḍhā ] 'a curl or snarl; twist in thread' (Marathi) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) eruvai 'eagle' Rebus: eruvai 'copper'.kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'kolle 'blacksmith' kole.l 'smithy, forge, temple'.


                                            Hieroglyph: arye 'lion' (Akkadian) Rebus: Ara 'brass'


                                            Hieroglyph:  dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox ʼ: damya ʻ tameable ʼ, m. ʻ young bullock to be tamed ʼ Mn. [~ *dāmiya -- . -- √dam]Pa. damma -- ʻ to be tamed (esp. of a young bullock) ʼ; Pk. damma -- ʻ to be tamed ʼ; S. ḍ̠amu ʻ tamed ʼ; -- ext. -- ḍa -- : A. damrā ʻ young bull ʼ, dāmuri ʻ calf ʼ; B.dāmṛā ʻ castrated bullock ʼ; Or. dāmaṛī ʻ heifer ʼ, dāmaṛiā ʻ bullcalf, young castrated bullock ʼ, dāmuṛ°ṛi ʻ young bullock ʼ.Addenda: damya -- : WPah.kṭg. dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox ʼ.(CDIAL 6184). This is a phonetic determinative of the 'twisted rope' hieroglyph: dhāī˜ f.dāˊman1 ʻ rope ʼ (Rigveda)

                                            Twisted rope hieroglyph is vividly displayed on some Ancient Near East seals:


                                             First cylinder seal-impressed jar from Taip 1, Turkmenistan

                                            (Photo: Kohl 1984: Pl. 15c; drawings after Collon 1987: nos. 600, 599. (After Fig. 5 Eric Olijdam, 2008, A possible central Asian origin for seal-impressed jar from the 'Temple Tower' at Failaka, in: Eric Olijdam and Richard H. Spoor, eds., 2008, Intercultural relations between south and southwest Asia, Studies in commemoration of ECL During Caspers (1934-1996), Society for Arabian Studies Monographs No. 7 [eds. D. Kennet & St J. Simpson], BAR International Series 1826 pp. 268-287). https://www.academia.edu/403945/A_Possible_Central_Asian_Origin_for_the_Seal-Impressed_Jar_from_the_Temple_Tower_at_Failaka 



                                            Louvre AO7296

                                            http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sumer_anunnaki/anunnaki3a/Louvre%20Dec%201%202002%20192.html ml

                                            Cylinder seal

                                            Hematite cylinder seal of Old Syria ca. 1820-1730 BCE


                                            Period: Old Syrian
                                            Date: ca. 1820–1730 B.C.E
                                            Geography: Syria
                                            Medium: Hematite
                                            Dimensions: H. 1 1/16 in. (2.7 cm); Diam. 1/2 in. (1.2 cm)
                                            Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals
                                            Credit Line: Gift of Nanette B. Kelekian, in memory of Charles Dikran and Beatrice Kelekian, 1999

                                            Accession Number: 1999.325.142 Metmuseum
                                            Cylinder seal
                                            Hematite seal. Old Syria. ca. 1720-1650 BCE


                                            Period: Old Syrian
                                            Date: ca. 1720–1650 B.C.E
                                            Geography: Syria
                                            Medium: Hematite
                                            Dimensions: H. 15/16 in. (2.4 cm); Diam. 3/8 in. (1 cm)
                                            Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals
                                            Credit Line: Gift of Nanette B. Kelekian, in memory of Charles Dikran and Beatrice Kelekian, 1999
                                            Accession Number: 1999.325.155 Metmuseum

                                            Cylinder seal and modern impression: male and griffin demon slaying animal; terminal: animal attack scenes, guilloche

                                            Cylinder seal modern impression. Mitanni. 2nd millennium BCE

                                            (male and griffin demon slaying animal; terminal: animal attack scenes, guilloche)


                                            Period: Mitanni
                                            Date: 2nd millennium B.C.E
                                            Geography: Mesopotamia or Syria
                                            Culture: Mitanni
                                            Medium: Hematite
                                            Dimensions: H. 13/16 in. (2 cm); Diam. 7/16 in. (1.1 cm)
                                            Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals
                                            Credit Line: Gift of Nanette B. Kelekian, in memory of Charles Dikran and Beatrice Kelekian, 1999
                                            Accession Number: 1999.325.165 Metmuseum
                                            Cylinder seal and modern impression: royal figures approaching weather god; divinities

                                            Cylinder seal modern impression. Old Syria. ca. 1720-1650 BCE 

                                            (royal figures approaching weather god; divinities)

                                            Period: Old Syrian
                                            Date: ca. 1720–1650 B.C.E
                                            Geography: Syria
                                            Medium: Hematite
                                            Dimensions: H, 1 1/8 in. (2.9 cm); Diam. 7/16 in. (1.1 cm)
                                            Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals
                                            Credit Line: Gift of Nanette B. Kelekian, in memory of Charles Dikran and Beatrice Kelekian, 1999
                                            Accession Number: 1999.325.147 Metmuseum
                                            Cylinder seal

                                            Cylinder seal. Mitanni. 2nd millennium BCE

                                            Period: Mitanni
                                            Date: ca. late 2nd millennium B.C.E
                                            Geography: Mesopotamia or Syria
                                            Culture: Mitanni
                                            Medium: Hematite
                                            Dimensions: H. 1 in. (2.6 cm); Diam. 1/2 in. (1.2 cm)
                                            Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals
                                            Credit Line: Gift of Nanette B. Kelekian, in memory of Charles Dikran and Beatrice Kelekian, 1999
                                            Accession Number: 1999.325.190 Metmuseum
                                            Cylinder seal
                                            Stone cylinder seal. Old Syria ca. 1720-1650 BCE


                                            Period: Old Syrian
                                            Date: ca. 1720–1650 B.C.
                                            Geography: Syria
                                            Medium: Stone
                                            Dimensions: H. 1.9 cm x Diam. 1.1 cm
                                            Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals
                                            Credit Line: Bequest of W. Gedney Beatty, 1941

                                            Accession Number: 41.160.189 Metmuseum

                                            Cylinder seal
                                            Hematite cylinder seal. Old Syria. ca. early 2nd millennium BCE

                                            Period: Old Syrian
                                            Date: ca. early 2nd millennium B.C.E
                                            Geography: Syria
                                            Medium: Hematite
                                            Dimensions: H. 11/16 in. (1.7 cm); Diam. 5/16 in. (0.8 cm)
                                            Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals
                                            Credit Line: Gift of Nanette B. Kelekian, in memory of Charles Dikran and Beatrice Kelekian, 1999
                                            Accession Number: 1999.325.161 Metmuseum


                                            • Fragment of an Iranian Chlorite Vase. 2500-2400 BCE
                                            • Decorated with the lion headed eagle (Imdugud) found in the temple of Ishtar during the 1933 - 1934 fieldwork by Parrot. Dated 2500 - 2400 BCE. Louvre Museum collection AO 17553. 
                                            •  


                                              Location of Lagash. At the time of Hammurabi, Lagash was located near the shoreline of the gulf.


                                            • Location of Shahdad
                                              Oldest standard in the world. Shahdad standard, 2400 BCE (Prof. Mahmoud Rexa Maheri, Prof. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Shiraz University, dates this to ca. 3000 BCE Oct. 15, 2015 "Following an archeological survey of the South-East Iran in 1930's by Sir Auriel Stein, in 1960's and 1970's a number of archeological expeditions spent a few seasons digging at different locations through theKerman province. Of these, three teams are worthy of mention; one team from Harvard University lead by Professor Lamberg-Karlovsky focused on different layers of the 7000 years old Tape-Yahya at Sogan valley; another team from Illinois University lead by Professor Joseph Caldwell worked on the remains of Tal-i-Iblis, another 7000 years old settlement and a third team by Iranian Department of Archaeology, lead by Mr Hakemi, dug the rich graveyards of the 6000 years old Shahdad near the great Lut desert. The wealth of discoveries though great, went almost unnoticed by the public in the pursuant academic research in the form of Doctorate theses and expedition reports and scientific journal papers. Little attempt was also made to correlate the findings at different sites.http://www.mrmaheri.com/page.php?id=1-5-1)

                                              Source: http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Images2/Pre-Median/Shahdad_Standard.jpg "The discovered standard in Shahdad is consisted of a squared metal piece, 23.4 in 23.4 centimetres in size, mounted on a 128-centimeter metal axle which the flag can turn over it. An eagle with opened wings which is in a landing position can be seen on top of the axle. The flag is engraved with some designs which depicting requesting water from rein goddess, which reveal irrigation method which was practiced during the third and fourth millennia BCE in Shahdad.http://www.cais-soas.com/News/2007/May2007/14-05-iran.htm



                                              The upper section of the Shahdad Standard, grave No. 114, Object No. 1049 (p.24)


                                              Three pots are shown of three sizes in the context of kneeling adorants seated in front of the person seated on a stool. meṇḍā 'kneeling position' (Gondi) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Munda)

                                              eruvai 'kite' Rebus:eruvai 'copper'

                                              dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'

                                              arya 'lion' (Akkadian) Rebus: Ara 'brass'

                                              kul, kOla 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'

                                              poLa 'zebu' Rebus: poLa 'magnetite'

                                              kōla = woman (Nahali) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five 

                                              metals, pañcaloha’ (Tamil) kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)

                                              kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. Kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace

                                              altar (Santali)

                                              If the date palm denotes tamar (Hebrew language), ‘palm tree, date palm’ the rebus reading would be: tam(b)ra, ‘copper’ (Pkt.)


                                              kuṭi ‘tree’. Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter’ (Santali). The two trees are shown ligatured to 

                                              a rectangle with ten square divisions and a dot in each square. The dot may 

                                              denote an ingot in a furnace mould.

                                              Hieroglyph: BHSk. gaṇḍa -- m. ʻ piece, part ʼ(CDIAL 3791)

                                              Hieroglyph: Paš. lauṛ. khaṇḍā ʻ cultivated field ʼ, °ḍī ʻ small do. ʼ (→ Par. kheṇ ʻ field ʼ IIFL i 265); Gaw. khaṇḍa ʻ hill pasture ʼ (see also bel.)(CDIAL 3792)

                                              Rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'
                                               Santali glosses


                                              Glyph of rectangle with divisions: baṭai = to divide, share (Santali) [Note the 

                                              glyphs of nine rectangles divided.] Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace 

                                              (Santali) 


                                              ā= a branch of a tree (G.) Rebus: hāḷako = a large ingot (G.) ḍhāḷakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (G.)


                                              Three sets of entwined 'glyphs (like twisted ropes) are shown around the entire narrative of the  Shahdad standard.

                                              Twisted rope as hieroglyph:

                                              Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn.Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ)(CDIAL 6773).

                                            • Hieroglyph: endless knot motif
                                              After Fig. 52, p.85 in Prudence Hopper opcit. Plaque with male figures, serpents and quadruped. Bitumen compound. H. 9 7/8 in (25 cm); w. 8 ½ in. (21.5 cm); d. 3 3/8 in. (8.5 cm). ca. 2600-2500 BCE. Acropole, temple of Ninhursag Sb 2724. The scene is described: “Two beardless, long-haired, nude male figures, their heads in profile and their bodies in three-quarter view, face the center of the composition…upper centre, where two intertwined serpents with their tails in their mouths appear above the upraised hands. At the base of the plaque, between the feet of the two figures, a small calf or lamb strides to the right. An irregular oblong cavity or break was made in the centre of the scene at a later date.”


                                              The hieroglyphs on this plaque are: kid and endless-knot motif (or three strands of rope twisted).

                                              Hieroglyph: 'kid': करडूं or करडें (p. 137) [ karaḍū or ṅkaraḍēṃ ] n A kid. कराडूं (p. 137) [ karāḍūṃ ] n (Commonly करडूं) A kid. Rebus: करडा (p. 137) [ karaḍā ] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c.(Marathi)

                                              I suggest that the center of the composition is NOT set of  intertwined serpents, but an endless knot motif signifying a coiled rope being twisted from three strands of fibre.

                                            m1406 Seal using three-stranded rope: dhAtu Rebus: iron ore.

                                            Hieroglyph:  धातु [p= 513,3] m. layer , stratum Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. constituent part , ingredient (esp. [ and in RV. only] ifc. , where often = " fold " e.g. त्रि-ध्/आतु , threefold &c cf.त्रिविष्टि- , सप्त- , सु-RV. TS. S3Br. &c (Monier-Williams) dhāˊtu  *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.).; S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773)

                                            Rebus: M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; (CDIAL 6773) धातु  primary element of the earth i.e. metal , mineral, ore (esp. a mineral of a red colour) Mn. MBh. &c element of words i.e. grammatical or verbal root or stem Nir. Pra1t. MBh. &c (with the southern Buddhists धातु means either the 6 elements [see above] Dharmas. xxv ; or the 18 elementary spheres [धातु-लोक] ib. lviii ; or the ashes of the body , relics L. [cf. -गर्भ]) (Monier-Williams. Samskritam)

                                            See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/10/three-strands-of-twisted-rope-medhi.html 

                                             


                                            S. Kalyanaraman
                                            Sarasvati Research Center
                                            May 8, 2017

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                                            An allograph is a smaller fragment of writing, that is a letter or a group of letters, which represents a particular sound. A number of rebus representations of the expressions such as dul'to cast in a mould'; dul mẽṛhẽt, dul meṛeḍ, 'cast iron' are a number of Meluhha hieroglyphs of Indus Script.

                                            1. Plait of hair
                                            2. Polar star
                                            3. Forked stake, crook
                                            4. Ram
                                            5. Endless knot motif

                                            All these hieroglyphs are rebus signifiers of Meluhha word meḍ 'iron'. That five pairs of homonyms relate to one wealth category, iron, is significant and constitutes conclusive evidence for 1. Meluhha of Indian sprachbund is the parole, lingua franca of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization; and 2.the principal life-activities of people of the civilization related to wealth-creation byśreṇi guilds for the nation, janapada..


                                            Hieroglyph: S. mī˜ḍhī f., °ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ,L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔ, miḍ° m. ʻbraid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ (CDIAL 10312). meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.Santali).मृदु mṛdu 'iron' (Samskrtam) 
                                             Santali glosses Rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'metal' (Samskrtam. Santali.Mu.Ho).Rebus: medha 'yajña, nidhi'.

                                            Deśīnāmamālā Glossary, p. 71

                                            Allographs: 1. Or. meṭṭā ʻ hillock ʼ. 2. Or. meṇḍā ʻ lump, clot ʼ.(CDIAL 10308)M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.(CDIAL 10317) S. mī˜ḍhī f., °ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ, L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔ, miḍ° m. ʻ braid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ; M. meḍhā m. ʻ curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread ʼ.मेढा [ mēḍhā ] meṇḍa A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) (CDIAL 10312). meḍhi, miḍhī, meṇḍhī = a plait in a woman’s hair; a plaited or twisted strand of hair (P.)(CDIAL 10312)]. 

                                            A. semantics 'iron': meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho)meṛed (Mundari);mẽṛed iron; enga meṛed soft iron; sanḍi meṛed hard iron; ispāt meṛed steel; dul meṛed cast iron; i meṛed rusty iron, also the iron of which weights are cast; bica meṛed iron extracted from stone ore; bali meṛed iron extracted from sand ore; meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mnda)

                                            1. Plait of hair

                                            Image result for plait bharatkalyan97
                                            Exterior plate f, with torc-wearing head


                                            The Gundestrup Cauldron
                                            Votive figure from Altyn-Depe (the Golden Hill), Turkmenistan. Altyn-Depe is an ancient settlement of the Bronze Age (3,000 - 2,000 B.C.E.) on the territory of ancient Abiver. It's known locally as the "Turkmen Stonehenge". União Soviética.:
                                            Votive figure from Altyn-Depe (the Golden Hill), Turkmenistan. Altyn-Depe is an ancient settlement of the Bronze Age (3,000 - 2,000 B.C.E.) on the territory of ancient Abiver. It's known locally as the "Turkmen Stonehenge". União Soviética.

