Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel


Embed this content in your HTML

Search

Report adult content:

click to rate:

Account: (login)

More Channels


Channel Catalog


Channel Description:

A homage to Hindu civilization.
    0 0

    La Genetique Scandale By P. Priyadarshi




     PART 2
    Manipulation with data and Concoction
    The Defective Design of Research: Systemic Bias
    Bias in the modern scientific researches and concluding narratives is the rule rather than exception (Mullane and Williams, Eds., Biochemical Pharmacology, Elsevier Journal, 2013; Smith and Noble, British Medical Journal, 2014; Pannuki and Wilkins, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2010). Narasimhans’ paper is the first class example of how biases can be operative at all the levels and stages of research. If all the manipulations and biases in the book is listed it will form a 1000 page volume, which is not my intention to do. Because will consume at least one year of my time writing all that. Some very obvious things, which even lay readers can understand will be noted below.
    The Admixture Analysis and the Identification of Component
    In the admixture Analysis presented by them, they have identified some primary components or populations genetically, which were to act as components for the formation of other populations by admixture later in the history. We shall first see only three of them :
    Line 197 (BioRxive) . “Iranian agriculturalist-related”: represented by 8th millennium BCE pastoralists from the Zagros Mountains of Iran (17, 18)
    Line 201 (ibid). “West Siberian Hunter-Gatherer (West_Siberian_HG)-related”: a newly documented deep source of Eurasian ancestry represented here by three samples
    Line 204 (ibid) . “Ancient Ancestral South Indian (AASI)-related”: a hypothesized South Asian Hunter-Gatherer lineage related deeply to present-day indigenous Andaman Islanders (19) [The Narasimhans have used the DNA of the ONGE Tribe of the Andaman Islands to represent this gene pool.]
    ONGE
    The Narasimhans (a handy word in lieu of Narasimhan and colleagues) have identified Ancient Ancestral South Asian- (AASI)-related population by the modern Onge tribe’s genome, which live in the Andaman Islands today, and which are genetically related to the Papua New Guinea tribal peoples from the antiquity. Surprisingly the Narasimhans’ hypothesise that there were people having the identical genomic constitution as the modern Onge living in India until the Iranians and the steppe people arrived into India. These Indians have been labelled as the AASI in the paper. These people admixed with Iranian and mid-to-late BA steppe genetic group to produce the modern Indian populations, Narasimhans conclude.
    In their hypothesis the admixture of the Onge-genome with the Iranian gave rise to the South Indian (Dravidian) population; and the admixture of this with the Middle-to-late-Bronze Age steppe population gave rise to the North Indian (Aryan) population, they hypothesize. In other words it is the resurrection of Elamite theory of the origin of Dravidian in addition to the Aryan Invasion Theory.
    However the real story is different. Onge people could have been of the same genetic composition as the Indians about 70,000 to 50,000 years back, but not today, not even 10,000 years before today. These people (Onge) are the remnants of the people who migrated to these Islands and also to the southeast Asia about 70,000 to 50,000 years back. Some had stayed in India. Some had arrived into Andaman (ancestors of the Onge and Jorwa); and some others would migrate eastward towards Papua New Guinea and Australia. Thus the Onge separated from the rest of the humanity about 50,000 to 70,000 years ago, noted Thangaraj et al (2005) in their genetic study: This was the same time when the Australians (and the Papuans) separated from the rest of the humanity. They are considered Australasian family, and must be considered much more remotely connected to the Ancient Ancestral South Asians than the European Cro-Magnons, Siberians, Iranians and the Central Asians who branched off from the main basal Eurasian trunk much later than the Onge did.
    It is useful here to recollect what Thangaraj wrote about the Onge: “Our data indicate that two ancient maternal lineages, M31 and M32 in the Onge and the Great Andamanese, have evolved in the Andaman Islands independently from other South and Southeast Asian populations. These lineages have likely been isolated since the initial penetration of the northern coastal areas of the Indian Ocean by anatomically modern humans, in their out-of-Africa migration –50 to 70 thousand years ago.” [Thangaraj et al, 2005, Reconstructing the Origin of Andaman Islanders, Science, 308 (5724): 996.]
    Thangaraj also noted that over the period of time the genetic composition of the populations of the Andaman-Onge and Indian-Mainland population drifted from each other due to changes taking place in the two independently. They note: “Analysis of the complete mtDNA sequences shows that none of the coding region mutations defining these two haplogroups overlap with the known Indian or East Asian mtDNA haplogroups (1–5). In our survey of 6500 mtDNA sequences from mainland India, none of the M lineages carried the coding region mutations specific to M31 and M32 (6).” (Thangaraj 2005). Thus we can see that genetically the Onge had deviated a lot from mainland India over the last 50,000 years of the separation. The Onge people are short-stature and dark skinned.
    Thus considering Onge as the Indian population at the onset of Neolithic marred the total work, and vitiated all the results. Instead of considering the Onge as single component, their admixture analysis found that it is an admixture of Iranian DNA. This error occurred because the authors failed to recognise that the Onge and the Iranians both had split from the mainland Indians, although in different eras. Hence there must be some elements common in the three the Iranian, the Mainland Indian and the Onge populations. However there would be some portions which would be distinct in the three populations.
    PC2 S3.37 Page 166 supplement enlarge
    Figure: Onge as shown in the Admixture Analysis in the Figure S3.37; page 166 of the Supplement of the Narasimhan et al. Onge highlighted and pointed out by us. In this figure, Onge has almost the same components as the Mala, Irula, Shaidu-Sharif (Iron Age_0) and Shahar-i-Sokhta BA3, except that the latter ones have greater proportions of the Iranian component.
    This failure to appreciate some commonality (due to origin) between Indian and Iranian DNAs resulted in considering the Iranian farmers as unmixed pure component. It was also compounded by the false and erroneous belief that nobody could ever have gone out of India. In an effort at negating the Indian components in the Iranian Agriculturists the authors used the parameters in such way as that it read Iranian Agriculturists made up of a single component, coloured teal (light blue) in the Admixture Analysis.
    Such distortion in the calibration vitiated the whole result in such a way that the mono-component genomes of the Onge (Andamanese) started showing made up of two components. One of them was blue (Iranian Agriculturists) as depicted in the histogram above.
    How it happened can be seen in the figure below:
    Onge and Ganj Dareh relationship
    Figure: Onge (Andaman) as depicted in Admixture Analysis by Narasimhan, and as in reality it should have been. Commonality between Ganj Dareh (Iranian Agricult.) and Onge (Andaman) only means that a large proportion of the gene in the Ganj Dareh was same as Ancient Ancestral South Asians, today represented in mainland India by Mala, Irula etc, and in the Andaman as Onge. The Ancient Iranian Agriculturists have been shown as light blue (teal) colour and the Andaman-Onge are half light-blue (teal) and half yellow.
    Iranian (Jagros Neolithic): Ganj Dareh
    The Ganj Dareh has been postulated as the one of the principal components in the Narasimhan study. However it has clear ancestry from Northwest Indian sub-continent, where Pakistan is located today. Narasimhan’s picture itself shows that the Ganj Dareh is only a sub-set of the larger set which is Onge, Mala etc Indian samples.
    Unfortunately for the Narasimhans, the Ganj Dareh (Iran Neolithic) DNA was studied by another group of workers whose work was published in the Nature (which is not a biased journal like Science) found that:
    “The mitochondrion of GD13a (91.74X) was assigned to haplogroup X, most likely to the subhaplogroup X2, which has been associated with an early expansion from the Near East and has been found in early Neolithic samples from Anatolia, Hungary and Germany.” (Llorente 2016)
    “GD13a did not cluster with any other early Neolithic individual from Eurasia in any of the analyses.” (Llorente 2016)
    [Interpretation: We need to remember that no South Asian Neolithic DNA has been reported so far. Thus if GD13a a matched none, possibly only one which remains to be tried is the South Asian Neolithic DNA.]
    “We further investigated the relationship between GD13a and Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers using D-statistics to test whether they formed a clade to the exclusion of other ancient and modern samples (Table S4). A large number of Western Eurasian samples (both modern and ancient) showed significant excess genetic affinity to the Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers, whilst none did with GD13a. Overall, these results point to GD13a having little direct genetic input into later European populations compared to its northern neighbours.” (Llorente 2016)
    [Interpretation: Thus the oldest Iranian Agriculturists of the Ganj Dareh had not directly migrated to Europe, although their mitochondrial DNA X2 certainly contributed to the modern European population. Other studies have shown (see below) that the Iranian Neolithic DNAs had migrated to Levant and Anatolia, and the Caucasus as well as the steppe. Clearly the Ganj Dareh DNAs were not the gross representative of the Iranian Neolithic, but they represent a segment which was very small and did not make much impact on later Europe, Caucasus or the steppe. It might have represented just a small number of the emigrants from a single village in Baluchistan or other part of the northwest South Asia, and might have represented only a tiny fraction of genetic variation which South Asia had at that time. On the other hand the people reaching the other locations in Zagros (Iran) at Neolithic might have originate from other villages of Pakistan/ Afghanistan resulting in the difference in the genetic composition within the Zagros Neolithic populations.]
    “The individual analysed here was part of burial 13, which contained three individuals, and was recovered in level C in 1971 from the floor of a brick-walled structure. The individual sampled, 13A (referred to as GD13a throughout the text), was a 30–50 year old female; the other individuals in the burial unit were a second adult (13B) and an adolescent (13). The site has been directly dated to 9650–9950 cal BP, and shows intense occupation over two to three centuries. The economy of the population was that of pastoralists with an emphasis on goat herding7. Archaeobotanical evidence is limited but the evidence present is for two-row barley with no evidence for wheat, rye or other domesticates. This implies that the overall economy was at a much earlier stage in the development of cereal agriculture than that found in the Levant, Anatolia and Northern Mesopotamian basin.” (Llorente 2016)
    [Interpretation: This information refutes the claim by the Narasimhans that the Mehrgarh farming culture had been borrowed from Anatolia (Turkey) through Iran (Ganj Dareh). The date cited above gives a date of 7,850 BC (mean). It may be noted that the Mehrgarh oldest layer has a date of 8,707 BC (mean).
    While the Ganj Dareh Iranian people had only two-row barley (see above) at 7850 BC, the Mehrgarh had six-row barley at 8700 BC, which is an advanced stage of agricultural development and domestication of barley (Upinder Singh 120; Jarrige 2008). Jarrige wrote citing Lorenzo Costantini:
    “Lorenzo Costantini has shown that the plant assemblage of Period I is dominated by naked six-row barley which accounts for more than 90% of the so far recorded seeds and imprints. He has also pointed out the sphaerococcoid form of the naked-barley grains with a short compact spike with shortened internodes and small rounded seeds.
    According to him, such characteristics in the aceramic Neolithic levels can be ascribed to probably cultivated but perhaps not fully domesticated plants. Domestic hulled six-row barley (H. vulgare, subsp. vulgare) and wild and domestic hulled two-row barley (H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum and H. vulgare subsp. distichum) have also been recorded, but in much smaller quantities. According to Zohary quoted by R.H. Meadow, the distribution of wild barley extends today to the head of the Bolan Pass. It is therefore likely that local wild barleys could have been brought under cultivation in the Mehrgarh area. Costantini has also identified a small amount of domestic einkorn (hulled: Triticum monococcum), domestic emmer (hulled: T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum) and a free-threshing form which can be referred to as Triticum durum (Fig. 10). ” (Jarrige 2006)
    Thus these people of Iran had arrived here about 1000 years after the Mehrgarh took off. The Ganj Dareh site had been occupied by only a short period of 100 to 300 years (mean 200 years). On the other hand the Mehrgarh shows a continuous occupation till late. It may be noted that the domestication of the goat is not possible to take place in 200 or 300 years and about a thousand years are required to give domestication features to the animal skeletons. Clearly the people of Ganj Dareh were not local, and had arrived from somewhere else.]
    “ADMIXTURE and outgroup f3 statistics identified Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers of Western Georgia, just north of the Zagros mountains, as the group genetically most similar to GD13a (Fig. 1B,C), whilst PCA also revealed some affinity with modern Central South Asian populations such as Balochi, Makrani and Brahui (Fig. 1A and Fig. S4).” (Llorente 2016)
    [It is possible to interpret it as the Ganj Darh coming from a region within the locations Brahui, Baluchistan and Makaran of South Asia, now in Pakistan. Mehrgarh was in Baluchistan.]
    “Also genetically close to GD13a were ancient samples from Steppe populations (Yamanya & Afanasievo) that were part of one or more Bronze age migrations into Europe, as well as early Bronze age cultures in that continent (Corded Ware) in line with previous relationships observed for the Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers.”
    [Yamnaya and Afanasievo of steppe/ Central Asia were much later than Ganj Dareh (Iran). The resemblance could be due to either the Iranian early farmers migrating into the steppe. But these people could have developed from the migrations from the northwest India/ Afghanistan/ Pamir region. The Pamir is a likely source of R1b which migrated by northern Iranian/ Turkmenistan wet corridor to south of Caspian and then from there to Armenia, Anatolia and then Southern, Western and Central Europe. Yamnaya and Afanasievo belong to R1b Y-DNA. See figures below.]
    Haplogroup_R1b
    Figure: Eupedia map of R1b distribution in Europe. It is dominant in those parts of Europe which speak Centum languages like Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Italic (French, Spanish, Portugese, Italian), Greek, Anatolian, Armenian and Germanic (English, Norwegian, German etc). The steppe language Tocharian was also Centum which was spoken by the Yamnaya and the Afanasievo people in the Bronze Age.
    Haplogroup_R1b_World
    Figure: source Eupedia. The R1b might have originated in the region to the north of Kashmir i.e. Tajikistan, and migrated through Tajikistan to Armenia and further. It also went to Central Africa. In steppe and Central Asia it was replaced by later arrivals in Late Bronze Age by the R1a, which is dominant only in the Satem speaking groups like Russian, Ukrainian, other Slavic, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, Iranian, Indic etc.
    Centum_Satem_map
    Figure: Source Wikipedia. Map showing distribution of Centum and Satem branches of Indo-European
    R1b-migration-map (1)
    Figure: R1b Migration map suggested by Eupedia
    R1b_Migrations
    Figure: R1b Migration map as suggested by Wiki
    Now we can also see regarding Ganj Darh what Llorente had to say further:
    “We further investigated the relationship between GD13a and Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers using D-statistics to test whether they formed a clade to the exclusion of other ancient and modern samples (Table S4). A large number of Western Eurasian samples (both modern and ancient) showed significant excess genetic affinity to the Caucasus Hunter-Gatherers, whilst none did with GD13a. Overall, these results point to GD13a having little direct genetic input into later European populations compared to its northern neighbours.” (Llorente 2016)
    [Later Europeans are products of another wave of migration namely R1b which came later in Bronze Age.]
    “Thus, GD13a is the descendant of a group that had relatively stable demography and
    did not suffer the bottlenecks that affected more northern populations.” (Llorente 2016) [Interpretation: This line points to India.]
    Normal Distribution Gauss 2
    Figure: It may be understood from the Gaussian Normal Distribution curve that it is quite normal finding in any normal data that the extremes look different. It does not mean that they belong to two populations. However the naïve would take them as two populations.
    What about other characters of the Ganj Dareh lady? Llorante noted the skin colour of the Ganj Dareh lady. :
    “She lacked the derived variant (rs16891982) of the SLC45A2 gene associated with light skin pigmentation but likely had at least one copy of the derived SLC24A5 allele (rs1426654) associated with the same trait. The derived SLC24A5 variant has been found in both Neolithic farmer and Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer groups5,15,24 suggesting that it was already at appreciable frequency before these populations diverged. Finally, she did not have the most common European variant of the LCT gene (rs4988235) associated with the ability to digest raw milk, consistent with the later emergence of this adaptation5,15,21.” (Llorante 2016).
    Clearly she had the light skin colour gene SLC24A5 allele which produces light skin colour in the Europeans and the Indians (Basu Mallik et al 2013). This gene was not found in the Europeans until late Bronze Age. It was not present in the La Branda human of 5000 BC. However it was found present in many European people between 3000 BC and 1000 BC (Allentoft). This means the Ganj Dareh were not ancestral to the early Neolithic people of north of Black Sea who entered East Europe replacing the hunter-gatherers at about 5000 BC. In my hypothesis the light skin colour gene SLC24A5 originated in South India long back, and it migrated to other places including even Ethiopia from India.
    Another worker Broushaki (2016) noted that the Iranian Neolithic people from Wezmeh Cave were related to the Pakistani and Afghan people particularly to the Zorastrians of Iran origin now living in India. “These people are estimated to have separated from Early Neolithic farmers in Anatolia some 46-77,000 years ago and show affinities to modern day Pakistani and Afghan populations, but particularly to Iranian Zoroastrians.” Clearly the Zagros (Iran) farmers had not arrived from Anatolian farmer community of the Anatolia Neolithic. In fact they are deeply related to Indian population.
    Wezmeh and Barcin
    Figure Neolithic Iran as compared to Indian genome by Broushaki 2016
    The Western Siberian Hunter Gatherers
    Narasimhans have selected the following samples as representing the West Siberian DNA:
    Sosnoviy-Ostrov, western Siberia, Russia (n=1); Tomsk10 (I5766): Date of 4230-3983 cal BCE (5261±33 BP, OxA-33486, d15N=+12.8 permil possible marine influence). Genetically female.; Tyumen Oblast, western Siberia, Russia (n=2) Tyumen1, Kurgan 1 (I1958): Date of 4723-4558 cal BCE (5805±25 BP, PSUAMS-2359), Genetically female; Tyumen50, Kurgan 6 (I1960): Date of 6361-6071 cal BCE [6335-6071 cal BCE (7330±40 BP, Poz-82198), 6361-6086 cal BCE (7355±40 BP, OxA-33489, d15N=+15.3 permil possible marine influence)]. Genetically female.
    West Siberia Tyumen oblast
    Location of Tyumen Oblast, the Ancient West Siberia HG genes
    These places Sosnoviy- Ostrov and Tyumen Oblast by foot are about 3400 kms to the north of Kabul. They had yellow colour (AASI, Indian, Onge) component about one third quantitatively in the Admixture Analysis. To mislead people denial of this fact was done, not by changing the colour of the component, but by considering it an entirely different component although it looked same as Indian.
    Steppe EMBA and West Siberia
    Figure: West Siberia admixture Analysis at the top. Source Narasimhan.
    Apart from this the Barros Damgard too have provided another set of histograms for the Admixture Analysis of the same populations, with locations marked. This is more honest and correct and not tampered with.
    Steppe aDNA
    Figure: Barros Damgaard 2018, Admixture Analysis, Science
    If rearranged, this picture gives the following outcomes:
    Cut paste matter copy 2
    This figure indicates that the Indian cline should be defined as East to South to Northwest in a folded shape or V shape. There is a gradual change in proportions of the golden, pink and teal (bluish-green) colours. Such arrangement indicates natural settlements with genetic movements not by migration but by the Brownian Movements of the genes.
    If any arrival takes place, there is a breach in the cline, in the same way as Broushaki got one between Zagros and Anatolia during the Neolithic.
    The further summations of the components indicates that the steppe may have originated from northwest India:
    Admixture Analysis 1
    Figure: Eastern Hunter Gatherer (Lake Baikal) plus Caucasus hunter gatherer gives if averaged, the Early Bronze Yamnaya.
    Admixture analysis 2
    Figure: Admixture Analysis, Early Bronze Age Yamnaya plus Early Bronze Age Anatolia averaged gives the Middle to Late Steppe population.
    Admixture Analysis 3
    Figure: MLBA steppe and Namazga Copper Age when averaged gives the Iron Age steppe culture.
    We know from other studies that lot of the ancient samples of Y-DNA H1 lineage, which is typically Indian and most probably of South Indian origin later expanding to North India, have been found from Eneolithic to Bronze Age periods from locations in Anatolia, Middle East (e.g. Namazga), and North of Mongolia (Lake Baikal region, Shamanka). Clearly Indians had been migrating to wider regions of Asia much before the steppe culture took off during the Bronze Age period. (See Supplementary matter Excel Table aar7711_Table 14, of Barros Damgaard, Science 2018).
    Thus we can conclude as this picture:
    Conclusions from Barrow Damgaard 2
    Figure: Barrow and Damgaard data rationally reorganised to produce understandable conclusions; (courtesy significant contribution from Dr Murali V.)
    The H1 had a sibling H2 which has been found from Neolithic of Levant and Anatolia, and Sardinia. It has also been found from West Lake Baikal Shamanka region from Eneolithic period (sample number DA339 in Barros Damgaard 2018, se table). H3 is another branch which is found in the Romany. The early branch H0 which had split the earliest from the main trunk of H is also found in India only.
    Poznik Figure 2 enla

