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A homage to Hindu civilization.
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    The American scientists Jeffrey C Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W Young, who have won this year’s prize. The American scientists Jeffrey C Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W Young, who have won this year’s prize. Illustration:

    I am very pleased for the fruit fly: Nobel winner Michael Rosbash

    Humble insect receives praise from Michael Rosbach, one of the scientists to win the medicine Nobel

    Three Americans won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine on Monday for their discoveries about the body’s biological clock, opening up whole new fields of research and raising awareness about the importance of getting enough sleep.
    Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young won the 9-million-kronor ($1.1 million) prize for their work on finding genetic mechanisms behind circadian rhythms, which adapt the workings of the body to different phases of the day, influencing sleep, behaviour, hormone levels, body temperature and metabolism. The work was done using fruit flies.
    “I am very pleased for the fruit fly,” said Mr. Rosbash, a 73-year-old professor at Brandeis University. He said he got the call about the award just after 5 a.m.
    “When the landline rings at that hour, normally it is because someone died,” he said. “I’m still a little overwhelmed.”
    He added, “I stand on the shoulders of giants. This is a very humbling award.”
    The awardees’ work stems back to 1984, when Mr. Rosbash and Mr. Hall, both at Brandeis, along with Mr. Young isolated the “period gene” in fruit flies. Mr. Hall and Mr. Rosbash found that a protein encoded by the gene accumulated during the night and degraded during daytime. A decade later, Mr. Young discovered another “clock gene.”
    The scientists “were able to peek inside our biological clock and elucidate its inner workings,” the Nobel citation said. “Circadian dysfunction has been linked to sleep disorders, as well as depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive function, memory formation and some neurological diseases,” according to a Nobel background report.
    Mr. Hall, 72, wryly noted that he was already awake when he received the call from Sweden about his Nobel because of changes in his circadian rhythm as he has grown older. “I said ‘Is this a prank?’ I didn’t really believe it. I didn’t expect it,” Mr. Hall recounted, speaking from his home in rural Cambridge, Maine.

    Sleep hygiene

    The winners have raised “awareness of the importance of a proper sleep hygiene” said Juleen Zierath of the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute, which chooses the laureates. Carlos Ibanez, another assembly member, said the research was important in understanding how humans adapt to shift work. Michael Hastings, a scientist at the U.K. Medical Research Council, said the discoveries had opened up a whole new field of study for biology and medicine.
    “Until then, the body clock was viewed as a sort of black box,” said Mr. Hastings.
    “We knew nothing about its operation. But what they did was get the genes that made the body clock, and once you’ve got the genes, you can take the field wherever you want to.”
    “Our well-being is affected when there is a temporary mismatch between our external environment and this internal biological clock, for example when we travel across several time zones and experience ‘jet lag’,” the Nobel statement said. “There are also indications that chronic misalignment between our lifestyle and the rhythm dictated by our inner time keeper is associated with increased risk for various diseases.”

    Nobel prize for medicine awarded for insights into internal biological clock

    £825,000 prize shared between American scientists Jeffrey C Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W Young for work on the internal clock of living organisms
    The Nobel prize in physiology or medicine has been awarded to a trio of American scientists for their discoveries on the molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythms – in other words, the 24-hour body clock.
    According to the Nobel committee’s citation, Jeffrey C Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W Young were recognised for their discoveries explaining “how plants, animals and humans adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronised with the Earth’s revolutions.”
    The team identified a gene within fruit flies that controls the creatures’ daily rhythm, known as the “period” gene. This gene encodes a protein within the cell during the night which then degrades during the day.

    When there is a mismatch between this internal “clock” and the external surroundings, it can affect the organism’s wellbeing – for example, in humans, when we experience jet lag.
    The announcement was met by disbelief by the winners. “You are kidding me,” Rosbash replied when he got the call. Hall’s reaction was similar: “I said, ‘is this a prank?’” he told the Guardian.

    All three winners are from the US. Hall, 72, has retired but spent the majority of his career at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachussetts, where fellow laureate Rosbash, 73, is still a faculty member. Young, 68, works at Rockefeller University in New York.
    While all three laboured to isolate the period gene, publishing was something of a race. While Hall and Rosbash collaborated, Young was working on the puzzle independently. Both teams reported their findings in 1984.
    “It was very unpleasant competition in the early 80s, although we settled down. I think it’s possible we just started to act more like grown-ups because we got older,” said Hall.
    Hall and Rosbash then went on to unpick how the body clock actually works, revealing that the levels of protein encoded by the period gene rise and fall throughout the day in a negative feedback loop. Young, meanwhile, discovered a second gene involved in the system, dubbed “timeless”, that was critical to this process. Only when the proteins produced from the period gene combined with those from the timeless gene could they enter the cell’s nucleus and halt further activity of the period gene. Young also discovered the gene that controlled the frequency of this cycle.

    The team’s discoveries also helped to explain the mechanism by which light can synchronise the clock.
    Sir Paul Nurse, director of the Francis Crick Institute, who shared the Nobel prize in 2001 for research on the cell cycle, said the work was important for the basic understanding of life.
    “Every living organism on this planet responds to the sun,” he said. “All plant and animal behaviour is determined by the light-dark cycle. We on this planet are slaves to the sun. The circadian clock is embedded in our mechanisms of working, our metabolism, it’s embedded everywhere, it’s a real core feature for understanding life.
    “We are increasingly becoming aware that there are implications for human disease,” Nurse added. “There is some evidence that treatment of disease can be influenced by circadian rhythms too. People have reported that when you have surgery or when you have a drug can actually influence things. It’s still not clear, but there will almost certainly be some implications for the treatment of disease too.”
    The impact of the team’s work on medicine is becoming ever more apparent, said Ralf Stanewsky, ‎a professor of molecular behavioural biology at the University of Münster and a former colleague of Hall. “You can see that more and more health issues, human health issues, are boiled down to either genetic defects in the circadian clock or self-imposed problems, by work and jet lag for example,” he said. “This [internal] timer is constantly struggling to reset to what environment people are exposed to. If you shift your clock every week by six hours or three hours, that puts an enormous pressure on your body.”

    The win was welcomed by other experts in the field. “I think it is a fantastic development,” said professor Hugh Piggins, who works on circadian rhythms at the University of Manchester. But, he added, it was not unexpected, pointing out the work had been tipped for the win for several years. 
    Stanewsky agreed: “They were winning the prizes that people usually win before they win the Nobel prize,” he said.
    Hall and Rosbash struck up their fruitful collaboration after becoming friends on a basketball court, Stanewsky added. The pair were also such fans of the Boston Red Sox baseball team that they once sneaked a portable TV into a conference to keep up with a crucial game.
    Bambos Kyriacou, professor of behavioural genetics at the University of Leicester, who is friends with all three winners and a former colleague of two, said the trio were very different people. “Jeff [Hall] is eccentric … brilliant but eccentric,” he said. “Michael [Rosbash], there is no stopping him – he is just going 100%, he will die with his boots on in the lab, and Michael Young is the most charming, nicest one of them because he is polite and pleasant, whereas the other two aren’t like that, they are just crazy,” Kyriacou added. 

    Hall told the Guardian he was planning to make large donations, including to the Humane Society of the United States and a Texas-based charity involved in rescuing pets caught in the floods that followed Hurricane Harvey. “I have always loved and cared about animals,” he said. “I didn’t even intend to last this long so I still have some [money] left over and I’ll have bloated coffers now,” he added.The winners will share a prize of 9m Swedish kronor (£825,000), and each receive a medal engraved with their name.
    Last year the prize was won by Yoshinori Ohsumi, a Japanese cell biologist who unpicked the mechanisms by which the body break downs and recycles components of cells – a process that guards against various diseases, including cancer and diabetes.
    In total, 107 Nobel prizes for physiology or medicine have been won by 211 scientists since 1901, with just 12 awarded to women. Nonetheless, it remains the science award with the highest such tally – so far the physics prize has only been awarded to two women: Marie Curie and Maria Goeppert Mayer.
    This year’s winners of the physics, chemistry, literature and peace prizes will be announced over the rest of the week, with the economics prize to follow on Monday 9 October.

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    Authorities have not officially released details on the weapons a gunman used to kill at least 59 people and wound 527 more late on Sunday in Las Vegas. But analysis of video posted on social media shows that the gunman, identified by the police as Stephen Paddock, 64, had rifles with rapid-fire capabilities.
    At least 17 firearms were recovered from Mr. Paddock’s hotel room, said Sheriff Joseph Lombardo of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. Another law enforcement official said earlier that AR-15 assault-style rifles were found among the weapons.
    This video shows 15 seconds of the attack, with constant gunshots ringing out.

    Source: @spacetrek9 on Twitter
    Isolated, the pattern of gunshots looks like this.

    Las Vegas About 90 shots in 10 seconds

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    Compare that with audio extracted from a video of the June 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting, in which 49 people were killed and 53 were wounded. The gunman, Omar Mateen, used at least two guns, including a semiautomatic AR-15-style assault rifle.

    Orlando nightclub 24 shots in 9 seconds

    0 sec.12345678910050100shots
    Source: WESH 2 News
    In contrast, a fully automatic weapon, like this pre-1986 Colt AR-15A2, sounds different. There are no variations in the firing rate like there was in the Las Vegas.

    Fully automatic weapon 98 shots in 7 seconds

    0 sec.12345678910050100shots
    Source: YouTube
    It is possible that the Las Vegas gunman modified his gun to fire faster. This could include using a trigger crank, a mechanical add-on that is rotated like a music box handle and hits the trigger multiple times per second. Or, he may have had a bump fire stock, which uses the recoil of the rifle to fire quicker. Neither device is regulated by the National Firearms Act.

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    Thanks to for the image with hypertext.
    आ-नर्त dancing academy, north Kathiavad Gaṇeśa phaḍā'cobra hood'rebus phaḍā 'metals manufactory'mūṣa 'mouse' rebus: mūṣa 'crucible'. This is pictorial representation, mlecchita vikalpa (Meluhha Indus Script cipher) of steel, iron working. karibha, ibha'elephant' rebus: karba, ib'iron'tāmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tāmra'copper'. These hieroglyphs are signified on this ancient Tantra document. The pellets held on the plate: goṭa'round pebbles' rebus: goṭa 'laterite, ferrite ore'. खोट khōṭa'A mass of metal (unwrought iron).

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    புதுக்கோட்டை: புதுக்கோட்டை அருகே, 1,000 ஆண்டுகள் பழமை வாய்ந்த சிவன் கோவில், மீட்டெடுக்கப் பட்டுள்ளது.

    சமூகவலைதள உதவி: புதுக்கோட்டை மாவட்டம், அன்னவாசல் அருகே வயலோகம் பகுதியில், 1,000 ஆண்டுகள் பழமை வாய்ந்த, அகத்தீஸ்வரமுடைய விஸ்வநாதர் கோவில் உள்ளது. இந்த கோவிலை மீட்டெடுத்து, சீரமைக்க, 'வாட்ஸ் ஆப், பேஸ்புக்'மூலம் அழைப்பு விடுக்கப்பட்டது. புதுக்கோட்டை மாவட்ட சமூக வலைதள நண்பர்கள் கொடுத்த தகவலின்படி, செப்., 29ல், வயலோகம் கிராமத்தில், தமிழகத்தின் பல பகுதிகள் மற்றும் புதுச்சேரியை சேர்ந்த வரலாற்று ஆர்வலர்கள், இளைஞர்கள், 60 பேர் ஒன்று திரண்டனர். அவர்கள், சிதைந்த கோவிலை சுற்றி, மண்டிக் கிடந்த புதர்களை சுத்தம் செய்தனர். 

    மூன்று நாட்கள்: தொடர்ந்து, மூன்று நாட்கள் மண் மேடு, செடி கொடிகளை அகற்றி, சுத்தம் செய்தனர். அங்கிருந்த கல்வெட்டுகள் மூலம், 1,000 ஆண்டுகள் பழமையான கோவில் என்பதும், மூன்றாம் குலோத்துங்கன் சுந்தரபாண்டியன், குலசேகர பாண்டியன் ஆகிய மன்னர்கள் காலத்தில், திருப்பணிகள் செய்யப்பட்டதாகவும் அறியப்படுகிறது. கோபுரம், மடப்பள்ளி என, அனைத்தும் சிதிலமடைந்துள்ளன. அங்கிருந்த இரண்டு சிவலிங்கம், இரண்டு அம்மன் சிலைகள், ஆறு முகங்கள் கொண்ட முருகன் சிலை, தெய்வானை, தட்சிணாமூர்த்தி, விநாயகர், நந்தி சிலைகள் சேதமடையும் நிலையில் இருப்பதால், அவற்றை தனியே எடுத்து பாதுகாத்து வருவதாக, பொதுமக்கள் தெரிவித்தனர்.

    நடவடிக்கை வேண்டும்: 'கோவிலை புனரமைக்கவும், அழகிய வேலைப்பாடுடன் கூடிய கற் சிலைகளை பாதுகாக்கவும், இந்து சமய அறநிலையத் துறை நடவடிக்கை எடுக்க வேண்டும்'என, கோரிக்கை விடுக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.

    Image result for 1000 year old pudukkottai temple

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    Decoding the world’s oldest as yet undeciphered writing system could help to improve our understanding of the origins of writing and of how this crucial cultural progress spread, branched out, and in some cultures died out. Michael Gross reports.

    Main Text

    Just over 5,000 years ago, the earliest cities flourished in Mesopotamia and western Iran. One explanation that has been considered is that making these areas with their seasonal alternations of flooding and drought amenable to agriculture required a complex infrastructure for water retention and irrigation. Thus, only a critical mass of workforce and a certain level of organisation could make these lands habitable, leading to urban settlements like Uruk in Mesopotamia and, a few hundred kilometres to the east, Susa in Iran. On the other hand, humans adapt well to diverse climatic conditions, and southern Mesopotamia may have lent itself to the growth of incipient complex societies without the need for large-scale hydraulic management as more current archaeological theories suggest.
    Whatever their origin, the complex societies that built these early cities soon found they needed to keep records of their stocks, property, and commerce. The people of Uruk came up with proto-cuneiform, which evolved into cuneiform. This script encoding words and syllables was eventually supplanted in the Middle East by alphabetic writing systems that spread across the Mediterranean.
    A few centuries later, the people of Susa picked up the idea of keeping written records and apparently borrowed a few signs from proto-cuneiform, but mostly they invented their own system of record-keeping, which is now known as proto-Elamite. The writing quickly spread across Iran, even though other archaeological evidence doesn’t suggest that the country had a unified culture at that time. Early excavations in Susa found more than 1,500 clay tablets with proto-Elamite script, and hundreds more have been found since.
    As the name indicates, researchers were initially hoping to find a more advanced ‘Elamite’ script that might have followed up on this early version, like cuneiform evolved out of proto-cuneiform. However, systematic archaeological investigation has shown that this next step never happened. After a few centuries of using proto-Elamite, the people of Susa and other towns in Iran stopped writing altogether. For a period of 500 years, there is no trace of writing in Iran, until the introduction of cuneiform from Mesopotamia around 2300–2200 BC and, concurrently, the development as the Susan royal court of a second indigenous script known as Linear Elamite, which is unrelated to proto-Elamite.
    In anthropological terms, the proto-Elamite script is the Neanderthal of writing systems. It branched off from our line of descent early on, spread for a while, then became extinct for mysterious reasons. Understanding it better might help us to understand our own cultural evolution. It would help, obviously, if we could decipher it.

    Deciphering challenge

    Jacob L. Dahl, of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Oxford, started out studying cuneiform and then became more interested in the path less travelled, the branch that became extinct. Dahl, the world’s leading expert in this writing system heads a research team dedicated to understanding it.
    Many have considered the script undecipherable, and linguists are frustrated by the lack of any parallel documents like the Rosetta Stone, which could help, and by the lack of proper prose, as the tablets seem to be listing quantities of commodities owned by specific households. The writing uses 17 numerical and around 1,400 non-numerical signs. Of the latter, Dahl believes, around 100 may have been used as syllables to code for names. These occur where names of owners are listed, are poorly standardised, and have no obvious pictorial meaning.Difficult read: A proto-Elamite clay tablet from the collection at the Louvre

    Difficult read: A proto-Elamite clay tablet from the collection at the Louvre. Scribes used a stylus typically made of reed to press these shapes into the soft clay. (Photo: University of Oxford.)
    “An additional challenge,” says Dahl, “is the fact that they use no signs depicting body parts. They must have had a taboo forbidding that. The only exceptions are two pictographically constructed signs for female and male workers, which they took over from proto-cuneiform, obviously without regard to their pictorial associations.”
    Early excavations produced large numbers of texts and other artefacts but failed to contextualise these, and, whereas the early publishers worked fervently to quickly publish the results, the published copies cannot necessarily be trusted.
    In the late 1970s, the Swedish mathematician Jöran Friberg managed to work out the numerical system used in archaic Iran, based on the observation that the tablets usually contain sums of the quantities listed in each line. Later, Peter Damerow at the Max-Planck Institute for the History of Science and Robert K. Englund at the Free University, both at Berlin, proposed identifications for some of the signs and deciphered the content of some tablets. Thus, signs for containers for weakly fermented beer, dairy products, and grains are understood. Dahl, who worked with Englund at UCLA and with Damerow at Berlin, deciphered a number of signs relating to sheep and goat herding, but still scratches his head over how the proto-Elamite scribes may have referred to cattle, for example.
    Dahl has started producing high-quality images of the tablets using a novel device, the Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) system (building on technology developed originally by Tom Malzbender and others at the HP labs in Palo Alto). This uses a black plastic dome lined with 76 separate LED lights and fitted with a 25 megapixel camera. Each artefact is photographed 76 times, each time illuminated from a different angle by one of these LEDs. A dedicated software package combines the 76 shots into a single image file, with which the users can then create different viewing experiences, as if they were looking at the original tablet and shining a torch at it from different sides and angles to get a feeling for the shapes, the textures, and the depths of the grooves.
    With these complex images, Dahl now hopes to launch an internet-based crowdsourcing project to help complete the decipherment, following the example of success stories such as Folding@Home (see Curr. Biol. (2012) 22, R35–R38). Combining the ideas and skills of many different people, and including perspectives from mathematics, linguistics, art, and so on, may be the clue to cracking the remainder of the code. Some images have already been made available online, with more and in increasingly higher quality over the coming six months (see for an introduction to proto-Elamite with links to images of the tablets and for more on online cuneiform).
    Detective work: Jacob Dahl and Laura Hawkins working on cuneiform tablets at…

    Detective work: Jacob Dahl and Laura Hawkins working on cuneiform tablets at Oxford University. (Photo: University of Oxford.)

