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A homage to Hindu civilization.
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    This is an addendum to:

    I suggest that the R̥gveda expression चषालंयेअश्वयूपायतक्षति Rv.1.162.6 signifies the Yūpa-caāla artifacts and renders aśva as a metaphor for the fiery pillar of R̥gveda somasamsthā yajña.

    Many wild and domesticated animals constitute Indus Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts to signify wealth-accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues.

    Satapatha Brāhmana describes caāla as made of wheaten dough (gaudhūma).

    Wilson translation: 1.162.06 Whether they be those who cut the (sacrificial) post, or those who bear the post, or those who fasten the rings on the top of the post, to which the horse (is bound); or those who prepare the vessels in which the food of the horse is dressed; let the exertions of them all fulfil our expectation. [The post: twenty-one posts, of different kinds of wood, each twenty-one cubits long, are to be set up, to which the different animals are to be fastened, amounting to three hundred and forty-nine, besides two hundred and sixty wild animals, making a total of six hundred and nine (Ka_tya_yana); the text seems to refer to a single post: cas.a_lam ye as'vayu_pa_ya taks.ati: cas.a_la = a wooden ring, or bracelet, on the top of the sacrificial post; or, it was perhaps a metal ring at the foot of the post].  

    Griffith translation: RV 1.162.6 The hewers of the post and those who carry it, and those who carve the knob to deck the Horsesstake;Those who prepare the cookingvessels- for the Steed, may the approving help of these promote our work.

    पशु--बन्ध, 'animal yajña', signifiers of wealth; meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.) Rebus: mēd ʻboatman, fisher- manʼ मेध 'yajña', rebus मेधा = धन नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क. ii , 10.

    पशु--समाम्नाय m. "enumeration of यष्टृ  yaṣṭṛ, worshipper animals" in the Veda texts include:

    Goat, sheep




    Ass, mule


    Winged creatures (hamsa, suparṇa, śakuna

    Amphibian śimsumāra, ‘alligator’, ajagara ‘crocodile’


    Fish (purikāya, jaṣa, matsya)

    Worms (rājasah)

    I submit that यष्टृ  yaṣṭṛ which signify posts and animals tied to them signify performers of yajña, that is, those desirous of obtaining the riches and wealth signified by the animals. It will be a gross error and mis-representation to frame the metaphor as 'sacrificial victims' as often mentionedin western idioms and explanations of Veda texts. We have seen that the Yupa, 'post' signifies an aśva 'horse' in aśvamedhawhich is a yajna, for acquisition of sovereignty (and related shared wealth). The following Veda texts relate to the post as a signifier of aśva 'horse'; the references are simply metaphorical and DO NOT involve the killing of the horse orr any other animal tied to posts. Animals tied to the posts are also signifiers of specific categories of wealth resources as enunciated in hundreds of Indus Script inscriptions detailed in this monograph.
    rvs.1.64 They lead, as it were, the Strong Horse forth, that it may rain: they milk the thundering, the
    rvs.1.162 HYMN CLXII. The Horse. 162
    rvs.1.162 12 They who observing that the Horse is ready call out and say, the smell is good; remove it;
    rvs.1.162 16 The robe they spread upon the Horse to clothe him, the upper covering and the golden trappings,
    rvs.1.163 HYMN CLXIII. The Horse. 163
    rvs.1.163 Yama art thou, O Horse; thou art AdityaTrita art thou by secret operation.
    rvs.1.173 Let the Horse neigh led near, let the Steer bellow: let the Voice go between both worlds as herald,
    IN RV 1.162 metaphor, for example, चषालं ये अश्वयूपाय तक्षति Rv.1.162.6: caṣālḥ चषालः 1 A wooden ring on the top of a sacrificial post; चषालं ये अश्वयूपाय तक्षति Rv.1.162.6; चषालयूपत- च्छन्नो हिरण्यरशनं विभुः Bhāg.4.19.19. -2 An iron ring at the base of the post. This post with the wheat chaff ring constitutes the pillar of fire when aflame yielding carbon infusion into the molten metal in the yajña process, to carburize iron, for example, to harden it and produce steel as a ferrous-carbon alloy.

    Trita ("the Third") is a minor deity of the Rigveda, mentioned 41 times. He is associated with the Maruts, with Vayu and with Indra, like Indra, or as Indra's assistant, fighting TvastarVrtra and Vala. He is called Āptya, meaning "son of the deity of the Apas (waters)" and a friend of Indra. The  Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa mentions Trita and his brothers Ekata and Dvita as the sons of Apas or the water deities who were born as a result of Agni's anger with the waters.
    Fourfold, namely, was Agni (fire) at first. Now that Agni whom they at first chose for the office of Hotri priest passed away. He also whom they chose the second time passed away. He also whom they chose the third time passed away. Thereupon the one who still constitutes the fire in our own time, concealed himself from fear. He entered into the waters. Him the gods discovered and brought forcibly away from the waters. He spat upon the waters, saying, 'Bespitten are ye who are an unsafe place of refuge, from whom they take me away against my will!' Thence sprung the Âptya deities, Trita, Dvita, and Ekata. - 1:2:3:1

    The metaphor of त्वष्टृ relates to generative energy during the yajña. Relation to Indra and Killing of त्रि--शिरस्  (a reference to त्वाष्ट्र , author of RV. x , 8.), three-headed son of  त्वाष्ट्र, artificer त्वष्टृ m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृ) AV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/इ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम् अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/अ-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुs i , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस्or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा TBr. S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर् आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. ); a form of the sun MBh. iii , 146 Hariv. 13143 BhP. iii , 6 , 15

    त्वाष्ट्र mfn. belonging to or coming from Tvasht2r2 i RV. i , 117 , 22 AV. VS. &c (पुत्र , " son of त्वष्टृ " Prab. ii , 31); having त्वष्टृ as regent VarBr2S. viii , 37 Jyot. (YV.) 6 Sch.; m. the son of त्वष्टृ (विश्व-रूप RV. &c ; आभूति S3Br. xiv वृत्र BhP. vi , 9 , 17 ; xi , 12 , 5 ; त्रि-शिरस् , RAnukr. ); n. त्वष्टृ's energy , creative power RV. iii , 7 , 4 BhP. viii , 11 , 35;n. a small car; m. N. of an eclipse VarBr2S. iiic , 2

    त्रि--शिरस् mfn. three-headed (त्वाष्ट्र , author of RV. x , 8.) Ta1n2d2yaBr. xvii Br2ih. KaushUp. MBh. Ka1m.; 

    (ज्वरBhP. x , 63 , 22; three-pointed MBh. xiii R. iv.
    The text also mentions that they followed Indra just as a Brahman follows the train of a king.
    They roamed about with Indra, even as nowadays a Brâhman follows in the train of a king. When he slew Visvarûpa, the three-headed son of Tvashtri, they also knew of his going to be killed.; and straightway Trita slew him. Indra, assuredly, was free from that (sin), for he is a god. - 1:2:3:2
    In RV 1.105, Trita fallen into a well begs aid from the gods. Sayana on 1.105 comments that this relates to three rishis, Ekata, Dvita and Trita who found a well, and Trita, drawing water, was pushed down by the other two and imprisoned, where he composed a hymn to the gods, and managed miraculously to prepare the yajña Soma; this is alluded to in RV 9.34.4 and described in Mahabharata 9.2095.
    The secret process of Trita, the artificer, results in a three-fold bandhana, 'alloying of carbon or infusion into the molten metal of Soma'.

    RV 1.163.3 explains a secret process: 

    Griffith translation: 1.163.Yama art thou, O Horse; thou art AdityaTrita art thou by secret operation.
    Thou art divided thoroughly from Soma. They say thou hast three bonds in heaven.

    that hold thee.Wilson translation: 1.163.03 Your horse is Yama and you are A_ditya; you are Trita by a mysterious act; you are associated with Soma. The sages have said there are three bindings of you in heaven. [By a mysterious act: guhyena vratena gopani_yena, durdina ru_pen.a va_ karman.a_ sarvatra vya_ptiru_pen.a, by a secret nature of a cloudy day,or an act of a universally penetrating character; the three bindings: bandhana_ni tri_n.i = utpattika_ran.a_ni, media of origin, that is the Vasus, A_ditya and heaven].

    I suggest that the Varāha Bhutan mask of Kerala with a vividly protruding tongue out of the snout, signifies an alchemist.

    Varāha is  baḍhi, 'boar', vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu, baḍaga, vardhaki, 'worker in metal and wood'.

    The phaḍā, 'cobrahoods' signify that he is a member of a paṭṭaḍi, phaḍā 'smithy, metals manufactory'.

    रसः [रस्-अच्] The tongue (as the organ of taste); वाण्यां च छन्दांसि रसे जलेशम् Bhāg.8.2.27; जितं सर्वं जिते रसे 11.8.21. Rebus: रसः  Gold. -3 A metal in a state of fusion. -वादः alchemy (Apte). 

    चषालः, गोधूम 'snout of a boar', wheat chaff (used to carburize molten metal, to harden the alloy with infusion of carbon). Rebus: caṣālḥ
    चषालः 1 A wooden ring on the top of a sacrificial post; चषालं ये अश्वयूपाय तक्षति Rv.1.162.6; चषालयूपत- च्छन्नो हिरण्यरशनं विभुः Bhāg.4.19.19. -2 An iron ring at the base of the post.

    The kalaśa or kumbha signify nidhi, wealth. medhā 'yajna, dhanam'. Rebus: kumbha 'gold'. See: 


    1. Bhutan Vārāha(boar) mask, North Kerala c. ~18th century Note details of headdress. Note Naga and Kumbham(with conical spire, also used in Stupa) mounted in alternate pattern.
    यष्टृ   yaṣṭṛ यष्टृ m. [यज्-तृच्] A worshipper, performer of yajna.   यष्टी   yaṣṭī यष्टी See यष्टि. (Apte) यष्टि f. (for 2. » [p= 848,3] performing yajña पाणिनि 3-3 , 110 Scholiast. (prob. w.r. for इष्टि);
    f. (also यष्टी cf. g. बह्व्-ादि ; prob. fr. √ यछ् = यम् ; for 1. यष्टि » [p= 840,3]) " any support " , a staff , stick , wand , rod , mace , club , cudgel; pole , pillar , perch S3Br. &c; a flag-staff (» ध्वज-य्°); a stalk , stem , branch , twig Hariv. Ka1v. (Monier-Williams)  यष्टिः ष्टी   yaṣṭiḥ ṣṭī यष्टिः ष्टी f. [यज्-क्तिन् नि˚ न संप्रसारणम्] 1 A stick, staff. -2 A cudgel, mace, club. -3 A column, pillar, pole; संक्रमध्वजयष्टीनां प्रतिमानां च भेदकः Ms.9.285. -4 A perch, as in वासयष्टि. -5 A stem, support. -6 A flag- staff; as in ध्वजयष्टि. -7 A stalk, stem. -5 A branch, twig; कदम्बयष्टिः स्फुटकोरकेव U.3.42; so चूतयष्टिः Ku.6.2; सालस्य यष्टिः Rām.2.2.32; सहकारयष्टिः &c. -9 A string, thread (as of pearls), a necklace विमुच्य सा हारमहार्य- निश्चया विलोलयष्टिप्रविलुप्तचन्दनम् Ku.5.8; क्वचित् प्रभालेपिभिरिन्द्र- नीलैः मुक्तामयी यष्टिरिवानुविद्धा R.13.54. -1 Any creeping plant. -11 Anything thin, slim, or slender (at the end of comp. after words meaning 'the body'); तं वीक्ष्य वेपथुमती सरसाङ्गयष्टिः Ku.5.85 'with her slender or delicate frame perspiring'. -12 A reed. -13 The arm. -14 Liquorice. -15 Sugar-cane. -Comp. -आघातः cudgeling, beating. -उत्थानम् rising with the help of a staff. -ग्रहः a club-bearer, staff-bearer; P.III.2.9. Vārt. -निवासः 1 a stick or rod serving as a perch for peacocks &c.; वृक्षेशया यष्टिनिवासभङ्गात् R.16.14. -2 a pigeon-house resting on upright poles. -प्राण a. 1 feeble or powerless. -2 out of breath. -मधु n., -मधुका liquorice. -यन्त्रम् a. a particular astronomical instrument.(Apte)

    An animal is tied to a pillar of light, pillar of fire is relatable to the gloss semant. 'post, pillar': meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.) Rebus:  d ʻ boatman, fisher- man ʼ. (Note: It is reasonable to infer that the 'pillar' shape of the linga is related to a rebus reading of this gloss semant. 'boatman' inferring that the artifact of 'metal ingot' is for maritime seafaring trade.

    mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts ʼ AV., °thī -- f. KātyŚ, mēdhī -- f. Divyāv. 2. mēṭhī -- f. Pañ, mēḍhī -- ,mēṭī -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, N. meh(e), mihomiyo, B. mei, Or. maï -- dāṇḍi, Bi. mẽhmẽhā ʻ the post ʼ, (SMunger) mehā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. mehmehā ʻ the post ʼ, (SBhagalpur) mīhã̄ ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, (SETirhut) mẽhi bāṭi ʻ vessel with a projecting base ʼ.2. Pk. mēḍhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, mēḍhaka<-> ʻ small stick ʼ; K. mīrmīrü f. ʻ larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts ʼ (for semantic relation of ʻ post -- hole ʼ see kūpa -- 2); L. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ; P. mehṛ f., mehaṛ m. ʻ oxen on threshing floor, crowd ʼ; OA meṛhamehra ʻ a circular construction, mound ʼ; Or. meṛhīmeri ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ; Bi. mẽṛ ʻ raised bank between irrigated beds ʼ, (Camparam) mẽṛhā ʻ bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. (SETirhut) mẽṛhā ʻ id. ʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ. (CDIAl 10317).mēthika -- ; mēthiṣṭhá -- .mēthika m. ʻ 17th or lowest cubit from top of sacrificial post ʼ lex. [mēthí -- ]Bi. mẽhiyā ʻ the bullock next the post on threshing floor ʼ.(CDIAL 10318).

    मेध an animal-sacrifice , offering , oblation ,any yajña (esp. ifc.ib. MBh.; 
    मेधा = धन Naigh. ii , 10.

    mēthiṣṭhá ʻ standing at the post ʼ TS. [mēthí -- , stha -- ]Bi. (Patna) mĕhṭhā ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, (Gaya) mehṭāmẽhṭā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ.(CDIAL 10319).

    mēda m. ʻ a mixed caste, any one living by a degrading occupation ʼ Mn. [→ Bal. d ʻ boatman, fisher- man ʼ. -- Cf. Tam. metavar ʻ basket -- maker ʼ &c. DED 4178]Pk. mēa -- m., mēī -- f. ʻ member of a non -- Aryan tribe ʼ; S. meu m. ʻ fisherman ʼ (whence miāṇī f. ʻ a fishery ʼ), L.  m.; P. meũ m., f. meuṇī ʻ boatman ʼ. -- Prob. separate from S. muhāṇo m. ʻ member of a class of Moslem boatmen ʼ, L. mohāṇā m., °ṇī f.: see *mr̥gahanaka -- .(CDIAL 10320).

    0 0 (17:47) Boat Ahoy Thrilling. A masterly documentary which should be shown to every child in every school and cherished by every Bharatiya interested in civilizational studies.

    Published on Jan 29, 2018

    Published on Jan 29, 2018

    A documentary showcasing the cultural link of the Kudumbi community of Kerala with Goa. This is a symbolic representation of the hurdles faced by their predecessors while crossing high seas in small canoes. The festival of carrying boats and enacting the various movements represent the physical and mental state of the people and the boats in turbulent waters.
    Tears swell in my eyes. This should be made part of curriculum in every school everywhere in the world. This is historical memory like Bali Yatra cherished by Bharatam Janam. 

    Compares with the boat-building of Kerala coast dates back to 19th cent. BCE (evidence: Ancient Bhārat of 19th cent. BCE as a Maritime, ship-building nation along Indian Ocean Rim, evidence of sewn boats from Red Sea port of Ayn Sukhna comparable to Kerala catamarans


    0 0

    Mahadevan suggests that the orthography of the sign which is shown on the broken Mohenjo-daro seal should be compared with the Sumerian mudhif with a pennant on top of the roof. It has been demonstrated that the Sumerian mudhif is Mund, sacred temple in Toda tradition. If so, the following rebus Meluhha readings may be suggested:
    goṭ = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); goṭh (Brj.)(CDIAL 4336). goṣṭha (Skt.); cattle-shed (Or.) koḍ = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) कोठी cattle-shed (Marathi) कोंडी [ kōṇḍī ] A pen or fold for cattle. गोठी [ gōṭhī ] f C (Dim. of गोठा) A pen or fold for calves. (Marathi) PLUS  xolā 'tail' Rebus: kole.l 'smithy, temple'. This is consistent with the association of Mund with the sacred dairy.
    Image result for mudhif bharatkalyan97
    Sumerian Mudhif and 3 reed banners.
    Image result for mudhif bharatkalyan97Mund. Toda.
     Rebus Meluhha readings: kōṭhā 'warehouse' kuṭhāru 'armourer, PLUS kole.l'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge' PLUS ḍhāla 'flagstaff' rebus: ḍhālako 'large ingot'. Thus, the message is: armoury, smithy, forge ingots.

    m0702 Text 2206 showing Sign 39, a glyph which compares with the Sumerian mudhif structure.
    ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. 
    ढाल [ ḍhāla ] 'flagstaff' rebus: dhalako 'a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati). The mudhif flag on the inscription is read rebus: xolā 'tail' Rebus: kole.l 'smithy, temple'. The structure is  goṭ  'catttle-pen' (Santali) rebus: koṭhaka 'warehouse'. [kōṣṭhāgāra n. ʻ storeroom, store ʼ Mn. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, agāra -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāgāra -- n. ʻ storehouse, granary ʼ; Pk. koṭṭhāgāra -- , koṭṭhāra -- n. ʻ storehouse ʼ; K. kuṭhār m. ʻ wooden granary ʼ, WPah. bhal. kóṭhār m.; A. B. kuṭharī ʻ apartment ʼ, Or. koṭhari; Aw. lakh. koṭhārʻ zemindar's residence ʼ; H. kuṭhiyār ʻ granary ʼ; G. koṭhār m. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ, koṭhāriyũ n. ʻ small do. ʼ; M. koṭhār n., koṭhārẽ n. ʻ large granary ʼ, -- °rī f. ʻ small one ʼ; Si. koṭāra ʻ granary, store ʼ.WPah.kṭg. kəṭhāˊr, kc. kuṭhār m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ, J. kuṭhārkṭhār m.; -- Md. kořāru ʻ storehouse ʼ ← Ind.(CDIAL 3550)] Rebus:  kuṭhāru 'armourer,

    Field symbol is zebu (bos indicus). pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore' [pōlāda]  'steel'.
    Text 1330 (appears with Zebu glyph) showing Sign 39. Pictorial motif: Zebu (Bos indicus) This sign is comparable to the cattle byre of Southern Mesopotamia dated to c. 3000 BCE. Rebus Meluhha readings of gthe inscription are from r. to l.: kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge' PLUS goṭ 'cattle-pen' rebus: koṭṭhāra 'warehouse' PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' PLUS aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS kuṭika— 'bent' MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) PLUS kanka, karṇika कर्णिक 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale'. Read together with the fieldsymbol of the zebu,the message is: magnetite ore smithy, forge, warehouse, iron alloy metal, bronze merchandise (ready for loading as cargo).

    goṭ = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); goṭh (Brj.)(CDIAL 4336). goṣṭha (Skt.); cattle-shed (Or.) koḍ = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) कोठी cattle-shed (Marathi) कोंडी [ kōṇḍī ] A pen or fold for cattle. गोठी [ gōṭhī ] f C (Dim. of गोठा) A pen or fold for calves. (Marathi) 

    koṭṭhaka1 (nt.) "a kind of koṭṭha," the stronghold over a gateway, used as a store -- room for various things, a chamber, treasury, granary Vin ii.153, 210; for the purpose of keeping water in it Vin ii.121=142; 220; treasury J i.230; ii.168; -- store -- room J ii.246; koṭthake pāturahosi appeared at the gateway, i. e. arrived at the mansion Vin i.291.; -- udaka -- k a bath -- room, bath cabinet Vin i.205 (cp. Bdhgh's expln at Vin. Texts ii.57); so also nahāna -- k˚ and piṭṭhi -- k˚, bath -- room behind a hermitage J iii.71; DhA ii.19; a gateway, Vin ii.77; usually in cpd. dvāra -- k˚ "door cavity," i. e. room over the gate: gharaŋ satta -- dvāra -- koṭṭhakapaṭimaṇḍitaŋ "a mansion adorned with seven gateways" J i.227=230, 290; VvA 322. dvāra -- koṭṭhakesu āsanāni paṭṭhapenti "they spread mats in the gateways" VvA 6; esp. with bahi: bahi -- dvārakoṭṭhakā nikkhāmetvā "leading him out in front of the gateway" A iv.206; ˚e thiṭa or nisinna standing or sitting in front of the gateway S i.77; M i.161, 382; A iii.30. -- bala -- k. a line of infantry J i.179. -- koṭṭhaka -- kamma or the occupation connected with a storehouse (or bathroom?) is mentioned as an example of a low occupation at Vin iv.6; Kern, Toev. s. v. "someone who sweeps away dirt." (Pali)

    कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen', Mesopotamia Rebus: kundaṇa 'fine gold'

    One-horned young bulls and calves are shown emerging out of  कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa cattlepens heralded by Inana standards atop the mudhifs. 

    This pair of hieroglyphs on the text message is a hypertext: sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' PLUS 
    xoli 'fish-tail' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' PLUS kuṭhi 'smelting furnace'. Thus, together, kolhe kuṭhi  sal the hypertext signifies smelting furnace workshop.
    No automatic alt text available.
    Meluhha rebus readings of the Indus Script inscription on this seal: Wealth-accounting ledger, metalwork catalogue involving kolel,'smithy/forge' for metals, iron, bharata 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'.

    barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: भरत (p. 603) [ bharata ] n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.(Marathi).

    mēḍa'platform, hillock' rebus meḍ'iron'
    koḍ = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) कोठी cattle-shed (Marathi) कोंडी [ kōṇḍī ] A pen or fold for cattle. गोठी [ gōṭhī ] f C (Dim. of गोठा) A pen or fold for calves. (Marathi) PLUS  xolā 'tail' Rebus: kole.l 'smithy, temple'. This is consistent with the association of Mund with the sacred dairy.
    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    karṇika कर्णिक 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale'. 
    karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron'
    मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c; rebus: meḍ 'iron'

    Excerpts from a Facebook post:
    On Gaur Cult in RigVeda and Mature Harappa
    (From my E-book on (Pre)Harappan Art)
    Endemic in South Asia Gaur bull (Bos gaurus) and Gavay Bull (gavayas, Bos Gavaeus) are mentioned together in narration of the main myth of RV in the ancient Family Mandala of RV:
    ví yád várāṃsi párvatasya vr̥ṇvé páyobhir jinvé apã́ṃ jávāṃsi | vidád gaurásya gavayásya góhe (IV.21.8).
    When Indra opens up the Mountain he finds there Gaur Bull and/or Gavay Bull.
    The introductory Mandala of RV describes a mystical Gauri Cow who is the source of the world and the Divine Speech:
    sūyavasā́d bhágavatī hí bhūyā́ || addhí tŕ̥ṇam aghniye viśvadā́nīm píba śuddhám udakám ācárantī || gaurī́r mimāya salilā́ni tákṣatī ékapadī dvipádī sā́ cátuṣpadī | aṣṭā́padī návapadī babhūvúṣī sahásrākṣarā paramé víoman || tásyāḥ samudrā́ ádhi ví kṣaranti téna jīvanti pradíśaś cátasraḥ | tátaḥ kṣarati akṣáraṃ tád víśvam úpa jīvati (I.164.40–42)
    Probably the same Gauri Cow is mentioned as being released by the Vasus:
    yáthā ha tyád vasavo gauríyaṃ cit padí ṣitā́m ámuñcatā (IV.12.6=X.126.8)
    In the Family Mandala of RV the secret name of the sacrificial butter=the language of the Devas=the navel of Immortality (ghr̥tásya nā́ma gúhiyaṃ yád ásti jihvā́ devā́nām amŕ̥tasya nā́bhiḥ) (IV.58.1) is described as coming out of the four horned Gaura Bull (vayáṃ nā́ma prá bravāmā ghr̥tásya | cátuḥśr̥ṅgo avamīd gaurá etát) (IV.58.2).
    Indra is several times compared with Gaura Bull (gauró ná tr̥ṣitáḥ (I.16.5), yáthā gauró tŕ̥ṣyann (VIII.4.3), sáro gauró yáthā piba (VIII.45.24)).
    His Cows are Gauri Cows (svādór itthā́ viṣūváto mádhvaḥ pibanti gauríyaḥ | yā́ índreṇa sayā́varīr vŕ̥ṣṇā mádanti vásvīr (I.84.10); tā́ asya pr̥śanāyúvaḥ sómaṃ śrīṇanti pŕ̥śnayaḥ | priyā́ índrasya dhenávo vájraṃ hinvanti sā́yakaṃ vásvīr (I.84.11)).
    Agni is compared with Gaur Bull (tásmād bhiyā́ dūrám āyaṃ gauró ná kṣepnór avije jiyā́yāḥ) (X.51.6).
    Ashvins are several times compared with Gaur Bulls (áśvinā gaurā́v ivā́nu yávasam (V.78.2), nárā gauréva vidyútaṃ tr̥ṣāṇā́ asmā́kam adyá sávanópa yātam (VII.69.5), aśvinā mádhvaḥ sutásya pātáṃ gaurā́v ivériṇe (VIII.87.1), aśvinā tā́ vāvr̥dhānā́ úpa suṣṭutíṃ divó gantáṃ gaurā́v ivériṇam (VIII.87.4)).
    Vayu is described drinking the milk of the Gauri Cow (vāyáve gaurásya yáḥ páyasaḥ pītím ānaśá) (X.100.2).
    Soma is described as placed onto Gaur Bull skin (sómo gaurī́ ádhi śritáḥ) (IX.12.3).
    Gaurs' mentions can be found in all main chronological layers of RV: in Mandala I — 3 times (I.16.5; I.84.10; I.164.41), in Mandala IV — 3 times (IV.12.6; IV.21.8; IV.58.2), in mandala V — 2 times (V.29.11; V.78.2), in Mandala VII — 2 times (VII.69.6; VII.98.1), in Mandala VIII — 4 times (VIII.4.3; VIII.45.24; VIII.87.1, 4), in Mandala IX — 1 time (IX.12.3) and in Mandala X — 3 times (X.51.6; X.100.2; X.126.8).
    All this surely points at the South Asian homeland of the Indo-Aryans. m07103159 Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’.  kundana 'fine gold' (Kannada) sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.
    Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.)

    gaṇḍa 'four'rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)

    kolmo‘riceplant’ rebus; kolimi‘smithy, forge

    khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati) PLUS kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kaṁsa'bronze' (Telugu)

    कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/ई) AV. v , 19 , 12 kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit) rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace' (Santali)

    adaru 'twig'; rebus: aduru 'native, unsmelted metal'.

    kolmo ‘three’; rebus: kolom'sprout'; kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolma hoṛo = a variety of the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) kolmo 'rice plant' (Mu.) rebus: kolami ‘forge, smithy’ (Telugu)

    kolmo ‘rice plant’ (Mu.) Rebus: kolami ‘furnace,smithy’ (Te.) Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Meluhha epigraphs including hieroglyph 190 (‘sprouts in watery field’) of Mahadevan ‘Sign 

    Wim Borsboom and SM Sullivan discuss this hieroglyph in the context of Sanskrit readings of a few Indus script epigraphs. The readings do not refer to the pictorial motif hieroglyphs (such as one-horned young bull, rhinoceros, tiger) which occupy the field on some epigraphs.

    I would suggest variant readings – of both ‘sign’ glyphs and ‘pictorial motif’ glyphs. They are treated as hieroglyph rebus cipher based on Meluhha which was the lingua franca of artisans and traders of the civilization region. The inscriptions recorded trade transactions along the Tin Road of Bronze Age.  – as descriptive parts or bills of materials in bills of lading.

    The following readings suggested are consistent with the cipher presented in “Meluhha hieroglyphs on cylinder and other seals of Bronze Age 

    m02182175 Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.

    Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.).

    gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'.PLUS kolmo ‘rice plant’ rebus: kolimi ‘smithy, forge

    ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'ironayas 'alloy metal' (R̥gveda)

    khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati) PLUS kāmsako, kāmsiyo= a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kaṁsa 'bronze' (Telugu)

    Top left: Shortugai, Bactria (Jarrige 1984). Top right: H-48A

    Middle: 1. M-543A. 2, 3. M2047 AB. 4. M-1498A

    Bottom: 1. M-546A 2. M-1498B

    Mohenjo-daro Copper plate.

    In these examples of epigraphs, six pictorial motifs are vivid and clearly distinguishable as occupying the field:

    1.   Standard device (in front of the one-horned young bull with a pannier)

    2.   Trough

    3.   One-horned young bull with a pannier (and rings on neck)

    4.   Ox

    5.   Tiger

    6.   Rhinoceros

    Some examples of ‘signs’ as hieroglyphs are:

    Hieroglyph 190: Sprouts (in watery field), twigs

    .. Sign 389,  bun-ingot shape (oval) + 'twig', i.e. ingots produced from a smelter. This indicates that copper plates on which this hypertext occurs with high frequency are accounting ledgers of products produced from a smelter.
    2. Sign 387, bun-ingot shape (oval) + 'riceplant', i.e. ingots worked on in a smithy/forge. This hypertext DOES NOT occur on copper plates. This indicates that Sign 387 signifies ingots processed in a smithy/forge, i.e. to forge ingots into metalware, tools, implements, weapons.
    I suggest the association of Sign 389 with 'smelter' signifies that the copper plates are documentation of products taken out of the smelter.twig, smelter.

    Sign 387 signifies documentation of ingot products worked on in a smithy/forge.rice plant, smithy/forge.

    In metawork processes, there are two distinct operations: 1. ingots which are brought out of a smelter furnace and 2. ingots like wedges forged in a smithy to achieve the desired shapes of implements. 

    The two distinctly orthographed Indus Script hypertexts signify 1. mũhã̄ kuṭhi 'ingot smelter', 2. mũhã̄ kolami 'ingot smithy, forge'

    kã̄ḍ 1 काँड् । काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ (Kashmiri)

    M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ.; kaḍambákalamba -- 1, m. ʻ end, point, stalk of a pot- herb ʼ lex. [See kadambá -- ]B. kaṛamba ʻ stalk of greens ʼ; Or. kaṛambā°mā stalks and plants among stubble of a reaped field ʼ; H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.) -- Or. kaḷama ʻ a kind of firm -- stemmed reed from which pens are made ʼ infl. by H. kalam ʻ pen ʼ ← Ar.?(CDIAL 2653) कडबड kaḍabaḍa f The residue of eaten and trodden कडबा; pieces of the mere culm without the blade. कडबा  kaḍabā m The culm or haum of जोंधळा dried for fodder. 2 fig. (Because कडबा is the mere culm without the head.) Refuse, rubbish, worthless stuff.  कडबी  kaḍabī f After-sproutings of जोंधळा. Cut in the hot season as food for cattle. 2 Misused by foreigners of the south and by साहेबलोक for कडबा. (Marathi)

    Rebus: Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron. is a pronunciation variant of ayas karba 'very hard iron'.Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron.(DEDR 192) Ka. kare blackness; kabbiṇa iron; (PBh.) karipu blackness; (Hav.) karañcu to be scorched; karañcaṭe scorched; (Gowda) kərṇṭi to become charred. Koḍ. kari- (kariv-, kariñj-) to be singed; (karip-, karic-) to singe; kari black. Tu. kari soot, charcoal; kariya black; karṅka state of being burnt or singed; karṅkāḍuni to burn (tr.); karñcuni to be burned to cinders; karñcāvuni to cause to burn to cinders; kardů black; karba iron  (DEDR 1278)
    कोंदण kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems is the work of a turner on a lathe. Bengali. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Oriya. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295). कुन्द 
    [p= 291,2] a turner's lathe L. (Monier-Williams)

    Such a kū̃d, l'athe' is presented in front of the young bull on many inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora. The gimlet is shown as producing drilled beads, working atop a portable furnace. खोंड khōṇḍa 'm A young bull, a bullcalf' is rebus: kundār ‘turner’.The lathe and gimlet in front of the young bull on many seals are signifiers of a lapidary's instrument to drill holes in beads or to infix or set gems in gold or metal sockets. kunda 'lathe' rebus: कोंदण (p. 102kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems. 2 Beaten or drawn gold used in the operation. 3 The socket of a gem.  Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold. Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold. (DEDR 1725) குந்தனம் kuntaṉam, n. < T. kundanamu. 1. Interspace for enchasing or setting gems in a jewel; இரத்தினம் பதிக்கும் இடம். குந்தனத்தி லழுத்தின . . . ரத்தினங்கள் (திவ். திருநெடுந். 21, வ்யா. பக். 175). 2. Gold, fine gold; தங்கம். (சங். அக.) குந்தனக்காரன் kuntaṉa-k-kāraṉ, n. < T. kundanamu Loc.
    కుందనము (p. 289) kundanamu kundanamu. [Tel.] n. Solid gold, fine gold. అపరంజి.
    குந்தன் kuntaṉn. < Kunda. 1. Viṣṇu; திருமால். வல்வினைமாய்ந்தறச்செய் குந்தன்றன்னை (திவ். திருவாய். 7, 9, 7). 2. Holy person; தூயதன்மை யுடையவன். வண்டீங் கவிசெய்குந்தன் (திவ். திரு வாய். 7, 9, 7).

    kōḍe dūḍa bull calf (Telugu); kōṛe 'young bullock' (Konda) kāru-kōḍe. [Tel.] n. A bull in its prime. खोंड [khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) గోద [ gōda ] gōda. [Tel.] n. An ox. A beast. kine, cattle.(Telugu) 

    kunda 'lathe' Rebus: कोंदण kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems and working with  kundana 'fine gold'. Rebus: कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) 

    Rebus : Bengali. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Oriya. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295). कुन्द [p= 291,2] a turner's lathe L. (Monier-Williams)

    Hypertext on a procession depicted on a schist panel inlaid with mother of pearl plaques -- in Ishtar temple, Mari, Syria. 2400 BCE. The hypertext is composed of two hieroglyphs/hypertexts: 1. culm of millet and 2. one-horned young bull (which is a common pictorial motif in Harappa (Indus) Script Corpora.

    Culm of millet hieroglyph: karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron'.
    One-horned young bull hypertext/hyperimage: कोंद kōnda ‘young bull' कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, turner'. Thus, an iron turner (in smithy/forge).

    The validation of the culm of millet hieroglyph comes from an archaeo-botanical study (2016).

    In the article, 'Exploring crop processing northwest Bharata ca. 3200 to 1500 BCE' -- Jennifer Bates et al, 2016, make a significant observation about the cultivation of millets in Northwest Bharat, especially in the Ganga -Sarasvati River Basins. This observation underscores the importance millet and related crop images in the lives of the people of the Bronze Age of Eurasia.
    Image result for millet indiaImage result for milletPearl millet in the field.

    Culm of millet should have been an object recognized by the people of the 4th millennium BCE in this region which had contacts with Susa and Mari (Sumerian/Elamite civilizations). "In the production of malted grains the culms refer to the rootlets of the germinated grains. The culms are normally removed in a process known as "deculming" after kilning when producing barley malt, but form an important part of the product when making sorghum or milletmalt."

    There are three possible identifications of this image: 1. culm of millet; 2. Christ's thorn; 3. Stalk or thorny joint. In my view, the appropriate fit with the semantics of 'one-horned young bull' is its identification as a 'culm of millet'.

    The procession is a proclamation and a celebration of new technological competence gained by the 'turner' artisans of the civilization.

    The 'turner' (one who uses a lathe for turning) in copper/bronze/brass smithy/forge has gained the competence to work with karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron'.
    Hieroglyph on an Elamite cylinder seal (See illustration embedded)

    Hieroglyph: stalk, thorny

    Seal published: The Elamite Cylinder seal corpus: c. 3500-1000 BCE. karba 'millet culm' rebus: karba'iron'. krammara 'look back' rebus: kamar 'artisan' karaDa 'aquatic bird' rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy' mlekh 'goat' (Br.); mr̤eka (Te.); mēṭam 'ram, antelope' rebus: milakkhu 'copper' (Pali)mlecchamukha 'copper' (Samskrtam)

    Tubular stalk: karb (Punjabi) kaḍambá, kalamba -- 1, m. ʻ end, point, stalk of a pot- herb ʼ lex. [See kadambá -- ] B. kaṛamba ʻ stalk of greens ʼ; Or. kaṛambā°mā stalks and plants among stubble of a reaped field ʼ; H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.); M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ. -- Or. kaḷama ʻ a kind of firm -- stemmed reed from which pens are made ʼ infl. by H. kalam ʻ pen ʼ ← Ar.?(CDIAL 2653) See: Ta. kāmpu flower-stalk, flowering branch, handle, shaft, haft. Ma. kāmpu stem, stalk, stick of umbrella. Ko. ka·v handle. To. ko·f hollow stem, handle of tool. Ka. kāmu, kāvu stalk, culm, stem, handle. Te. kāma stem, stalk, stick, handle (of axe, hoe, umbrella, etc.), shaft. Ga. (S.3) kāŋ butt of axe. Go. (Tr.) kāmē stalk of a spoon; (Mu.) kāme handle of ladle (Voc. 640)(DEDR1454). Ka. kAvu is cognate with karb 'culm of millet' and kharva 'nidhi'.

    Hieroglyph 1: H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.); M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ. (CDIAL  2653) Mar. karvā a bit of sugarcane.(DEDR 1288) Culm, in botanical context, originally referred to a stem of any type of plant. It is derived from the Latin word for 'stalk' (culmus) and now specifically refers to the above-ground or aerial stems of grasses and sedges. Proso millet, common millet, broomtail millet, hog millet, white millet, broomcorn millet Panicum miliaceum L. [Poaceae]Leptoloma miliacea (L.) Smyth; Milium esculentum Moench; Milium paniceum Mill.; Panicum asperrimum Fischer ex Jacq.;Panicum densepilosum Steud.; Panicum miliaceum Blanco, nom. illeg., non Panicum miliaceum L.; Panicum miliaceumWalter, nom. illeg., non Panicum miliaceum L.; Panicum miliaceum var. miliaceumPanicum milium Pers. (Quattrocchi, 2006) Proso millet is an erect annual grass up to 1.2-1.5 m tall, usually free-tillering and tufted, with a rather shallow root system. Its stems are cylindrical, simple or sparingly branched, with simple alternate and hairy leaves. The inflorescence is a slender panicle with solitary spikelets. The fruit is a small caryopsis (grain), broadly ovoid, up to 3×2 mm, smooth, variously coloured but often white, shedding easily (Kaume, 2006).Panicum miliaceum has been cultivated in eastern and central Asia for more than 5000 years. It later spread into Europe and has been found in agricultural settlements dating back about 3000 years. Ta. varaku common millet, Paspalum scrobiculatum; poor man's millet, P. crusgalli. Ma. varaku P. frumentaceum; a grass Panicum. Ka. baraga, baragu P. frumentaceum; Indian millet; a kind of hill grass of which writing pens are made. Te. varaga, (Inscr.) varuvu Panicum miliaceum. / Cf. Mar. barag millet, P. miliaceum; Skt. varuka- a kind of inferior grain. [Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. = P. frumentaceum Rottb. P. crusgalli is not identified in Hooker.] (DEDR 5260) 

    Rebus 1:

     Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron; Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native metal (DEDR 192) Tu. kari soot, charcoal; kariya black; karṅka state of being burnt or singed; karṅkāḍuni to burn (tr.); karñcuni to be burned to cinders;karñcāvuni to cause to burn to cinders; kardů black; karba iron; karvāvuni to burn the down of a fowl by holding it over the fire (DEDR 1278). खर्व (-र्ब) a. [खर्व्-अच्] N. of one of the treasures of Kubera (Samskritam)

    Rebus 2: karvata [ karvata ] n. market-place. (Skt.lex.) கர்வம்² karvam , n. < kharva. 1. A billion; இலட்சங்கோடி  2. One of the nine treasures of Kubēra (Tamil lex.) खार्वा khārvāखार्वा The Tretā age or second Yuga of the world. (Apte Skt. lex.) खर्व , -र्वम् A large number (1,,,)(Samskritam) கர்வடம் karvaṭam , n. < kharvaṭa. Town surrounded by mountains and rivers; மலையும் யாறுஞ் சூழ்ந்த ஊர். (திவா.)

    Rebus 3: खर्व (-र्ब) a. [खर्व्-अच्] 1 Mutilated, crippled, imperfect; Yv. Ts. -2 Dwarfish, low, short in stature. (Apte. Skt. Lex.)

    Or. ṇḍa, ̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023).Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.

    S. kã̄ḍo ʻ thorny ʼ (CDIAL 3022).kāˊṇḍa (kāṇḍá -- TS.) m.n. ʻ single joint of a plant ʼ AV., ʻ arrow ʼ MBh., ʻ cluster, heap ʼ (in tr̥ṇa -- kāṇḍa -- Pāṇ. Kāś.). [Poss. connexion with gaṇḍa -- 2 makes prob. non -- Aryan origin (not with P. Tedesco Language 22, 190 < kr̥ntáti). Prob. ← Drav., cf. Tam. kaṇ ʻ joint of bamboo or sugarcane ʼ EWA i 197] Pa. kaṇḍa -- m.n. ʻ joint of stalk, stalk, arrow, lump ʼ; Pk. kaṁḍa -- , °aya -- m.n. ʻ knot of bough, bough, stick ʼ; Ash. kaṇ ʻ arrow ʼ, Mth. kã̄ṛ ʻ stack of stalks of large millet ʼ, kã̄ṛī ʻ wooden milkpail ʼ; Bhoj. kaṇḍā ʻ reeds ʼ; H. kã̄ṛī f. ʻ rafter, yoke ʼ, kaṇḍā m. ʻ reed, bush ʼ (← EP.?); G. kã̄ḍ m. ʻ joint, bough, arrow ʼ, °ḍũ n. ʻ wrist ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ joint, bough, arrow, lucifer match ʼ; M. kã̄ḍ n. ʻ trunk, stem ʼ, °ḍẽ n. ʻ joint, knot, stem, straw ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ joint of sugarcane, shoot of root (of ginger, &c.) ʼ; Si. kaḍaya ʻ arrow ʼ. -- Deriv. A. kāriyāiba ʻ to shoot with an arrow ʼ. [< IE. *kondo -- , Gk. kondu/los ʻ knuckle ʼ, ko/ndos ʻ ankle ʼ T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 55] S.kcch. kāṇḍī f. ʻ lucifer match ʼ?(CDIAL 3023) *kāṇḍakara ʻ worker with reeds or arrows ʼ. [kāˊṇḍa -- , kará -- 1] L. kanērā m. ʻ mat -- maker ʼ; H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers ʼ.(CDIAL 3024). 3026 kāˊṇḍīra ʻ armed with arrows ʼ Pāṇ., m. ʻ archer ʼ lex. [kāˊṇḍa -- ]H. kanīrā m. ʻ a caste (usu. of arrow -- makers) ʼ.(CDIAL 3026).

    Ziziphus (jujube) is called कूदी कूट्/ई in Atharvaveda. It is बदरी, "Christ's thorn". Rebus: kuThi 'smelter' 

    Some images related to Susa (Sumer)

    Culm is the hollow stem of a grass or cereal plant, especially that bearing the flower. Sumer procession shows the banner of aone-horned bull held aloft on a culm of millet. This is unmistakable hieroglyph narrative since a banner topped by a sculpted image (young bull with one-horn) cannot be held aloft on a millet culm. 

    Both the sculpted image of young bull with one horn AND the millet culm are hieroglyphs.

    The post holding the young bull banner is signified by a culm of plant, esp. of millet. This is karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron' ajirda karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu)

    L’enseigne (M,458) (pl. LVII) est faite d’un petit taureau dresse, passant a gauche, monte sur un socle supporte par l’anneau double du type passe-guides. La hamper est ornementee d’une ligne chevronnee et on retrouve le meme theme en travers de l’anneau double.
    M.458 H. 0.070 m. (totale); h. 0, 026 m. (taureau sur socle); l. 0,018m.


    The sign (M, 458) (pl. LVII) is made of a young bull stand, from left, mounted on a base supports the double ring-pass type guides. The hamper is decorated with a line and the same theme is found across the double ring.

    M.458 H. 0.070 m. (Total); h. 0, 026 m. (Bull on base); l. 0,018m.

    Source: (Parrot, Andre, Mission archéologique de Mari. V. I: Le temple d'Ishtarp.161)

    • Frise d'un panneau de mosaïque
      Vers 2500 - 2400 avant J.-C.
      Mari, temple d'Ishtar
    • Coquille, schiste
    • Fouilles Parrot, 1934 - 1936
      AO 19820 Louvre reference

    Image result for susa pennant one-horned bull bharatkalyan97
    In front of a soldier, a Sumerian standard bearer holds a banner aloft signifying the one-horned young bull which is the signature glyph of Harappa Script (Indus writing). Detail of a victory parade, from the Ishtar temple, Mari, Syria. 2400 BCE Schist panel inlaid with mother of pearl plaques. Louvre Museum.

    Indus Script hieroglyphs on Kosala coins. The repertoire of metalwork wealth accounting ledger entries are: magnetite, ferrite ore; smelting furnace; copper alloy calcining metal; silver, alloy metal, metalcasting mint to produce hard alloys (by infusion of carbon -- wheat chaff fumes -- into molten metal).

    zebu पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळ pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrite ore'
    peacock  maraka 'peacock' Rebus: marakaka loha 'copper alloy, calcining metal'.
    tree  kuṭi 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace'
    nandipada khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage' PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron'ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'
    round pebble: goa 'round stone, pebble' rebus:goṭi 'silver'
    Standard: skambha with caṣāla : kambha 'pillar' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'

    Skambha of Atharva Veda Skambha sukta, as a fiery pillar of light which topped with caṣāla,godhuma 'wheat-chaff' fumes, infuses carbon to harden metal in the fire-altar, furnace, smelter.

    cobrahood (stylized)
    Image result for kumudasena coin
    150 B.CE-100 B.CE :: Coin by King Kumudasena of Ayodhya (Indian Museum Kolkata )

    The argument: hieroglyphs for a catalog of a smithy/forge

    Provenience: Khafaje Kh. VII 256 Jemdet Nasr (ca. 3000 - 2800 BCE) Frankfort, Henri: Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region. Oriental Institute Publications 72. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, no. 34. Mythological scene: tailless lion or bear standing erect behind tree; two goats feeding at other side of tree; another tree, with bird in branches, behind monster; three-lowered buildings with door at left side; watercourse along bottom of scene. Gray limestone. 4.1x3.5cm.[i]

    The cylinder seal is a catalog of a smithy: copper, iron alloy smith, turner, hard alloy metal tools, pots and pans.

    The two animals are: markhor, antelope. miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120); rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Munda.Ho.) mr̤eka, melh ‘goat’ (Telugu. Brahui) Rebus: melukkha ‘milakkha, copper’.

    करडणें or करंडणें [ karaḍaṇē or ṅkaraṇḍaṇēṃ ] v c To gnaw or nibble; to wear away by biting (Marathi). Rebus: karaḍa ‘hard alloy’.  karaḍa ‘duck’ Rebus: karaḍa ‘hard alloy’ karaḍa ‘wave’ Rebus: karaḍa ‘hard alloy’ karaḍa  ‘panther’ Rebus: karaḍa ‘hard alloy’. khōṇḍa ‘leafless tree’ (Marathi). Rebus: kõdā’turner’ (Bengali) kole.l 'temple' Rebus: kole.l 'smithy'. khōṇḍa A tree of which the head and branches are broken off, a stock or stump: also the lower portion of the trunk—that below the branches. (Marathi) Rebus 1: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali) Rebus 2: koḍ ‘workshop’ (Gujarati) Glyh of flowing water: kāṇḍa ‘flowing water’ Rebus: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’.Thus, the entire hieroglyphic composition of the cylinder seal is a smithy catalog: 

    karaḍ ’nibbling’ karaḍa  ‘duck’ karaḍa ‘wave’ karaḍa  ‘panther’ all connoting reinforcing, Rebus: karaḍa ‘hard alloy’  and work of kõdā’turner’ in kole.l ‘smithy, temple’ producing: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’.

    Cluster Equipment making black-smithy/-forge

    FS 42 (Frequency in M Copus:10 ) Hare facing a bush.
    FS 43 (Frequency in M Copus:5) Inscribed object in the shape of a hare.

    Examples of incised copper tablets (Hieroglyph-multiplex (FS 42 field symbol): hare PLUS thorn/bush):




    1706 Hare
    Hieroglyph kharā 'hare' (Oriya): *kharabhaka ʻ hare ʼ. [ʻ longeared like a donkey ʼ: khara -- 1?]N. kharāyo ʻ hare ʼ, Or. kharā°riākherihā, Mth. kharehā, H. kharahā m(CDIAL 3823) ``^rabbit'' Sa. kulai `rabbit'.Mu. kulai`rabbit'.KW kulai @(M063)  खरगोस (p. 113) kharagōsa m ( P) A hare.  (Marathi)
    Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) K. khāra -- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ(CDIAL 9424)  khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru  । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -; or । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü , a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü ; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -। लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü - । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.

    Hare in front of the bush: Hieroglyph kharā 'hare' (Oriya) Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) PLUS kaṇḍɔ m. ʻ thorn'; kaṇṭa1 m. ʻ thorn ʼ BhP. 2. káṇṭaka -- m. ʻ thorn ʼ ŚBr., ʻ anything pointed ʼ R. 1. Pa. kaṇṭa -- m. ʻ thorn ʼ, Gy. pal. ḳand, Sh. koh. gur. kōṇ m., Ku. gng. kã̄ṇ, A. kāĩṭ (< nom. *kaṇṭē?), Mth. Bhoj. kã̄ṭ, OH. kã̄ṭa. 2. Pa. kaṇṭaka -- m. ʻ thorn, fishbone ʼ; Pk. kaṁṭaya<-> m. ʻ thorn ʼ, Gy. eur. kanro m., SEeur. kai̦o, Dm. kãṭa, Phal. kāṇḍukã̄ṛo, Sh. gil. kóṇŭ m., K. konḍu m., S. kaṇḍo m., L. P. kaṇḍā m., WPah. khaś. kaṇṭā m., bhal. kaṇṭo m., jaun. kã̄ḍā, Ku. kāno; N. kã̄ṛo ʻ thorn, afterbirth ʼ (semant. cf.śalyá -- ); B. kã̄ṭā ʻ thorn, fishbone ʼ, Or. kaṇṭā; Aw. lakh. H. kã̄ṭā m.; G. kã̄ṭɔ ʻ thorn, fishbone ʼ; M. kã̄ṭākāṭā m. ʻ thorn ʼ, Ko. kāṇṭo, Si. kaṭuva. kaṇṭala -- Addenda: kaṇṭa -- 1. 1. A. also kã̄iṭ; Md. kaři ʻ thorn, bone ʼ.2. káṇṭaka -- : S.kcch. kaṇḍho m. ʻ thorn ʼ; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) kaṇḍɔ m. ʻ thorn, mountain peak ʼ, J. kã̄ḍā m.; Garh. kã̄ḍu ʻ thorn ʼ. (CDIAL 2668) Rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. Thus, hare in front of thorn/bush signifies: khār खार् 'blacksmith' PLUS kaNDa 'implements', i.e. implements from smithy/forge.
    FS 35
    FS 57 सांगड sāṅgaḍa  sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts rebus, saṁgaha 'catalogues' of metalwork wealth'
    FS 7 (Frequency of occurrence in M Corpus: 1159) Unicorn, generally facing a standard device.
    FS 108 Person kneeling under a kino tree facing a tiger
    FS 53 FS 52, FS 53 Fabulous animal with the body of a tiger. a human head and horns of an antelope.
    FS 48

    Cluster  Eagle in flight cluster, thunderbolt weapon, blacksmith classifier
    FS 74 (Frequeny in M Corpus: 4) The hypertext FS 74 signifies: blacksmith's mint and weapon, thunderbolt.

    Bird in flight. P آهن āhan, s.m. (9th) Iron. Sing. and Pl. آهن ګر āhan gar, s.m. (5th) A smith, a blacksmith. Pl. آهن ګران āhan-garānآهن ربا āhan-rubā, s.f. (6th) The magnet or loadstone. (E.) Sing. and Pl.); (W.) Pl. آهن رباوي āhan-rubāwī. See اوسپنه.(Pashto) ahan-gār अहन्-गार् (= ) m. a blacksmith (H. xii, 16).(Kashmiri)

    khamba ‘wing’ rebus: kamma‘mint’.

    श्येन [p= 1095,2] m. a hawk , falcon , eagle , any bird of prey (esp. the eagle that brings down सोम to man) RV. &c; firewood laid in the shape of an eagle Śulbas. (Monier-Williams) śyēná m. ʻ hawk, falcon, eagle ʼ RV. Pa. sēna -- , °aka -- m. ʻ hawk ʼ, Pk. sēṇa -- m.; WPah.bhad. śeṇ ʻ kite ʼ; A. xen ʻ falcon, hawk ʼ, Or. seṇā, H. sensẽ m., M. śen m., śenī f. (< MIA. *senna -- ); Si. sen ʻ falcon, eagle, kite ʼ.(CDIAL 12674) Rebus: sena 'thunderbolt' (Sinhala): 

    aśáni f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ RV., °nī -- f. ŚBr. [Cf. áśan -- m. ʻ sling -- stone ʼ RV.] Pa. asanī -- f. ʻ thunderbolt, lightning ʼ, asana -- n. ʻ stone ʼ; Pk. asai -- m.f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ; Ash. ašĩˊ ʻ hail ʼ, Wg. ašē˜ˊ, Pr. īšĩ, Bashg. "azhir", Dm. ašin, Paš. ášen, Shum. äˊšin, Gaw. išín, Bshk. ašun, Savi išin, Phal. ã̄šun, L. (Jukes) ahin, awā. &circmacrepsilon;n (both with n, not ), P. āhi, f., āhaaiha m.f., WPah. bhad. ã̄hii f., N. asino, pl. °nā; Si. senahea ʻ thunderbolt ʼ Geiger GS 34, but the expected form would be *ā̤n; -- Sh. aĩyĕˊr f. ʻ hail ʼ (X ?). -- For ʻ stone ʼ > ʻ hailstone ʼcf. upala -- and A. xil s.v.śilāˊ -- . (CDIAL 910) vajrāśani m. ʻ Indra's thunderbolt ʼ R. [vájra -- , aśáni -- ]Aw. bajāsani m. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ prob.  Sk.(CDIAL 11207)

    aśáni f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ RV., °nī -- f. ŚBr. [Cf. áśan -- m. ʻ sling -- stone ʼ RV.] Pa. asanī -- f. ʻ thunderbolt, lightning ʼ, asana -- n. ʻ stone ʼ; Pk. asaṇi -- m.f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ; Ash. ašĩˊ ʻ hail ʼ, Wg. ašē˜ˊ, Pr. īšĩ, Bashg. "azhir", Dm. ašin, Paš. ášen, Shum. äˊšin, Gaw. išín, Bshk. ašun, Savi išin, Phal. ã̄šun, L. (Jukes) ahin;n (both with n, not ), P. āhiṇ, f., āhaṇaihaṇ m.f., WPah. bhad. ã̄ṇhiṇi f., N. asino, pl. °nā; Si. senaheṇa ʻ thunderbolt ʼ Geiger GS 34, but the expected form would be *ā̤n; -- Sh. aĩyĕˊr f. ʻ hail ʼ (X ?). -- For ʻ stone ʼ > ʻ hailstone ʼ cf. upala -- and A. xil s.v.śilāˊ -- . (CDIAL 910) vajrāśani m. ʻ Indra's thunderbolt ʼ R. [vájra -- , aśáni -- ]Aw. bajāsani m. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ prob. ← Sk.(CDIAL 11207)

    Impression of a cylinder seal, unknown Near Eastern Origin. 
    Image result for indus script cylinder seal
    Impression of a cylinder seal, unknown Near Eastern Origin. Louvre Museum.
    FS 117 In the upper regiMer from R.-: person grappling with two animals (tigers); a horned personage standing behind a pedestal; a kinn tree; In the lower register from R.-a bird in flight over a
    unicorn : an antelope: two horned bulls facingeach other and a cicle (dotted?)

    Indus Script inscription, message: Brassworker's guild, smelter metalwork catalogue, pewter, laterite castings, hard alloys, implements, smithy/forge working in iron, lead, metal hard alloys.

    Copyrighted photo by M. Chuzeville for the Departement des antiquites orientales, Musee du Louvre. "One of the two anthropomorphic figures carved on this seal wears the horns of water buffalo while sitting on a throne with hoofed legs, surrounded by snakes, fishes and water buffaloes. Copyrighted photo by M. Chuzeville for the Departement des antiquites orientales, Musee du Louvre." 