                                            Two hair strands signify: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS Hieroglyph strand (of hair): dhāˊtu  *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV.,ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)

                                            Rebus: dhāvḍī  'iron smelting': Shgh. ċīwċōwċū ʻ single hair ʼ ; Ash. dro ʻ woman's hair ʼ, Kt. drū, Wg.drūdrū̃; Pr. ui ʻ a hair ʼ; Kho. dro(hʻ hair ʼ, (Lor.) ʻ hair (of animal), body hair (human) ʼ Orm. dradrī IIFL i 392 (semant. cf. Psht. pal ʻ fringe of hair over forehead ʼ < *pata -- (CDIAL 6623) drava द्रव [p= 500,3] flowing , fluid , dropping , dripping , trickling or overflowing with (comp.) Ka1t2h. Mn.MBh. Ka1v. fused , liquefied , melted W. m. distilling , trickling , fluidity Bha1sha1p. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ)(CDIAL 6773)

                                            2. Polar star

                                            मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] 'polarstar' Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Munda)मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha The polar star मेढेमत (p. 665) [ mēḍhēmata ]  n (मेढ Polar star, मत Dogma or sect.)(Marathi) 
                                            A persuasion or an order or a set of tenets and notions amongst the Shúdra-people. Founded upon certain astrological calculations proceeding upon the North star. Hence मेढेजोशी or डौरीजोशी.(Marathi). Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)
                                            Seal impression, Ur (Upenn; U.16747); dia. 2.6, ht. 0.9 cm.; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp. 11-12, pl. II, no. 12; Porada 1971: pl.9, fig.5; Parpola, 1994, p. 183; water carrier with a skin (or pot?) hung on each end of the yoke across his shoulders and another one below the crook of his left arm; the vessel on the right end of his yoke is over a receptacle for the water; a star on either side of the head (denoting supernatural?). The whole object is enclosed by 'parenthesis' marks. The parenthesis is perhaps a way of splitting of the ellipse (Hunter, G.R., JRAS, 1932, 476). An unmistakable example of an 'hieroglyphic' seal. kuṭi ‘water-carrier’ (Telugu); Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) kuṛī f. ‘fireplace’ (H.); krvṛI f. ‘granary (WPah.); kuṛī, kuṛo house, building’(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kuṭi ‘hut made of boughs’ (Skt.) guḍi temple (Telugu) मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] 'polar' star' Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Munda)

                                            Cylinder seal. Water flowing from the shoulder. Stars.
                                            Santali glosses. Lexis.

                                            meḍha 'polar star' (Marathi). meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.) lo 'pot to overflow' kāṇḍa 'water'. Rebus: lokhaṇḍ Thus, meḍ or me~r.he~khaNDa 'iron metal implements'. (See the Santali gloss with semantics: iron implements).




                                            Mohenjo-daro seal m 305 (DK 3884. 

                                            He also has scarf as a pigtail, is horned with two stars shown within the horn-curves.

                                            kuThi 'twig' Rebus: kuThi 'smelter' karA 'arm with bangles' Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' dhatu 'scarf' Rebus: dhatu 'mineral'; taTThAr 'buffalo horn' Rebus: taTTAr 'brass worker' meDhA 'polar star' Rebus: meD 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) gaNda 'four' Rebus: khaNDa 'metal imlements' aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' (Rigveda) See: http://tinyurl.com/ozyobnc

                                            kamaḍha 'penance' (Pkt.) Rebus: kampaṭṭam ‘mint’ (Ta.) Kur. kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali)
                                            ḍato = claws of crab (Santali); dhātu = mineral (Skt.), dhatu id. (Santali) 
                                            kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Skt.lex.) kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kauśika Sūtra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177). Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace‘ (Santali) koṭe ‘forged (metal) (Santali)
                                            mēḍha The polar star. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)
                                            ḍabe, ḍabea ‘large horns, with a sweeping upward curve, applied to buffaloes’ (Santali) Rebus: ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo ‘lump (ingot?)’, clot, make a lump or clot, coagulate, fuse, melt together (Santali)

                                            Thus, the entire glyphic composition of the seated, horned person is decoded rebus: meḍ dhatu kampaṭṭa ḍab kuṭhi kaṇḍ iron, mineral, mint (copper casting, forging workshop)furnace.

                                            The text of the inscription shows two types of 'fish' glyphs: one fish + fish with scaled circumscribed by four short-strokes: aya 'fish' (Mu.); rebus: aya 'metal' (Samskritam)
                                            gaṇḍa set of four (Santali) kaṇḍa ‘fire-altar’ cf. ayaskāṇḍa a quantity of iron, excellent iron (Pāṇ.gaṇ) The reading is consistent with the entire glyphic composition related to the mineral, mint forge.

                                            3. Forked stake, crook

                                            मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] the polar star (Phonetic determinant); meḍ(h), meḍhī f.,  meḍhā m. ʻpost, forked stakeʼ Rebus 1: meD'iron' (Ho.); med 'copper' Rebus 2: medha  'yajña'
                                            Crook on the hands of the chariot-driver: मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ 'iron'

                                            4. Ram

                                            *mēṇḍharūpa ʻ like a ram ʼ. [mēṇḍha -- 2, rūpá -- ]Bi. mẽṛhwā ʻ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's ʼ; M. mẽḍhrū̃ n. ʻ sheep ʼ.(CDIAL 10311)mēṣá m. ʻ ram ʼ, °ṣīˊ -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ RV. 2. mēha -- 2, miha- m. lex. [mēha -- 2 infl. by mḗhati ʻ emits semen ʼ as poss. mēḍhra -- 2 ʻ ram ʼ (~ mēṇḍha -- 2) by mḗḍhra -- 1 ʻ penis ʼ?]1. Pk. mēsa -- m. ʻ sheep ʼ, Ash. mišalá; Kt. məṣe/l ʻ ram ʼ; Pr. məṣé ʻ ram, oorial ʼ; Kal. meṣ, meṣalák ʻ ram ʼ, H. mes m.; -- X bhēḍra -- q.v.
                                            2. K. myã̄ -- pūtu m. ʻ the young of sheep or goats ʼ; WPah.bhal. me\i f. ʻ wild goat ʼ; H. meh m. ʻ ram ʼ. (CDIAL 10334)*mēṣakuṭī -- ʻ hut for sheep ʼ [mēṣá -- , kuṭī -- ] or †*mēṣamaṭha -- ʻ fold for sheep ʼ. [mēṣá -- , maṭha -- 1]WPah.kṭg. mhōˋṛ m. ʻ shed for sheep at high altitudes ʼ or poss. rather < maṭha -- (CDIAL 10334a) meṣam (Skt.) miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) miṇḍ ‘ram’ (Pktl.); mẽḍha (G.) cf. mēṣa = goat (Skt.lex.) மேடம்¹ mēṭam, n. < mēṣa. 1. Sheep, ram; ஆடு. (பிங்.) 2. Aries of the zodiac; ராசிமண்டலத்தின் முதற்பகுதி. (பிங்.) 3. The first solar month. See சித்திரை¹, 2. மேடமாமதி (கம்பரா. திருவவதா. 110) ēḍika. [Tel. of Tam ఆడు.] n. A ram (Telugu) मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup. (Marathi) meṇḍa The Ved. (Sk.) word for ram is meṣa] 1. a ram D i.9; J iv.250, 353 (˚visāṇa -- dhanu, a bow consisting of a ram's horn). -- ˚patha Npl. "ram's road" Nd1 155=415. -- ˚yuddha ram fight D i.6. -- मेष [p= 833, Monier-Williams]m. ( √2. मिष्) a ram , sheep (in the older language applied also to a fleece or anything woollen) RV. &c. मेढ्रः [मिह्-ष्ट्रन्], मेढ्रकः mēḍhrakḥ, मेण्ढः mēṇḍhḥ मेण्ढकः mēṇḍhakḥ A ram (Apte.lexicon)bhēḍa1 m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhaiḍaka -- ʻ of sheep ʼ lex. [bhēḍra- X ēḍa -- ?] Ash. biar ʻ she -- goat ʼ, Pr. byär, Bshk. bür; Tor. birāṭh ʻ he -- goat ʼ, Phal. bhīṛo: all with AO viii 300 doubtful. (CDIAL 9604). bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ lex. Ḍ. bēḍa f. ʻ sheep ʼ, K.ḍoḍ. bhĕḍă pl., L. bheḍ̠ f., awāṇ. bheḍ, bhiḍ, P. bheḍ, °ḍī f., °ḍā m.; WPah.bhal. (LSI) ḍhleḍḍ, (S. Varma) bheṛ, pl. °ṛã f. ʻ sheep and goats ʼ, bhad. bheḍḍ, cur. bhraḍḍ, bhēḍḍū, cam. bhēṛ, khaś. bhiḍṛu n. ʻ lamb ʼ; Ku. N. bheṛo ʻ ram ʼ, bheṛi ʻ ewe ʼ; A. bherā, bhẽrā ʻ sheep ʼ; B. bheṛ ʻ ram ʼ, °ṛā ʻ sheep ʼ, °ṛi ʻ ewe ʼ, Or. bheṛā, °ṛi, bhẽṛi; Bi. bhẽṛ ʻ sheep ʼ, °ṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Mth. bhẽṛo, °ṛī; Bhoj. bheṛā ʻ ram ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhẽṛī ʻ sheep ʼ; H. bheṛ, °ṛī f., °ṛā m., G. bheṛi f.; -- X mēṣá -- : Kho. beṣ ʻ young ewe ʼ BelvalkarVol 88. bhēḍra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) bhèṛ m. ʻ sheep ʼ, bhèṛi f., J. bheḍ m. (CDIAL 9606) Note: It may not be mere coincidence that a temple of the ram-god was found in Mendes (ca. 4th millennium BCE). The word, Mendes is read as: mend + ayo (ram + fish) rebus: iron (metal) merchant. Worshipping ancestors, the Mendes might have signified the memory of the metalwork and trade in metalwork of ancestors. See more on Mendes: http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/d/b/dbr3/mendes.htmlExcavations at Tel er-Rub'a (Ancient Mendes)
                                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MendesOn the ram deity of Mendes: 'The chief deities of Mendes were the ram deity Banebdjedet (lit. Ba of the Lord of Djedet), who was the Ba of Osiris, and his consort, the fish goddess Hatmehit. With their child Har-pa-khered ("Horus the Child"), they formed the triad of Mendes. The ram deity of Mendes was described by Herodotus in his History[1] as being represented with the head and fleece of a goat: “...whereas anyone with a sanctuary of Mendes or who comes from the province of Mendes, will have nothing to do with (sacrificing) goats, but uses sheep as his sacrificial animals... They say that Heracles’ overriding desire was to see Zeus, but Zeus was refusing to let him do so. Eventually, as a result of Heracles’ pleading, Zeus came up with a plan. He skinned a ram and cut off his head, then he held the head in front of himself, wore the fleece, and showed himself to Heracles like that. That is why the Egyptian statues of Zeus have a ram’s head, is why rams are sacred to the Thebans, and they do not use them as sacrificial animals. However there is just one day of the year—the day of the festival of Zeus--when they chop up a single ram, skin it, dress the statue of Zeus in the way mentioned, and then bring the statue of Heracles up close to the statue of Zeus. Then everyone around the sanctuary mourns the death of the ram and finally they bury it in a sacred tomb.” Presumably following Herodotus' description, the occultist Eliphas Levi in his Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie (1855) called his goat-headed conception of Baphomet the "Baphomet of Mendes"'

                                            The 'ram' is distinct orthographically with curved horns and can be distinguished from a 'goat or antelope' of the type carried by the Meluhha merchant on the Shu-Ilishu cylinder seal with Akkadian inscription.

                                            In Mahadevan corpus, three types of representations of goat (ram) are categorised as 'field symbols': Goat-antelope, ox-antelope, ligatured animal (with features of ram) -- each appearing, respectively, on 37, 26 and 41 inscribed objects. 

                                            Another view is to orthographically distinguish two types of 'sheep': sheep with short horns (which is equated with mlekh 'goat' (Brahui); sheep with curved and long horns (thrown backward) -- which is equated with meḍh 'ram'.

                                            Harappa seal (h350B)

                                            Harappa seal (h330)

                                            m0488C Tablet.
                                            m1186A Seal.

                                            A document titled 'Glyptic art and glyptic writing in contact areas of Indus script hieroglyphs' (with a few embedded documents) provides some instances of 'ram' orthography (with curved/long horns) distinguished from 'goat' orthography (with short horns). This document includes a reference to 'Indus script gulf type seals': Steffen Terp Laursen (2010) detailing the westward transmission of Indus valley sealing technology: origin and development of 'Gulf type' seal and other administrative technologies in early Dilmun, ca. 2100-2000 BCE (Published in Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 2010: vol. 21: 96-134). See decoding of Gulf type Indus script inscriptions at: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/89750961/Decoding-Gulf-Type-Seals

                                            It is likely that the Meluhhan traders who interacted with 'Gulf' interaction area and created the 'Gulf type' seals carried with them the rebus reading of the 'goat' or 'ram' glyphs and provided such a reading on the seals. mlekh 'goat' connoted, read rebus 'copper'; meḍh 'ram', connoted, read rebus 'merchant'. A clear identifying calling card of the commodity described by the inscription (identified by the glyph: goat) and the professional status of the trader (identified by the glyph: ram).

                                            The 'ram' glyph shows the animal with curved, long horns and sometimes also gets ligatured with a human face on some Indus script inscriptions. The human face is also read rebus in mleccha (meluhha): mũhe ‘face’ (Santali); rebus: mũh ingot (Santali); opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.)

                                            mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali.lex.) kaula mengro ‘blacksmith’ (Gypsy) mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) The Sanskrit loss mleccha-mukha should literally mean: copper-ingot absorbing the Santali gloss, mu~h, as a suffix. See used in cmpds. (Telugu): మ్లేచ్ఛముఖము mlēchha-mukhamu. n. Copper, రాగి. మ్లేచ్ఛము mlēchhamu. n. Cinnabar. ఇంగిలీకము.

                                            Thus, a 'ram' glyph ligatured with 'human face' glyph reads: mũh meḍh 'ram face'; rebus: (metal) ingot merchant. It is notable that meḍ, meḍho has two rebus meanings: 1. iron (metal); 2. merchant.

                                            5. Endless knot motif

                                            मेधा a symbolical N. of the letter ध् Up.= धन Naigh. ii , 10. any valued object , (esp.) wealth, riches , (movable) property , money , treasure , gift RV. &c.
                                            Consistent with Naighantuka, the word medhA also means 'कविधानम्' according to s'abdakalpadruma: I assume that medhA = dhAnam means (in the context of the hieroglyph on Dhruva II inscription): धानम् dhānam नी nī धानम् नी [धा भावे-ल्युट्] 1 A receptacle, seat; as in मसीधानी, राजधानी, यमधानी; रविं दधाने$प्यरविन्दधाने Śi.4.12. -2 Nourishing, nourishment. -नी 1 The site of a habitation.