    Rise and fall

    Taken together with the available evidence from the Middle East, a better understanding of proto-Elamite would be a big step towards a complete overview of the evolution of writing, including its birth, branching out, diffusion, and dying out.
    Contrary to what one might expect based on today’s notions of literacy, writing did very clearly not arise from a move to record spoken language. Instead, it evolved out of primitive accounting methods, more closely related to abacuses than to storytelling.
    “At first, there were tokens used to represent quantities of commodities such as grain,” explains Dahl. “Most tokens were made of clay, a few examples exist of stone tokens. We recently made some clay tokens for our class and were able to replicate the calculations — additions only — in rather complex texts without any use of abstract numbers, or even number words.”
    In a second stage, people turned the very same tokens into a permanent recording of the relevant quantities by keeping them in clay envelopes. “These consisted of a hollow clay ball, also called a bulla,” Dahl explains. “It is very likely that tokens continued to be used for centuries.”
    Finally, clay tablets bearing the impressions of tokens, and then, similar shapes produced with a stylus became the record keeping, making the tokens redundant. The stylus was usually made of reed, but perhaps also of hard wood or metal: in fact one metal tool that may have been used as a stylus was found at Tepe Yahya close to some proto-Elamite tablets.
    Ghost town: The remains of the ancient city of Susa may increasingly look like…

    Ghost town: The remains of the ancient city of Susa may increasingly look like natural hills, but excavations have yielded more than 1,500 clay tablets with inscriptions that are around 5,000 years old. (Photo: Jan Walstra.)
    The third stage can be pinned down exactly. “Writing is a technology. Regardless of whatever mnemonic devices may have been used in different parts of the ancient Near East, the earliest crystallisation of that technology occurred at the great southern Mesopotamian metropolis of Uruk in the specific context of a large institution dedicated to the city goddess Inanna,” explains Dan Potts from the University of Sydney, Australia. “The earliest texts served to document the incomings and outgoings of those commodities (naturalia, realia) that served to sustain the institution, which some would call a temple complex, and its personnel (not just priests and scribes but agricultural and craft labourers as well). Lexical texts, lists of words classified by domain (names of different categories of animals, trees, plants, professions), represent concrete expressions of early scribal training. It took many more centuries before writing was used to record royal inscriptions, literature, letters and other types of texts.”
    Initial proto-writing systems could represent only a certain repertoire of relevant objects — their users could not write down current events or stories they may have told each other. Gradually, the proto-writing systems evolved into complete writing systems, allowing people to write down whatever they could express in words of their language.
    The invention of writing happened at least twice and no more than four times in the history of mankind. The two clear cases are cuneiform and the Mayan scripts, both clearly independent inventions that went on to become complete writing systems. Deciphering of Mayan writing has made rapid progress since the 1970s, following the realisation that it is a phonetic representation of a language related to the one still spoken in the area today. It might have been easier if 16th century colonialism had not actively sought to eradicate knowledge of the script that still existed at the time.
    Cuneiform was decoded in the second half of the 19th century using trilingual inscriptions written in Old Persian cuneiform, Akkadian cuneiform and Elamite cuneiform. Since the content of some of these texts was known (ruler names and titles of the kings of Persia) this was in fact a very complex linguistic puzzle of replacing signs with sounds and speculate language affiliation.
    Some people still question whether the Egyptian hieroglyphs are an equally pristine invention. While there is no similarity in the signs used, Egyptians and, as some have speculated, even ancient Chinese may or may not have gleaned the idea of writing things down for accountancy from Mesopotamia.
    Proto-Elamite by contrast, clearly got the idea and a small number of signs from Mesopotamia, and then went on to add a whole range of new signs to the repertoire. It is the earliest writing system that we know to be a derived one. This early branching point is thus the equivalent of speciation in biological evolution. The separate writing systems of these neighbouring regions must have been mutually incomprehensible.
    Ancient lands: The area of western Iran, where a writing system inspired by…

    Ancient lands: The area of western Iran, where a writing system inspired by Mesopotamia’s cuneiform flourished around 5,000 years ago. (Photo: University of Oxford.)
    Over a short time span — three centuries at most, but probably much less — the proto-Elamite script spread across Iran, offering a prime example of cultural diffusion. There is no archaeological evidence suggesting a mechanism for this spreading, such as central government or long-distance trading, so the rapid expansion remains one of the mysteries of proto-Elamite.
    As the proto-Elamite script spread and developed further, it became richer in its sign repertoire, but Dahl notes that it also ran into problems. “There was an inflation of signs in proto-Elamite,” says Dahl, “and even in high-level accounts, such as those for the household of the ruler of Susa, you see systematic errors and bad practice.” For instance, scribes would cram in information at the end of a line, rather than planning for the space available, like their colleagues in Mesopotamia would have done. And they made elementary mistakes in the bundling of numbers, as it would be a mistake in Roman numerals to write IIIII instead of V.
    The key cultural difference is that cuneiform was backed up by a lexical tradition from early on, says Dahl. In Uruk, lists of standardised signs were used for reference. No such lists have ever been found for proto-Elamite. Dahl can’t resist the temptation to speculate that it may have been the failure to invest in the quality of proto-Elamite writing culture that led to its deterioration and ultimately to its downfall.
    The ensuing period of five centuries without writing makes Europe’s descent into the Dark Ages pale in comparison. Prophets of linguistic doom who worry about youth slang and text speak will delight in this example of cultural downfall that was possibly triggered or accelerated by bad writing practice. Seeing writing as a trait that has evolved in human populations, it is only natural that it can not only arise, diversify and spread, but also die out. That’s just life.
    5,000 years ago, a long-buried society in the Iranian desert helped shape the first urban age
    Shahr-i-Sokhta in eastern Iran

    Cities like Shahr-i-Sokhta in eastern Iran, remains of which can be seen from the air, developed and flourished at the same time as the population centers in Mesopotamia to the west and the Indus Valley to the east. The barren landscape was once home to some of the world's first urban societies, which began to develop around 3000 B.C.
    (Georg Gerster/Photo Researchers)
    Even local archaeologists with the benefit of air-conditioned cars and paved roads think twice about crossing eastern Iran's rugged terrain. "It's a tough place," says Mehdi Mortazavi from the University of Sistan-Baluchistan in the far eastern end of Iran, near the Afghan border. At the center of this region is the Dasht-e Lut, Persian for the "Empty Desert." This treacherous landscape, 300 miles long and 200 miles wide, is covered with sinkholes, steep ravines, and sand dunes, some topping 1,000 feet. It also has the hottest average surface temperature of any place on Earth. The forbidding territory in and around this desert seems like the last place to seek clues to the emergence of the first cities and states 5,000 years ago.
    Yet archaeologists are finding an impressive array of ancient settlements on the edges of the Dasht-e Lut dating back to the period when urban civilization was emerging in Egypt, Iraq, and the Indus River Valley in Pakistan and India. In the 1960s and 1970s, they found the great centers of Shahr-i-Sokhta and Shahdad on the desert's fringes and another, Tepe Yahya, far to the south. More recent surveys, excavations, and remote sensing work reveal that all of eastern Iran, from near the Persian Gulf in the south to the northern edge of the Iranian plateau, was peppered with hundreds and possibly thousands of small to large settlements. Detailed laboratory analyses of artifacts and human remains from these sites are providing an intimate look at the lives of an enterprising people who helped create the world's first global trade network.
    Far from living in a cultural backwater, eastern Iranians from this period built large cities with palaces, used one of the first writing systems, and created sophisticated metal, pottery, and textile industries. They also appear to have shared both administrative and religious ideas as they did business with distant lands. "They connected the great corridors between Mesopotamia and the east," says Maurizio Tosi, a University of Bologna archaeologist who did pioneering work at Shahr-i-Sokhta. "They were the world in between."
    By 2000 B.C. these settlements were abandoned. The reasons for this remain unclear and are the source of much scholarly controversy, but urban life didn't return to eastern Iran for more than 1,500 years. The very existence of this civilization was long forgotten. Recovering its past has not been easy. Parts of the area are close to the Afghan border, long rife with armed smugglers. Revolution and politics have frequently interrupted excavations. And the immensity of the region and its harsh climate make it one of the most challenging places in the world to conduct archaeology.


    Situated at the end of a small delta on a dry plain, Shahdad was excavated by an Iranian team in the 1970s.
    (Courtesy Maurizio Tosi)

    Iranian-Italian team

    An Iranian-Italian team, including archaeologist Massimo Vidale (right), surveyed the site in 2009.
    (Courtesy Massimo Vidale)
    The peripatetic English explorer Sir Aurel Stein, famous for his archaeological work surveying large swaths of Central Asia and the Middle East, slipped into Persia at the end of 1915 and found the first hints of eastern Iran's lost cities. Stein traversed what he described as "a big stretch of gravel and sandy desert" and encountered "the usual...robber bands from across the Afghan border, without any exciting incident." What did excite Stein was the discovery of what he called "the most surprising prehistoric site" on the eastern edge of the Dasht-e Lut. Locals called it Shahr-i-Sokhta ("Burnt City") because of signs of ancient destruction.
    It wasn't until a half-century later that Tosi and his team hacked their way through the thick salt crust and discovered a metropolis rivaling those of the first great urban centers in Mesopotamia and the Indus. Radiocarbon data showed that the site was founded around 3200 B.C., just as the first substantial cities in Mesopotamia were being built, and flourished for more than a thousand years. During its heyday in the middle of the third millennium B.C., the city covered more than 150 hectares and may have been home to more than 20,000 people, perhaps as populous as the large cities of Umma in Mesopotamia and Mohenjo-Daro on the Indus River. A vast shallow lake and wells likely provided the necessary water, allowing for cultivated fields and grazing for animals.
    Built of mudbrick, the city boasted a large palace, separate neighborhoods for pottery-making, metalworking, and other industrial activities, and distinct areas for the production of local goods. Most residents lived in modest one-room houses, though some were larger compounds with six to eight rooms. Bags of goods and storerooms were often "locked" with stamp seals, a procedure common in Mesopotamia in the era.
    Shahr-i-Sokhta boomed as the demand for precious goods among elites in the region and elsewhere grew. Though situated in inhospitable terrain, the city was close to tin, copper, and turquoise mines, and lay on the route bringing lapis lazuli from Afghanistan to the west. Craftsmen worked shells from the Persian Gulf, carnelian from India, and local metals such as tin and copper. Some they made into finished products, and others were exported in unfinished form. Lapis blocks brought from the Hindu Kush mountains, for example, were cut into smaller chunks and sent on to Mesopotamia and as far west as Syria. Unworked blocks of lapis weighing more than 100 pounds in total were unearthed in the ruined palace of Ebla, close to the Mediterranean Sea. Archaeologist Massimo Vidale of the University of Padua says that the elites in eastern Iranian cities like Shahr-i-Sokhta were not simply slaves to Mesopotamian markets. They apparently kept the best-quality lapis for themselves, and sent west what they did not want. Lapis beads found in the royal tombs of Ur, for example, are intricately carved, but of generally low-quality stone compared to those of Shahr-i-Sokhta.
    Pottery was produced on a massive scale. Nearly 100 kilns were clustered in one part of town and the craftspeople also had a thriving textile industry. Hundreds of wooden spindle whorls and combs were uncovered, as were well-preserved textile fragments made of goat hair and wool that show a wide variation in their weave. According to Irene Good, a specialist in ancient textiles at Oxford University, this group of textile fragments constitutes one of the most important in the world, given their great antiquity and the insight they provide into an early stage of the evolution of wool production. Textiles were big business in the third millennium B.C., according to Mesopotamian texts, but actual textiles from this era had never before been found.

    Metal flag found at Shahdad

    A metal flag found at Shahdad, one of eastern Iran's early urban sites, dates to around 2400 B.C. The flag depicts a man and woman facing each other, one of the recurrent themes in the region's art at this time.
    (Courtesy Maurizio Tosi)

    Ceramic jar found at Shahdad

    This plain ceramic jar, found recently at Shahdad, contains residue of a white cosmetic whose complex formula is evidence for an extensive knowledge of chemistry among the city's ancient inhabitants.
    (Courtesy Massimo Vidale)
    The artifacts also show the breadth of Shahr-i-Sokhta's connections. Some excavated red-and-black ceramics share traits with those found in the hills and steppes of distant Turkmenistan to the north, while others are similar to pots made in Pakistan to the east, then home to the Indus civilization. Tosi's team found a clay tablet written in a script called Proto-Elamite, which emerged at the end of the fourth millennium B.C., just after the advent of the first known writing system, cuneiform, which evolved in Mesopotamia. Other such tablets and sealings with Proto-Elamite signs have also been found in eastern Iran, such as at Tepe Yahya. This script was used for only a few centuries starting around 3200 B.C. and may have emerged in Susa, just east of Mesopotamia. By the middle of the third millennium B.C., however, it was no longer in use. Most of the eastern Iranian tablets record simple transactions involving sheep, goats, and grain and could have been used to keep track of goods in large households.
    While Tosi's team was digging at Shahr-i-Sokhta, Iranian archaeologist Ali Hakemi was working at another site, Shahdad, on the western side of the Dasht-e Lut. This settlement emerged as early as the fifth millennium B.C. on a delta at the edge of the desert. By the early third millennium B.C., Shahdad began to grow quickly as international trade with Mesopotamia expanded. Tomb excavations revealed spectacular artifacts amid stone blocks once painted in vibrant colors. These include several extraordinary, nearly life-size clay statues placed with the dead. The city's artisans worked lapis lazuli, silver, lead, turquoise, and other materials imported from as far away as eastern Afghanistan, as well as shells from the distant Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean.
    Evidence shows that ancient Shahdad had a large metalworking industry by this time. During a recent survey, a new generation of archaeologists found a vast hill—nearly 300 feet by 300 feet—covered with slag from smelting copper. Vidale says that analysis of the copper ore suggests that the smiths were savvy enough to add a small amount of arsenic in the later stages of the process to strengthen the final product. Shahdad's metalworkers also created such remarkable artifacts as a metal flag dating to about 2400 B.C. Mounted on a copper pole topped with a bird, perhaps an eagle, the squared flag depicts two figures facing one another on a rich background of animals, plants, and goddesses. The flag has no parallels and its use is unknown.
    Vidale has also found evidence of a sweet-smelling nature. During a spring 2009 visit to Shahdad, he discovered a small stone container lying on the ground. The vessel, which appears to date to the late fourth millennium B.C., was made of chlorite, a dark soft stone favored by ancient artisans in southeast Iran. Using X-ray diffraction at an Iranian lab, he discovered lead carbonate—used as a white cosmetic—sealed in the bottom of the jar. He identified fatty material that likely was added as a binder, as well as traces of coumarin, a fragrant chemical compound found in plants and used in some perfumes. Further analysis showed small traces of copper, possibly the result of a user dipping a small metal applicator into the container.
    Other sites in eastern Iran are only now being investigated. For the past two years, Iranian archaeologists Hassan Fazeli Nashli and Hassain Ali Kavosh from the University of Tehran have been digging in a small settlement a few miles east of Shahdad called Tepe Graziani, named for the Italian archaeologist who first surveyed the site. They are trying to understand the role of the city's outer settlements by examining this ancient mound, which is 30 feet high, 525 feet wide, and 720 feet long. Excavators have uncovered a wealth of artifacts including a variety of small sculptures depicting crude human figures, humped bulls, and a Bactrian camel dating to approximately 2900 B.C. A bronze mirror, fishhooks, daggers, and pins are among the metal finds. There are also wooden combs that survived in the arid climate. "The site is small but very rich," says Fazeli, adding that it may have been a prosperous suburban production center for Shahdad.
    Sites such as Shahdad and Shahr-i-Sokhta and their suburbs were not simply islands of settlements in what otherwise was empty desert. Fazeli adds that some 900 Bronze Age sites have been found on the Sistan plain, which borders Afghanistan and Pakistan. Mortazavi, meanwhile, has been examining the area around the Bampur Valley, in Iran's extreme southeast. This area was a corridor between the Iranian plateau and the Indus Valley, as well as between Shahr-i-Sokhta to the north and the Persian Gulf to the south. A 2006 survey along the Damin River identified 19 Bronze Age sites in an area of less than 20 square miles. That river periodically vanishes, and farmers depend on underground channels called qanats to transport water.
    Despite the lack of large rivers, ancient eastern Iranians were very savvy in marshaling their few water resources. Using satellite remote sensing data, Vidale has found remains of what might be ancient canals or qanats around Shahdad, but more work is necessary to understand how inhabitants supported themselves in this harsh climate 5,000 years ago, as they still do today.

    Eastern Iranian settlement of Tepe Yahya

    The large eastern Iranian settlement of Tepe Yahya produced clear evidence for the manufacture of a type of black stone jar for export that has been found as far away as Mesopotamia.
    (Georg Gerster/Photo Researchers)
    Meanwhile, archaeologists also hope to soon continue work that began a decade ago at Konar Sandal, 55 miles north of Yahya near the modern city of Jiroft in southeastern Iran. France-based archaeologist Yusef Madjizadeh has spent six seasons working at the site, which revealed a large city centered on a high citadel with massive walls beside the Halil River. That city and neighboring settlements like Yahya produced artfully carved dark stone vessels that have been found in Mesopotamian temples. Vidale notes that Indus weights, seals, and etched carnelian beads found at Konar Sandal demonstrate connections with that civilization as well.
    Many of these settlements were abandoned in the latter half of the third millennium B.C., and, by 2000 B.C., the vibrant urban life of eastern Iran was history. Barbara Helwig of Berlin's German Archaeological Institute suspects a radical shift in trade patterns precipitated the decline. Instead of moving in caravans across the deserts and plateau of Iran, Indus traders began sailing directly to Arabia and then on to Mesopotamia, while to the north, the growing power of the Oxus civilization in today's Turkmenistan may have further weakened the role of cities such as Shahdad. Others blame climate change. The lagoons, marshes, and streams may have dried up, since even small shifts in rainfall canB.C. have a dramatic effect on water sources in the area. Here, there is no Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, or Indus to provide agricultural bounty through a drought, and even the most sophisticated water systems may have failed during a prolonged dry spell.
    It is also possible that an international economic downturn played a role. The destruction of the Mesopotamian city of Ur around 2000 B.C. and the later decline of Indus metropolises such as Mohenjo-Daro might have spelled doom for a trading people. The market for precious goods such as lapis collapsed. There is no clear evidence of widespread warfare, though Shahr-i-Sokhta appears to have been destroyed by fire several times. But a combination of drought, changes in trade routes, and economic trouble might have led people to abandon their cities to return to a simpler existence of herding and small-scale farming. Not until the Persian Empire rose 1,500 years later did people again live in any large numbers in eastern Iran, and not until modern times did cities again emerge. This also means that countless ancient sites are still awaiting exploration on the plains, in the deserts, and among the rocky valleys of the region.
    Andrew Lawler is a contributing editor at ARCHAEOLOGY. For our 1975 coverage of the excavations at Shahr-i-Sokhta, see
    Cylinder seal from Konar Sandal
    The impression of a cylinder seal on an unbaked clay jar sealing from Konar Sandal 
    (Courtesy Youssef Madjidzadeh)
    They are tiny and often faded and fragmented. But one abundant source of evidence for both international trade and the role of women in eastern Iran during the third millennium B.C. are the tiny images found on seals and sealings throughout this area. The small impressions were designed to mark ownership and control of goods, from bags of barley to a storeroom filled with oil jugs.
    Holly Pittman, an art historian at the University of Pennsylvania who has worked throughout the Middle East and Central Asia, is examining the fragile impressions. She is attempting to build a clearer picture of the lives of ancient inhabitants in large centers such as Shahr-i-Sokhta, Shahdad, and Konar Sandal, near today's modern city of Jiroft. Pittman now believes these people of eastern Iran shared common ideas and beliefs while also participating in the first age of long-distance exchange.
    Female deities with vegetation growing out of their bodies are one common element on the seals found in eastern Iran and, as on the Shahdad flag, figures confronting one another also appear Lasting Impression frequently. A distinctive type of white stone seals that have been found in Central Asia and the Indus appear to have been made in a similar style by eastern Iranians. "There are relationships between sites, and certainly this part of eastern Iran is participating in a global network," she says. "This is a world of merchants and traders."
    Pittman believes that by early in the third millennium B.C., the network linking Mesopotamia and southeastern Iran resulted in a mixing of cultures across this enormous area. Seals that were used to close storage rooms in Konar Sandal, for example, are of a specific Mesopotamian type common in the major Iraqi port of Ur. That hints strongly at the presence of Mesopotamian inhabitants in Konar Sandal who had almost certainly come from Ur. She also suggests that Mesopotamian artifacts absorbed style elements from southeastern Iran. Another example is the famous inlaid lyre found at Ur, which has the face of a bearded bull typical of eastern Iran. Other seals found in ruins such as Konar Sandal are Proto-Elamite in style, showing strong connections with western and central Iran, where the Proto-Elamite writing system is believed to have originated at the same time that Mesopotamian urban life began to flourish in the late fourth millennium B.C.
    Seals were powerful markers of economic, political, and social clout. At some eastern Iranian sites such as Shahr-i-Sokhta, they appear to have been largely in the hands of women. Marta Ameri, an archaeologist at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York, notes that two-thirds of the seals found in Shahr-i-Sokhta's graves are found in female burials. While the grander bronze seals are uncovered mostly in male tombs, the more common bone seals are more often associated with women. Based on remains of sealings made to doors, vases, bags, and other objects, the bone seals were in more frequent use than the bronze. This suggests, Ameri says, that women were in control of food storage and possibly trade goods as well. Until more intact graves are found at other sites such as Shahdad, "we at least have a tantalizing look at the roles women may have played," says Ameri.
    Andrew Lawler is a contributing editor at ARCHAEOLOGY. For our 1975 coverage of the excavations at Shahr-i-Sokhta, see
    Retour au fascicule Cultural relationships beyond the Iranian plateau: the Helmand civilization, Baluchistan and the Indus Valley in the 3rd millennium BCE
      Année 2008  Volume 34  Numéro 2  pp. 5-35

    Our 1975 coverage of the excavations at Shahr-i-Sokhta, Iran
    The ruins of Shahr-i Sokhta, an ancient Bronze Age town, are situated in the Sistan region of southeast Iran near the Afghan-Iranian border. This settlement, which flourished for more than a thousand years between the end of the fourth and the beginning of the second millennium B.C., reached the peak of its prosperity as a center of trade and raw materials around 2700-2600 B.C. Its decline was a consequence of localized environmental changes which began at the beginning of the second millennium B.C. with the drying up of the Hilmand River delta upon which the town rose. Indeed, not just the town by the entire southern portion of the Sistan region was gradually abandoned, and today Shahr-i Sokhta comprises the largest group of ruins in a territory measuring some 1,200 square kilometers along the course of the ancient delta between Chagar Burjak and Hauzdar.
    For more of our 1975 coverage of the excavations at Shahr-i-Sokhta, Iran, click to download PDF (9.7 MB).