    Hieroglyph multiplexes of the hypertext of the cylinder seal from a Near Eastern Source can be identified: aquatic bird, rhinoceros, buffalo, buffalo horn, crucible, markhor, antelope, hoofed stool, fish, tree, tree branch, twig, roundish stone, tiger, rice plant.

    Hieroglyph components on the head-gear of the person on cylinder seal impression are: twig, crucible, buffalo horns: kuThI 'badari ziziphus jojoba' twig Rebus: kuThi 'smelter';koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer'; tattAru 'buffalo horn' Rebus: ṭhã̄ṭhāro 'brassworker'. koD 'horns' rebus: koD 'workshop'. Thus, the gypertext message is: a brassworker's workshop with a smelter.
     This hieroglyph multiplex ligatures head of an antelope to a snake: nAga 'snake' Rebus:nAga 'lead' PLUS  karaḍū or ṅkaraḍēṃ ] n A kid. कराडूं (p. 137) [ karāḍūṃ ] n (Commonly करडूं ) Akid. (Marathi) Rebus: करडा (p. 137) [ karaḍā ]'hard alloy' ranku 'antelope' Rebus:ranku 'tin'.  tuttināgamu is a Prakritam gloss meaning 'pewter, zinc'. A comparable alloy may be indicated by the hieroglyph-multiplex of antelope-snake: rankunAga, perhaps a type of zinc or lead alloy.
    Two fish hieroglyphs flank the hoofed legs of the stool or platform signify: warehouse of cast metal alloy metal implements: 
    khuṭo ʻleg, footʼ.  khũṭ ‘community, guild’ (Santali)Ta. kuracu, kuraccai horse's hoof. Ka. gorasu, gorase, gorise, gorusu hoofTe. gorija, gorise, (B. also) gorije, korije id. / Cf. Skt. khura- id.; Turner, CDIAL, no. 3906 (embedded). (DEDR 1770)
    Ta. kurappam currycomb. Ma. kurappam, kurappan id. Ka. korapa, gorapa id. Te. kurapamu, koṟapamu, goṟapamu id. / ? Cf. Turner, CDIAL, no. 3730, kṣurapra- ('scraper'-meanings). (DEDR 1771)

    Hieroglyph: kaṇḍō a stool Rebus: kanda 'implements'
    Hieroglyph: maṇḍā 'raised platform, stool' Rebus: maṇḍā 'warehouse'.

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'
    ayo 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)
    barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: भरत (p. 603) [ bharata ] n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.(Marathi). 
    This mkultiplx is flanked by 1. kolom 'rice plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'; 2. kuTi 'tree' Rebus: kuThi 'smeter'. Thus the message is that the warehouse of cast metal alloy metal implements is complemented by a smelter and a smithy/forge -- part of the metalwork repertoire. khuṭo ʻleg, footʼ.  khũṭ‘community, guild’ (Santali)
    The hieroglyph-multiplex of a woman thwarting two rearing tigers is also signified on other seals and tablets to signify:

    Hieroglyph: kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'
    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS kola 'tiger' Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith'; kolhe 'smelter'; kole.l'smithy, forge'. The kolmo 'rice-plant' Rebus kolimi 'smithy, forge' is a semantic determinant of the cipher: smithy with smelter. taTu 'thwart' rebus: dhatu 'mineral'. Thus, 'mineral smelter'. Together the hieroglyph-multiplex or hypertext of a woman thwarting two tigers signifies: smithy/forge with smelter for dhatu, minerals.

    The bottom register of the cylinder seal impression lists the products: smithy/forge forged iron, alloy castings (laterite PLUS spelter), hard alloy implements.

    goTa 'roundish stone' Rebus: goTa 'laterite, ferrite ore''gold-lace braid'
    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS rã̄go 'buffalo' Rebus: rāṅgā 'zinc alloy, spelter, pewter'. Thus, cast spelter PLUS laterite, ferrite ore.
    markhor PLUS tail
    miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) koṭe meṛed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari) PLUS Kur. xolā tail. Malt. qoli id. (DEDR 2135) Rebus: kol 'working in iron' Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. 

    Rhinoceros PLUS eagle aśan, śyena, sena 'eagle' rebus: sena 'thunderbolt' ahan 'blacksmith' PLUSkhamba 'wing' rebus: kammaa 'mint'.

    Hieroglyhph: kāṇṭā 'rhinoceros. gaṇḍá m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ Rebus: kāṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware' (Gujarati)

    Two water-buffalos flanks a hieroglyph: something round, like a seed. Hieroglyph: rã̄go 'buffalo' Rebus: rāṅgā 'zinc alloy, spelter, pewter'. What does the hieroglyph 'something round' signify? I suggest that it signifies goa 'round pebble' rebus: go'laterite (ferrous ore)'.

    Orthographic variants of tails of 'animal' hieroglyphs, particularly those of ram or antelope are deciphered as rebus-metonymy layered Meluhha (Proto-Prakritam) words related to blacksmithy or smelters of iron and other metals including metal infusion and cire perdue lost-wax castings. The 'tail' hieroglyh also gets normalised as a sign on texts to connote kolA 'tail' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'. 

    Some hieroglyph components are: hooded snake or short-tail generally on antelopes.

    meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter'

    Hieroglyph: eagle in flight: 

    Parallels from Harappa Script Corpora:
    meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter' PLUS krammara 'look back' Rebus: kamar 'artisan'

    meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter' PLUS aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)
    khura m. ʻ hoof ʼ KātyŚr̥. 2. *khuḍa -- 1 (khuḍaka -- , khula° ʻ ankle -- bone ʼ Suśr.). [← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 376: it belongs to the word -- group ʻ heel <-> ankle -- knee -- wrist ʼ, see *kuṭṭha -- ]1. Pa. khura -- m. ʻ hoof ʼ, Pk. khura -- m. (chura -- after khura -- ~ chura -- < kṣurá -- ); Ash. kū˘r ʻ hoof, foot ʼ, kurkāˊ ʻ heel ʼ; Kt. kyur ʻ foot ʼ, kyurkəté ʻ heel ʼ; Gamb kr ʻ hoof, foot ʼ, Niṅg. xūr, Woṭ.khuru, (Kaţārkalā) khur; Dm. khur ʻ foot ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. khurīˊ f. ʻ hoof, heel ʼ (→ Par. khurīˊ ʻ heel ʼ IIFL i 265), kuṛ. xūr ʻ foot ʼ, dar. kurī ʻ heel ʼ, nir. xurī; Shum. xurem ʻ my foot ʼ, xurigyem ʻ my heel ʼ; Gaw. Kal. khur ʻ foot ʼ; Bshk. khur m. ʻ foot ʼ (khin ʻ heel ʼ, Gaw. khunīk, Sv. khunike X píṇḍa -- or < khuriṇī -- AO xviii 240); Tor. khū ʻ foot ʼ, Mai. khur, ky. khor, Phal. khur m.; Sh. gil. khūrṷ m. ʻ hoof ʼ, khūri̯ f. ʻ heel ʼ, koh. khōrṷ m. ʻ hoof ʼ, jij. khuri ʻ heel ʼ (koh. thŭri, pales. thurī ʻ heel ʼ X *thuḍḍati ʻ kicks ʼ?); K. khor m. ʻ foot (esp. human) ʼ, khōr m. ʻ foot of any living being ʼ, khūru m. ʻ leg of a bed &c. ʼ,khūrü f. ʻ heel ʼ, kash. khōr ʻ foot ʼ, rām. pog. khur; S. khuru m. ʻ hoof ʼ; L. khurā m. ʻ foot track ʼ, °rī f. ʻ heel ʼ, awāṇ. khur ʻ hoof ʼ; P. khur m. ʻ hoof ʼ, °rā m. ʻ hoof -- print ʼ, °rī f. ʻ small hoof, heel of shoe ʼ, °rṛā m. ʻ divided hoof, its print ʼ; WPah. bhal. pāḍ. khur m. ʻ foot ʼ; Ku. N. khur ʻ hoof ʼ; A. khurā ʻ hoof, leg of table or stool ʼ; B. khur ʻ hoof ʼ, °rā ʻ foot of bedstead ʼ; Or. khura ʻ hoof, foot ʼ, °rā ʻ hoof, leg ʼ; Mth. khūr, khurī ʻ hoof ʼ, Bhoj. khur; H. khur m. ʻ hoof ʼ, °rā m. ʻ heel of shoe ʼ, °rī f. ʻ hoof, heel of slipper, hoof -- print ʼ; G. khur f. ʻ heel ʼ, kharī f. ʻ hoof ʼ; M. khū˘r m. ʻ hoof, foot of bed ʼ, khurī f. ʻ forepart of hoof ʼ, °rā m., °rẽ n. ʻ heel of shoe ʼ (khurũdaḷṇẽ ʻ to trample ʼ X *kṣundati?); Ko. khūru m. ʻ hoof ʼ, Si. kuraya.2. Pk. khuluha -- m. ʻ ankle ʼ; Gy. wel. xur̄, xur m. ʻ hoof ʼ; S. khuṛī f. ʻ heel ʼ; WPah. paṅ. khūṛ ʻ foot ʼ.khuriṇī -- ; *khuraghāta -- , *khurapāśa -- , *khuramr̥ttikā -- ; *catuṣkhura -- .Addenda: khura -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) khūˊr m. ʻ hoof ʼ, J. G. khur m.

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    The standard device shown on thousands of Indus Script inscriptions is NOT a Yūpa. This monograph presents reasons why the speculation of links with Yupa are not valid. This is an addendum to:


    Image may contain: one or more peopleThe ancient word is saṁghāṭa m. ʻ fitting and joining of timber ʼ R. [√ghaṭ]Pa. nāvā -- saṅghāṭa -- , dāru -- s˚ ʻ raft ʼ; Pk. saṁghāḍa -- , ˚ḍaga -- m., ˚ḍī -- f. ʻ pair ʼ; Ku. sĩgāṛ m. ʻ doorframe ʼ; N. saṅār, siṅhār ʻ threshold ʼ; Or. saṅghāṛi ʻ pair of fish roes, two rolls of thread for twisting into the sacred thread, quantity of fuel sufficient to maintain the cremation fire ʼ; Bi. sĩghārā ʻ triangular packet of betel ʼ; H. sĩghāṛā m. ʻ piece of cloth folded in triangular shape ʼ; G. sãghāṛɔ m. ʻ lathe ʼ; M. sãgaḍ f. ʻ a body formed of two or more fruits or animals or men &c. linked together, part of a turner's apparatus ʼ, m.f. ʻ float made of two canoes joined together ʼ (LM 417 compares saggarai at Limurike in the Periplus, Tam. śaṅgaḍam, Tu. jaṅgala ʻ double -- canoe ʼ), sã̄gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ, ˚ḍī f. ʻ lathe ʼ; Si. san̆gaḷa ʻ pair ʼ, han̆guḷa, an̆g˚ ʻ double canoe, raft ʼ.(CDIAL 12859) The Tamil word describes the nature of tied/stitched construction (using coir ropes).: கட்டுமரம் kaṭṭu-maram கட்டுமரம் kaṭṭu-maram, n. < id. +. 1. Catamaran, used for deep sea fishing; raft made of logs of wood lashed or joined together; மீன்பிடிப்பதற்காக மரங்களாற் பிணைக்கப் பட்ட மிதவை. 2. Post to which is bound Arāvāṉ to be offered as a sacrifice in the festival of kūttāṇṭai held to commemorate certain incidents in the Mahabharata; கூத்தாண்டை என்ற பாரதக்கதைபற்றிய விழாக்கொண்டாட்டத்தில், அரவானைப் பலியாகக்கொணர்ந்து கட்டும் மரம். Cm.The Ayn Sukhna evidence is stunning; it is dated to ca. 19th cent.BCE.

     The device which appears in front of one-horned young bull on thousands of Indus Script inscriptions is sã̄gāḍā 'joined parts, lathe'. सांगड sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S) A float composed of two canoes or boats bound together: also a link of two pompions &c. to swim or float by. 2 f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together.(Marathi). 

    Lathe + portable furnace are linked in the pictograph. Dotted circles are dAya rebus: dhAi 'red ores'.dhāū, vaṭṭā 'red stone, mineral (iron ore)' rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter of magnetite, haematite, laterite ores' 

    Hieroglyph:    కమటము  kamaṭamu. [Tel.] n. A portable furnace for melting the precious metals. అగసాలెవాని కుంపటి. "చ కమటము కట్లెసంచియొరగల్లును గత్తెర సుత్తె చీర్ణముల్ ధమనియుస్రావణంబు మొలత్రాసును బట్టెడ నీరుకారు సా నము పటుకారు మూస బలునాణె పరీక్షల మచ్చులాదిగా నమరగభద్రకారక సమాహ్వయు డొక్కరుడుండు నప్పురిన్"హంస. ii.

    Rebus: కమ్మటము  Same as కమటము. కమ్మటీడు kammaṭīḍu. [Tel.] A man of the goldsmith caste.కమ్మతము  kammatamu Same as కమతముకమ్మతీడు Same as కమతకాడుTa. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint. Ka. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236)

    Another rebus reading for सांगड sāṅgaḍa is samgara 'catalogue'. All IndusScript Inscriptions are metalwork catalogues, wealth-accounting ledgers. Yet another rebus reading is: the ancient accounting system used for invoicing precious commodities on approval basis called: The jangad/Challan made out by the defendant and stated to be signed by the plaintiff as receiver of the goods shown therein evidences the written contract between the parties... In Gujarati, the word jangadiyo means 'a military guard carryiingaccompanies treasure stored in the treasury/warehouse of the state'..

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    Satish Deodhar, a professor at IIMA, punctuated the beginning of 2018 with a data-rich (working) paper Indian Antecedents to Modern Economic Thought

    The closing of 2018 is punctuated by this comparative studies (working) paper History-of-management-thought narratives in English language academia (1959-2016): A limited analysis by an alumnus of ISB, Megh Kalyanasundaram, who seems to have taken a cue from Deodhar. 

    Even just the bibliography of both papers, in themselves, should be valuable for anyone interested in India's ancient past vis-a-vis topics such as economics, management, international relations theory, strategy and more. 

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    Ibni-Sharrum cylinder seal of ca. 2350-2170 BCE is a wealth-accounting, metalwork catalogue in Meluhha, Indus Script.
    The Indus Script hieroglyphs of the gaur, ox, gaur or wild buffalo and water-buffalo are signifiers of R̥gveda gomr̥ga rendered rebus in vernacular Indian sprachbund Meluhha dialects as raṅga 'tin, pewter, tin foil'.
    *mēṇḍhī ʻ lock of hair, curl ʼ. [Cf. *mēṇḍha -- 1 s.v. *miḍḍa -- ] S. mī˜ḍhī f., ˚ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ, L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔmiḍ˚ m. ʻ braid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ; M. meḍhā m. ʻ curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread ʼ.(CDIAL 10312) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.Santali)
    The adorant with six curls on hair: bhaṭa ‘six' (Gujarati) rebus: bhaṭa ‘warrior’; meḍhā 'curl' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ bhāḍ 'iron furnace'. Thus, the message of the adorant with six curls of hair signifies: meḍ bhāḍ 'iron furnace'. The overflowing pots held by the adorants signify:  lokhãḍ 'metal implements, pots and pans, metalware'.
    bhaṭa‘six' (Gujarati) rebus: bhaṭa‘warrior’ rebus: baṭa ‘iron’ (Gujarati) bhāḍ'furnace' (Marathi) 
    9656 bhráṣṭra n. ʻ frying pan, gridiron ʼ MaitrS. [√bhrajjPk. bhaṭṭha -- m.n. ʻ gridiron ʼ; K. büṭhü f. ʻ level surface by kitchen fireplace on which vessels are put when taken off fire ʼ; S. baṭhu m. ʻ large pot in which grain is parched, large cooking fire ʼ, baṭhī f. ʻ distilling furnace ʼ; L. bhaṭṭh m. ʻ grain -- parcher's oven ʼ, bhaṭṭhī f. ʻ kiln, distillery ʼ, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭh m., ˚ṭhī f. ʻ furnace ʼ, bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ; N. bhāṭi ʻ oven or vessel in which clothes are steamed for washing ʼ; A. bhaṭā ʻ brick -- or lime -- kiln ʼ; B. bhāṭi ʻ kiln ʼ; Or. bhāṭi ʻ brick -- kiln, distilling pot ʼ; Mth. bhaṭhī, bhaṭṭī ʻ brick -- kiln, furnace, still ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhāṭhā ʻ kiln ʼ; H. bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ, bhaṭ f. ʻ kiln, oven, fireplace ʼ; M. bhaṭṭā m. ʻ pot of fire ʼ, bhaṭṭī f. ʻ forge ʼ. -- X bhástrā -- q.v. bhrāṣṭra -- ; *bhraṣṭrapūra -- , *bhraṣṭrāgāra -- . Addenda: bhráṣṭra -- : S.kcch. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ʻ distil (spirits) ʼ.    9657 *bhraṣṭrapūra ʻ gridiron -- cake ʼ. [Cf. bhrāṣṭraja -- ʻ pro- duced on a gridiron ʼ lex. -- bhráṣṭra -- , pūra -- 2P. bhaṭhūhar, ˚hrā, bhaṭhūrā, ˚ṭhorū m. ʻ cake of leavened bread ʼ; -- or < *bhr̥ṣṭapūra -- .    9658 *bhraṣṭrāgāra ʻ grain parching house ʼ. [bhráṣṭra -- , agāra -- ] P. bhaṭhiār, ˚ālā m. ʻ grainparcher's shop ʼ. 9684 bhrāṣṭra m. ʻ gridiron ʼ Nir., adj. ʻ cooked on a grid- iron ʼ Pāṇ., ˚ka -- m. (n.?) ʻ frying pan ʼ Pañcat. [NIA. forms all < eastern MIA. *bhāṭha -- , but like Pk. none show medial aspirate except G. with --  -- poss. < -- ḍh -- . -- bhráṣṭra -- , √bhrajj]Pk. bhāḍa -- n. ʻ oven for parching grain ʼ; Phal. bhaṛ<-> ʻ to roast, fry ʼ (NOPhal 31 < bhr̥kta -- with ?); L. bhāṛ ʻ oven ʼ; Ku. bhāṛ ʻ iron oven, fire, furnace ʼ; Bi. bhār ʻ grain -- parcher's fireplace ʼ, (N of Ganges) bhaṛ -- bhū̃jā ʻ grain -- parcher ʼ; OAw. bhārū, pl. ˚rā m. ʻ oven, furnace ʼ; H. bhāṛ m. ʻ oven, grain -- parcher's fireplace, fire ʼ; G. bhāḍi f. ʻ oven ʼ, M. bhāḍ n.*bhrāṣṭraśālikā -- .   9685 *bhrāṣṭraśālikā ʻ furnace house ʼ. [bhrāṣṭra -- , śāˊlā -- ]H. bharsārī f. ʻ furnace, oven ʼ.
    This is an addendum to: Farmana Indus Script seal deciphered, water-buffalo with rings on neck 'pewter workshop',koDiyum, torc (neck-ring) of Cernunnos on Gundestrup cauldron, Pillar of Boatmen
    khaṇṭi  ‘buffalo bull’ (Tamil) Rebus: khãḍ '(metal) tools, pots and pans' (Gujarati)
    Hypertext: overflowing pot: lokhãḍ ‘overflowing pot’ Rebus:  ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ (Gujarati)
    The overflowing pot is a signifier of production of metal implements. See: (embedded) When this is demonstrated on seals in front of a bull or buffalo, the the bovine is a signifier of metal alloys. The 'star' hieroglyph shown on one seal reads:
    मेढ   mēḍha  The polar star.    मेढंगमत, मेढजोशी, मेढदाई, मेढमत   mēḍhaṅgamata, mēḍhajōśī, mēḍhadāī, mēḍhamata See मेढेमत, मेढेजोशी, मेढेदाई &c. मेढेजोशी   mēḍhējōśī m A stake-जोशी; a जोशी who keeps account of the तिथि &c., by driving stakes into the ground: also a class, or an individual of it, of fortune-tellers, diviners, presagers, seasonannouncers, almanack-makers &c. They are Shúdras and followers of the मेढेमत q. v. 2 Jocosely. The hereditary or settled (quasi fixed as a stake) जोशी of a village. मेढेमत   mēḍhēmata n (मेढ Polar star, मत Dogma or sect.) A persuasion or an order or a set of tenets and notions amongst the Shúdra-people. Founded upon certain astrological calculations proceeding upon the North star. Hence मेढेजोशी or डौरीजोशी. Rebus:    मेध   mēdha m Yajna; In comp. as अश्वमेध, नरमेध.मेध a sacrificial animal , victim VS. Br. S3rS.; an animal-sacrifice , offering , oblation , any sacrifice (esp. ifc.ib. MBh. &c मेधा f. mental vigour or power , intelligence , prudence , wisdom (pl. products of intelligence , thoughts , opinions) RV. &cIntelligence personified (esp. as the wife of धर्म and daughter of दक्षMBh. R. Hariv. Pur.a form of सरस्वती; = धन नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क ii , 10.

    kneeling adorant బత్తుడు battuḍu. n. A worshipper.பத்தர்³ pattarn. < bhakta. 1. Devotees, votaries Rebus: பத்தர்² pattarn. < T. battuḍu. A caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்று. பத்தர்&sup5; pattar, n. perh. vartaka. Merchants; வியாபாரிகள். 
    Cylinder seal of Ibni Sharrum (Louvre Museum)
    "This chlorite cylinder seal belonged to Ibni-sharrum, scribe of King Sharkalisharri, king of Akkad (present-day Iraq), son and successor of Naram-sin (3rd millennium BC), as indicated by the cuneiform inscription between two animals.
    It depicts two heroes watering buffaloes with gushing vases, probably two acolytes of the great Sumero-Chaldean god ENKI (Ea)."
    Courtesy, The Louvre, Paris, respectively copyright RMN/Franck Raux and RMN/Thierry Ollivier. More at
    "Cylinder Seal of Ibni-Sharrum, described as "one of the most striking examples of the perfection attained by carvers in the Agade period [2350–2170 BCE]. . . . The decoration, which is characteristic of the Agade period, shows two buffaloes that have just slaked their thirst in the stream of water spurting from two vases held by two naked kneeling heroes." It belonged to Ibni-Sharrum, the scribe of King Sharkali-Sharri, who succeeded his father Naram-Sin. The caption cotinues: "The two naked, curly-headed heroes are arranged symmetrically, half-kneeling. They are both holding vases from which water is gushing as a symbol of fertility and abundance; it is also the attribute of the god of the river, Enki-Ea, of whom these spirits of running water are indeed the acolytes. Two arni, or water buffaloes, have just drunk from them. Below the scene, a river winds between the mountains represented conventionally by a pattern of two lines of scales. The central cartouche bearing an inscription is held between the buffaloes' horns." The buffalo was known to have come from ancient Indus lands by the Akkadians.
    • Héros acolytes d'Ea abreuvant des buffles " A masterpiece of glyptic art This seal, which belonged to Ibni-Sharrum, the scribe of King Sharkali-Sharri, who succeeded his father Naram-Sin, is one of the most striking examples of the perfection attained by carvers in the Agade period. The two naked, curly-headed heroes are arranged symmetrically, half-kneeling. They are both holding vases from which water is gushing as a symbol of fertility and abundance; it is also the attribute of the god of the river, Enki-Ea, of whom these spirits of running water are indeed the acolytes. Two arni, or water buffaloes, have just drunk from them. Below the scene, a river winds between the mountains represented conventionally by a pattern of two lines of scales. The central cartouche bearing an inscription is held between the buffaloes' horns. A scene testifying to relations with distant lands Buffaloes are emblematic animals in glyptic art in the Agade period. They first appear in the reign of Sargon, indicating sustained relations between the Akkadian Empire and the distant country of Meluhha, that is, the present Indus Valley, where these animals come from. These exotic creatures were probably kept in zoos and do not seem to have been acclimatized in Iraq at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. Indeed, it was not until the Sassanid Empire that they reappeared. The engraver has carefully accentuated the animals' powerful muscles and spectacular horns, which are shown as if seen from above, as they appear on the seals of the Indus. The production of a royal workshop The calm balance of the composition, based on horizontal and vertical lines, gives this tiny low relief a classical monumental character, typical of the style of the late Akkadian period. Seals of this quality were the preserve of the entourage of the royal family or high dignitaries and were probably made in a workshop whose production was reserved for this elite."
    • Diorite
      H. 3.9 cm; Diam. 2.6 cm
    • Don H. de Boisgelin 1967. Ancienne collection De Clercq , 1967
      AO 22303
    • Richelieu wing
      Ground floor
      Mesopotamia, c. 2350–2000 BC
      Room 228
      Vitrine 1 : Glyptique de l'époque d'Akkad, 2340 - 2200 avant J.-C.
    Impression of cylinder seal of the scribe Ibni-Sharrum, Mesopotamia, c. 2183-2159 BCE. Seal includes cuneiform inscription in Old Akkadian identifying the scribe, who worked in the court of Shar-kali-sharri. Two nude heroes, with six curls of hair, kneeling, holding waters of overflowing pots, flanking water buffalo 
    Farmana: metal casting workshop

    Reading and translation Excellent quantity cast and forge metal pewterworkshop.
    dul ayaskāṇḍa rango ko sal 

    Glyphs: dul 'two'; ayo 'fish'; kāṇḍa 'arrow'; sal 'bos gaurus';
    rāngo ‘water buffalo bull’; rebus: raṅga'tin, pewter, tin foil' 
    ko 'rings on neck').Hieroglyph: Rings on neck: koiyum (G.) koṭiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; koṭ = neck (Gujarati) Rebus: ko 'artisan'sworkshop'(Kuwi) ko = place where artisans work (Gujarati)koṭhār 'storeroom (Gujarati)

    kaṇḍa ‘arrow’; rebus: ayaskāṇḍa; ayaskāṇḍa a quantity of iron, excellent iron (Pāṇ.gaṇ)

    dul = pair (synonym: two strokes)(Mu.): rebus: dul (cast) beḍa ‘fish’; beḍa ‘hearth’ Alternative: aya 'fish' rebus: ayas 'metal alloy' aya 'iron' (Gujarati)

    koḍ  = place where artisans work (G.lex.) koḍiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; koḍ = neck (G.lex.) kōḍu = horns (Ta.) rango 'buffalo' rebus: rango 'pewter'

    The seal thus denotes: iron metalcastings workshop with a hearth for casting pewter.