                                            मेधा, स्त्री, (मेधते सङ्गच्छते अस्यामिति । मेध् + “षिद्भिदादिभ्योऽङ् ।” ३ । ३ । १०४ । इत्यङ् । टाप् ।) धारणावती बुद्धिः । इत्यमरः । १ । ५ । २ ॥ धारणाशक्तियुक्ता धीर्मेधा मेधते सङ्गच्छतेऽस्यां सर्व्वंबहुश्रुतं विषयीकरोति इति वा मेधा मेधृ-ञ सङ्गे मेधायां सेमक्तात् सरोरित्यः आपबहु- श्रुतविषयीकरणंधारणा यदुक्तं धारणा बुद्धे- र्गुणविशेषः इति ॥ इति भरतः ॥ * ॥ (यथा, मुण्डकोपनिषदि । ३ । २ । ३ ।“नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन । यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्य- स्तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुतेतनूं स्वाम् ॥”) मेधाकरं औषधं यथा, -- “शङ्खपुष्पी वचा सोमा ब्राह्मी ब्रह्मसुवर्च्चला । अभया च गुडूचीच अटरूषकवाकुची । एतैरक्षसमैर्भागैर्घृतं प्रस्थं विपाचयेत् ॥ कण्टकार्य्या रस प्रस्थं बृहत्या च समन्वितम्। एतद्ब्राह्मीघृतं नाम स्मृतिमेधाकरं परम् ॥”ति गारुडे १९८ अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ मेधाकरगणो यथा ।सतताध्ययनम् । तत्त्व- ज्ञानकथा । श्रेष्ठतन्त्रशास्त्रावलोकनम् । सद्द्वि- जाचार्य्यसेवा च । इति पुराणम् ॥(दक्षप्रजा- पतिकन्याविशेषः । यथा, -- “कीर्त्तिलक्ष्मी र्धृतिर्मेघा पुष्टिः श्रद्धा क्रिया मतिः ॥” इति वह्निपुराणेगणभेदनामाध्याये ॥ धनम् । इति निघण्टुः । २ । १० ॥ “मिधृ मेधृ सङ्गमे च । चकारात् हिंसामेधयोश्च ।मिधिः सङ्गत्यर्थः । इति माधवः । घज् । सङ्गच्छतेऽनेन सर्व्वं तद्बता हिंस्यते वा तद्वान् चौरादिभिः घ्नन्तिचैवार्थकारणात् इति महाभारतम् ॥ यद्वा, मतौ धीयते अर्जयितव्यं रक्षितव्यं दातव्य- मिति धनवता बुद्धौधनं धार्य्यते । तत्र मति- शब्द उपपदे धातोः घञर्थे कविधानम् इति कः । पृषोदरादित्वात् मतिशब्दस्यमेभावः ।” इति तद्भाष्ये देवराजयज्वा ॥)


                                            The dAna referred in the grant signed by Dhruva II also includesdhana 'property, gift' signified by mēḍhā 'twist' rebus: medhA, and hence, the use of the Indus Script hieroglyph. 

                                            The earlier rebus rendering of the hieroglyph mēḍhā 'twist' is a commodity: 

                                            m1356 Copper plate

                                            The endless knot is deciphered as: med 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic languages).
                                            The svastika is deciphered as: sattva, jasta 'zinc, sphalerite'.med 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) and hence, its occurrence together with svastika hieroglyph which signifies: jasta, sattva, 'zinc' in the context of trade by seafaring merchants of Meluhha.
                                            m478a tablet The hieroglyph may be a variant of a twisted rope.
                                            dhāu 'rope' rebus: dhāu 'metal' PLUS  मेढा [ mēḍhā ] 'a curl or snarl; twist in thread' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’. Thus, metallic ore.


                                            Endless knot: Yajna, Iron Mineral smelter cluster
                                            C-49 a,b,c
                                            + hieroglyph in the middle with covering lines around/dots in corners poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite'; dhAv 'strand' rebus: dhAv 'smelter'; kulA 'hooded snake' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'; kolmo 'three' koD 'horn' rebus: kolimi 'smithy' koD 'workshop'. tri-dhAtu 'three strands, threefold' rebus: tri-dhAv 'three mineral ores'.mḗdha m. ʻ sacrificial oblation ʼ RV. Pa. mēdha -- m. ʻ sacrifice ʼ; Si. mehe,  sb. ʻ eating ʼ ES 69.(CDIAL 10327). Thus, mḗdha is a yajna गृहम् gṛham मेध a. 1 one who performs the domestic rites or sacrifices; गृह- मेधास आ गत मरुतो माप भूतन Rv.7.59.1.-2 connected with the duties of a householder. (-धः) 1 a householder. -2 a domestic sacrifice; मेधः 1 A sacrifice, as in नरमेध, अश्वमेध, एकविंशति- मेधान्ते Mb.14.29.18. (com. मेधो युद्धयज्ञः । 'यज्ञो वै मेधः'इति श्रुतेः ।). -2 A sacrificial animal or victim. -3 An offering, oblation. मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.). मेध्य a. [मेध्-ण्यत्, मेधाय हितं यत् वा] 1 Fit for a sacrifice; अजाश्वयोर्मुखं मेध्यम् Y.1.194; Ms.5.54. -2 Relating to a sacrifice, sacrificial; मेध्येनाश्वेनेजे; R.13. 3; उषा वा अश्वस्य मेध्यस्य शिरः Bṛi. Up.1.1.1. -3 Pure, sacred, holy; भुवं कोष्णेन कुण्डोघ्नी मध्येनावमृथादपि R.1.84; 3.31;14.81 Mejjha (adj. -- nt.) [*medhya; fr. medha] 1. (adj.) [to medha1] fit for sacrifice, pure; neg.  impure Sdhp 363. medha [Vedic medha, in aśva, go˚, puruṣa˚ etc.] sacrifice only in assa˚ horse -- sacrifice (Pali)

                                            मेढा [ mēḍhā ]'twist, curl'
                                            rebus: meD 'iron, copper,metal‘ medha ‘yajna
                                            Fatehpur Sikri (1569-1584 CE cf. RS Bisht

                                            Dhruva II Inscription Gujarat Rashtrakuta 884 CE [H. Sarkar & BM Pande, 1999, Symbols and Graphic Representations in Indian Inscriptions, Delhi: Aryan,] 

                                            A3a and A3b

                                            Hieroglyph: Endless knot
                                            dhAtu 'strand of rope' Rebus: dhAtu 'mineral, metal, ore'धातु [p= 513,3] m. layer , stratum Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. constituent part , ingredient (esp. [ and in RV. only] ifc. , where often = " fold " e.g. त्रि-ध्/आतु , threefold &c cf.त्रिविष्टि- , सप्त- , सु-RV. TS. S3Br. &c (Monier-Williams) dhāˊtu  *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.).; S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773) tántu m. ʻ thread, warp ʼ RV. [√tanPa. tantu -- m. ʻ thread, cord ʼ, Pk. taṁtu -- m.; Kho. (Lor.) ton ʻ warp ʼ < *tand (whence tandeni ʻ thread between wings of spinning wheel ʼ); S. tandu f. ʻ gold or silver thread ʼ; L. tand (pl. °dũ) f. ʻ yarn, thread being spun, string of the tongue ʼ; P. tand m. ʻ thread ʼ, tanduā°dūā m. ʻ string of the tongue, frenum of glans penis ʼ; A. tã̄t ʻ warp in the loom, cloth being woven ʼ; B. tã̄t ʻ cord ʼ; M. tã̄tū m. ʻ thread ʼ; Si. tatu°ta ʻ string of a lute ʼ; -- with -- o, -- ā to retain orig. gender: S. tando m. ʻ cord, twine, strand of rope ʼ; N. tã̄do ʻ bowstring ʼ; H. tã̄tā m. ʻ series, line ʼ; G. tã̄tɔ m. ʻ thread ʼ; -- OG. tāṁtaṇaü m. ʻ thread ʼ < *tāṁtaḍaü, G.tã̄tṇɔ m.(CDIAL 5661)

                                             मेढा [ mēḍhā ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl.(Marathi)(CDIAL 10312).L. meṛh f. ʻrope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floorʼ(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: me'iron'. mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) 

                                            Thus, together, a strand and a curl, the hieroglyph-multiplex of endless-knot signifies iron mineral. mRdu dhAtu (iron mineral).
                                            m1457B Copper plate with 'twist' hieroglyph hāu 'rope' rebus: dhāu 'metal' PLUS  मेढा [ mēḍhā ] 'a curl or snarl; twist in thread' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’.

                                            S. Kalyanaraman
                                            Sarasvati Research Center
                                            May 9, 2017



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                                            மேடை mēṭai , n. [Telugu. mēḍa] 1. Platform, raised floor; தளமுயர்ந்த இடப்பகுதி. 2. Artificial mound; செய்குன்று. (W.) 3. cf. mēṭa. Storey; terraced house or palace; மாடி. விண்ணார் நிலவுதவழ் மேடை (தாயு. பைங்கிளி. 54).మేడ (p. 1028) mēḍa mēḍa. [Tel.] n. A mansion or large house: an upper chamber, a storey, హర్మ్యము, సౌధము. मेंड (p. 390) mēṇḍa m ( H) Edge, margin, or border of a field, esp. as raised: also a ridge or raised edge more generally. (Marathi) Ta. meṭṭu mound, heap of earth; mēṭu height, eminence, hillock; muṭṭu rising ground, high ground, heap. Ma. mēṭu rising ground, hillock; māṭu hillock, raised ground; miṭṭāl rising ground, an alluvial bank; (Tiyya) maṭṭa hill. Ka. mēḍu height, rising ground, hillock; miṭṭu rising or high ground, hill; miṭṭe state of being high, rising ground, hill, mass, a large number; (Hav.) muṭṭe heap (as of straw). Tu. miṭṭè prominent, protruding; muṭṭe heap. 
                                            Te. meṭṭa raised or high ground, hill; (K.) meṭṭu mound; miṭṭa high ground, hillock, mound; high, elevated, raised, projecting; (VPK) mēṭu, mēṭa, mēṭi stack of hay; (Inscr.) meṇṭa-cēnu dry field (cf. meṭṭu-nēla, meṭṭu-vari). Kol. (SR.) meṭṭā hill; (Kin.) meṭṭ, (Hislop) met mountain. Nk. meṭṭ hill, mountain. Ga. (S.3LSB 20.3) meṭṭa high land. Go. (Tr. W. Ph.) maṭṭā, (Mu.) maṭṭa mountain; (M. L.) meṭāid., hill; (A. D. Ko.) meṭṭa, (Y. Ma. M.) meṭa hill; (SR.) meṭṭā hillock Konḍa meṭa id. 
                                            Kuwi (S.) metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill.(DEDR 5058). Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.Munda)mẽṛhet iron (metal), meD 'iron' (Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic)

                                            Image result for ganweriwala bharatkalyan97
                                            Ganweriwala tablet. Ganeriwala or Ganweriwala (Urduگنےریوالا‎ Punjabi: گنیریوالا) is a Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization site in Cholistan, Punjab, Pakistan. Glyphs on a broken molded tablet, Ganweriwala. The reverse includes the 'rim-of-jar' glyph in a 3-glyph text. Observe shows a  person seated on a stool and a kneeling adorant below.

                                            Glyph of ‘rim of jar’: kárṇaka m. ʻ projection on the side of a vessel, handle ʼ ŚBr. [kárṇa -- ]Pa. kaṇṇaka -- ʻ having ears or corners ʼ; (CDIAL 2831) kaṇḍa kanka; Rebus: furnace account (scribe). kaṇḍ = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil) khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus: karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu) káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. karaṇa -- n. ʻdoingʼ; NiDoc. karana,  kaṁraṁna ʻworkʼ; Pk. karaṇa -- n. ʻinstrumentʼ(CDIAL 2790)

                                            kuṭila ‘bent’; rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. āra-kūṭa, ‘brass’ (Skt.) (CDIAL 3230) 

                                            khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (G.) 

                                            bhaTa 'worshipper' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' baTa 'iron' (Gujarati)

                                            Canopy: Ku. pāl ʻ canopy ʼ; N. pāl ʻ tent ʼ; A. pāl ʻ sail, large sheet of cloth, palanquin ʼ; B. pāl ʻ sail ʼ, pāil ʻ sail, awning ʼ-- P. H. pallā m. ʻ cloth spread out for grain ʼ poss. < palya -- . Addenda: *palla -- 3: S.kcch. pāl m. ʻ big jute cloth ʼ.(CDIAL 7967).

                                            phala2 n. ʻ point of arrow ʼ Kauś., ʻ blade of knife ʼ MBh. 2. *phara -- 1. [i.e. ʻ splitting ʼ ~ phala -- 3 ʻ what is split ʼ. -- √phal]1. Pa. phala -- n. ʻ point of arrow or sword ʼ, Pk. phala<-> n. ʻ point of arrow ʼ; K. phal ʻ tip of arrow, blade of mattock ʼ; S. pharu m. ʻ blade, arrowhead ʼ; L.awāṇ. P. N. phal ʻ blade ʼ, B. phal°lā; Or. phaḷā ʻ blade ʼ, phaḷī ʻ arrowhead ʼ; H. phal m. ʻ blade ʼ, G. M. phaḷ n.; M. phaḷẽ n. ʻ spear -- head ʼ.2. P. pharhā m. ʻ blade, nib ʼ.Addenda: phala -- 2. 1. Md. fali ʻ oar ʼ or < *phāla -- 2?(CDIAL 9052)

                                            Hieroglyph: kamadha 'penance' Rebus: kammata 'coiner, mint'.
                                            Prakritam gloss: kamad.hakamat.hakamad.hakakamad.hagakamad.haya= a type of penance. Allograph: Pictorial motif 69 (Mahadevan concordance). Tortoise. kamaṭha'turtle' rebus: kammata 'coiner, mint'.కమఠము [ kamaṭhamu ] kamaṭhamu. [Skt.] n. A tortoise. 
                                            Rebus: కమటము [ kamaṭamu ] kamaṭamu. [Tel.] n. A portable furnace for melting the precious metals. అగసాలెవాని కుంపటి. Allographकमटा or ठा [ kamaṭā or ṭhā ] m (कमठ S) A bow (esp. of bamboo or horn) (Marathi). Allograph 2: kamaḍha ‘penance’ (Pkt.) 
                                             

                                              Signs 45, 46 Mahadevan Concordance. In Sign 46, Sign 45 is ligatured with a pot held by the adoring hands of the kneeling adorant wearing a scarf-type pigtail. I suggest that the rimless pot held on Sign 46 is a phonetic determinant: baTa 'rimless pot' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'. So, is the kneeling adorant, a worshippper of a person seated in penance,  a bhaTa 'worshipper in a temple' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'. For him the kole.l 'temple' is kole.l 'smithy, forge' (Kota language).

                                             

                                            Heulandite. H. 1 3/8 in. (3.4 cm); dia. 1 in. (2.4 cm) Proto-Elamite period, ca 3100-2900 BCE Sb 2675 

                                            Comment by Holly Pittman on Rutten, (Ed.), 1935-36, Encyclopedie photographique de l’art, Paris: “Although the tree on the mountain is undoubtedly a landscape element, tree, mountain, and the combination of the two are distinct script signs as well.” (After Fig. 45, Prudence O Harper et al, opcit., p.74).

                                             loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali) Rebus: lo‘iron’ (Assamese, Bengali); loa‘iron’ (Gypsy)

                                            dula 'pair, two' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'

                                            Thus, together, loh 'copper' PLUS dul 'cast metal' PLUS kuhi '(copper)metal smelter'

                                            Similarly, two antelopes signify by rebus-metonymy layer: dul 'cast metal' PLUS milakkhu 'copper' ORranku 'tin'.

                                            Similarly, two wild goats signify by rebus-metonymy layer: dul 'cast metal' PLUS mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) OR med 'copper' (Slavic languages).

                                            Медь [Med'] (Russian, Slavic) 'copper' gloss is cognate with mē̃ḍ 'iron' (Munda) meḍ 'iron' (Ho.) . The early semantics of the Meluhha word meḍ is likely to be 'copper metal'. Rebus: मेढ meḍh 'helper of merchant'. Seafaring merchants of Meluhha ! 
                                            Miedź, med' (Northern Slavic).
                                            Corruptions from the German "Schmied", "Geschmeide" = jewelry.
                                            Used in most of the Slavic and Altaic languages.

