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A homage to Hindu civilization.
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    Glimpses of an all-embracing form: The Mahabharata as itihAsa

    A retrospective account of a 4-day workshop titled “The Mahabharata as itihAsa” organized by the Indic Academy and jointly conducted by Prof. Vishwa Adluri of Hunter College, New York, U.S.A. and Dr. Joydeep Baghcee of Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany. Held from July 27 to July 30, 2017 at the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi, India.
    by Ramakrishnan Sitaraman 2 Feb. 2018

    Dr. Ramakrishnan Sitaraman is a Professor in the Department of Biotechnology at the TERI School of Advanced Studies, New Delhi, India. His professional research interests are in the areas of microbial pathogenesis and genetics, gene regulation and science education. He has a keen interest in the great epics of India. More details on his academic interests can be accessed on Loop and ResearchGate.

    nArAyaNaM namskR^itya naraM chaiva narottamaM
    dEvIM sarasvatIM vyAsaM tato jayamudIrayEt[i]

    Having bowed down to Narayana and Nara, the most exalted male being, and also to the Goddess Saraswati and Vyasa, must the word jaya be uttered[ii].

    “There exist two colossal, two unparalleled, epic poems in the sacred language of India, – the Mahâbhârata and the Râmâyana, – which were not known to Europe, even by name, until Sir William Jones announced their existence; and one of which, the larger, since his time, has been made public only by fragments, by mere specimens, bearing to those vast treasures of Sanskrit literature such small proportion as cabinet samples of ore have to the riches of a mine. Yet these most remarkable poems contain almost all the history of ancient India, so far as it can be recovered; together with such inexhaustible details of its political, social, and religious life, that the antique Hindu world really stands epitomized in them. The Old Testament is not more interwoven with the Jewish race, nor the New Testament with the civilization of Christendom, nor the Koran with the records and destinies of Islam, than are these two Sanskrit poems with that unchanging and teeming Population which Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, rules as Empress of Hindustan. The stories, songs, and ballads; the histories and genealogies; the nursery tales and religious discourses; the art; the learning, the philosophy, the creeds, the moralities, the modes of thought, the very phrases, saying, turns of expression, and daily ideas of the Hindu people are taken from these poems. Their children and their wives are named out of them; so are their cities, temples, streets, and cattle. They have constituted the library, the newspaper, and the Bible-generation after generation-for all the succeeding and countless millions of Indian people; and it replaces patriotism with that race, and, stands in stead of nationality, to possess these two precious and inexhaustible books, and to drink from them as from mighty and overflowing rivers. The value ascribed in Hindustan to these too little known epics has transcended all literary standards established in the West. They are personified, worshipped, and cited as being something divine. To read or even listen to them is thought by the devout Hindu sufficiently meritorious to bring prosperity to his household here, and happiness in the next world; they are held also to give wealth to the poor, health to the sick, wisdom to the ignorant; and the recitation of certain parvas and shlokas in them can fill the household of the barren, it is believed, with children. A concluding passage of the great poem says:-

    "'The reading of this Mahâbhârata destroys all sin and produces virtue; so much so, that the pronunciation of a single shloka is sufficient to wipe away much guilt. This Mahâbhârata contains the history of the gods, of the Rishis in heaven and those on earth, of the Gandharvas and the Rákshasas. It also contains the life and actions of the one God, holy, immutable, and true, – who is Krishna, who is the creator and the ruler of this universe; who is seeking the welfare of his creation by means of his incomparable and indestructible power; whose actions are celebrated by all sages; who has bound human beings in a chain, of which one end is life and the other death; on whom the Rishis meditate, and a knowledge of whom imparts unalloyed happiness to their hearts, and for whose gratification and favor all the daily devotions are performed by all worshippers. If a man reads the Mahâbhârata and has faith in its doctrines, he is free from all sin, and ascends to heaven after his death.'" 

    – Sir Edwin Arnold, The Iliad and Odyssey of India (1875).

    A four-day workshop on the Mahabharata conducted by professional scholars in the humanities that is open to the laity is admittedly a rare occurrence.  So, when this workshop was announced by the Indic Academy, I, decidedly a card-carrying member of the latter category, had no second thoughts about attending it.  Lest it is misconstrued that this was merely a meeting of dilettantes and amateurs without rigour or commitment to scholarship, I would like to list the study materials given for this course:

    1. The prolegomena to the critical edition of the Mahabharata by its editor, V.S.Sukthankar.  Available online at GRETIL - Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages
    2. Adluri VP and Bagchee J (2016).  Paradigm lost: The application on the historical-critical method to the Bhagavad Gita.  International Journal of Hindu Studies, 20 (2): 199-301.
    3. Adluri VP (2017).  Hindu studies in a Christian, secular academy.  International Journal of Dharma Studies. 5:6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40613-016-0037-5.
    4. Kosambi DD (1961).  Social and Economic Aspects of the Bhagavadgita.  Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient.  4(2):198-224. 
    5. Winternitz M (1924).  The Mahabharata.  The Visva Bharati Quarterly, v.I, No. 4, January, 1924.  pp.392-408.
    6. Selections from the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli. 
    7. Sukthankar VS (1942).  On the meaning of the Mahabharata.  Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi, third edition, 2016.
    8. Adluri VP and Bagchee J (2014).  The Nay Science: A History of German IndologyOxford University Press, Oxford.

    For the record, the audience was almost evenly split between professional scholars and interested laymen. This indicates the strong fascination for the great epic prevalent among individuals from either category, some of whom travelled across India[iii], and some even from abroad[iv],[v] to participate in this workshop.

    [The audience for the workshop was an interesting mix from different walks of life]

    Prologue

    The workshop was preceded by an informative lecture on the influence of the great Bharata on Tamil culture by Dr. R. Nagaswamy, retired archaeologist, Government of Tamil Nadu.  Dr. Nagaswamy is a scholar of immense erudition, diligent in paying due attention to detail, and at home in both Sanskrit and Tamil.  His lecture, interspersed with photographs of amazing physical relics and detailed references to the Tamil epic silappadikAram served much to whet our collective appetite for yet another retelling of the Mahabharata.  It was interesting to note that the locality of the cattle-herders in Madurai where Kannagi, the heroine of the Tamil epic stayed for some time was quite familiar, if not saturated, with Krishna lore.  Upon witnessing ill omens indicating approaching tragedy, the cowherdesses organize an impromptu group dance depicting Krishna’s idylls at Gokul.  They compare the conjugal love between Kannagi and her husband Kovalan to that between Nappinnai and Krishna respectively, much as northerners might effortlessly compare them to Radha and Krishna.  And, lest we forget, ’Madurai’ is but the sister city of ‘Mathura’ in the north, the home of Krishna’s Yadava clan, just as ‘New’ York in the U.S.A. is related to York in the British Isles.  This close identification of cattle-rearing groups with Krishna is ancient and pan-Indian indeed.  Adulatory references to Balarama and Krishna are available in Sangam literature itself, the earliest known Tamil literary works[vi], indicating the antiquity and extent of the Sanskritic cosmopolis permeated by the great epics, its deep and ancient roots in Tamil country, and not just among the elites.  That an epic based essentially on a war of succession, a common enough event in history, in the northern Kuru-PanchAla country (roughly corresponding to the Ganga-Yamuna river valley) should evolve over time with such profound meaning and cultural significance for such diverse peoples in different regions[vii] evokes the succinct and euphonious statement of the late historian Sita Ram Goel on the sublime import of the epics:  “The terrestrial enlarged in the image of the transcendental.”  The profound influence of the great epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, on the people of India and the Indosphere and India’s own flowering as a civilizational entity over ages can hardly be overstated.  Dr.Nagaswamy’s lecture was gratefully received and deeply appreciated.             

    A brief (and perhaps incomplete) profile of the workshop faculty

    What, we may justifiably ask, were the credentials of the two scholars who conducted the workshop?  For those who go by titles and degrees, they have a formidable range of academic attainments to their credit.  Prof. Vishwa Adluri holds two doctoral degrees:  In philosophy from The New School for Social Research, New York (U.S.A.) and in Indology from Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany.  His linguistic proficiency includes not only English, but also “reading knowledge of Ancient Greek, German, and French; advanced knowledge of Sanskrit[viii].  Dr. Joydeep Bagchee received his doctorate in philosophy from New School for Social Research, New York, and is currently  “a Fellow at the research program Zukunftsphilologie:  Revisiting the Canons of Textual Scholarship at the Freie Universität Berlin,” Germany[ix].  His linguistic proficiency includes English, German, and Sanskrit.  Both scholars have to their credit studies on both Greek and Hindu philosophy.  By any yardstick, this should comprise an adequate formal preparation for their task. 