    Hieroglyph: Rings on neck: koDiyum (G.) koṭiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; koṭ = neck (Gujarati)

    Rebus: ko 'artisan's workshop' (Kuwi) ko  = place where artisans work (G.lex.) OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible ʼ; Sv. dāntar -- kuṭha ʻ fire -- place ʼ; N. koṭho ʻ chamber ʼ, °ṭhi ʻ shop ; A. koṭhā, kõṭhā ʻ room ʼ, kuṭhī ʻ factory ʼ; Or. koṭhā ʻ brick -- built house ʼ, °ṭhī ʻ factory; WPah.kṭg. kóṭṭhi f. ʻ house, quarters, temple treasury, name of a partic. temple ʼ; kṓṣṭha n. ʻ pot ʼ Kauś., ʻ granary, storeroom' (CDIAL 3546) G. koṭhār m. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ; WPah.kṭg. kəṭhāˊr, kc. kuṭhār m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ, J. kuṭhār, kṭhār m.; -- Md. kořāru ʻ storehouse ʼ; kōṣṭhāgāra n. ʻ storeroom, store ʼ Mn. (CDIAL 3550) 

    koṭe'forge' (Mu.)

    koṭe meṛed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari) 

    Metalwork catalogue depicted on the Farmana seal is unambiguous and complete. It is acelebration of the Tin-Bronze Age revolution brought about by metal castings and creation of alloys

    The equivalence of wild-buffalo and bull is also signified by the Pashto word:    ډنګر ḏḏangar, s.m. (5th) A bullock or buffalo. Pl. ډنګر ḏḏangœrډنګره ḏḏangaraʿh, s.f. (3rd). Pl. يْ ey. 2. adj. Thin, weak, lean, meagre, emaciated, scraggy, attenuated. rebus: dangar 'blacksmith'.
    It is significant that Indus script hieroglyph 1) svastika, rebus: जस्त  jasta n ( H) A coarse kind of pewter, Spelter or Tutanag. and 2) Hieroglyph barad, barat 'ox' rebus: भरत  bharata A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.(Marathi) are also relatad to pewter-like alloys (Marathi).
    The Sanskrit word गौर gaura means white, yellowish, reddish. The Sanskrit word gaur-mriga means a kind of buffalo.(Macdonell, A. A. (1929). गौर gaura. A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout. Oxford University Press, London.)
    गो--मृग m. (= 2. गवय्/अ q.v.) the Gayal वाजसनेयि-संहिता xxiv तैत्तिरीय-संहिता ii शतपथ-ब्राह्मण xiii कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र. Thus, Veda texts treat Gomga, Gavaya as synonyms. The word gaura generally signifies pale red colour,
    for e.g. g̠orā ʻ white, pale, red (of cattle) (Lahnda) cf. CDIAL 4345. gavala m. ʻ wild buffalo ʼ lex. [gṓ -- ]
    Pk. gavala -- m., N. gauri gāi (← a Bi. dial. < *gavalikā -- ).(CDIAL 4096) The Nepalese expression gauri gāi signifies a wild buffalo.  Gavaya (and gavaja) a species of ox, the gayal [Sk. gavaya, cp. gavala, buffalo] J v.406. (˚ja=khagga); Miln 149; DhsA 331.(Pali)

    Terms associated with theatre and music/dance related to metals manufactory फड  phaḍa 

    Rebus: Ranga2 [fr. raj2, irajyati, to straighten, order, direct etc.: see uju. The Dhtp (27) only gives one raj in meaning "gamana"] a stage, theatre, dancing place, playhouse Vv 331; J ii.252. -- rangaŋ karoti to play theatre DhA iv.62. -- rangamajjha the stage, the theatre, usually in loc. ˚majjhe, on the stage, S iv.306; J iv.495; DhA iii.79; same with ˚maṇḍale J ii.253.(Pali)    रङ्ग   raṅg-a [√rañg] colour; nasal colouring of a vowel (gr.); [bright scene], theatre, stage, scene, arena; theatrical audience; N.: -kâra, m. dyer; -kara, m. actor; gladiator; -dvâr, f. stage-door; -dvâra, n. prologue in a play; -nâtha, m. N.; -patâkâ, f. N.; -bhûmi, f. battle-field; -maṅgala, n. festival on the stage; -mandapa, play-house, theatre; -vat-î, f. N.; -vastu, n. colouring matter; -vâra̮aṅganâ, f. stage-dancer; -̮aṅgana, n. arena; -̮avatarana, n. entrance on the stage; histrionic profession; -̮avatâraka, -̮avatârin, m. stage-player, actor.(Skt.)   नाचा पाडा   nācā pāḍā or -फाडा m See नचा फाडा under न.नचा पाडा or फाडा The chapter of न or No. Ex. नचा फाडा वाचणें-सांगणें-घट करणें-घोकणें To refuse or deny everything; to be ever no-no-ing. ह्याला नचा फाडा पाठ आहे He says No to everything.   फड   phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्या- चा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singingshop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work,--as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊस, वांग्या, मिरच्या, खरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चाल, पड, घाल, मांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणें- राखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion.

    I submit that the terms Gaura, Gomr̥ga, Gavaya in R̥gveda  aśvamedha may signify a buffalo signified by the following: raṅku m. ʻ a species of deer ʼ Vās., ˚uka -- m. Śrīkaṇṭh.Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ? -- more prob. < raṅká-<-> s.v. *rakka -- .(CDIAL 10559) These are also associated with colour semantics: raṅga1 m. ʻ dye, colour ʼ MBh. [√rañjPa. raṅga -- m. ʻ dye, colour ʼ; Pk. raṁga -- m. ʻ red colour ʼ; Tor. rāṅg m. ʻ dye ʼ, Sh. ro̯ṅ m.; K. rang m. ʻ colour ʼ; S. raṅu m. ʻ dye, colour ʼ, raṅo m. ʻ string with which a sawyer chalks his line ʼ; L. P. raṅg m. ʻ dye, colour ʼ; A. rāṅ ʻ red colour of chewed betel ʼ; B. rāṅā ʻ red ʼ; Or. rā̆ṅgā ʻ red, red colour ʼ; H. rã̄g f. ʻ dye, juice of plants ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ colour ʼ.(CDIAL 10560)

    Rebus renderings signify solder, pewter, tin, tinsel, tin foil: Hieroglyph: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ(CDIAL 10559) Rebus: 10562 raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.*raṅgapattra -- .10567 *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ] B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10562, 10567)

    gaurá ʻ white, yellowish, pale red ʼ RV.Pa. Pk. gōra -- ʻ white ʼ; Gy. wel. gōrō m. ʻ non -- Gypsy married to a Gypsy, halfbreed ʼ; Pr. gúru ʻ red ʼ; Dm. gōra ʻ white ʼ, Kal. gɔ̈̄ra; Bshk. gūr ʼ ʻ khaki -- coloured, yellow ʼ (AO xviii 235 < gūḍhá -- 1); Phal. gūrṓ ʻ yellow (?) ʼ in g˚ maharūc̣u ʻ an inferior kind of mulberry ʼ ~ kiṣíṇu m˚ ʻ black mulberry ʼ; Sh. gūrṷ ʻ brown, grey, selfcoloured ʼ, (Lor.) gvrilo ʻ yellow, withered ʼ; S. goro ʻ fair<-> complexioned ʼ; L. g̠orā ʻ white, pale, red (of cattle) ʼ; P. gorā ʻ white, pale ʼ; Ku. N. goro ʻ fair -- skinned ʼ; A. gõrā ʻ white ʼ; B. gora˚rā ʻ white, fair ʼ, Or. gorā; Bi. gorī f. adj. ʻ light -- coloured (of soil) ʼ; Mth. gora ʻ fair ʼ, Bhoj. Aw. lakh. gōr, H. gorā; OMarw. gorī f. adj. ʻ fair, beautiful ʼ; G. gorũ ʻ white, fair, lovely ʼ; M. gorā ʻ fair ʼ; Ko. goro ʻ pale, white ʼ; Si. gora ʻ white ʼ.Addenda: gaurá -- : WPah.kṭg. gorɔ ʻ having a fair complexion ʼ; Garh. gorū.(CDIAL 4345)    4147 *gāva m. ʻ ox ʼ. 2. *gāvā -- f. ʻ cow ʼ. 3. gāvī -- f. Pat. [gṓ -- ]1. Pa. gāva -- m. ʻ ox ʼ, NiDoc. gava F. W. Thomas AO xii 40, Pk. gāa -- m., Gaw. , Bshk. Mai. ; H. gāu m. ʻ bull, bullock ʼ; Si. gava ʻ bullock ʼ or < gava -- .2. Ash. ga ʻ cow ʼ, Kt. , Wg. , Pr. guṭu (+?), Dm. , Paš. Niṅg. Shum. , Woṭ. gau, Kal. gak, pl. gāgan (< *gāvakā -- ?); Kho. gāh ʻ yak cow ʼ, ga -- me ʻ buffalo cow ʼ; Tor. Mai.  ʻ cow ʼ: all above poss. with BelvalkarVol 90 direct, or through *gākā -- , < acc. gāˊm, pl. gāˊḥ. -- With trace of -- v -- : Sv. gāu, K. gāv f., rām. gau, pl. gawa, kash. gāu, pog. gāū̃, P. gāu, gã̄ f. PhonPj 110, bhaṭ. gau, WPah. bhal. gaũ, pl. gaũã̄, khaś. gau, obl. gauwā, paṅ. cur. cam. gā.3. Pa. Pk. gāvī -- f. ʻ cow ʼ, Pk. gāī -- f., Ḍ. gāi f., Bshk. gay f., Phal. ghāu, pl. ghēyī, S. gã̄i (g!), L. gã̄ (Ju. g̠āū̃), pl. gãī, awāṇ. gã̄, pl. gāī˜ f., P. gāī f., WPah. pāḍ. , pl. göī, jaun. gāw, pl. ˚wī˜, N. A. B. gāi, Or. gāī, Bi. Mth. Aw.lakh. gāi, H. gāī f., G. , gāy, f., M. gāī f., Ko. gāyi.
    Ext. -- l -- or -- ll -- : Paš. gawala ʻ cow ʼ, M. gavlī f. ʻ affectionate term for a cow ʼ; -- -- ḍa -- : Garh. gauṛī ʻ cow ʼ; G. gāvṛī f. ʻ affectionate term ʼ.*gāvaka -- ; *gāvaśāla -- .Addenda: *gāva -- . 2. *gāvā -- : S.kcch. gaũ f. ʻ cow ʼ, Garh. gauṛī f.
    3. gāvī -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) gau f. (obl. kṭg. gawigaigau, kc. gabi) ʻ cow ʼ, OMarw. gāi f.*gāvā -- , gāvī -- see gāva -- Add2.
       4148 *gāvaka ʻ bovine ʼ. [*gāva -- ]Kal. (Leitner) "gao", S. gāo (g!) ʻ pertaining to cows ʼ, L. gāvā adj., ˚vī f. ʻ herd of cows ʼ (Ju. g̠˚), awāṇ. ghio gāvā ʻ ghee from cow's milk ʼ, mult. gāvā māl ʻ property consisting of cows ʼ; A. gā -- khīr ʻ cow's milk ʼ; Or. gaüā ʻ derived from a cow ʼ, guā ghia ʻ ghee from cow's milk ʼ, H. gāwā (e.g. g˚ ghī).   4149 *gāvaśāla ʻ cowshed ʼ. [Cf. gōśāla -- : *gāva -- , śāˊlā -- ]Bi. gausār˚sālā: perh. rather changed fr. *gosār < gōśālā -- after *gau ʻ cow ʼ < gāvī -- .(CDIAL 4147 to 4149)
    Excerpts from Vedic India on Gaura, Gomr̥ga, Gavaya

    The Hindi word गौर gaur means fair-skinned, fair, white.(Caturvedi, M. (1970). गौर gaur. A practical Hindi-English dictionary. National Publishing House, Delhi. Page 184.)
    The gaur (/ɡaʊər/Bos gaurus), also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine. This species is native to South and Southeast Asia. ..The gaur is the tallest of wild cattle species.The Malayan gaur is called seladang, and the Burmese gaur is called pyoung ပြောင်.[3] The domesticated form of the gaur is called gayal (Bos frontalis) or mithun. (Nowak, R. M. (1999). Gaur Pages 1158–1159 in Walker's Mammals of the World. Volume 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.) ..By most standards of measurements, gaur is the largest wild bovid alive today. However, the shorter-legged, bulkier wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) is similar in average body mass, if not maximum weight. (Owen-Smith, R. N. (1992). Megaherbivores: the influence of very large body size on ecology. Cambridge University Press.)...Gaur historically occurred throughout mainland South and Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China and Nepal. Today, the range of the species is seriously fragmented, and it is regionally extinct in Sri LankaGaur are largely confined to evergreen forests or semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests, but also occur in deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range. Gaur habitat is characterized by large, relatively undisturbed forest tracts, hilly terrain below an altitude of 1,500 to 1,800 m (4,900 to 5,900 ft), availability of water, and an abundance of forage in the form of grasses, bamboo, shrubs, and trees. Their apparent preference for hilly terrain may be partly due to the earlier conversion of most of the plains and other low-lying areas to croplands and pastures.(Schaller, G. (1967). The Deer and the Tiger: a study of wildlife in India. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
    Dimensions of Gaur horns.
    Malayan gaur locally called seladang
    Leucistic gaur or Manjampatti white bisonLeucistic gaur are very rare; this photograph was taken in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary.
    Indian Gaur from anaimalai hills JEG5290.jpgLarge male gaur.
    Gaur map.pngPresent range of Gaur.
    The gaur is a strong and massively built species with a high convex ridge on the forehead between the horns, which protrudes anteriorly, causing a deep hollow in the profile of the upper part of the head. There is a prominent ridge on the back. The ears are very large; the tail only just reaches the hocks, and in old bulls the hair becomes very thin on the back. In colour, the adult male gaur is dark brown, approaching black in very old individuals; the upper part of the head, from above the eyes to the nape of the neck, is, however, ashy grey, or occasionally dirty white; the muzzle is pale coloured, and the lower part of the legs are pure white or tan. The cows and young bulls are paler, and in some instances have a rufous tinge, which is most marked in groups inhabiting dry and open districts. The tail is shorter than in the typical oxen, reaching only to the hocks. They have a distinct ridge running from the shoulders to the middle of the back; the shoulders may be as much as 12 cm (4.7 in) higher than the rump. This ridge is caused by the great length of the spinous processes of the vertebrae of the fore-part of the trunk as compared with those of the loins. The hair is short, fine and glossy; the hooves are narrow and pointed.
    The gaur has a head-and-body length of 250 to 330 cm (8 ft 2 in to 10 ft 10 in) with a 70 to 105 cm (28 to 41 in) long tail, and is 142 to 220 cm (4 ft 8 in to 7 ft 3 in) high at the shoulder, averaging about 168 cm (5 ft 6 in) in females and 188 cm (6 ft 2 in) in males. At the top of its muscular hump just behind its shoulder, an average adult male is just under 200 cm (6 ft 7 in) tall and the male's girth at its midsection (behind its shoulders) averages about 277 cm (9 ft 1 in). Males are about one-fourth larger and heavier than females.[4]Body mass can range widely from 440 to 1,000 kg (970 to 2,200 lb) in adult females and 588 to 1,500 kg (1,296 to 3,307 lb) in adult males. In general measurements are derived from gaurs surveyed in India. Indian gaur males averaged about 840 kg (1,850 lb) (in a sample of 13) and females weigh a median of approximately 700 kg (1,500 lb). Body masses elsewhere suggest gaurs outside of India can grow larger. For example, males from China (B. g. laosiensis) can weigh 1,200 kg (2,600 lb) or more. The Seladang, or Malayasian subspecies, (B. g. hubbacki) appears to be larger on average than the nominate race from India, but sample sizes as known are small. According to some sources, seladang bulls weigh on average 1,000 to 1,300 kg (2,200 to 2,900 lb), which if accurate indicates these animals are on average more than 20% more massive than the gaurs of India.

    Overflowing pot on tens of Ancient Near East artifacts, an Indus Script hypertext signifies production of metal implements

    That the hieroglyph of pot/vase overflowing with water is a recurring theme can be seen from other cylinder seals, including Ibni-Sharrum cylinder seal. Such an imagery also occurs on a fragment of a stele, showing part of a lion and vases.
    காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < காண்டம்² kāṇṭam n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16).. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16) (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, weapons, vessels’ (Marathi) [Note: On some of the Ancient Near East cylinder seal representations, the flowing water, overflowing pot are augmented by swimming fish, suggesting that ‘fish’ hieroglyph should also be taken as part of the message: ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’]

    m1656 Mohenjodro Pectoral. Carnelian. kanda kanka ‘rim of pot’ (Santali) rebus: kanda ‘fire-altar’khaNDa ‘implements’ PLUS karNaka ‘rim of jar’ rebus: karNi ‘Supercargo, scribe’ PLUS semantic determinant: kANDa ‘water’ rebus: khaNDa ‘implements’. In the context of semantics of karNi ‘supercargo’, it is possible to decipher the standard device sangaDa ‘lathe’ rebus: jangada ‘double-canoe’ as a seafaring merchant vessel. The suffix -karnika signifies a ‘maker’. Kāraṇika [der. fr. prec.] the meaning ought to be “one who is under a certain obligation” or “one who dispenses certain obligations.” In usu˚ S ii.257 however used simply in the sense of making: arrow — maker, fletcher (Pali). kāraṇika m. ʻ teacher ʼ MBh., ʻ judge ʼ Pañcat. [kā- raṇa — ]Pa. usu — kāraṇika — m. ʻ arrow — maker ʼ; Pk. kāraṇiya — m. ʻ teacher of Nyāya ʼ; S. kāriṇī m. ʻ guardian, heir ʼ; N. kārani ʻ abettor in crime ʼ; M. kārṇī m. ʻ prime minister, supercargo of a ship ʼ, kul — karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ.

    (CDIAL 3058) “Fletching (also known as a flight or feather) is the aerodynamic stabilization of arrows or darts with materials such as feathers, each piece of which is referred to as a fletch. A fletcher is a person who attaches the fletching.The word is related to the French word flèche, meaning “arrow”, via Old French; the ultimate root is Frankish fliukka.” the reading should be ˚kāraka. (Pali) Similarly, khaNDa Kāraṇika can be semantically explained as ‘implements maker’. The pectoral thus signifies the profession of an implements-maker and a supercargo, merchant’s representative on the merchant vessel taking charge of the cargo and the trade of the cargo.

    Hieroglyph: sãghāṛɔ ‘lathe’.(Gujarati).Rebus:  Vajra Sanghāta ‘binding together’ (Varahamihira) *saṁgaḍha ʻ collection of forts ʼ. [*gaḍha — ]L. sãgaṛh m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ.(CDIAL 12845). సంగడము (p. 1279) [ saṅgaḍamu ]  A raft or boat made of two canoes fastened side by side. రెండుతాటి. బొండులు జతగాకట్టినతెప్ప சங்கடம்² caṅkaṭam, n. < Port. jangada. Ferry-boat of two canoes with a platform thereon; இரட்டைத்தோணி. (J.) G. sãghāṛɔ m. ʻ lathe ʼ; M. sãgaḍ f. ʻ a body formed of two or more fruits or animals or men &c. linked together, part of a turner’s apparatus ʼ, m.f. ʻ float made of two canoes joined together ʼsaṁghāṭa m. ʻ fitting and joining of timber ʼ R. [√ghaṭ] LM 417 compares saggarai at Limurike in the Periplus, Tam. śaṅgaḍam, Tu. jaṅgala ʻ double — canoe ʼ),sã̄gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ lathe ʼ; Si. san̆gaḷa ʻ pair ʼ, han̆guḷaan̆g° ʻ double canoe, raft ʼ.(CDIAL 12859) Cangavāra [cp. Tamil canguvaḍa a dhoney, Anglo– Ind. ḍoni, a canoe hollowed from a log, see also doṇi] a hollow vessel, a bowl, cask M i.142; J v.186 (Pali)
    Hieroglyph: खोंड (p. 216) [khōṇḍam A young bull, a bullcalf; खोंडा [ khōṇḍā ] m A कांबळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood. खोंडरूं [ khōṇḍarūṃ ] n A contemptuous form of खोंडा in the sense of कांबळा-cowl (Marathi. Molesworth); kōḍe dūḍa bull calf (Telugu); kōṛe ‘young bullock’ (Konda)Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali) Rebus: 

     kundaṇa pure gold (Tulu)

    kāṇḍam காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16). Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘metal tools, pots and pans’ (Marathi) (B) {V} “(pot, etc.) to ^overflow”. See `to be left over’. @B24310. #20851. Re(B) {V} “(pot, etc.) to ^overflow”. See`to be left over’. (Munda ) Rebus: loh ‘copper’ (Hindi) The hieroglyph clearly refers to the metal tools, pots and pans of copper. 
    Some examples of ‘overflowing pot’ metaphors on Ancient Near East artifacts, cylinder seals:
    I suggest that together with the adaptation of Egyptian hieroglyphs, the Indus Script hypertexts were also adapted and absorbed into Ancient Near East glyptics to signify wealth creation by metalwork of Meluhha artisans.
    Fig. 11.4 shows both on a Syrian dynastic seal and on a Syrian seal signifying a Canaanite goddess a common hieroglyph: an ankh (/ˈæŋk/ or /ˈɑːŋk/; Egyptian ˁnḫ), also known as crux ansata (the Latin for “cross with a handle”) is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic ideograph symbolizing “life”.  It should be noted that the Syrian seal which shows the ankh upside down also includes two Indus Script hypertext hieroglyphs: 1. twisted rope at the bottom rgister of the seal; 2. overflowing water pot. These two hieroglyphs are read rebus in Indus Script cipher:
    1. Twisted rope: मेढा [ mēḍhā ] ‘a curl or snarl; twist in thread’ rebus:  med ‘iron’ med ‘copper’ (Slavic) medhā ‘dhana, yajña’.
    2. Overflowing water pot: lo ‘overfowing pot’ rebus: loh ‘copper’ PLUS kāṇḍa ‘water’ rebus: kāṇḍā ‘implements’ Thus, together the expression is lokhaṇḍa ‘ metal implements’.
    Chlorite vessel found at Khafajeh: Ht 11.5 cm. 2,600 BCE, Khafajeh, north-east of Baghdad (Photo from pg. 69 of D. Collon’s 1995 Ancient Near Eastern Art).
    Impression of seal on tablets from Kanesh (After Larsen, Mogens Trolle and Moller Eva, Five old Assyrian texts, in: D. Charpin – Joannès F. (ed.), Marchands, Diplomates et Empereurs. Études sur la civilization Mésopotamienne offertes à Paul Garelli (Éditions research sur les Civilisations), Paris, 1991, pp. 214-245: figs. 5,6 and 10.)
    Timber and exotic stones to decorate the temples were brought from the distant lands of Magan and Meluhha (possibly to be identified as Oman and the Indus Valley).
    Gudea Basin. Water overflowing from vases. : The Representation of an Early Mesopotamian Ruler … By Claudia E. Suter “The standing statue N (Fig. 5) holds a vase from which four streams of water flow down on each side of the dress into identical vases depicted on the pedestal, which are equally overflowing with water. Little fish swim up the streams to the vase held by Gudea. This statue evidently shows the ruler in possession of prosperity symbolized by the overflowing vase.” (p.58)ayo ‘fish’ (Munda) Rebus: ayo ‘iron’ (Gujarati); ayas‘metal’ (Skt.) Together with lo, ‘overflow’, the compound word can be read as loh+ayas. The compound lohāyas is attested in ancient Indian texts, contrasted withkṛṣṇāyas, distinguishing red alloy metal (bronze) from black alloy metal (iron alloy). ayaskāḍa is a compound attested in Pāṇini; the word may be semantically explained as ‘metal tools, pots and pans’ or as alloyed metal.
    Workers from Elam, Susa, Magan and Meluhha were deployed by Gudea, the ruler of Lagaṣ, to build The Eninnu, the main temple of Girsu, c. 2125 BCE. We are dealing with Indian sprachbundwhen we refer to Meluhha. This sprachbund has a remarkable lexeme which is used to signify a smithy, as also a temple: Kota. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. Toda. kwala·l Kota smithy Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer; Ka.kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go.(SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge. (DEDR 2133).
    Gudea Basin. Water overflowing from vases. : The Representation of an Early Mesopotamian Ruler … By Claudia E. Suter “The standing statue N (Fig. 5) holds a vase from which four streams of water flow down on each side of the dress into identical vases depicted on the pedestal, which are equally overflowing with water. Little fish swim up the streams to the vase held by Gudea. This statue evidently shows the ruler in possession of prosperity symbolized by the overflowing vase.” (p.58)ayo ‘fish’ (Munda) Rebus: ayo ‘iron’ (Gujarati); ayas‘metal’ (Skt.) Together with lo, ‘overflow’, the compound word can be read as loh+ayas. The compound lohāyas is attested in ancient Indian texts, contrasted withkṛṣṇāyas, distinguishing red alloy metal (bronze) from black alloy metal (iron alloy). ayaskāḍa is a compound attested in Pāṇini; the word may be semantically explained as ‘metal tools, pots and pans’ or as alloyed metal.

    Cylinder seal explained as Enki seated on a throne with a flowing stream full of fish, ca. 2250 BCE

    (BM 103317).British Museum.
    meḍha ‘polar star’ (Marathi). meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.Mu.)
    2605 (#KJ Roach’s thesis). Sealed tablet. Susa. Illituram, son of Il-mishar, servant of Pala-isshan
    #KJ Roach M9 Mesopotamia
    #Roach 2168 Cream limestone. Susa.
    A person with a vase with overflowing water; sun sign. C. 18th cent. BCE. [E. Porada,1971, Remarks on seals found in the Gulf states, Artibus Asiae, 33, 31-7
    The seal of Gudea:  Gudea, with shaven head, is accompanied by a minor female diety.  He is led by his personal god, Ningishzida, into the presence of Enlil, the chief Sumerian god. Wind pours forth from of the jars held by Enlil, signifying that he is the god of the winds. The winged leopard (griffin) is a mythological creature associated with Ningishzida, The horned helmets, worn even by the griffins, indicates divine status (the more horns the higher the rank). The writing in the background translates as: “Gudea, Ensi [ruler], of Lagash”. lōī f., lo m.2. Pr. ẓūwī  ʻfoxʼ (Western Pahari)(CDIAL 11140-2). Rebus: loh ‘copper’ (Hindi). Te. eṟaka, ṟekka, rekka, neṟaka, neṟi id. (DEDR 2591). Rebus: eraka, eaka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); urukku (Ta.); urukka melting; urukku what is melted; fused metal (Ma.); urukku (Ta.Ma.); eragu = to melt; molten state, fusion; erakaddu = any cast thng; erake hoyi = to pour meltted metal into a mould, to cast (Kannada)

    Gudea’s link with Meluhha is clear from the elaborate texts on the two cylinders describing the construction of the Ninĝirsu temple in Lagash. An excerpt: 1143-1154. Along with copper, tin, slabs of lapis lazuli, refined silver and pure Meluḫa cornelian, he set up (?) huge copper cauldrons, huge …… of copper, shining copper goblets and shining copper jars worthy of An, for laying (?) a holy table in the open air …… at the place of regular offerings (?). Ninĝirsu gave his city, Lagaš 