                                            — Slavic
                                            Мед [Med] Bulgarian
                                            Bakar Bosnian
                                            Медзь [medz'] Belarusian
                                            Měď Czech
                                            Bakar Croatian
                                            Kòper Kashubian
                                            Бакар [Bakar] Macedonian
                                            Miedź Polish
                                            Медь [Med'] Russian
                                            Meď Slovak
                                            Baker Slovenian
                                            Бакар [Bakar] Serbian
                                            Мідь [mid'] Ukrainian

                                            http://www.vanderkrogt.net/elements/element.php?sym=Cu

                                            This hieroglyph-multiplex has three hieroglyph components: mountain, two bunches of twigs, ficus glomerata leaf (NOT a tree).

                                            Hieroglyph: bunch of twigs: कूटी [p= 299,3] v.l. for कूद्/.  कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/) AV. v , 19 , 12 Kaus3.accord. to Kaus3. , Sch. = बदरी, "Christ's thorn". (Samskritam)

                                            Hieroglyph: mountain: कुठि [p= 289,1] m. a tree L. m. a mountain L.(Samskritam)

                                            Rebus:kuhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore, to smelt iron’;koe ‘forged (metal)(Santali) kuhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore to smelt iron’; kolheko kuhieda koles smelt iron (Santali) kuhi, kui (Or.; Sad. kohi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kuire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of ēkui has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kuhi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari) kuhi = a factory; lil kuhi = an indigo factory (kohi - Hindi) (Santali.Bodding) kuhi = an earthen furnace for smelting iron; make do., smelt iron; kolheko do kuhi benaokate baliko dhukana, the Kolhes build an earthen furnace and smelt iron-ore, blowing the bellows; tehen:ko kuhi yet kana, they are working (or building) the furnace to-day (H. kohī ) (Santali. Bodding)  kuṭṭhita = hot, sweltering; molten (of tamba, cp. uttatta)(Pali.lex.) uttatta (ut + tapta) = heated, of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure (Pali.lex.) kuṭṭakam, kuṭṭukam  = cauldron (Ma.); kuṭṭuva = big copper pot for heating water (Kod.)(DEDR 1668). gudgā to blaze; gud.va flame (Man.d); gudva, gūdūvwa, guduwa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715). dāntar-kuha = fireplace (Sv.); kōti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kōlhā house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kuhī factory (A.); kohābrick-built house (B.); kuhī bank, granary (B.); koho jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse (G.); kohīlare earthen jar, factory (G.); kuhī granary, factory (M.)(CDIAL 3546). koho = a warehouse; a revenue office, in which dues are paid and collected; kohī a store-room; a factory (Gujarat) ko = the place where artisans work (Gujarati) 

                                            I suggest that two types of caprids are orthographically delineated: Section A. a wild goat (say, markhor) with curved horns and Section B. a goat or antelope.

                                            Section A. Wild goat: Tor. miṇḍāˊl
                                            ʻmarkhorʼ. Rebus: med 'copper' (Slavic languages)

                                            British Museum 120466 Proto-Elamite administrative tablet (4.4x5.7x1.8 cm) with a cylinder seal impression cf. Walker, CBF, 1980, Elamite Inscriptions in the British Museum in: Iran Vol. 18 (1980), pp. 75-81. Indus Script hieroglyphs on this seal impression are: markhor, ficus glomerata, twig.


                                            With the emphasis on curled, curved horns, the semantics are related to the set of glosses: *mēṇḍhī ʻ lock of hair, curl ʼ. [Cf. *mēṇḍha -- 1 s.v. *miḍḍa -- ]S. mī˜ḍhī f., °ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ, L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔmiḍ° m. ʻ braid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ; M. meḍhā m. ʻ curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread ʼ.(CDIAL 10312)

                                            Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)

                                            Since Proto-Elamite has NOT so far been deciphered, I have no comment to make on the possible decipherment of this sign in Proto-Elamite texts. There is a possibility that the sign may have been read as a Meluhha word, 'kanda' meaning 'smelter or furnace' as a continuum of the Meluhha metalwork tradition in Elam. (See appended not on Elam).


                                            Orthographically, this is a fire-french with four distinct arms of four pits (four is a semantic determinative or reinforcement of the substantive message): gaNDa 'four' Rebus: kanda 'fire-trench'.

                                            Substantive message:
                                            Pe. kanda fire trench. Kui kanda small trench for fireplace. Malt. kandri a pit. Tu. kandůka, kandaka ditch, trench. Te. kandakamu id. Konḍa kanda trench made as a fireplace during weddings.(DEDR 1214)


                                            An expression लोखंड [lōkhaṇḍa ] 'metal implements' gets 

                                            signified by adding in hypertext, the following hieroglyphs:


                                            ficus glomerata (loa)

                                            AND a mountain (kaNDa).

                                            WPah.kṭg. (kc.) kaṇḍɔ m. ʻ thorn, mountain peak ʼ(CDIAL 2668)Pk. kaṁṭī -- f. ʻ space near a village, ground near a mountain, neighbourhood ʼ(CDIAL 2669) Pk. kaṁṭha -- m. ʻ border, edge ʼ; L. awāṇ. kaḍḍhā ʻ bank ʼ; P. kaṇḍhā m. ʻ bank, shore ʼ, °ḍhī f. ʻ land bordering on a mountain ʼ; WPah. cam. kaṇḍhā ʻ edge, border ʼ; N. kānlokã̄llo ʻ boundary line of stones dividing two fields ʼ, kã̄ṭh ʻ outskirts of a town ʼ ← a Mth. or H. dial.; H. kã̄ṭhā ʻ near ʼ; OMarw. kāṭha m. (= kã̄°?) ʻ bank of a river ʼ; G. kã̄ṭhɔ m. ʻ bank, coast, limit, margin of a well ʼ; M. kāṭhkã̄ṭh°ṭhā m. ʻ coast, edge, border ʼ, kã̄ṭhẽ n. ʻ arable land near the edge of a hill. ʼ -- L. P. kaṇḍh f. ʻ wall ʼ perh. infl. in meaning by kanthā (CDIAL 2680)

                                            loa ficus glomerata’ Rebus: loh ‘iron, copper’ (Sanskrit) PLUS unique ligatures: लोखंड [lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे  खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously.लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma

                                            n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which 

                                            consists of iron.  The business of an ironsmith.लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī
                                            a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. (Marathi)

                                            loa ficus glomerata’ Rebus: loh ‘iron, copper’ (Sanskrit) PLUS unique ligatures: लोखंड [lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously.लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma
                                            n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which 

                                            consists of iron.  The business of an ironsmith.लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī
                                            a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. (Marathi)





                                              
                                            Text on obverse of the tablet m453A: Text 1629. m453BC Seated in penance, the person is flanked on either side by a kneeling adorant, offering a pot and a hooded serpent rearing up. 

                                            Glyph: kaṇḍo ‘stool’. Rebus; kaṇḍ ‘furnace’. Vikalpa: kaṇḍ ‘stone (ore) metal’.  Rebus: kamaḍha ‘penance’. Rebus 1: kaṇḍ ‘stone ore’. Rebus 2: kampaṭṭa ‘mint’. Glyph: ‘serpent hood’: paṭa. Rebus: pata ‘sharpness (of knife), tempered (metal). padm ‘tempered iron’ (Ko.) Glyph: rimless pot: baṭa. Rebus: bhaṭa ‘smelter, furnace’. It appears that the message of the glyphics is about a mint  or metal workshop which produces sharpened, tempered iron (stone ore) using a furnace.

                                            Rebus readings of glyphs on text of inscription:

                                            koṇḍa bend (Ko.); Tu. Kōḍi  corner; kōṇṭu angle, corner, crook. Nk. Kōnṭa corner (DEDR 2054b)  G. khū̃ṭṛī  f. ʻangleʼRebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’(B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi) koḍ  = place where artisans work (G.) ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or.kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. Kū̃d ’ lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)  

                                            aṭar ‘a splinter’ (Ma.) aṭaruka ‘to burst, crack, sli off,fly open; aṭarcca ’ splitting, a crack’; aṭarttuka ‘to split, tear off, open (an oyster) (Ma.); aḍaruni ‘to crack’ (Tu.) (DEDR 66) Rebus: aduru ‘native, unsmelted metal’ (Kannada) 

                                            ã= scales of fish (Santali); rebusaya ‘metal, iron’ (Gujarati.) cf. cognate to amśu 'soma' in Rigveda: ancu 'iron' (Tocharian)

                                            G.karã̄ n. pl. ‘wristlets, bangles’; S. karāī f. ’wrist’ (CDIAL 2779).  Rebus: khār खार् ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)


                                            dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’

                                            Glyph of ‘rim of jar’: kárṇaka m. ʻ projection on the side of a vessel, handle ʼ ŚBr. [kárṇa -- ]Pa. kaṇṇaka -- ʻ having ears or corners ʼ; (CDIAL 2831) kaṇḍa kanka; Rebus: furnace account (scribe). kaṇḍ = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil) khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus: karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu) káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. karaṇa -- n. ʻdoingʼ; NiDoc. karana,  kaṁraṁna ʻworkʼ; Pk. karaṇa -- n. ʻinstrumentʼ(CDIAL 2790)

                                            The suggested rebus readings indicate that the Indus writing served the purpose of artisans/traders to create metalware, stoneware, mineral catalogs -- products with which they carried on their life-activities in an evolving Bronze Age.


                                            Mohenjo-daro. Sealing.  Surrounded by fishes, lizard and snakes, a horned person sits in 'yoga' on a throne with hoofed legs. One side of a triangular terracotta amulet (Md 013); surface find at Mohenjo-daro in 1936, Dept. of Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. [seated person penance, crocodile?] Brief memoranda: kamaḍha ‘penance’ Rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner’; kaṇḍo ‘stool, seat’ Rebus: kāṇḍa  ‘metalware’ kaṇḍa  ‘fire-altar’.
                                            kAru 'crocodile' Rebus: kAru 'artisan'.


                                            Hieroglyphs (allographs): 
                                            kamaḍha 'penance' (Prakriam) 
                                            kamḍa, khamḍa 'copulation' (Santali)

                                            kamaṭha crab (Skt.)

                                            kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.)  kamat.ha = fig leaf, religiosa (Sanskrit) 

                                            kamaḍha = ficus religiosa (Sanskrit)
                                            kamāṭhiyo = archer; kāmaṭhum = a bow; kāmaḍ, kāmaḍum = a chip of bamboo (G.) kāmaṭhiyo a bowman; an archer (Sanskrit) 
                                            Rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Ta.) kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.)  kamaṭa = portable furnace for melting precious metals (Telugu); kampaṭṭam = mint (Tamil)

                                            Glyph: meD 'to dance' (F.)[reduplicated from me-]; me id. (M.) in Remo (Munda)(Source: D. Stampe's Munda etyma) meṭṭu to tread, trample, crush under foot, tread or place the foot upon (Te.); meṭṭu step (Ga.); mettunga steps (Ga.). maḍye to trample, tread (Malt.)(DEDR 5057) మెట్టు (p. 1027) [ meṭṭu ] meṭṭu. [Tel.] v. a. &n. To step, walk, tread. అడుగుపెట్టు, నడుచు, త్రొక్కు. "మెల్ల మెల్లన మెట్టుచుదొలగి అల్లనల్లనతలుపులండకు జేరి." BD iv. 1523. To tread on, to trample on. To kick, to thrust with the foot.మెట్టిక meṭṭika. n. A step , మెట్టు, సోపానము (Telugu)
                                            Rebus: meD 'iron' (Mundari. Remo.)
                                            Kalibangan seal. hill PLUS ficus. loa 'ficus' rebus: loh 'copper, metal' PLUS meṭṭa 'raised or high ground, hill' rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.Munda)mẽṛhet iron (metal), meD 'iron' (Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic)


                                            Punch-marked coin symbols


                                             Zebu over a hill: Ta. meṭṭu mound, heap of earth; mēṭu height, eminence, hillock; muṭṭu rising ground, high ground, heap. Ma. mēṭu rising ground, hillock; māṭu hillock, raised ground; miṭṭāl 
                                            rising ground, an alluvial bank; (Tiyya) maṭṭa hill. Ka. mēḍu height, rising ground, hillock; miṭṭu rising or high ground, hill; miṭṭe state of being high, rising ground, hill, mass, a large number; (Hav.) muṭṭe heap (as of straw). Tu. miṭṭè prominent, protruding; muṭṭe heap. Te. meṭṭa raised or high ground, hill; Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu. Ho.) mRdu id. (Samskrtam) Thus the nature of the ferrous ore is reinforced phonetically, as a ferrous (iron) ore.


                                            पोळ pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: पोळ pōḷa 'magnetite (ferrite ore)'

                                            S. Kalyanaraman Sarasvati Research Center May 9, 2017


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                                            A Thin Red Line of Intellectuals
                                            By Wg Cdr Rajesh Khosla (May 2017)

                                            In a move that could have far reaching consequences, the Welham Boys' School in Dehradun has taken the initiative to introduce regular classes on India's military history. The school, which is working with filmmaker/author Shiv Kunal Verma, held the first three sessions between 20 and 22 April. 'We have to expand the horizons of our students... we cannot just be limited by what is there or not there in the curriculum. Unfortunately, our military history has been a subject that just hasn't been given its due,' says Gunmeet Bindra, the principal of Welham Boys'.

                                            "History taught in schools completely bypasses crucial events that have shaped India," says Darshan Singh, the Chairman of the Welham Boys' School Board of Governors, "we just feel it's vital to expand the canvas. As educationists, it is our job to place the entire Canvas before our children even if it means stretching ourselves to find the extra time to create the slots."

                                            Air Marshal JS Kler, PVSM, VM, the commandant of the National Defence Academy in Pune, commended the move: 'Excellent, this is yeomen service which is extremely important for our young generation to appreciate the courage and committment of our men in uniform. This will enable them to particapate instead of being bystanders... eventually the young generation, the students are the change...bash on!"

                                            Shiv Kunal Verma, who has authored the pathbreaking book on the Indo-China conflict - 1962: The War That Wasn't (Aleph) and the Long Road to Siachen - The Question Why (Rupa & co.) and also made some of the most outstanding films on the Armed Forces, was delighted with the response of the students: "I had earlier spoken to the Welham Boys' and the Doon School and quite a few others after my 1962 book was released... the response was always terrific. The questions they asked were extremely perceptive and it's a privilege to work with young minds."

                                            In the inaugural session, while addressing the Welham Boys', Verma spoke about the raison de etre behind the initiative: "As you grow older, go to college, you will develop your own ideas... some of you will be leftists... some rightists... some liberals... some perhaps will be indifferent... some will join the Army and the Police... only time will tell what path you choose... but it is our endeavour to open this equally important window for you as well. Be it 1947-48, 1962, 1965 or 71... Siachen, Sri Lanka or Kargil... the situation in Kashmir or Manipur... our objective is for you to be informed individuals with opinions."

                                            Adds Lieutenant General Atta Hassnain: "The military history paper of an important promotion examination was temporarily suspended in the Army two decades ago on grounds that its study was no longer relevant. The Army hurriedly restored it after the realization that military intellectual faculties without knowledge of military history  remain unfulfilled. Shiv Kunal Verma's pioneering effort to bring military history to public schools is a most exciting development for those of us who know how much intellect goes into soldiering."

                                            Srikanth Rajagopalan who teaches mathematics and is incharge of Student Development in the School, and Deepali Singh who teaches English and is the Middle School Coordinator, were tasked by Darshan Singh and Gunmeet Bindra to create the slots every month. In the packed curriculum of a public School, this is often easier said than done. "The Focus this time was on the J&K Operations of 1947-48", says Verma, "the challenge is to now follow up in a systematic manner to further fuel the interest levels. The Srinagar Airlift... 1 Sikh pushing towards Baramula, even losing their CO, Lt Col Dewan Ranjit Rai... the Battle of Bagdam where Major Som Nath Sharma was killed... Shallateng... Poonch.... Mirpur.... Jhankar.... Skardu.... the Battle of Zojila... these are just names I've put before them... we now need to give the boys reading material, source films, point them towards existing literature... that's part of the challenge. Both Srikanth, Deepali and other staff members will have to play a role here."