    Family tree of Y-DNA H: Poznik 2016 Figure 2 enlarged



    0 0

    Probably one of its kind in India – Most intricate sculptures sculpted on BOTH sides of a 9 inches thick granite! 12th Ctry Kalyani Chalukya. Has anyone seen like this? Watch the video carefully!


    2,902 views
    0:11 / 0:11

    karā rebus: khār'blacksmith' .
    I submit that the breath-taking iconography is prayer by the artisan, seafaring maritime trade merchant to Varuṇa, the divinity of the ocean. The sculpture repeats the message on three stones of the stone.
    To the right of Varuṇa is Viṣṇu on Garuḍa. garua 'eagle' rebus: karaḍā 'hard alloy'.
    karat.i, karut.i, kerut.i fencing, school or gymnasium where wrestling and fencing are taught (Ta.); garad.i, garud.i fencing school (Ka.); garad.i, garod.i (Tu.); garid.i, garid.i_ id., fencing (Te.)(DEDR 1262). 
    Rebus 1: करडा [ karaḍā ] Hard fromalloy--iron, silver &c. Rebus 2: khara_di_ = turner (G.)

    वरुण N. of a partic. magical formula recited over weapons R. (v.l. वरण) Rebus: m. (once in the TA1r. वरुण्/अ) " All-enveloping Sky " , N. of an आदित्य (in the वेद commonly associated with मित्र [q.v.] and presiding over the night as मित्रover the day , but often celebrated separately , whereas मित्र is rarely invoked alone ; वरुण is one of the oldest of the Vedic gods , and is commonly thought to correspond to the ÎŸá½ÏÎ±Î½ÏŒÏ‚ of the Greeks , although of a more spiritual conception ; he is often regarded as the supreme deity , being then styled " king of the gods " or " king of both gods and men " or " king of the universe " ; no other deity has such grand attributes and functions assigned to him ; he is described as fashioning and upholding heaven and earth , as possessing extraordinary power and wisdom called माया , as sending his spies or messengers throughout both worlds , as numbering the very winkings of men's eyes , as hating falsehood , as seizing transgressors with his पाश or noose , as inflicting diseases , especially dropsy , as pardoning sin , as the guardian of immortality ; he is also invoked in the वेद together with इन्द्र , and in later Vedic literature together with अग्नि , with यम , and with विष्णु ; in RV. iv , 1 , 2, he is even called the brother of अग्नि; though not generally regarded in the वेद as a god of the ocean , yet he is often connected with the waters , especially the waters of the atmosphere or firmament , and in one place [ RV. vii , 64 , 2] is called with मित्र , सिन्धु-पति , " lord of the sea or of rivers " ; hence in the later mythology he became a kind of Neptune , and is there best known in his character of god of the ocean ; in the MBh. वरुण is said to be a son of कर्दम and father of पुष्कर , and is also variously represented as one of the देव-गन्धर्वs , as a नाग , as a king of the नागs , and as an असुर ; he is the regent of the western quarter [cf. लोक-पाल] and of the नक्षत्र शतभिषज् [ VarBr2S. ] ; the जैनs consider वरुण as a servant of the twentieth अर्हत् of the present अवसर्पिणीRV. &c &c (cf. IW.10 ; 12 &c ); the ocean; water; pl. (prob.) the gods generally AV. iii , 4 , 6 (Monier-Williams)


    0 0

    https://tinyurl.com/y8f8jftd
    --with River Sarasvati as the principal riverine navigable waterway & with over 2000 ancient settlement sites on Sarasvati River Basin on Ancient Maritime Riverine Tin Route Himalayan waterways, Indian Ocean Rim

    S. Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Centre


    The thesis of this monograph is that 1. Indian Ocean Rim and Himalayan riverine waterways constituted the maritime trade route linking Hanoi (Vietnam) and Haifa (Israel) in 3rd millennium BCE, an ancient Maritime Tin Route which pre-dated Silk Road by two millennia; and 2. evidences for guilds of metalwork artisans and seafaring merchants of Ancient India, establish the contributions of the guilds to creating Wealth of Nations.


    In this mnograph, literary, hydrological, archaeo-metallurgical and archaeological evidences are organized in three sections.


    The re-discovery of Vedic River Sarasvati in North-West Bharat is an epochal mission which redefines the identity of present-day Bharatiya-s. The decipherment of over 8000 inscriptions of the Sarasvati Civilization has firmly anchored the writing system to a documentation of wealth-accounting ledgers and metalwork catalogues of the Tin-Bronze Revolution from 3rd millennium BCE. The artisans and seafaring merchants mediated the maritime trade transaction for nearly two millennia linking Ancient Far East and Ancient Near East.


    Image result for indus sites

    Indian Remote Sensing IRS Wide-Field Senso (WiFS) image showing palaeochannel signature -- From Himalayas to Rann of Kutch, Gujarat





    0 0


    Reliquary "The goose once contained a gold strip bearing an inscription, now lost (see Bibliographic field for details). The object itself is not inscribed. The text states that a relic of the Buddha was placed in the goose reliquary for the benefit of Sira's parents in a future existence." Why was the Anser indicus, bar-headed goose chosen to signify the after-life of Sira's parents? The answer is provided by Indian sprachbund expression hamsa which has two meanings: 1. Anser indicus, bar-headed goose; 2. du. " the universal and the individual ātman " ; accord. to Sāyaa, resolvable into अहं स , " I am that ". 