    [Dr. Joydeep Bagchee (L); Dr. Vishwa Adluri (R)]

    Entering Naimisharanya – within and without

    The great Bharata is said to have been recited to sages in the sacred forest of Naimisharanya, located in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India.  Now, ‘nimisha’ also means the blinking of the eye, and the Devas are described as ‘a-nimisha-chakshushah’ – of unblinking eyes.  The word ‘naimisha’ is the adverb form of ‘nimisha,’ which gives the sense of ‘pertaining to.’ If the eyes are windows to the soul, and the Mahabharata is being played out in the forest of nimisha…what suggestive correspondence!  This is but one instance of the kind of word-play that the Sanskrit poets employed to telling metaphoric and philosophical effect.  In passing, this one instance again harks back to the truism that all translation is travesty – for ‘Naimisharanya’ would not really preserve its connotations in English.  Sanskrit is designated ‘well-made’ or ‘refined’ (more accurately, samskŗtam) for a reason, especially its facility with compound words, nouns that can be used as adjectives with minimal or no modifications, and the ability to coin new words using a set of root words.          

    And, when we are talking about the eyes, can the topic of perception be far behind?  And where perception is analyzed…well, that’s the bread and butter (or roti and ghee) of Hindu philosophy.  The basic question ko’ham (who am I?) is, after all, the entry point into the inquiry into the errors of perception, self-identification and superimposition.   Of course clearly didactic sections like the Bhagavadgita (‘BG’ in references) or the Anushasana parva explicitly grapple with these issues.  But then, like naturalists turning stones in a tide pool to reveal the wealth of marine life underneath, our two teachers led us in detail through some of the legendary accounts of the Adiparva, the very first parva of the Mahabharata, uncovering direct correspondences with well-beloved Upanishadic metaphors, most notably the rope misperceived as a snake, and the two birds on a tree.  And, truth be told, what made the teachers’ virtuosity even more enjoyable was their interactive style of asking questions of the audience, thereby facilitating enthusiastic and often able complementation by members of the audience who vied with each other in identifying the Upanishadic motif in a given situation.

    Indeed, we realized yet again the value of not just the Sanskrit language, but language in general and its metaphoric content.  As Robert Lawlor noted:

    “One can consider that metaphor is to language as resonance is to sound:  the metaphoric highlighting of similarities between widely divergent areas of experience creates an inner resonance, a musing over the mysterious connectedness of all things…Our conditioning has tricked us into believing that language is supposed to provide clear absolute statements concerning factuality or truths.  With language denied the sense of metaphor, we easily forget that there is no such thing as an external objective world, separate from the perceptual and linguistic processes through which we experience and describe that world.  We forget that everything in our perception exists only in relationship to another thing…As with metaphor, all language, whether poetic or scientific, can only highlight aspects of our experiential world while obscuring others[x].” 

    Therefore, a well-structured and well-worded text, especially in Sanskrit, can display layers of meaning for the connoisseur and seeker alike.  This is what V.S. Sukhtankar discussed at length in his four lectures, progressively moving from a review of textual criticisms of the Mahabharata to the interpretations of the epic on the mundane, ethical and metaphysical planes.  In one sense, the great war, the contrary pulls of competing obligations, the furious storms of desire and disappointment, likes and dislikes, rAga and dvEsha – are all as much within as without. 

    Throughout the text, advancing inexorably like a great unseen and unsuspected wave arising from the unfathomable deep, whose power is manifest only as it bears down on the shallows, is the creative tension between pravR^itti and nivR^itti.  pravR^itti is all there is, visible, perceptible, objective and transactional; and subtle dharma, difficult of understanding, verily a razor’s edge, permeates pravR^itti as warp and weft permeate cloth, underlying interactions between its various components wherein the individual must forever make choices with a trepidation in direct proportion to his awareness of the problem of doing what is ‘right.’  With such complexity, many are the missteps and failures, and many would rather not bother with the whole business of trying to do the ‘right thing.’  As Vyasa himself bemoans the state of affairs:

    Urdhva-bAhur viraumyEsha na hi kashchit shR^iNoti mAM
    dharmAt arthaschcha kAmashcha sa kimarthaM na sEvyatE?[xi]

     "With upraised arms I proclaim, but nobody listens to me!  From dharma arise both artha (means) and kAma (desires). Why then is dharma not served?"

    Verily the apposite lament of one whose biological descendants slaughtered each other before his very eyes!  But, unlike the blind king Dhritarashtra’s laments that end in self-pity and, to some extent, self-justification, this lament is permeated with the awareness of the violation of principle in pursuit of the proverbial power and pelf, and an overpowering compassion for all beings.  It is this epic awareness of evil in the terrestrial plane even while focusing on the transcendental and soteriological goal that is greatly compromised in later Hindu literature, as S.R.Goel so perceptively pointed out:

    “The sacred and philosophical literature produced by Hindus from the 5th century onwards compares very unfavourably with similar literature of an earlier age - like Mahabharata, the Ramayana…In the eyes of this highly vigilant spirituality (i.e., the itihAsa literature – R.S.), evil is as much present in human nature as the good, and manifests itself in as many ways as the good. This spirituality is, therefore, wide awake to every eruption of evil, individual as well as collective. It can spot evil at the ideological and the psychological level as easily as at the level of its physical manifestation or concrete action. And it recommends a combat with evil, devAsura-saMgrAma, in every sphere of life. In this spirituality, there is no place for suffering evil silently, or for explaining it away, or for facing it with a subjective sanctimoniousness, howsoever elevated the language that sanctimoniousness may employ.[xii] 

    Beyond all this, beyond even dharma, is nivR^itti, where all dharmas are given up – sarvadharmAn parityajya – as the Gitacharya puts it[xiii].  This is attainable only by a few, and the rest keep going through the eternal cycle of being and becoming, hopefully trying their best to work out their karma in accordance with diverse aspects of dharma – from the inescapably collective level to the stubbornly and idiosyncratically individual level.     

    History or story?

    The metaphorical and philosophical interpretations of the great Bharata outlined by our teachers were truly elevating and invigorating.  In fact, the epic genre aims precisely at such an effect, whether it happens to be Hindu or Greek.  In pre-Christian Greece and Rome ‘Homer says so’ was an expression of authority in philosophical circles (cf. shruti or shabda in the Indian context).  The English poet William Cowper describes the successive advents of Homer, Virgil and Milton, epic poets of Europe as follows:

    Ages elapsed ere Homer’s lamp appear’d,
    And ages ere the Mantuan swan was heard;
    To carry nature lengths unknown before,
    To give a Milton birth, ask’d ages more.
    Thus genius rose and set at order’d times,
    And shot a day-spring into distant climes,
    Ennobling every region that he chose;
    He sunk in Greece, in Italy he rose;
    And, tedious years of Gothic darkness pass’d,
    Emerged all splendour in our isle at last.
    Thus lovely halcyons dive into the main,
    Then shew far off their shining plumes again[xiv].

    We in India are lucky not to be condemned to wait ‘tedious years’ for an epic poet – the two great epics have been eternal springs of inspiration from which poets in the Sanskrit language and her regional sisters greedily drank.  Works like the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas or Ramavataram of Kambar may tower like great pyramids over lesser-known compositions, but all of these nevertheless add to the treasures bequeathed us by our ancestors.  And, all this is not counting the recensions in Indo-China and south-east Asia...   