                                            "The canvas expands automatically", adds Srikanth Rajagopalan. "Already by introducing the boys to the J&K Ops, they are asking some fundamental questions pertaining to Independence and Partition. Interestingly, some amazing nuggets of information also emerges from them... one of the boys, Yugav Bhatia from CLass VII the next day told me how Kalaamb - which is on the Dehradun-Ambala highway - got its name... there was apparently so much blood shed during the third Battle of Panipat, all the mangoes growing on the trees turned black." 

                                            "Not just contemporary military history," says Gunmeet Bindra, "after listening to the introductory session, I realised there were basic things about Babur's first Battle of Panipat that I didn't know... however, military history is such a vast subject, the challenge for Kunal will be to fire the interest levels. Towards that end, we have decided to start with the post Independence Wars first... then we will work them backwards... the World Wars... the British Raj and the First War of Independence... Medieval and then finally Ancient history. It's all very exciting, but at the same time it cannot become an information overload."

                                            Shernaz Cama from the English Department at Lady Shri Ram who also heads the Parzor Foundation that made the film on Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw's life, says she is thrilled with the step taken by Welham Boys. The daughter of Lieutenant General Adi Sethna, she had a ringside view for two decades as Kunal and his wife Dipti Bhalla worked with her father and produced some of the bench mark films on the Indian Air Force, the Navy and the Army. Salt of the Earth, commissioned by Air Chief Marshal NC Suri in 1992, had set the bar and this was followed by various films, each one being critically acclaimed. The Standard Bearers on the National Defence Academy and the Making of a Warrior on the Indian Military Academy are both considered classics. "The fact that Kunal shot the Kargil War and has flown and sailed with the Air Force and Navy extensively in addition to operating in virtually all parts of the country place him in a unique position," says Cama, adding: "I would be delighted to share the Manekshaw film produced under the Parzor banner with any School or educational institution."

                                            Agreeing with Cama, Lieutenant General Ajai Singh, the former Governor of Assam, who is also a product of Mayo College adds: "Any one who has read Kunal's 1962 book will endorse the fact that his depth of knowledge and understanding of military matters is at a completely different level altogether. Unlike a lot of retired officers who are asked to speak about the Armed Forces and tend to be a bit bombastic, Kunal has the ability to hold a mirror to our faces. Military history is not just about victories and shooting down of enemy planes, or reproducing citations that extol the fighting virtues of gallantry award winners... it's the ability to also put before us the whole picture. I am simply thrilled to hear that Welham Boys' School has taken this vital step."

                                            "It's early days yet," says Kunal Verma, "we've only just begun. It also works both ways, for its as much a learning curve for me as it is for the students. The Q&A session and the intensity of the questions do give you a vital feedback. In Welham Boys', every time I've interacted with the boys, it's been Top Draw." 

                                            "We are also aware of the fact that just one or two schools are not enough... the resource material one is putting together, especially the power point presentations that support each talk, I'd be delighted to share with retired officers and others who have grown up in the Armed Forces so that they can reach out to schools and educational institutions in their areas... similarly, stories they'd like to share of their comrades in arms, if they are sent to us we can pass them on to the students."

                                            In a country where history has been coloured and even suppressed to suit political and other agendas, the Welham Boys' initiative could well be a major watershed. What could be a greater tribute to the fallen who have died defending the country over not just the last seven decades, but also over the centuries, to be remembered by the very generation's who carry their imprint in their DNA.



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                                            Demolition of a political structure is a political act, comparable to an act of war.

                                            Czars had built an Orthodox Church in the heart of Warsaw during their occupation of Poland. When Poland gained independence in 1918, the Polish Government pulled down the Orthodox Church. 

                                            About this pulling down, the judgement of a historian, Arnold Toynbee was this: "I do not greatly blame the Polish Government for having pulled down that Russian Church. The purpose for which the Russians had built it had not been religious but political, and the purpose had also been intentionally offensive." (Azad Memorial Lecture: One World and India, 1960).

                                            I wonder why the Babri issue or a mandir for Sri Ram is being litigated in the courts. A political act of constructing the Masjid has been undone by another political act of tearing the structure down.

                                            Image result for ayodhya mandir

                                            How does this political act become a subject of judicial adjudication? I suggest that the judicial institutions should not interfere in the time-barred Babri case and leave it to the judgement of history. One offensive act (building a Masjid) has been undone by another offensive act (bringing it down). Both are political acts, not subject to adjudication by the justice system.

                                            I cite the doctrine of  jus bellum iustum which justifies offensive action as morally justifiable. Morality justifies demolishing a structure which is a product of war. I think the courts err in invoking a doctrine of jus in bello (just conduct in war) because even under this doctrine, bringing down the offensive structure is NOT the worst option. Didn't Rousseau argue for insurrection against oppressive rule?

                                            The issue is about land use. State should exercise its sovereign jurisdiction and decide on how the land should be used. If the State decides to use the Ayodhya land (where Masjid stood) to build a temple for Sri Ram, it is a political act in facets of both just bellum justum and jus in bello (just war and justice in war). There is no cause for action in any court of law because the courts are unlikely to arrive at justice in determining if the act of constructing a Masjid in the first place was a just act (by Babar or whoever). 

                                            An act of political offense is non-justiciable, since the rules of insurrection go beyond the framework of Rule of Law and hence, beyond the jurisdiction of the justice system -- even for determining the proportionality of the original offence and the counter-offence.

                                            The key requirements of Just War Theory -- jus ad bellum (the right to go to war), and jus in bello (right conduct within war) are satisfied in the case for mandir for Sri Ram. The reasons for going to war are just and the reasons for the particular conduct of the war are also just -- by the touchstone of inalienable human rights.

                                            To summarise, what the State decides is just.

                                            Kalyanaraman May 2, 2017

                                            Ayodhya case: the Answers are out there

                                            By A Surya Prakash  |   Published: 09th May 2017 04:00 AM  |  
                                            Last Updated: 09th May 2017 02:46 AM  |     


                                            Some weeks ago, the Chief Justice of India J S Khehar urged all parties to the Ayodhya dispute to work towards an amicable settlement and even offered his good offices to moderate an out-of-court settlement. Describing the issue as a matter that concerned “sentiments and religion”, the Chief Justice asked all parties to “give a bit, take a bit ... make an effort to sort it out”. In his view, the court should come into the picture only if such a settlement is not possible.
                                            Given the sensitivity of the issue, it would be ideal for all parties to move away from the court room and resolve the issue via negotiations as suggested by the Chief Justice. However, many things have happened both within and outside the courts during the life of this seemingly intractable dispute, which are indeed non-negotiable. One such is the sovereign commitment made by the Government of India in the Supreme Court in September, 1994, that if it was established that a Hindu temple or religious structure existed before the Babri Masjid, it would hand over the site to the Hindus.
                                            A five judge Bench of the Supreme Court delivered its judgement in the Faruqui Case (Dr M Ismail Faruqui and Others vs. Union of India and Others) in October, 1994. While doing so, it simultaneously disposed off the Presidential Reference that had been made the previous year under Article 143(1) of the Constitution. In that reference the president asked the court the following question: “Whether a Hindu temple or any Hindu religious structure existed prior to the construction of the Ram Janma Bhumi-Babri Masjid (including the premises of the inner and outer courtyards of such structure) in the area on which the structure stood”. The court declined to answer this question. It said the question posed by the president was “superfluous and unnecessary and does not require to be answered”.
                                            In the Faruqui Case, the constitutional validity of Acquisition of Certain Areas at Ayodhya Act, 1993 was challenged. The court upheld the Act but declared Section 4(3) of the Act, which provided for abatement of all pending suits and legal proceedings pertaining to the disputed structure, to be invalid. This resulted in the revival of all pending suits and legal proceedings before the Allahabad High Court.
                                            The Presidential Reference said a dispute has arisen whether a Hindu temple or a Hindu religious structure existed prior to the construction of the masjid and that the government proposed to settle the dispute “after obtaining the opinion of the Supreme Court of India”. Those representing Muslim interests said the reference was purely academic and served no constitutional purpose.
                                            The SC asked the Solicitor General to respond to these arguments. The Solicitor General made a written statement on behalf of the Government of India on September 14, 1994, in response to the court’s query. He said the government would treat the court’s opinion as “final and binding”.  Further, the government was confident that the SC’s opinion “will have a salutary effect on the attitudes of the communities and they will no longer take conflicting positions on the factual issue settled by the Supreme Court”.
                                            More significantly, the Solicitor General told the court that if efforts at a negotiated settlement do not succeed, the government is committed to enforce the solution in the light of the Supreme Court’s opinion and consistent with it. The government’s action will be even handed in respect of both communities. “If the question referred is answered in the affirmative, namely, that a Hindu temple/structure did exist prior to the construction of the demolished structure, government action will be in support of the wishes of the Hindu community. If, on the other hand, the question is answered in the negative, namely, that no such Hindu temple/structure existed at the relevant time, then government action will be in support of the wishes of the Muslim Community”. The Solicitor General’s statement formed a part of the record and was taken into account by the court.
                                            The Narasimha Rao government gave this commitment because Muslim leaders said they would voluntarily hand over the site to the Hindus if the existence of a temple below the masjid was established. The Centre felt everything would fall in place, once this pivotal question was answered.
                                            However, while the Supreme Court declined to answer the question, the Allahabad High Court ordered the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) to excavate the site. The ASI conducted investigations and said: “Viewing in totality and taking into account the archaeological evidence of a massive structure just below the disputed structure and evidence of continuity in structural phases from the Tenth century onwards up to the construction of the disputed structure along with the yield of stone and decorated bricks as well as mutilated sculpture of divine couple ... are indicative of the remains which are distinctive features found associated with the temples of North India”.
                                            In other words, the ASI's findings conclusively answered the question raised in the Presidential Reference. Following this evidence, all the three judges on the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court which heard the Ayodhya Case relied on the ASI’s report and concluded that a Hindu temple existed below the disputed structure.
                                            The government’s solemn assurance before the Supreme Court, the overwhelming scientific evidence presented before the Allahabad High Court on the existence of a temple below the disputed structure and the opinion of all the three judges of that court are all facts which just cannot be wished away. They will have to be central to an eventual settlement, but as Chief Justice J S Khehar has suggested, a negotiated out-of-court settlement will be ideal.
                                            A Surya Prakash
                                            Chairman, Prasar Bharati
                                            Email: suryamedia@gmail.com
                                            http://www.newindianexpress.com/opinions/2017/may/09/ayodhya-case-the-answers-are-out-there-1602744--2.html

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                                            Narendra Modi, Oceania , Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, PACER Plus, Pacific Network

                                            Aus, NZ trying to corner India in Oceania

                                            By CLEO PASKAL | London | 7 May, 2017
                                            One of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s most insightful, if low key, foreign policy initiatives was to work to deepen relations with more than a dozen island nations of Oceania.
                                            One of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s most insightful, if low key, foreign policy initiatives was to work to deepen relations with more than a dozen island nations of Oceania. He met with regional leaders in Fiji soon after he was elected, and invited regional leaders to India the following year.
                                            There are many reasons for the engagement. Oceania has age-old ties to India, covers about 1/6th of the planet’s surface, is increasingly strategic, has a lot of votes in international platform, substantial resources, a largely educated population, and is culturally and economically compatible with India. However, ever since the colonial period, Australia and New Zealand have considered much of the region to be “theirs”. Even India has bowed to their lead. During the most recent coup in Fiji, they told India to stay out of it, and India did. It was like India taking Spain’s advice on how to deal with South America.
                                            China, of course, followed its own path. As a result, it has become highly influential in the region, including in Australia and New Zealand themselves. As others, including India, started to realise that perhaps Australia and New Zealand were advancing their own agenda, they started to try to develop direct relations with the region. Modi was a leader in this area.
                                            In turn, as Australia and New Zealand saw their primary position threatened, they began to tighten their grip. The most prominent form that has emerged is the Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations Plus (PACER Plus) trade agreement. Australia and New Zealand have been pushing for PACER Plus for over a decade. There was little appetite for it in the Pacific Island Countries (PICs). Most already have duty free and quota free access to Australia and New Zealand for their goods, and the only labour mobility they are likely to get (and have already anyway) is to work seasonally for low wages, in difficult conditions, on Australian and New Zealand farms.
                                            The PICs on the other hand will have to open up their fragile economies to Australia and New Zealand, dropping tariffs, rewriting their regulations, getting rid of policies that protect domestic innovation, and potentially undermining their possibilities of creating new bilateral relationships with, for example, India. PACER Plus, for example, might make it very difficult for the PICs to buy much needed, low cost Indian pharmaceuticals. What the PICs get in exchange for opening themselves up to what amounts to economic regime change is very unclear.
                                            So why did the Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Kiribati, Niue, Palau, Republic of Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu, agree to sign PACER Plus in June? One reason is that, while Australia and New Zealand have large dedicated teams (including from their own business sectors) to negotiate PACER Plus, most PICs have very few trade negotiators. To “resolve” that problem, Australia, New Zealand, and a few others funded an organisation to negotiate on behalf of Pacific Island Countries. The organisation’s Chief Trade Advisor, the man supposed to be advising Pacific Island countries, is not from the Pacific. He is from Ghana. Pacific Island Countries are socially and economically complex. It is difficult to know how someone who hasn’t lived the intricate social capital constructs of the region can, even with the best of intension, design a trade system that will protect food security, social stability and healthy family life in Oceania.  The Australians were clear about their goals from the start. In 2002 an Australian official said: “A practical or economic interest of ours was to ensure that, whatever trade liberalisation occurred between the island countries, if it were extended to other states such as the United States, Japan or the EU, it did not disadvantage our trading position.”
                                            Since then, Australia and New Zealand have used what Pacific Network on Globalisation has called “bullying and cheque-book diplomacy” to push through what is essentially an old style neo-liberal agreement they probably think will enhance their own position in the region, but is more likely to open the door to Chinese companies registered in Australia and New Zealand.  The process of the negotiations has been problematic. Qualified, honest senior civil servants in at least one PIC were moved out of their jobs at the insistence of the larger countries due to their objections to the deal. While Australia and New Zealand regularly extol the virtues of accountability and transparency in the region, they have negotiated the agreement in secret and even now, a month before the signing, are not releasing the official text.
                                            The two countries in the region self-confident enough to stand up to Canberra and Wellington are not signing. Papua New Guinea pulled out early on, saying the deal was completely in Australia and New Zealand’s favour. And Fiji claims it was excluded from the final meeting in part because of its objections over the “very restrictive” third party most favoured nation clause (MFN), a clause that seriously risks affecting Indian engagement in the region.
                                            New Zealand Member of Parliament Barry Coates says of PACER Plus: “Typically trade rules have been preferential for developing countries but in this case Australia and New Zealand, as developed countries are requiring treatment at least as favourable. The MFN clause also sits uncomfortably with the “look North” approach adopted by PNG and Fiji. This will restrict the scope for future trade agreements with India and others.”
                                            Now is the time for Indian trade negotiators to take a close look at PACER Plus not only to see what it might mean for India but also, in conjunction with their colleagues in the PICs, to help make sure this agreement will actually help the region to become stronger, not weaker, in the difficult times ahead.
                                            Cleo Paskal is The Sunday Guardian’s Special Correspondent.
                                            http://www.sundayguardianlive.com/news/9342-aus-nz-trying-corner-india-oceania

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                                            The maritime history of India is recounted in numerous literary texts, showcasing its navigational expertise and resultant trade with several countries.                                                                                                            India's hold on maritime trade greatly benefited numerous kingdoms, but with the arrival of the British, its shipping industry declined drastically.

                                            Posted On: 03 May 2017


                                              Stephen
                                            Stephen Knapp(Sri Nandanandana Dasa) grew up in a Christian family, during which time he seriously studied the Bible to understand its teachings. In his late teenage years, however, he began to search through other religions and philosophies from around the world and started to find the answers for which he was looking. He also studied a variety of occult sciences, ancient mythology, mysticism, yoga, and the spiritual teachings of the East. He continued his study of Vedic knowledge and spiritual practice under the guidance of a spiritual master, His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.