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    I suggest that Arachosia < Haraxvaitī- < सरस्वती (R̥gveda) is the Sarasvati Vedic River Basin, Meluhha speakers moved westwards to Drangiana which is Śakasthāna. Both the regions constituted the region of Meluhha speakers of Sarasvati Civilization, from ca. 8th millennium BCE and constituted the underlying speech for mlecchita vikalpa (Meluhha Indus Script cipher). The migrations of people from Kurukshetra (Sarasvati Basin) isattested in Baudhāyana Śrautasūtra.
    The presence of Meluhha settlements in Ancient Near East is attested in cuneiform texts. this finds confirmation in an ancient text.

    Baudhāyana śrautasūtra 18.44 which documents migrations of Āyu and Amavasu from a central region:
    pran Ayuh pravavraja. tasyaite Kuru-Pancalah Kasi-Videha ity. etad Ayavam pravrajam. pratyan amavasus. tasyaite Gandharvarayas Parsavo ‘ratta ity. etad Amavasavam
    Trans. Ayu went east, his is the Yamuna-Ganga region (Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha). Amavasu went west, his is Gandhara, Parsu and Araṭṭa.
    Ayu went east from Kurukshetra to Kuru-Pancala, Kasi-Videha. The  migratory path of Meluhha artisand in the lineage of Ayu of the Rigvedic tradition, to Kasi-Videha certainly included the very ancient temple town of Sheorajpur of Dist. Etawah (Kanpur), Uttar Pradesh. See:

    I suggest that the Meluhha word for aloe, 'eagle wood' and cognates in Hebrew, affirms the wesward migrations detailed in Baudhāyana Śrautasūtra:
    Periplus maris Erythaei, 37, 39, 49 refers to sailors bring bdellium from Gedrosia and India. (cf. Lassen, Indische Alterthumskunde, I, 289 f. 530,iii,43 Ta. akil (in cpds. akiṛ-) eagle-wood, Aquilaria agallocha; the drug agar obtained from the tree; akku eagle-wood. Ma. akil aloe wood, A. agallocha. Ka. agil the balsam tree which yields bdelliumAmyris agallocha; the dark species of Agallochum; fragrance. Tu. agilů a kind of tree; kari agilů Agallochum. / Cf. Skt. aguru-, agaru-; Pali akalu, akaḷu, agaru, agalu, agaḷu; Turner, CDIAL, no. 49. (DEDR 13) agaru m.n. ʻ fragrant Aloe -- tree and wood, Aquilaria agallocha ʼ lex., aguru -- R. [← Drav. Mayrhofer EWA i 17 with lit.] Pa. agalu -- , aggalu -- m., akalu -- m. ʻ a partic. ointment ʼ; Pk. agaru -- , agaluya -- , agaru(a) -- m.n. ʻ Aloe -- tree and wood ʼ; K. agara -- kāth ʻ sandal -- wood ʼ; S. agaru m. ʻ aloe ʼ, P. N. agar m., A. B. agaru, Or. agarū, H. agaragur m.; G. agaragru n. ʻ aloe or sandal -- wood ʼ; M. agar m.n. ʻ aloe ʼ, Si. ayal (agil ← Tam. akil).. (CDIAL 49)

    aloe is said to derive from the Hebrew ahal אהל: O.E. aluwan (pl.) "fragrant resin of an E. Indian tree," a Biblical usage, from L. aloe, from Gk. aloe, translating Heb. ahalim (pl., perhaps ult. from a Dravidian language). The Gk. word probably was chosen for resemblance of sound to the Heb., since the Gk. and L. words originally referred to a genus of plants with bitter juice, used as a purgative drug, a sense which appeared in Eng. 1398. The word was then mis-applied to the American agave plant in 1682. "So perhaps there were two similar words - one Semitic, one from Sanskrit. Both ended up as ahal (in Hebrew) or aloe (in English - eventually)."
    सरस्वती [p= 1182,3] N. of a river (celebrated in RV. and held to be a goddess whose identity is much disputed ; most authorities hold that the name सरस्वती is identical with the Avestan Haraquaiti river in Afghanistan , but that it usually means the Indus in the RV. , and only occasionally the small sacred rivers in मध्य-देश [see below] ; the river-goddess has seven sisters and is herself sevenfold , she is called the mother of streams , the best of mothers , of rivers , and of goddesses ; the ऋषिs always recognize the connection of the goddess with the river , and invoke her to descend from the sky , to bestow vitality , renown , and riches ; elsewhere she is described as moving along a golden path and as destroying वृत्र &c ; as a goddess she is often connected with other deities e.g. with पूषन् , इन्द्र , the मरुत्s and the अश्विन्s ; in the आप्री hymns she forms a triad with the sacrificial goddesses इडा and भारती ; a myth told in the VS. xix , 12 , सरस्वती through speech [वाचा] communicated vigour to इन्द्र ; in the ब्राह्मणs she is identified with वाच् , " Speech " , and in later times becomes goddess of eloquence » below) RV. &c (Monier-Williams)

    Gedrosia is Makran: "Inhabitation of Gwadar, like most areas of Balochistan, appears to be ancient. The area shows inhabitation as early as the bronze age with settlements around some of the area's oases. It is from this settlement pattern that word Makran, the original name of Balochistan, is derived. For a period, it was a region of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. It is believed to have been conquered by the founder of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great. The capital of the satrapy of Gedrosia was Pura, which is thought to have been located near the modern Bampūr, in Iranian Balochistan. During the homeward march of Alexander the Great, his admiralNearchus, led a fleet along the modern-day Makran coast and recorded that the area was dry, mountainous, and inhabited by the "Ichthyophagoi" (or "fish eaters"), an ancient Greek rendering of the ancient Persian phrase "Mahi khoran," which has itself become the modern word "Makran".[15] After the collapse of Alexander's empire the area was ruled by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander's generals. The region then came under Mauryan rule around 303 BCE, after Seleucus made peace with Emperor Chandraguptaand ceded the territory to the Mauryans.
    Arachosia bordered Drangiana to the west, Paropamisadae (i.e. Gandahara) to the north, a part of ancient India to the east, and Gedrosia (or Dexendrusi) to the south. Drangiana refers to Śakastana  शक--स्थान [p= 1045,3] name of a country (Monier-Williams) Śaka are mentioned in ākhyāna historical narratioves in contests between वसिष्ठ and विश्वामित्र. The शकs are fabled to have been produced by the Cow of वसिष्ठ , from her sweat , for the destruction of विश्वामित्र's army ; in Mn. x , 44; they are mentioned together with the पौण्ड्रकs , ओड्रs , द्रविडs , काम्बोजs , जवनs or यवनs , पारदs , पह्लवs , चीनs , किरातs , दरदs , and खशs , described by Kull. as क्षत्रियs called after the districts in which they reside: according to the VP. iv , 3.They are sometimes regarded as the followers of शक or शालि-वाहन , and are probably to be identified with the Tartars or Indo-Scythians [Lat. Sacae] conquered by  विक्रमा*दित्य (AV.Paris3. Mn. MBh. &c). शकm. a kind of animal Pan5car. (v.l. शलm. a kind of animal Pan5car. (accord. to L. " a camel " or " an ass "). Since śaka is a synonym of śala, śaka era is a synonym for śālivāhana शालि-वाहन.

    विक्रमा* दित्य N. of a celebrated Hindu king (of उज्जयिनी and supposed founder of the [मालव-] विक्रम era [cf.संवत्] , which begins 58 B.C.E [but subtract 57-56 from an expired year of the विक्रम era to convert it into C.E.] ; he is said to have driven out the शकs and to have reigned over almost the whole of Northern India ; he is represented as a great patron of literature ; nine celebrated men are said to have flourished at his court [see नव-रत्न] , and innumerable legends are related of him all teeming with exaggerations ; according to some he fell in a battle with his rival शालि-वाहन , king of the south country or Deccan , and the legendary date given for his death is कलि-युग 3044 [which really is the epoch-year of the विक्रम era] ; there are , however , other kings called विक्रमा*दित्य , and the name has been applied to king भोज and even to शालि-वाहन)Inscr. Katha1s. Vet. &c.
    In a well-documented and logically argued monograph, Vedveer Arya suggest a date for the saka era. "Since the calendar of Saka era was Chaitradi and amanta, the epoch of the Śaka era must have commenced on 19th Feb 583 BCE. 

    "Arachosia" is the Latinized form of Greek Ἀραχωσία - Arachōsíā. "The same region appears in the Avestan Vidēvdāt (1.12) under the indigenous dialect form Haraxvaitī- (whose -axva- is typical non-Avestan)."[1] In Old Persian inscriptions, the region is referred to as 𐏃𐎼𐎢𐎺𐎫𐎡𐏁, written h(a)-r(a)-u-v(a)-t-i.[1] This form is the "etymological equivalent" of Vedic Sanskrit Sarasvatī-, the name of a river literally meaning "rich in waters/lakes" and derived from sáras- "lake, pond."(cf. Aredvi Sura Anahita).
    "Arachosia" was named after the name of a river that runs through it, in Greek Arachōtós, today known as the Arghandab, a left bank tributary of the Helmand.( Schmitt, Rüdiger (August 10, 2011). "Arachosia". Encyclopædia Iranica.)
    Gedrosia (/ɪˈdrʒə/; Greek: Γεδρωσία) is the Hellenized name of the part of coastal Baluchistan that roughly corresponds to today's Makran. 
    Jiroft Civilization covered parts of Sistan and Kerman Province (possibly as early as the 3rd millennium BCE)..
    The gates of Haozdar, in Sistan (Persian/Baloch/Pashtoسیستان), known in ancient times as Sakastan (Persian/Baloch/Pashto: ساكاستان; "the land of the Saka"), is a historical and geographical region in present-day eastern Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province), southern Afghanistan
    (NimruzKandahar) and the Nok Kundi region of Balochistan (western Pakistan).
    The approximate extent of Eastern Iranian languages and people in Middle Iranian times in the 1st century BCE is shown in orange
    'Gorytos' from the Tomb of Philip
    Gold 'gorytos' (quiver-and-bow-case) with repousse representation of the capture of a city, from the Tomb of Philip second half of 4th century BC, Thessaloniki, Archaeological Museum.
    saka or Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the Kul-Oba kurgan burial near Kerch, Crimea. The warrior on the right strings his bow, bracing it behind his knee; note the typical pointed hood, long jacket with fur or fleece trimming at the edges, decorated trousers, and short boots tied at the ankle. Scythians apparently wore their hair long and loose, and all adult men apparently bearded. The gorytos appears clearly on the left hip of the bare-headed spearman. The shield of the central figure may be made of plain leather over a wooden or wicker base. (Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg)
    Skunkha, king of the Sakā tigraxaudā ("pointed-cap-wearing Sakae"). Detail of Behistun Inscription.
    Sakas were a Scythian tribe which from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century migrated to the Iranian Plateau and India, where they carved a kingdom known as the Indo-Scythian KingdomThe Scythians (/ˈsɪθi.ən/ or /ˈsɪði.ən/; from Ancient GreekΣκύθαι), also known as ScythsSakaSakaeSacaeSaiIskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of IranianEurasian nomads who were mentioned by nearby literate peoples as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.[5] The Scythian languages belonged to the Eastern branch of the Iranian languages.
    Saka migrated into northwest area of India, attested by a contemporary Kharosthi inscription found on the Mathura lion capital belonging to the Saka kingdom of the Indo-Scythians (200 BC – 400 CE) in northern India,.. In the Persian language of contemporary Iran the territory of Drangiana was called Sakastāna, in Armenian as Sakastan, with similar equivalents in Pahlavi, Greek, Sogdian, Syriac, Arabic, and the Middle Persian tongue used in Turfan, Xinjiang, China. (Bailey, H.W. (1996) "Khotanese Saka Literature", in Ehsan Yarshater (ed), The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol III: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian Periods, Part 2 (reprint edition), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 1230–1231.)
    Silver coin of Indo-Scythian King Azes II (ruled c. 35–12 BC). Left field on the reverse shows the srivatsa hypertext which also appears on Sanchi and Bharhut stupa toraa-s to signify Indus Script hypertext: ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage; PLUS dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope; dāya'dotted circledhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻa particular soft red ore'. Rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelter',Thus, together vākyārtha, meaning of sentence of hypertexts on the coin -- as a Meluhha expression -- is: mineral ore, alloy metal mint, iron smelter.
    Sakastan ("the land of the Saka")> Sistan > Saka > Elamite (Sir-ra-an-qa > Old Persian z-r-k (i.e., Zranka) > Sarangian > Zarangian > Drangiana
    "DRANGIANA (or Zarangiana), territory around Lake Hāmūn and the Helmand river in modern Sīstān. The name of the country and its inhabitants is first attested as Old Persian z-r-k (i.e., Zranka)in the great Bīsotūn iii inscription of Darius I (col. I l. 16), apparently the original Herodotus’ tribute list (3.93.2) the Sarangians, Sagartians, Thamanaeans, Utians, Mycians (i.e., all the peoples living in the lands extending from the Iranian central desert through Baluchistan to the Persian Gulf), and neighboring islanders were included in the fourteenth tax district, required to pay the relatively high amount of 600 talents annually. " (
    The ancient Arachosia and the Pactyan people during 500 BCE.

    With the evidence of Indus Script Cipher now available, it is possible to reconstruct CC Lamberg-Karlovsky's sequencing of metallurgical techniques in the Meluhha neighbourhood can be correlated with the evidence from deciphered Indus Script Corpora.

    “The available evidence for a metallurgical development in India and Pakistan indicates an early connection with Iran. There the site of Tepe Sialk, where a sequence of developing metallurgical techniques can be placed in a context of successive levels, provides one of the first examples of a developing metal technology. Copper objects of Period I, dated to around 4800 BCE were produced by simple cold-hammering, as were those throughout Period II. In Period III, dated to around 3250 BCE, copper objects were manufactured in open molds; Period III provides the first evidence for the use of closed molds. In Period IV smelting processes are evident, as well as the development of cire perdue techniques…Excavations at Tal-i-Iblis in the Mashiz Valley have uncovered crucibles that on analysis suggest the presence of the earliest-known smelting operations, dated to ca. 4000 BCE…The achievement of copper-tin alloying appears for the first time at Mundigak in Level III (axe with 5% tin); unalloyed copper implements and fragments, however, appear from the start in almost every level. Mundigak provides us with the earliest known metal in this area and suggests a date of ca. 3100 BCE for the inception of a metallurgy in Afghanistan…In Period I at Mundigak the humped bull is introduced, together with Amri influences in pottery and architecture. These influences coincide with the initial presence of metal at Amri in the earliest levels, Dales’s Phase D, which suggests the introduction of metls at Amri from Mundigak…The pipal leaf motif introduced in Period III continues in use; it appears, however, to be purely an Indian motif. A mouflon-headed pin with slightly widened shaft head is similar to those of Hissar II. A concave disc assigned to this period may have been used as a mirror; it also finds its parallel at Hissar...Tin must have been one of the many consumable imports traded for, overland and by sea. The presence of tin, as well as copper, ingots is well attested for at Harappa and at Chanhudaro copper-tin bronze ingots in alloy form have been found…In Baluchistan…rich copper deposits occur at Shah Bellaul and at Robat, where there is evidence of prehistoric (undated) copper smelting operations. Large quantities of slag noticed in many prehistoric sites in southern Seistan suggest that copper was also locally available in this region. Deposits also occur in the Ros Kuh and Kojak Amran Range. Rich veins of copper ore exist in the Shah Maksud Range in Afghanistan, as well as at Kalel Zeri and Anarek in Iran; at both sites there is extensive evidence for prehistoric copper-working. In India, copper mines near Rohira in Sirohi State and near Mewar, Khetri, and Singhana, in the Jaipur State, are believed to have been worked in prehistoric (undated) times. Other important copper deposits are known from Singhbhum in Bihar, Orissa, from Rupavati in the Amreli District, and from Indore...The Indus seals found at Ur and the Akkadian period of occupation at Tell Asmar provide a link with the centers of Mesopotamian metallurgy, while unmistakable proof of contact with Bahrain and other Persian Gulf islands is found at Lothal. By the late third millennium copper was being exported into Mesopotamia from Magan and Meluhha, mentioned in cuneiform texts and perhaps Persian Gulf centers; and during the reign of the Larsa kings, the deposits of Dilmun (Bahrein?) were being tapped. In return for this ore, Lothal must have provided ivory, chank shell, stone beads, and cotton.

    ”(ibid., pp.145-151).

    The humped bull, pipal leaf and mouflon (together with attacking feline) are Indus Script hypertexts signifying:

    1.       1. pōḷa ‘zebu, bos indicus’ rebus: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrite ore’;

    2.       2. loa ‘ficus glomerata’ rebus: loh ‘copper’;

    3.       3. Mouflon, ram, ibex, markhor 1.ram मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup.(Marathi) me'iron' (Mundari. Remo.) (See copper pin with an animal head, mouflon? ram?)

    4. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'.

    Animal headed pin on Harappa artifact (Figure 8):

    Hero Grasping Bull and Mouflon Menaced by a Lion Attacked by a Second Hero Cylinder seal and impression Mesopotamia, Early Dynastic II period (ca. 2750–2600 B.C.EMarble  28 x 24 mm Seal no. 52 "The heros in the contests often, as in 52, wear flat caps as well as skirts tucked up above the knee to provide freedom of movement. The fact that in a contemporaneous limestone inlay from Kish a king is similarly attired shows that such caps and skirts were characteristic of the Second Early Dynastic period." . Porada, CANES, p. 9-10

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    Indus Script Corpora decipherment validates CC Lamberg-Karlovsky's 1967 thesis of metallurgical technology of Ancient India. Lamberg-Karlovsky's is a succinct account of Meluhha speakers' metallurgical competence.

    With the evidence of Indus Script Cipher now available, it is possible to reconstruct CC Lamberg-Karlovsky's (1967 thesis) sequencing of and succinct account of metallurgical techniques & products in the Meluhha neighbourhood can be correlated with the evidence from deciphered Indus Script Corpora.