     Bar-headed Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpgBar-headed goose (Anser indicus) is a goose that breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes and winters in South Asia, as far south as peninsular India. It lays three to eight eggs at a time in a ground nest.
    हंस m. (ifc. f(). ; accord. to Un2. iii , 62 fr. √1. हन् , " to go? ") a goose , gander , swan , flamingo (or other aquatic bird , considered as a bird of passage ; sometimes a mere poetical or mythical bird , said in RV. to be able to separate सोम from water , when these two fluids are mixed , and in later literature , milk from water when these two are mixed ; also forming in RV. the vehicle of the अश्विन्s , and in later literature that of ब्रह्मा ; ifc. also = " best or chief among ") RV. &c
    Rebus: the soul or spirit (typified by the pure white colour of a goose or swan , and migratory like a goose ; sometimes " the Universal Soul or Supreme Spirit " , identified with विराज् , नारायण , विष्णु , शिव , काम , and the Sun ; du. " the universal and the individual Spirit " ; accord. to Sa1y. resolvable into अहं स , " I am that ") Up. MBh. Hariv. &c; a man of supernatural qualities born under a partic. constellation VarBr2S; a spiritual preceptor  (Monier-Williams)
    Full: Front















    Full Front
    Front:Bottom
    • Object type

    • Museum number

      1867,0427.2
    • Description

      Bird, probably a goose, carved in rock crystal.
      The bird was found inside BM 1867.0427.1 and contained an inscription (lost). The globular hollow body is open at the top with a rim of rounded section except at the back where it may have been partly flattened in antiquity, perhaps for a lid; a thin hole in the centre of the junction of the tail with the body may have served to attach it. The head is joined to the body by a short neck, and the head has protruding eyes and a broad bill. At the sides projections of oval outline with a cross-hatched band forward and with horizontal grooves to the back (that is, coverts and flight feathers) represent wings, and the tail has regular straight grooves at right angles to the body. The underside is clumsily pierced with two small holes at each side, with local damage to the surface, perhaps to attach legs.
    • School/style

    • Culture/period

    • Date

      • 1stC
    • Production place

      • Made in: Gandhara term details
      • (Asia,South Asia,Pakistan,North West Frontier Province,Gandhara)
    • Findspot

    • Materials

    • Technique

    • Dimensions

      • Height: 3.8 centimetres
      • Diameter: 3.4 centimetres (maximum)
      • Length: 10 centimetres (max.)
      • Width: 6.9 centimetres
    • Inscriptions

        • Inscription Type

          inscription
        • Inscription Script

          Kharoshthi
        • Inscription Comment

          The goose once contained a gold strip bearing an inscription, now lost (see Bibliographic field for details). The object itself is not inscribed. The text states that a relic of the Buddha was placed in the goose reliquary for the benefit of Sira's parents in a future existence.
    • Curator's comments

      Zwalf 1996:
      For the discovery and findspot see BM 1867.0427.1. The goose is said to have lain inverted on the central cone of BM 1867.0427.1 (Loewenthal, 1861: 413: Mitra. 1862: 176). For apparently comparable finds see Pearse, 1865: 113, who states that they are common; Cunningham, 1871: 131, 142. For the inscription see Konow, 1929: 83-6 and pl. XVII. I with references and discussion of the goose as symbol for the soul. For a further comment in this connection see Kottkamp. 1992: 64-5 and fn.Zwalf 1985
      This hollowed goose has a circular body with projections forming the head, neck, wings and tail. The wings and tail have incised lines and cross-hatching; the bottom of the body is pierced with two pairs of small holes. When found the goose contained an inscribed gold plate, now lost, which has been translated as meaning that a relic of the Buddha was placed in the goose by one Sirā for her parents' benefit in a future existence.
    • Bibliography

      • Zwalf 1985 5 bibliographic details
      • Zwalf 1996 657 bibliographic details
      • Koezuka (1994) 74 bibliographic details
      • Errington 1987 p.431 bibliographic details
      • Konow 1929 Pp. 83-6, pl. XVII.1 bibliographic details
    • Location

      Not on display
    • Exhibition history

      Exhibited:
      Buddhism: Art and Faith (BM, 1985) 1994, Kyoto National Museum, Masterpieces of Buddhist and Hindu Sculpture from the British Museum
      1994, Tokyo, Tobu Museum of Art, Masterpieces of Buddhist and Hindu Sculpture from the British Museum 2001 29 Jul-2 Sept, Nara, National Museum; The Aesthetics of Buddhist Relic Worship
    • Condition

      1.Crystal, chipped, cracked and discoloured. 2.Large internal fault or crack from neck to one side shows yellowish discoloration. 3.Proper left wing chipped and end of wing now lost.
    • Subjects

    • Associated names

    • Associated places

      • Used at: Taxila term details
      • (Asia,South Asia,Pakistan,Punjab,Rawalpindi District,Taxila (Gandhara))
    • Acquisition date

      1867
    • Acquisition notes

      Purchased from M. Caspari.
    • Department

      Asia
    • Registration number

      1867,0427.2
    • Additional IDs


    0 0


    Discovery of tin-bronzes was momentous in progressing the Bronze Age Revolution of 4th millennium BCE. This discovery created hard alloys combining copper and tin. This discovery was also complemented by the discovery of writing systems to trade in the newly-produced hard alloys.The discovery found substitute hard alloys, to overcome the scarcity of naturally occurring arsenical copper or arsenical bronzes. The early hieroglyph signifiers of tin and copper on an ivory comb made by Meluhha artisans & seafaring merchants point to the contributions made by Bhāratam Janam (RV), ca. 3300 BCE to produce tin-bronzes. The abiding significance of the 'dotted circle' is noted in the continued use on early Punch-marked coins. 

    The dotted circle as a signifier of interactions between Meluhha and Gonur Tepe has been brilliantly analysed in the context of the following artifacts cited by Dennys Frenez in: Manufacturing and trade of Asian elephant ivory in Bronze Age Middle Asia. Evidence from Gonur Depe (Margiana, Turkmenistan) by Dennys Frenez (2017)
    https://www.academia.edu/34596109/Manufacturing_and_trade_of_Asian_elephant_ivory_in_Bronze_Age_Middle_Asia._Evidence_from_Gonur_Depe_Margiana_Turkmenistan
    https://tinyurl.com/y93voqz8

    Trefoil motifs are carved on the robe of the so-called "priest-king" statuette from Mohenjo-daro and are also known from contemporary sites in western Pakistan, Afghanistan, and  southern Central Asia.dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter' tri-dhAtu,'‘three minerals". त्रिधातु mfn. consisting of 3 parts , triple , threefold (used like Lat. triplex to denote excessive)RV. S3Br. v , 5 , 5 , 6; n. the aggregate of the 3 minerals.tri त्रिधा ind. in 3 parts, ways or places; triply, ˚त्वम् tripartition; Ch. Up. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼMBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ
    lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f.ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773) 

    त्रिधातुः is an epithet of Gaṇeśa. This may indicate three forms of ferrite ores: magnetite, haematite, laterite which were identified in Indus Script as poLa 'magnetite', bichi 'haematite' and goTa 'laterite'. 

    Rebus readings of Indus Script hieroglyphs may explain the त्रिधातुः epithet of Gaṇeśa: karibha 'elephant's trunk' rebus: karba 'iron' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'. 

    It has been suggested at 
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/11/trefoil-of-indus-script-corpora-and.html?view=sidebar that the trefoil decorating the shawl of the 'priest-king' of Mohenjo-daro is a cross-sectional signifier of three strands of rope.

    Thus, a dotted circle is signified by the word: dhāī  'wisp of fibre' (Sindhi). 

     Single strand (one dotted-circle)

    Two strands (pair of dotted-circles)

    Three strands (three dotted-circles as a trefoil)
    These orthographic variants provide semantic elucidations for a single: dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'red stone mineral' or two minerals: dul PLUS dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'cast minerals' or tri- dhātu,      -dhāū, -dhāv 'three minerals' to create metal alloys'. The artisans producing alloys are dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻa caste of iron -- smeltersʼ, dhāvḍī ʻcomposed of or relating to ironʼ)(CDIAL 6773).
    dām 'rope, string' rebus: dhāu 'ore'  rebus: मेढा [mēḍhā] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi). Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic) mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda).

    Semantics of single strand of rope and three strands of rope are: 1. Sindhi dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, Lahnda dhāī˜ id.; 2. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ (RigVeda)



    I suggest that this fillet (dotted circle with a connecting strand or tape is the hieroglyph which signifies धातु (Rigveda) dhāu (Prakrtam) 'a strand' rebus: element, mineral ore. This hieroglyph signifies the पोतृ,'purifier' priest of dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelters' of dhāū, dhāv 'red stone minerals'. 
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/11/priest-of-dhavad-iron-smelters-with.html Orthography of the 'dotted circle' is representation of a single strand: dhāu rebus: dhāū 'red stone minerals. 
    Ta. vaṭam cable, large rope, cord, bowstring, strands of a garland, chains of a necklace; vaṭi rope; vaṭṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to tie. Ma. vaṭam rope, a rope of cowhide (in plough), dancing rope, thick rope for dragging timber. Ka. vaṭa, vaṭara, vaṭi string, rope, tie. Te. vaṭi rope, cord. Go. (Mu.) vaṭiya strong rope made of paddy straw (Voc. 3150). Cf. 3184 Ta. tār̤vaṭam. / Cf. Skt. vaṭa- string, rope, tie; vaṭāraka-, vaṭākara-, varāṭaka- cord, string; Turner, CDIAL, no. 11212. (DEDR 5220)  vaṭa2 ʻ string ʼ lex. [Prob. ← Drav. Tam. vaṭam, Kan. vaṭivaṭara, &c. DED 4268]N. bariyo ʻ cord, rope ʼ; Bi. barah ʻ rope working irrigation lever ʼ, barhā ʻ thick well -- rope ʼ, Mth. barahā ʻ rope ʼ.(CDIAL 11212)


    I suggest that the expression dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter' signified by trefoil or three strands is a semantic duplication of the parole words:

    dhāī 'wisp of fibre' PLUS vaṭa, vaṭara, vaṭi string, rope, tie. Thus, it is possible that the trefoil as a hieroglyph-multiplex was signified in parole 

    by the expression dhā̆vaḍ 'three strands' rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter'.


    The shawl decorated with dhā̆vaḍ 'trefoil' is a hieroglyph: pōta 'cloth' rebus: 

    पोता पोतृ, 'purifier' in a yajna. போற்றி pōṟṟi, போத்தி pōtti Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். Marathi has a cognate in 
    पोतदार [pōtadāra] m ( P) An officer under the native governments. His business was to assay all money paid into the treasury. He was also the village-silversmith. 

    The shawl decorated with dhā̆vaḍ 'trefoil' is a hieroglyph: pōta 'cloth' rebus: 
    पोता पोतृ, 'purifier' in a yajna. போற்றி pōṟṟi, போத்தி pōtti Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். Marathi has a cognate in 
    पोतदार [pōtadāra] m ( P) An officer under the native governments. His business was to assay all money paid into the treasury. He was also the village-silversmith. 

    पोतृ पु० पुनाति पु--तृन् । ऋत्विग्मेदे अच्छावाकशब्दे ८५ पृ० दृश्यम् । होत्रादिशब्देन द्वन्द्वे ऋत आत् । पोताहोतारौ ।
    पोता, [ऋ] पुं, (पुनातीति । पू + “नप्तृनेष्टृ-त्वष्टृहोतृपोतृभ्रातृजामातृमातृपितृदुहितृ ।”उणा० २ । ९६ । इति तृन्प्रत्ययेन निपात्यते ।) विष्णुः । इति संक्षिप्तसारोणादिवृत्तिः ॥ऋत्विक् । इति भूरिप्रयोगः ॥ (यथा, ऋग्वेदे ।४ । ९ । ३ ।“स सद्म परि णीयते होता मन्द्रो दिविष्टिषु ।उत पोता नि षीदति ॥”)

    https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/शब्दकल्पद्रुमः पोतृ [p= 650,1] प्/ओतृ or पोतृm. " Purifier " , N. of one of the 16 officiating priests at a sacrifice (the assistant of the Brahman ; = यज्ञस्य शोधयिट्रि Sa1y. )
     RV. Br. S3rS. Hariv. N. of विष्णु L. पौत्रपोत्री f. N. of दुर्गा Gal. (cf. पौत्री). pōtṛ