    Location.Current Repository
     gud. ‘ ea guda ‘ ea warrior ‘ emphasis/the best “The best warrior”.
    Inscription on base of skirt- God commands him to build house. Gudea is holding plans. Gudea depicted as strong, peaceful ruler. Vessel flowing with life-giving water w/ fish. Text on garment dedicates himself,  the statue, and its temple to the goddess Geshtinanna.
    According to the inscription this statue was made by Gudea, ruler of Lagash (c. 2100 BCE) for the temple of the goddess Geshtinanna. Gudea refurbished the temples of Girsu and 11 statues of him have been found in excavations at the site. Nine others including this one were sold on the art market. It has been suggested that this statue is a forgery. Unlike the hard diorite of the excavated statues, it is made of soft calcite, and shows a ruler with a flowing vase which elsewhere in Mesopotamian art is only held by gods. It also differs stylistically from the excavated statues. On the other hand, the Sumerian inscription appears to be genuine and would be very difficult to fake. Statues of Gudea show him standing or sitting. Ine one, he rests on his knee a plan of the temple he is building. On some statues Gudea has a shaven head, while on others like this one he wears a headdress covered with spirals, probably indicating that it was made out of fur. Height 61 cm. The overflowing water from the vase is a hieroglyph comparable to the pectoral of Mohenjo-daro showing an overflowing pot together with a one-horned young bull and standard device in front. The diorite from Magan (Oman), and timber from Dilmun (Bahrain) obtained by Gudea could have come from Meluhha.
    “The goddess Geshtinanna was known as “chief scribe” (Lambert 1990, 298– 299) and probably was a patron of scribes, as was Nidaba/Nisaba (Micha-lowski 2002). ”
    Gudea Statue D Colum IV refers to Magan, Gubi and reads (Records of the Past, 2nd series, Vol. II, ed. by A. H. Sayce, [1888], at sacred-texts.com
    1. he has constructed.
    2. By the power of the goddessNinâ,
    3. by the power of the godNin-girsu,
    4. to Gudea
    5. who has endowed with the sceptre
    6. the godNin-girsu,
    7. the country ofMâgan, 1
    1. the country ofMelughgha,
    2. the country ofGubi, 2
    3. and the country ofNituk, 3
    4. which possess every kind of tree,
    5. vessels laden with trees of all sorts
    6. intoShirpurla
    7. have sent.
    8. From the mountains of the land ofMâgan
    9. a rare stone he has caused to come;
    10. for his statue
    Sumerian sign for the term ZAG ‘purified precious’. The ingot had a hole running through its length Perhaps a carrying rod was inserted through this hole.
    Glyph: ḍhol ‘a drum beaten on one end by a stick and on the other by the hand’ (Santali); ḍhol ‘drum’ (Nahali); dhol (Kurku); ḍhol (Hi.) dhol a drum (G.)(CDIAL 5608) డోలు [ḍōlu ] [Tel.] n. A drum. Rebus: dul ‘to cast in a mould’; dul mẽṛhẽt, dul meṛeḍ, dul; koṭe meṛeḍ ‘forged iron’ (Santali) WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhōˋḷ m. ʻstoneʼ, kṭg. ḍhòḷṭɔ m. ʻbig stone or boulderʼ, ḍhòḷṭu ʻsmall id.ʼ Him.I 87.(CDIAL 5536).
    Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ)
    Cylinder seal with kneeling nude heroes, ca. 2220–2159 b.c.; Akkadian  Mesopotamia Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm)  Metropolitan Museum of Art – USA
    Four flag-posts(reeds) with rings on top held by the kneeling persons define the four components of the iron smithy/forge.  This is an announcement of four shops, पेढी (Gujarati. Marathi). पेंढें ‘rings’ Rebus: पेढी ‘shop’.āra ‘serpent’ Rebus; āra ‘brass’. karaḍa ‘double-drum’ Rebus: karaḍa ‘hard alloy’.
    Specific materials offered for sale/exchange in the shop are: hard alloy brass metal (ayo, fish); lokhaṇḍ (overflowing pot) ‘metal tools, pots and pans, metalware’; arka/erka   ‘copper’; kammaṭa (a portable furnace for melting precious metals) ‘coiner, mint’  Thus, the four shops are: 1. brass alloys, 2. metalware, 3. copper and 4. mint (services).
    erãguḍu bowing, salutation (Telugu) iṟai (-v-, -nt-) to bow before (as in salutation), worship (Tamil)(DEDR 516). Rebus: eraka, eṟaka any metal infusion (Kannada.Tulueruvai ‘copper’ (Tamil); ere dark red (Kannada)(DEDR 446).
    puṭa Anything folded or doubled so as to form a cup or concavity; crucible. Alternative: ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati)
    Allograph: ढाल [ ḍhāla ] f (S through H) The grand flag of an army directing its march and encampments: also the standard or banner of a chieftain: also a flag flying on forts &c. ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. 2 fig. The leading and sustaining member of a household or other commonwealth. 5583 ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā — . 1. Tir. (Leech) “dàl” ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f. WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. — a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f. (CDIAL 5583).
    They are four Glyphs: paṭākā ‘flag’ Rebus: pāṭaka, four quarters of the village.
    kã̄ḍ reed Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.
    1. Pk. kamaḍha— , °aya— m. ʻ bamboo ʼ; Bhoj. kōro ʻ bamboo poles ʼ. 2. N. kāmro ʻ bamboo, lath, piece of wood ʼ, OAw.  kāṁvari ʻ bamboo pole with slings at each end for carrying things ʼ, H. kã̄waṛ°arkāwaṛ°ar f., G. kāvaṛf., M. kāvaḍ f.; — deriv. Pk. kāvaḍia — , kavvāḍia — m. ʻ one who carries a yoke ʼ, H. kã̄waṛī°ṛiyā m., G. kāvaṛiyɔ m. 3. S. kāvāṭhī f. ʻ carrying pole ʼ, kāvāṭhyo m. ʻ the man who carries it ʼ. 4. Or. kāmaṛā°muṛā ʻ rafters of a thatched house ʼ; G. kāmṛũ n., °ṛī f. ʻ chip of bamboo ʼ, kāmaṛ — koṭiyũ n. ʻ bamboo hut ʼ. 5. B. kāmṭhā ʻ bow ʼ, G. kāmṭhũ n., °ṭhī f. ʻ bow ʼ; M. kamṭhā°ṭā m. ʻ bow of bamboo or horn ʼ; — deriv. G. kāmṭhiyɔ m. ʻ archer ʼ. 6. A. kabāri ʻ flat piece of bamboo used in smoothing an earthen image ʼ. 7. kã̄bīṭ°baṭ°bṭī,  kāmīṭ°maṭ°mṭī,  kāmṭhīkāmāṭhī f. ʻ split piece of bamboo &c., lath ʼ.(CDIAL 2760). kambi f. ʻ branch or shoot of bamboo ʼ lex. Pk. kaṁbi — , °bī — , °bā — f. ʻ stick, twig ʼ, OG. kāṁba; M. kã̄b f. ʻ longitudinal division of a bamboo &c., bar of iron or other metal ʼ. (CDIAL 2774). कंबडी [ kambaḍī ] f A slip or split piece (of a bamboo &c.)(Marathi)
    The rings atop the reed standard: पेंढें [ pēṇḍhēṃ ] पेंडकें [ pēṇḍakēṃ ] n Weaver’s term. A cord-loop or metal ring (as attached to the गुलडा of the बैली and to certain other fixtures). पेंडें [ pēṇḍēṃ ] n (पेड) A necklace composed of strings of pearls. 2 A loop or ring. Rebus: पेढी (Gujaráthí word.) A shop (Marathi) Alternative: koṭiyum [koṭ, koṭī  neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (Gujarati) Rebus: ācāri koṭṭya = forge, kammārasāle (Tulu)
    The four hieroglyphs define the four quarters of the village smithy/forge: alloy, metalware, turner’s lathe-work, cruble (or, ingot).
    ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayo ‘metal, alloy’
    కాండము [ kāṇḍamu ] kānḍamu. [Skt.] n. Water. నీళ్లు (Telugu) kaṇṭhá — : (b) ʻ water — channel ʼ: Paš. kaṭāˊ ʻ irrigation channel ʼ, Shum. xãṭṭä. (CDIAL 14349).
    lokhãḍ ‘overflowing pot’ Rebus:  ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ (Gujarati)
    arká1 m. ʻ flash, ray, sun ʼ RV. [√arc] Pa. Pk. akka — m. ʻ sun ʼ, Mth. āk; Si. aka ʻ lightning ʼ, inscr. vid — äki ʻ lightning flash ʼ.(CDIAL 624) அருக்கன் arukkaṉ, n. < arka. Sun; சூரி யன். அருக்க னணிநிறமுங் கண்டேன் (திவ். இயற். 3, 1).(Tamil) agasāle ‘goldsmithy’ (Kannada) అగసాలి [ agasāli ] or అగసాలెవాడు agasāli. n. A goldsmith. కంసాలివాడు. (Telugu) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) cf. eruvai = copper (Tamil) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tulu) Rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.) eruvai = copper (Ta.); ere – a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a = syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) akka, aka (Tadbhava of arka) metal; akka metal (Te.) arka = copper (Skt.) erako molten cast (Tulu)
    Alternative: kunda ‘jasmine flower’ Rebus: kunda ʻa turner’s latheʼ. kundaṇa pure gold.
    The image could denote a crucible or a portable furnace: kammaṭa ‘coiner, mint, a portable furnace for melting precious metals (Telugu) On some cylinder seals, this image is shown held aloft on a stick, comparable to the bottom register of the ‘standard device’ normally shown in front of a one-horned young bull. Alternatives: puṭa Anything folded or doubled so as to form a cup or concavity; crucible. Ta. kuvai, kukai crucible.  Ma. kuva id.  Ka. kōve  id. Tu. kōvè id., mould. (DEDR 1816). Alternative: Shape of ingot: దళము [daḷamu] daḷamu. [Skt.] n. A leaf. ఆకు. A petal. A part, భాగము.  dala n. ʻ leaf, petal ʼ MBh. Pa. Pk. dala — n. ʻ leaf, petal ʼ, G. M. daḷ n.(CDIAL 6214). <DaLO>(MP)  {N} “^branch, ^twig”.  *Kh.<DaoRa>(D) `dry leaves when fallen’, ~<daura>, ~<dauRa> `twig’, Sa.<DAr>, Mu.<Dar>, ~<Dara> `big branch of a tree’, ~<DauRa> `a twig or small branch with fresh leaves on it’, So.<kOn-da:ra:-n> `branch’, H.<DalA>, B.<DalO>, O.<DaLO>, Pk.<DAlA>.  %7811.  #7741.(Munda etyma) Rebus: ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati).
    A baked-clay plaque from Ur, Iraq, portraying a goddess; she holds a vase overflowing with water (‘hé-gál’ or ‘hegallu’) is a symbol of abundance and prosperity. (Beijing World Art Museum)  Fish in water on statue, on viewer’s right. Gudea’s Temple Building “The goddesses with overflowing vases. (Fig.8). The large limestone basin (SV.7) restored by Unger from twenty-six fragments is carved in relief on its outside. It shows a row of goddesses walking on a stream of water. Between them they are holding vases from which water flows down into the stream. These, in turn, are fed with water poured from vases which are held by smaller-scale goddesses hovering above. All goddesses wear long pleated dresses, and crowns with a single horn pair. There are remains of at least six standing and four hovering goddesses. Considering the importance the number seven plays in Gudea’s inscriptions, Unger’s reconstruction of seven goddesses of each type is credible. The inscription on the basin, which relates its fashioning, designates it as a large S’IM, a relatively rare and only vagueely understood term, perhaps to be read agarinX. The fashioning of one or more S’IM is also related in the Cylinder inscriptions, and the finished artifact is mentioned again in the description of the temple…Since the metaphor paraphrasing the basin refers to th ceaseless flow of water, it is possible that the basin(s) mentioned in the account of Eninnu’s construction is (are) identical with the fragmentary remains of the one (perhaps two?) actually found within the area of Gudea’s Eninnu, as Unger presumed. Several similar and somewhat intuitive identifications of the goddesses with the overflowing vases have been proposed: Heuzey saw personifications of the Euphrates and Tigris; Unger saw personifications of sources and rain clouds that form the Tigris and identified them with Ningirsu and Baba’s seven daughters; van Buren saw personifications of higher white clouds and lower rain clouds whom she assigned to Ea’s circle. Neither are the seven (not fourteen!) daughters of Ningirsu and Baba ever associated with water, nor can fourteen personified clouds be made out in Ea’s circle…The clue must be the overflowing vase which van Buren correctly interpreted as a symbol of abundance and prosperity. This interpretation is corroborated by the Gottertsypentext which states that the images of Kulullu is blessing with one hand (ikarrab) and holding abundance (HE.GAL) in the other.  The protective spirit Kulullu is usually associated with abundance and divine benevolence, and may be reminiscent of the god bestowing the overflowing vase upon a human petititioner in much earlier presentation scenes. The narrative context in which the goddess with the overflowing vase occurs is confined to presentations of a human petititioner to a deity. The Akkadian seal fo the scribe Ili-Es’tar shows her accompanying the petitioner, not unlike a Lamma.
    Enki walks out of the water to the land attended by his messenger, Isimud
    who is readily identifiable by his two faces looking in opposite directions (duality).

    M177. Kidin-Marduk, son of Sha-ilima-damqa, the sha reshi official of Burnaburiash, king of the world Untash-Napirisha
    Cylinder seal image. The water-god in his sea house (Abzu) (ea. 2200 B.C.). On the extreme right is Enki, the water-god, enthroned in his sea house. To the left is Utu, the sun-god, with his rays and saw. The middle deity is unidentified. (British Museum)
    Gypsum statuette. “A Gypsum statuette of a priestess or goddess from the Sumerian Dynastic period, most likely Inanna. …She holds a sacred vessel from which the life-giving waters flow in two streams. Several gods and goddesses are shown thus with running water, including Inanna, and it speaks of their life-giving powers as only water brings life to the barren earth of Sumeria. The two streams of water are thought to stand for the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. This is the earliest of the group of statues and dates to c. 2600-2300 B.C. 150 mm tall.”
    These images are explained in terms of associated sacredness of Enki, who in Sumerian mythology
    (Enki and Ninhursag) is associated with Abzu where he lives with the source sweet waters.

    खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended (Marathi) M. lokhãḍ n. ʻironʼ(Marthi) yields the clue to the early semantics of khāṇḍā  which should have referred to tools, pots and pans (of metal). Kumaoni has semantics: lokhaṛ  ʻiron tools’. लोहोलोखंड [ lōhōlōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह & लोखंड) Iron tools, vessels, or articles in general (Marathi).
    Thus lohakāṇḍā would have referred to copper tools. The overflowing vase on the hands of Gudea would have referred to this compound, represented by the hieroglyphs and rendered rebus.
    lokhar ʻ bag in which a barber keeps his tools ʼ; H. lokhar m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; — X lauhabhāṇḍa — : Ku. lokhaṛ ʻ iron tools ʼ; H. lokhaṇḍ m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻ tools, iron, ironware ʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ (LM 400 < — khaṇḍa — )(CDIAL 11171). lōhitaka ʻ reddish ʼ Āpast., n. ʻ calx of brass, bell- metal ʼ lex. [lṓhita — ]K. lŏy f. ʻ white copper, bell — metal ʼ. (CDIAL 11166). lōhá ʻ red, copper — coloured ʼ ŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh. [*rudh — ] Pa. lōha — m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha — m. ʻ iron ʼ, Gy. pal. li°lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) “loa” ʻ steel ʼ; Kho. loh ʻ copper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ.lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhadlɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu°hā, A. lo, B. lono, Or. lohāluhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohāAw.lakhlōh, H.lohlohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md. ratu — lō ʻ copper ʼ.(CDIAL 11158).  lōhakāra m. ʻ iron — worker ʼ, °rī — f., °raka — m. lex., lauhakāra — m. Hit. [lōhá — , kāra — 1] Pa. lōhakāra — m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra — m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷaBi.Bhoj.  Aw.lakhlohār, H. lohārluh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻ coppersmith ʼ. Addenda: lōhakāra — : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m.(CDIAL 11159). lōhahala 11161 lōhala ʻ made of iron ʼ W. [lōhá — ](CDIAL 11161). Bi. lohrā°rī ʻ small iron pan ʼ(CDIAL 11160). Bi. lohsārī ʻ smithy ʼ(CDIAL 11162). P.ludh. lōhṭiyā m. ʻ ironmonger ʼ.(CDIAL 11163). लोहोलोखंड [ lōhōlōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह & लोखंड) Iron tools, vessels, or articles in general.रुपेशाई लोखंड [ rupēśāī lōkhaṇḍa ] n A kind of iron. It is of inferior quality to शिक्केशाई. लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously. लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. 2 fig. Hardy or hard–a constitution or a frame of body, one’s हाड or natal bone or parental stock. 3 Close and hard;–used of kinds of wood. 4 Ardent and unyielding–a fever. 5 लोखंडी, in the sense Hard and coarse or in the sense Strong or enduring, is freely applied as a term of distinction or designation. Examples follow. लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] f (लोखंड) An iron boiler or other vessel. लोखंडी जर [ lōkhaṇḍī jara ] m (लोखंड & जर) False brocade or lace; lace &c. made of iron.लोखंडी रस्ता [ lōkhaṇḍī rastā ] m लोखंडी सडक f (Iron-road.) A railroad. लोह [ lōha ] n S Iron, crude or wrought. 2 m Abridged from लोहभस्म. A medicinal preparation from rust of iron.लोहकार [ lōhakāra ] m (S) A smelter of iron or a worker in iron.लोहकिट्ट [ lōhakiṭṭa ] n (S) Scoriæ or rust of iron, klinker.लोहंगी or लोहंगी काठी [ lōhaṅgī or lōhaṅgī kāṭhī ] f (लोह & अंग) A club set round with iron clamps and rings, a sort of bludgeon.लोहार [ lōhāra ] m ( H or लोहकार S) A caste or an individual of it. They are smiths or workers in iron. लोहारकाम [ lōhārakāma ] n Iron-work, work proper to the blacksmith.लोहारकी [ lōhārakī ] f (लोहार) The business of the blacksmith.लोहारडा [ lōhāraḍā ] m A contemptuous form of the word लोहार.लोहारसाळ [ lōhārasāḷa ] f A smithy.
    Loha (nt.) [Cp. Vedic loha, of Idg. *(e)reudh “red”; see also rohita & lohita] metal, esp. copper, brass or bronze. It is often used as a general term & the individual application is not always sharply defined. Its comprehensiveness is evident from the classification of loha at VbhA 63, where it is said lohan ti jātilohaŋ, vijāti˚, kittima˚, pisāca˚ or natural metal, produced metal, artificial (i. e. alloys), & metal from the Pisāca district. Each is subdivided as follows: jāti˚=ayo, sajjhaŋ, suvaṇṇaŋ, tipu, sīsaŋ, tambalohaŋ, vekantakalohaŋ; vijāti˚=nāga — nāsika˚; kittima˚=kaŋsalohaŋ, vaṭṭa˚, ārakūṭaŋ; pisāca˚=morakkhakaŋ, puthukaŋ, malinakaŋ, capalakaŋ, selakaŋ, āṭakaŋ, bhallakaŋ, dūsilohaŋ. The description ends “Tesu pañca jātilohāni pāḷiyaŋ visuŋ vuttān’ eva (i. e. the first category are severally spoken of in the Canon). Tambalohaŋ vekantakan ti imehi pana dvīhi jātilohehi saddhiŋ sesaŋ sabbam pi idha lohan ti veditabbaŋ.” — On loha in similes see J.P.T.S. 1907, 131. Cp. A iii.16=S v.92 (five alloys of gold: ayo, loha, tipu, sīsaŋ, sajjhaŋ); J v.45 (asi˚); Miln 161 (suvaṇṇam pi jātivantaŋ lohena bhijjati); PvA 44, 95 (tamba˚=loha), 221 (tatta — loha — secanaŋ pouring out of boiling metal, one of the five ordeals in Niraya).    — kaṭāha a copper (brass) receptacle Vin ii.170— kāra a metal worker, coppersmith, blacksmith Miln 331. — kumbhī an iron cauldron Vin ii.170. Also N. of a purgatory J iii.22, 43; iv.493; v.268; SnA 59, 480; Sdhp 195. — guḷa an iron (or metal) ball A iv.131; Dh 371 (mā ˚ŋ gilī pamatto; cp. DhA iv.109). — jāla a copper (i. e. wire) netting PvA 153. — thālaka a copper bowl Nd1 226. — thāli a bronze kettle DhA i.126. — pāsāda“copper terrace,” brazen palace, N. of a famous monastery at Anurādhapura in Ceylon Vism 97; DA i.131; Mhvs passim. — piṇḍa an iron ball SnA 225. — bhaṇḍa copper (brass) ware Vin ii.135— maya made of copper, brazen Sn 670; Pv ii.64— māsa a copper bean Nd1 448 (suvaṇṇa — channa). — māsaka a small copper coin KhA 37 (jatu — māsaka, dāru — māsaka+); DhsA 318. — rūpa a bronze statue Mhvs 36, 31. — salākā a bronze gong — stick Vism 283. Lohatā (f.) [abstr. fr. loha] being a metal, in (suvaṇṇassa) aggalohatā the fact of gold being the best metal VvA 13. (Pali) agga- is explained: erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tulu) agasāle, agasāli, agasālavāḍu = a goldsmith (Telugu) cf. eruvai = copper (Tamil)
    Thus loha in aggalohatā gets the semantics ‘metal’.
    “Sumerian words with a pre-Sumerian origin are:
    professional names such as simug ‘blacksmith’ and tibira ‘copper smith’, ‘metal-manufacturer’ are not in origin Sumerian words.
    Agricultural terms, like engar ‘farmer’, apin ‘plow’ and absin ‘furrow’, are neither of Sumerian origin.
    Craftsman like nangar ‘carpenter’, agab ‘leather worker’
    Religious terms like sanga ‘priest’
    Some of the most ancient cities, like Kish, have names that are not Sumerian in origin.
    These words must have been loan words from a substrate language. The words show how far the division in labor had progressed even before the Sumerians arrived.”
    The rebus readings are:
    కాండము [ kāṇḍamu ] kānamu. [Skt.] n. Water. నీళ్లు (Telugu) kaṇṭhá — : (b) ʻ water — channel ʼ: Paš. kaāˊ ʻ irrigation channel ʼ, Shum. xãṭṭä. (CDIAL 14349). ṇḍ‘flowing water’ Rebus: ṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’. lokhaṇḍ (overflowing pot) ‘metal tools, pots and pans, metalware’ lokhã overflowing pot’ Rebus:  ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ (Gujarati) Rebus: लोखंड lokhaṇḍ Iron tools, vessels, or articles in general. lo ‘pot to overflow’. Gu<loRa>(D)  {} “^flowing strongly”.

    கொட்டம்¹ koṭṭam  Flowing, pouring; நீர் முதலியன ஒழுகுகை. கொடுங்காற் குண்டிகைக் கொட்ட மேய்ப்ப (பெருங். உஞ்சைக். 43, 130) கொட்டம் koṭṭam < ṣṭha. Cattle- shed (Tamil)
    koṭṭam flowing, pouring (Tamil). Ma. koṭṭuka to shoot out, empty a sack. ? Te. koṭṭukonipōv.

    బత్తి batti batti. [for. Skt. భక్తి.] n. Faith. బత్తిగల faithful. "అంగనయెంతటి పుణ్యమూర్తివో, బత్తిజనింపనాదుచెర బాపితి." S. iii. 63. See on భక్తి. బత్తుడు battuḍu. n. A worshipper. భక్తుడు. The caste title of all the five castes of artificers as వడ్లబత్తుడు a carpenter. కడుపుబత్తుడు one who makes a god of his belly. L. xvi. 230. பத்தர்³ pattarn. < bhakta. 1. Devotees, votaries; அடியார். பத்தர் சிக்கெனப் பிடித்த செல் வமே (திருவாச. 37, 8). 2. Persons who are loyal to God, king or country; அன்புடையார். தேசபத்தர். 3. A caste of Vīrašaiva vegetarians; வீரசைவரில் புலாலுண்ணாத வகுப்பினர். Loc.

    Hieroglyph: pāṭroṛo m. ʻwooden troughʼ(Sindhi) pathiyā ʻ basket used as feeding trough for animals  (Maithili): *prasthapattra ʻ seed account ʼ. [prastha -- 2, páttra -- ]K. pathawaturu m. ʻ memorandum showing the area sown ʼ.(CDIAL 8871) prastha2 m.n. ʻ a measure of weight or capacity = 32 palas ʼ MBh.Pa. pattha -- m. ʻ a measure = 1/4 āḷhaka, cooking vessel containing 1 pattha ʼ; NiDoc. prasta ʻ a measure ʼ; Pk. pattha -- , °aya -- m. ʻ a measure of grain ʼ; K. path m. ʻ a measure of land requiring 1 trakh (= 9 1/2 lb.) of seed ʼ; L. patth, (Ju.) path m. ʻ a measure of capacity = 4 boras ʼ; Ku. pātho ʻ a measure = 2 seers ʼ; N. pāthi ʻ a measure of capacity = 1/10 man ʼ; Bi. pathiyā ʻ basket used by sower or for feeding cattle ʼ; Mth. pāthā ʻ large milk pail ʼ, pathiyā ʻ basket used as feeding trough for animals ʼ; H. pāthī f. ʻ measure of corn for a year ʼ; Si. pata ʻ a measure of grain and liquids = 1/4 näliya ʼ.*prasthapattra -- .Addenda: prastha -- 2: WPah.poet. patho m. ʻ a grain measure about 2 seers ʼ (prob. ← Ku. Mth. form) Him.I 110.(CDIAL 8869) Ta. pātti bathing tub, watering trough or basin, spout, drain; pattal wooden bucket; pattar id., wooden trough for feeding animals. Ka. pāti basin for water round the foot of a tree. Tu. pāti trough or bathing tub, spout, drain. Te. pādi, pādu basin for water round the foot of a tree. (DEDR 4079) பத்தல் pattal, n. 1. A wooden bucket; மரத்தாலான நீரிறைக்குங் கருவி. தீம்பிழி யெந்திரம் பத்தல் வருந்த (பதிற்றுப். 19, 23). 2. See பத்தர்¹, 2. 3. See பத்தர்¹, 3. 4. Ditch, depression; குழி. ஆன்வழிப்படுநர் தோண்டிய பத்தல் (நற். 240). 5. A part of the stem of the palmyra leaf, out of which fibre is extracted; நாருரித்தற்கு ஏற்ற பனைமட்டையின் ஓருறுப்பு. (G. Tn. D. I, 221.) பத்தர்¹ pattarn. 1. See பத்தல், 1, 4, 5. 2. Wooden trough for feeding animals; தொட்டி. பன்றிக் கூழ்ப்பத்தரில் (நாலடி, 257). 3. Cocoanut shell or gourd used as a vessel; குடுக்கை. கொடிக்காய்ப்பத்தர் (கல்லா. 40, 3).பாத்திரம்² pāttiram, n. < pātra. 1. Vessel, utensil; கொள்கலம். (பிங்.) 2. Mendicant's bowl; இரப்போர் கலம். (சூடா.) pāˊtra n. ʻ drinking vessel, dish ʼ RV., °aka -- n., pātrīˊ- ʻ vessel ʼ Gr̥ŚrS. [√1]Pa. patta -- n. ʻ bowl ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ little bowl ʼ, pātĭ̄ -- f.; Pk. patta -- n., °tī -- f., amg. pāda -- , pāya -- n., pāī -- f. ʻ vessel ʼ; Sh. păti̯ f. ʻ large long dish ʼ (← Ind.?); K. pāthar, dat. °tras m. ʻ vessel, dish ʼ, pôturu m. ʻ pan of a pair of scales ʼ (gahana -- pāth, dat. pöċü f. ʻ jewels and dishes as part of dowry ʼ ← Ind.); S. pāṭri f. ʻ large earth or wooden dish ʼ, pāṭroṛo m. ʻ wooden trough ʼ; L. pātrī f. ʻ earthen kneading dish ʼ, parāt f. ʻ large open vessel in which bread is kneaded ʼ, awāṇ. pātrī ʻ plate ʼ; P. pātar m. ʻ vessel ʼ, parāt f., parātṛā m. ʻ large wooden kneading vessel ʼ, ḍog. pāttar m. ʻ brass or wooden do. ʼ; Ku.gng. pāiʻ wooden pot ʼ; B. pātil ʻ earthern cooking pot ʼ, °li ʻ small do. ʼ Or. pātiḷa°tuḷi ʻ earthen pot ʼ, (Sambhalpur) sil -- pā ʻ stone mortar and pestle ʼ; Bi. patĭ̄lā ʻ earthen cooking vessel ʼ, patlā ʻ milking vessel ʼ, pailā ʻ small wooden dish for scraps ʼ; H. patīlā m. ʻ copper pot ʼ, patukī f. ʻ small pan ʼ; G. pātrũ n. ʻ wooden bowl ʼ, pātelũ n. ʻ brass cooking pot ʼ, parāt f. ʻ circular dish ʼ (→ M. parāt f. ʻ circular edged metal dish ʼ); Si. paya ʻ vessel ʼ, päya (< pātrīˊ -- ). (CDIAL 8055)
    பத்தர்² pattarn. < T. battuḍu. A caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்று. பத்தர்&sup5; pattar, n. perh. vartaka. Merchants; வியாபாரிகள். (W.)
    Hypertext: सांगड  sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S)  f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together.
    Rebus: sãgaṛh 'fortification' sangar 'trade' అంగడి  aṅgaḍi angadi. [Drav.] (Gen. అంగటి Loc. అంగట, plu. అంగళ్లు) n. A shop. అంగడిపెట్టు to open a shop. అంగళ్లవాడ range of shops. అంగట పోకార్చి selling in the shop. అంగడివీధి a market place. Ta. aṅkāṭi bazaar, bazaar street. Ma. aṅṅāṭi shop, bazaar. Ko. aŋga·ḍy id. To. ogoḏy bazaar (? < Badaga). Ka. aṅgaḍi shop, stall. Koḍ. aŋgaḍi id. Tu. aṅgaḍi id. Te. aṅgaḍi id. Kol. aŋgaḍi bazaar. Nk. 
    aŋgāṛi id. Nk. (Ch.) aŋgāṛ market. Pa. aŋgoḍ courtyard, compound. / ? Cf. Skt. aṅgaṇa- courtyard. 
    (DEDR 35)

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          It will be a fitting tribute to the restatement of Bharat as a softpower for NaMo to issue an Ordinance to build Ram Mandir in Ayodhya as an expression of resolve to stabilise Ram Rajya in the nation. This will be a fitting complement to the ongoing re-thinking on Confucius in support of Xi Jinping's soft power policies for China.
             Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Centre

              December 12, 2018
    The rebirth of Confucius in his homeland

    Why The Sage’s Ideals Matter To Xi Jinping


    ·      CHINESE DREAM

    ·      CONFUCIUS

    Asia seems to be on a journey of discovering its traditions. India is connecting with its culture. In 2015, United Nations General Assembly declared 21 June as ‘International Yoga Day’, giving a major boost to the ancient Indian practice. In a span of nearly two years, yoga seemed to be a rage across the world with thousands descending on Times Square in 2017 to mark the day. A small company, which was founded by a monk who had no experience in the FMCG sector, gave well-established MNCs a run for their money. Its USP was ayurved, a 5,000-year-old natural healing solution.

    In our neighbourhood, Confucian traditions are being revived in China. The ideas of one of the greatest Chinese thinkers, Confucius, are getting a shot in the arm in his birthplace. The Middle Kingdom seems to be rediscovering his thoughts, thanks to China’s President Xi Jinping.