                                            India’s Ancient Maritime History - Part 1

                                            We should first take into account that ancient India, which was centered around the Indus Valley years ago, and was already well developed before 3200 BCE, stretched from Afghanistan to the Indian Ocean and points farther east and north, the largest empire in the world at the time. But its influence spread much farther than that. During its peak developments, it had organized cities, multistory brick buildings, vast irrigation networks, sewer systems, the most advanced metalwork in the world, and a maritime trade network that incorporated the use of compasses, planked ships, and trained navigators that reached parts of western Asia, Mesopotamia, Africa, and other ports far beyond their borders. 1 So they were certainly capable of ocean-going trips that could have reached even to the Americas.

                                            Prakash Charan Prasad explains in his book, Foreign Trade and Commerce in Ancient India (p. 131): "Big ships were built. They could carry anywhere upwards from 500 men on the high seas. The Yuktialpataru classifies ships according to their sizes and shapes. The Rajavalliya says that the ship in which King Sinhaba of Bengal (ca. sixth century BCE] sent Prince Vijaya, accommodated full 700 passengers, and the ship in which Vijaya’s Pandyan bride was brought over to Lanka carried 800 passengers on board. The ship in which the Buddha in the Supparaka Bodhisat incarnation made his voyages from Bharukachha (Broach) to the ‘sea of the seven gems’ [Sri Lanka], carried 700 merchants besides himself. The Samuddha Vanija Jakarta mentions a ship that accommodated one thousand carpenters."
                                            Marco Polo also related how, "An Indian ship could carry crews between 100 and 300. Out of regard for passenger convenience and comfort, the ships were well furnished and decorated in gold, silver, copper, and compounds of all these substances were generally used for ornamentation and decoration." 2

                                            Because of the Vedic civilization’s great reach, Aurel Stein (1862-1943), a Hungarian researcher also related: "The vast extent of Indian cultural influences, from Central Asia in the North to tropical Indonesia in the South, and from the borderlands of Persia to China and Japan, has shown that ancient India was a radiating center of a civilization, which by its religious thought, its art and literature, was destined to leave its deep mark on the races wholly diverse and scattered over the greater part of Asia." 3

                                            In this regard, Philip Rawson, in The Art of Southeast Asia (1993, p. 7), further praises India’s gift of its civilizing affect on all other cultures. "The culture of India has been one of the world’s most powerful civilizing forces. Countries of the Far East, including China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, and Mongolia owe much of what is best in their own cultures to the inspiration of ideas imported from India. The West, too, has its own debts... No conquest or invasion, nor forced conversion [was ever] imposed."
                                            And this is the basis for the mystery of the widespread nature of the ancient Vedic empire, which in many ways still exists today. It was this subtle spiritual dimension that spread all over the world.

                                            Indian Maritime Trade Route

                                            Advanced East Indian sailing in the Vedic texts

                                            As Gunnar Thompson also explains, regarding the capability of Indian ships: "Extensive maritime trade between India and the islands of Indonesia is well documented and illustrated. A 1st century Hindu manuscript, the Periplus, mentions two-mates ships with dual rudders mounted on the sides in the fashion of ancient Mediterranean vessels. The ships are portrayed in 2nd century Indian murals. Chinese chronicles of the same era describe seven-masted Hindu vessels 160 feet in length carrying 700 passengers and 1000 metric tons of merchandise. Buddhist records of a 5th century pilgrimage from Ceylon to Java report vessels large enough to carry 200 passengers." 4

                                            As we look at other cultures, what is often left out is the advanced nature of the ancient Indian civilization. As we look over this information, it becomes clear that ancient India had the means for sailing over great expanses of water, and also had a thriving trade industry based on shipping.

                                            The fact is that the ancient Vedic texts, such as the Rig VedaShatapatha Brahmana, and others refer to the undertaking of naval expeditions and travel to distant places by sea-routes that were well-known at the time. For example, the Rig Veda (1.25.7) talks of how Varuna has full knowledge of all the sea routes that were followed by ships. Then (2.48.3) we find wherein merchants would also send out ships for foreign trade. 5

                                            Another verse (1.56.2) speaks of merchants going everywhere and frequently to every part of the sea. Another verse (7.88.3-4) relates that there was a voyage by Vasistha and Varuna in a ship skillfully fitted for the trip. Then there is a verse (1.116.3) that tells of an expedition on which Tugra, the Rishi king, sent his son Bhujya against some of his enemies in the distant islands. However, Bhujya becomes ship wrecked by a storm, with all of his followers on the ocean, "Where there is no support, or rest for the foot or hand." From this he is rescued by the twin Ashvins in their hundred oared galley. Similarly, the Atharva Veda mentions boats which are spacious, well constructed and comfortable.

                                            We should keep in mind that the Rig Veda is said to go back to around 3000 BCE, which means the sailing capacity for the Vedic civilization of ancient India was well under way by that time.

                                            An assortment of other books also referred to sea voyages of the ancient mariners. Of course, we know that the epics, such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata referred to ships and sea travel, but the Puranas also had stories of sea voyages, such as in the MatsyaVaraha, and Markandeya Puranas. Other works of Classical Sanskrit included them as well, such as RaghuvamshaRatnavaliDashakumaracharitaKathasaritsagaraPanchatantraRajatarangini, etc.

                                            Actually, ships have been mentioned in numerous verses through the Vedic literature, such as in the VedasBrahmanasRamayanaMahabharataPuranas, and so on. For example, in the Ayodhya Kand of Valmiki’s Ramayana, you can find the description of such big ships that could hold hundreds of warriors: "Hundreds of oarsmen inspire five hundred ships carrying hundreds of ready warriors."

                                            In the Ramayana, in the Kishkindha Kand, Sugriva gives directions to the Vanar leaders for going to the cities and mountains in the islands of the sea, mainly Yavadvipa (Java) and Suvarna Dvipa (Sumatra) in the quest to find Sita. The Ramayana also talks of how merchants traveled beyond the sea and would bring presents to the kings.

                                            In the Mahabharata (Sabha Parva), Sahadeva is mentioned as going to several islands in the sea to defeat the kings. In the Karna Parva, the soldiers of the Kauravas are described as merchants, "whose ships have come to grief in the midst of the unfathomable deep." And in the same Parva, a verse describes how the sons of Draupadi rescued their maternal uncles by supplying them with chariots, "As ship wrecked merchants are rescued by means of boats." However, another verse therein relates how the Pandavas escaped from the destruction planned for them with the help of a ship that was secretly and especially constructed for the purpose under the orders of the kind hearted Vidura.

                                            Also, in Kautilya’s Arthashastra we find information of the complete arrangements of boats maintained by the navy and the state. It also contains information on the duties of the various personnel on a ship. For example, the Navadhyaksha is the superintendent of the ship, Niyamaka is the steerman, and Datragrahaka is the holder of the needle, or the compass. Differences in ships are also described regarding the location of the cabins and the purpose of the ship itself. 6

                                            In the Brihat Samhita by Varahamihir of the 5th century, and in the Sanskrit text Yukti Kalpataru by Narapati Raja Bhoj of the 11th century, you can find information about an assortment of ships, sizes, and materials with which they were built, and the process of manufacturing them. For example, one quote explains, "Ships made of timbers of different classes possess different properties. Ships built of inferior wood do not last long and rot quickly. Such ships are liable to split with a slight shock." 7

                                            It also gives further details on how to furnish a ship for accommodating the comfort of passengers, or for transporting goods, animals, or royal artifacts. The ships of three different sizes were the Sarvamandira, Madhyamarmandira, and the Agramandira.

                                            The Sangam works of the Tamils have numerous references to the shipping activities that went on in that region, along with the ports, articles of trade, etc. Such texts included Shilappadikaram ManimekalaiPattinappalaiMaduraikhanjiAhananuruPurananuru, etc. 8

                                            Ancient Indians traveled to various parts of the world not only for purposes of trade, but to also propagate their culture. This is how the Vedic influence spread around the world. For example, Kaundinya crossed the ocean and reached south-east Asia. From there, evidence shows that rock inscriptions in the Sun Temple at Jawayuko in the Yukatan province of Mexico mentions the arrival of the great sailor Vusulin in Shaka Samvat 854, or the year 932. In the excavations in Lothal in Gujarat, it seems that trade with countries like Egypt was carried out from that port around 2540 BCE. Then from 2350 BCE, small boats docked here, which necessitated the construction of the harbor for big ships, which was followed by the city that was built around it. 9

                                            In the period of 984-1042 CE, the Chola kings dispatched great naval expeditions which occupied parts of Burma, Malaya and Sumatra, while suppressing the piratical activities of the Sumatra warlords.

                                            In 1292 CE, when Marco Polo came to India, he described Indian ships as "built of fir timber, having a sheath of boards laid over the planking in every part, caulked with iron nails. The bottoms were smeared with a preparation of quicklime and hemp, pounded together and mixed with oil from a certain tree which is a better material than pitch."
                                            He further writes: "Ships had double boards which were joined together. They were made strong with iron nails and the crevices were filled with a special kind of gum. These ships were so huge that about 300 boatmen were needed to row them. About 3000-4000 gunny bags could be loaded in each ship. They had many small rooms for people to live in. These rooms had arrangements for all kinds of comfort. Then when the bottom or the base started to get spoiled, a new layer would be added on. Sometimes, a boat would have even six layers, one on top of another."
                                            A fourteenth century description of an Indian ship credits it with a carrying capacity of over 700 people giving a fair idea of both ship building skills and maritime ability of seamen who could successfully man such large vessels.

                                            Another account of the early fifteenth century describes Indian ships as being built in compartments so that even if one part was shattered, the next remained intact, thus enabling the ship to complete her voyage. This was perhaps a forerunner of the modern day subdivision of ships into watertight compartments, a concept then totally alien to the Europeans.

                                            Another traveler named Nicolo Conti came to India in the 15th century. He wrote: "The Indian ships are much bigger than our ships. Their bases are made of three boards in such a way that they can face formidable storms. Some ships are made in such a way that if one part becomes useless, the rest of the parts can do the work."

                                            Another visitor to India named Bertham writes: "The wooden boards are joined in such a way that not even a drop of water can go through it. Sometimes, the masts of cotton are placed in such a way that a lot of air can be filled in. The anchors were sometimes made of heavy stones. It would take a ship eight days to come from Iran to Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari)." 10

                                            The famous archeologist Padmashri Dr. Vishnu Shridhar Wakankar says, "I had gone to England for studies, I was told about Vasco da Gama’s diary available in a museum in which he has described how he came to India." He writes that when his ship came near Zanzibar in Africa, he saw a ship three times bigger than the size of his ship. He took an African interpreter to meet the owner of that ship who was a Gujarati trader named Chandan who used to bring pine wood and teak from India along with spices and take back diamonds to the port of Cochin. When Vasco da Gama went to meet him, Chandan was sitting in ordinary attire, on a cot. When the trader asked Vasco where he was going, the latter said that he was going to visit India. At this, the trader said that he was going back to India the very next day and if he wanted, he could follow him. So, Vasco da Gama came to India following him. 11

                                            Sir William Jones, in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society–1901, relates how the Hindus, "must have been navigators in the age of Manu, because bottomry is mentioned in it. In the Ramayana, practice of bottomry is distinctly noticed."
                                            Bottomry is the lending of insurance money for marine activities. 12

                                            In this way, Indians excelled in the art of ship-building, and even the English found Indian models of ships far superior of their own and worth copying. The Indian vessels united elegance and utility and fine workmanship. Sir John Malcom observed: "Indian vessels are so admirably adapted to the purpose for which they are required that, notwithstanding their superior stance, Europeans were unable during an intercourse with India for two centuries, to suggest or to bring into successful practice one improvement." 13

                                            Mexican archeologist Rama Mena points out in his book, Mexican Archeology, that Mayan physical features are like those of India. He also mentions how Nahuatl, Zapotecan, and Mayan languages had Hindu-European affinities.

                                            In this line of thinking, some American tribes have traditions of having ancestral homelands across the Pacific. A legend of Guatemala speaks of an ancient migration from across the Pacific to the city of Tulan. A tribe from Peru and Tucano of Columbia also relate in their traditions how ancestors sailed across the Pacific to South America. Tales of trade over the Pacific were also related to the earliest of Spanish explorers in Central America. 14

                                            Georgia anthropologist Joseph Mahan, author of The Secret (1983), has identified intriguing similarities between the Yueh-chic tribes of India-Pakistan and the Yuchi tribe of North America’s Eastern Woodlands. The Yuchi tradition also tells of a foreign homeland from across the sea–presumably in India. 15

                                            This information makes it clear that ancient India had the means to reach and in fact did sail to many parts of the world, including the ancient Americas, long before most countries. This is further corroborated by information in the chapter of Vedic culture in America in Proof of Vedic Culture’s Global Existence, for those of you who would like more information on this.



                                            References

                                            1. Lehrburger, Carl, Secrets of Ancient America: Archaeoastronomy and the Legacy of the Phoenicians, Celts, and Other Forgotten Explorers, Bear & Company, Rochester, Vermont, 2015, p.209.

                                            2. Kuppuram, G., India Through the Ages, pp 65..527-31.

                                            3. Ibid., pp.527-31.

                                            4. Thompson, Gunnar, American Discovery: Our Multicultural Heritage, Hayriver Press, Colfax, Wisconsin, 2012, p.216.

                                            5. Rao, S. R., Shipping in Ancient India, in India’s Contribution to World Thought and Culture, Published by Vivekananda Kendra Prakashan, Chennai, 1970, p. 83.

                                            6. Science and Technology in Ancient India, by Editorial Board of Vijnan Bharati, Mumbai, August, 2002, p. 105.

                                            7. Ibid., pp. 108-09.

                                            8. Ramachandran, K. S., Ancient Indian Maritime Adventures, in India’s Contribution to World Thought and Culture, Published by Vivekananda Kendra Prakashan, Chennai, 1970, p. 74.

                                            9. Soni, Suresh, India’s Glorious Scientific Tradition, Ocean Books Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2010, p. 68.

                                            10. Ibid., p. 72.

                                            11. Ibid., p. 73.

                                            12. Shah, Niranjan, Little Known Facts About Shipping Activity in Ancient India, in India Tribune, January 8, 2006.

                                            13. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 1) (Singhal, D. P., Red Indians or Asiomericans–Indian Settlers in Middle and South America, India’s Contribution to World Thought and Culture, Vivekananda Kendra Prakashan Trust, Chennai, India 1970, p.644.

                                            14. Thompson, Gunnar, American Discovery: Our Multicultural Heritage, Hayriver Press, Colfax, Wisconsin, 2012, p.223.

                                            15. Thompson, Gunnar, American Discovery: Our Multicultural Heritage, Hayriver Press, 
                                            Colfax, Wisconsin, 2012, p.235.

                                            Ancient India's maritime trade

                                            Further evidence shows that shipping from Bharatvarsha was a national enterprise and the country was a leader in world trade relations amongst such people as the Phoenicians, Jews, Assyrians, Greeks, and Romans in ancient times, and more recently with Egyptians, Romans, Turks, Portuguese, Dutch, and English.

                                            The simple fact is that India’s maritime history predates the birth of Western civilization. The world’s first tidal dock is believed to have been built at Lothal around 2300 BCE during the Harappan civilization, near the present day Mangrol harbor on the Gujarat coast.

                                            The earliest portrayal of an Indian ship is found on an Indus Valley seal from about 3000 BCE. The ship is shown being elevated at both bow and stern, with a cabin in the center. It is likely to have been a simple river boat since it is lacking a mast. Another drawing found at Mohendjodaro on a potsherd shows a boat with a single mast and two men sitting at the far end away from the mast. Another painting of the landing of Vijaya Simha in Ceylon (543 BCE) with many ships is found amongst the Ajanta caves.