    But, does that mean that the epic text is completely devoid of any terrestrial components, any material reality and therefore, bereft of ‘history’ in the modern sense of the word?  Well, we think not, and the clues are in the epic itself.  Firstly, it itself contains mention of the gradual inflation of the epic from about 8800 verses to the figure of 100,000 in vogue today.  So, there may well have been an epic nucleus, only that it is now lost and current manuscript evidence does not allow us to reach back that far, as Sukthankar pointed out.  Secondly, references to natural phenomena and geography that are corroborated on the ground as it were, enable us to assign a temporal window to the main events[xv].  Along with the Puranas, the Mahabharata contains the most extensive and detailed textual account we have (in a material sense) of the little-known period from the decline of the Harappan cities of the Sarasvati-Sindhu river valley to the rise of kingdoms in the Ganga-Yamuna plains.  And, all around us are the regions, forests, villages, towns, cities, rivers, and mountains that, living tradition informs us, are often doubly sanctified by the ancient visits of the Vedic deities and epic characters. Thirdly, at the snake-sacrifice, Janamejaya asks Vaishampayana what may be considered a very simple and unremarkable question about his forefathers namely, how their quarrel ballooned into a great war, to which Vaishampayana responds with a very accurate summary of all the essential and important events that could easily fit into a normal conversation.  This material can be reasonably accommodated in a few hundred verses at most, qualifying as an ‘epic nucleus’ in the most mundane sense.  No Pandavas, no Kauravas, no Mahabharata. 

    But then, why the hundred thousand, or even thousands of verses?  And why pray, so many versions?  Janamejaya again gives us the reason.  He listens politely to Vaishampayana’s summary, and expresses his dissatisfaction that deserves to be quoted in full:

    "O excellent Brahmana, thou hast, indeed, told me, in brief, the history, called Mahabharata, of the great acts of the Kurus. But, O thou of ascetic wealth, recite now that wonderful narration fully. I feel a great curiosity to hear it. It behoveth thee to recite it, therefore, in full. I am not satisfied with hearing in a nutshell the great history. That could never have been a trifling cause for which the virtuous ones could slay those whom they should not have slain, and for which they are yet applauded by men. Why also did those tigers among men, innocent and capable of avenging themselves upon their enemies, calmly suffer the persecution of the wicked Kurus? Why also, O best of Brahmanas, did Bhima of mighty arms and of the strength of ten thousand elephants, control his anger, though wronged? Why also did the chaste Krishna, the daughter of Drupada, wronged by those wretches and able to burn them, not burn the sons of Dhritarashtra with her wrathful eyes? Why also did the two other sons of Pritha (Bhima and Arjuna) and the two sons of Madri (Nakula and Sahadeva), themselves injured by the wretched Kurus, follow Yudhishthira who was greatly addicted to the evil habit of gambling? Why also did Yudhishthira, that foremost of all virtuous men, the son of Dharma himself, fully acquainted with all duties, suffer that excess of affliction? Why also did the Pandava Dhananjaya, having Krishna for his charioteer, who by his arrows sent to the other world that dauntless host of fighting men (suffer such persecution)? O thou of ascetic wealth, speak to me of all these as they took place, and everything that those mighty charioteers achieved.” 

    The epics thus address head on the very purpose of narrative history, and explicitly suggest that their aim is not only to inform but to elevate and ennoble the audience, as would be the objective of all great art. As Alain Daniélou noted: 

    “History is conceived in the form of stories telling the lives and adventures of ancient kings and revealing various aspects of civilization and culture in a far-removed, idealized past.  These epics are usually envisaged as a philosophy of history, seeking to discern the laws of its development, its logic and teaching, in order to draw ethical and political conclusions to serve as an example for mankind.  A simple recital of facts proving nothing and interesting to no one in particular has always appeared purposeless to the Hindu historian[xvi].” 

    No wonder Janamejaya was highly dissatisfied with the ‘simple recital of facts’ (cf. epic nucleus) underlying the old family quarrel!  Likewise, contemporary Hindus don’t repeatedly attend recitals of the epics (or even workshops like the one under review) to find out whether or not Shri Rama recovered his wife, or the Pandavas their kingdom.  The very recital of this sacred lore in all its complexity is viewed in the Hindu world as an act of piety and merit, and a way to repay the individual’s debt towards the Rishis or sages (Rshi-ŗNa).  As Daniélou remarks:

    “…learned men, wandering monks, and philosophers are met with everywhere, teaching metaphysics and philosophical systems in the village square, or commenting on the sacred texts or the notions of traditional science.  This has been highly important in India in giving even the poorest, most humble, and apparently least cultivated a level of philosophical and religious knowledge; a breadth of view; an interest in cosmic, divine and human laws; and a spirit of tolerance, which is all the more surprising in comparison with the intellectual level of the working classes in countries that consider themselves more technically and economically advanced than India, but where the level of intellectual interest is that of the television[xvii].”     

    Such then, are the reasons why the ancients repeatedly studied and relived their traditional histories through arts and festivities, through solemn ritual and philosophical disputation, while we moderns study history to understand some physical and temporal details (like origins, art, architecture or more rarely, music, drama and literature) that may have a bearing on contemporary society or on the understanding of the ancients within the circle of academic specialists.  The Mahabharata is thus truly ‘history’ in one sense, but transcends history and becomes entirely a-historical in another.  As these two excellent teachers highlighted, the projection of the family conflict on a cosmic screen enables it to become a veritable universe in itself, encompassing all, and excluding nothing. In Prof. Adluri’s memorable words, “the book is the universe, and the universe is the book.” 

    Not to be left unmentioned was a very interesting session during which the significance of the ‘double beginning’ in the Adiparva was discussed in some detail.  The double beginning occurs in the critical edition as well, and there is the formal possibility that this could well be part of an intentional internal logic of the epic as it is known today, not merely a consequence of scribal error and editorial confusion.  Prof. Adluri provides a philosophical rationale for this:

    “…these two textual levels address different themes – cosmology and genealogy – and​ thus are “alternative” beginnings only in the strictly defined sense that they constitute alternative points of entry into the narrative of ‘becoming.’ They are not ‘alternatives’ in the sense that we could excise or do without one of the two beginnings. The double beginning, in fact, splits the text from the very outset: like the forked tongue of a snake, we have two beginnings that run parallel to each other until they finally come together in the Āstīkaparvan to give us the main body of the epic. Cosmology and genealogy, which are two ‘knowledges of becoming’ or two ‘genera of becoming,’ unite to create sacrifice (Janamejaya’s sarpasatra), and it is within that sacrificial setting that the raṇa or the battle of Kurukṣetra must ultimately be placed – and understood[xviii].”

    All the same, perhaps the overall form and structure (or lack thereof) of a ‘fluid’ epic (as Sukthankar pointed out) is only a sideshow?  This has likely given the Mahabharata, in Will Durant’s words, “…a formlessness worse, and a body of thought richer, than can be found in either the Iliad or the Odyssey[xix].”  The ‘body of thought’ is anyway the primary concern of the votaries of the epic, and not its ‘structural correctness’ in an editorial sense.  Dr. Bagchee very ably and with great facility provided us with an overview of the painstaking process of preparing a critical edition, of how manuscripts are arranged in terms of relatedness and plausible common ancestry.  Notably, he also highlighted Friedrich August Wolf’s trenchant observation (in the context of the critical edition of the Illiad) that the critical edition is not really the ‘correct Mahabharata,’ but merely a reflection of the most ancient manuscript that we can reach by inference[xx].   

    Now, with the two scholars being specialists in Greek philosophy as well, they provided us with tantalizing, but all too brief indications about the parallels with Greek epics[xxi], especially the tension between the individual’s welfare and the objectives of the collective that occurs in the tale of Iphegenia in the Iliad[xxii].  Of course, this brevity is not to be grudged, for the Mahabharata is a vast enough topic for four days. However, those who are curious and willing could pursue with much profit a study of both the Hindu and Greek Epics; for the Greek epics can speak to a conscious Hindu in certain unique ways due to historical contingency.  Porphyry’s Cave of the Nymphs might be a good place to start[xxiii]