    In Asia, where memorials and statues decide the stature of a person long after he/she has left this world, the world’s largest Confucius statue was inaugurated in his hometown Qufu, Shandong province, two months ago. The thoughts of the Chinese sage had a huge impact on the administration through the ages. His teachings have resonated during various phases in China’s history in the curriculum of its imperial service examinations, which allowed for advancement in governance hierarchy for the nation’s youth. The scholar believed that acting ethically in situations relating both to the family and state would create social harmony, and that it was the job of rulers to emulate and spread ethical behaviour, just as it was children’s duty to venerate their parents and continue their traditions, codifying the filial piety that continues to define familial relations across Asia. His teachings are preserved in Analects, a book that takes the form of structured conversations between Confucius and his followers.

    However, Confucian thought went out of favour with the fall of the Imperial Court in early 19th century. The May Fourth Movement, an anti-imperialist and cultural agitation of students in 1919 that laid the seeds of the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) birth, aimed at eradicating the ills of traditional Chinese society. The agitators slammed Confucian thought, calling for an end to patriarchy.

    The modern nation’s founder, Mao Zedong, denounced Confucius for “subjugation of women”. He accused the sage of propagating an orthodox ideology that curbed women from receiving an education and encouraging the brutal practice of foot binding, in which a girl’s feet are wrapped to stunt her growth.

    In the 60s, at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Mao’s Red Guards waged a battle against the Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas (known as the ‘Four Olds’). The Cemetery of Confucius in Shandong was attacked and vandalised by a team of Red Guards from Beijing in November 1966.

    Project rehabilitation

    In 2004, Confucius Institute, an outreach project of the Chinese government to promote its language and culture, was born.

    Experts say, the project is the “biggest soft power and public diplomacy programme” in the world and over the years there are more than 1,000 Confucius institutes across the globe.

    Since Xi became the new helmsman of the Communist Party in 2012, he has vowed a “great rejuvenation” to restore China’s ancient prominence. The 2012 party congress featured slogans about ‘harmony’ and ‘sincerity’ taken from Confucian thought.

    A year later, Xi visited the Research Institute of Confucianism in the city of Qufu, the hometown of Confucius, and Kong Family Mansion, the historical residence of the direct descendants of Confucius. He called for new and positive roles for Confucianism.

    The Economist reported that in February 2014 he convened a “collective study” session of the party's elite and emphasised Confucian values. Months later, Xi became the first party chief to attend a birthday party for Confucius. Incidentally, since becoming China’s leader, Xi has not paid respects at the birthplace of Mao Zedong at Shaoshan in Hunan province.

    His ‘Xi Jinping Thought’ refers to the preaching of stalwarts like Mao and Marx, but draws on ancient Confucianism. Xi underscores the wisdom of Confucius with emphasis on submission and stability. The idea is perhaps to promote to the nation that he is the protector of a 5,000-year-old civilization.

    To some extent Xi’s anti-graft campaign is spurred by Confucian principle of probity in public office. The Communist Party of China perhaps believes that the sage’s thoughts have the advantage of being home-grown and are keen on cashing in on its appeals to a yearning for ancient values among those thrown off-balance by the nation’s rapid speed of change.

    New school of thought

    Over the last few years, several private educational institutes dedicated to Confucian teachings have opened across the country in response to a desire by parents to school their wards in traditional education. The schools, backed by the central government, instil ideas on filial piety and integrity. At a tender age, kids start memorising Confucian classics, at six (when state schooling commences) they begin reciting the Great Master’s wisdom. The demand for such ‘prep’ schools is growing with upper middle-class parents yearning for inculcating a Confucian bent of mind.

    China’s pragmatic ruler is merely following in the footsteps of East Asia’s mini-dragons. In 18th century Japan, the elite was eager to modernise and catch up with the West. Confucian ideals were determinedly used in the curriculum, which were developed to serve the government's desire to link industrialisation with the preservation of traditional Japanese respect for family and state. The Ministry of Education issued ethics textbooks in Japanese schools between 1904 and 1945, introducing students to topics like learning, loyalty, courage and kinship. The implicit aim was to introduce a sense of self-cultivation, a sense of a nation and civic ethos. It specially emphasised on the need for each citizen to be a good person and learn and constantly upgrade his/her knowledge.

    Singapore, a British colony that become an independent state by 1965, transformed from a no-hope to a nation with the second highest per capita income. Due to an ambitious industrialisation programme in the 1970s, the standard of living of Singaporeans grew, so did crime, drug abuse, delinquency. The state later introduced Confucian ethics as a component of moral education as a “counterweight to creeping Western culture”. Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew used Confucian ideals as a means of ensuring modernisation and political stability.

    Confucian values such as emphasis on family and respect for authority were featured by Singapore's government in an effort to avoid the pitfalls of what were seen as the ills of Western society. An effort was made to elevate a modernised version of Confucianism as a counterweight to Western political liberalism, and lack of discipline.

    While the enormous statue watches over China, Confucius’ hometown of Qufu is scheduled to host China’s first teachers’ museum. The message from Beijing is clear. Mao’s visage is ubiquitous across China, but Confucius is its new star.

    Kalpit Mankikar was a news editor at a leading Indian broadsheet, and is currently pursuing his China studies at the London School of Economics.

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    • December 13, 2018,
    • 9:59 am
    • |
    • Updated
    • :
    • December 13, 2018,
    • 9:59 AM

    New Delhi: There are no comprehensive reports detailing job creation in India. Numbers for formal sector employment have been arrived at for the first time in the “Towards a Payroll Reporting in India” report by Prof Pulak Ghosh of the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore and Dr Soumya Kanti Ghosh, Group Chief Economic Adviser of SBI. The predecessors to the Ghosh Report were NSSO reports that, through their estimates, did not adequately represent the employment situation in the country. Thus emerges the need to develop a better mechanism to determine and report the job situation in the country.
    A good place to start is analysing the supply of human capital in the jobs market. Taking into consideration the data from the Census of years 1991, 2001, and 2011, the Ghosh Report reveals that 2.5 crore babies are born every year. Consequently, 2.5 crore people attain the age of 21 annually today and will do so for the next 20 years as well.
    Labour participation rate among these 2.5 crore people is estimated at about 60%, i.e. 1.5 crore people enter the labour force every year. Further, the AISHE (All India Survey on Higher Education) report for 2016-17 highlights that the total number of graduates that pass-out in the country each year is around 88 lakhs. Within this demographic, the drop-out rate (not wanting a job) can be approximated at around 25%, helping us determine the incremental number of qualified people added to the labour force annually, ~66 lakh. Non-graduates as a proportion of the labour force would then come in at 84 lakh.
    Jobs, by definition, are split into the formal and Informal sectors in India. Formal sector jobs are characterised by Social Security coverage. Social Security in India is provided by three organisations: EPFO, ESIC, and NPS (NPS is specific to government employees). The best sources of data for Formal job creation are the EPFO and ESIC, which cover a gamut of 190 and 90 industries, for those employing over 20 and 10 employees, respectively. The data for the last six months has been released by EPFO and ESIC and has been analysed thoroughly in the Ghosh report. As of March 2018, their findings revealed that 55 lakh incremental jobs have been registered with the EPFO, 9 Lakhs with the ESIC, and 7 lakh with the NPS. Therefore, a total of 71 lakh jobs have been created in the formal sector according to incremental Social Security coverage in 2017-18. This data has been well construed and will only see nominal changes with better data coverage as 2018 progresses. It is, however, safe to assume that the formal sector generates close to 70 lakh jobs a year as this data is based on monthly contributions and payroll.
    We must also look at members of the population outside the scope of Social Security. Job creation among professionals like chartered accountants, lawyers and doctors is key in generating employment, and needs to be an integral part of our calculations. According to ICAI (Institute of Chartered Accountants of India) data, there were 16,970 new Chartered Accountants added to the job force in 2017 with around 5,624 new practices setting up shop. The total number of jobs created by this segment of the population is a factor of additional human resources employed by the professional for setting up a new practice.
    This applies to doctors and lawyers as well, with both adding approximately 80,000 to the labour force in 2017. Summing up ancillary staff members (clerks, paralegals, nurses, etc.) required to set up practices by these professions, we have surmised that over 6 lakh jobs were contributed through just these three professions in the Informal sector, with employment figures for other similar professions and consultancies not considered.
    Further, the total stock of employment created through these three professions is around 1.08 crore, assuming 20 jobs per CA practice, 5 jobs per Medical practice, and 3 jobs per law practice as per the below table.
    The skill development initiatives of the government under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana and National Skill Development Corporation provide the data as outlined below. They have successfully generated 5 lakh jobs in the previous year but may have been considered in other categories in the formal or informal sector accounting.
    The transport industry generates a large chunk of informal employment, made up of individuals or small firms owning vehicles. Data available from Society of Indian Automobile Manufactures (SIAM) is segregated by the types of vehicles, providing us sales and exports numbers across the commercial vehicles, three wheelers, and passenger vehicles categories. The capacity for employment for each of these vehicles can be assumed at around 2 per commercial vehicle, 1.5 per three-wheeler, and about 0.25 (1 in every 4 cars) for every passenger vehicle. Following this premise, it can be surmised that the transport sector contributes close to 20 lakh jobs per year, a figure often overlooked by employment surveys and reports. These jobs would be in the Informal sector as these vehicles are typically owned individually and not by firms. This is buttressed by the fact that the EPFO and ESI data do not reveal these jobs in any large measure.
    Commercial vehicles in India—trucks, LMV (goods), LMV (passenger), buses, and taxis—typically generate 2 jobs per vehicle. The cumulative stock of these in 2016-17 was about 2.25 crores. Therefore, the stock of jobs within the transport industry was extrapolated to be around 3.6 crores in India today.
    The contribution to informal jobs creation is a factor of many other sources beyond the scope of this analysis. However, for the sake of brevity and reasoning, we have estimated that employment not covered by social security from professional and transport sectors alone contribute about 29 lakhs per year. Cumulatively, from the Formal and these Informal sectors, India generates over 1 crore jobs each year. This is an understatement as several informal sectors and MSMEs are not considered in this extrapolation. A complete picture of the employment scenario can only be achieved through the use of big data analytics over improved information reporting standards. In this article, we restrict ourselves to only a few organised chunks of professionals and to the transport sector to determine an objectively conservative flow of employment for the year.
    Further, the total active labour force in India is estimated in various studies to be around 50 crore (estimated based on NSSO 2012). As per the World Bank, agriculture contributes to the creation of around 43% of these jobs, thus bringing the workforce in Industry and Services to around 28.5 crore. Of this, we can quite conservatively appropriate that 9.5 crore are in formal employment as per the below table, placing India as the third largest Formal employment generator in the world after China and the US.
    If we take jobs generated in the transport sector and through professionals, the number adds up to about 4.7 crore. This means that the other uncovered sectors in the Informal sector employ the balance of 14.3 crore, requiring periodic adjustments for unemployment through surveys.
    This analysis elucidates the fact that India does not, in fact, have a job creation problem, but a wage problem. Low wages (of about INR 15-20K per month), especially in the informal economy, do not allow the Country’s citizens to live a comfortable and productive life. Efforts need to be directed towards greater job formalisation, including increased social security coverage and better data gathering so that appropriate policies can be made.
    It is important to note that India does not face a problem of not possessing the data to drive at its employment disposition. The right data is lying with the government, the authors of the Ghosh report have demonstrated that a planned approach of using “Payroll Reporting” can be used to unclutter this data and provide accurate and invaluable insights.
    Most importantly, this incontrovertible data proves that claims of jobless growth are completely unfounded and totally wrong. The Indian economy has grown significantly between 1991 to 2018 at the rate of 8.7% a year from USD 275bn to USD 2.6Tn. Such growth cannot be jobless growth. Further, India’s current GDP growth rate of 7.5% per annum would most certainly contribute towards a job growth rate of at the very minimum, 2.5-3% per year. As our Prime Minister said, we need better jobs data so that the focus is on good policy directed at creating more formal jobs rather than empty rhetoric about jobless growth.
    T.V. Mohandas Pai  is Chairman, Aarin Capital Partners. Yash Baid  is Head of Research, 3one4 Capital.

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    Friday, December 14, 2018

    Unknown Rig Vedic hymn on Aśvins in Mahabharata & the purpose of Rig Veda

    Vedas are many and only some of them have been compiled by Vyasa (Krishna Dwaipayana), so goes the tradition. Even this compilation was very huge but what we have today is just 99.1% of what Vyasa had compiled. Of them Rig Vedic hymns in the form of 1028 sūktas are available now. At times we do hear about discovery of some Rig Vedic sūktas with someone, but the authenticity of those hymns cannot be known. In this backdrop, it makes exciting reading to come across an unknown Rig Vedic sūkta onAśvins in Mahabharata.

    Exciting because,

    (1) It was recited in a time frame that can be deciphered. This brings in newer insight in ‘dating’ efforts of Rig Veda.

    (2) It gives references to the zodiac, much the same as what is found in RV 1-164 authored by Rishi Dirghatamas.

    (3) The references reveal the purpose of Rig Veda with Sūktas which are nothing but mantras that bring out designated results.

    Background of the Sūkta found in Mahabharata.

    This Rig Vedic hymn (Sūkta) was recited by Upamanyu, the son of Vyāghrapāda. Upamanyu also happened to be a preceptor for Krishna (MB: 13-17). In his youth while he was serving as a student in the Gurukul of Ayoda-Dhaumya an incident happened by which he lost his vision and fell into a pit. On the advice of his preceptor to glorify Aśvins to regain eye sight, Upamanyu began reciting the Rig Vedic hymn of Aśvins! It is not known whether this sūkta was created by Upamanyu then and there or it existed earlier.

    The sūkta begins as follows:

    “sa evam ukta upādhyāyena stotuṃ pracakrame devāv aśvinau vāgbhir ṛgbhiḥ”

    ( एवम उक्त उपाध्यायेन सतॊतुं परचक्रमे देवाव अश्विनौ वाग्भिर ऋग्भिःMahabharata (1:3-59)

    (Meaning: “Upamanyu thus directed by his preceptor began to glorify the twin Aśvins, in the following words of the Rig Veda”)

    This is followed by 11 riks that praise Aśvins as the Supreme Being that set the Wheel of Time to roll eternally causing the fruits of action manifested for all beings. (Text and meaning at the end of this article)

    Aśvins given supreme position.

    A chronology of ideas exist in Rig Vedic sūktas, of which the foremost one is in offering soma to Indra and other deities and not offering the same to Aśvins. But then came a time when Aśvins were also offered Soma. It was Rishi Chyavana, son of Bhrigu who started offering Soma to Aśvins (MB- 3:124-125). Generally Kaṇvas were associated with offering oblations to Aśvins. An Atharvan verse (2:141-04) says that the soma offered by Kaṇvas to Aśvins helped Yadu and Turvasu of whom Yadu was the progenitor of Krishna’s race. And Krishna himself had opted for Aśvins in the place of Indra after he stopped the Indra festival. A couple of verses in Rig Veda refer to Krishna invoking Aśvins to accept Soma (RV 8:74.3 &4).

    All this goes to show that by Krishna’s times Aśvins had replaced Indra in receiving soma. Upamanya of the same period of Krishna had praised Aśvins as the Supreme Being who facilitated creation and manifestation of karmic results through the wheel of Time.

    The Sūkta recited by Upamanyu containing 11 verses (mantras / riks) extols Aśvins as the first –born and who set in motion the wheel of time that had 360 days and 720 days and nights. There is a reference to 12 spokes of the wheel referring to 12 months and the zodiac. Though by themselves are free from fruits of action, the Aśvins cause the fruits of action to all beings.

    This sūkta is comparable to another Rig Vedic sūkta (RV 1:164) having the same notions on Wheel of Time but it has in addition two popular ideas of Vedic Thought. One is about the 2-bird analogy found in the Upanishads of the Atman and Paramatman sitting on a tree as birds, with Atman eating the fruit of karma while the other not eating any but shining well. The other view is the now famous but also mis-interpreted verse “ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadanti” – which has the meaning as follows:

    They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, and he is heavenly noblywinged- Garutman. 

    To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan
    .” (RV 1:164.46)

    This conveys that the Supreme Being is known by different names such as Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, Garutman (Garuda), Yama and Mātariśvan. In other words the deities we know as Indra, Varuna etc are none other than the Supreme Being Itself. This verse by Rishi Dirghatamas does not attest the same status to Aśvins though it does say that Aśvins are endowed with helping mankind. But Aśvins are given the Supreme status in Upmanayu’s sūkta.

    Part of the compilation by Vyasa.

    Now the question comes whether this hymn was part of the Rig Vedic corpus that is now lost or it was newly composed by Upamanyu. Looking at the contemporariness of Upamanyu and Vyasa, and the age of Upamanyu at the time of reciting it - as a young student serving his master - it appears that this verse could have been part of the pre-existing compilation. Upamanyu had recited it for regaining eye-sight

    Contextually similar event appears in RV 1:112.6 in a verse in praise of Aśvins that says,

    Wherewith ye rescued Antaka when languishing deep in the pit, and Bhujyu with unfailing help.”

    Yet another one (1:116.11) says  that Aśvins “delivered Vandana from the pit like hidden treasure”.

    Restoration of eye sight is also attributed to Aśvins in a couple of Rig Vedic verses (1:112.8 & 1:116.16). Though Upamanyu’s sūkta does not refer to his sufferings (falling into the pit and losing eye sight), the purpose of the sūkta was to get relief from his suffering. As such this sūkta must have been a popular one in those days when there was a high probability of losing way in the forests and falling into pits and losing eyesight. Upamanyu suffered blindness upon eating a poisonous herb and falling into a pit thereafter. After reciting this sūkta, the Aśvins appeared and got him cured.

    Coming to the issues raised earlier,

    (1) As Upamanyu was a contemporary of Krishna, this sūkta can be dated to anytime before 5000 years from now. This hymn, found missing from the presently available śāka of Rig Veda but well entrenched in Mahabharata is proof that many Vedic hymns had existed in the past.  

    (2) The reference to the 12-part zodiac in this sūkta makes it known that the knowledge of the zodiac had existed in India 5000 years ago. The hymn of Dirghatamas being more ancient, it can be said that the original concept had evolved much earlier.  (The reference to 5000 years as the date of Krishna is based on the Mahabharata war-date evidenced inAihole inscription).

    Purpose of Rig Veda

    (3) Coming to the purpose of the Rig Veda, all riks are mantras and the compilation of the riks is a sūkta . Every sūkta or a mantra (rik) is capable of invoking the concerned deity, which is the very purpose of the Rig Veda. The basis is śabda that is understood as word or sound. When Śabda is arranged in specific order known as ‘Ānupūrvi’, the deity is invoked.

    This is comparable to the sub-atomic particles of the Universe which combine in various ways - but in specific order- to create composite particles and atoms. That order is the Ānupūrvi of the sub-atomic particles.  Every time creation starts after a deluge, the Ānupūrvi of those particles are manifest in the same way – this is expressed as the Supreme Being remembering the Ānupūrvi of śabda that form the Vedas. Science is yet to recognise and be receptive to śabda – the sounds and vibrations of the sub atomic syllables.

    The amazing part of the Ānupūrvi is that no mortal except the rishis have understood which śabda goes to make a specific order of Ānupūrvi so that a specific deity can be invoked and through Him, a specific result.  For example, in the sūkta of Upamanyu the meaning of the verses look like some description of the zodiac, but that is the Ānupūrvi that makes the śabda eternal by which the Supreme Being in the name Aśvins can be invoked to balance the elements present in Its co-bird on the tree (RV 1:164) – here, Upamanyu.

    Thinking in these lines, one cannot miss out the co-existence of three concepts in the hymn of Dirghatamas (RV 1:164) –

    (1) Wheel of Time causing things to happen and fruits of action,

    (2) Atman co-existing with Paramatman but getting impacted by the Wheel of Time and

    (3) Realisation of the Paramatman as the one and only Supreme Being but recognised by different names.

    When all these are understood and felt by the Atman, the Atman gets relieved from the influence of Wheel of Time. That is the ultimate result of the hymn by Dirghatamas. But Upamanyu’s hymn invokes Asvins as Paramatman without reference to the last two but with only the first idea of Wheel of Time. His hymn gave him back eye-sight but not ultimate Release. But Dirghatamas was not known to have regained his eye-sight though he invoked Aśvins in that hymn and referred to the Wheel of Time in similar description. The difference in result was obviously related to the Ānupūrvi of the śabda of the riks he conceived. But lesser mortals that we are, we can only see the ‘meanings’ and the differences in them and not the śabda!

    The same hymn by Dirghatamas speaks about the purpose of Vedas.

    The 39th rik says,

    ṛco akṣare parame vyoman yasmin devā adhi viśve niṣeduḥ |
    yastan na veda kiṃ ṛcā kariṣyati ya it tad vidusta ime samāsate

    रचो अक्षरे परमे वयोमन यस्मिन देवा अधि विश्वे निषेदुः |यस्तन  वेद किं रचा करिष्यति  इत तद विदुस्त इमे समासते || 

    Meaning by David Frawley:

    “The supreme syllable of the chant in the supreme ether, in which all the Gods reside, those who do not know this, what can they do with the Veda? Those who know it alone are gathered here.”

    Meaning by Griffith:

    “Upon what syllable of holy praisesong-, as twere their highest heaven, the Gods repose them,
    Who knows not this, what will he do with praisesong-? But they who know it well sit here assembled.”

    Gods reside in śabda, the basic syllable. Those who know this, sing the riks to get what the Gods give them.  But those who don’t know, treat the Vedas as a literary work – the world knows the worst outcome of that – it was the invention of Aryan Invasion!

    Here is a small solace for those yearning to see historic inputs in the Rig Veda: one can see a historic development in the concept of Aśvins from Dirghatamas to Upamanyu. Dirghatamas was born blind and remained so throughout his life. Though he praised Aśvins in his hymns, he didn’t see Aśvins as the Supreme Being. In contrast Upamanyu lost his eyesight accidentally and regained it by praying to Aśvins as the Supreme Being. The change of status to Aśvins had happened from Dirghatamas to Upamanyu.

    What happened in between cannot be traced in Rig Veda as it is not a historic document. We have to turn to the Itihāsa which are the historical documents. One is expected to refer to the Itihāsa to understand what the Vedas say. This can be authenticated from a verse in Vālmiki Ramayana that Vālmiki composed Ramayana to reinforce the import of the Vedas. (“vedopabrimhaṇārthāya” VR: 1:4-6). The scope of the Itihāsas is such that they help us to weave the chronology of men and events in addition to understanding the Vedic Thought.   

    The gap between Dirghatamas and Upamanyu can be filled by inputs from Mahabharata with a combined understanding of the Vedic seers mentioned in Rig Veda. Dirghatamas recognised Aśvins only as a benefactor of the Supreme Being and not as the Supreme Being Itself. Aśvins were elevated to the status of the Supreme Being as those who take soma-oblations by Rishi Chyavana (Mahabharata: 3-123). Since invoking Aśvins to partake the soma is found to be associated with the Kaṇvas, Kaṇvas can be positioned after Chyavana and not before him. In a surprising connection to Tamil language, Kaṇ, a Tamil word means eye! This takes us to a different discourse on whether Tamil was theManuśya bhaṣa of those times, which we are not probing here. Finally we find Upamanyu invoking Aśvins as the Supreme Being but he gained eye-sight and not Release from the Wheel of Time.

    With just one hymn of riks found in Mahabharata, we are able to construct a fairly reasonable history of the development of Aśvins from a subordinate deity to the main Supreme Deity. And we could identify the persons involved in this development using the Itihāsas.  

    This runs counter to what persons like Witzel had said that Vedas “represent the only contemporary literary sources for most of early Indian history” and his claim that “everything from known history up to the Mahabharata war is filled in from Vedic sources. ..... One can easily show that groups of 2-3 kings were lifted intact from the Rigveda, the Brahmanas, and so on, and inserted wherever they were thought to fit.” (1995, “Early Indian history: Linguistic and textual parameters”)

    For him Rig Veda is “a notoriously difficult text” and “the immigration of Indo-Aryans is a fact that can frequently be noticed in the Rig Veda”. He and those of his ilk certainly do not belong to the gathering that Dirghatamas referred to in his verse as those who knew what Vedic śabda are meant for!  


    Text of the Rig Vedic Hymn recited by Upamanyu:

    And Upamanyu thus directed by his preceptor began to glorify the twin Aswins, in the following words of the Rig Veda:

    “Ye have existed before the creation! Ye first-born beings, ye are displayed in this wondrous universe of five elements! I desire to obtain you by the help of the knowledge derived from hearing, and of meditation, for ye are InfiniteYe are the course itself of Nature and intelligent Soul that pervades that course! Ye are birds of beauteous feathers perched on the body that is like to a tree! Ye are without the three common attributes of every soul! Ye are incomparable! Ye, through your spirit in every created thing, pervade the UniverseYe are golden EaglesYe are the essence into which all things disappear! Ye are free from error and know no deterioration!

    Ye are of beauteous beaks that would not unjustly strike and are victorious in every encounter! Ye certainly prevail over time! Having created the sun, ye weave the wondrous cloth of the year by means of the white thread of the day and the black thread of the night! And with the cloth so woven, ye have established two courses of action appertaining respectively to the Devas and the PitrisThe bird of Life seized by Time which represents the strength of the Infinite soul, ye set free for delivering her unto great happiness! They that are in deep ignorance, as long as they are under delusions of their senses, suppose you, who are independent of the attributes of matter, to be gifted with form! Three hundred and sixty cows represented by three hundred and sixty days produce one calf between them which is the year. That calf is the creator and destroyer of all. Seekers of truth following different routes, draw the milk of true knowledge with its help. Ye Aswins, ye are the creators of that calf!

    The year is but the nave of a wheel to which is attached seven hundred and twenty spokes representing as many days and nights. The circumference of this wheel represented by twelve months is without end. This wheel is full of delusions and knows no deterioration. It affects all creatures whether to this or of the other worlds. Ye Aswins, this wheel of time is set in motion by you! The wheel of Time as represented by the year has a nave represented by the six seasons. The number of spokes attached to that nave is twelve as represented by the twelve signs of the ZodiacThis wheel of Time manifests the fruits of the acts of all things. The presiding deities of Time abide in that wheel. Subject as I am to its distressful influence, ye Aswins, liberate me from that wheel of Time.

    Ye Aswins, ye are this universe of five elements! Ye are the objects that are enjoyed in this and in the other world! Make me independent of the five elements! And though ye are the Supreme Brahma, yet ye move over the Earth in forms enjoying the delights that the senses afford. In the beginning, ye created the ten points of the universe! Then have ye placed the Sun and the Sky above! The Rishis, according to the course of the same Sun, perform their sacrifices, and the gods and men, according to what hath been appointed for them, perform their sacrifices also enjoying the fruits of those acts! Mixing the three colours, ye have produced all the objects of sight! It is from these objects that the Universe hath sprung whereon the gods and men are engaged in their respective occupations, and, indeed, all creatures endued with life! Ye Aswins, I adore you!

    I also adore the Sky which is your handiwork! Ye are the ordainers of the fruits of all acts from which even the gods are not free! Ye are yourselves free from the fruits of your acts! Ye are the parents of all! As males and females it is ye that swallow the food which subsequently develops into the life creating fluid and blood! The new-born infant sucks the teat of its mother. Indeed it is ye that take the shape of the infant! Ye Aswins, grant me my sight to protect my life.” 