    पोतृ m. One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्). पोत्रम् [पू-त्र] The office of the Potṛi. ब्रह्मन् m. one of the 4 principal priests or ऋत्विज्as (the other three being the होतृ , अध्वर्यु and उद्गातृ ; the ब्रह्मन् was the most learned of them and was required to know the 3 वेदs , to supervise the sacrifice and to set right mistakes ; at a later period his functions were based especially on the अथर्व-वेद) RV. &c होतृ m. (fr. √1. हु) an offerer of an oblation or burnt-offering (with fire) , sacrificer , priest , (esp.) a priest who at a sacrifice invokes the gods or recites the ऋग्-वेद , a ऋग्-वेद priest (one of the 4 kinds of officiating priest »ऋत्विज् , p.224; properly the होतृ priest has 3 assistants , sometimes called पुरुषs , viz. the मैत्रा-वरुण , अच्छा-वाक, and ग्रावस्तुत् ; to these are sometimes added three others , the ब्राह्मणाच्छंसिन् , अग्नीध्र or अग्नीध् , and पोतृ , though these last are properly assigned to the Brahman priest ; sometimes the नेष्टृ is substituted for the ग्राव-स्तुत्) RV.&c नेष्टृ  m. (prob. fr. √ नी aor. stem नेष् ; but cf. Pa1n2. 3-2 , 135 Va1rtt. 2 &c ) one of the chief officiating priests at aसोम sacrifice , he who leads forward the wife of the sacrificer and prepares the सुरा (त्वष्टृ so called RV. i , 15 ,3) RV. Br. S3rS. &c अध्वर्यु m. 
    one who institutes an अध्वर any officiating priest a priest of a particular class (as distinguished from the होतृ , the उद्गातृ , and the ब्रह्मन् classes. The अध्वर्युpriests " had to measure the ground , to build the altar , to prepare the sacrificial vessels , to fetch wood and water , to light the fire , to bring the animal and immolate it " ; whilst engaged in these duties , they had to repeat the hymns of the यजुर्-वेद , hence that वेद itself is also called अध्वर्यु)pl. (अध्वर्यवस्) the adherents of the यजुर्-वेद; उद्-गातृ m. one of the four chief-priests (viz. the one who chants the hymns of the सामवेद) , a chanterRV. ii , 43 , 2 TS. AitBr. S3Br. 
    Ka1tyS3r. Sus3r. Mn. &c अच्छा-वाकm. " the inviter " , title of a particular priest or ऋत्विज् , one of the sixteen required to perform the great sacrifices with the सोम juice. ग्रावन् m. a stone for pressing out the सोम (originally 2 were used RV. ii , 39 , 1 ; later on 4 [ S3a1n3khBr.xxix , 1] or 5 [Sch. on S3Br. &c ]) RV. AV. VS. S3Br.= ग्राव-स्त्/उत् Hariv. 11363

    pōtrá1 ʻ *cleaning instrument ʼ (ʻ the Potr̥'s soma vessel ʼ RV.). [√]Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ? -- Rather < *pōttī -- .(CDIAL 8404) *pōttī ʻ glass bead ʼ.Pk. pottī -- f. ʻ glass ʼ; S. pūti f. ʻ glass bead ʼ, P. pot f.; N. pote ʻ long straight bar of jewelry ʼ; B. pot ʻ glass bead ʼ, putipũti ʻ small bead ʼ; Or. puti ʻ necklace of small glass beads ʼ; H. pot m. ʻ glass bead ʼ, G. M. pot f.; -- Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ rather than < pōtrá --(CDIAL 8403) pōtana पोतन a. 1 Sacred, holy. -2 Purifying.

    Hence the importance of the office of Potr̥, 'Rigvedic priest of a yajna' signified as 'purifier', an assayer of dhāˊtu 'minerals.

     






    https://tinyurl.com/ycfaahgv


    Indus Script hypertext evidence from Gonur Tepe, Tell Abraq, Mohenjo-daro include the following; both relate to documented accounting ledgers of Tin-Bronze Age metalwork:

     

    1.Hieroglyph of tabernae montana on an ivory comb, on a bronze axe

    2.Hieroglyph of dotted circles on ivory combs and on ivory artifacts


    It is clear from the evidence that there was diffusion of metallurgical technologies between Meluhha artisans and Ancient Near East artisans.

     

    The hypertexts signify: 

    tabar = a broad axe (Punjabi). Rebus: tam(b)ra ‘copper’ tagara ‘tabernae montana’, ‘tulip’. Rebus: tagara ‘tin’.


    Terracotta sivalinga, Kalibangan.Shape of polished lingam found at Harappa is like the summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. Plate X(c), Lingam in situ in trench Ai (MS Vats, 1940, Exxcavations at Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta). In trenches III and IV two more stone lingams were found. (MS Vats, opcit., Vol. I, pp. 51-52). The Hindu traditional metaphor of s'iva is the glacial river Ganga emerging from locks of his hair as he sits in penance on summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. The metaphor results in Kailas in Ellora, showing Ravana lifting up the mountain 


    Two examples from Indus Script Corpora demonstrate that the 'signs''ligatured signs' and pictorial motifs (field symbols) are all hieroglyphs deployed to composed Indus Script Hypertexts in Meluhha to document wealth-producing metalwork activitries.


    See: Hieroglyph ḍhaṁkaṇa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article' proclamations on Indus Script  



    https://tinyurl.com/ybe89ee9



    Image result for pot with lid bharatkalyan97


    Pictorial motifs: erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying 
    uprooted trees] thwarted by a person in the middle with outstretched hands



    m0478B tablet erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying uprooted trees].Aaru twig; airi small and thin branch of a tree; aari small branches (Ka.); aaru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67). Aar = splinter (Santali); rebus: aduru = native metal (Ka.) Vikalpa: kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.) Rebus: kuhi = furnace (Santali) hakhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' (Maithili) era, er-a = eraka = ?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.) •era_ = claws of an animal that can do no harm (G.) •era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali) •Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.)  Hieroglyph: Looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.)


    heraka = spy (Skt.); eraka, hero = a messenger; a spy (Gujarati); er to look at or for (Pkt.); er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.) Rebus: erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.) eraka ‘copper’ (Kannada) 


    Hieroglyph: Looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali)  kola, ‘tiger, jackal’ (Kon.); rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith, ‘alloy of five metals, panchaloha’ (Tamil) kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kolami ‘smithy’ (Telugu) Hieroglyph: era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali)
    •Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Telugu) ḍhaṁkhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. Glyph: ‘impeding, hindering’: taṭu (Ta.) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Ta. taṭu (-pp-, -tt) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist. (DEDR 3031)



    The rim of jar PLUS lid is read as hypertext rebus as: dhakka karni 'bright metal supercargo'.




     kuṭhi karṇī, 'smelter accountant (supercargo)'dhakka karṇī m. ʻferry accountant (supercargo) at quay, wharfʼ.

    Image result for sign variants indus script rim of jarVariants of Sign 342



    This is an addendum to: 
    https://tinyurl.com/y95289xm
    The process deployed is सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined animal parts' to create a catalogue or list. Indus Script hypertext reads rebus sã̄gah, saṅgrahḥ संग्रहः 'catalogue, list' of metalwork artisan guild.
    When pictorial motifs provide catalogue items of wealth-accounting ledgers, ligaturing is the process deployed to create text expressions using hieroglyph-combinations.

    For example, on a unique seal the pictorial motifs (or field symbols) are fused with ligatured 'signs' to convey a unique message on an Indus inscription.


    See: 


     https://tinyurl.com/y8cpuzjv







    m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center points with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand points to the ligatured glyph. Side B: tiger, rhinoceros in procession. kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter', kol 'working in iron', kolle 'blacksmith' gaṇḍá4 m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ lex., °aka -- m. lex. 2. *ga- yaṇḍa -- . [Prob. of same non -- Aryan origin as khaḍgá --1: cf. gaṇōtsāha -- m. lex. as a Sanskritized form ← Mu. PMWS 138]1. Pa. gaṇḍaka -- m., Pk. gaṁḍaya -- m., A. gãr, Or. gaṇḍā. 2. K. gö̃ḍ m., S. geṇḍo m. (lw. with g -- ), P. gaĩḍā m., °ḍī f., N. gaĩṛo, H. gaĩṛā m., G. gẽḍɔ m., °ḍī f., M. gẽḍā m.Addenda: gaṇḍa -- 4. 2. *gayaṇḍa -- : WPah.kṭg. geṇḍɔ mirg m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ, Md. genḍā ← H. (CDIAL 4000). காண்டாமிருகம் kāṇṭā-mirukam , n. [M. kāṇṭāmṛgam.] Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Gujarati) Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)

    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Sign 15) gestured with the left hand. 

    The Pali expression usu -- kāraṇika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ provides the semantics of the word kāraṇika as relatable to a 'maker' of a product. usu-kāraṇika is an arrow-maker. Thus, kuTi kāraṇika can be explained as a smelter-maker. Supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. The Marathi word for Supercargo is: kārṇī . Thus, it can be suggested that kuTi kāraṇika was an ovrseer of the cargo (from smelter) on a merchantship. In the historical periods, the Supercargo has specific duties "The duties of a supercargo are defined by admiralty law and include managing the cargo owner's trade, selling the merchandise inports to which the vessel is sailing, and buying and receiving goods to be carried on the return voyage...A new supercargo was always appointed for each journey who also had to keep books, notes and ledgers about everything that happened during the voyage and trade matters abroad. He was to present these immediately to the directors of the Company on the ship's return to its headquarters ." 
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercargo While a captain was in charge of navigation, Supercargo was in charge of trade.

    कारण 1[p= 274,2] a number of scribes or कायस्थW. instrument , means;that on which an opinion or judgment is founded (a sin, mark; a proof; a legal instrument, document), Mn. MBh.


    कारणिक [p= 274,3] mfn. (g. काश्य्-ादि) " investigating , ascertaining the cause " , a judge Pan5cat. a teacher MBh. ii , 167.

    B. kerā ʻ clerk ʼ (kerāni ʻ id. ʼ < *kīraka -- karaṇika<-> ODBL 540): very doubtful. -- Poss. ← Ar. qāri', pl. qurrā'ʻ reader, esp. of Qur'ān ʼ.(CDIAL 3110) कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread', 'rim of jar', 'pericarp of lotus' karaṇī 'scribe, supercargo', kañi-āra 'helmsman'.  kāraṇika m. ʻ teacher ʼ MBh., ʻ judge ʼ Pañcat. [kā- raṇa -- ] Pa. usu -- kāraṇika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ; Pk. kāraṇiya -- m. ʻ teacher of Nyāya ʼ; S. kāriṇī m. ʻ guardian, heir ʼ; N. kārani ʻ abettor in crime ʼ; M. kārṇī m. ʻ prime minister, supercargo of a ship ʼ, kul -- karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ.(CDIAL 3058) kāraṇa n. ʻ cause ʼ KātyŚr. [√kr̥1Pa. kāraṇa -- n. ʻ deed, cause ʼ; Aś. shah. karaṇa -- , kāl. top. kālana -- , gir. kāraṇa -- ʻ purpose ʼ; Pk. kāraṇa -- n. ʻ cause, means ʼ; Wg. (Lumsden) "kurren"ʻ retaliation ʼ, Paš. kāran IIFL iii 3, 97 with (?); S. kāraṇu m. ʻ cause ʼ; L. kārnā m. ʻ quarrel ʼ; P. kāraṇ m. ʻ cause ʼ, N. A. B. kāran, Or. kāraṇa; Mth. kāran ʻ reason ʼ, OAw. kārana, H. kāran m., G. kāraṇ n.; Si. karuṇa ʻ cause, object, thing ʼ; -- postpositions from oblique cases: inst.: S. kāraṇikāṇe°ṇi ʻ on account of ʼ, L. awāṇ. kāṇAddenda: kāraṇa -- : Brj. kāran ʻ on account of ʼ.(CDIAL 3057) kiraka m. ʻ scribe ʼ lex.

    eraka 'raised arm' Rebus: eraka 'metal infusion' (Kannada. Tulu) 


    Sign 15:  kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka ‘smelting furnace account (scribe)’. 


    Thus, the hieroglyph multiplex on m1405 is read rebus from r.: kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka eraka bharata pattar'goldsmith-merchant guild -- helmsman, smelting furnace account (scribe), molten cast metal. Meaning of hypertexts so derived enable reading in Meluhha expressions and understanding of the purport of Indus Script inscriptions in the context of documenttion of wealth-accounting ledgers related to metalwork.



    Decipherment of Indus Script poses a challenge to historians and students of civilization studies to document the economic history along an Ancient Maritime Tin Route which predated Silk Road by two millennia, creating Arthaśāstra, study of the wealth of a nation. The Tin Route spans -- along the Indian Ocean Rim and Himalayan and Ancient Near Eastern navigable, riverine waterways -- a maritime regime ranging from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel).

    Indus Script Scribes are 4th millennium BCE कारणिका arbiters of metalwork wealth-accounting system symbolised by hieroglyph tagaraka tabernaemontana leguminous shrub. This tagaraka hieroglyph is documented on a potsherd dated to ca.3300 BCE at Harappa, signifying the world's early writing system  for a wealth-acounting system for a hypertext read rebus: tagara kolami 'tin smithy, forge'. The signifier of a smithy is a hieroglyph composed of three long linear strokes. Sign 102 which reads: kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus, smithy, forge is identified as a cluster subset. This cluster subset hieroglyph of Sign 102 'three' explains why tabernae montana hieroglyph is repeated thrice on the porsherd. The larger sets of wealth-creating metalwork are signified by over 100 field symbols which accompany such ciphertexts of accounting category clusters. 

    These larger sets of over 100 field symbols documented on Indus Script are presented in a separate addendum monograph supported by 
    1. over 1150 monographs at https://independent.academia.edu/SriniKalyanaraman and 
    2. over 8000 semantic clusters of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union) in Indian Lexicon of over 25+ ancient languages. 
    3. over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions presented in 3 volumes of Epigraphia Indus Script, Hypertexts and Meanings (2017)
     

    The thesis of this monograph is that Indus Script Scribes are कारणिका teachers, arbiters of metalwork wealth-accounting system. This is demonstrated in the context of the सांगड sāṅgaḍa system of cataloguing which is a 4th millennium BCE innovation of a wealth-accounting ledger entry system to document economic and mercantile transactions. 