    It must be remarked that the sessions were seamlessly put together in a manner that seemed unbelievably spontaneous.  Drs. Adluri and Bagchee good-naturedly confessed that the seeming spontaneity was the result of much preparation, which is indeed the case with all good teaching.  I must not leave unmentioned the fact that it was touching to see the respect and love that this instance of the guru-shishya tradition presented us with.   At the conclusion of the workshop, Dr. Bagchee was felicitated by Prof. Adluri for being a worthy student, and to a standing ovation from the audience.  May vishva and jaya continue their retelling of the Jaya for many more years to come!  And yes, simply unforgettable was the elevating leaven of gentle humor that permeated the bread of philosophy throughout the duration of the workshop without loss of rigor.  One instance that stands out in my mind was the episode of the burning of the Khandava forest by Arjuna and Shri Krishna.  Associated with this incident is the story of the shArngaka fledgelings that survived the conflagration by praying to Agni, Fire Himself.  Their adulterous father (mandapAla – roughly, dim-witted), who had been gallivanting with lapitA (‘talkative’) suddenly developed pangs of paternal concern and returned to inquire after the welfare of his abandoned children, only to be ignored by his long-suffering and abandoned mate (jaritA – ‘the aged one’).  Frustrated by jaritA’s rebuff, he arrives at the sage conclusion that ‘all females are just like this once they have children.’  Dr. Adluri took us through this scene of a less than amicable family reunion and pointed out that, based on their names at least, mandapAla’s taste in the fair sex was nothing to crow about, and that all this domestic bickering is going on while “The whole forest has just burned down, people!”   Indeed the humour and irony of the situation recalled with telling effect the self-absorption, and elevated self-opinion of humans in their petty affairs contrasted against the great movements of Nature and Fate as though seated on the machine spun by Maya – bhrAmayan yantrArUdhAni mAyayA  (BG 18.61).  In the context of the conflagration, I was also irresistibly reminded of Swami Chinmayananda’s introduction to his inspired commentary on Shri Adi Shankaracharya’s Bhaja Govindam, wherein he characterizes the work as an expression of the acharya’s “…love for the welfare of the beloved disciples sleeping in samsAra sorrows when the house of life is ablaze with death.[xxiv]”  Thus, from this vantage point, the Mahabharata is, as our scholars pointed out, a profound meditation on the tragedy of the human condition.  Of course, but it is not without its moments of comedy, irony, mirth, and humour.  Let us recall that even Shri Krishna cannot resist responding to Arjuna’s lamentations and expatiations in a friendly and ironical riposte that one cousin may deal another but a few months younger than himself:  ‘You speak like a learned man’ – pragyAvAdAnscha bhAshasE (BG, 2.11).

    Instead of a Conclusion

    And finally, I realized yet again that this great epic of India, revered as the fifth Veda, an object of awe and a source of wonder for untold numbers of human beings over centuries and across the Indosphere, would continue to effortlessly weave its magic at every retelling.  The traditional praise of Vedavyasa as ‘vishAlabuddhi,’ I humbly understood, is not all hyperbole – fact can be stranger than what fancy can conjure or fiction muster.   

    We spare our readers a detailed account of our lingering impressions and desultory thoughts long after the conclusion of the workshop.  Instead, we quote as representative of our feelings for the Mahabharata the words of Sanjaya who, upon finishing the narration of the Bhagavadgita to Dhritarashtra, cannot help the intrusion of his own feelings into his narrative (rather like the great Vyasa himself):

    rAjan samsmR^itya samsmR^itya samvAdaM imaM adbhutaM
    kesavArjunayoh punyaM hR^ishyAmi cha muhur muhuh
    tachcha samsmR^itya samsmR^itya rUpaM atyadbhutaM harE
    vismayo mE mahAn rAjan hR^ishyAmi cha punah punah
    yatra yogEswaro kR^ishNo yatra pArtho dhanurdharah
    tatra shrIvijayo-bhutir-dhruvA-nitir-matir-mama.  (B.G. 18:76-78)

    And aye, when I remember, O Lord my King, again
    Arjuna and the God in talk, and all this holy strain,
    Great is my gladness: when I muse that splendour, passing speech,
    Of Hari, visible and plain, there is no tongue to reach
    My marvel and my love and bliss. O Archer-Prince! all hail!
    O Krishna, Lord of Yoga! Surely there shall not fail
    Blessing, and victory, and power, for Thy most mighty sake,
    Where this song comes of Arjun, and how with God he spake[xxv]

    Aum tat sat.

    Notes and References

    [i] Opening invocation to the Mahabharata, present in the southern recensions of the epic.
    [ii]There is an untranslatable pun here – jaya is also another name for the Mahabharata, and means success or victory; thus success will attend those who remember the said divinities before commencing a reading. 
    [iii] Nithin Sridhar, ‘Mahabharata as a manual of Advaita Vedanta,’ IndiaFacts, August 4, 2017. 
    [iv] Charu Uppal, ‘Workshop on Mahabharat: Some perspectives,’ Yugaparivartan, September 15, 2017. 
    [vi]R Nagaswamy, ‘Balarāma and Vāsudēva Krishna in Alagarkōyil’, Tamil Arts Academy
    [vii] The original ‘Ganga-Jamuni’ culture!
    [x] Lawlor R (1992).  Introduction to Daniélou A (1993).  Virtue, success, pleasure and liberation.  Inner Traditions, Vermont. pp. 5-6.
    [xii] Goel SR (1982).  The story of Islamic imperialism in India, Chapter 9.  Voice of India, New Delhi
    [xiii] sarvadharmAn parityajya mAmEkam sharanam vraja
        Aham tvAm sarva pApEbhyo mokshayishyAmi mA shuchah. (BG. 18.66)
    And let go those —
    Rites and writ duties! Fly to Me alone!
    Make Me thy single refuge! I will free
    Thy soul from all its sins! Be of good cheer!  [Translated by Sir Edwin Arnold as The Song Celestial (1885)].
    [xiv] Table talk by William Cowper (1782).
    [xv] See, for example, archaeologist B.B.Lal’s identification of the Mahabharata events with the Painted Grey Ware Culture (PGW) based on a textual mention in the Matsya and Vayu Puranas of a verifiable flood in the Ganga that necessitated the shifting of the capital from Hastinapura to Kaushambhi by the king Nichakshu. [Lal BB (2013).  Historicity of the Mahabharata, evidence of literature, art and archaeology.  pp. 83, 93-94.  Aryan Books Internation, New Delhi].
    [xvi] Daniélou A (1993).  Virtue, success, pleasure and liberation.  Inner Traditions, Vermont. p. 167.
    [xvii] Ibid. p.89.
    [xviii] Adluri V (2011).  Frame narratives and forked Beginnings: Or, how to read the Ādiparvan,” Journal of Vaishnava Studies 19(2):143–210.  However, this view has been critiqued in some detail.
    [xix] Durant W (1935).  The story of civilization: Our Oriental heritage.  Simon and Schuster, New York. 
    [xx] “A true, continuous, and systematic recension differs greatly from this frivolous and desultory method. In the latter we want only to cure indiscriminately the wounds that are conspicuous or are revealed by some manuscript or other. We pass over more [readings] which are good and passable as regards sense, but no better than the worst as regards authority. But a true recension, attended by the full complement of useful instruments, seeks out the author’s handiwork at every point. It examines in order the witnesses for every reading, not only for those that are suspect. It changes, only for the most serious reasons, readings that all of these approve. It accepts, only when they are supported by witnesses, others that are worthy in themselves of the author and accurate and elegant in their form. Not uncommonly, then, when the witnesses require it, a true recension replaces attractive readings with less attractive ones. It takes off bandages and lays bare the sores. Finally, it cures not only manifest ills, as bad doctors do, but hidden ones too.” F. A. Wolf, Prolegomena to Homer, trans. with an introduction and notes by A. Grafton, G. W. Most, and J. E. G. Zetzel (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985), pp. 43–44.
    [xxi] See for instance, Aduri VP and Bagchee J (2012).  From poetic immortality to salvation: Ruru and Orpheus in Indic and Greek myth.  History of Religions 51(3):239-261. 
    [xxii] Agamemnon, leader of the Greek expeditionary force to Troy, accidentally killed a deer in the sacred grove of Artemis (Roman:  Diana) because of which the Goddess stilled the wind, resulting in the becalming of entire Greek fleet at Aulis (identified as modern Avlida).  Agamemnon’s daughter Iphegenia was thereupon sacrificed to appease Artemis’ anger and restore favourable winds.  
    [xxiii] Taylor T (1917, translator). On the Cave of the Nymphs in the thirteenth book of the Odyssey.  From the Greek of Porphyry.
    [xxiv] Swami Chinmayananda (1965).  Adi Sankaracharya’s Bhaja Govindam: Commentary by Swami Chinmayananda.  Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, Mumbai.  pp. 8.
    [xxv] Sir Edwin Arnold, (1885). The Song Celestial

    Disclaimer

    The opinions expressed herein do not represent the views of the TERI School of Advanced Studies or TERI.