    Mahabharata 1-3

    59 sa evam ukta upādhyāyena stotuṃ pracakrame devāv aśvinau vāgbhir ṛgbhiḥ

     60 prapūrvagau pūrvajau citrabhānū; girā vā śaṃsāmi tapanāv anantau
         divyau suparṇau virajau vimānāv; adhikṣiyantau bhuvanāni viśvā
     61 hiraṇmayau śakunī sāmparāyau; nāsatya dasrau sunasau vaijayantau
         śukraṃ vayantau tarasā suvemāv; abhi vyayantāv asitaṃ vivasvat
     62 grastāṃ suparṇasya balena vartikām; amuñcatām aśvinau saubhagāya
         tāvat suvṛttāv anamanta māyayā; sattamā gā aruṇā udāvahan
     63 ṣaṣṭiś ca gāvas triśatāś ca dhenava; ekaṃ vatsaṃ suvate taṃ duhanti
         nānā goṣṭhā vihitā ekadohanās; tāv aśvinau duhato gharmam ukthyam
     64 ekāṃ nābhiṃ saptaśatā arāḥ śritāḥ; pradhiṣv anyā viṃśatir arpitā arāḥ
         anemi cakraṃ parivartate 'jaraṃ; māyāśvinau samanakti carṣaṇī
     65 ekaṃ cakraṃ vartate dvādaśāraṃ; pradhi ṣaṇ ṇābhim ekākṣam amṛtasya dhāraṇam
         yasmin devā adhi viśve viṣaktās; tāv aśvinau muñcato mā viṣīdatam
     66 aśvināv indram amṛtaṃ vṛttabhūyau; tirodhattām aśvinau dāsapatnī
         bhittvā girim aśvinau gām udācarantau; tad vṛṣṭam ahnā prathitā valasya
     67 yuvāṃ diśo janayatho daśāgre; samānaṃ mūrdhni rathayā viyanti
         tāsāṃ yātam ṛṣayo 'nuprayānti; devā manuṣyāḥ kṣitim ācaranti
     68 yuvāṃ varṇān vikurutho viśvarūpāṃs; te 'dhikṣiyanti bhuvanāni viśvā
         te bhānavo 'py anusṛtāś caranti; devā manuṣyāḥ kṣitim ācaranti
     69 tau nāsatyāv aśvināv āmahe vāṃ; srajaṃ ca yāṃ bibhṛthaḥ puṣkarasya
         tau nāsatyāv amṛtāvṛtāvṛdhāv; ṛte devās tat prapadena sūte
     70 mukhena garbhaṃ labhatāṃ yuvānau; gatāsur etat prapadena sūte
         sadyo jāto mātaram atti garbhas tāv; aśvinau muñcatho jīvase gāḥ

    59  एवम उक्त उपाध्यायेन सतॊतुं परचक्रमे देवाव अश्विनौ वाग्भिर ऋग्भिः

    60 परपूर्वगौ पूर्वजौ चित्रभानूगिरा वा शंसामि तपनाव अनन्तौ
    दिव्यौ सुपर्णौ विरजौ विमानावअधिक्षियन्तौ भुवनानि विश्वा
    हिरण्मयौ शकुनी साम्परायौनासत्य दस्रौ सुनसौ वैजयन्तौ
    शुक्रं वयन्तौ तरसा सुवेमावअभि वययन्ताव असितं विवस्वत
    गरस्तां सुपर्णस्य बलेन वर्तिकामअमुञ्चताम अश्विनौ सौभगाय
    तावत सुवृत्ताव अनमन्त माययासत्तमा गा अरुणा उदावहन
    षष्टिश  गावस तरिशताश  धेनवएकं वत्सं सुवते तं दुहन्ति
    नाना गॊष्ठा विहिता एकदॊहनासताव अश्विनौ दुहतॊ घर्मम उक्थ्यम
    एकां नाभिं सप्तशता अराः शरिताःपरधिष्व अन्या विंशतिर अर्पिता अराः
    अनेमि चक्रं परिवर्तते ऽजरंमायाश्विनौ समनक्ति चर्षणी
    एकं चक्रं वर्तते दवादशारंपरधि षण णाभिम एकाक्षम अमृतस्य धारणम
    यस्मिन देवा अधि विश्वे विषक्तासताव अश्विनौ मुञ्चतॊ मा विषीदतम
    अश्विनाव इन्द्रम अमृतं वृत्तभूयौतिरॊधत्ताम अश्विनौ दासपत्नी
    भित्त्वा गिरिम अश्विनौ गाम उदाचरन्तौतद वृष्टम अह्ना परथिता वलस्य
    युवां दिशॊ जनयथॊ दशाग्रेसमानं मूर्ध्नि रथया वियन्ति
    तासां यातम ऋषयॊ ऽनुप्रयान्तिदेवा मनुष्याः कषितिम आचरन्ति
    युवां वर्णान विकुरुथॊ विश्वरूपांसते ऽधिक्षियन्ति भुवनानि विश्वा
    ते भानवॊ ऽपय अनुसृताश चरन्तिदेवा मनुष्याः कषितिम आचरन्ति
    तौ नासत्याव अश्विनाव आमहे वांसरजं  यां बिभृथः पुष्करस्य
    तौ नासत्याव अमृतावृतावृधावऋते देवास तत परपदेन सूते
    मुखेन गर्भं लभतां युवानौगतासुर एतत परपदेन सूते
         सद्यॊ जातॊ मातरम अत्ति गर्भस तावअश्विनौ मुञ्चथॊ जीवसे गाः

    Trial of Upamanyu, trial of Veda (Paushya Parva)

    "One day Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, while a-hunting, observed in a particular part of his dominions a hermitage where dwelt a certain Rishi of fame, Srutasrava. He had a son named Somasrava deeply engaged in ascetic devotions. Being desirous of appointing that son of the Rishi as his Purohita, Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit, saluted the Rishi and addressed him, saying, 'O possessor of the six attributes, let this thy son be my purohita.' The Rishi thus addressed, answered Janamejaya, 'O Janamejaya, this my son, deep in ascetic devotions, accomplished in the study of the Vedas, and endued with the full force of my asceticism, is born of (the womb of) a she-snake that had drunk my vital fluid. He is able to absolve thee from all offences save those committed against Mahadeva. But he hath one particular habit, viz. he would grant to any Brahmana whatever might be begged of him. If thou canst put up with it, then thou take him.' Janamejaya thus addressed replied to the Rishi, 'It shall be even so.' And accepting him for his Purohita, he returned to his capital; and he then addressed his brothers saying, 'This is the person I have chosen for my spiritual master; whatsoever he may say must be complied with by you without examination.' And his brothers did as they were directed. And giving these directions to his brothers, the king marched towards Takshyashila and brought that country under his authority.
    "About this time there was a Rishi, Ayoda-Dhaumya by name. And Ayoda-Dhaumya had three disciples, Upamanyu, Aruni, and Veda. And the Rishi bade one of these disciples, Aruni of Panchala, to go and stop up a breach in the water-course of a certain field. And Aruni of Panchala, thus ordered by his preceptor, repaired to the spot. And having gone there he saw that he could not stop up the breach in the water-course by ordinary means. And he was distressed because he could not do his preceptor's bidding. But at length he saw a way and said, 'Well, I will do it in this way.' He then went down into the breach and lay down himself there. And the water was thus confined.
    "And some time after, the preceptor Ayoda-Dhaumya asked his other disciples where Aruni of Panchala was. And they answered, 'Sir, he hath been sent by yourself saying, 'Go, stop up the breach in the water-course
    p. 34
    of the field,' Thus reminded, Dhaumya, addressing his pupils, said, 'Then let us all go to the place where he is.'
    "And having arrived there, he shouted, 'Ho Aruni of Panchala! Where art thou? Come hither, my child.' And Aruni hearing the voice of his preceptor speedily came out of the water-course and stood before his preceptor. And addressing the latter, Aruni said, 'Here I am in the breach of the water-course. Not having been able to devise any other means, I entered myself for the purpose of preventing the water running out. It is only upon hearing thy voice that, having left it and allowed the waters to escape, I have stood before thee. I salute thee, Master; tell me what I have to do.'
    "The preceptor, thus addressed, replied, 'Because in getting up from the ditch thou hast opened the water-course, thenceforth shalt thou be called Uddalaka as a mark of thy preceptor's favour. And because my words have been obeyed by thee, thou shalt obtain good fortune. And all the Vedas shall shine in thee and all the Dharmasastras also.' And Aruni, thus addressed by his preceptor, went to the country after his heart.
    "The name of another of Ayoda-Dhaumya's disciples was Upamanyu. And Dhaumya appointed him saying, 'Go, my child, Upamanyu, look after the kine.' And according to his preceptor's orders, he went to tend the kine. And having watched them all day, he returned in the evening to his preceptor's house and standing before him he saluted him respectfully. And his preceptor seeing him in good condition of body asked him, 'Upamanyu, my child, upon what dost thou support thyself? Thou art exceedingly plump.' And he answered, 'Sir, I support myself by begging'. And his preceptor said, 'What is obtained in alms should not be used by thee without offering it to me.' And Upamanyu, thus told, went away. And having obtained alms, he offered the same to his preceptor. And his preceptor took from him even the whole. And Upamanyu, thus treated, went to attend the cattle. And having watched them all day, he returned in the evening to his preceptor's abode. And he stood before his preceptor and saluted him with respect. And his preceptor perceiving that he still continued to be of good condition of body said unto him, 'Upamanyu, my child, I take from thee even the whole of what thou obtainest in alms, without leaving anything for thee. How then dost thou, at present, contrive to support thyself?' And Upamanyu said unto his preceptor, 'Sir, having made over to you all that I obtain in alms, I go a-begging a second time for supporting myself.' And his preceptor then replied, 'This is not the way in which thou shouldst obey the preceptor. By this thou art diminishing the support of others that live by begging. Truly having supported thyself so, thou hast proved thyself covetous.' And Upamanyu, having signified his assent to all that his preceptor said, went away to attend the cattle. And having watched them all day, he returned to
    p. 35
    his preceptor's house. And he stood before his preceptor and saluted him respectfully. And his preceptor observing that he was still fat, said again unto him, 'Upamanyu, my child, I take from thee all thou obtainest in alms and thou dost not go a-begging a second time, and yet art thou in healthy condition. How dost thou support thyself?' And Upamanyu, thus questioned, answered, 'Sir, I now live upon the milk of these cows.' And his preceptor thereupon told him, 'It is not lawful for thee to appropriate the milk without having first obtained my consent.' And Upamanyu having assented to the justice of these observations, went away to tend the kine. And when he returned to his preceptor's abode, he stood before him and saluted him as usual. And his preceptor seeing that he was still fat, said, 'Upamanyu, my child, thou eatest no longer of alms, nor dost thou go a-begging a second time, not even drinkest of the milk; yet art thou fat. By what means dost thou contrive to live now? And Upamanyu replied, 'Sir, I now sip the froth that these calves throw out, while sucking their mother's teats.' And the preceptor said, 'These generous calves, I suppose, out of compassion for thee, throw out large quantities of froth. Wouldst thou stand in the way of their full meals by acting as thou hast done? Know that it is unlawful for thee to drink the froth.' And Upamanyu, having signified his assent to this, went as before to tend the cows. And restrained by his preceptor, he feedeth not on alms, nor hath he anything else to eat; he drinketh not of the milk, nor tasteth he of the froth!
    "And Upamanyu, one day, oppressed by hunger, when in a forest, ate of the leaves of the Arka (Asclepias gigantea). And his eyes being affected by the pungent, acrimonious, crude, and saline properties of the leaves which he had eaten, he became blind. And as he was crawling about, he fell into a pit. And upon his not returning that day when the sun was sinking down behind the summit of the western mountains, the preceptor observed to his disciples that Upamanyu was not yet come. And they told him that he had gone out with the cattle.
    "The preceptor then said, 'Upamanyu being restrained by me from the use of everything, is, of course, and therefore, doth not come home until it be late. Let us then go in search of him.' And having said this, he went with his disciples into the forest and began to shout, saying, 'Ho Upamanyu, where art thou?' And Upamanyu hearing his preceptor's voice answered in a loud tone, 'Here I am at the bottom of a well.' And his preceptor asked him how he happened to be there. And Upamanyu replied, 'Having eaten of the leaves of the Arka plant I became blind, and so have I fallen into this well.' And his preceptor thereupon told him, 'Glorify the twin Aswins, the joint physicians of the gods, and they will restore thee thy sight.' And Upamanyu thus directed by his preceptor began to glorify the twin Aswins, in the following words of the Rig Veda:
    'Ye have existed before the creation! Ye first-born beings, ye are displayed
    p. 36
    in this wondrous universe of five elements! I desire to obtain you by the help of the knowledge derived from hearing, and of meditation, for ye are Infinite! Ye are the course itself of Nature and intelligent Soul that pervades that course! Ye are birds of beauteous feathers perched on the body that is like to a tree! Ye are without the three common attributes of every soul! Ye are incomparable! Ye, through your spirit in every created thing, pervade the Universe!
    "Ye are golden Eagles! Ye are the essence into which all things disappear! Ye are free from error and know no deterioration! Ye are of beauteous beaks that would not unjustly strike and are victorious in every encounter! Ye certainly prevail over time! Having created the sun, ye weave the wondrous cloth of the year by means of the white thread of the day and the black thread of the night! And with the cloth so woven, ye have established two courses of action appertaining respectively to the Devas and the Pitris. The bird of Life seized by Time which represents the strength of the Infinite soul, ye set free for delivering her unto great happiness! They that are in deep ignorance, as long as they are under delusions of their senses, suppose you, who are independent of the attributes of matter, to be gifted with form! Three hundred and sixty cows represented by three hundred and sixty days produce one calf between them which is the year. That calf is the creator and destroyer of all. Seekers of truth following different routes, draw the milk of true knowledge with its help. Ye Aswins, ye are the creators of that calf!
    "The year is but the nave of a wheel to which is attached seven hundred and twenty spokes representing as many days and nights. The circumference of this wheel represented by twelve months is without end. This wheel is full of delusions and knows no deterioration. It affects all creatures whether to this or of the other worlds. Ye Aswins, this wheel of time is set in motion by you!
    "The wheel of Time as represented by the year has a nave represented by the six seasons. The number of spokes attached to that nave is twelve as represented by the twelve signs of the Zodiac. This wheel of Time manifests the fruits of the acts of all things. The presiding deities of Time abide in that wheel. Subject as I am to its distressful influence, ye Aswins, liberate me from that wheel of Time. Ye Aswins, ye are this universe of five elements! Ye are the objects that are enjoyed in this and in the other world! Make me independent of the five elements! And though ye are the Supreme Brahma, yet ye move over the Earth in forms enjoying the delights that the senses afford.
    "In the beginning, ye created the ten points of the universe! Then have ye placed the Sun and the Sky above! The Rishis, according to the course of the same Sun, perform their sacrifices, and the gods and men, according to what hath been appointed for them, perform their sacrifices also enjoying the fruits of those acts!
    p. 37
    "Mixing the three colours, ye have produced all the objects of sight! It is from these objects that the Universe hath sprung whereon the gods and men are engaged in their respective occupations, and, indeed, all creatures endued with life!
    "Ye Aswins, I adore you! I also adore the Sky which is your handiwork! Ye are the ordainers of the fruits of all acts from which even the gods are not free! Ye are yourselves free from the fruits of your acts!
    "Ye are the parents of all! As males and females it is ye that swallow the food which subsequently develops into the life creating fluid and blood! The new-born infant sucks the teat of its mother. Indeed it is ye that take the shape of the infant! Ye Aswins, grant me my sight to protect my life!"
    The twin Aswins, thus invoked, appeared and said, 'We are satisfied. Here is a cake for thee. Take and eat it.' And Upamanyu thus addressed, replied, 'Your words, O Aswins, have never proved untrue. But without first offering this cake to my preceptor I dare not take it.' And the Aswins thereupon told him, 'Formerly, thy preceptor had invoked us. We thereupon gave him a cake like this; and he took it without offering it to his master. Do thou do that which thy preceptor did.' Thus addressed, Upamanyu again said unto them, 'O Aswins, I crave your pardon. Without offering it to my preceptor I dare not apply this cake.' The Aswins then said, 'O, we are pleased with this devotion of thine to thy preceptor. Thy master's teeth are of black iron. Thine shall be of gold. Thou shall be restored to sight and shall have good fortune.'
    "Thus spoken to by the Aswins he recovered his sight, and having gone to his preceptor's presence he saluted him and told him all. And his preceptor was well-pleased with him and said unto him, 'Thou shalt obtain prosperity even as the Aswins have said. All the Vedas shall shine in thee and all the Dharma-sastras.' And this was the trial of Upamanyu.
    "Then Veda the other disciple of Ayoda-Dhaumya was called. His preceptor once addressed him, saying, 'Veda, my child, tarry some time in my house and serve thy preceptor. It shall be to thy profit.' And Veda having signified his assent tarried long in the family of his preceptor mindful of serving him. Like an ox under the burthens of his master, he bore heat and cold, hunger and thirst, at all times without a murmur. And it was not long before his preceptor was satisfied. And as a consequence of that satisfaction, Veda obtained good fortune and universal knowledge. And this was the trial of Veda.
    "And Veda, having received permission from his preceptor, and leaving the latter's residence after the completion of his studies, entered the domestic mode of life. And while living in his own house, he got three pupils. And he never told them to perform any work or to obey implicitly his own behests; for having himself experienced much woe while abiding in the family of his preceptor, he liked not to treat them with severity.
    "After a certain time, Janamejaya and Paushya, both of the order of
    p. 38
    [paragraph continues] Kshatriyas, arriving at his residence appointed the Brahman. Veda, as their spiritual guide (Upadhyaya)

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    "The pricing details have, however, been shared with theComptroller and Auditor General (hereinafter referred to as“CAG”),and the report of the CAG has been examined by thePublic Accounts Committee (hereafter referred to as “PAC”). Only a redacted portion of the report was placed before the Parliament."

    C Dismisses Petitions Seeking Probe In To Rafale Deal [Read Judgment] by Srini Kalyanaraman on Scribd

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    Indology and the Crisis in the Humanities

    Indology and the Crisis in the Humanities
    In Adluri and Bagchee’s confrontation with Indology, the issue tends to be the extent to which this discipline has operated either according to no principles at all, or according to those it would not wish to acknowledge openly, such as Christian evangelism, racial theory or anti-Semitic biblical criticism.
    Together with their first book, The Nay Science: A History of German Indology (2014), Philology and Criticism: A Guide to Mahābhārata Textual Criticism presents a comprehensive indictment of the dominant tendency in Indology to corrupt any effective and defensible principles the humanities may have while Indologists mold Indian civilization to their liking. What is at stake in the struggle over Indology that Adluri and Bagchee have waged is the struggle of the humanities to become relevant in a modern multicultural world.
    Their argument in both books proceeds accordingly on parallel planes. On the one hand, there is the question of what the principles of the humanities ought to be. Such is the call in the Prologue of The Nay Science for an ensouled philology such as Plato already invokes in the Phaedrus against the soulless ingenuity of sophistical play with texts, or the vision in the Prologue to Philology and Criticism of an alternative modernity not estranged from the traditions of antiquity. In a similar vein are the array of practical tools provided at the end of Philology and Criticism to aid in the use of the critical edition of the Mahābhārata, to help release the potential of this extraordinary contribution of Sukthankar and the other editors to global scholarship.
    On the other hand, in Adluri and Bagchee’s confrontation with Indology, the issue tends to be the extent to which this discipline has operated either according to no principles at all, or according to those it would not wish to acknowledge openly, such as Christian evangelism, racial theory or anti-Semitic biblical criticism. Hence in Chapter 5 of The Nay Science, we see that the German Indologists would fail even according to the criteria of the positivism they espoused, at least on any intellectually responsible interpretation of its principles. Simultaneously, Adluri and Bagchee subject the principles of positivism themselves to critique in the name of a hermeneutics that could arrest the descent of the social sciences into nihilism.
    In other words, it is one thing to have the wrong principles, and another to have no principles whatsoever. This essential point is made with stinging clarity in a section of Philology and Criticism entitled “The Argument from Expertise” (269ff). Adluri and Bagchee speak of an institutional crisis manifest in Indology in which “expert testimony, paradigmatically manifest as citation of one’s peers, has replaced the need for demonstration … Rather, the criterion for valid scholarship has become: Who said it? Does he possess the correct pedigree? Does he enjoy his peers’ confidence? Have other experts cited him?” (273). ‘Expertise’ in this sense no longer refers to “expert skill or knowledge in a particular field,” but to the expert himself: “expertise refers to the ability to declare certain ideas valid merely because they exhibit the institutional features of scholarship,” (274).
    This reduction of truth to personality or to institutions is what the misology, the hatred of logoi, of which Socrates warned (Phaedo 89d) looks like in the flesh. An entire community of scholars has abandoned oversight of their peers, treating any objections to the critical edition of the Mahābhārata as either valid or close enough, irrespective of their actual substance, so long as they have been proposed by the correct sort of people, as though no evaluation of them is possible, or would at any rate not be their particular responsibility. Truth being relative, apparently, these markers of status have sufficed for the critical edition of the Mahābhārata to be regarded as somehow clouded, albeit no two scholars agree on precisely why, and no one without a direct stake in the outcome bothers even to familiarize themselves with the issues.
    In reaction to this environment, Adluri and Bagchee provide a deflationary account of philology, the more mechanical the better, daring Indologists to subject themselves to the transparency and scientificity of the method applied in the critical edition. Philology and Criticism is more playful in this respect than The Nay Science: its favored method of argument is the reductio ad absurdum, which is used to devastating effect. If the reader is surprised to find accredited scholars indicted of such elementary fallacies, they need to reflect upon the institutional factors that have ensured that nobody at any prior stage in the process of academic production and reception would dare to call them out. There are moments, too, of moral outrage expressed more starkly than in The Nay Science, as when Adluri and Bagchee close the chapter on “Confusions Regarding Classification” with a photograph reproduced from a book by a Nazi eugenicist as a reminder of the ideological roots of German Indology in racial classification (318). This is no mere hyperbole, as demonstrated by the corresponding note (n. 360 on p. 313), which argues that notions of classification used by Grünendahl, methodologically otiose with respect to textual science, should therefore rather be traced to such latent ideological influence.
    Philology and Criticism exposes the recklessness with which Indologists have sought to cast doubt upon the critical edition by any means necessary, and the breakdown in the social structures of scholarship that have permitted illogical and even nonsensical attacks to achieve the status of conventional wisdom without challenge, allowing professional camaraderie or mere laziness to take precedence over the ideals that guide the life of the mind, and upon which a wider community depends. By this wider community, I do not mean merely other scholars in recondite fields, but the entire system by which world-historical communities understand and assimilate their own histories and evaluate—yes, even criticize—their own traditions.
    But why should it be so important to Indologists to cast doubt upon this text? The crime committed by Sukthankar’s critical edition of the Mahābhārata in the eyes of Indologists is that
    the text the critical edition produced was much closer to the traditional reception of the Indian epic as a body of inspired literature than to the German critics’ assertions. The Mahābhārata critics had hoped for a critical edition as the best means of undermining the authority of the textual tradition, and the Bhandarkar editors had countered with an edition bearing out the traditional reception of the epic. (28)
    Critics had hoped that the process of producing a critical edition of the epic would reveal seams in the text that could be used to justify the image of Hinduism itself as a makeshift construct, not unified by any common purpose or ideal, but a marriage of convenience or worse. Unmasking the text in the form in which it actually exists and has always been known to the Hindu tradition as a mere self-serving “Brahmanic redaction” would have been a valuable aid to Christian evangelism, which has always followed in the Indologists’ footsteps. But when philology, textual science, failed to produce the results they had wanted, the critics began to attack the foundations of philology in pursuit of their ideological aims.
    As Adluri and Bagchee pointed out in a presentation at the recent World Sanskrit Conference,
    The resultant fragmentation of the text was not the unintended consequence of applying a valid scientific procedure to the text. As we have seen, no such procedure existed … Rather, it was explicitly desired … Their sole aim in pursuing Mahābhārata “criticism” was to ensure that the text, which articulates a comprehensive vision of the Hindu cosmos, did not survive as a unity … [T]here was an urgent need to deconstruct the text, in full awareness of the challenge it posed to Christianity. The invocation of a “critical” procedure merely served as a pretext.[1]
    Why, the reader should ask themselves, does a discipline ostensibly in good standing as a charter member of the humanities, throw all of its institutional weight precisely against the cosmogonic dimension of this text? What is the source of this elemental nihilism, this anti-cosmism directed against this sacred text? Is it rooted purely in Christian sectarianism? Or is it something deeper? How has a similar animus been directed, under the guise of scholarship, toward the sacred texts of other traditions? We already know from The Nay Science that ‘text-critical’ or ‘text-historical’ Indology was rooted in Protestant biblical criticism, and that this self-proclaimed ‘higher criticism’ has been referred to as “higher anti-Semitism”.[2] But there is wider project at work here, I would argue, the manifestations and methods of which are easily traced in almost every engagement of Western scholarship with a polytheistic civilization, whether it be the West’s own polytheist antiquity, or Chinese civilization, or the indigenous civilizations of the Americas, Africa and the rest of the world. In what specific ways, then, and in what ways similarly and in what ways differently from the Hindu case? And precisely what is it about theologies of the living immortals[3] that elicits this sustained attack from the supposedly secularized human sciences? In the name of what ‘humanity’ have they undertaken it? These are the questions that we need to ask, for they alone at this point will lead us to sound principles on which to inquire into the nature of the human.
                Philology and Criticism lays out a vision for a new kind of philology, one that appreciates the full development of the Mahābhārata tradition in all its “chromatic variation” (xxv) rather than obsessively seeking a putative Aryan Urepos. The German Mahābhārata critics believe that the Mahābhārata critical edition reconstructs the text of a “normative redaction” they hold to have taken place in the 3rd to the 4th centuries CE, when an earlier and more fluid oral epic tradition was standardized by hypothetical Brahmin “redactors”. Adluri and Bagchee show how Indologists have exploited a basic misconception about textual criticism in support of this pet theory: “Tracing a tradition back to an archetype dating, say, from the fourth century, does not at all mean that ‘in antiquity’ (or in the Middle Ages, or in the early modern period) a single witness of our text was preserved, or a single copy that was authoritative for one reason or another,” (20). The Mahābhārata critics have pretended that, because the archetype occupies the vertex of the stemma, this must mean that the tradition was reduced at some point to a single exemplar. But as the authors demonstrate, the stemma is not an image of historical reality. There is no evidence that an actual ‘constriction’ exists, as opposed to the winnowing we would expect simply from the vulnerability of manuscripts to the ravages of time. Moreover, even if we had independent evidence of some kind of decimation of the tradition, we could not conclude that this was due to an ideologically motivated ‘redaction’. The authors’ conclusion is succinct: “No evidence exists for such a redaction, and the only reason it appears plausible is that the German scholars have redefined the critical edition as a Brahmanic redaction,” (66).
    A vivid example of the extent to which anti-Brahmanic resentment has driven the German Indologists’ analysis is provided by Adluri and Bagchee’s summary of Andreas Bigger’s work, worth quoting in full:
    As in the first stage of his argument, when he randomly restored passages to the constituted text, here also he randomly restores passages to it except, whereas he earlier justified their restoration on the grounds that they were passages the Brahmans removed during their redaction of an earlier oral epic, he now justifies restoring them on the grounds that they are passages the Brahmans added during their redaction. What he fails to realize thereby is that no evidence exists that the Brahmans either added passages to or removed passages from an earlier oral epic, and the only person making changes to the text is he himself! Either way, the Brahmans cannot win. If parts that Bigger thinks belonged to the earlier Kṣatriya epic are not in the text, he blames the Brahmans for removing them. But if parts that he thinks they added to the text during their redaction are not in the text, he attributes their absence to accidental loss and still blames the Brahmans for adding them. (88)
    Adluri and Bagchee recount how an entire discipline was institutionally founded on anti-Brahmanic prejudice:
    [T]he idea of a Brahmanic “takeover” of an earlier Kṣatriya tradition dates back to Christian Lassen, where its origins were clearly racist. German Mahābhārata critics argued sophistically and dishonestly for a critical edition. They were never interested in a secure text. Rather, they feigned interest in textual criticism because only thus could they sustain the illusion of objective inquiries and of binding procedures and results. Everyone in the field operated under an as if: write as if the Kṣatriya epic existed; as if the Brahmans had corrupted it; as if a redaction occurred. From Holtzmann to Bigger, Indology unfolded within this as if. Degrees were granted based not on the quality of evidence or arguments, but on the extent to which students conformed to this as if. Scholars were cited based on the extent to which they assimilated themselves to this as if. Corresponding to this as if of the Mahābhārata tradition was a second as if: write as if the professor was infallible; write as if a genuine intellectual tradition of Indology existed; write as if the German critics were beyond criticism. Arguing like the Protestant theologian Johann Jerusalem, who wrote: “My experience is my proof ” (meine Erfahrung ist mein Beweis), the German Indologists needed no proof of what the Brahmans did beyond their experience of the work. Arguments were superfluous because they did not seek to demonstrate anything. At best, arguments had a rhetorical value in that they confirmed the basic experience of the work or provided a means, in communal experience, to return again and again to the basic precept of Brahmanic corruption. (88)
    Adluri and Bagchee proceed in the second chapter to examine the vexed issue of ‘contamination’, which the Indologists have often cited to discredit the textual tradition and discount the critical edition, while the third chapter illustrates the spectacular errors in textual criticism of Reinhold Grünendahl, further demonstrating that the Indologists’ work “cannot claim the title of philology at all; it is rather a mixture of dogmatic assertion and Protestant anti-traditional, anticlerical sentiments masquerading as rigorous textual scholarship” (319). A detailed evaluation of Michael Witzel’s edition of the Kaṭha Āraṇyaka (his PhD dissertation) helps the authors to demonstrate Indology’s untenable position:
    In this contrast between what the Indologists say it is that they do and what they actually do we see the central contradiction at the heart of the discipline: on one hand, in order to be recognized as a legitimate discipline within the university canon, they were forced to constantly seek the comparison with classical philology, the discipline that had most successfully mastered the transition from an indefinite literary enterprise to a discipline modeled on the natural sciences and their rigorous procedures; on the other, the depth of expertise available in the field was always scant as compared with their colleagues in classical philology. (324)
    Adluri and Bagchee’s larger philological project, encompassing The Nay Science and Philology and Criticism, bears on the history of Western rationality itself: contrary to the Enlightenment’s self-understanding that it represented the claims of a universal reason and incarnated this reason in its fullest form for the first time, Adluri and Bagchee show that the Indologists, supposedly at the front lines of the encounter between the Enlightenment and its non-Western Other, are neither self-critical nor self-aware, that they neither know what it is that they do, nor do they actually possess a method, nor can they teach anyone any real techniques. Rather, what they offer is initiation into an elite, institutionally secured and intellectually legitimated through “a narrative about history as a progression from the darkness of religious belief to the light of reason,”[4] in virtue of which Indologists feel authorized to exercise what Adluri and Bagchee have elsewhere called their “oversight function”[5] upon Indian texts and history and, ultimately, over Indians themselves. Appropriately, therefore, Adluri and Bagchee turn the tables and exercise oversight upon philology itself:
    Given the inflation in the use of the expression critical edition in Indology, it appears appropriate to institute some criteria for its use. We propose the following definition: “Only those editions should be permitted to call themselves critical as make use of the genealogical-reconstructive method (also known as the common-error method) to reconstruct the relations of filiation between manuscripts and that propose a reconstruction of the archetype of the tradition on the basis of an explicit stemma.” This reconstruction, moreover, must be mechanical in the sense that it must be apparent, from a glance at the apparatus, what stage of the tradition the editor is reconstructing at any given moment. Further, no edition should be permitted to call itself a critical edition unless it is based on a systematic recensio of a large number of manuscripts (this would a priori exclude such one-manuscript “critical” editions as Witzel’s edition of the Kaṭha Āraṇyaka). We are aware that in many cases this ideal will not be attainable, but if this reduces the number of critical editions of Indian texts in circulation, so much the better. (324)
    By taking up the task of articulating clear and distinct principles for the practice of textual criticism, principles ensuring that ancient texts are made available for the labor of interpretation in a form which does not presuppose an interpretation having already taken place, Adluri and Bagchee show what is ultimately at stake in their entire investigation of Indology: freeing the ancients from being subjects of interrogation, and permitting them to question us moderns instead.
    [1] “Method and Racism in German Mahābhārata Studies,” Handout, Special Panel 2: After the Critical Edition: What Next For Mahābhārata Studies?, 17th World Sanskrit Conference, Vancouver, Canada (2018), (accessed 10/11/2018), 3f.
    [2] Solomon Schechter, “Higher Criticism—Higher Anti-Semitism” (1915), quoted in Philology and Criticism, p. 313, n. 359.
    [3] The phrase comes from Richard Bodéüs, Aristotle and the Theology of the Living Immortals, trans. Jan Garrett (Albany: SUNY Press, 2000). Bodéüs dismantles the Christian fiction that Aristotle proposed a radical, monotheistic theology, showing instead that Aristotle’s thought is premised upon the mainstream theology of Hellenic polytheism.
    [4] “Against Occidentalism: A Conversation with Alice Crary and Vishwa Adluri on ‘The Nay Science’,” (accessed 12/12/18).
    [5] Adluri and Bagchee, “Theses on Indology,” (accessed 12/12/18).
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    Dec. 15, 2018