    The underlying sign design principle सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined parts' is HTTP hypertext transfer protocol. A hypertext on an Indus Script inscription is composed of hieroglyphs joined together which are classified as both composite 'signs' and composite 'field symbols', for e.g.,: 1. on field symbols with composite animals such as hieroglyphs of a bovine body with bos indicus (zebu horns), ram (hoofs), cobrahood (tail), elephant trunk, human face, scarfs on neck,; and 2. on texts with hypertexts wich are composite hieroglyphs such as a water-carrier hieroglyph superscripted by a rim-of-jar hieroglyph. 


    It is indeed surprising that this design principle of Indus Script of the 4th millennium BCE is the underlying principle of the modern-day internet of things, cryptographic and computing systems with transmissions of overlaid texts, images, voice/video.

    This HTTP thesis is elaborated in falsifiable clusters of:

    1. semantics of the expression कारणिक a. (-का or -की f. a teacher MBh. ii , 167. कच्चित्कारणिका धर्मे सर्वशास्त्रेषु कोविदाः Mb.2.5.34.mfn. (g. काश्य्-ादि) " investigating , ascertaining the cause " , a judge (Pañcatantra)(Monier-Williams); Causal, causativ (Apte)

    2. clusters of accounting classifiers of metalwork wealth categories created by śreṇi, guilds of artisans/seafaring-merchants

    Introduction of a unique mercantile transaction system of jangaḍa, 'approval basis invoicing' is evidenced by the written ciphertext expressions of 'joined hieroglyphs': sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S) f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together.(Marathi). For example, Mohenjo-daro Seal m0296 is a सांगड sāṅgaḍa, 'a hypertext orthograph formed of two or more components linked together'. Rebus: sangraha, sangaha 'catalogue, list' Rebus also: sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati). samgraha, samgaha 'catalogue,list, arranger, manager' The earliest documented ledger entry is on a potsherd of Harappa dated in archaeological context by HARP to ca. 3300 BCE.
    Harappa potsherd (discovered by Harvard HARP archeaology team). Accounting ledger entry. kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' tagara 'tabernae montana' rebus: tagara 'tin'. तमर 'tin' (Monier-Williams). Thus,together the hypertext reds: tagara kolami'tin smithy, forge' 

    The orthography of the hieroglyph repeated thrice on the potsherd signified a leguminous herb, āhulyamआहुल्यम् N. of a leguminous shrub (तगर, तरवट &c.) 
    तगरक Tabernaemontana coronaria and a fragrant powder prepared from , it (वराह-मिहिर 's बृहत्-संहिताli)tagara1 n. ʻ the shrub Tabernaemontana coronaria and a fragrant powder obtained from it ʼ Kauś., °aka<-> VarBr̥S. [Cf. sthagara -- , sthakara -- n. ʻ a partic. fragrant powder ʼ TBr.] Pa. tagara -- n., Dhp. takara; Pk. tagara -- , ṭayara -- m. ʻ a kind of tree, a kind of scented wood ʼ; Si. tuvaratōra ʻ a species of Cassia plant. ʼ(CDIAL 5622)tagaravallī f. ʻ Cassia auriculata ʼ Npr. [tagara -- 1, vallī -- ]Si. tuvaralā ʻ an incense prepared from a species of Tabernaemontana ʼ. (CDIAL 5624) Rebus; Ta. takaram tin, white lead, metal sheet, coated with tin. Ma. takaram tin, tinned iron plate. Ko. tagarm (obl. tagart-) tin. Ka. tagara, tamara, tavara id. Tu. tamarů, tamara, tavara id. Te. tagaramu, tamaramu, tavaramu id. Kuwi (Isr.) ṭagromi tin metal, alloy. / Cf. Skt. tamara- id. (DEDR 3001)


    Related imagem0296 See: 


    Ten most frequently used signs, (listed in descending order of frequency from left to right).

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account,karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' (oval-/rhombus-shaped like a bun-ingot)


    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
     dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'


     khareḍo 'a currycomb' Rebus: करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) kharādī' turner, a person who fashions or shapes objects on a lathe ' (Gujarati) 


    Sign 67 khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭamcoinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236) PLUS ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]). Thus, ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metalmint'.
    kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Rebus: khaṇḍa, khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. kanda 'fire-altar'
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)
    eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper' arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass'. 
    Duplicated Sign 391 (as on Dholavira signboard) is read as: dula 'pair' rebus: dul'metal casting' of eraka 'moltencast copper', āra 'brass'. 

    An eleventh sign may be added to the list:
     Sign 123 is comparable to Sign 99 'splinter' hieroglyph. kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā kuṭhi metalware smelter.

     Variants of Sign 293 Sign 293 is a ligature ofSign 287 'curve' hieroglyph and 'angle' hieroglyph (as seen on lozenge/rhombus/ovalshaped hieroglyphs). The basic orthograph of Sign 287 is signifiedby the semantics of: kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith. Sign 293 may be seen as a ligature of Sign 287 PLUS 'corner' signifier: Thus, kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS kuṭila 'curve' rebus: kuṭila 'bronze/pewter' (Pewter is an alloy that is a variant brass alloy). The reading of Sign 293 is: kanac kuṭila 'pewter'.

    I find a surprisingly comparable Indus Script hieroglyphs.
     This 'sign' is a semantic expansion of the Sign 293 'curve +corner' duplicated, i.e.dula 'duplicated' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS kanac kuṭila 'pewter'. May signify pewter casting. Alternative: kaḍī a chain; a hook; a link (G.); kaḍum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaḍiyaṇa, kaḍiyeṇa a woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (Gujarati)

    h1028

    h1029
    Identical to h2049
    h2049a baṭa 'rimless, wide-mouthed pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' PLUS ḍabu 'an iron spoon' (Santali) Rebus: ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo 'lump (ingot?). Thus, together, furnace ingots

    The following 45 clusters of three consecutive signs (triplets) are examples of joined hieroglyph components to create a composite sign or ciphertext. Such 'joined hieroglyphs' exemplify sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S) f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together.(Marathi). Seal m0296 is a सांगड sāṅgaḍa, 'a hypertext orthograph formed of two or more components linked together'. Rebus: sangraha, sangaha 'catalogue, list' Rebus also: sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati). 

    Cluster1

     Sign 293 kanac kuṭila 'pewter'; kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace', 'factory';

    Sign 123 kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware.

    Sign 343 kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman' PLUS खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā karṇī 'metalware supercargo'.

    The inscription message:Pewter factory, smelter metalware,metalware supercargo.
    Sign 178 is a ligature of  'three short strokes' and 'crook' hieroglyph shown infixed with a circumscript of duplicated four short strokes as in Sign 179
    Sign 178 is: kolmo ‘three’ (Mu.); rebus: kolami ‘smithy’ (Telugu.) मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c.) and attrib. such a stick, horn, bullock. मेढा [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.(Marathi)(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Together: kolami meḍ 'iron smithy'.
    Sign 389 is a composite hypertext composed of Sign 169 infixed in 'oval/lozenge/rhombus' hieoglyph Sign 373. Sign 373 has the shape of oval or lozenge is the shape of a bun ingotmũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced atone time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed likea four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes andformed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt komūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, Sign 373 signifies word, mũhã̄ 'bun ingot'. 
    Sign 169 may be a variant of Sign 162. Sign kolmo 'rice plant' rebus:kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus, the composite hypertext of Sign 389 reads: mũhã̄ kolami 'ingot smithy/forge'.

    Cluster 2

    Sign 12 is kuṭi 'water-carrier' (TeluguRebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546)

    Sign 178 reads:  kolami meḍ 'iron smithy'
    Sign 389 reads: mũhã̄ kolami 'ingot smithy/forge'.

    Sign 15 reads: Sign 12 kuṭi 'water-carrier' (Telugu) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS Sign 342 kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'. Thus, the composite hypertext of Sign 15 reads: kuṭhi karṇika 'smelter helmsman/scribe/supercargo'.

    Cluster 3

      
    kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware. 
    kolami 'smithy/forge' (for)
    khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'implements, (from) smelter'.  

    ||| PLUSSign 190
    Ciphertext 190: Sprouts (in watery field), twigs: kūdī ‘bunch of twigs’ (Sanskrit) rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) PLUS gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar' khaṇḍa 'implements, metalware'.
    ||| Number three reads: kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus,the hypertext of Sign 190 PLUS numeral three reads: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (from) smelter'

    Variants of Sign 190

    h0048 Text of inscription: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (from) smelter'

    Shortugai, Bactria (Jarrige, 1984) Text of inscription: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (from) smelter'. The same expression is a field-ssymbol on B12 set of Mohenjo-daro copper plates (One example out of 205 copper plates;on the reverse tiger PLUS text). kola 'tiger' rebus:kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith'.

     B12 set of an example from 205 Mohenjo-daro copper plates


    Sign 123 kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware.
    Sign 102 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'


    Togetherwith Sign102 and Sign 190, the pair of hieroglyphs reads: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (with) smelter'.

    Thus, Sign 123 which occurs in hypertext Cluster 3 is a semantic determinative: that, the products documented and accounted for in samgara, 'catalogue' relate to smithy/forge implements (from) smelter'.
    Cluster 4

     kanac kuṭila kuṭhi khāṇḍā kolami, 'bell-netal, pewter smelter metalware (for/from) smithy/forge'.
    Sign pair of Signs 123, 293 is instructive on the semantics of the hypertext 'slice' PLUS 'notch' hieroglyphs signified by Sign 123 The hypertext reads: kanac kuṭila kuṭhi khāṇḍā 'bell-metalpewter smelter metalware.'


    Sign 293  kanac kuṭila 'pewter'.



    Sign 123 kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware.

    Sign 102 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'.

    Thus, the hypertext of the triplet of Cluster 4 reads: kanac kuṭila kuṭhi khāṇḍā kolami, 'smelter metalware (for/from) smithy/forge'.

    Cluster 5

     The hypertext reads: ranku kuṭhi kanda kanka 'tin smelter, fire-trench account, karika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsmanPLUS kūdī ‘bunch of twigs’ (Sanskrit) rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) or kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'.


    ranku 'liquid measure' (Santal8i) Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Santali) rango 'pewter'. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).
      raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567) 
    Sign 169 may be a variant of Sign 162. Sign kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. If interpreted as a sprout, the reading is: Sprouts (in watery field), twigs: kūdī ‘bunch of twigs’ (Sanskrit) rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)
    Sign 342kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman.

    Cluster 6

    Hypertext reads: mē̃ḍ koḍ dul kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop';  'metalcast equipment'.

     Variants of Sign 245 Hieroglyph: khaṇḍa'divisions' Rebus: kāṇḍā 'metalware' Duplicated Sign 245: dula 'duplicated' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.
    Sign 25 ciphertext is composed of Sign 1 and Sign 86. mē̃ḍ 'body' rebus: mē̃ḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.)Hypertext reads in a constructed Meluhha expression: mē̃ḍ koḍ 'iron workshop'.

    Cluster 7

     This is Ciphertext comparable to Cluster 6 (without duplication of 'divisions' hieroglyph) PLUS 'notch' hierogglyph:.खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, the hypertext reads: mē̃ḍ koḍ kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop';  'equipment, metalware'. 

    Cluster 8
     Cluster 8 is a variant of Cluster 7.mē̃ḍ koḍ kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop';  'equipment, metalware'. 

    Cluster 9

     kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karika 'scribe, account' karṇī'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman. PLUSkolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus, the hypertext of Sign 345 reads: kolami karṇī 'smithy, forge, supercargo'.

     This is ciphertext comparable to Cluster 7 (but replacing 'notch' hieroglyph with hypertext 'rim-of-jar'+ infixed three short linearstrokes). The hypertext reads: mē̃ḍ koḍ kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop; PLUS kolami karṇī 'smithy, forge, supercargo'.




    Cluster 10

    Sign 99 is sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    'notch' hierogglyph: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 
    Sign 245 Hieroglyph: khaṇḍa'divisions' Rebus: kāṇḍā 'metalware'. The hypertext Cluster 10 reads: kāṇḍā sal 'metalware workshop'Semantic determinative: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster11

     
     variants of Sign 336
    Hypertext of Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328  baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'. The hypertext reads: mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'
    Sign 102 variant Sign 89 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. 
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 11 reads : (Catalogue accounting ledger entries) --  mū̃h bhaṭa kolami kāṇḍa  'ingot furnace, smithy/forge, metalware'.