    Acknowledgements

    First and foremost, we are indebted to the entire lineage of gurus from Vyasa downward, who have nurtured the mighty banyan tree of the Mahabharata.  We bow in homage to those unnamed scribes and editors from all over the Indian subcontinent who would rather err on the side of inclusion for fear of losing some precious tract.  Mr. Srinivas Udumudi of the Indic Academy and volunteers such as Mr. Ashish Dhar of Pragyata, Mr. Harish Kumar Meena of Srijan Foundation and Ms. Dimple Kaul of Indic Book club (and several unnamed others besides) richly deserve the collective gratitude of all participants for organizing and managing this workshop.  I would like to dedicate this article to my parents, Mr.G. Sitaraman and Mrs. Indubala, who provided me with a Hindu upbringing and a liberal education.  I thank Dr. Meenakshi Jain for informing me about this workshop well in advance, but for which I would have remained unaware of its occurrence and signficance.



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    Indus Script hypertexts on Hormizd coins presented in this note are:

    కుంతము kuntamu kuntamu. [Skt.] n. A spear, a lance. ఈటె.  Rebus: kuṇṭha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)'  Rebus: íṣṭakā f. ʻ brick ʼ VS., iṣṭikā -- f. MBh., iṣṭā -- f. BHSk. [Av. ištya -- n. Mayrhofer EWA i 94 and 557 with lit. <-> Pk. has disyllabic iṭṭā -- and no aspiration like most Ind. lggs.] Pa. iṭṭhakā -- f. ʻ burnt brick ʼ, Pk. iṭṭagā -- , iṭṭā -- f.; Kho. uṣṭū ʻ sun -- dried brick, large clod of earth ʼ (→ Phal. iṣṭūˊ m. NOPhal 27); L. iṭṭ, pl. iṭṭã f. ʻ brick ʼ, P. iṭṭ f., N. ĩṭ, A. iṭā, B. iṭĩṭ, Or. iṭā, Bi. ī˜ṭī˜ṭā, Mth. ī˜ṭā, Bhoj. ī˜ṭi, H. ī˜ṭhīṭī˜ṭīṭā f., G. ĩṭi f., M. īṭvīṭ f., Ko. īṭ f. -- Deriv. Pk. iṭṭāla -- n. ʻ piece of brick ʼ; B. iṭāl°al ʻ brick ʼ, M. iṭhāḷ f. ʻ a piece of brick heated red over which buttermilk is poured to be flavoured ʼ. -- Si. uḷu ʻ tile ʼ see uṭa -- . *iṣṭakālaya -- . Addenda: íṣṭakā -- : S.kcch. eṭṭ f. ʻ brick ʼ, Garh. ī˜ṭ; -- Md. īṭ ʻ tile ʼ ← Ind. (cf. H. M. īṭ).(CDIAL 1600)

    kuhāru 'crucible' rebus:kuhāru 'armourer' गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'round pebbles, stones' rebus: गोटी [ gōṭī ]'A lump of silver'
     skambhá1 m. ʻ prop, pillar ʼ RV. 2. ʻ *pit ʼ (semant. cf. kūˊpa -- 1). [√skambh]
    1. Pa. khambha -- m. ʻ prop ʼ; Pk. khaṁbha -- m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ; Pr. iškyöpüšköb ʻ bridge ʼ NTS xv 251; L. (Ju.) khabbā m., mult. khambbā m. ʻ stake forming fulcrum for oar ʼ; P. khambhkhambhākhammhā m. ʻ wooden prop, post ʼ; WPah.bhal. kham m. ʻ a part of the yoke of a plough ʼ, (Joshi) khāmbā m. ʻ beam, pier ʼ; Ku. khāmo ʻ a support ʼ, gng. khām ʻ pillar (of wood or bricks) ʼ; N. khã̄bo ʻ pillar, post ʼ, B. khāmkhāmbā; Or. khamba ʻ post, stake ʼ; Bi. khāmā ʻ post of brick -- crushing machine ʼ, khāmhī ʻ support of betel -- cage roof ʼ, khamhiyā ʻ wooden pillar supporting roof ʼ; Mth. khāmhkhāmhī ʻ pillar, post ʼ, khamhā ʻ rudder -- post ʼ; Bhoj. khambhā ʻ pillar ʼ, khambhiyā ʻ prop ʼ; OAw. khāṁbhe m. pl. ʻ pillars ʼ, lakh. khambhā; H. khām m. ʻ post, pillar, mast ʼ, khambh f. ʻ pillar, pole ʼ; G. khām m. ʻ pillar ʼ, khã̄bhi°bi f. ʻ post ʼ, M. khã̄b m., Ko. khāmbho°bo, Si. kap (< *kab); -- X gambhīra -- , sthāṇú -- , sthūˊṇā -- qq.v. 2. K. khambürü f. ʻ hollow left in a heap of grain when some is removed ʼ; Or. khamā ʻ long pit, hole in the earth ʼ, khamiā ʻ small hole ʼ; Marw. khã̄baṛo ʻ hole ʼ; G. khã̄bhũ n. ʻ pit for sweepings and manure ʼ. *skambhaghara -- , *skambhākara -- , *skambhāgāra -- , *skambhadaṇḍa -- ; *dvāraskambha -- . Addenda: skambhá -- 1: Garh. khambu ʻ pillar ʼ.(CDIAL 13639)

    The following hypertext includes nandipāda which has variant orthography. The detailed orthographic representation is provided on Sanchi, Bharhut and Amaravati artifacts.
    Image result for srivatsa bharhutBharhut. tāmarasa 'lotus' rebus:  tāmra'copper' dama,'garland' rebus: dhāū, dhāv'a partic. soft red stone'  कर्णक kárṇaka,'pericarp of lotus' rebus:  कर्णक kárṇaka,'scribe, helmsman'.

    ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal'; khambhaṛā 'fish-fin rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. Thus, ayo-kammaṭa 'alloy metal mint'.

    Hypertext of dotted circle PLUS three pellets: Dotted circle is hypertext composed of two exprressions: dhāī 'one in throw of dice' PLUS vaṭṭa 'round', i.e. read together as धवड dhavaḍa 'smelter'. The three pellets are: tri-dhatu, 'three minerals': bicha, 'haematite', goṭa 'laterite', poḷa 'magnetite'. Hieroglyph: गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'pellet' rebus: गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'silver' khoa 'ingot, wedge'

     vr̥ttá ʻ turned ʼ RV., ʻ rounded ʼ ŚBr. 2. ʻ completed ʼ MaitrUp., ʻ passed, elapsed (of time) ʼ KauṣUp. 3. n. ʻ conduct, matter ʼ ŚBr., ʻ livelihood ʼ Hariv. [√vr̥t11. Pa. vaṭṭa -- ʻ round ʼ, n. ʻ circle ʼ; Pk. vaṭṭa -- , vatta -- , vitta -- , vutta -- ʻ round ʼ; L. (Ju.) vaṭ m. ʻ anything twisted ʼ; Si. vaṭa ʻ round ʼ, vaṭa -- ya ʻ circle, girth (esp. of trees) ʼ; Md. va'ʻ round ʼ GS 58; -- Paš.ar. waṭṭəwīˊkwaḍḍawik ʻ kidney ʼ ( -- wĭ̄k vr̥kká -- ) IIFL iii 3, 192?(CDIAL 12069)

    S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) धवड (p. 436) [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of iron (Marathi). The phoneme dhāī˜ (Lahnda) signifying a single strand may thus signify the hieroglyph: dotted circle. This possibility is reinforced by the glosses in Rigveda, Tamil and other languages of Baratiya sprachbund which are explained by the word dāya 'playing of dice' which is explained by the cognate Tamil word: தாயம் tāyamn. < dāya Number one in the game of dice; கவறுருட்ட 

    விழும் ஒன்று என்னும் எண். 