    “The available evidence for a metallurgical development in India and Pakistan indicates an early connection with Iran. There the site of Tepe Sialk, where a sequence of developing metallurgical techniques can be placed in a context of successive levels, provides one of the first examples of a developing metal technology. Copper objects of Period I, dated to around 4800 BCE were produced by simple cold-hammering, as were those throughout Period II. In Period III, dated to around 3250 BCE, copper objects were manufactured in open molds; Period III provides the first evidence for the use of closed molds. In Period IV smelting processes are evident, as well as the development of cire perdue techniques…Excavations at Tal-i-Iblis in the Mashiz Valley have uncovered crucibles that on analysis suggest the presence of the earliest-known smelting operations, dated to ca. 4000 BCE…The achievement of copper-tin alloying appears for the first time at Mundigak in Level III (axe with 5% tin); unalloyed copper implements and fragments, however, appear from the start in almost every level. Mundigak provides us with the earliest known metal in this area and suggests a date of ca. 3100 BCE for the inception of a metallurgy in Afghanistan…In Period I at Mundigak the humped bull is introduced, together with Amri influences in pottery and architecture. These influences coincide with the initial presence of metal at Amri in the earliest levels, Dales’s Phase D, which suggests the introduction of metls at Amri from Mundigak…The pipal leaf motif introduced in Period III continues in use; it appears, however, to be purely an Indian motif. A mouflon-headed pin with slightly widened shaft head is similar to those of Hissar II. A concave disc assigned to this period may have been used as a mirror; it also finds its parallel at Hissar...Tin must have been one of the many consumable imports traded for, overland and by sea. The presence of tin, as well as copper, ingots is well attested for at Harappa and at Chanhudaro copper-tin bronze ingots in alloy form have been found…In Baluchistan…rich copper deposits occur at Shah Bellaul and at Robat, where there is evidence of prehistoric (undated) copper smelting operations. Large quantities of slag noticed in many prehistoric sites in southern Seistan suggest that copper was also locally available in this region. Deposits also occur in the Ros Kuh and Kojak Amran Range. Rich veins of copper ore exist in the Shah Maksud Range in Afghanistan, as well as at Kalel Zeri and Anarek in Iran; at both sites there is extensive evidence for prehistoric copper-working. In India, copper mines near Rohira in Sirohi State and near Mewar, Khetri, and Singhana, in the Jaipur State, are believed to have been worked in prehistoric (undated) times. Other important copper deposits are known from Singhbhum in Bihar, Orissa, from Rupavati in the Amreli District, and from Indore...The Indus seals found at Ur and the Akkadian period of occupation at Tell Asmar provide a link with the centers of Mesopotamian metallurgy, while unmistakable proof of contact with Bahrain and other Persian Gulf islands is found at Lothal. By the late third millennium copper was being exported into Mesopotamia from Magan and Meluhha, mentioned in cuneiform texts and perhaps Persian Gulf centers; and during the reign of the Larsa kings, the deposits of Dilmun (Bahrein?) were being tapped. In return for this ore, Lothal must have provided ivory, chank shell, stone beads, and cotton...A great diversity of copper and bronze objects have been found in all Indus Civilisation sites. These include Harappa, Mohenjodaro, and Chanhudaro, as well as many of the newer sites discovered in Gujarat and Sind, as far as Kalibangan. Those objects that appear most abundantly and are readily identifiable are: flat axes, chisels, fishhooks, bracelets, arrow- and spearheads, razors, knives, kohl sticks, mirrors, and saws…Analysis has shown, though, that the Indus metallurgists did  add tin to copper, thereby deliberately producing the alloy bronze…Through the objects recovered from the Indus sites, the techniques of hammering, alloying, raising, hollowing, sinking, open- and close-mold casting, cire Perdue, riveting, lapping, soldering, and ‘running on’ are known to have been practiced.”(ibid., pp.145-152).

    The humped bull, pipal leaf and mouflon (together with attacking feline) are Indus Script hypertexts signifying:

    1.       1. pōḷa ‘zebu, bos indicus’ rebus: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrite ore’;

    2.       2. loa ‘ficus glomerata’ rebus: loh ‘copper’;

    3.       3. Mouflon, ram, ibex, markhor 1. ram मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] m (मेष S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup.(Marathi) me 'iron' (Mundari. Remo.) (See copper pin with an animal head, mouflon? ram?)

    4. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'.

    Animal headed pin on Harappa artifact (Figure 8):


    Hero Grasping Bull and Mouflon Menaced by a Lion Attacked by a Second Hero Cylinder seal and impression Mesopotamia, Early Dynastic II period (ca. 2750–2600 B.C.EMarble  28 x 24 mm Seal no. 52 "The heros in the contests often, as in 52, wear flat caps as well as skirts tucked up above the knee to provide freedom of movement. The fact that in a contemporaneous limestone inlay from Kish a king is similarly attired shows that such caps and skirts were characteristic of the Second Early Dynastic period." . Porada, CANES, p. 9-10
    Image result for ficus glomerata bharatkalyan97
    Ficus leaf as a ligaturing hieroglyph to create a hypertext of Indus Script.Example of copper tablet, Mohenjo-daro. kamar.kom'ficus' (Santali) rebus: kamaṭa 'portable furnace' kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.
    Image result for black drongo zebu nausharo pot
    Ceramic from Nausharo showing transition from Early to Mature Phase of Sarasvati Civilization (Image after Jarrige, J.F., 1989, Excavations at Nausharo )
    Image result for pola zebu bharatkalyan97A zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat. No. 8.


    pōlaḍu, rebus pōlaḍ  'steel'పసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu perched on pōḷa

    When a zebu, bos indicus, appears on pots as an inscribed hieroglyph – as at Nausharo --, the message is clear: the rebus-metonymy signifier points to poLa ‘zebu, bull dedicated to the gods’ Rebus: poLa ‘magnetite’. 
    Hieroglyph: पोळ [pōḷa] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. பொலியெருது poli-y-erutu , n. < பொலி- +. 1. Bull kept for covering; பசுக்களைச் சினையாக்குதற் பொருட்டு வளர்க்கப்படும் காளை. (பிங்.) கொடிய பொலியெருதை யிருமூக்கிலும் கயி றொன்று கோத்து (அறப். சத. 42). 2. The leading ox in treading out grain on a threshing-floor; களத்துப் பிணையல்மாடுகளில் முதற்செல்லுங் கடா. (W.) பொலி முறைநாகு poli-muṟai-nāku, n. < பொலி + முறை +. Heifer fit for covering; பொலியக்கூடிய பக்குவமுள்ள கிடாரி. (S. I. I. iv, 102.) Rebus: cattle festival: पोळा [ pōḷā ] m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. "Pola is a bull-worshipping festival celebrated by farmers mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra (especially among the Kunbis). On the day of Pola, the farmers decorate and worship their bulls. Pola falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (the new moon day) in the month of Shravana (usually in August). Festival held on the day after Sankranti ( = kANum) is called pōlāla paNDaga (Telugu).

    Rebus: पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'magnetite', ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4 (Asuri)

    kokkolha 'leopard' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter'. kul ‘tiger’ (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha — m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ, °lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā, °lā m. krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu — m. Pāṇ. [√kruś] Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka — and kotthu -- , °uka — m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. koṭṭhu — m.; Si. koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42 (CDIAL 3615). कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pañcaloha’ (Ta.) 

    dāˊman1 ʻ rope ʼ RV. 2. *dāmana -- , dāmanī -- f. ʻ long rope to which calves are tethered ʼ Hariv. 3. *dāmara -- .[*dāmara -- is der. fr. n/r n. stem. -- √2] 1. Pa. dāma -- , inst. °mēna n. ʻ rope, fetter, garland ʼ, Pk. dāma -- n.; Wg. dām ʻ rope, thread, bandage ʼ; Tir. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Paš.lauṛ. dām ʻ thick thread ʼ, gul. dūm ʻ net snare ʼ (IIFL iii 3, 54 ← Ind. or Pers.); Shum. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Sh.gil. (Lor.) dōmo ʻ twine, short bit of goat's hair cord ʼ, gur. dōm m. ʻ thread ʼ (→ Ḍ. dōṅ ʻ thread ʼ); K. gu -- dômu m. ʻ cow's tethering rope ʼ; P. dã̄udāvã̄ m. ʻ hobble for a horse ʼ; WPah.bhad. daũ n. ʻ rope to tie cattle ʼ, bhal. daõ m., jaun. dã̄w; A. dāmā ʻ peg to tie a buffalo -- calf to ʼ; B. dāmdāmā ʻ cord ʼ; Or. duã̄ ʻ tether ʼ, dāĩ ʻ long tether to which many beasts are tied ʼ; H. dām m.f. ʻ rope, string, fetter ʼ, dāmā m. ʻ id., garland ʼ; G. dām n. ʻ tether ʼ, M. dāvẽ n.; Si. dama ʻ chain, rope ʼ, (SigGr) dam ʻ garland ʼ. -- Ext. in Paš.dar. damaṭāˊ°ṭīˊ, nir. weg. damaṭék ʻ rope ʼ, Shum. ḍamaṭik, Woṭ. damṓṛ m., Sv. dåmoṛīˊ; -- with -- ll -- : N. dāmlo ʻ tether for cow ʼ, dã̄walidāũlidāmli ʻ bird -- trap of string ʼ, dã̄waldāmal ʻ coeval ʼ (< ʻ tied together ʼ?); M. dã̄vlī f. ʻ small tie -- rope ʼ.2. Pk. dāvaṇa -- n., dāmaṇī -- f. ʻ tethering rope ʼ; S. ḍ̠āvaṇuḍ̠āṇu m. ʻ forefeet shackles ʼ, ḍ̠āviṇīḍ̠āṇī f. ʻ guard to support nose -- ring ʼ; L. ḍã̄vaṇ m., ḍã̄vaṇīḍāuṇī (Ju. ḍ̠ -- ) f. ʻ hobble ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ strip at foot of bed, triple cord of silk worn by women on head ʼ, awāṇ. dāvuṇ ʻ picket rope ʼ; P. dāuṇdauṇ, ludh. daun f. m. ʻ string for bedstead, hobble for horse ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ gold ornament worn on woman's forehead ʼ; Ku. dauṇo m., °ṇī f. ʻ peg for tying cattle to ʼ, gng. dɔ̃ṛ ʻ place for keeping cattle, bedding for cattle ʼ; A. dan ʻ long cord on which a net or screen is stretched, thong ʼ, danā ʻ bridle ʼ; B. dāmni ʻ rope ʼ; Or. daaṇa ʻ string at the fringe of a casting net on which pebbles are strung ʼ,dāuṇi ʻ rope for tying bullocks together when threshing ʼ; H. dāwan m. ʻ girdle ʼ, dāwanī f. ʻ rope ʼ, dã̄wanī f. ʻ a woman's orna<->ment ʼ; G. dāmaṇḍā° n. ʻ tether, hobble ʼ, dāmṇũ n. ʻ thin rope, string ʼ, dāmṇī f. ʻ rope, woman's head -- ornament ʼ; M. dāvaṇ f. ʻ picket -- rope ʼ. -- Words denoting the act of driving animals to tread out corn are poss. nomina actionis from *dāmayati2. 3. L. ḍãvarāvaṇ, (Ju.) ḍ̠ã̄v° ʻ to hobble ʼ; A. dāmri ʻ long rope for tying several buffalo -- calves together ʼ, Or. daũ̈rādaürā ʻ rope ʼ; Bi.daũrī ʻ rope to which threshing bullocks are tied, the act of treading out the grain ʼ, Mth. dã̄mardaũraṛ ʻ rope to which the bullocks are tied ʼ; H. dã̄wrī f. ʻ id., rope, string ʼ, dãwrī f. ʻ the act of driving bullocks round to tread out the corn ʼ. -- X *dhāgga<-> q.v. *dāmayati2; *dāmakara -- , *dāmadhāra -- ; uddāma -- , prōddāma -- ; *antadāmanī -- , *galadāman -- , *galadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāman -- , *gōḍḍadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāmara -- .dāmán -- 2 m. (f.?) ʻ gift ʼ RV. [√1]. See dāˊtu -- . *dāmana -- ʻ rope ʼ see dāˊman -- 1.Addenda: dāˊman -- 1. 1. Brj. dã̄u m. ʻ tying ʼ. 3. *dāmara -- : Brj. dã̄wrī f. ʻ rope ʼ.(CDIAL 6283)*dāmayati2 ʻ ties with a rope ʼ. [dāˊman -- 1] Bi. dã̄wab ʻ to drive bullocks trading out grain ʼ, H. dāwnādã̄nā; G. dāmvũ ʻ to tie with a cord ʼ. -- Nomina actionis from this verb rather than derived directly from dāˊman -- 1, dāmanī -- (but cf. Bi. daũrī < *dāmara<-> denoting both ʻ rope ʼ and nomen actionis): N. (Tarai)dāuni ʻ threshing ʼ, Bi. daunī ʻ treading out corn ʼ, Mth. dāuni; -- Ku. daĩ f. ʻ driving oxen or buffaloes to tread out grain ʼ, N. dāĩdã̄i, Bi.dawã̄hī, Mth. damāhī; H. dāẽ f. ʻ tying a number of bullocks together for treading corn, the treading out, the unthreshed corn. ʼ -- S. ḍ̠āiṇu ʻ to shackle the forelegs ʼ and P. dāuṇā ʻ to hobble horse oṛ ass ʼ rather < *dāyayati.(CDIAL 6285)

    Rebus: 'smelter': M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773) 

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    Debunking myths about history 4 Oct. 2017

    Western history was written exclusively by Christian priests, who wanted to convert the entire world to Christianity. A sustained debate is needed to expose the lack of evidence for churchified history

    One often hears about the saffronisataion of history but never about its churchification. However, for some 1,500 years, Western history was written exclusively by Christian priests. Their stated goal was to convert the whole world to Christianity. Did they speak about the unbiased truth of history? Hardly.

    The first church historian, Eusebius, extravagantly glorified the Roman emperor, Constantine the Great, who enabled the church to marry the state —  a marriage which swelled the coffers of the church. To enforce a profitable monopoly, the Christians waged a war against the surviving ‘pagans’; they burnt down the Great Library of Alexandria.  The next church historian, Orosius, wrote during this religious war. The very title of his book, History Against the Pagans, shows it was a war propaganda. He constantly belittled and denigrated ‘pagans’.

    This became the model of future church history, glorifying itself and denigrating all ‘others’. With the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate, Constantinople (Istanbul) became a tributary of Baghdad, which invested heavily in knowledge, gathering it from all parts of the world, especially India and China. The Baghdad Bayt-al-Hikma seeded a culture of books, and huge libraries sprouted across the Islamic world from Timbuctoo to Tashkent. 

    Many of these Arabic books were translated into Byzantine Greek, in Istanbul. The translators (all priests of the Greek church) injected their chauvinism into the translated texts, planting stray remarks, attributing authorship to Greek names, real or imaginary. Few people are aware that unlike the Rhind papyrus, or Iraqi clay tablets, there are no original Greek sources for the purported achievements of Euclid, Archimedes, Claudius Ptolemy, etc.

    Unlike also the Indian case, there is no continuous chain of intermediate commentaries which reproduce the original in full. The ‘evidence’ for claims of Greek scientific achievements comes from stray remarks in discontinuous and late Byzantine Greek texts from over a thousand years after the purported event. In fact, we do not actually have even those ‘early’ Byzantine Greek sources (which are only a thousand years late) but only purported copies and translations of them from several centuries later.

    This method of falsifying history by attributing all early knowledge to Greeks turned virulent during the Crusades. Militarily the Crusades (after the first) were failures. A key reason for this failure, as reported by Christian spies like Adelard of Bath, was that the Christians were deficient in knowledge compared to Muslims. Hence, the church now sought knowledge from Muslims. An opportunity arose when Toledo fell, and its huge library of Arabic books came under Christian control. But the church dithered. Why?
    The earlier church policy was to burn non-Christian books as heretical. But now it wanted to learn from the books of the religious enemy. That too during a religious war! Therefore, an excuse had to be invented to make the translations of Arabic books seem theologically correct.

    It was claimed that all secular knowledge in Arabic books was an exact replica of what the early Greeks did. Since there were no early Greek sources, this claim was faith-based. It is contrary to commonsense that a scientific text would stay unchanged for a thousand years. But evidence or commonsense did not matter to the church, what mattered was that Eusebius had declared the early Greeks as the (sole) “friends of Christians”.  Hence, attributing the source of knowledge to early Greeks made it a Christian inheritance! This flimsy excuse of Greek origins enabled the mass translations of books in the Toledo library, though many of these books were nevertheless initially placed on the index.

    Such acts of faith are not history. As David Fowler, a leading expert on Greek mathematics, explained, the earliest source for Archimedes is a Byzantine Greek text supposedly from the ninth century. Alas, even that was lost! What we actually have is a 16th century Latin text asserted to be a translation of it, whereas it probably reflects 16th century. knowledge.  That is, all the evidence for Archimedes comes from a 16th century text in another language from another place, 1,800 years after the purported date of Archimedes!

    To call this ‘evidence’ is as fanciful as claiming that a modern text on aerodynamics in English, from London, is an exact replica of an unknown Sanskrit source from the third century CE! The fanciful ‘Archimedes palimpsest’ is hardly worth discussing.

    The Greeks could not have done science because they lacked sophistication in mathematics.  Thus, the Greek/Roman system of numeration was so primitive they had no systematic way to represent fractions. Hence, there was no way Archimedes could have done anything on the sphere and cylinder (as Egyptians did). This inability to work with precise fractions is seen also in the calendar. Though the Romans laughed at the Greek calends, and Julius Caesar reformed the calendar with great fanfare, the Julian calendar remained defective just because the Romans had no way to write the precise fraction (not 365 ¼ days) for the duration of the (tropical) year.

    This churchified history of Greek origins was later systematically promoted by racist historians who portrayed the Greeks (even from Alexandria in Africa) as white. Colonial historians further advanced it, linking the  ‘Hellenic’ civilisation to the West. This claim facilitated colonial education: The filtered history written by losers in an earlier war, helped to consolidate colonial power. Those who wrote a biased version of history became victors. 
    We received this slanted history through colonial education, failing to see it was church education. It was intended to create a sense of inferiority among the colonised, whether Indians or blacks in Africa. Nevertheless, even 70 years after independence, we continue to glorify those mythical Greeks and their imagined achievements in our present-day school math texts from NCERT and various States. This false history is harmful in other subtle ways: Our entire teaching of math is premised on the false history of ‘Euclid’, and masks the demand to imitate church practices related to its theology of reason. 

    The colonised mind is comfortable with churchified history, even without evidence, but objects vociferously to any modification.  Our school texts must be changed, but enforcing a change is counter-productive. This results in a flip-flop in the school texts every time the Government changes. A sustained public debate is needed to expose the complete lack of evidence for churchified history.

    (The writer is an author)

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    The decipherment that jangaḍ -a high-frequency usage expression on Indus Script Corpora -- signifies 'wealth in treasury, accounting of mercantile transaction' provides a lead into the nature of corporate mercantile law enforced by a śreṇi, 'guild' of artisans/merchants of the Bronze Age. The wealth of goods produced by merchants are handled by कारणीक kāraṇīka, kāraṇī 'supercargo, representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale'. The goods and wealth generated are deposited in the treasury, constituting the 'commonwealth' of the śreṇi. The semantics of the expression jangaḍ expands to signify a 'fortification' which is evidenced by the citadels or high-wall fortifications found in hundreds of archaeological sites of the civilization. Many sites also evidence warehouses. The importance of the jangaḍ 'treasury' is also signified by the semantics of cognate etyma: sã̄gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ (M.)(CDIAL 12859)  سنګر sangar, s.m. (2nd) A breastwork of stones, etc., erected to close a pass or road; lines, entrenchments.(Pashto) જંગડિયો  jangaḍiyo  ‘military guard who accompanies treasure into the treasury’ (Gujarati)
    Image result for citadel fortification harappa
    Group of towers at the south-eastern corner of the Citadel, Mohenjo-daro
    Image result for citadel fortification harappa
    Mohenjo-daro Citadel Gateway Excavations
    Image result for citadel fortification harappa
    Citadel fortification wall at Harappa metropolis in Dholavira

    There are two distinctive hypertexts orthographed on Indus Script Corpora to signify treasure or wealth, mercantile transactions:

    1 . standard device generally in front of one-horned young bull
    2.  combined animals orthographed into hypertexts

    Both hypertexts are allographs and framed on the hieroglyph word sãgaḍ which means 'joined animals or animal parts' and sãgaḍ which means both lathe and portable furnace. 