    Cluster 12 

    Hypertext of Sign 267 is composed of rhombus/oval/bun-ingot shape and signifier of 'corner' hieroglyph. The hypertext reads: mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'. Sign 267 is oval=shape variant, rhombus-shape of a bun ingot. Like Sign 373, this sign also signifies mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá1 m. ʻ metal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Pat. as in S., but would in Pa. Pk. and most NIA. lggs. collide with kāˊṁsya -- to which L. P. testify and under which the remaining forms for the metal are listed. 2. *kaṁsikā -- .1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. ʻ bronze dish ʼ; S. kañjho m. ʻ bellmetal ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ gong ʼ; Or. kãsā ʻ big pot of bell -- metal ʼ; OMarw. kāso (= kã̄ -- ?) m. ʻ bell -- metal tray for food, food ʼ; G. kã̄sā m. pl. ʻ cymbals ʼ; -- perh. Woṭ. kasṓṭ m. ʻ metal pot ʼ Buddruss Woṭ 109.2. Pk. kaṁsiā -- f. ʻ a kind of musical instrument ʼ;  A. kã̄hi ʻ bell -- metal dish ʼ; G. kã̄śī f. ʻ bell -- metal cymbal ʼ, kã̄śiyɔ m. ʻ open bellmetal pan ʼ. (CDIAL 2756)

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 12 reads:  mũhã̄ kañcu sal khāṇḍā 'bun ingot, bell-metal workshop, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster 13

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 13 reads: sal ayas khāṇḍā 'workshop, alloy metal, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster 14

    Hypertext of Sign 267 is composed of rhombus/oval/bun-ingot shape and signifier of 'corner' hieroglyph. The hypertext reads: mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'. Sign 267 is oval=shape variant, rhombus-shape of a bun ingot. Like Sign 373, this sign also signifies mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá1 m. ʻ metal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Pat. as in S., but would in Pa. Pk. and most NIA. lggs. collide with kāˊṁsya -- to which L. P. testify and under which the remaining forms for the metal are listed. 2. *kaṁsikā -- .1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. ʻ bronze dish ʼ; S. kañjho m. ʻ bellmetal ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ gong ʼ; Or. kãsā ʻ big pot of bell -- metal ʼ; OMarw. kāso (= kã̄ -- ?) m. ʻ bell -- metal tray for food, food ʼ; G. kã̄sā m. pl. ʻ cymbals ʼ; -- perh. Woṭ. kasṓṭ m. ʻ metal pot ʼ Buddruss Woṭ 109.2. Pk. kaṁsiā -- f. ʻ a kind of musical instrument ʼ;  A. kã̄hi ʻ bell -- metal dish ʼ; G. kã̄śī f. ʻ bell -- metal cymbal ʼ, kã̄śiyɔ m. ʻ open bellmetal pan ʼ. (CDIAL 2756)
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 15 reads: mũhã̄ 'kañcu 'ayas khāṇḍā 'bun ingot, bell metal, alloy metal, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster 16

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Hypertext of Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328  baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'. The hypertext reads: mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 16 reads: sal, mū̃h bhaṭa, khāṇḍā   'workshop, ingot furnace, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'.

    Cluster 17

    kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' (oval-/rhombus-shaped like a bun-ingot)
    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 17 reads:  kañcu muhã karṇī  'bell-metal ingot, supercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 18

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner (DEDR 1236) Thus, ayo  kammaṭa, 'alloymetal mint'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 18 reads: sal kammaṭa karṇī 'workshop, alloymetal mint, supercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 19

    eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper' arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass'. 
    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 19 reads: eraka āra sal karṇī ''moltencast, copper, brass workshop, supercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 20

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'


    Variants of Sign 347
    Sign 347 is duplicated Sign 162: dula 'duplicated,, pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali). The hypertext Sign 347 reads: dul kolami 'metal casting smithy, forge'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 20 reads:  sal dul kolami karṇī workshop, metal casting smithy, forgesupercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 21

     Variants of Sign 293 Sign 293 is a ligature ofSign 287 'curve' hieroglyph and 'angle' hieroglyph (as seen on lozenge/rhombus/ovalshaped hieroglyphs). The basic orthograph of Sign 287 is signifiedby the semantics of: kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith. Sign 293 may be seen as a ligature of Sign 287 PLUS 'corner' signifier: Thus, kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS kuṭila 'curve' rebus: kuṭila 'bronze/pewter' (Pewter is an alloy that is a variant brass alloy). The reading of Sign 293 is: kanac kuṭila 'pewter'.
     Sign 123 is comparable to Sign 99 'splinter' hieroglyph. kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā kuṭhi metalware smelter.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 21 reads:  kuṭila kañcu khāṇḍā kuṭhi karṇī  'pewter, bell-metal metalware, smelter, scribe, supercargo;.

    Cluster 22

    Sign 65 is a hypertext composed ofSign 59 and 'lid of pot' hieroglyph.Sign 134 ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS dhakka 'lid of pot' rebus: dhakka 'bright' Thus, ayo dhakka, 'bright alloy metal.' Thus, Sign 65 hypertext reads: ayo dhakka 'bright alloy metal'
    ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner (DEDR 1236) Thus, ayo  kammaṭa, 'alloymetal mint'

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Clust 22 reads: ayo dhakka ayo  kammaṭa karṇī , 'bright alloy metal alloymetal mint, scribe, supercargo.'

    Cluster 23


    Sign 160 is a variant of Sign 137Variants of Sign 137 dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu 'mineral' (Santali)
     Sign 123 is comparable to Sign 99 'splinter' hieroglyph. kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā kuṭhi metalware smelter.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 23 reads: khāṇḍā kuṭhi dhatu karṇī  'metalware smelter, mineral, scribe, supercargo'

    Cluster 24

    Hypertext of Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328  baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'. The hypertext reads: mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'
    Sign 102 variant Sign 89 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. 
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 24 reads: mū̃h bhaṭa kolami, karṇī 'ingot furnace, smithy, forge, scribe, supercarggo'

    Cluster 25

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    käti ʻwarrior' (Sinhalese)(CDIAL 3649). rebus:  khātī m. ʻ 'member of a caste of wheelwrights'ʼVikalpa: bhaa 'warrior' rebus: bhaa 'furnace'.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 25 reads: sal khäti ʻkarṇī 'workshop, wheelwright, scribe, supercargo'

    Cluster 26

    Sign 249 ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' Rebus: rango ‘pewter’. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).  Hieroglyhph: buffalo: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku -- ?).(CDIAL 10538, 10559) Rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567)
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 26 reads: ranku kolami karṇī 'tin smithy, forge, scribe, supercargo'

    Cluster 27

    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali) PLUS semantic determinative: kolom 'thrice' rebus:kolami 'smithy, forge'.

    Thus, hypertext Cluster 27 reads: kolami 'smithy, forge'.

    Cluster 28



    eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper' arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass'. 
     Sign 99 sal 'splinter rebus: sal 'workshop'
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext Cluster 28 reads: eraka āra  sal kolami 'moltencast copper,brass workshop, smithy,forge'.

    Cluster 29



    Variants of Sign 343
    Sign 343 hypertext is a composite of: 1. rim-of-jar hieroglyph and 2. notch. 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware' PLUS कार्णिक rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe',कर्णिक helmsman' कारणिका 'accountant'. Thus, the hypertext reads: khāṇḍā karṇī 'equipment scribe, accountant'

    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 29 reads: khāṇḍā karṇī kolami karṇika कर्णिक 'equipment scribe, accountant, smithy/forge, helmsman'.

    Cluster 30


    Variants of Sign 328
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'. dula 'duplicated' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'. Thus, hypertext of duplicated Sign328 hieroglyphs is read: dul bhaṭa 'metalcasting furnace'

    Sign 12 variants
    Sign 12 hieroglyph kuṭi 'water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' 

    Hypertext Cluster 30 reads: kuṭhi dul baṭa bhaṭa 'smelter, iron metalcasting furnace
    Cluster 31

    See: 

    2. Bharat, name of a nation. Root: bharatiyo 'caster of metals', bharat 'metal alloy' in Indus Script  http://tinyurl.com/k58uysu
    Variants of Sign 48 Seal published by Omananda Saraswati. In Pl. 275: Omananda Saraswati 1975. Ancient Seals of Haryana (in Hindi). Rohtak.This pictorial motif gets normalized in Indus writing system as a hieroglyph sign: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu)
     Sign 48 is a 'backbone, spine' hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) Tir. mar -- kaṇḍḗ ʻ back (of the body) ʼ; S. kaṇḍo m. ʻ back ʼ, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻ backbone ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇḍ, °ḍī ʻ back ʼH. kã̄ṭā m. ʻ spine ʼ, G. kã̄ṭɔ m., M. kã̄ṭā m.; Pk. kaṁḍa -- m. ʻ backbone ʼ.(CDIAL 2670) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) bharatiyo = a caster of metals; a brazier; bharatar, bharatal, bharata = moulded; an article made in a mould; bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (Gujarati) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā = a brazier, worker in metal; bha, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Sanskrit. )baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) 
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext Cluster 31 reads: bhaṭa bharat kolami 'furnace, mixed alloy (copper, zinc,tin)smithy, forge'. The word bharat may explain the semantics of Bhāratīya, 'people working with bharata metal alloys'. bharatiyo are metalcasters, who -- together with agriculturists, textile workers, sculptors, śilpi, seafaring merchant guilds --śreṇi --, medicinemen -- created the wealth of a nation by the key economic factor of 'corporate form of organization' called śreṇi which contributed to 33% of global GDP in 1 CE (pace Angus Maddison).


    Cluster 32

    Variants/Sign modifications of Sign 373   
    Sign 386 is a hypertext composed of Sign 373 and notch. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware' PLUS mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' (oval-/rhombus-shaped like a bun-ingot).The hypertext Sign 386 reads two distinct wealth categories: muhã khāṇḍā 'ingots, equipment, tools, metalware'.

    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext Cluster 32 reads: muhã khāṇḍā bhaṭa kolami 'ingots, equipment, tools, metalware, iron furnace, smithy, forge'.

    Cluster 33

    Sign 12 is kuṭi 'water-carrier' (TeluguRebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546)
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext of Cluster 33 reads: kuṭh bhaṭa kolami ' 'iron smelterfactory, furnace, smithy, forge'.


    Cluster 34

    Sign 67 khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236) PLUS ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]). Thus, ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metalmint'.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.
    Variants of Sign 176
    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Hypertext Cluster 34 reads: ayo kammaṭa karṇī karaḍā खरडें  'alloy metal mint, supercargo, scribe, daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. kharādī ' turner' 

    Cluster 35

     Sign 48 is a 'backbone, spine' hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) Tir. mar -- kaṇḍḗ ʻ back (of the body) ʼ; S. kaṇḍo m. ʻ back ʼ, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻ backbone ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇḍ, °ḍī ʻ back ʼH. kã̄ṭā m. ʻ spine ʼ, G. kã̄ṭɔ m., M. kã̄ṭā m.; Pk. kaṁḍa -- m. ʻ backbone ʼ.(CDIAL 2670) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) bharatiyo = a caster of metals; a brazier; bharatar, bharatal, bharata = moulded; an article made in a mould; bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (Gujarati) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā = a brazier, worker in metal; bha, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Sanskrit. )baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) 

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.
    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 36

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 37


    Sign 65 is a hypertext composed ofSign 59 and 'lid of pot' hieroglyph.Sign 134 ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS dhakka 'lid of pot' rebus: dhakka 'bright' Thus, ayo dhakka, 'bright alloy metal.' Thus, Sign 65 hypertext reads: ayo dhakka 'bright alloy metal'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Hypertext Cluster 37 reads: ayo dhakka karṇī karaḍā खरडें 'bright alloy metal, scribe, supecargo, daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 38

    Sign 193 signifies a structure, perhaps a pair of warehouse. A variant may be seen on Sohgaura copperplate topline of Indus Script hieroglyphs. dula 'two, pair' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS koṭhāri 'treasurer, warehouse'. Rebus: kuṭhāru 'armourer' Together the hypertext reads: dul kuṭhāru 'metalcasting armourer'
    Sohgaura copper plate. Bilingual (Indus Script hypertext+ Brāhmi syllabary) inscription describes functions of two warehouses for itinerant merchants.


    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Hypertext Cluster 38 reads:   dul kuṭhāru karṇī karaḍā खरडें 'metalcasting armourer, scribe, supecargo, daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 39

    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.])

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 39 reads: dul ayas karṇī 'metalcasting, alloy metal, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 40

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 40 reads:  sal, dul, karṇī 'workshop, metalcasting, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 41



    Variants of Sign 403
    Sign 403 is a duplication of  dula 'pair, duplicated' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS  Sign'oval/lozenge/rhombus' hieoglyph Sign 373. Sign 373 has the shape of oval or lozenge is the shape of a bun ingotmũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced atone time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed likea four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes andformed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt komūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, Sign 373 signifies word, mũhã̄ 'bun ingot'. Thus, hypertext Sign 403 reads: dul mũhã̄ 'metalcast ingot'.

    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 41 reads:dul mũhã̄ dul karṇī 'metalcast ingot, metalcasting, scribe (engraver), supercargo'.

    Cluster 42


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 

    Hypertext Cluster 42 reads: sal dul aya 'workshop, metalcasting, alloymetal'

    Cluster 43


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 43 reads: sal aya karṇī 'workshop, alloy metal, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 44


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    käti ʻwarrior' (Sinhalese)(CDIAL 3649). rebus:  khātī m. ʻ 'member of a caste of wheelwrights'ʼVikalpa: bhaa 'warrior' rebus: bhaa 'furnace'.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 44 reads: sal bhakarṇī 'workshop, furnace, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 45


    Variants of Sign 48 Seal published by Omananda Saraswati. In Pl. 275: Omananda Saraswati 1975. Ancient Seals of Haryana (in Hindi). Rohtak.This pictorial motif gets normalized in Indus writing system as a hieroglyph sign: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu)
     Sign 48 is a 'backbone, spine' hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) Tir. mar -- kaṇḍḗ ʻ back (of the body) ʼ; S. kaṇḍo m. ʻ back ʼ, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻ backbone ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇḍ, °ḍī ʻ back ʼH. kã̄ṭā m. ʻ spine ʼ, G. kã̄ṭɔ m., M. kã̄ṭā m.; Pk. kaṁḍa -- m. ʻ backbone ʼ.(CDIAL 2670) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) bharatiyo = a caster of metals; a brazier; bharatar, bharatal, bharata = moulded; an article made in a mould; bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (Gujarati) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā = a brazier, worker in metal; bha, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Sanskrit. )baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) 

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.