    The semantics: dāya 'Number one in the game of dice' is thus signified by the dotted circle on the uttariyam of the pōtṟ पोतृ,'purifier' priest. Rebus rendering in Indus Script cipher is 

    dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) dhatu 'ore' (Santali)


      sattva 'svastika glyph'. Rebus: sattu (Tamil), satta, sattva (Kannada) jasth जसथ् ।रपु m. (sg. dat. jastas ज्तस), zinc, spelter; pewter; zasath ् ज़स््थ् ्or zasuth ज़सुथ ्। रप m. (sg. dat. zastas ु ज़्तस),् zinc, spelter, pewter (cf. Hindī jast). jastuvu; । रपू्भवः adj. (f. jastüvü), made of zinc or pewter.(Kashmiri) .

    kanda 'fire-altar' rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'.

    Coin of Hormizd I, issued in Khorasan. Hormizd-Ardashir, better known by his dynastic name of Hormizd I (Persianهرمز یکم‎), was the third shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire from May 270 to June 271.
    http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/115628/11/11_chapter%204.pdf
    Obverse and reverse views of this Hormizd I coin is givn below:



    The contemporary "Kushano-Sasanian" king to the west, in the late 200's, also issued Shaivite coins
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/parscoins/store/viewitem.asp?idProduct=4337
    (downloaded Feb. 2007)

    "INDIA, Kushano-Sasanian: Hormizd I Kushanshah. Circa 270-295 CE. Gold Dinar (7.91 gm; 28x30 mm). Balkh mint. King standing left, wearing lion-headed crown, flames at shoulders, holding trident and sacrificing at altar; symbols in fields / Siva (resembling the king) standing facing, holding trident, the bull Nandi behind."
    A coin by Kanishka II (r. c.226-240) honoring Shiva
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/parscoins/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=2907&large=1
    (downloaded May 2006)

    "Kushans. Kanishka II. Circa 200-222 CE. AV Dinar (7.85 gm; 20 mm). King standing left, holding trident, sacrificing at altar; symbols in field / Siva standing facing, the bull, Nandi, standing left behind."

    Another variant of the same kind of Shaivite coin design by Kanishka II
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/parscoins/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=3527&large=1
    (downloaded Oct. 2006)

    "Kings of Kushan. Kanishka II. Circa 200-222 CE. Gold Stater (7.92 gm; 20 x 21 mm). King standing left, holding trident, sacrificing at altar; symbols in field / Siva standing facing, the bull, Nandi, standing left behind."

    A coin by Vasudeva II (r. c.290-310) that honors the Central Asian goddess Ardoxho
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/parscoins/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=2712&large=1
    (downloaded May 2006)

    "Kushan Kings of India: Vasudeva II, 260-300 CE. Gold stater (7.78 gm; 20 mm) King standing left at the altar / Goddess Ardoksho seated facing.."

    A coin by Vasudeva II (r. c.290-310) honoring Shiva
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/beastcoins/store/viewitem.asp?idProduct=8048
    (downloaded Apr. 2008)

    "Vasu Deva I [sic.], AV Dinar, c.290-310, Kushan Kingdom. Vasudeva, nimbate, diademed, and crowned, standing facing, head left, sacrificing over altar to left, holding trident in left hand, filleted trident at left, nandipada at right, three pellets between legs, pellet in upper left field, three pellets in lower left field, three pellets in upper right field. Siva standing facing, crescent on brow, diadem in right hand, trident in left hand, Nandi bull standing left behind; tamgha in upper left field, three pellets in lower left field, all in large dotted border."

    Another Shaivite design by Vasudeva II
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/gaultcoins/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=159&large=1
    (downloaded Oct. 2006)

    "Kushans. Vasudeva II, ca. CE 270-310. Gandhara mint. AV Dinar. Obverse: King standing left, holding trident and sprinkling incense on altar. Trident in left field. Bactrian Greek inscription. Brahmi letters Rada, Gho and Raja in right field and below. Reverse: Shiva (Oesho) standing facing, holding trident. Bull Nandi behind, standing left, head facing. Dotted border. Weight: 7.81 grams. Diameter: 23 mm."

    Another such Shaivite coin, in almost perfect condition
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/cng/store/viewitem.asp?idProduct=5831
    (downloaded June 2008)

    "Kushan Empire. Vasudeva II. Circa CE 290-310. AV Dinar (28mm, 7.89 g, 12h). Mint III (C). Vasudeva, nimbate and helmeted, standing facing, head left, sacrificing over altar and holding trident; to left, symbol above filleted trident; to right, Buddhist Triratana (“Three Jewels”); • above swastika between Vasudeva's feet; \, beneath his left arm; horizontal B in lower right field below tunic // Siva (resembling the king) standing facing, holding diadem and trident; behind, the bull Nandi standing left; above, • and tamgha to left, \ below head of Nandi. MK 689. EF, Rare with B symbol on obverse."

    A gold stater coined by Mahi, c.320, honors Ardokho and uses Brahmi script
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/parscoins/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=3522&large=1
    (downloaded Aug. 2006)

    "Kings of Kushan. Mahi. Circa 320 CE. Gold Stater (7.69 gm; 19 x 21 mm). King standing left, making offerings to small altar left, holding garlanded standard right, trident above altar, Brahmi letter under right arm, and "Mahi" in right field; rev. goddess Ardoksho enthroned facing, holding cornucopia, tamgha top left."

    A similar gold dinar of the later minor Kushan ruler Aya-Shaka, in the early 300's
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/parscoins/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=2908&large=1
    (downloaded May 2006)

    "Later Kushans. Aya-Shaka. Circa 310-345 CE. Gold Dinar (7.69 gm; 20 mm). King standing with trident and banner / Goddess Ardoksho seated facing."

    While Shiva was honored as far west as Afghanistan, a Central-Asian-style goddess was honored in the Samatata kingdom, in what is now southeastern Bangladesh
    Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/coinindia/store/viewitem.asp?idProduct=305
    (downloaded July 2007)

    "KINGS of SAMATATA: Vira Jadamarah Gold dinar, 2nd-3rd century. Obverse  Kanishka-style King standing facing, sacrificing at altar at left,holding trident in left hand, unclear Brahmi legend around: Jadayuman (?). Reverse  Ardochsho or Nana style Goddess standing right, nimbate, holding protome of animal, Brahmi legend at left: Vira Jadamarah, tamgha at right. Date  c. 2nd-3rd CE. Weight  6.59 gm. Diameter  21 mm. Comments  The Vira Jadamarah coinage seems to follow the Kanishka imitation coins, or may be contemporaneous with them, but issued further east. When Mitchiner wrote his book, Land of Water, in 2000, he noted that only two Vira Jadamarah coins were known. Since then, a few more have appeared, but they are still extremely rare." 

    http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/0200_0299/latekushancoins/latekushancoins.html

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  • 02/02/18--17:44: Snakeskin on a Sāmaveda mss

  • Look what we found!! yes, that is snakeskin over the MSS (>3centuries old), AchArya told it is kept because it is considered sacred (it is also 1 on the items folded inside a cloth tied on the wrist of a groom, 3 days before marriage) and it also helps absorb moisture.



  • picture w/o the snakeskin AchArya




  • How remarkable! the word somaH pavamAnaH (?) in gANa covered by the skin immediately brings to mind the the R^ik:



  • vipashchite pavamAnAya gAyata mahI na dhArAty andho arShati | ahir na jUrNAm ati sarpati tvacham atyo na krILann asarad vR^iShA hariH || No wonder the V1 kept it






  • Thanks; that shows that the sAman is the one composed on the peculiar mantra of king pratardana daivodAsi praising soma as the supreme progenitor: somaH pavate janitA matInAM janitA divo janitA pR^ithivyAH | janitAgner janitA sUryasya janitendrasya janitota viShNoH ||








  • soma purifies; he is the progenitor of mantra-thought the progenitor of the heaven, the progenitor of earth, the progenitor of agni, the progenitor of the sun, the progenitor of indra also the progenitor of viShNu




  • An inspiring song to hear when sung by the udgAtR^is even as sound of the soma juice being filtered is heard in the background flowing into the droNa kalasha



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    https://tinyurl.com/yclax5cr

    • Yajñavarāha is पोतृ यज्ञस्यशोधयिट्रि = विष्णु < होतृ = शिव, 
    • Caṣāla, pōtram पोत्रम्, snout of boar is Sarasvatī, knowledge system
    There are two sets of Indus Script hypertexts on two unique artifaacts to signify पोतृ, the R̥gveda purifier priest: 1. Stone statue of Priest of Mohenjo-daro; and 2. Varāha statue in Khajuraho temple.