    Thus, both categories -- standard device and combined animals -- signify sãgaḍ. 

    Hieroglyph  sãgaḍ is read rebus in Meluhha speech to signify Rebus 1. jangaḍ 'goods transported into the treasury, wealth, treasure; mercantile transaction' (hence,  jangaḍiyo means 'soldier guarding the treasure taken into the treasury'; this specific semantics suggests a possible early meaning for jangaḍ 'wealth in treasury; mercantile transaction'). Rebus 2. jangaḍ 'seafaring dhow'Rebus 3: sangaḍa 'a cargo boat'. Rebus 4: sangar̥h 'proclamation'. Rebus 5: sangar 'trade' Rebus 6: sangar'fortification'. A parallel rebus reading is provided by 'chain' hieroglyph: s. (Annex A. Note on chain hieroglyph on Indus Script Corpora 

    jangaḍ 'wealth in treasury' is further amplified in Ancient Bhāratīya tradition with the accounting standard signified by the word jangaḍ semantically expanded with meaning well-settled in Indian legal system to signify "Goods sent on approval or 'on sale or return'. (See:

    Annex B. )


    sãgaḍ f. ʻa body formed of two or more fruits or animals or men &c. linked together' (Marathi)(CDIAL 12859). This gloss sãgaḍ as a body of written or pictorial material of hieroglyphs (voiced in Meluhha speech) can be used to create a ciphertext with elements of enhanced cyber-security encryptions. This ciphertext can be called: Hieroglyphmultiplextext. Rebus 1: sãgaḍ māṇi 'alloying adamantine glue, सं-घात caravan standard' -- vajra saṁghāṭa in archaeometallurgy, deciphered in Indus Script Corpora. Enhanced encryption cyber-security. 

    सांगड [sāṅgaḍa]  That member of a turner's apparatus by which the piece to be turned is confined and steadied (Marathi) sanghāḍo (G.) cutting stone, gilding (G.) सांगडणी (p. 495) sāṅgaḍaṇī f (Verbal of सांगडणें) Linking or joining together.  सांगड (p. 495) sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S)That member of a turner's apparatus by which the piece to be turned is confined and steadied. सांगडीस धरणें To take into linkedness or close connection with, lit. fig. 

     sanghāa 'collection of words'; sangāṭh संगाठ् । सामग्री m. (sg. dat. sangāṭas संगाटस्), a collection (of implements, tools, materials, for any object), apparatus, furniture, a collection of the things wanted on a journey, luggage

    A glyph which occurs as frequently as the one-horned heifer is the 'standard device' in front of the heifer. 
    A hieroglyph with the most frequent occurrence on Indus Script Corpora. 

    Annex B. 

    saṅgaḍa 'gimlet, portable furnace'. Rebus: jāṅgaḍa जांगड 'goods on approval basis'. 

     sanghāa 'collection of words'; sangāṭh संगाठ् । सामग्री m. (sg. dat. sangāṭas संगाटस्), a collection (of implements, tools, materials, for any object), apparatus, furniture, a collection of the things wanted on a journey, luggage, and so on. -- karun -- करुन् । सामग्रीसंग्रहः m.inf. to collect the ab. Semant. in Samskritam for a phonetic variant attested in Ramayana: संघट् 1 Ā. To meet, assemble together. -Caus. 1 To join or fasten together, bring together. संघाटः Fitting and joining of timbers, joinery, carpentry; तौ काष्ठसंघाटमथो चक्रतुः सुमह्लाप्लवम् Rām.2. 55.14. This is an emphatic explanation of the semantics of the word as related to work of a turner working with a lathe on alloyed metals and stones.

    m0491 Banners shown in procession on two Mohenjo-daro tablets. See:

    This can be viewed as the standard of the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. This tablet Mohenjo-daro m0491 shows a person of three persons (There is another standard-bearer in front of the scarf-standard bearer; maybe, he is carrying a banner of a stone-bead) R. to L: one carries a post with a scarf hanging like a flag; the second carries a pedestal on which one-horned young bull calf is shown; the third carries a 'standard device' (lathe + furnace). On m0490 a fourth banner is hazily visible and may be reconstructed as 'spoked wheel', comparable to the banner shown on Tukulti-Ninurta I altar.
    Image result for tukulti ninurta altarThe spoked wheel hieroglyph may be read as: *ஆரம்² āram

    n. < āra. 1. Spoke of a wheel. See ஆரக்கால். ஆரஞ் சூழ்ந்த வயில்வாய் நேமியொடு (சிறுபாண். 253). Rebus: āram Brass; பித்தளை. (அக. நி.). Thus the procession banner list may be read in sequence as four categories offered as utsavabera, procession icons: brass, mineral, turner/engraver, collection of metalwork: 

    āra, 'spoked wheel' rebus: 'brass'
    dhātu, 'scarf' rebus: 'mineral'
    kõdā , 'young bull' rebus: 'turner-engraver, brassworker'

    sangāṭh, 'lathe' rebus: 'metalwork consignment'

    Read rebus:

    1. kandi (pl. –l) necklace, beads (Pa.) Ga. (P.) kandi (pl. –l) bead, (pl.) necklace; (S.2) kandiṭ bead (DEDR 1215). kandil, kandīl = a globe of glass, a lantern (Ka.lex.) Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar'.

    2. dhàṭṭu m. ʻwoman's headgear, kerchiefʼ;  dhaṭu  m.  (also dhaṭhu)  m. ‘scarf’  (WPah.); rebus: dhātu‘mineral’ (Skt.), dhatu id. (Santali). 

    3. kōḍu horn (Kannada. Tulu. Tamil) खोंड [khōṇḍa] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: कोंड [kōṇḍa] A circular hamlet; a division of a मौजा or village, composed generally of the huts of one caste. खोट [khōṭa] Alloyed--a metal (Marathi).

    kõdā meaning 'lathe-turning' for making perforated beads or for turning/forging metalware..This may explain why in the tablets showing procession as a festival ceremony, two hieroglyphs are carried as standards: both hieroglyphs relate to the one-horned young bull and the standard device (lathe). The related words reading hieroglyphs rebus from Meluhha (Mleccha) speech are: kõdā sã̄gāḍī  Rebus words denote: ‘metals turner-joiner (forge); worker on a lathe’ – associates (guild)'.

    m008 Mohenjodaro seal.

    Hieroglyph composite of the animal pictorial motif: 1. bullcalf, 2. horn/branch of a tree, 3. pannier

    1. खोंड [khōṇḍa] m A young bull, a bullcalf.
    2. கோடு² kōṭu Horn; விலங்கின் கொம்பு. கோட்டிடை யாடினை கூத்து (திவ். இயற். திருவிருத். 21).  [K. kōḍu.] Branch of a tree; மரக்கொம்பு. (பிங்.) 8. Body of a lute; யாழ்த்தண்டு. மகர யாழின் வான்கோடு தழீஇ (மணி. 4, 56).
    3. खोंडा [ khōṇḍā ] m A कांबळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood.

    Rebus: 1. turner 2. brass-worker 3. engraver (writer)

    kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali). kũdar ‘brass-worker, turner’. 

    खोट [khōṭa] Alloyed--a metal (Marathi).

    खोदकाम [ khōdakāma ] n Sculpture; carved work or work for the carver. खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f Sculpture, carving, engraving: also sculptured or carved work. கொத்து¹-தல் kottu-, 5 v. tr. cf. kuṭṭ. [K. M. kottu.] . To carve, engrave; எழுத்து
    முதலியன செதுக்குதல்.(DEDR 2091 Ma. kottuka to dig, carve; Te. kondu to mince, cut or chop into small pieces; Malt. kothke to peck or strike with the beak, sear with a hot iron; Nk. gondip- to tattoo).
    saṁghāṭa m. ʻ fitting and joining of timber ʼ R. [√ghaṭPa. nāvā -- saṅghāṭa -- , dāru -- s° ʻ raft ʼ; Pk. saṁghāḍa -- , °ḍaga -- m., °ḍī -- f. ʻ pair ʼ; Ku. sĩgāṛ m. ʻ doorframe ʼ; N. saṅārsiṅhār ʻ threshold ʼ; Or. saṅghāṛi ʻ pair of fish roes, two rolls of thread for twisting into the sacred thread, quantity of fuel sufficient to maintain the cremation fire ʼ; Bi. sĩghārā ʻ triangular packet of betel ʼ; H. sĩghāṛā m. ʻ piece of cloth folded in triangular shape ʼ; G. sãghāṛɔ m. ʻ lathe ʼ; M. sãgaḍ f. ʻ a body formed of two or more fruits or animals or men &c. linked together, part of a turner's apparatus ʼ, m.f. ʻ float made of two canoes joined together ʼ (LM 417 compares saggarai at Limurike in the Periplus, Tam. śaṅgaḍam, Tu. jaṅgala ʻ double -- canoe ʼ), sã̄gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ lathe ʼ; Si. san̆gaḷa ʻ pair ʼ, han̆guḷaan̆g° ʻ double canoe, raft ʼ.Addenda: saṁghāṭa -- : Md. an̆goḷi ʻ junction ʼ?saṁghāṭayati ʻ joins together ʼ Sarvad., ʻ causes to collect ʼ Kathās. [√ghaṭOr. saṅghāṛibā ʻ to mix up many materials, stir boiling curry, tie two cattle together and leave to graze ʼ.(CDIAL 12859, 12860)  जंगडी or जंगड (p. 176) jaṅgaḍī or jaṅgaḍa f Strong attachment; inseparableness (esp. among animals) of them that have always been yoked together. Hence close or thick friendship; close confederation or concert. जंगी (p. 176) jaṅgī f (Commonly जंगडी) Close attachment &c. जांगल (p. 183) jāṅgala f Linking together &c. See जांगड Sig. III.  saṁghaṭayati ʻ strikes (a musical instrument) ʼ R., ʻ joins together ʼ Kathās. [√ghaṭ]Pa. saṅghaṭita -- ʻ pegged together ʼ; Pk. saṁghaḍia<-> ʻ joined ʼ, caus. saṁghaḍāvēi; M. sã̄gaḍṇẽ ʻ to link together ʼ. Addenda: saṁghaṭayati: A. sāṅoriba (phonet. x -- ) ʻ to yoke together ʼ AFD 333, sāṅor (phonet. x -- ) ʻ yoking together ʼ 223.(CDIAL 12855)

    जांगला or जांगळा (p. 183) jāṅgalā or jāṅgaḷā a (जंगल) A contemptuous or careless epithet for an European. 

    Marathi: सांगड [ sāgaa ] m f (संघट्ट S) A float composed of two canoes or boats bound together: also a link of two pompions &c. to swim or float by. 2 f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together. 3 That member of a turner's apparatus by which the piece to be turned is confined and steadied. सांगडीस धरणें To take into linkedness or close connection with, lit. fig.

    సంకరము (p. 1269) saṅkaramu sankaramu [Skt.] n. Mixing, blending. సంకలనము (p. 1269) saṅkalanamu san-kalanamu. [Skt.] n. Addition in Arithmetic, సంఖ్యలనుకూర్చుట. సంకలితము ṣankalitamu. adj. That which is added. Added together, as a figure, కూర్పబడిన (సంఖ్య.) 

    सांगडणी [ sāgaaī ] f (Verbal of सांगडणें) Linking or joining

    सांगडणें [ sāgaaē ] v c (सांगड) To link, join, or unite together (boats, fruits, animals). 2 Freely. To tie or bind up or unto.

    Rebus 1: जांगड (p. 183) jāṅgaḍa f ( H) Goods taken from a shop, to be retained or returned as may suit: also articles of apparel taken from a tailor or clothier to sell for him. 2 or जांगड वही The account or account-book of goods so taken. 3 Linking together (of beasts): joining or attaching (as a scholar to a superior one, in order to learn). v घाल, कर. Also the state, linkedness, co-yokedness, attachment, association. जांगड (p. 183) jāṅgaḍa ad Without definitive settlement of purchase--goods taken from a shop.  शाखोट (p. 463) śākhōṭa a P (साख) Creditable or credible; trustworthy or true;--as a person or a statement. Rebus 2: जांगड [ jāṅgaḍa ] or जांगड वही The account or account-book of goods so taken.Rebus 3: sangaḍa 'a cargo boat'. Rebus 4: sangar̥h'proclamation'. Rebus 5: sangar'trade'.

    sã̄gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ (M.)(CDIAL 12859)  سنګر sangar, s.m. (2nd) A breastwork of stones, etc., erected to close a pass or road; lines, entrenchments.(Pashto) 

    sā̃gāḍo, sãgaḍa(lathe/portable furnaceసంగడి sangaḍi. n. A couple, pair (Telugu) Rebus: 1. sãngatarāsu ‘stone-cutter, stone-carver’. संगतराश lit. ‘to collect stones, stone-cutter, mason.’ (Hindi)  sanghāḍo (G.) cutting stone, gilding (Gujarati) 2. sangara [fr. saŋ+gṛ] promise, agreement J iv.105, 111, 473; v.25, 479 (Pali) 3. jangaḍ  id. (Hindi. Gujarati.Marathi)

    Sangar 'fortification', Afghanistan (evoking the citadels and fortifications at hundreds of archaeological sites of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization).

    saṁghāḍa -- , °ḍaga -- m., °ḍī -- f. ʻ pair ʼ (Prakrit)(CDIAL 12859) సంగడి sangaḍi. n. A couple, pair (Telugu) cf. Pairing of two hieroglyphs into a composite ‘standard device’ (as shown in the diagram below).with two distinct components: lathe (gimlet) and (portable) furnace both denoted by lexeme:sangaḍ  The word is read rebus for jangaḍ ‘good entrusted on approval basis’.

    sãgaḍ ʻfloat made of two canoes joined togetherʼ (Marathi) (LM 417 compares saggarai at Limurike in the Periplus, Tamil. śaṅgaḍam, Tulu. jaṅgala ʻ double -- canoe ʼ) Si. san̆gaḷa ʻpairʼ, han̆guḷa, ang° ʻdouble canoe, raftʼ (CDIAL 12859). saṅghātanika -- in cmpd. ʻbinding togetherʼ (Pali)(CDIAL 12863).
    సంగడి A raft or boat made of two canoes fastened side by side (Telugu)சங்கடம்² caṅkaṭam, n. < Port. jangada. Ferry-boat of two canoes with a platform thereon; இரட்டைத்தோணி. (J.) cf. Orthographic technic on ancient Near East artifacts such as seals: Paired hieroglyphs, example: of two bulls, two buffaloes, two tigers, two antelopes.

    Janga or Entrust Receipt is denoted by the 'standard device' hieroglyph read: sangaḍ 'lathe/gimlet, portable furnace'. Note: The meaning of ‘Janga’ is well-settled in Indian legal system. Janga means "Goods sent on approval or 'on sale or return'… It is well-known that the Janga transactions in this country are very common and often involve property of a considerable value." Bombay High Court Emperor vs Phirozshah Manekji Gandhi on 13 June, 1934 Equivalent citations: (1934) 36 BOMLR 731, 152 Ind Cas 706 Source: 
    The terms jangad and karanika are represented as the most frequently used hieroglyphs on Indus writing. The hieroglyphs are: sangaḍa 'lathe, portable furnace' and kanka 'rim of jar' represented by the following glyphs: sangaḍa appears on the round as a ivory object together with other examples of specific glyphic features deployed on objects inscribed with Indus writing. kanka 'rim of jar' is shown on a circular Daimabad seal. The mercantile agents who were jangadiyo had received goods on jangad 'entrusted for approval'.

    Annex A. Note on chain hieroglyph on Indus Script Corpora

    śã̄gal, śã̄gaḍ ʻchainʼ (WPah.) śr̥ṅkhala m.n. ʻ chain ʼ MārkP., °lā -- f. VarBr̥S., śr̥ṅkhalaka -- m. ʻ chain ʼ MW., ʻ chained camel ʼ Pāṇ. [Similar ending in mḗkhalā -- ]Pa. saṅkhalā -- , °likā -- f. ʻ chain ʼ; Pk. saṁkala -- m.n., °lā -- , °lī -- , °liā -- , saṁkhalā -- , siṁkh°siṁkalā -- f. ʻ chain ʼ, siṁkhala -- n. ʻ anklet ʼ; Sh. šăṅāli̯ f., (Lor.)š*lṅālišiṅ° ʻ chain ʼ (lw .with š -- < śr̥ -- ), K. hö̃kal f.; S. saṅgharu m. ʻ bell round animal's neck ʼ, °ra f. ʻ chain, necklace ʼ, saṅghāra f. ʻ chain, string of beads ʼ,saṅghirī f. ʻ necklace with double row of beads ʼ; L. saṅglī f. ʻ flock of bustard ʼ, awāṇ. saṅgul ʻ chain ʼ; P. saṅgal m. ʻ chain ʼ, ludh. suṅgal m.; WPah.bhal. śaṅgul m. ʻ chain with which a soothsayer strikes himself ʼ, śaṅgli f. ʻ chain ʼ, śiṅkhal f. ʻ railing round a cow -- stall ʼ, (Joshi) śã̄gaḷ ʻ door -- chain ʼ, jaun. śã̄galśã̄gaḍ ʻ chain ʼ; Ku. sã̄glo ʻ doorchain ʼ, gng. śāṅaw ʻ chain ʼ; N. sāṅlo ʻ chain ʼ, °li ʻ small do. ʼ, A. xikali, OB. siṅkala, B. sikalsiklichikalchikli, (Chittagong) hĩol ODBL 454, Or.sāṅk(h)uḷā°ḷi,
    sāṅkoḷisikaḷā̆°ḷisikuḷā°ḷi; Bi. sīkaṛ ʻ chains for pulling harrow ʼ, Mth. sī˜kaṛ; Bhoj. sī˜karsĩkarī ʻ chain ʼ, OH. sāṁkaḍasīkaḍa m., H. sã̄kalsã̄kar,°krīsaṅkal°klīsikalsīkar°krī f.; OG. sāṁkalu n., G. sã̄kaḷ°kḷī f. ʻ chain ʼ, sã̄kḷũ n. ʻ wristlet ʼ; M. sã̄k(h)aḷsāk(h)aḷsã̄k(h)ḷī f. ʻ chain ʼ, Ko. sāṁkaḷ; Si. säkillahä°ä° (st. °ili -- ) ʻ elephant chain ʼ.śr̥ṅkhalayati.Addenda: śr̥ṅkhala -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) śáṅgəḷ f. (obl. -- i) ʻ chain ʼ, J. śã̄gaḷ f., Garh. sã̄gaḷ.śr̥ṅkhalayati ʻ enchains ʼ Daś. [śr̥ṅkhala -- ]
    Ku.gng. śāṅaī ʻ intertwining of legs in wrestling ʼ (< śr̥ṅkhalita -- ); Or. sāṅkuḷibā ʻ to enchain ʼ.(CDIAL 12580, 12581)சங்கிலி¹ caṅkilin. < šṛṅkhalaā. [M. caṅ- kala.] 1. Chain, link; தொடர். சங்கிலிபோ லீர்ப்புண்டு (சேதுபு. அகத். 12). 2. Land-measuring chain, Gunter's chain 22 yards long; அளவுச் சங்கிலி. (C. G.) 3. A superficial measure of dry land=3.64 acres; ஓர் நிலவளவு. (G. Tn. D. I, 239). 4. A chain-ornament of gold, inset with diamonds; வயிரச்சங்கிலி என்னும் அணி. சங்கிலி நுண்டொடர் (சிலப். 6, 99). 5. Hand-cuffs, fetters; விலங்கு.