                                            That India had a vast maritime trade, even with Greece, is shown by the coins of the Trojans (98-117 CE) and Hadrians (117-138 CE) found on the eastern coast of India, near Pondicherry. This is evidence that Greek traders had to have visited and traded in the port cities of that area.

                                            Kamlesh Kapur explains more about this in Portraits of a Nation: History of India:
                                            "Recent archeological excavations at Pattanam in Ernakulum district of Kerala by the Kerala council for Historical Research (KCHR) indicate that there was thriving naval trade around 500 B.C.
                                            According to the Director of KCHR,
                                            ‘The artifacts recovered from the excavation site suggest that Pattanam, with a hinterland port and a multicultural settlement, may have had links with the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, and the South China Sea rims since the Early Historic Period of South India.’
                                            KCHR has been getting charcoal samples examined through C-14 and other modern methods to determine the age of these relics. These artifacts were from the Iron Age layer. The archeologists also recovered some parts of a wooden canoe and bollards (stakes used to secure canoes and boats) from a waterlogged area at the site.
                                            "The radiocarbon dating from Pattanam will aid in understanding the Iron Age chronology of Kerala. So far, testing done by C-14 method to determine the ages of the charcoal samples from the lowermost sand deposits in the trenches at Pattanam suggests that their calibrated dates range from 1300 B.C. to 200 B.C. and 2500 B.C. to 100 A.D. Thus there is strong evidence that Kerala had sea trade with several countries in Western Asia and Eastern Europe from the second millennia B.C. onwards." 1

                                            The influence of the sea on Indian Kingdoms continued to grow with the passage of time. North-west India came under the influence of Alexander the great, who built a harbor at Patala where the Indus branches into two, just before entering the Arabian sea. His army returned to Mesopotamia in ships built in Sindh. Records show that in the period after his conquest, Chandragupta Maurya established an admiralty division under a Superintendent of ships as part of his war office, with a charter including responsibility for navigation on the seas, oceans, lakes and rivers. History records that Indian ships traded with countries as far as Java and Sumatra, and available evidence indicates that they were also trading with other countries in the Pacific, and Indian Ocean. Even before Alexander, there were references to India in Greek works and India had a flourishing trade with Rome. Roman writer Pliny speaks of Indian traders carrying away large quantity of gold from Rome, in payment for much sought exports such as precious stones, skins, clothes, spices, sandalwood, perfumes, herbs, and indigo.

                                            The port cities included such places as Nagapattinam, Arikamedu (near Pondicherry), Udipi, Kollam, Tuticorin, Mamallapuram, Mangalore, Kannur, Thane, and others, which facilitated trade with many foreign areas, such as Indonesia, China, Arabia, Rome, and countries in Africa. Many other inland towns and cities contributed to this trade, such as Madurai, Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli, Ellora, Melkote, Nasik, and so on, which became large centers of trade. Silk, cotton, sandalwood, woodwork, and various types of produce were the main items of trade.

                                            Trades of this volume could not have been conducted over the countries without appropriate navigational skills. Two Indian astronomers of repute, Aryabhatta and Varahamihira, having accurately mapped the positions of celestial bodies, developed a method of computing a ship’s position from the stars. A crude forerunner of the modern magnetic compass called Matsyayantra was being used around the fourth or fifth century CE. Between the fifth and tenth centuries CE, the Vijayanagara and Kalinga kingdoms of southern and eastern India had established their rules over Malaya, Sumatra and Western Java. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands then served as an important midway for trade between the Indian peninsula and these kingdoms, as also with China. The daily revenue from the western regions in the period 844-848 CE was estimated to be 200 maunds (eight tons) of gold.

                                            Not only was there trade from ancient times, going to many areas of the globe, but other countries may have also been going to India. It is reported that marine archaeologists have found a stone anchor in the Gulf of Khambhat with a design similar to the ones used by Chinese and Japanese ships in the 12th-14th century CE, giving the first offshore evidence indicating India’s trade relations with the two Asian countries. The stone anchor was found during an exploration headed by two marine archaeologists, A. S. Gaur and B. K. Bhatt, from the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO). Mr. Gaur stated
                                            "Though there are a lot of references and Chinese pottery (found from coastal sites) indicating trade relations between the two Asian nations (China and Japan) in the past, but this anchor from the offshore region is the first evidence from Indian waters. Similar type of anchors have been found from Chinese and Japanese waters," 2

                                            Furthermore, another recent finding that shows the ancient advancement of Indian maritime capabilities is the evidence that Indian traders may have gone to South America long before Columbus discovered America. Investigation of botanical remains from an ancient site, Tokwa at the confluence of Belan and Adwa rivers, Mirzapur District, Uttar Pradesh (UP), has brought to light the agriculture-based subsistence economy during the Neolithic culture (3rd-2nd millennium BCE). They subsisted on various cereals, supplemented by leguminous seeds. Evidence of oil-yielding crops has been documented by recovery of seeds of Linum usitatissimum and Brassica juncea. Fortuitously, an important find among the botanical remains is the seeds of South American custard apple, regarded to have been introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The remains of custard apple as fruit coat and seeds have also been recorded from other sites in the Indian archaeological context, during the Kushana Period (CE 100-300) in Punjab and Early Iron Age (1300-700 BCE) in UP. The factual remains of custard apple, along with other stray finds, favor a group of specialists to support with diverse arguments the reasoning of Asian-American contacts way before the discovery of America by Columbus in 1498. 3

                                            The Indian navy and sea power

                                            In the south especially there was an established navy in many coastal areas. The long coastline with many ports for trade for sending out ships and receiving traders from foreign countries necessitated a navy to protect the ships and ports from enemies. According to records, the Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyas, and the Cheras had large naval fleets of ocean bound ships because these rulers also led expeditions against other places, such as Malayasia, Bali, and Ceylon.

                                            The decline of Indian maritime power commenced in the thirteenth century, and Indian sea power had almost disappeared when the Portuguese arrived in India. They later imposed a system of license for trade, and set upon all Asian vessels not holding permits from them.

                                            The piratical activities of the Portuguese were challenged by the Zamorins of Calicut when Vasco da Gama, after obtaining permission to trade, refused to pay the customs levy. Two major engagements were fought during this period. First, the battle of Cochin in 1503, clearly revealed the weakness of Indian navies and indicated to the Europeans an opportunity for building a naval empire. The second engagement off Diu in 1509 gave the Portuguese mastery over Indian seas and laid the foundation of European control over Indian waters for the next 400 years.

                                            Indian maritime interests witnessed a remarkable resurgence in the late seventeenth century, when the Siddhis of Janjira allied with the Moghuls to become a major power on the West Coast. This led the Maratha King Shivaji to create his own fleet, which was commanded by able admirals like Sidhoji Gujar and Kanhoji Angre. The Maratha Fleet along with the legendary Kanhoji Angre held sway over the entire Konkan Coast keeping the English, Dutch and Portuguese at bay. The death of Angre in 1729 left a vacuum and resulted in the decline of Maratha sea power. Despite the eclipse of Indian kingdoms with the advent of western domination, Indian shipbuilders continued to hold their own well into the nineteenth century. The Bombay Dock completed in July 1735 is in use even today. Ships displacing 800 to 1000 tons were built of teak at Daman and were superior to their British counterparts both in design and durability. This so agitated British shipbuilders on the River Thames that they protested against the use of Indian built ships to carry trade from England. Consequently, active measures were adopted to cripple the Indian shipbuilding industries. Nevertheless, many Indian ships were inducted into the Royal Navy, such as HMS Hindostan in 1795, the frigate Cornwallis in 1800, HMS Camel in 1801, and HMS Ceylon in 1808. HMS Asia carried the flag of Admiral Codrington at the battle of Navarino in 1827, the last major sea battle to be fought entirely under sail.

                                            Two Indian built ships witnessed history in the making. The Treaty of Nanking, ceding Hong Kong to the British, was signed onboard HMS Cornwallis in 1842. The "Star Spangled Banner" national anthem of the USA was composed by Francis Scott Key onboard HMS Minden when the ship was on a visit to Baltimore. Numerous other ships were also constructed, the most famous being HMS Trincomalee, which was launched on 19 October, 1817, carrying 86 guns and displacing 1065 tons. This ship was latter renamed Foudroyant.

                                            The period of 4000 years between Lothal and Bombay Dock, therefore, offers tangible evidence of seafaring skills the nation possessed in the days of sail. In the early seventeenth century, when British naval ships came to India, they discovered the existence of considerable shipbuilding and repair skills, as well as seafaring people. An ideal combination was thus available for supporting a fighting force in India. 4


                                            How the British killed the maritime industry in India

                                            When the westerners made contact with India, they were amazed to see their ships. Until the 17th century, European ships were a maximum of 600 tonnes. But in India, they saw such big ships as the Gogha, which was more than 1500 tonnes. The European companies started using these ships and opened many new factories to make Indian artisans manufacture ships. In 1811, Lt. Walker writes, "The ships in the British fleet had to be repaired every 12th year. But the Indian ships made of teak would function for more than 50 years without any repair." The East India Company had a ship called Dariya Daulat which worked for 87 years without any repairs. Durable woods like rosewood, sal and teak were used for this purpose.
                                            British East India Company ships at dock in Calcutta.
                                             
                                            The French traveler Waltzer Salvins writes in his book Le Hindu, in 1811,
                                            "Hindus were in the forefront of ship-building and even today they can teach a lesson or two to the Europeans. The British, who were very apt at learning the arts, learnt a lot of things about ship building from the Hindus. There is a very good blend of beauty and utility in Indian ships and they are examples of Indian handicrafts and their patience."
                                            Between 1736 and 1863, 300 ships were built at factories in Mumbai. Many of them were included in the Royal Fleet. Of these, the ship called Asia was 2289 tonnes and had 84 cannons. Ship building factories were set up in Hoogly, Sihat, Chittagong, Dacca, etc. In the period between 1781 to 1821, in Hoogly alone 272 ships were manufactured which together weighed 122,693 tonnes.

                                            In this connection, Suresh Soni, in his book India’s Glorious Scientific Tradition, explains how India was deprived of its marine industry, but also from any notation in its ancient history of its ship-building ability. He writes:
                                            "The shipping magnates of Britain could not tolerate the Indian art of ship manufacturing and they started compelling the East India Company not to use Indian ships. Investigations were frequently carried out in this regard. In 1811, Col. Walker gave statistics to prove that it was much cheaper to make Indian ships and that they were very sturdy. If only Indian ships were included in the British fleet, it would lead to great savings. This pinched the British shipbuilders and the traders."
                                            Dr. Taylor writes,
                                            ‘When the Indian ships laden with Indian goods reached the port of London, it created such a panic amongst the British traders as would not have been created, had they seen the enemy fleet of ships on the River Thames, ready for attack.’
                                            "The workers at the London Port were among the first to make hue and cry and said that ‘all our work will be ruined and families will starve to death.’ The Board of Directors of East India Company wrote that ‘all the fear and respect that the Indian seamen had towards European behavior was lost when they saw our social life once they came here. When they return to their country, they will propagate bad things about us amongst the Asians and we will lose our superiority and the effect will be harmful.’ At this, the British Parliament set up a committee under the chairmanship of Sir Robert Peel.
                                            "Despite disagreement amongst the members of the committee on the basis of this report, a law was passed in 1814 according to which the Indians lost the right to become British sailors and it became compulsory to employ at least three-fourth British sailors on British ships. No ship which did not have a British master was allowed to enter London Port and a rule was made that only ships made by the British in England could bring goods to England. For many reasons, there was laxity in enforcing these rules, but from 1863 they were observed strictly. Such rules which would end the ancient art of ship-building, were formulated in India also. Tax on goods brought in Indian ships was raised and efforts were made to isolate them from trade. Sir William Digby has rightly written, ‘This way, the Queen of the western world killed the Queen of the eastern oceans.’ In short, this is the story about the destruction of the Indian art of ship-building." 5
                                            Of course, let us not forget that not only was commerce between ancient India and other countries made through maritime capabilities, but also through land routes that extended to China, Turkistan, Persia, Babylon, and also to Egypt, Greece, and Rome, which continued to prosper.

                                            These days, India is still very much in the ship building business, mostly in small and medium size ships. As of 2009 there were 27 major shipyards, primarily in Mumbai, Goa, Vishakhapatnam, and Cochin.

                                            Conclusion

                                            In conclusion, the fact is that the ancient Vedic civilization had a strong connection with the sea, and maritime abilities. Even in their language of Vedic Sanskrit, words such as samudrasalilsagar, and sindhu indicated the sea or large rivers. The word sindhuka also meant sailor, which became the name Sindbad for the sailor in Arabian Nights. Also, the English word navigation actually originates from the Sanskrit word Navagati.

                                            Further evidence has been shown, such as that presented at a 1994 conference on seafaring in Delhi where papers had been presented that shows how Indian cotton was exported to South and Central America back in 2500 BCE. Another report suggested Indian cotton reached Mexico as far back as 4000 BCE, back to the Rig Vedic period. According to Sean McGrail, a marine archeologist at Oxford University, seagoing ships called ‘clinkers’ that were thought to be of Viking origin, were known in India a good deal earlier. Thus, India’s maritime trade actually flourished many years ago, along with many other of its advancements that are hardly recognized or accounted for today. 6

                                            This helps reveal that India’s maritime trade actually flourished more and far earlier than most people realize. This was one of the ways Vedic culture had spread to so many areas around the world. Though the talents and capabilities that came out of ancient India’s Vedic civilization have often remained unrecognized or even demeaned when discussed, nonetheless, the Vedic people were far more advanced in culture and developments then many people seem to care to admit, and it is time to recognize it for what it was.

                                            References

                                            1. Kapur, Kamlesh, Portraits of a Nation: History of India, Sterling Publishers, Private Limited, 2010, pp. 414-15.

                                            2. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200903151560.htm.

                                            3. http://www.ias. ac.in/currsci/ jan252008/ 248.pdf.

                                            4. http://indiannavy.nic.in/maritime_history.htm.

                                            5. Soni, Suresh, India’s Glorious Scientific Tradition, Ocean Books Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2010, p. 74-75.

                                            6. Frawley, Dr. David, and Dr. Navaratna S. Rajaram, Hidden Horizons, Unearthing 10,000 Years of Indian Culture, Swaminarayan Aksharpith, Ahmedabad, India, 2006, p. 79.

                                            http://www.pragyata.com/mag/indias-ancient-maritime-history-part-1-352
                                            http://www.pragyata.com/mag/indias-ancient-maritime-history-part-2-353

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                                            Background


                                            Indus Script Corpora is artha samgraha, 'metalwork catalogues' of meluhha (mleccha) 'copper' artisans. This is demonstrated as Meluhha samhitā using Hariyūpiyā (Harappa) inscriptions of the Corpora. Background  In the following readings, an abbreviation h refers to Harappa. 

                                            https://independent.academia.edu/SriniKalyanaraman presents over 800 monographs explaining the form and functions of Meluhha Indus Script cipher and archaeo-metallurgical contexts dealing with thousands of inscriptions of the civilization from an extensive area extending from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel) and with evidences from texts/inscriptions of ca. 4th millennium BCE. Using these mongraph resources, this Meluhha samhitā pāṭha is presented, starting with of a set of Harappa inscriptions h1 to h11.

                                            pāṭha m. ʻ text of a book ʼ ŚrS., ʻ study ʼ Kāv. [√paṭhPa. pāṭha -- m. ʻ reading, passage from a text ʼ; Pk. pāḍha -- m. ʻ reading ʼ.(CDIAL 8035) Thus, Meluhha samhitā pāṭha is the reading (of inscriptions).