    Indus Script hypertexts attested on the stone sculpture of priest of Mohenjo-daro are seen from the following semantics of expressions from Bhāratīya sprachbund:

    Dimensions: 17.5 cm height, 11 cm width Mohenjo-daro, DK 1909 National Museum, Karachi, 50.852 Marshall 1931: 356-7, pl. XCVIII

    The trefoil hieroglyph on the priest's shawl, on the body of a bull calf and on the base pedestal of a s'ivalinga is comparable to the hieroglyph which appears on painted lid or dish -- in the context of venerating the dead. This points to reverence for ancestors. 


    The trefoil adornment on a statuette of Mohenjo-daro of पोतृ pōt " Purifier "(Rigveda) is identified as a composite of three crucibles (koṭhārī) joined together and deciphered as                                   koṭhārī खोद khōda kolimi  paṭṭaḍa 'treasurer, engraver (scribe) of the smithy (workshop)'. He wears a fillet of authority on his forehead and also on his shoulder. Hieroglyph: Or. pāta ʻ metal -- foil ʼ, patā ʻ eyelid ʼ, pātiā ʻ thin slip of metal ʼ(CDIAL 3733) Ta. paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai anvil, smithy, forge. Ka. paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi anvil, workshop. Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop.(DEDR 3865).


    The triskelion hieroglyph of a Galician torc terminal and Kirkburn linch-pin is a variant of the trefoil 



    which adorns as a hieroglyph, the shawl worn by the person with well-trimmed beard on Mohenjo-daro statuette.

    When the trefoil adorns a young bull: खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: kō̃da -कोँद 'kiln, furnace' (Kashmiri) खोद khōda 'engraving' Trefoil designs on the shawl garment of the 'priest' Mohenjo-daro statue. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel.  Material: white, low fired steatite.

    Hypertext Set 1: koṭhārī m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ.

    kōṭḥ कोटः [कुट्-घञ्] A beard. Ta. kaṭṭam chin; keṭṭam beard (< Te.). Ka. gaḍḍa the beard about the chin, the chin; gadda chin. Koḍ. gëḍḍa beard (< Ka.). Tu. gaḍḍa chin, beard. Te. gaḍḍamu id.; 
    gadduva chin. Kol.gaḍḍam chin, (Kin. also) beard. Nk. gaḍḍam beard. Pa. gaḍḍom (pl. gaḍḍocil) beard, moustache; (S) gaḍḍal (pl. beard. Ga. (S.2geḍḍam id. Go. (M.) gaḍḍo id.; (Ko.) gaḍḍok (pl.) id., chin; (S.) gaḍḍem beard (Voc. 1030); (W. Ph.) kaṭṭe whiskers (Voc. 479). Konḍa gaḍemku (pl.) beardKuwi (S.) gaḍemu bānanga whiskers. / Cf. Pkt. (DNMkhaḍḍa- = śmaśru-(DEDR 1156)

    Bshk. khoṭ ʻ embers ʼ, Phal. khūṭo ʻ ashes, burning coal ʼ; L. khoṭ f. ʻ alloy, impurity ʼ, °ṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻ base, alloy ʼ (PhonPj 117 < kauṭya -- ),  G. khoṭ f. ʻ mistake, loss, want ʼ, °ṭũ ʻ alloyed, bad, lazy ʼ; M. khoṭā ʻ false, alloyed ʼ(CDIAL 3931) खोट khōṭa f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. खोटा (p. 121) khōṭā Debased, alloyed, bad--money. Pr. खोटा तरी गांठ- चा वेडा तरी पोटचा If the money be bad, it is yet out of one's own purse: if the child be mad, it is yet from one's own belly; "one's own is faultless." (Marathi)

    Rebus: G. koṭhārī m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ.(CDIAL 3551) kōṭḥ कोटः [कुट्-घञ्] 1 A fort. -2 A hut, shed. kṓṣṭha2 n. ʻ pot ʼ Kauś., ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ MBh., ʻ inner apartment ʼ lex., °aka -- n. ʻ treasury ʼ, °ikā f. ʻ pan ʼ Bhpr. [Cf. *kōttha -- , *kōtthala -- : same as prec.?] Pa. koṭṭha -- n. ʻ monk's cell, storeroom ʼ, °aka<-> n. ʻ storeroom ʼ; Pk. koṭṭha -- , kuṭ°koṭṭhaya -- m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ; Sv. dāntar -- kuṭha ʻ fire -- place ʼ; Sh. (Lor.) kōti (ṭh?) ʻ wooden vessel for mixing yeast ʼ; K. kōṭha m. ʻ granary ʼ, kuṭhu m. ʻ room ʼ, kuṭhü f. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ; S. koṭho m. ʻ large room ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ storeroom ʼ; L. koṭhā m. ʻ hut, room, house ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ shop, brothel ʼ, awāṇ. koṭhā ʻ house ʼ; P. koṭṭhākoṭhā m. ʻ house with mud roof and walls, granary ʼ, koṭṭhīkoṭhī f. ʻ big well -- built house, house for married women to prostitute themselves in ʼ; WPah. pāḍ. kuṭhī ʻ house ʼ; Ku. koṭho ʻ large square house ʼ, gng. kōṭhi ʻ room, building ʼ; N. koṭho ʻ chamber ʼ, °ṭhi ʻ shop ʼ; A. koṭhākõṭhā ʻ room ʼ, kuṭhī ʻ factory ʼ; B. koṭhā ʻ brick -- built house ʼ, kuṭhī ʻ bank, granary ʼ; Or. koṭhā ʻ brick -- built house ʼ, °ṭhī ʻ factory, granary ʼ; Bi. koṭhī ʻ granary of straw or brushwood in the open ʼ; Mth. koṭhī ʻ grain -- chest ʼ; OAw. koṭha ʻ storeroom ʼ; H. koṭhā m. ʻ granary ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ granary, large house ʼ, Marw. koṭho m. ʻ room ʼ; G. koṭhɔ m. ʻ jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ large earthen jar, factory ʼ; M. koṭhā m. ʻ large granary ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ granary, factory ʼ; Si. koṭa ʻ storehouse ʼ. -- Ext. with -- ḍa -- : K. kūṭhürü f. ʻ small room ʼ; L. koṭhṛī f. ʻ small side room ʼ; P. koṭhṛī f. ʻ room, house ʼ; Ku. koṭheṛī ʻ small room ʼ; H. koṭhrī f. ʻ room, granary ʼ; M. koṭhḍī f. ʻ room ʼ; -- with -- ra -- : A. kuṭharī ʻ chamber ʼ, B. kuṭhrī, Or. koṭhari; -- with -- lla -- : Sh. (Lor.) kotul (ṭh?) ʻ wattle and mud erection for storing grain ʼ; H. koṭhlā m., °lī f. ʻ room, granary ʼ; G. koṭhlɔm. ʻ wooden box ʼ. kōṣṭhapāla -- , *kōṣṭharūpa -- , *kōṣṭhāṁśa -- , kōṣṭhāgāra -- ; *kajjalakōṣṭha -- , *duvārakōṣṭha -- , *dēvakōṣṭha -- , dvārakōṣṭhaka -- .Addenda: kṓṣṭha -- 2: WPah.kṭg. kóṭṭhi f. ʻ house, quarters, temple treasury, name of a partic. temple ʼ, J. koṭhā m. ʻ granary ʼ, koṭhī f. ʻ granary, bungalow ʼ; Garh. koṭhu ʻ house surrounded by a wall ʼ; Md. koḍi ʻ frame ʼ, <-> koři ʻ cage ʼ (X kōṭṭa -- ). -- with ext.: OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible ʼ, P. kuṭhālī f., H. kuṭhārī f.; -- Md. koṭari ʻ room ʼ.(CDIAL 3546)

    Hypertext Set 2: पोतृ R̥gveda purifier priest

    potti 'cloth, shawl'Rebus 1: पोतृ R̥gveda purifier priest, cognates: போத்தி pōtti , n. < போற்றி. 1. Grandfather; பாட்டன். Tinn. 2. Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். Rebus 2:  పోత pōta. adj. Molten, cast in metal. పోతచెంబు a metal bottle or jug, which has been cast not hammered. పోత  pōta pōta. [Tel. from పోయు.] n. Pouring, పోయుట. Casting, as of melted metal.