    Rebus: Vajra Sanghāta 'binding together': Mixture of 8 lead, 2 bell-metal, 1 iron rust constitute adamantine glue. (Allograph) Hieroglyph: sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'.(Gujarati)

    Seal m0296 Two heads of young bulls, nine ficus leaves)

    m0296 Two heads of one-horned bulls with neck-rings, joined end to end (to a standard device with two rings coming out of the top part?), under a stylized pipal tree with nine leaves. Text 1387 
     dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' dhAv 'string/strand' rebus: dhAv, dhAtu 'element, ore'.

    Mohenjo-daro Seal impression. m0296 Two heads of one-horned bulls with neck-rings, joined end to end (to a standard device with two rings coming out of the top part?), under a stylized tree-branch with nine leaves.

    खोंद [ khōnda ] n A hump (on the back): also a protuberance or an incurvation (of a wall, a hedge, a road). Rebus: खोदणें [ khōdaṇēṃ ] v c & i ( H) To dig. 2 To engrave. खोद खोदून विचारणें or -पुसणें To question minutely and searchingly, to probe.गोट [ gōṭa ] m (H) A metal wristlet. An ornament of women. 2 Encircling or investing. v घाल, दे. 3 An encampment or camp: also a division of a camp. 4 The hem or an appended border (of a garment).गोटा [ gōṭā ] m A roundish stone or pebble. 2 A marble (of stone, lac, wood &c.) 3 fig. A grain of rice in the ear. Ex. पावसानें भाताचे गोटे झडले. An overripe and rattling cocoanut: also such dry kernel detached from the shell. 5 A narrow fillet of brocade.गोटाळ [ gōṭāḷa ] a (गोटा) Abounding in pebbles--ground.गोटी [ gōṭī ] f (Dim. of गोटा) A roundish stone or pebble. 2 A marble. 3 A large lifting stone. Used in trials of strength among the Athletæ. 4 A stone in temples described at length under उचला 5 fig. A term for a round, fleshy, well-filled body.
    Rebus: गोटी [ gōṭī ] f (Dim. of गोटा A lump of silver: as obtained by melting down lace or fringe. 
    Hieroglyph: lo = nine (Santali); no = nine (B.)  on-patu = nine (Ta.)

    [Note the count of nine fig leaves on m0296] Rebus: loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata,
    the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali.lex.)
        Epigraph: 1387 
    kana, kanac =
    corner (Santali); Rebus: kan~cu
    = bronze (Te.)  Ligatured glyph. ara 'spoke' rebus: ara 'brass'. era, er-a = eraka =?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.)[Note Sign 391 and its ligatures Signs 392 and 393 may connote a spoked-wheel,nave of the wheel through which the axle passes; cf. ara_, spoke]erka = ekke (Tbh.of arka) aka (Tbh. of arkacopper (metal);crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = anymetal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) Rebus: eraka= copper (Ka.)eruvai =copper (Ta.); ere - a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a= syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.)Vikalpa: ara, arā (RV.) = spokeof wheel  ஆரம்² āram , n. < āra. 1. Spokeof a wheel.See ஆரக்கால்ஆரஞ்சூழ்ந்தவயில்வாய்
    நேமியொடு (சிறுபாண்253). Rebus: ஆரம் brass; பித்தளை.(அகநி.) pittal is cognate with 'pewter'.
    kui = a slice, a bit, a small piece (Santali.lex.Bodding) Rebus: kuṭhi
    ‘iron smelter furnace’ (Santali) kuhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546)
    Thus, the sign sequence
    connotes a copper, bronze, brass smelter furnace
    Ayo ‘fish’; kaṇḍa‘arrow’; rebus: ayaskāṇḍa. The sign sequence is ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron,excellent iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) ayo, hako 'fish'; a~s = scales of fish (Santali); rebus:aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.) kaṇḍa‘fire-altar’ (Santali) DEDR 191 Ta. ayirai,acarai, acalai loach, sandy colour, Cobitisthermalis; ayilai a kind of fish. Ma. ayala a fish,mackerel, scomber; aila, ayila a fish; ayira a kind ofsmall fish, loach.
    kole.l 'temple, smithy'(Ko.); kolme ‘smithy' (Ka.) kol ‘working in iron, blacksmith (Ta.); kollan-blacksmith (Ta.); kollan blacksmith, artificer (Ma.)(DEDR 2133)  kolme =furnace (Ka.)  kol = pan~calo_ha (five
    metals); kol metal (Ta.lex.) pan~caloha =  a metallic alloy containing five metals: copper, brass, tin, lead and iron (Skt.); an alternative list of five metals: gold, silver, copper, tin (lead), and iron (dhātu; Nānārtharatnākara. 82; Man:garāja’s Nighaṇṭu. 498)(Ka.) kol, kolhe, ‘the koles, an aboriginal tribe if iron smelters speaking a language akin to that of Santals’ (Santali)
    Zebu and leaves. In
    front of the standard device and the stylized tree of 9 leaves, are the black
    buck antelopes. Black paint on red ware of Kulli style. Mehi. Second-half of
    3rd millennium BCE. [After G.L. Possehl, 1986, Kulli: an exploration of an
    ancient civilization in South Asia
    , Centers of Civilization, I, Durham, NC:
    46, fig. 18 (Mehi II.4.5), based on Stein 1931: pl. 30. 
    poLa 'zebu' rebus; poLa 'magnetite'

    ayir = iron dust, any ore (Ma.) aduru = gan.iyindategadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to
    melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddha_nti Subrahman.ya’ S’astri’s new interpretationof the Amarakos’a, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p. 330) DEDR 192  Ta.  ayil iron. Ma. ayir,ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native
     Tu. ajirdakarba very hard iron
    V326 (Orthographic variants of Sign 326) V327 (Orthographic variants of Sign 327)
    loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus
     (Santali.lex.) Vikalpa: kamaṛkom ‘ficus’ (Santali);
    rebus: kampaṭṭam ‘mint’ (Ta.) patra ‘leaf’ (Skt.); rebus: paṭṭarai
    ‘workshop’ (Ta.) Rebus: lo ‘iron’ (Assamese, Bengali); loa ‘iron’ (Gypsy) lauha = made of
     or iron (Gr.S'r.); metal, iron (Skt.); lo_haka_ra = coppersmith, ironsmith (Pali);lo_ha_ra = blacksmith (Pt.); lohal.a (Or.); lo_ha = metal, esp. copper or
     (Pali); copper (VS.); loho, lo_ = metal, ore, iron (Si.) loha lut.i = iron utensils and implements (Santali.lex.) koṭiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; koṭ = neck (G.lex.) kōṭu = horns (Ta.) kōḍiya, kōḍe = 
    young bull (G.) Rebus: koḍ  = place where artisans work (G.lex.)
    dol = likeness, picture, form (Santali) [e.g., two tigers, two bulls, duplicated signs] me~ṛhe~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Santali) [Thus, the paired glyph of one-horned heifers connotes (metal) casting (dul) workshop (koḍ)]


    śã̄gaḍ ʻchainʼ rebus: sanghāta 'vajra, metallic adamantine glue'. Thus, the metallurgist has achieved and documented the alloy of copper, as adamantine glue.

    The chain hieroglyph component is a semantic determinant of the stylized 'standard device' sã̄gaḍa, 'lathe, portable brazier' used for making, say, crucible steel. Hence the circle with dots or blobs/globules signifying ingots.

    m1429 Mohenjo-dar tablet showing a boat carrying a pair of metal ingots. bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (G.lex.) bagala = an Arab boat of a particular description (Ka.); bagalā (M.); bagarige, bagarage = a kind of vessel (Ka.) bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (G.lex.) Alternative: jangaḍ 'seafaring dhow'.

     The note presents many parallels between hieroglyphs used rebus on Indus writing and on ancient Near East artifacts. The names Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha appear on ancient cuneiform documents in the context of maritime trade, in particular with Sea-faring merchants from Meluhha (Mleccha, that is part of Indian sprachbund).

    There is a remarkable statement in Tolkappiyam an ancient text of Sangam period:

    பொய்யும் வழுவும் தோன்றியபின்னர் 

    அய்யர் யாத்தனர் கரணம் என்ப  (தொல் காப்பியம் பொருள் அதிகாரம்)

    When falsehood and deception came into vogue, the Brahmin scholars codified the accounting system.

    An ancient Near East accounting system was jangaḍ. The system of jangaḍ simply meant 'goods on approval' with the agent -- like the Meluhhan merchant-agents or brokers living in settlements in ancient near East -- merely responsible for showing the goods to the intended buyers.


    We are dealing with the times of Indus-Sarasvati civilization when goods were transacted without definitive settlements of purchase. Mercantile transactions took place on the basis of trust. This system of trust gets institutionalised in the trusteeship system which is the central regulating feature of śreṇi, artisan-merhant guilds. Actions such as criminal breach of trust or deception  or criminal conspiracy were rare occurrences.

    Goods were couriered and delivered by consignor on entrustment basis for the consignee to make the settlements AFTER the goods are finally sold to third parties. Such an accounting system was called jangaḍ

    The couriers who effect the delivery of the goods are called jangaḍiyo. In old Gujarati, the term jangaḍiyo  ‘military guard who accompanies treasure into the treasury’. The term sanghāḍiyo 'a worker on a lathe' (Gujarati)

    kanka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali) Rebus: khanaka ‘miner’ karaka ‘scribe’ (Skt.)

    Goods taken from a shop – without definitive settlement of purchase

    Some lexemes from Indian sprachbund:

    जांगड [jāṅgaḍa] ad Without definitive settlement of purchase--goods taken from a shop. जांगड [ jāṅgaḍa ] f ( H) Goods taken from a shop, to be retained or returned as may suit: also articles of apparel taken from a tailor or clothier to sell for him. 2 or जांगड वही The account or account-book of goods so taken.

    कारणी or कारणीक [kāraṇī or kāraṇīka] a (कारण S) That causes, conducts, carries on, manages. Applied to the prime minister of a state, the supercargo of a ship &c करणी [ karaṇī ] f (करणें) Presenting (in marriages) of cloths, ornaments &c. to the bridegroom and his party. v कर. (Marathi) కరణము [karaamu] karaamu. [Skt.] n. A village clerk, a writer, an accountant. వాడు కూత కరణముగాని వ్రాతకరణముకాడు he has talents for speaking but not for writing. స్థలకరణము the registrar of a district. కరణికము or కరణీకము karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu)

    கரணிகம் karaikam [Telugu. karaikamu.] Office of accountant. See கருணீகம். Loc. கருணீகம் karuṇīkam , n. < karaa. [T. karaikamu.] Office of village accountant or karṇam; கிராமக்கணக்குவேலை. கரணன் karaa , n. < karaa. Accountant; கணக்கன். கரணர்கள் வந்தனர் கழல் வணங்கினார் (கந்தபு. மார்க்கண். 210).கரணம் karaam, n. < karaa. Accountant, karnam; கணக்கன். (S.I.I. i, 65.) கரணம்பலம் karaampalam, n. < id. + அம் பலம். Ancient name for the office of village headman; வரிதண்டும் உத்தியோகம். Rd. கரணியமேனிக்கல் karaiya-mēi-k-kal, n. A kind of metal-ore; கரும்புள்ளிக்கல். (W.) (Tamil) ஒற்றிக்கரணம் oṟṟi-k-karaṇam n. < ஒற்றி +. See ஒற்றிச்சீட்டு. ஒற்றிச்சீட்டு oṟṟi-c-cīṭṭu , n. < ஒற்றி +. Usufructuary mortgage deed; ஒற்றிப்பத்திரம். கரணகளேபரம் karaṇa-kaḷēparam, n. < karaகரணத்தான் karaattā , n. < id. Accountant; கணக்கன்.  ந்நகரக்கரணத்தான் (S.I.I. iii, 23). கரணத்தியலவர் karaattiyalavar, n. < id. + இயலவர். Account officers working under a king, one of eperu-n-tuaivar, q.v.; அரசர்க்குரிய எண்பெருந்துணைவருள் ஒருவராகிய கணக்கர். (திவா.)

    It is significant that the word கரணம் is used. This word in old Tamil denotes the work of karaṇikaṉ ‘village accountant’.

    For describing goods transacted under jangaḍ accounting, it was enough to detail the technical specifications of the goods. The quantities involved, the prices to be settled at the time of final sale and final settlement between the consignor and the consignee are subject to separate, later day transactions AFTER the final delivery on the entrustment note -- jangaḍ -- takes place to the final purchaser or owner of the goods.

    The foundatio of jangaḍ accounting is trust in mercantile transactions and an honour system for processing the transactions between the producer and the final consumer.

    The ancient, traditional mercantile transactions using jangaḍ accounting was adjudicated in Bombay High Court in 1938 where violations of the founding principles of jangaḍ were the principal causes for the litigation. A write-up on the case is appended. The judgement of Kania, J. notes the quote of an earlier judge in another case: "Assuming that jangad in Gujerati ordinarily means 'approval' there is no reason to assume that the goods entrusted jangad are goods to be sold on approval, rather than goods to be shown for approval." -- Madgavkar J. But, jangad also meant 'sale or return' in addition to the dictionary meaning 'approval'. The Judge adjudicated on the issues of 'good faith' involving diamonds/pearls adjudicating that the relation of a dealer and a broker or mercantie agent is that of a principal and agent and not of a seller and a buyer. The obiter dicta was: "If the person who takes [the property] on jangad, sells the property at a price in excess of that which he has agreed to pay to the seller, he keeps the difference and he does not have to account to the seller as an agent. On the other hand, if the purchaser from him does not pay, he is still liable to pay on his own contract with his seller."

    The point made in this note is that jangaḍ accounting transactions for high-value goods like diamonds/pearls/metalsware were in vogue as evidenced on Indus writing and the tradition continued into historical times and are in vogue even today in a remarkable civilizational continuum.

    A remarkable contract is recorded in Mesopotamian archives, attesting to the good-faith doctrine in financial or property transactions:

    Contract for the Sale of Real Estate, Sumer, c. 2000 B.C.

    This is a transaction from the last days of Sumerian history. It exhibits a form of transfer and title which has a flavor of modern business method about it.

    Sini-Ishtar, the son of Ilu-eribu, and Apil-Ili, his brother, have bought one third Shar of land with a house constructed, next the house of Sini-Ishtar, and next the house of Minani; one third Shar of arable land next the house of Sini-Ishtar, which fronts on the street; the property of Minani, the son of Migrat-Sin, from Minani, the son of Migrat-Sin. They have paid four and a half shekels of silver, the price agreed. Never shall further claim be made, on account of the house of Minani. By their king they swore. (The names of fourteen witnesses and a scribe then follow.) Month Tebet, year of the great wall of Karra-Shamash.
    Decipherment of hypertexts on m1429 Prism tablet
    m1429 prism tablet. Boat glyph as a Sarasvati hieroglyph on a tablet.Three sided molded tablet. One side shows a flat bottomed boat with a central hut that has leafy fronds at the top of two poles. Two birds sit on the deck and a large double rudder extends from the rear of the boat. On the second side is a snout nosed gharial with a fish in its mouth. The third side has eight glyphs of the Indus script.

    Material: terra cotta
    Dimensions: 4.6 cm length, 1.2 x 1.5 cm width Mohenjo-daro, MD 602
    Islamabad Museum, NMP 1384
    Dales 1965a: 147, 1968: 39

    The large oxhide ingots were signified by ḍhālako a large metal ingot (Hieroglyph:  dhāḷ 'a slope'; 'inclination'  ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- .1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f.Addenda: ḍhāla -- . 2. *ḍhāllā -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f.(CDIAL 5583). 

    I suggest that the rebus rendering of ḍhāla to signify ḍhālako'large ingot' is phonetically reinforced by the hieroglyphs of two palm trees which read: tāḷa 'palm tree' rebus:dhāḷ'larg ingot'. 

    [Two palm trees flank two ox-hide shaped ingots] Alternative:  tāḷa'palm tree' rebus:dhāḷa 'larg ingot (oxhide)' *tāḍa3 ʻ fan -- palm ʼ, tāḍī -- 2 f. in tāḍī -- puṭa -- ʻ palm -- leaf ʼ Kād., tāla -- 2 m. ʻ Borassus flabelliformis ʼ Mn., tālī -- , °lakī -- f. ʻ palm -- wine ʼ W. [Cf. hintāla -- ]Pa. tāla -- m. ʻ fan -- palm ʼ, Pk. tāḍa -- , tāla -- , tala -- m., tāḍī -- , tālī -- f., K. tāl m., P. tāṛ m., N. tār (tāṛ ← H.), A. tāl, B. tāṛ, Or. tāṛatāṛitāḷa, Bi. tārtāṛ, OAw. tāra, H. G. tāṛ m., M. tāḍ m., Si. tala. -- Gy. gr. taróm., tarí f. ʻ rum ʼ, rum. tari ʻ brandy ʼ, pal. tar ʻ date -- spirit ʼ; S. tāṛī f. ʻ juice of the palmyra ʼ; P. tāṛī ʻ the fermented juice ʼ; N. tāṛī ʻ id., yeast ʼ (← H.); A. tāri ʻ the fermented juice ʼ, B. Or. tāṛi, Bi. tārītāṛī, Bhoj. tāṛī; H. tāṛī f. ʻ the juice, the fermented juice ʼ; G. tāṛī f. ʻ the juice ʼ, M. tāḍī f. <-> X hintāla -- q.v.Addenda: tāḍa -- 3: S.kcch. tāṛ m. ʻ palm tree ʼ.(CDIAL 5750) hintāla m. ʻ the marshy date -- palm Phoenix paludosa ʼ Hariv. [Cf. tāḍa -- 3] Pa. hintāla -- m. ʻ Phoenix paludosa ʼ, B. hĩtālhẽt°; Si. hitul ʻ the swamp date -palmʼ, kitul (X kaduru < kharjūˊra -- ?).(CDIAL 14093)

    tamar ‘palm’ (Hebrew) Rebus: tam(b)ra ‘copper’ (Santali) dula ‘pair’ Rebus: dul ‘cast metal’ (Santali) ḍhālako ‘large ingot’. खोट [khōṭa] ‘ingot, wedge’; A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down)(Marathi)  khoṭ f ʻalloy (Lahnda) Thus the pair of ligatured oval glyphs read: khoṭ ḍhālako ‘alloy ingots’ PLUS dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'.

    Three alternatives: 
    Alternative 1: baTa 'quail' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' (i.e., supercargo out of furnace)
    Alternative 2: karaṇḍa ‘duck’ (Sanskrit) karaṛa ‘a very large aquatic bird’ (Sindhi) kāraṇḍava m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ MBh. [Cf. kāraṇḍa- m. ʻ id. ʼ R., karēṭu -- m. ʻ Numidian crane ʼ lex.: see karaṭa -- 1]Pa. kāraṇḍava -- m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ; Pk. kāraṁḍa -- , °ḍaga -- , °ḍava -- m. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ; S. kānero m. ʻ a partic. kind of water bird ʼ < *kāreno.(CDIAL 3059) करढोंक or की (p. 78) karaḍhōṅka or kī m करडोक m A kind of crane or heron (Marathi)  kāraṇḍava m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ MBh. [Cf. kāraṇḍa- m. ʻ id. ʼ R., karēṭu -- m. ʻ Numidian crane ʼ lex.: see karaṭa -- 1]Pa. kāraṇḍava -- m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ; Pk. kāraṁḍa -- , °ḍaga -- , °ḍava -- m. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ; S. kānero m. ʻ a partic. kind of water bird ʼ < *kāreno.(CDIAL 3059) करढोंक or की (p. 78) karaḍhōṅka or kī m करडोक m A kind of crane or heron (Marathi) Rebus: करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi)
    Alternative 3: Hieroglyph: pōlaḍu, 'black drongo' rebus: pōlaḍ 'steel'. 
    Black drongo is pōlaḍu, rebus pōlaḍ  'steel'పసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu perched on pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus' Rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite ore'.
    పసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu. n. The Black Drongo or King crow, Dicrurusater. (F.B.I.) ఏట్రింత. Also, the Adjutant. తోకపసులపోలిగాడు the Raquet-tailed Drongo shrike. Jerdon. No. 55. 56. 59. కొండ పనులపోలిగాడు the White bellied Drongo, Dicrurus coerulescens. వెంటికపనుల పోలిగాడు the Hair-crested Drongo, Chibia hottentotta. టెంకిపనుల పోలిగాడు the larger Racket-tailed Drongo, Dissemurus paradiseus (F.B.I.) 

    पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, Fe3O4'. The word for magnetite ore [pōḷa] gave the root for the famed crucible wootz steel called [pōlāda] n ( or P)  [pōlādi]  'steel'. A variant expression iin Russian is:  bulat 'steel'.
    Image result for black drongo zebu
    Wootz Steel as the Acme of Mankind’s Metallurgical Heritage

    “Wootz was the first high-quality steel made anywhere in the world. According to reports of travelers to the East, the Damascus swords were made by forging small cakes of steel that were manufactured in Southern India. This steel was called wootz steel. It was more than a thousand years before steel as good was made in the West.” -J. D. Verhoeven and A. Pendray, Muse, 1998
    ... ‘…’pulad’ of Central Asia. The oasis of Merv where crucible steel was also made by the medieval period lies in this region. The term ‘pulad’ appears in Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism and in a Manicheen text of Chinese Turkestan. There are many variations of this term ranging from the Persian ‘polad’, the Mongolian ‘bolat’ and ‘tchechene’, the Russian ‘bulat’, the Ukrainian and Armenian ‘potovat’, Turkish and Arab ‘fulad’, ‘farlad’ in Urdu and ‘phaulad’ in Hindi. It is this bewildering variety of descriptions that was used in the past that makes a study of this subject so challenging.’ (p.30)

    This name derives from the Mongolian (Qalq-a ayalγu) “Bold”, from the Persian (Tājīk) "pwlạd", meaning “steel”. Bolad († 1313), was a Mongol minister of the Yuan Dynasty, and later served in the Ilkhanate as the representative of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and cultural adviser to the Ilkhans. Geographical spread:
    Russ. bulat; Mizdzhegan polad, bolat; Mongol. bolot, bulat, buriat. He is unable to suggest an origin for these words. Fr. Muller pointed out that the Pehlevi and Armenian should be polapat and suggested Greek 'much-beaten' as the original word...not all the countries of Asia had been exhausted in search for similar adding Tibetan p'olad, Sulu bAlan, Tagalog patalim, Ilocano paslip, we at once see that the origin of the word may lie to the east. Naturally one thinks of China as the possible point of issue, for there steel was known in the third millenium before our era and we have the positive reference to steel in a Chinese writer of the fifth century BCE...Cantonese dialect fo-lim, literally 'fire-sickle'..."(Wiener, Leo, 2002, Contributions toward a history of Arabico-Gothc culture, vol.4, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. xli-xlii)
    "...‘pulad’ of Central Asia. The oasis of Merv where crucible steel was also made by the medieval period lies in this region. The term ‘pulad’ appears in Avesta, the holy book of Zorastrianism and in a Manichéen text of Chinese Turkestan. There are many variations of this term ranging from the Persian
    ‘polad’, the Mongolian ‘bolat’ and ‘tchechene’, the Russian ‘bulat’, the Ukrainian and Armenian ‘potovat’, Turkish and Arab ‘fulad’, ‘farlad’ in Urdu and ‘phaulad’ in Hindi. It is this bewildering variety of descriptions that was used in the past that makes a study of this subject so challenging." 
    Side A: kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Telugu) ghariyal id. (Hindi)
    kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) கராம் karām, n. prob. grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலைவகை. முதலையு மிடங்கருங் கராமும் (குறிஞ்சிப். 257). 2. Male alligator; ஆண் முதலை. (திவா.) కారుమొసలి a wild crocodile or alligator. (Telugu) Rebus: kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi) kāruvu 'artisan' (Telugu) khār 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

    [fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Telugu)] Rebus: ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali) 

    khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.)

    Side C: Text 3246 on the third side of the prism. kāḍ  काड् ‘, the stature of a man’ Rebus: खडा [ khaḍā ] m A small stone, a pebble (Marathi) dula ‘pair’ Rebus: dul ‘cast (metal)’shapes objects on a lathe’ (Gujarati) 
    कर्णक 'spread legs' rebus: 'helmsman'
    kanka, kar
    ṇaka ‘rim of jar’ Rebus: karṇaka ‘account scribe’. kārṇī  m. ʻsuper cargo of a ship ʼ(Marathi)

    The hieroglyphs are: side a: eight sign glyphs including: body, rim of jar, two ingots, rim of jar, fish, three, graft infix ligature in ingot.side b: boat, two trees, two birds; side b: gharial (alligator), fish; Boat: kolam; rebus: kolami 'furnace'

    kolmo ‘three’ Rebus: kolami ‘furnace,smithy’. Thus, the pair of glyphs may denote lapidary work – working with stone, mineral, gemstones.
    ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayas ‘metal’. kāru ‘crocodile’ Rebus: kāru ‘artisan’. Thus, together read rebus: ayakara ‘metalsmith’.
    kanka 'rim of jar' (Santali) karṇika id. (Samskritam) Rebus: kārṇī m. ʻsuper cargo of a ship ʼ(Marathi) 
    meḍ ‘body’, ‘dance’ (Santali) Rebus: meḍ‘iron’ (Ho.)
     med'copper' (Slavic languages)
    Alternative: kāḍ  काड् ‘, the stature of a man’ Rebus: खडा [ khaḍā ] m A small stone, a pebble khaḍā ‘nodule (ore), stone’(Marathi) <khadan>  {N} ``a ^mine, place where earth is ^excavated for roads, buildings, etc.''.  @2417.  #13731.(Munda)

    A pair of ingots with notches in-fixed as ligatures.
    ḍhālako ‘large ingot’. खोट [khōṭa] ‘ingot, wedge’; A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down)(Marathi)  khoṭ f ʻalloy (Lahnda) Thus the pair of ligatured oval glyphs read: khoṭ ḍhālako ‘alloy ingots’ PLUS dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'.

    Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans,metal-ware' (Marathi) H. lokhar m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; -- X lauhabhāṇḍa -- : Ku. lokhaṛ ʻ iron tools ʼ; H.lokhaṇḍ m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻ tools, iron, ironware ʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ (LM 400 < -- khaṇḍa -- ).(CDIAL 11171)

    खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended.

    लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously.
    लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith.
    लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. 

    0 0

    The challenge to Economic Historians is to document the Economic History of Eurasia Bronze Age, starting with the following summary provided by Angus Maddison to OECD. What activities of artisans/merchants of history prior to 1CE, i.e. during the Bronze Age, from ca. 5th millennium BCE, explain the fact that India accounted for over 32% of the Global GDP in 1CE? What were the contributions of Ancient India to the Bronze Age Revolution of Eurasia?

    I suggest that in addition to the leads provided by Maurizio Tosi in the following presentation (2014) in reference to work jointly done with Lamberg-Karlovsky on Shahr-i Sokhta and Tepe Yahya: Tracks on the earliest history of the Iranian Plateau (1973), an important resource now available is the deciphered Indus Script Corpora of over 8000 inscriptions. This Corpora and decipherment explain the hieroglyphs/hypertexts cited by Maurizio Tosi in his presentation. Indus Script inscriptions have been found in Meluhha speakers' interaction areas of Sarasvati Civilization, along the Persian Gulf, in Ancient Near East and Ancient Far East (which is the largest tin belt of the globe and constituted the principal source of tin which made the Bronze Age revolution possible).

    Shahr-i Sokhta and Tepe Yahya: Tracks on the Earliest History of the Iranian Plateau

    C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky and Maurizio Tosi
    East and West
    Vol. 23, No. 1/2 (March-June 1973), pp. 21-57
    Excerpt from Page 21:

    This monograph indicates how Indus Script Corpora provide the Bronze Age framework which resulted in intractions between Meluhha speakers' epicentre of Sarasvati Civilization and nearby sites such as Shahdad, Tepe Yahya, Tell Abraq, Shahr-i Soktha. Many hieroglyphs/hypertexts presented by Maurizio Tosi have been explained in the context of metalwork accounting ledgers created on Indus Script Corpora.
    Published on 
    Shahdad and the bronze age in southeast Iran, A workshop commemorating Prof. Ali Hakemi’s work at Shahdad and 40 years of excavations in Southeast Iran, Cambridge 15-16 July 2011

    Presentation made by Maurizio Tosi, Univ. of Bologna, Italy titled: Shahdad, Shahr-I Sokhta, Tepe Yahya. Many sites for a single history?

    Excerpts from slides.

    kuṭhāru  कुठारु [p= 289,1] m. a tree L.; a monkey L.
    kuṭhāru 'armourer L.' (Monier-Williams)

    dāya'dotted circle, one on dice' rebus: dhā̆vaḍ'iron-smelter'

    Decipherment of inscription (Indus Script)

    karibha 'trunk of elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' ibha 'elephant' rebus: ib 'iron' Hieroglyph: ingot out of crucible: muh 'ingot' kuThAru 'crucible' rebus:kuThAru 'armourer' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus:kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Thus ingot for forge.  sal 'splinter'rebus: sal 'workshop' aDaren 'lid' rebus: aduru 'native metal' aya, ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' khambhaṛā''fish-fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. Hieroglyph: 
    kāmṭhiyɔ m. ʻ archer ʼ.rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coin, coiner' ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' karNaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karnaka 'engraver, scribe'.

    530 and 531 ivory rods are shaped like a meDga 'stake' rebus: medha 'yajna' (yupa) with caSAla (as described in Satapatha Brahmana and Taittiriya Samhita) for a Soma yaga.

    John Marshall wrote: "Seals of this group [cylinder seals, although Mackay above is not sure they are true cylinder seals]], if indeed they are seals, are very rarely found at Mohenjo-daro, only five specimen being obtained in all. They are all made of ivory and differ from the cylinder seals of other countries in being very long and thing; nor are they perforated for suspension on a cord. It is possible that these so-called seals are not true seals at all. They incised characters upon them might conceivably be identification marks for a game or something similar. On the other hand, they are certainly suitable for use a seals and in this account they are included in this chapter For the sake of clearness the actual seal is shown side by side with each impression.

    No 529 (Pl. CXIV, HR 5515). Ivory. 2.7 inches long by 0.25 in. in diameter. Double groove at one end for attachment of cord. The other end is decorated with three parallel grooves. Level, 4 feet below surface. Central Courtyard (30), House LIII, Block 7, HR Area.
    No 530 (Pl. CXIV, HR 4985). Ivory. 2.05 inches long by 0.25 in. in diameter. Double groove at one end for a cord; the other end is broken. Level 3 feet below surface. Central Courtyard (30), House LIII, Block 7, HR Area.
    No 531 (Pl. CXIV, DK 2666). Ivory. Now 2.05 inches long by 0.3 in. in diameter. Its polish shows that it has been much used. About one-half of the seal is covered with an inscription, deeply and roughly incised and bordered by two deep cut lines. One end of the seal is shaped into a conical head with a deep groove possibly intended for a cord. The seal is not bored; nor is it perfectly round. Level, 4 feet below surface. Street between Blocks 1 and 2, Section B, DK Area.
    No 532 (Pl. CXIV, VS 875). Ivory. Now 2 inches long by 0.3 in. in diameter. One end is broken and a small piece is missing. The seal tapers slightly towards its complete end. Five deeply incised characters occupy a space of about two-thirds of the circumference of the seal. Level, 12 feet below surface. Found in front of Room 70, House XXVII, VS Area.
    No 533 (Pl. CXIV, VS 958). Ivory. 2.75 inches long by 0.3 in. in diameter. Decorated at 0-.5 in. from each end with a deeply incised cross-hatched border. Towards one end of the intervening space are two deeply incised characters This seal is not perfectly round. Level, 10 feet below surface of the ground. From Room 69, House XXVIII, VS Area. (John Marshall, Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilization, p. 371

    The 5 ivory rod inscriptions (529 to 533 Marshall) are flipped left horizontally and presnted with rebus readings:

    Ivory inscription 1

    kuTi 'water carrier' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS karNika 'spread legs' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' gaNDa 'four' rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. Thus the message is: Smelter, metalcater, Supercargo working with iron/copper implements and furnace.

    Ivory inscription 2

    khaNDa 'divisions'; rebus: kaNDa 'implements' dhAv 'strand' dhAv 'string' rebus: dhAvaD 'smelter' dhaTo 'claws of crab' rebus: dhatu 'minerals'. Thus the message is: Smelter of minerals, (maker of metal) implements.'

    Ivory inscription 3

    dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.) kamaTha 'bow and arrow' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage' ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' khANDA 'notch' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' PLUS  khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.) muh 'ingot'.Thus, the message is: Turner of metal castings, mins-master-coiner, iron (metal) implements, ingots and metal (alloys) turner.

    Ivory inscription 4

     (529 Marshall Ivory rod) khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.) karNaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account' karã̄ 'wristlets, bangles' rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' khANDA 'notch' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' Fish-fin: ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfinʼ rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. Thus, the message is: Blacksmith, Turner, Supercargo implements workshop, mint-master/coiner. (529 and 530 ivory rods have identical inscriptions; 530 has an additional hieroglyph: three linear strokes)

    Ivory inscription 5

    (530 Marshall Ivory rod) khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.) karNaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, engraver, account' karã̄ 'wristlets, bangles' rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' khANDA 'notch' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' Fish-fin: ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfinʼ rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Thus, the message is: Blacksmith, Turner, Supercargo (engraver) implements workshop, mint-master/coiner, (working in) smithy/forge..

    Ivory inscription 6
     m1650 Ivory stick Hypertext 3505 daTo 'claws of crab' rebus: dhatu 'mineral' kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bronze' gaNDA 'four' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' PLUS kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'  karNaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account'  khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.)Thus, the message is: Supercargo, (worker in) minerals, bronze implements, smithy/forge, metal caster, Metals turner (alloys) using furnace

    Ivory inscription 7
    Pict-141 Geometrical pattern  Hypertext 2942 karNika 'spread legs' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) PLUS khANDA 'notch' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' khaNDa 'divisions'; rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. Tus, the message is: Supercargo (working in) iron/copper implements workshop.

    Ivory inscription 8

    Pict 142 geometrical pattern Hypertext 2941 Ivory or bone rod geometrical pattern followed by inscription koDa 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop'  dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'  karNaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account'  khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.). Thus, the message is: Turner, Supercargo in metal casting workshop and (working with) furnace

    Ivory inscription 9

    Hypertext 2943 Hypertext 2943 is a duplication of the Hypertext 2941: koDa 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop'  dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'  karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account'  khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.). Thus, the message is: Turner, Superargo in metal casting workshop and (working with) furnace.

    Ivory inscription 10

    Pict 143 Geometrical pattern Hypertext 2948 gaNDa 'four' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' (thus, tin implements) kuTi 'water carrier' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' PLUS karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account'  khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.). (thus, Supercargo, engraver working with smelter) khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.) Thus, the message is: Supercargo (working with smelter) Tin work and Turner (of metal alloys) working with furnace and engraving.

    Ivory inscription 11

    Hypertext 2944 Ivory or bone rod Phal. tērc̣hi ʻ adze ʼ (with "intrusive" r).Rebus: takṣa in cmpd. ʻ cutting ʼ, m. ʻ carpenter ʼ VarBr̥S PLUS kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' (Thus, carpenter working with smithy/forge). muH 'ingot' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' (Thus smithy/forge ingots) kuTi 'water carrier' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' PLUS karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account' Thus the message is: Carpenter working with smithy/forge, ingots for smithy and Supercargo working with smelter and engraving.

    Ivory inscription 12

    Hypertext 2945 Ivory or bone rod gaNDa 'four' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' Thus, the message is: (Maker of) implements in smithy/forge.

    Ivory inscription 13

     Ivory rod, ivory plaques with dotted circles. Mohenjo-daro (Musee National De Arts Asiatiques, Guimet, 1988-1989, Les cites oubliees de l’Indus Archeologie du Pakistan.] dhātu 'layer, strand'; dhāv 'strand, string' Rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'ore'. dATu 'cross' rebus: dhatu 'mineral'. Thus, the message signified by dotted circles and X hieroglyph refers to dhā̆vaḍ priest of 'iron-smelters'. The aquatic duck shown atop an ivory rod is:  karaṇḍa 'duck' (Sanskrit) karaṛa 'a very large aquatic bird' (Sindhi) Rebus: करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) Thus, the metalworker (smelter) works with hard alloys (using carburization process). Three dotted circles: kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Thus working with minerals and hard alloys for smithy, forge.

    Ivory inscription 14

    m1652 Ivory stick sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' PLUS daTo 'claws of crab' rebus: dhatu 'mineral' ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' koDa 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus the message is: workshop for minerals, metals and metalcaster.

    Ivory inscription 15

     m1651 Ivory stick A, D, F
     Hypertext 2947 Dotted circle hieroglyphs at the ends of the rod: dhātu 'layer, strand'; dhāv 'strand, string' Rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'ore'.(smelter) dATu 'cross' rebus: dhatu 'mineral'. Fish-fin: ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfinʼ rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.muh 'ingot' PLUS khANDA 'notch' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' (Thus, ingot implements) koḍa 'sluice'; Rebus: koḍ 'artisan's workshop (Kuwi) karNaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account' khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.). thus the message is: Working with dhatu (minerals), mint (coiner), ingot implements workshop, Supercargo (scribe, account), Turner (alloys) of metal, Smelter

    Ivory inscription 16

    Hypertext 2940 Ivory or bone rod dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' arA 'spokes' rebus: Ara 'brass' eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'molten cast, copper'.kamaTha 'bow and arrow' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage' karNaka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'scribe, account' khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.). Thus, the message is: Supercargo (scribe, account), Turner (of alloys) of metal, mint-master, working with metal casting.

    Ivory inscription 17

    m1653 ivory plaqueHypertext 1905 bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' kuṭila 'bent' CDIAL 3230) Rebus:kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin).Thus, a bronze furnace worker.

    Ivory inscription 18.

     m1654 Ivory cube with dotted circles Dotted circle hieroglyphs on each side of the cube (one dotted circle surrounded by 7 dotted circles): dhātu 'layer, strand'; dhāv 'strand, string' Rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'ore'.(smelter).

    Ivory inscription 19

    Ivory is also used to record an inscription in Harappa:

    h101 Ivory stick Hypertext 4561 dhātu 'layer, strand'; dhāv 'strand, string' Rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'ore'.(smelter) koDa 'one' rebus: koD 'workshop' khANDA 'notch' rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. Thus, Smelter (ores) and implements workshop.

    Map Courtesy: Victor Sarianidi

    A clay figurine of Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) is a sculpture of extraodinary artistry, beauty and elegance inscribed with unambiguous Indus Script hieroglyphs which are read rebus in a 'dialect of Sanskrit', Meluhha (of Bharata sprachbund, language union) in the context of metal artifacts unearthed in excavations together with the figurines (See Lamberg-Karlovsky's articl on Oxus Civilization -- embedded). 