    After state elections: Nation’s mood and road ahead for BJP

    BJP supporters
    Those following the outcome of the recently concluded assembly elections in five states cannot help feeling somewhat concerned, if not cautious, when it comes to projecting the BJP’s prospects in the 2019 Lok Sabha polls. Were these state elections a “semi-final,” showing how the country will vote in next year’s “finals”? If so, does BJP’s keenly contested defeat in three central Indian states in the Hindi heartland presage a similar fate at the Centre in the months ahead? Does it foretell a drastic seat reduction, with the NDA managing to hold onto power by thin and precarious margin, placing it at the mercy of chancy or greedy electoral allies? Or will Modi stage a historic comeback, defying the odds and disproving the cassandras?
    Such questions are making the rounds not only in the corridors of power in India’s capital, but also echoing in the remotest corners of the land. The fact is that there is tremendous goodwill among the masses, not to speak of the classes, for India’s success story driven by a Prime Minister who is seen as committed and charismatic. Under Narendra Modi’s leadership, the BJP has delivered not just on many of their development goals and promises, but shown a vision of a different, much more confident, and empowered India. The economy has done well, corruption is down, and India’s stature on the global stage has improved.
    Yet, few will deny that a certain fatigue has also set in. The Modi magic does not seem to work as well as it used to. The BJP’s usual slogans and strategies are also so well-known that they lack the novelty factor. They don’t enthuse the voters as much as they used to. In addition, we have been jolted by institutional destabilisation, whether it comes to nation’s premier investigative agency, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) or, even more parlous in the world’s eyes, our hallowed Reserve Bank of India itself. There is renewed trouble on our western border, with continuing infiltration and destabilisation. Finally, alarming agricultural distress, with the economically disastrous consequences of having to write off lakhs of crores of loans. There is thus a restlessness in the air. Are the Indian masses itching for a change? Are they looking for better reasons to keep BJP in power for another five years? 
    On the other side, the Congress, having beaten the BJP in straight fights, is set to govern the destiny of some 20 per cent of India’s population. This has sent shivers of fear, dismay, revulsion, even anger down the spines of those who detest all that this once-great party stands for today. Single-family rule, sycophancy, corruption, ideological skulduggery, perilous populism, communalism masquerading as secularism, socially divisive policies, rampant and calamitous minoritarianism, insecurity at the borders— to its critics, these are only a few flashpoints of the Congress’s loathsome legacy. Add the arrogance of entitled elites, jeering dismissal of new political formations, and keeping the underprivileged natives permanently outside the echelons of power and privilege — these and similar nightmares disturb those who have high hopes for a new India under Modi’s visionary leadership. To put it plainly, will the promise of India’s second renaissance be belied once again? Will we return to being inglorious second-raters and second-class citizens of the world?
    Undoubtedly, what I have tried to sketch with broad brush strokes is the nation’s mood in the present moment. It is bound to change, once the dust over the recent election results settles. The BJP will try to come up with new initiatives and tactics to bring itself back into the good books of the masses. There is, of course, the looming virtual shadow of the as yet unbuilt but long-pending Ram Mandir in Ayodhya. But this issue is rather fraught and complicated, capable of hurting as well as helping the ruling party. On the other hand, back in power in three key states, the Congress itself may make mistakes, disenchanting some who voted it back to power.
    What is amply clear despite the changeability and capriciousness of Indian politics is that the opposition will need more than merely Modi-hate to carry its winning momentum forward. Dread and dislike for a common foe is, at best, temporary glue, as we have seen over and over again; once the antagonist is removed, the patch-work of opportunistic allies lies in tatters. The BJP also needs more than Modi to return it to power, especially if tepidity and weariness of state elections carries over to the national hustings. There is, of course, the possibility that India’s principal political pugilist will recover from this slugfest to emerge victorious one more time. That would indeed seal his place in history as India’s yugapurush, epochal trailblazer.
    Author is Director, IIAS, Shimla

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    vrāˊtya ʻ a divine epithet ʼ AV., ʻ relating to a partic. vratá -- ʼ Pañ, m. ʻ one who has undertaken parivrajyā -- vrata -- , term of address for a guest, vagrant ʼ Br., ʻ one who has lost caste ʼ Mn. [vratá -- ] K. bôcu m. ʻ one who lives by gifts and without any trade ʼ: doubtful bec. of -- c -- (not -- ċ -- ) < -- ty -- . (CDIAL 12231)    bôcu बोचु॒ । अज्ञप्रायः m. (sg. dat. böcis बा॑चिस्), a man, generally a Brāhmaṇ, who lives upon what he can get in the way of gifts, and is ignorant of any trade or business.(Kashmiri)

    व्रात्य   vrātya m (S) An adult Bráhman of whom the investiture with the sacred thread has never been solemnized. 2 Popularly. A vile, mischievous, troublesome, hateful, pestilent child.(Marathi)

    व्रात्य m. a man of the mendicant or vagrant class , a tramp , out-caste , low or vile person (either a man who has lost caste through non-observance of the ten principal संस्कारs , or a man of a partic. low caste descended from a शूद्र and a क्षत्रिया ; accord. to some " the illegitimate son of a क्षत्रिय who knows the habits and intentions of soldiers " ; in AV. xv , 8 , 1 ; 9 , 1, the राजन्यs and even the Brahmans are said to have sprung from the व्रात्य who is identified with the Supreme Being , prob. in glorification of religious mendicancy ; accord. to A1pS3r. व्रात्य is used in addressing a guest) AV. &c; mfn. belonging to the व्रत called महा-व्रत (q.v.Pan5cavBr. Sch. (Monier-Williams)

    Who were the Vratyas – the searching wanderers?

    [This article attempts to trace the meaning that the term Vratya acquired  at various stages in the unfolding of Indian history; and, wonders how well that meaning mirrored the state of Indian society at that  given stage.]
    Every civilization has certain unique features, which differentiate it from the rest. Indian civilization is distinguished by its resilience; continuity with change; and its diversity. The composite fabric of Indian civilization is woven with strands and shades of varying textures and hues.
    Rig Veda repeatedly refers to the composite character of its society and to its pluralistic population. It mentions the presence of several religions, cults and languages; and calls upon all persons to strive to become noble parts of that pluralistic society.
    The pluralistic character of that society was characterized not merely by its composition but also by the divergent views held by its thinkers. There were non -conformists and dissenters even among the Vedic philosophers. In addition, there were individuals and groups who were outside the pale of the Vedic fold; and who practiced, the pre-Vedic traditions; and rejected the validity of the Vedas and its rituals.
    The prominent among such dissenters and rebels were the Vratyas. They were an atrociously heterogeneous community; and defied any definition. Even to this day, the meaning of the term Vratya is unclear; and is variously described. The amazing community of the Vratyas included magicians, medicine men, shamans, mystics, materialists, vagrant or mendicant (parivrajaka), wandering madmen, roaming- footloose warriors, mercenaries, fire eaters, poison swallowers , libidinous pleasure seekers and wandering swarm of austere ascetics.
    Some of them were violent and erotic; while some others were refined and austere; and a lot others were just plain crazy. It was a random assortment onuts and gems.
    [ Even in the later times , Vratya was used as derogatory term. For instance ; in the Drona parva of the Mahabharata (07,118.015) the Vrishni-s and Andhaka-s were branded Vratyas – uncouth and uncultured- vrātyāḥ saṃśliṣṭakarmāṇaḥ prakṛtyaiva vigarhitāḥ / vṛṣṇy andhakāḥ kathaṃ pārtha pramāṇaṃ bhavatā kṛtāḥ]
    The Rig Veda mentions Vratyas about eight times (e.g. 3:26:6; 5:53:11; 5:75:9; 9:14:2); and five groups of the Vratyas are collectively called pancha-vrata (10:34:12). The Atharva Veda (15th kanda) devotes an entire hymn titled vratya- suktha (AVŚ_15,3.1 to AVŚ_15,18.5) to the “mystical fellowship” of the Vratyas. The Pancavimsa-brahmana Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas too talk about Vratyas; and, describe a sacrifice called Vratya-stoma, which is virtually a purification ritual.
    The Rig Veda, generally, employs the term Vratya  to denote: breakaway group or an inimical horde or a collection of men of indefinite number; living in temporary settlements. The Atharva- Veda too, uses the word in the sense of a stranger or a guest or one who follows the rule; but, treats it with a lot more respect. Apparently, the perceptions changed a great deal during the intervening period.
    The Jaiminiya Brahmana (2:222) describes  Vratyas   as ascetics roaming about themselves in an intoxicated state. The Tandya (24:18.2) however addresses them as divine-Vratyas (daivā vai vrātyāḥ sattram āsata budhena). The Vajasaneyi-samhita refers to them as physicians and as guardians of truth. They seem to have been a community of ascetics living under a set of strange religious vows (Vrata).
    Interestingly, Shiva –Rudra is described as Eka –Vratya* (AV the glory of one- hundred – and- eight forms of Rudra hails Rudra as Vrata-pathi, the chief of the Vratyas (TS.
    [ The Atharva-veda (AV: 15. 1-7) speaks of seven attendants of the exalted Eka Vratya, the Vratya par excellence  : Bhava of the intermediate space in the East;  Sarva in the South; Pashupati in the West; Ugra of the North; Rudra of the lower region; Mahadeva of the upper region ; Asani of  lightening ; and, Ishana of all the intermediate regions. It is said; though they are named differently they in truth are the varying manifestations of the one and the same Eka Vratya. While Rudra, Sarva, Ugra and Asani are the terrifying aspects, the other four: Bhava , Pashupathi a, Mahadeva and Ishana are peaceful aspects.
    Of these, Bhava and Sarva by virtue of their rule over sky and earth protect the devote against calamities, contagious diseases and poisonous pollution.
    sa ekavrātyo ‘bhavat sa dhanur ādatta tad evendradhanuḥ ||6||nīlam asyodaraṃ lohitaṃ pṛṣṭham ||7||nīlenaivā priyaṃ bhrātṛvyaṃ prorṇoti lohitena dviṣantaṃ vidhyatīti brahmavādino vadanti ||8|| (AVŚ_15,1.6a to 8a)]
    [*  However, Dr.RC Hazra in his work Rudra in the Rg-veda (page 243) remarks that Eka-Vratya is to be identified with Prajapathi ; and , not with Rudra,  as some scholars seem to think.]
    The Atharva Veda (15.2.1-2) makes a very ambiguous statement: “Of him in the eastern quarter, faith is the harlot, Mitra the Magadha, discrimination is the garment, etc…..” in the southern quarter Magadha is the mantra of the Vratya; in the other two quarters Magadha is the laughter and the thunder of the Vratya. (Mitra, maAtm, hasa and stanayitnur).  It is not clear what this statement implies. But it is taken to mean that the Magadha tribes were friends, advisers and thunder (strong supporters) of the Vratyas.
    tasya prācyāṃ diśi śraddhā puṃścalī mitro māgadho vijñānaṃ vāso ‘har uṣṇīṣaṃ rātrī keśā haritau pravartau kalmalir maṇiḥ  – (AVŚ_15,2.1[2.5]e) ; tasya dakṣiṇāyāṃ diśy uṣāḥ puṃścalī mantro māgadho vijñānaṃ vāso ‘har uṣṇīṣaṃ rātrī keśā haritau pravartau kalmalir maṇiḥ – (AVŚ_15,2.2[2.13]e) ; tasya pratīcyāṃ diśīrā puṃścalī haso māgadho vijñānaṃ vāso ‘har uṣṇīṣaṃ rātrī keśā haritau pravartau kalmalir maṇiḥ -(AVŚ_15,2.3[2.19]e); tasyodīcyāṃ diśi vidyut puṃścalī stanayitnur māgadho vijñānaṃ vāso ‘har uṣṇīṣaṃ rātrī keśā haritau pravartau kalmalir maṇiḥ – (AVŚ_15,2.4[2.25]e)
    The implication of this is rather interesting. The breakaway group from among the Vedic people (including the pre Vedic tribes), that is, the Vratyas left their mainland and roamed over to the East; and ultimately settled in the regions of Magadha, where they found friends and supporters. The reason for that friendly reception appears to be that the Magadha tribes in Eastern India were not in good terms with the Vedic people in the Indus basin; and saw no difficulty in accommodating the Vratyas. And, more importantly, the Magadhas did not follow or approve the Vedic religion; and they, too, just as the Vratyas, were against the rites, rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic community.
    The Vedic people too did not seem to regard the Brahman of the Magadha region. They were considered not true Brahmins, but only Brahmins by birth or in name (brahma-bandhu Magadha-desiya)- (Latyayana Srauta sutra . 8.6)
    The Vratyas roamed about, mostly, in the regions to the East and North-west of the Madhyadesha, that is, in the countries of Magadha and Anga .They spoke the dialect of Prachya, the source of the languages of Eastern India. It is also said ; the Vratyas  also spoke  the language of the initiated (dīkṣita-vācaṃ vadanti) , though not themselves initiated (a-diksita), but as’ calling that which is easy to utter (a-durukta)  ‘ (Panchavimsa Brahmana,17.1.9 – aduruktavākyaṃ duruktam ) . This may mean that the Vratyas were familiar and comfortable both in Sanskrit and Prakrit.
    garagiro vā ete ye brahmādyaṃ janyam annam adanty aduruktavākyaṃ duruktam āhur adaṇḍyaṃ daṇḍena ghnantaś caranty adīkṣitā dīkṣitavācaṃ vadanti ṣoḍaśo vā eteṣāṃ stomaḥ pāpmānaṃ nirhantum arhati yad ete catvāraḥ ṣoḍaśā bhavanti tena pāpmano ‘dhi nirmucyante
    They lived alone or in groups, away from populated areas. They followed their own cult-rules and practices. They drifted far and wide; roamed from the Indus valley to banks of the Ganga. They were the wandering seekers.
    [According to Mahamahopadhyay Haraprasad Sastri,the vast territory to the South of the Ganga and North of the Vindhya ranges extending from Mudgagiri (Monghyr) in the East to the Charanadri (Chunar) in the West was called the land of Magadha tribes. The Anga region was around Bhagalpur area.]
    The Kesi-suktha  of Rig Veda (10:13:6); Latyayana- sruta-sutra (8.6-7); Bahudayana –sruta- sutra (26.32); Panchavimsati Brahmana (17. 1.9-15) and vratya-sukta of Atharva Veda (15thkanda), provide graphic descriptions of these magis, the Vratyas.  These descriptions , put together, project a truly impressive, colorful and awe-inspiring image of the wandering Vratyas.
    They were distinguished by their black turbans (krishnam ushnisham dharayanti) worn in a slanting manner (LSS 8.6-7); a white blanket thrown across the shoulders(BSS 26.32);  displaying long matted hair (kesi); a set of round ornaments for the ears (pravartau); jewels (mani) hanging by the neck;  rows of long necklaces of strange beads swinging across the chest ; two (dvi) deer-skins tied together for lower garment, and sandals  of black hide , with flaps, for the feet (upanahau); carrying a lance (Pra-toda) , bow (AV 15.2.1)  and a goad(pratoda) ; and , riding a rickety   chariot / cart  ,with planks ( amargagamirthah) tied together with strings,   suitable for rough roads (vipatha) drawn by a  horse or a mule (LSS 8:6,10-11).The Vipatha was said in greater use in Eastern regions (Prachyartha). 
    Panchavimsati Bralhmana (17.1.9-15) further states that the Vratya   leader (Grhapati) wore a turban (Usnisa), carried a whip (Pratoda), a kind of bow (Jyahroda*), was clothed in a black (krsnasa) garment and two skins (Ajina), black and white (krisna-valaksa), and owned a rough wagon (Viratha) covered with planks (phalakastirna). He also wore garment lined of silver coins (Niska). His shoes were black and pointed. – uṣṇīṣaṃ ca pratodaś ca jyāhṇoḍaś ca vipathaś ca phalakāstīrṇaḥ kṛṣṇaśaṃ vāsaḥ kṛṣṇavalakṣe ajine rajato niṣkas tad gṛhapateḥ -(PB 17.1.14)
    [* The descriptions of the Jya-hroda, a sort of arms carried by the Vratya, occur in the Pancavimsa Brahmana (17.1.14) as also in the Katyayana (22.4.2) and Latyayana (8.6.8) Sutras. It is described as a ‘bow not meant for use’ (ayogya’ dhanus); and also as a ‘bow without an arrow’ (dhanushka anisu). It obviously was a decorative-piece meant to enhance the impressive look of the Chief.]
    And, the others, subordinate to the leader, had garments with fringes of red (valukantani damatusam) , two fringes on each, skins folded double (dvisamhitany ajinani), and footwear (Upanah) – valūkāntāni dāmatūṣāṇītareṣāṃ dve dve dāmanī dve dve upānahau dviṣaṃhitāny ajināni – (PB 17.1.15) – etad vai vrātyadhanaṃ yasmā etad dadati tasminn eva mṛjānā yānti
    Vratyas used a peculiar type of reclining seats (asandi)
    Vratya Asandi
    [A-sandi is a generic term for a seat of some sort  , occurring frequently in the later Samhitas and Brahmanas, but not in the Rig-Veda.  In the Atharvaveda (AV. 15.3.2) the settle brought for the Vratya is described at length. It had two feet, lengthwise and cross-pieces, forward and cross-cords. It had a seat (Asada) covered with a cushion (Astarana) and a pillow (Upabarhana), and a support (Upasraya)- āsandīm āruhyodgāyati devasākṣya eva tad upariṣadyaṃ jayat.
    so ‘bravīd āsandīṃ me saṃ bharantv iti ||2||tasmai vrātyāyāsandīṃ sam abharan ||3||tasyā grīṣmaś ca vasantaś ca dvau pādāv āstāṃ śarac ca varṣāś ca dvau ||4||bṛhac ca rathantaraṃ cānūcye āstāṃ yajñāyajñiyaṃ ca vāmadevyaṃ ca tiraścye ||5||ṛcaḥ prāñcas tantavo yajūṃṣi tiryañcaḥ ||6||veda āstaraṇaṃ brahmopabarhaṇam ||7||sāmāsāda udgītho ‘paśrayaḥ ||8||tām āsandīṃ vrātya ārohat ||9||(AVŚ_15,3.1a- 9a)
    The Satapatha Brahmana (Sat.Brh. also describes the Asandi as an elaborate low seat, with diminutive legs; and, of some length on which a man could comfortably stretch himself, if he chose to. And, more than one person could sit on such a seat. It was said to be made of Khadira wood, perforated (vi-trinna), and joined with straps (vardhra-yukta). It perhaps meant a long reclining chair/ rest. The Asandi is described in the Satapatha Brahmana, as a seat for a king or a leader.
    maitrāvaruṇyā payasyayā pracarati | tasyā aniṣṭa eva sviṣṭakṛdbhavatyathāsmā āsandī māharant yuparisadyaṃ vā eṣa jayati yo jayatyantarikṣasadyaṃ tadena muparyāsīnamadhastādimāḥ prajā upāsate tasmādasmā āsandī māharanti saiṣā
    khādirī vitṛṇā bhavati yeyaṃ vardhra -vyutā bharatānām ]

    They moved among the warriors (yaudhas), herdsmen and farmers.  They did not care either for the rituals or for initiations (adhikshitah); and not at all for celibacy (Na hi brahmacharyam charanthi) . They did not engage themselves in agriculture (Na krshim) or in trade (Na vanijyam). They behaved as if they were possessed (gandharva grithaha) or drunk or just mad.
    hīnā vā ete hīyante ye vrātyāṃ pravasanti na hi brahmacaryaṃ caranti na kṛṣiṃ vaṇijyāṃ ṣoḍaśo vā etat stomaḥ samāptum arhati – (PB 17.1.2)
    The scholars generally believe, what has come down to us as Tantra is, in fact, a residue of the cult-practices of the Vratyas. The Tantra, even to this day, is considered non-Vedic, if not anti-Vedic.
    The Atharva Veda (Vratya Kanda) mentions that Vratyas were also a set of talented composers and singers. They found they could sing a lot better- and probably hold the notes longer – if they practiced what they called pranayama, a type of breath control. They even attempted relating their body-structure to that of the universe. They learnt to live in harmony with nature. There is, therefore, a school of thought, which asserts, what came to be known as Yoga in the later periods had its roots in the ascetic and ecstatic practices of the Vratyas. And, the Vratyas were, therefore, the precursors of the later ascetics and yogis.
    It is said, the theoretical basis for transformation of cult-practices into a system (Yoga) was provided by the Samkhya School. Tantra thus yoked Samkhya and Yoga. Over a long period, both Samkhya and Yoga schools merged with the mainstream and came to be regarded as orthodox (asthika) systems, as they both accepted the authority of the Vedas. Yet, the acceptance of Samkhya and Yoga within the orthodox fold seemed rather strained and with some reservation, perhaps because the flavor -the sense of their non-Vedic origin rooted in the Vratya cult practices of pre  Vedic period –  still lingers on.
    The German scholar and Indologist Jakob Wilhelm Hauer (1881 –1962) – who had made the beginnings of Yoga in India the theme for his doctor’s thesis –   in his Der Yoga als Heilweg  (Yoga as a way of salvation) traces the origin of Yoga to the wandering groups of the Vratyas.
    JW Hauer, who represented the leading commentators on Eastern thought in the days of CG Jung, mentions that many of the groups that had roots in the Vratya tradition (such as: Jaiminiyas, Kathas, Maitrayaniyas and Kausitakins) were eventually absorbed into the orthodox fold. He also remarks that Chandogya and Svetasvatara Upanishads are closer in spirit to the Vratya- Samkhya ideologies.
    It is the Svetasvatara Upanishad which declares Rudra as the Supreme, matchless and one without a second – eko hi rudro na dvitiiyaaya tasthu – SV.3.2. It establishes Rudra as the Absolute, the ultimate essence, not limited by forms and names – na tasya pratima asti yasya nama mahadyasha – SV.4.19)
    eko hi rudro na dvitīyāya tasthe ya imāṃl lokān īśata īśanībhiḥ / pratyaṅ janās tiṣṭhati saṃcukocāntakāle saṃsṛjya viśvā bhuvanāni gopāḥ // SvetUp_3.2 // 
    nainam ūrdhvaṃ na tiryañcaṃ na madhye parijagrabhat / na tasya pratimā asti yasya nāma mahad yaśaḥ // SvetUp_4.19 // ]
    The Samkhya school, in its earlier days, was closely associated two other heterodox systems, i.e., Jainism and Buddhism. In a historical perspective, Samkhya-Yoga and Jainism – Buddhism were derived from a common nucleus that was outside the Vedic tradition. And, that nucleus was provided by the Vratya movement.
    Interestingly, Arada Kalama, the teacher of Gotama who later evolved in to the Buddha, belonged to Samkhya School. Gotama had a teacherfrom the Jain tradition too; he was Muni Pihitasrava a follower of Parsvanatha. The Buddha later narrated how he went around naked, took food in his palms and observed various other rigorous restrictions expected of a Sramana  ascetic. The Buddha followed those practice for some time and gave them up, as he did not find merit in extreme austerities.  The Buddha, the awakened one, was a Yogi too. His teachings had elements of old-yoga practices such as askesis (self- discipline), control, restraint, release and freedom. The early Buddhism, in fact, preserved the Yogi – ideal of Nirvana.
    Thus, the development of religions and practices in Eastern regions of India, in the early times, was inspired and influenced – directly or otherwise – by the Vratyas.
    The contribution of the Vratyas, according to my friend Shri DSampath, was that they gave a very time and space based approach to the issues.  They were the initial social scientists with rationality as the anchor, he says.
    Some of the characteristics of the Vratya-thought found a resonant echo in Jainism and Buddhism. Just to mention a few: Man and his development is the focal interest; his effort and his striving is what matters, and not god’s grace; the goal of human endeavor is within his realm; a man or a woman is the architect of one’s own destiny ; and there is nothing supernatural about his goals and his attainments. There was greater emphasis on contemplation, introspection, pratikramana (back-to-soul),; and a deliberate shift away from  exuberant rituals and sacrifices seeking health, wealth and happiness.
    The Vratya was neither a religion, nor was it an organized sect. It was a movement seeking liberation from the suffocating confines of the establishment and searching for a meaning to life and existence. The movement phased out when it became rather irrelevant to the changed circumstances and values of its society.  The Vratyas, the searching wanderers, the rebels of the Rig Vedic age, faded in to the shadowy corners of Vedic religion, rather swiftly; yet they left behind a lingering influence on other systems of Indian thought.
    The Jain tradition claims that it existed in India even from pre- Vedic times and remained unaffected by the Vedic religion. It also says, the Jain religion was flourishing, especially in the North and Eastern regions of India, during the Vedic times.
    Because of the basic differences in their tenets and practices, the two traditions opposed each other. As a part of that ongoing conflict, certain concepts and practices appreciated by one religion were deprecated by the other. The term Vratya was one such instance.
    The term Vratya has a very long association with Jainism; and its connotation in Jainism is astonishingly different from the one implied in the Vedic tradition where it is employed to describe an inimical horde. On the other hand, Vratya in Jainism is a highly regarded and respected term. The term Vratya, in the Jaina context, means the observer of vratas or vows. Thus, while the Vedic community treated the Vratyas as rebels and outcasts, the tribes in the eastern regions hailed Vratyas as heroes and leaders (