                                            सं-हित mfn. ( √1. धा) 'put together , joined , attached' RV. &c; सं-हिता 'a text treated according to euphonic rules (esp. the real continuous text of the वेदs as formed out of the पदs or separate words by proper phonetic changes [according to various schools ; cf. IW. 152]: beside the संहिताs of the ऋग्- , साम- , and अथर्ववेद there is the वाजसनेयि-संहिता belonging to the White यजुर्-वेद , and five other संहिताs belonging to the black यजुर्-वेद , viz. the तैत्तिरीय-संहिता , the संहिता of the आत्रेयs [known only by its अनुक्रमणी] , the संहिता of the कठs , the कपिष्ठल-कठ-संहिता , and the संहिता of the मैत्रायणीयs or मैत्रायणी-संहिताNir. Pra1t. &c'



                                            The common expression in these seals of Harappa is "Trade of kōnda sangara metalwork engraver (in) " signified by the pictorial motif of young bull PLUS lathe-furnace device.
                                             
                                            hieroglyph, hypertext expression most commonly signifies on inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora signifies: supercargo, 'a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.' kanka, karika 'rim of jar'rebus: karī 'supercargo' 
                                            कर्णिक [p= 257,2] 'steersman, helmsman'.



                                            h1

                                            h1   anvaya


                                            sãgaḍ 'lathe, portable furnace' rebus: sangara 'trade', samgraha, samgaha 'arranger, manager'. कोंद kōnda 'young bull' rebus: कोंद kōnda 'engraver, script'
                                            āra'spokes' rebus: āra 'brass'; ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku'tin'; koḍa'sluice'; Rebus: koḍ 'artisan's workshop (Kuwi);.dāṭu'cross' rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhāṭnā'to send out, pour out, cast (metal)' (CDIAL 6771). 

                                            h1   artha Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' (in) brass, tin, mineral, metal castings, metal artisan's workshop.

                                            h2

                                            h2 anvaya 

                                            dula 'two' rebus: dul'metal casting'
                                            BHSk. gaṇḍa -- m. ʻ piece, part ʼ(CDIAL 3791) rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'
                                            मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' 
                                            kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī'supercargo' PLUS kolmo'three' rebus: kolimi'smithy, forge'
                                            baraḍo'spine, backbone' rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi)
                                            kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī'supercargo' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman'.
                                            gaṇḍa'four' rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS ayo'fish' rebus: aya'iron'ayas 'alloy metal' (R̥gveda) PLUS dhāḷ 'slanted stroke' rebus: dhāḷako 'ingot

                                            h2   artha Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' (in) supercargo (of) iron, smithy/forge (products), copper-zinc-tin alloy (products), metal implements, metal ingots.

                                            h3


                                            h3   anvaya
                                            baṭa 'rimless, wide-mouthed pot' rebus: bhaṭa'furnace' PLUS kolmo'three' rebus: kolimi'smithy, forge'.
                                            gaṇḍa -- m. ʻ piece, part ʼ(CDIAL 3791) rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'
                                            dāmāʻ peg to tie a buffalo -- calf to ʼ (Assamese)(CDIAL 6283) rebus: dhama'bellows' PLUS sal'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'

                                            gaṇḍa'four'  rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS kolmo 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Together, smithy,forge (for) implements

                                            koḍa 'sluice'; Rebus: koḍ 'artisan's workshop (Kuwi)
                                            kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman'.

                                            h3 artha Trade of kōnda sangara  'metalwork engraver' (in) supercargo (of) smithy,forge implements workshop, bellows (forge) of blacksmith, furnace metal implements of smithy, forge.

                                            h4


                                            h3   anvaya
                                            ayo'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'

                                            dhāḷ 'slanted stroke' rebus: dhāḷako 'ingot' PLUS खांडा (p. 116) khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).  khaṇḍa 'implements'. Thus, ingots and implements

                                            taṭṭal 'five' rebus:  ṭhaṭṭha brass (i.e. alloy of copper + zinc) *ṭhaṭṭha1 ʻbrassʼ. [Onom. from noise of hammering brass?]N. ṭhaṭṭar ʻ an alloy of copper and bell metal ʼ. *ṭhaṭṭhakāra ʻ brass worker ʼ. 1.Pk. ṭhaṭṭhāra -- m., K. ṭhö̃ṭhur m., S. ṭhã̄ṭhāro m., P. ṭhaṭhiār°rā m.2. P. ludh. ṭhaṭherā m., Ku. ṭhaṭhero m., N. ṭhaṭero, Bi. ṭhaṭherā, Mth. ṭhaṭheri, H. ṭhaṭherā m.(CDIAL 5491, 5493) PLUS gaṇḍa 'four'  rebus: kaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS (Arch over the hypertext): gumat.a, gumut.a, gumuri, gummat.a, gummut.a a copula or dome (Ka.); ghumat.a (M.); gummat.a, gummad a dome; a paper lantern; a fire-baloon (H.Te.); kummat.t.a arch, vault, arched roof, pinnacle of a pagoda; globe, lantern made of paper (Ta.)(Ka.lex.); gumma m. ‘dome’ (P.) CDIAL 4217) rebus: kumpiṭu-caṭṭichafing-dish, port- able furnace, potsherd in which fire is kept by goldsmiths; kumutam oven, stove; kummaṭṭi chafing-dish (Ta.).kuppaḍige, kuppaṭe, kum- paṭe, kummaṭa, kummaṭe id. (Ka.)kumpaṭi id. (Te.) DEDR 1751. kummu smouldering ashes (Te.); kumpōḍ smoke.(Go) (DEDR 1752). Thus, the hypertext expression reads: kummaṭa, 'furnace' (for) ṭhaṭṭha khaṇḍa 'brass implements'.

                                            h4 artha Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' (in) ingots, implements of alloy metal, furnaced brass implements.

                                            h5


                                            h5   anvaya
                                             The 'curve' hieroglyph is a splitting of the ellipse. kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. 

                                            Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith. 

                                            bhaṭā'warrior' rebus: bhaṭa'furnace'

                                            kuṭila ‘bent’ rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'

                                            loa 'ficus glomerata' Rebus: loha'copper, iron'.

                                            cīmara ‘black ant’ Rebus: cīmara‘copper’. cīmara  kāra -- ʻ coppersmith ʼ

                                            baṭa 'rimless, wide-mouthed pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' PLUS ḍabu'an iron spoon' (Santali) Rebus: ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo'lump (ingot?). Thus, together, furnace ingots.

                                            h5 artha Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' (in) copper, bronze metal furnace castings, ingots.

                                            h6


                                            h6   anvaya

                                            kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bronze'

                                            kolmo'three' rebus:kolimi'smithy, forge' PLUS kuṭila ‘bent’ rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) Thus, together, the hypertext expression is bronze smithy, forge.

                                            dula'two' rebus: dul'metal casting'

                                            खांडा (p. 116) khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).  khaṇḍa 'implements'. 

                                            kamaḍha'archer, bow' Rebus: kammaṭa'mint, coiner, coinage'.

                                            *śrētrī ʻ ladder ʼ. [Cf. śrētr̥ -- ʻ one who has recourse to ʼ MBh. -- See śrití -- . -- √śri]Ash. ċeitr ʻ ladder ʼ (< *ċaitr -- dissim. from ċraitr -- ?).(CDIAL 12720)*śrēṣṭrī2 ʻ line, ladder ʼ. [For mng. ʻ line ʼ conn. with √śriṣ2 cf. śrḗṇi -- ~ √śri. -- See śrití -- . -- √śriṣ2]Pk. sēḍhĭ̄ -- f. ʻ line, row ʼ (cf. pasēḍhi -- f. ʻ id. ʼ. -- < EMIA. *sēṭhī -- sanskritized as śrēḍhī -- , śrēṭī -- , śrēḍī<-> (Col.), śrēdhī -- (W.) f. ʻ a partic. progression of arithmetical figures ʼ); K. hēr, dat. °ri f. ʻ ladder ʼ.(CDIAL 12724) Rebus: śrḗṣṭha ʻ most splendid, best ʼ RV. [śrīˊ -- ]Pa. seṭṭha -- ʻ best ʼ, Aś.shah. man. sreṭha -- , gir. sesṭa -- , kāl. seṭha -- , Dhp. śeṭha -- , Pk. seṭṭha -- , siṭṭha -- ; N. seṭh ʻ great, noble, superior ʼ; Or. seṭha ʻ chief, principal ʼ; Si. seṭa°ṭu ʻ noble, excellent ʼ. śrēṣṭhin m. ʻ distinguished man ʼ AitBr., ʻ foreman of a guild ʼ, °nī -- f. ʻ his wife ʼ Hariv. [śrḗṣṭha -- ]Pa. seṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ, Dhp. śeṭhi, Pk. seṭṭhi -- , siṭṭhi -- m., °iṇī -- f.; S. seṭhi m. ʻ wholesale merchant ʼ; P. seṭh m. ʻ head of a guild, banker ʼ, seṭhaṇ°ṇī f.; Ku.gng. śēṭh ʻ rich man ʼ; N. seṭh ʻ banker ʼ; B. seṭh ʻ head of a guild, merchant ʼ; Or. seṭhi ʻ caste of washermen ʼ; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sēṭhi ʻ merchant, banker ʼ, H. seṭh m., °ṭhan f.; G. śeṭhśeṭhiyɔ m. ʻ wholesale merchant, employer, master ʼ; M. śeṭh°ṭhīśeṭ°ṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ; Si. siṭuhi° ʻ banker, nobleman ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 208 (or < śiṣṭá -- 2?)(CDIAL 12725, 12726)

                                            h6   artha

                                            Guildmaster's metalwork catalogue  with kammaṭa 'mint', khaṇḍa 'implements',
                                             dul 'metal casting', kuṭila kolimi 'bronze smithy, forge'.

                                            h7


                                            h7   anvaya

                                            kuṭila ‘bent’ rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin)

                                            मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' 

                                            dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhāṭnā 'to send out, pour out, cast (metal)' (CDIAL 6771). 

                                            खांडा (p. 116) khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).  khaṇḍa 'implements'. 

                                            kāru pincers, tongs. Rebus: khārखार् 'blacksmith'

                                            kuṭila ‘bent’ rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) PLUS dula'pair' rebus: dul'metal casting'.

                                            h7   artha Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' (in) catalogue of blacksmithy, bronze metal castings, iron, mineral ore, copper, bronze implements.

                                            h8



                                            h8   anvaya

                                            kuṭila ‘bent’ rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) 
                                            dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhāṭnā 'to send out, pour out, cast (metal)' (CDIAL 6771). 
                                            sal'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
                                            baṭa 'rimless, wide-mouthed pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' PLUS ḍabu 'an iron spoon' (Santali) Rebus: ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo 'lump (ingot?). Thus, together, furnace ingots.
                                            kolmo'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'
                                            ranku'liquid measure' rebus:ranku'tin'
                                            kolom 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'
                                            kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman'.

                                            खांडा (p. 116) khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).  khaṇḍa 'implements'. 

                                            gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul'metal casting' Thus, the expression reads:  dul khaṇḍa'cast metal implements'.


                                            h8   artha Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' (in) supercargo (of) castmetal implements, smithy, forge implements, furnace ingots, metal casting tin, bronze, minerals furnace workshop.

                                            h9


                                            h9   anvaya ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' (R̥gveda) PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.
                                            gaṇḍa 'four'  rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS kolmo 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Together, smithy,forge (for) implements

                                            h9   artha  Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' (in) mintwork, alloy metal implements, smithy, forge.
                                            h10

                                            h10   anvaya 

                                            loa 'ficus glomerata' Rebus: loha 'copper, iron'. PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, together, copper metal castings
                                            kamaḍha 'archer, bow' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.

                                            gaṇḍa 'four'  rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS dula'two' rebus: dul'metal casting'. Thus, together, cast metal implements.
                                            ranku'liquid measure' rebus: ranku'tin' PLUS dula'two' rebus: dul'metal casting'. Thus, together, tin castings

                                            gō̃ṭu an ornamental appendage to the border of a cloth, fringe' (Telugu) Rebus 1: gota (laterite, ferrite ore) Rebus 2: goṭā'gold-braid' 3: khoa 'ingot, wedge'

                                            āra 'spokes' rebus: āra 'brass'

                                            h10   artha Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' brass, laterite ore work, tin metal castings, metal implements, mintwork copper metal castings

                                            h11

                                            h11  anvaya
                                            cīmara ‘black ant’ Rebus: cīmara‘copper’. cīmara  kāra -- ʻcoppersmithʼ
                                            kamaḍha 'archer, bow' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.

                                            h11   artha  Trade of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver' coppersmith mint.

                                            S.Kalyanaraman
                                            Sarasvati Research Center
                                            May 10, 2017



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                                            The URL link https://independent.academia.edu/SriniKalyana7raman presents over 800 monographs explaining the form and functions of Meluhha Indus Script cipher and archaeo-metallurgical contexts dealing with thousands of inscriptions of the civilization from an extensive area extending from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel) and with evidences from texts/inscriptions of ca. 4th millennium BCE. Using these mongraph resources, this Meluhha samhitā pāṭha is presented.

                                            अन्व्-य anvaya [p= 46,2] m. ( √  » अन्व्- √) , following , succession; logical connection of words; logical connection of cause and effect , or proposition and conclusion; drift , tenor , purport;  अन्वयि-त्व [p= 46,2] n. the state of being a necessary consequence.

                                            Harappa inscriptions express by the Mlecchita vikalpa (Meluhha cipher) use of hieroglyphs and hypertexts connections at two levels: 


                                            1. hieroglyphs are connected to words of pictorial signifiers; for e.g. कोंद kōnda signified by the hieroglyph of a 'young bull'. Thus, a young bull on an inscription connects to the word कोंद kōnda.


                                            2. the succesion of hieroglyphs logically connect description of life activity of metalwork of Bhāratam Janam, for e.g. the pciture of ranku,'a liquid measure' signifies rebus the word ranku'tin' (metal). Thus, if two hieroglyphs show a young bull and a liquid measure, the reading and meanings are: ranku 'tin' (metal) and कोंद kōnda 'turner, sculptor, metalwork engraver'. The logical connection is that the inscription conveys a lapidary or artisan's or worker's tin (metal) work. 


                                            These anvaya, two levels of connections of words are demonstrated in the following Harappa inscriptions. 


                                            The second level of connection is realized by the अर्थ artha meaning associated to the rebus words which constitute a hypertext expression. This derived अर्थ artha relates to signifiers of business, wealth-creation and life-activities of the artisans and seafaring merchants of the civilization.


                                            Identifying the logical connection, anvaya of hieroglyphs/hypertexts provides the meaning of an inscription as a vākya,'sentence' or message. This method is consistent with vākyapadīya framework of Bhartr̥hari.


                                            Meaning1: 
                                            अर्थ artha sense , meaning , notion (cf. अर्थ-शब्दौandअर्थात् s.v. below and वेदतत्त्वा*र्थ-विद्)
                                            Meaning 2:

                                            अर्थ [p= 90,3] [p= 90,2] substance , wealth , property , opulence , money; personified as the son of धर्म and बुद्धि BhP.; ; affair , concern (Ved. often acc. /अर्थम् with √  , or गम् , to go to one's business , take up one's work RV. &c );price (for अर्घ q.v.L.


                                            The common expression in these seals of Harappa is "
                                            Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara metalwork engraver (in) " signified by the expression composed of two hypertexts: 1. pictorial motif of young bull PLUS 2. pictorial motif of lathe-furnace device. 


                                            (Note: sangara'trade' is rebus reading of sãgaḍ 'lathe, portable furnace' pictured in front of a young bull on many inscriptions).



                                            hieroglyph, hypertext expression most commonly signifies on inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora signifies: supercargo, 'a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.' kanka, karika 'rim of jar'rebus: karī 'supercargo, scribe' 
                                            कर्णिक [p= 257,2] 'steersman, helmsman'.
                                            h1

                                            h1   anvaya



                                            sãgaḍ 'lathe, portable furnace' rebus: sangara 'trade', samgraha, samgaha 'arranger, manager'. कोंद kōnda 'young bull' rebus: कोंद kōnda 'engraver, script'