    Image result for Clay figurine with bronze earring from Gonur depe. Votive figure from Altyn-Depe

    Line drawing shows front and back of votive figurine from Altyn Depe (the Golden Hill), Turkmenistan. Altyn-Depe is an ancient settlement of the Bronze Age (3,000 - 2,000 B.C.E.) on the territory of ancient Abiver. It's known locally as the "Turkmen". Female Figurine Clay; modelled. 16.5x7 cm Namazga (V). 2nd millennium BCE Excavations by V.M. Masson, 1971, Southern Turkmenia, Altyn-Depe Settlement 

    A remarkable feature of the clay (terracotta) figurine is the inscription in Indus Script incised on the sculpture. The hieroglyphs of Indus Script and their rebus readings are technical description of a metalwork catalogue of smelting iron, iron castings, metal ingots, forging metal implements. The artisan signified is dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters and professional competence of ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ). tau m. ʻ crown of head, skull ʼ; Md. tala ʻ crown of head ʼ tālukē du. ʻ two veins in the palate ʼ TUp. [Orm. tâlâk ʻ crown of head ʼ K.tāl f. ʻ palate, crown of head ʼL. tālū̃ m. ʻ palate, crown of head ʼ, P. u, ūā m. ʻpalate, crown of head ʼ . u f.,  n., tālu f. (for l cf. tālkũ below) ʻ palate, crown of head ʼ; M. ū, āū f. ʻ palate, forepart of head ʼ; Ko. u f. ʻcrown of head WPah.bhal. tālko m. ʻ upper part of a cap ʼ; G. tālkī f. ʻ palate, crown of head ʼ, tālkũ, ālkũ n. ʻ crown of head (CDIAL 5803) Rebus: hāla 'large ingot' (Gujarati)   

    dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS
    dhāˊtu 'strand' rebus: dhāˊtu  'mineral' dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ) PLUS
    mē̃ḍhī 'braid in a woman's hair' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.) PLUS 
    kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUSkuṭhi  ‘vagina’ Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) 
    kola 'woman' rebus: kol 'metal, working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'.

    On the shoulder of the woman, some leafy branches or sprigs are signified: Hieroglyph टाळा (p. 196)ṭāḷā R (Usually टाहळा) A small leafy branch; a spray or sprig.  Rebus: ḍhāla 'large ingot' (Gujarati) 

    On the belly of the woman, just above the waistline, a 'stalk' hieroglyph is signified:

    Hieroglyphs: kandə ʻpineʼ, ‘ear of maize’.  కండె kaṇḍ] kaṇḍe. [Telugu] n. A head or ear of millet or maize. జొన్నకంకిOr. ṇḍa, ̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ (CDIAL 3023). kaṇḍe A head or ear of millet or maize (Telugu) 

    Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’ (Marathi) kāḍ ‘stone’. Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil) stone (DEDR 1298). Rebus: kanda 'fire-altar' (Santali)Tu. kandůka, kandaka ditch, trench. Te.  kandakamu id.   Konḍa kanda trench made as a fireplace during weddings. Pe. kanda fire trench. Kui kanda small trench for fireplace. Malt. kandri a pit. (DEDR 1214).

    Hieroglyph टाळा (p. 196) ṭāḷā R (Usually टाहळा) A small leafy branch; a spray or sprig.  

    Rebus: ḍhāla 'large ingot' (Gujarati)   

    This is a tribute to the splendid archaeological work done by Ali Hakemi in Shahdad. Hakemi, Ali, 1997, Shahdad, archaeological excavations of a bronze age center in Iran, Reports and Memoirs, Vol. XXVII, IsMEO, Rome. 766 pp.
    I am thankful to Prof. Mehdi Mortazavi Assoc. Professor, University of Sistan and Baluchestan for the links and references provided. His insights and encouragement are gratefully acknowledged and have led me to this monograph. For the opinions expressed herein, I am responsible.

    Pierre Amiet summarises Hakemi’s report with a brilliant exposition: “The discovery, long after that of the great Mesopotamian civilization, just after World War I, of an urban civilization which emulated that of Sumer in the Indus Valley, followed even more recently by the equally impressive civilization of Turkmenia, immediately raised the question of what presumably happened in the immense territory between th two, represented by the Iranian plateau…(Aurel Stein) had crossed Baluchistan and Kerman, ultimately reaching, on the westward side, the only historical entity of Iran predating the Persians – the ancient country of Elam – to all intents and purposes part of Mesopotamia, although essentially a country of mountaineers. In its geographic duality in which the mountain valleys of Fars were associated with the lowlying plains of Susiana, Elam, which was also an ethnic duality, was presumably linked with a hinterland that had remained in the wings of history and comprised the Kerman mountains dominating the salt pans of the Lut Desert. The province which was traditionally rich in stones and metals, and scantly explored by the pioneers, must have been a home to the major witnesses of what Gordon Childe as early as 1934 called the ‘mechanism of the spread’ of the conquests of civilization…in eastern Bactria, bounded the wide loop of Amu Darya, the site of Shortughai corresponds to a settlement of ‘colonists’ from Harappan India, with their characteristic pottery, who saw to the transit of copper and doubtless also of lapis lazuli. These observations seem to be indicative of what probably happened in western Bactria where fortresses housing stores, as at Dashly Tepe, may have been built by a merchant-colonist elite to guarantee trade with the workshops set up either at Shah-I Sokhta or at Shahda and Tepe Yahya and, through them, with Elam, as well as by sea, with Mesopotamia. Unlike Anatolia, where the intense metalworking activity does not seem to have produced any art specific to a given civilization or else highly customized before the 2nd millennium, Iran thus appears to hav been a huge community enlivened by a network of very long routes spreading out from the towns and villages of craftsmen who were creating a different art and using a wide range of techniques, perhaps simulated by Elam. These craftsmen worked copper and soft, colored stones, such as chlorite and alabaster, found locally, together with imported hard stones such as carnelian and lapis lazuli. They must have come into close contact with the transporters, presumably nomadic, according to the tradition of the bearers of the intercultural style. Shahdad lay at the crossroads of these routes, the one running north-south from Gorgan and Tepe Hissar and passing through Tepe Yahya on its way to the Persian Gulf, and those crossing the Lut desert or skirting it through Bampur, towards the north and south of the Hindu Kush and from there into India.” (Introduction, pp.8 - 10)
    Shahdad standard.
    Steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis

    Two possible rebus readings: 1. pajhaṛ ‘kite’. Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)
    2. śyēná m. ʻhawk, falcon, eagleʼ RV.Pa. sēna -- , °aka -- m. ʻhawk ʼ, Pk. sēṇa -- m.; WPah.bhad. śeṇ ʻkiteʼ; A. xen ʻ falcon, hawk ʼ, Or. seṇā, H. sen, sẽ m., M. śen m., śenī f. (< MIA. *senna -- ); Si. sen ʻfalcon, eagle, kiteʼ. (CDIAL 12674) Rebus: Senaka a carter ThA 271 (=sākaṭika of Th 2, 443) (Pali) sēnāpati m. ʻ leader of an army ʼ AitBr. [sḗnā -- , páti -- Pa. sēnāpati -- , °ika -- m. ʻgeneralʼ, Pk. sēṇāvaï -- m.; M. śeṇvaī°vīśeṇai m. ʻa class of Brahmansʼ, Ko. śeṇvi; Si. senevi ʻgeneralʼ (CDIAL 13589).

    Kur. kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali.lex.)

    kola 'woman' (Nahali). Rebus: kol ‘working in iron’; pañcaloha, alloy of five metals (Tamil).

     “The shaft is set on a 135 mm high pyramidal base. The thin metal plate is a square with curved sides set in a 21 mm wide frame. On the plate there is a figure of a goddess sitting on a chair and facing forward. The goddess has a long face, long hair and round eyes. Her left hand is extended as if to take a gift…a square garden divided into ten squares. In the center of each square there is a small circle. Beside this garden there is a row of two date palm trees…Under this scene the figure of a bull flanked by two lions is shown…The sun appears between the heads of the goddess and, one of the women and it is surrounded by a row of chain decorative motives.” (p.271, p.649). The inscriptional evidence discovered at this site which is on the crossroads of ancient bronze age civilizations attests to the possibility of Meluhha settlements in Shahdad, Tepe Yahya and other Elam/Susa region sites. The evolution of bronze age necessitated a writing system -- the answer was provided by Indus writing using hieroglyphs and rebus method of rendering Meluhha (mleccha) words of Indian sprachbund.

    Shown are the glyphs of 1. zebu and 2. tigers which are also glyphs on Indus writing which I decode as related respectively to 1. blacksmithy on unsmelted metal (Adar Dhangar, zebu) 2. working with alloys (kol, tiger) !!! The tree is a smelter furnace (kuTi). The endless-knot motif is iron (meD, knot, iron).

    The accounting system had advanced beyond bullae-tokens to a writing system to prepare stone-, metal-ware catalogs on thousands of inscriptions using mleccha language for Indus writing.

    This is the Indian example. This is cited by Richard Meadow of the HARP (Harvard) Project which found it in Harappa. Meadow calls it the earliest writing system of the world. 

    This is the comparable image on Indus writing with five petals. This is dated to ca. 3500 BCE according to the HARP Harvard report.

    This is a frequently ocurring glyph.

    Tabernae montana is called tagaraka in Sanskrit. Rebus reading (of a similar sounding word) is tagaram which means 'tin' (Tamil). Tin is a mineral alloyed with copper to create bronze alloy. Earlier bronzes were naturally occurring arsenic bronzes, that is, copper and arsenic ore together. The addition of tin to copper to create bronze meant a revolution in metallurgy and there was intense demand for 'tin' mineral in the entire civilization region of Metopotamia, Sumer, Elam and the Persian Gulf.

    Connections between glyphs and intended meanings are provided by the rebus method. If two similar sounding words have different meanings -- one, pictorial meaning and the other metallurgical meaning -- and if this happens consistently for hundreds of word-pairs, the application of the rebus method for writing is a reasonable deduction. Similar was the method used on Narmer palette in Egypt. N'r meant 'cuttle fish'; M'r meant 'awl'. Together, they gave the Emperor's name and so, N'r + M'r pictorials are shown in front of this person.

    Irrespective of the dates assigned to Rigveda and other Veda texts, the fact that the words get used over an extended period of time can be extrapolated to the bronze age, even upto 5th millennium BCE in some cases. One word, aya, is an instance in point. It means 'metal (alloy)', different languages including Pre-Indo-Iranian assigned the meanings of 'copper, bronze' to this word. A word with similar sound is aya 'fish' in Munda languages.

    This is a glyph showing five petals. Characteristic of tabernae montana tulip flower which is a fragrant flower used as hair-dressing is that it has five petals. So, the word tagaraka has two meanings: 'hair fragrance'; 'tabernae montana tulip' (Sanskrit). This glyph is what is reflected on Shahdad cylinder seal. 
    My evidence is the glossary of words of Indian sprachbund (linguistic union) where the words are commonly used across the set of families of languages (Indo-Aryan, Indo-Iranian, Dravidian, Munda). I have compiled an Indian Lexicon with about 8000 semantic clusters to prove the sprachbund. In my Indus Writing in Ancient Near East I have provided hundreds of examples of such semantic clusters in the context of bronze age metallurgy.

    Inter-Iranian trade community from Harappa settled on the crossroads at Shahdad?

    Plate 1. The upper section of the Shahdad Standard, grave No. 114, Object No. 1049 (p.24)

    Plates 5 & 6. Chlorite incised vessel Grave No. 001.

    Object No. 0004 (p.26)

    Figure 45. Proto-Elamite pictograms (“From a total of 606 different types of signs found on red ware of Shahdad, 331 are incised and 275 of them are impressed. The star is one of the most common signs, and it has been found in both incised and impressed signs. In the Sumerian and Elamite pictograms a star is an accepted figure representing gods.” p.67)

    FIgure 44. Impressed pictograms on Plain Red Ware pottery (p. 66).

     Figure 50: Metal foundry kiln, Site D (p.87)

     Drawings of two cylinder seal impressions. (p.661)


    ( Vorgelegt von David Mathias Philip Meier aus Mannheim,, 2008, Die metallnadeeln von Shahdad – eine funktionstypologische untersuchung, pp.82-199 present 121 tafels – plates -- of sets of metal pins and objects discovered at Shahdad.)

    Copper plate in the Metropolitan Museum of Art

    Copper lid or plate from Tepe-Hissar, Univ. Museum of Pennsylvania (After Schmidt 193, fig. 120).

    Copper plate in Louvre Museum (After Amiet 1976b:no. 21)

    Copper/bronze dish from Shahdad, Iran Bastan Museum.

    Copper/bronze dish from Shahdad. Iran Bastan Museum.

    Copper/bronze dish from Shahdad. Iran Bastan Museum.

    Rounded shape copper/bronze dish from Shahdad. Iran Bastan Museum.

    “Shahdad (Islamis Khabis) is to be remembered as one of the East Iranian Centres for making metal artefacts in the 3rdmillennium BCE. During the years 1971-77 an archaeological mission working in the Lut area under my supervision discovered a wide variety of metal objects in the three main burial grounds A,B and C. Over a period of seven years about 700 broke or unbroken metal objects were discovered…From the study of the metal workshops in 1977, we learned that the base metal copper had been extracted and used in three stages: a) ore smelting, b) purification and c) moulding…The upper side of the plates have embossed moulded figures of living creatures, such as crabs, fish, snakes and gazelles…The abundance of rich copper mines and skillfully mad artefacts in the vicinity of Shahdad supports the view that the prehistoric people of Shahdad were peaceful artisans engaged in the art of producing earthenware, stonework and domestic metal artefacts…The large decorated metal plates discovered in the main cemeteries, especially, confirm that the Shahdad workshop did not just make a few modest articles, but was producing work of great historical significance in the 3rd millennium BCE. It can also be concluded that similar plates, mainly that found at Tepe Hissar, and perhaps some of the others presented in this work, could likely come from the southeastern region of Iran.” (Hakemi, Ali, 1997, Comparison between the plates of Shahdad and other plates that exist in a few museums, In: Taddei, Maurizio and Giuseppe de Marco, eds., 2000, South Asian Archaeology, 1997, Vol. 1, Istituto Italiano per l’africa e l’oriente, Rome, pp. 943-959).

    The finds of Shahdad; three plates are taken from the 1972 Catalogue: Note the pictographic writing on red ceramics (Plates XXIIB and XXIIC). These includes possible bullae with ‘tokens’ representing some articles being counted.

    Plate XXIIIB includes picture of two footprints. This glyph occurs on Indus writing.

    Disk seal (glyptic catalogue no. 58; 15 mm in dia. X 8 mm) Excavations at Tepe Yahya, 3rd millennium, p. 154 Double-sided steatite stamp seal with opposing foot prints and six-legged creature on opposite sides. Tepe Yahya. Seal impressions of two sides of a seal. Six-legged lizard and opposing footprints shown on opposing sides of a double-sided steatite stamp seal perforated along the lateral axis. 

    Lamberg- Karlovsky 1971: fig. 2C Shahr-i-Soktha Stamp seal shaped like a foot. 
    Shahdad seal (Grave 78). It is significant that a footprint is used as a seal at Shahdad. The glyph is read rebus as rebus word for 'iron':

    Rebus readings:

    Glyph: meṭṭu  ‘foot’. Rebus: me  ‘iron’ (Ho.Mu.) dula ‘pair’ (Kashmiri); dul ‘cast (metal)(Santali). Six legs of a lizard is an enumeration of six ‘portable furnaces’ ; rebus: kakra. ‘lizard’; kan:gra ‘portable furnace’. bhaṭa ‘six’ (G.) rebus: baṭa = kiln (Santali); baṭa = a kind of iron (G.) bhaṭṭhī f. ‘kiln, distillery’, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ‘furnace’, bhaṭṭhā m. ‘kiln’; S. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ‘distil (spirits)’. Read rebus as : dul (pair) meḍ ‘cast iron’; kan:gra bhaṭa ‘portable furnace’.

    Tepe Yahya. Two sides of Tepe Yahya (‘weight’?) fragment apparently reused as door socket during IVB times. One side depicts palms, and the other has a representation of a humped bull with a scorpion set above its back.

    Glyph: ‘foot, hoof’: Glyph: ‘hoof’: Ku. khuṭo ʻ leg, foot ʼ, °ṭī ʻ goat's leg ʼ; N. khuṭo ʻ leg, foot ʼ(CDIAL 3894). S. khuṛī f. ʻ heel ʼ; WPah. paṅ. khūṛ ʻ foot ʼ. khura m. ʻ hoof ʼ KātyŚr̥. 2. *khuḍa -- 1 (khuḍaka -- , khula° ʻ ankle -- bone ʼ Suśr.). [← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 376: it belongs to the word -- group ʻ heel <-> ankle -- knee -- wrist ʼ, see *kuṭṭha -- ](CDIAL 3906). Ta. kuracu, kuraccai horse's hoof. Ka. gorasu, gorase, gorise, gorusu hoof.  Te. gorija, gorise, (B. also) gorije, korije id. / Cf. Skt.khura- id. (DEDR 1770). Allograph: (Kathiawar) khũṭ m. ʻ Brahmani or zebu bull ʼ (G.) Rebus: khũṭ  ‘community, guild’ (Santali)

    Alternative reading: meṭ sole of foot, footstep, footprint (Ko.); meṭṭu step, stair, treading, slipper (Te.)(DEDR 1557). Rebus: मेढ ‘merchant’s helper’ (Pkt.); me  ‘iron (Munda).


    Source: Jarrige, Catherine, Jean-François Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron, editors (1995/1996) Mehrgarh: Field Reports 1974-1985 - From Neolithic Times to the Indus Civilization. The Reports of Eleven Seasons of Excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan, by the French Archaeological Mission to Pakistan. Sindh, Pakistan: The Department of Culture and Tourism, Government of Sindh, Pakistan, in Collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    The text on pg. 326 says:

    6.6. Terracotta
    Pawns, small wheels, spindle whorls, rattles (fig. 7.32C), sling-balls, and two crucibles, all in terracotta, were collected, together with a large number of discs formed from potsherds. One of the rattles with circular impressions on its surface is very similar to a specimen from a deposit of Period VIII at Mehrgarh, and another one, so far exceptional, bears incised signs and dots that could represent numbers (fig. 7.31C, 7.32C).

    6.7. Seals
    The seals are of two types. The most common type is the compartmented seal in bronze or in stone. Three specimens have a triangular shape while a terracotta cake bears several imprints of a square-shaped seal with a cruciform motif (fig. 7.31A). The second type is represented by a single piece, a black steatite cylinder seal with knob (fig. 7.31D). It was engraved with the representation of a zebu facing a lion and, on the base, a scorpion. This cylinder seal was found associated with two beads in black steatite and must have been part of a necklace as indicated by its suspension hole. This seal is very similar to a few cylinder seals found in Margiana, in particular at the site of Taip, where such objects are considered to reveal
    Mesopotamian influence. One seal from Taip bears the representation of a zebu.

    6.8. Copper/Bronze
    In the same square (2K) where the cylinder seal was found, a bronze shaft-holed axe-adze of a type also often found in the Murghabo-Bactrian area was discovered (fig. 7.32B). A famous example of such an axe-adze comes from Mohenjo-daro. Other objects in bronze or copper include a few pins.

    6.9. Figurines
    Terracotta figurines, all made of sherd-tempered ware, were found in large numbers (fig. 7.32B). The main type is a "violin-shaped" female figurine. Eyes and breasts are "applique" as is the coiffure in some cases. Some of the figurines also bear necklaces or ornaments represented by small incised holes. Most of the time, however, only indications of sex are represented including applique breasts and small incised points marking the pubic area and the armpits. This violin-shaped type of figurine is quite original although it does have parallel among a few specimens from sites in the lower Murghab Delta and from later contexts at Pirak and in India (Navdatoli).

    A second type of figurine is represented by a seated callipyge individual while a third type is a standing, flat figurine with small applique breasts. In contrast to the large number of human figurines, very few animal figurines (three humped bulls and some others more difficult to identify) were found.

    In Jarrige, Jean-François (1994) The final phase of the Indus occupation a Nausharo and its connection with the following cultural complex of Mehrgarh VIII. In: Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio, eds., South Asian Archaeology 1993, Volume 1, pp. 295-313. Hesinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, Jarrige discusses relations between Central Asia, Balochistan, and the Indus Valley.

    Scanned pages: pp. 360-361 (Sibri1996.pdf)