    Hypertext Cluster 45 reads: 
    bharat karṇī bhaṭa 'mixed alloys (5 copper, 4 zinc,1 tin), scribe (engraver), supercargo, iron furnace'.

    Background note on how cluster analysis of Indus Script sign hypertexts help identify repeating, freuquently occurring triplets (i.e. three 'signs' in sequence) constituting a semantic cluster

    This monograph is in effect an addendum to the cluster analysis of 'signs' presenting the 'sematnic' structure or accounting classifiers of wealth-accounting ledgers.

     

    Using partition-based clustering (K-means algorithm) to analyse Indus Script texts, Nisha Yadav et al identify the following dominant (high-frequency occurrence) clusters. The cluster analysis is based on a subset of inscriptions. The number of texts included in a computer corpus called EBUDS is 1548. This is a filtered corpus excluding duplicates and ambiguous texts.EBUDS identifies 377 distinct signs. Strings of sign images are read from right to left. The statistical approach in creating EBUDS is detailed in:
    Yadav, N., Vahia, M. N., Mahadevan, I. and Joglekar, H. 2008. A Statistical Approach for Pattern Search in Indus Writing. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics. vol. XXXVII, pp. 39-52.

    These 45 Semantic clusters of metalwork wealth-accounting are valided in a monograph Table 6 which lists 45 triplets of signs, which are of frequent occurrence.
    After Table 6 in: Nisha Yadav, Ambuja Salgaonkar and Mayank Vahia. Clustering Indus Texts using K-means. International Journal of Computer Applications 162(1):16-21, March 2017

    See:  

    https://tinyurl.com/y8gr7amt This monograph is an addendum emphasising the significance of this brilliant cluster analysis done by Nisha Yadav, Ambuja Salgaonkar and Mayank Vahia (2017). At the outset, congratulations to Nisha Yadav, Ambuja Salgaonkar, and Mayank Vahia for this lucid, precisely presented, outstanding contribution which validates the decipherment of the Indus Scipt Cipher as a cataloguing, sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' rebus: samgraha, samgaha 'catalogue,list, arranger, manager' -- an accounting classification of ledgers for wealth accounting during the Tin-Bronze Revolution, 4th millennium BCE.

     


    Thesis of the monograph: Indus Script Field symbols are accounting ledger classifications of wealth categories, classified as metalwork.

    This thesis is validated by a Cluster analysis of 33 sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' Indus Script Field symbols evidences samgaha wealth categories for accounting ledgers, samgaha 'catalogue, list, arranger, manager'. The cargo listed in samgaha are inscribed -- as Indus Script inscriptions -- for delivery by જંગડિયો jangaḍiyo 'military guard who accompanies treasure into the treasury' (Gujarati)  --in mercantile transactions on janga ,'invoiced on approval basis'. This mercantile process explains the repeated and frequent deployment of sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' princple of writing system for both 'signs' and 'field symbols'.

    Executive Summary

    The cluster analysis presented in this monograph identify superstructures of wealth categories to which the ‘triplets of signs’ are substructures. The study suggests that there are 33 distinct structures relatedto wealth categories of metalwork to document work on: 1. Minerals; 2. Smelting; 3. Use of furnaces to create alloys by mixing minerals or infusing carbon element through carburization processes; smithy, forge work; 4. Forging of implements, tools, metalware; 5. Metalcasting, including cire perdue (lost-waxmethods) of metal casting; 6. Organization in guilds of artisans/seafaring merchants.


    The following 38 categories of wealth accounting ledgers are identified by cluster analysis 

    Cluster 1 Eagle in flight cluster, thunderbolt weapon, blacksmith classifier

    Cluster 2 Metallurgical invention of aṅgāra carburization, infusion of carbon element to harden molten metal

    Cluster 3 Svastika cluster, zinc wealth category

    Cluster 4 Ficus clusters, copper wealth category

    Cluster 5 Tiger cluster, smelter category

    Cluster 6 Spearing a bovine cluster, smelter work

    Cluster 7 A metallurgical process narrative in four clusters -- four sides of a tablet: 

    Cluster 8 Seafaring boat cluster, cargo wealth category

    Cluster 9 Bier cluster, wheelwright category

    Cluster 10 Sickle cluster, wheelwright category

    Cluster 11 Sun's rays cluster, gold wealth category

    Cluster 12 Body of standing person cluster, element classifier

    Cluster 13 Frog cluster, ingot classifier

    Cluster 14 Serpent cluster as anakku, 'tin ore' classifier

    Cluster 15 Tortoise, turtle clusters, bronze classifiers

    Cluster 16 Seated person in penance, mint classifier

    Cluster 17 Archer cluster, mint classifier

    Cluster 18 ayakara 'metalsmith' cluster, alloy metal smithy, forge classifier

    Cluster 19 Smelter cluster, wealth-category of smelted mineral ores

    Cluster 20 Magnetite, ferrite ore cluster wealth-category or wealth-classification

    Cluster 21 Dhokra 'cire perdue' metal cassting artisans classifier

    Cluster 22 dhāvḍī ʻcomposed of or relating to ironʼ, dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelters' cluster, Iron, steel product cluster 

    Cluster 23 Endless knot cluster, yajña dhanam, iron category, hangar ‘blacksmith’ category

    Cluster 24 Dance-step cluster, iron smithy/forge

    Cluster 25 Minerals Smelter, metals furnace, clusters

    Cluster 26 Armoury clusters

    Cluster 27 Double-axe cluster, armourer category

    Cluster 28 Seafaring merchant clusters

    Cluster 29 Smithy, forge clusters

    Cluster 30 Equipment making blacksmithy/forge

    Cluster 31 Tin smithy, forge clusters

    Cluster 32 Alloy metal clusters

    Cluster 33 Metal equipment, product clusters

    -- Metalwork samgaha, 'catalogues' cluster सं-ग्रह complete enumeration or collection , sum , amount , totality (एण , " completely " , " entirely ") (याज्ञवल्क्य), catalogue, list

    Cluster 34 śreṇi Goldsmith Guild clusters 

    Cluster 34a Three tigers joined, smithy village,smithy shop category

    Cluster 35 पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu'cluster,  magnetite ore category pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide

    Cluster 36 Dotted circles, Indus Script Hypertexts dhāv 'red ores'

    Cluster 37 Indus Script inscriptions on ivory artifacts signify metalwork wealth accounting

    Cluster 38 Diffusion of Metallurgy: Meluhha and western Afghanistan sources of tin


    This accounting classification of metalwork wealth categories is consistent with the finding that the writing system with a recognized pattern of clustering pictorial motifs was consistently used over the entire gamut of contact areas of Sarasvati civilization. Decipherment of the hieroglyph components of field symbols yields the semantic structure of underlying Meluhha speech in Bhāratīya sprachbund(Speech union).


    The total number of objects on M Corpus with distinct, unambiguous pictorials or field symbols is 1894. It is unfortunate that most decipherment claims ignore an analysis of this dominant portion of the documented evidence of the civilization. Some brush them aside as 'cult symbols', some say they are 'religious symbols'. 

    A cluster analysis of these 1894 Indus Script Field symbols has also been ignored by the cluster analysis of triplets of 'signs' done by K-means by Nisha Yadav et al. I submit that pictorial motifs or field symbols are integral parts of the hypertext messaging system of the Indus Script inscriptions. It should be noted that these pictorial motifs or field symbols occupy the major portion of the space for messaging used on an inscribed object in Indus Script Corpora (which now total over 8000 inscriptions). 

    This demonstrable laxity in most decipherment claims or cluster analyses is governed by a hypothesis of the 'text' as the writing system, and perhaps ignoring the field symbol or pictorial motifs are extraneous to the messaging system. 

    I submit that the field symbols or pictorial motifs are the dominant classifiers of the Indus accounting system to identify distinct wealth-accounting category ledgers to document the wealth of a guild of artisans and seafaring merchants. This monograph demonstrates the semantic structure of the field symbols or pictorial motifs in the framework of the principal design principle of the script (which applies to both 'signs' and 'field symbols') which is: sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' rebus: samgraha, samgaha 'catalogue, list, arranger, manager' janga ,'invoiced on approval basis' -- an accounting classification of ledgers for wealth accounting during the Tin-Bronze Revolution, 4th millennium BCE. This sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' principle of writing system design explains why animal parts are joined together to create 'fabulour' or 'composite' animal pictorial motifs or field symbols.

    See:  

    33 clusters of field symbols signify 33 metalwork wealth/guild work classifiers for accounting ledgers

    FS 1-7                    1159 One-horned young bull (bos indicus aurochs)

    FS 120                       67 One or more dotted circles

    FS 122-123                19 Standard device

    FS 8-9                          5 Two-horned young bull (bos indicus aurochs)

    FS 10                         54 Bos indicus, zebu

    FS 11-13                    95 Short-horned bull or ox (aurochs)

    FS 15-17                    14 Buffalo

    FS 18-20                    55 Elephant

    FS 22-23                    16 Tiger

    FS 24-25                       5 Horned tiger

    FS 16-28                    39 Rhinoceros

    FS 29                            1 Two rhinoceroses

    FS 30-38                    36 Goat-antelope, short tail

    FS 39-41                    26 Ox-antelope

    FS 42                         10 Hare

    FS 43                           1 Hare

    FS 51                         20 Fabulous animal

    FS 56                           9 Fabulous animal

    FS 63-67                    49 Gharial (crocodile + fish)

    FS 68                         14 Fish

    FS 73                           9 Entwined serpent, pillar or rings on pillar

    FS 74                           4 Bird (eagle) in flight

    FS 75-77                    34 Kino tree on platform

    FS 79                            3 Pipal leaf

    FS 80-90                     22 Horned standing persons

    FS 105                           3 Person grappling two tigers

    FS 109                           5 Person seated on tree branch

    FS 111                           3 Woman grappling two men with uprooted trees\

    FS 118-119                  50 Svastika (on seals of Indus Script Corpora)

    FS 124                           4 Endless knot, twisted rope

    FS 125                           3 Boat

    FS 131                           6 Sickle

    FS 130                           3 Writing tablet

    FS 133-139                  51 ornamental edges


    TOTAL                    1894
    ...

    Read on...https://tinyurl.com/y7tebv96





    0 0


    https://tinyurl.com/y8j2smk8This is an addendum to: https://tinyurl.com/yca5pdcu Arsh gallery, auctioneer, Islamabad presents unprovenanced Indus Script hieroglyphs, hypertexts, all related to rebus metalwork translations. Three unprovenanced seals kept in the gallery are read as Indus Script inscriptions in Meluhha rebus readings related to wealth accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues.
    No automatic alt text available.No automatic alt text available.Image may contain: food


    Seal 1, 2, 3 I suggest that the following three 'signs' on the three Indus Script seals of Arsh gallery -- labeled as Seals 1,2,3 are orthographic variants of Sign 124 (ASI 1977 Mahadevan concordance). Sign 124 reads rebus as Meluhha hypertext: ḍhālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'.

    Seal 1 has the pictograph of a peacock : moraka, 'peacock' rebus: morakkaka (loha) 'calcining metal'. Thus, together with Sign 124, the inscription reads: morakaka 'calcining metal' PLUS
    ḍhālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'.

    Pictorial motifs on Seal 2 signify kundakō̃da कोँद gold furnace, phaa, paṭṭaa 'metals manufactory': Pictorial motifs on Seal 2: One-horned young bull with a cobra hood in front and perhaps a lady in a dance-step: phaa 'cobrahood', rebus: phaa, paṭṭaa 'metals manufactory' PLUS me 'dance step' rebus: me 'iron, copper' (Santali.Mu.Ho.Slavic languages). The text message on Seal 2:  hālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'; kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin).  Seal 3 shows a man standing beside a woman with dance-step and wearing a head-gear with twigs. The man standing is a dhangar 'blacksmith' PLUS kola 'woman' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' PLUS kūdī 'twig' rebus: kuhi 'smelter' The text message is: पोलाद pōlāda, 'crucible steel cake' explained also as mūhā mẽhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali) --पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel' = ukku 'wootz steel' PLUS hālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'.


    Sign 124 This sign is a hypertext composed of a slanted stroke ligaturred with a slanted notch. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 


    Hieroglyph:  dhāḷ 'a slope'; 'inclination'  ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- .1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f.Addenda: ḍhāla -- . 2. *ḍhāllā -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f.(CDIAL 5583). ḍhālako a large metal ingot.
    Sign 293 kuṭila 'bent' CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. 'curve', kuṭika— 'bent' MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) 
    Sign 373
    I submit that these oval spots signify पोलाद pōlāda, 'crucible steel cake' explained also as mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali) --पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel' = ukku 'wootz steel' 

    Image result for zebu ingot shape bharatkalyan97
    Slide 33. Early Harappan zebu figurine with incised spots from Harappa. Some of the Early Harappan zebu figurines were decorated. One example has incised oval spots. It is also stained a deep red, an extreme example of the types of stains often found on figurines that are usually found in trash and waste deposits. Approximate dimensions (W x H(L) x D): 1.8 x 4.6 x 3.5 cm. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow) http://www.harappa.com/figurines/33.html
    The oval spots are shaped like the copper ingots shown on this photograh of Maysar, c. 2200 BCE:
    Maysar c.2200 BCE Packed copper ingots INGOTSRelated imageCrucible steel button. Steel smelted from iron sand in a graphite crucible.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crucible_steel_button.jpg See: 
    Indus Script hypertext पोळ pōḷa, 'zebu, bos indicus' signifies pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4', पोलाद pōlāda, 'crucible steel cake'


    kod. 'one horn'; kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.)kamarasa_la = waist-zone, waist-band, belt (Te.)kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.) [cf. the orthography of rings on the neck of one-horned young bull]. Te. kōḍiya, kōḍe young bull; adj. male (e.g. kōḍe dūḍa bull calf), young, youthful; kōḍekã̄ḍu a young man. Kol. (Haig) kōḍē bull. Nk. 
    khoṛe male calf. Konḍa kōḍi cow; kōṛe young bullock. Pe. kōḍi cow. Manḍ.kūḍi id. Kui kōḍi id., ox. Kuwi (F.) kōdi cow; (S.) kajja kōḍi bull; (Su. P.) kōḍi cow.(DEDR 2199). Ka. gōnde bull, ox. Te. gōda ox. Kol. (SR.) kondā bull; (Kin.) kōnda bullock. Nk (Ch.) kōnda id. Pa. kōnda bison. Ga. (Oll.)

    kōnde cow; (S.) kōndē bullock. Go. (Tr.) kōnḍā, (other dialects) kōnda bullock, ox (DEDR 2216). खोंड khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf. kōnda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.)(DEDR 2216). Te. kōḍiya, kōḍe young bull; adj. male (e.g. kōḍe dūḍa bull calf), young, youthful; kōḍekã̄ḍu a young man. Kol. (Haig) kōḍē bull.

    kōnde cow; (S.) kōndē bullock. Go. (Tr.) kōnḍā, (other dialects) kōnda bullock, ox (DEDR 2216). खोंड khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf. kōnda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.)(DEDR 2216). Te. kōḍiya, kōḍe young bull; adj. male (e.g. kōḍe dūḍa bull calf), young, youthful; kōḍekã̄ḍu a young man. Kol. (Haig) kōḍē bull.

    Rebus: kod. = place where artisans work (Gujarati) kod. = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.lex.) gor.a = a cow-shed; a cattleshed; gor.a orak = byre (Santali.lex.) कोंड [ kōṇḍa ] A circular hedge or field-fence. 2 A circle described around a person under adjuration. 3 The circle at marbles. 4 A circular hamlet; a division of a मौजा or village, composed generally of the huts of one caste.कोंडडाव (p. 180) [ kōṇḍaḍāva ] m Ring taw; that form of marble-playing in which lines are drawn and divisions made:--as disting. from अगळडाव The play with holes.कोंडवाड [ kōṇḍavāḍa ] n f C (कोंडणें & वाडा) A pen or fold for cattle.कोंडाळें (p. 180) [ kōṇḍāḷēṃ] n (कुंडली S) A ring or circularly inclosed space. 2 fig. A circle made by persons sitting round.


    कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen' kundaṇa 'goldsmith guild'.since the Marathi word has the meaning: कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa f A fold or pen. Rebus: kunda1 m. ʻ a turner's lathe ʼ lex. [Cf. *cunda -- 1] N. kũdnu ʻ to shape smoothly, smoothe, carve, hew ʼ, kũduwā ʻ smoothly shaped ʼ; A. kund ʻ lathe ʼ, kundiba ʻ to turn and smooth in a lathe ʼ, kundowā ʻsmoothed and rounded ʼ; B. kũd ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdākõdā ʻ to turn in a lathe ʼ; Or. kū˘nda ʻ latheʼ, kũdibākū̃d° ʻ to turn ʼ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ʻ lathe ʼ); Bi.kund ʻ brassfounder's lathe ʼ; H. kunnā ʻ to shape on a lathe ʼ, kuniyā m. ʻ turner ʼ, kunwā m. (CDIAL 3295). kundakara m. ʻ turner ʼ W. [Cf. *cundakāra -- : kunda -- 1, kará -- 1] A. kundār, B. kũdār°ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ.(CDIAL 3297). Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold.Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold. (DEDR 1725).

    kō̃da कोँद  कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् ।कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165)(Kashmiri) 




    0 0


    -- Meluhha Indus Script hypertexts, wealth accounting ledgers of artisan & seafaring merchant guilds, signified by Varāha & Gaṇeśa 

    Predating the anthropomorph with a boar's head found in the context of Copperhoard culture of Ancient Bharat, to signify a metalworker and metals merchant is a tradition traceable to Indus Script Hypertexts which signify Varāha and Gaeśa shown in pratimā as dancers together with other members of ga-- artisan & seafaring merchant guilds. Varāha and Gaeśa signified as dancers relates to the dancing halls --नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse -- which is a component of structures used as metals manufactories called फडphaa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'. 

    R̥gveda describes Marut gaṇa as dancers through the air; this metaphor leads to the sculptural frescos showing Marutgaṇa as dancers; the sculptural tradition is traceable to the pratimā created by craftsmen who created rock-cut sculptures of Badami caves (see the sculptural fresco of Naarāja with Gaṇeśa's dance-step: 

    Image result for nataraja badami

    RV 8.020.22 Maruts, dancing (through the air), decorated with golden breast-plates, the mortal (who worships you) attains your brotherhood; speak favourably to us, for your affinity is ever (made known) at the regulated (sacrifice).



    Image result for kailasanatha maruts
    Marut-gaṇa including Gaṇeśa (third from left) & Varāha (fourth from left) on a sculptural panel. Kailasanatha Temple,Kanchipuram.

    R̥gveda gaṇa are Vrātam Vrātam gaam gaam, guilds of artisans, seafaring merchants. R̥gveda extols the contributions made by gaa to the creation and sharing of wealth created, using the vivid expression: Vrātam Vrātam gaam gaam. The semantics of this expression elaborate as guilds of artisans, seafaring merchants. The guild-master of such guilds is gaṇanāyaka also called gaṇapati, mahāvināyaka. A pratimā of mahāvināyaka is archaeologically attested in Gardez with precise semantic explanations using Indus Script hypertexts of cobrahood and feline paw, detailed in this monograph.

    The veneration of gaṇapati as guild-master, Marut gaṇa is traceable to the tradition of R̥gveda attested in RV 3.26.6, RV 6.66, RV 2.23, RV 10.112.9.

    This abiding veneration  finds expression in sculptural frescos all over the world which adores R̥gveda tradition.

    RV 3.26.6 refers to Gaṇa in the context of Marut-s: व्रातं व्रातं गणम् गणम् Vrātam Vrātam gaṇam gaṇam In this expression, व्रात signifies a particular form of assembly, a guild. व्रात m. (connected with √1. वृ , or with व्रत्/अ and √2. वृ) a multitude , flock , assemblage , troop , swarm , group , host (व्र्/आतं व्रातम् , in companies or troops ; प्/अञ्च व्र्/आतास् , the five races of men) , association , guild RV. &c; n. manual or bodily labour , day-labour (Monier-Williams)


    namo gaṇebhyo gaṇapatibhyaś ca vo namo namo vrātebhyo vrātapatibhyaś ca vo namo namaḥ (MS 2.9.4)


    R̥gveda gaṇa are Marut gaṇa with two remarkable anthropomorphs: v, with the head of a boar and Gaṇeśa, with the head of an elepant. I suggest that v, with the head of a boar and Gaṇeśa, with the head of an elepant are Indus Script hypertexts. The hypertexts signify:

    1.baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: बढई bahī m ( H) A carpenter; barea 'merchant'; and

    2. karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'. Gaṇeśa is shown with a) cobrahood and b) tiger vestment to further add the semantic identifiers of: 

    a) फडphaḍa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons' and 

    b) panja 'claw of beast, feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln', i.e. boar and elephant signify wood/iron worker and smelter guild. 

    baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: बढई bahī m ( H) A carpenter. (Marathi)
    baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood' bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) 
    వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు (p. 1126) vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh] Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā.(CDIAL 11375)
    বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.
    बढई bahī m ( H) A carpenter. (Marathi)  పట్టడ paṭṭaa paṭṭau. [Tel.] n. A smithy, a shop. కుమ్మరి వడ్లంగి మొదలగువారు పనిచేయు చోటువడ్రంగివడ్లంగి,వడ్లవాడు varagi, valagi, valavāu or వడ్లబత్తుడు varangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగమువడ్లపనివడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము varangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తివడ్రంగిపనివడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట varangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటమువడ్లకంకణము vala-kankaamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదమువడ్లత or వడ్లది valata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh] Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ°aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. hōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) hi m., N. bahaïbaahi, A. bārai, B. °ui, Or. bahaï°hāi, (Gajād) hoi, Bi. baahī, Bhoj. H. bahaī m., M. hāyā m., Si. vau -- vā.*vārdhaka -- .Addenda: vardhaki -- : WPah.kg. ḍḍhi m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; kg. he\ihi, kc. bahe  H. beside genuine ḍḍhi Him.I 135), J. hi, Garh. bahai, A. also hai AFD 94; Md. vaīnvain pl.(CDIAL 11375)  






    Nataraja with 18 arms. gaṇa play drums. Gaṇeśa  in dance-step.
    Also in the cave are Karthikeya and Gaṇeśa

    Harihara with dancing gaṇa.
    Fused sculpture of a composite animal. Elephant. Zebu.

    Cave 2, Badami for Vishnu
    Varaha anthropomorph.
    Part human – part boar, holding Bhudevi (earth) in one hand, his discus (chakra) in the other. His left foot rests in the netherworld, as he rescues Bhudevi from the depths of the ocean. 
    Svastika pattern.

    Wheel with 16 spokes on the ceiling of Cave 2. Each spoke is a fish surrounding the central lotus.

    This is an Indus Script hypertext. Eraka ‘nave of wheel’ rebus: eraka ‘copper, moltencast’ PLUS ayo ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘alloy metal’ PLUS t

    tāmarasa ‘lotus’ rebus: rebus: tamba ‘copper’.
    Cave 3, Badami, Vishnu
    Image result for badami dancing gana sculpture

    The Durga Temple, Aihole, and the Saṅgameśvara Temple, KūḐavelli: A Sculptural Review

    Carol Radcliffe Bolon
    Ars Orientalis
    Ars Orientalis
    Vol. 15 (1985), pp. 47-64 (18 pages)
    Published by: Freer Gallery of Art, The Smithsonian Institution and Department of the History of Art, University of Michigan
    https://www.jstor.org/stable/4543046


    Aihole showing the dance poses of Gaṇeśa and Varaha.

    Gaṇa are shown as kharva, 'dwarfs' on sculptures to signifya nidhi or treasure of Kubera. खर्व mfn. (cf. /अ- , त्रि-) mutilated , crippled , injured , imperfect TS. ii , 5 , 1 , 7 Rebus: खर्व  m. N. of one of the nine निधिs or treasures of कुबेर L

     https://tinyurl.com/y9ug5h9y The guild-master signs off on the inscription by affixing his hieroglyph: palm squirrel,Sciurus palmarum' Hieroglyph: squirrel:  *śrēṣṭrī1 ʻ clinger ʼ. [√śriṣ1]Phal. šē̃ṣṭrĭ̄ ʻ flying squirrel ʼ?(CDIAL 12723) Rebus: guild master khāra, 'squirrel', rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)*śrēṣṭrī1 ʻ clinger ʼ. [√śriṣ1] Phal. šē̃ṣṭrĭ̄ ʻ flying squirrel ʼ? (CDIAL 12723) Rebus: śrēṣṭhin m. ʻ distinguished man ʼ AitBr., ʻ foreman of a guild ʼ, °nī -- f. ʻ his wife ʼ Hariv. [śrḗṣṭha -- ] Pa. seṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ, Dhp. śeṭhi, Pk. seṭṭhi -- , siṭṭhi -- m., °iṇī -- f.; S. seṭhi m. ʻ wholesale merchant ʼ; P. seṭh m. ʻ head of a guild, banker ʼ,seṭhaṇ°ṇī f.; Ku.gng. śēṭh ʻ rich man ʼ; N. seṭh ʻ banker ʼ; B. seṭh ʻ head of a guild, merchant ʼ; Or. seṭhi ʻ caste of washermen ʼ; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sēṭhi ʻ merchant, banker ʼ, H. seṭh m., °ṭhan f.; G. śeṭhśeṭhiyɔ m. ʻ wholesale merchant, employer, master ʼ; M. śeṭh°ṭhīśeṭ°ṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ; Si. siṭuhi° ʻ banker, nobleman ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 208 (or < śiṣṭá -- 2?) (CDIAL 12726) I suggest that the šē̃ṣṭrĭ̄ ʻ flying squirrel ʼ? is read rebus: śeṭhīśeṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ (Marathi) or eṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ(Prakrtam)