    Hypertext Set 3: dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter'

    I suggest that the purifier is a smelter based on a reading of the fillet with a dotted circle worn on the forehead of the 'rpeist' statuette. The dotted circle is a cross-section of a strand. The word for a strand in R̥gveda is dhātu. The rebus of this word dhātu signifies 'mineral ores'. The purifier purifies mineral ores in a smelting process by oxidising impurities.

    Thus, a smelter is a purifier. The fillet with dhātu worn with a strand of string is rebus for dhāi 'strand' PLUS vaṭa 'single strand' yielding the expression: dhāvaḍ A smelter of mineral ores, iron or ferrite ores in particular is called dhāvaḍ in Marathi language  Three 'dotted circles' constitute the hypertext expression tri-dhātu, 'three minerals, 'three strands'. vaṭa- string, rope, tie (Samskrtam) is signified by the string which ties the 'dotted circle' on the forehead and right-shoulder of the Priest. The rebus reading is: -vaḍ వటగ 'clever, skilful' (Telugu). Thus, the 'dotted circle' dhāī˜ PLUS vaṭa 'string' is read: dhā̆vaḍ'smelter'.
    The dotted circle fillet worn on the forehead is replicated on a similar fillet worn on the right shoulder. This is a semantic determinative hieroglyph-hypertext expression on the statuette of the 'priest'. See Annex B for an explanation on the evolution of Brahmi syllable symbol for the phoneme dha-.
     Single strand (one dotted-circle)
    Two strands (pair of dotted-circles)
    Three strands (three dotted-circles as a trefoil)

    Three red ore ferrite minerals are: bicha 'scorpion' rebus: bicha 'haematite ferrite ore'; goṭa 'round pellet' rebus: goṭa 'laterite, ferrite ore'; पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळ pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrite ore'.

    These orthographic variants provide semantic elucidations for a single: dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'red stone mineral' or two minerals: dul PLUS dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'cast minerals' or tri- dhātu,      -dhāū, -dhāv 'three minerals' to create metal alloys'. The artisans producing alloys are dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻa caste of iron -- smeltersʼ, dhāvḍī ʻcomposed of or relating to ironʼ)(CDIAL 6773).. See: 

     

    Indus Script hypertexts attested on the sculpture of Yajñavarāha are seen from the following semantics of expressions from Bhāratīya sprachbund:

    Hypertext Set 1:
    বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï. 'carpenter' (Bengali) Cognates: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood'  baḍhibāṛaï 'carpenter' baḍhoe 'a carpenter, worker in wood' badhoria 'expert in working in wood'(Santali) báḍḍhi m. ʻ carpenter ʼ (WPah.) vardhaka id. (Skt.)

    Hypertext Set 2:
    पोतृ 'boar' पोत्रम्, 'snout of boar' Rebus: पोतृ R̥gveda purifier priest, cognates: போத்தி pōtti , n. < போற்றி. 1. Grandfather; பாட்டன். Tinn. 2. Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். Caṣāla is a synonym of पोत्रम्, 'snout of boar' Rebus: Caṣāla, 'godhuma, wheat-chaff' to infuse carbon element into molden metal to harden the alloy in furnace. Cognate rebus: పోత pōta. adj. Molten, cast in metal. పోతచెంబు a metal bottle or jug, which has been cast not hammered. పోత  pōta pōta. [Tel. from పోయు.] n. Pouring, పోయుట. Casting, as of melted metal. Bathing, washing. Eruption of the small pox. ఆకుపోత putting plants into the ground. పెట్టుపోతలు శాశ్వతములుకావు meat and drink (literally, feeding and bathing) are not matters of eternal consequence. Pottha2 [later Sk. pusta, etym. uncertain; loan -- word?] modelling, only in cpd. ˚kamma plastering (i. e. using a mixture of earth, lime, cowdung & water as mortar) J vi.459; carving DhsA 334; and ˚kara a modeller in clay J i.71.  (Pali). Thus, the snout of boar signifies molten metal in cire perdue metal casting.

    Hypertext 3: wheatchaff to influce element carbon into molten metal alloy to harden it in furnace

    caṣāla is godhūma, 'wheat chaff'', the fumes of wheat chaff atop the fiery skambha yupa pillar infuses  angāra 'carbon element' into the molten metal in a yajña kuṇḍa. This knowledge system is detailed in R̥gveda and Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. Hence, this knowledge system is signified by the pratimā of Sarasvatī on the caṣāla, 'snout of Varāha,'boar' Since  पोत्रिन्  is  'hog, boar', Varāha,'boar' is yajña puruṣa, the embodiment of yajña. This metaphor is signified by sculptural friezes of over 728 R̥gveda devatā and r̥ṣi-s on the body of पोत्रिन् i.e. varāha as detailed in the images of a monolithic sculpture in the Varāha temple at Khajuraho.

    गो--धूम a [p= 365,1] m. ( √गुध् Un2. ) " earth-smoke " , wheat (generally pl.VS. TBr. S3Br. v (sg.) , xii , xiv S3a1n3khS3r. Mn. &c  गो--धूमीf. = -लोमिका L. गो mf. the thunderbolt Sa1y. on RV. v , 30 , 7

    amṛtā abhūmeti 'we have become immortal'

    --Satapatha Brahmana elucidates the process using wheat chaff as चषालः caṣāla, the metaphor is ascent on Yupa to heaven.

    5.2.1.[9]

    atha niśrayaṇo niśrayati | sa dakṣiṇata udaṅ roheduttarato vā dakṣiṇā
    dakṣiṇatastvevodaṅ rohettathā hyudagbhavati 


    5:2:1:99. He then leans a ladder (against the post). He may ascend either from the south northwards, or from the north southwards; but let him rather ascend from the south northwards (udak), for thus it goes upwards (udak).

    5.2.1.[10]

    sa rokṣyanjāyāmāmantrayate | jāya ehi svo rohāveti rohāvetyāha jāyā
    tadyajjāyāmāmantrayate 'rdho ha vā eṣa ātmano yajjāyā tasmādyāvajjāyāṃ na vindate naiva tāvatprajāyate 'sarvo hi tāvadbhavatyatha yadaiva jāyāṃ vindate 'tha prajāyate tarhi hi sarvo bhavati sarva etāṃ gatiṃ gacānīti tasmājjāyāmāmantrayate 


    5:2:1:1010. Being about to ascend, he (the Sacrificer) addresses his wife, 'Come, wife, ascend we the sky!'--'Ascend we!' says the wife. Now as to why he addresses his wife: she, the wife, in sooth is one half of his own self; hence, as long as he does not obtain her, so long he is not regenerated, for so long he is incomplete. But as soon as he obtains her he is regenerated, for then he is complete. 'Complete I want to go to that supreme goal,' thus (he thinks) and therefore he addresses his wife.

    5.2.1.[11]

    sa rohati | prajāpateḥ prajā abhūmeti prajāpaterhyeṣa prajā bhavati yo vājapeyena yajate 

    5:2:1:1111. He ascends, with, 'We have become Prajâpati's children;' for he who offers the Vâgapeya indeed becomes Prajâpati's child:

    5.2.1.[12]

    atha godhūmānupaspṛśati | svardevā aganmeti svarhyeṣa gacati yo vājapeyena yajate

    5:2:1:1212. He then touches the wheat (top-piece) 2, with, 'We have gone to the light, O ye gods!' for he who offers the Vâgapeya, indeed goes to the light.

    5.2.1.[13]

    tadyadgodhūmānupaspṛśati | annaṃ vai godhūmā annaṃ vā eṣa ujjayati yo vājapeyena yajate 'nnapeyaṃ ha vai nāmaitadyadvājapeyaṃ 

    tadyadevaitadannamudajaiṣīttenaivaitadetāṃ gatiṃ gatvā saṃspṛśate tadātmankurute tasmādgodhūmānupaspṛśati

    5:2:1:1313. And as to why he touches the wheat: wheat is food, and he who offers the Vâgapeya, wins food, for vâga-peya is the same as anna-peya (food and drink): thus whatever food he has thereby won, therewith now that he has gone to that supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and possesses himself of it,--therefore he touches the wheat (top-piece).

    5.2.1.[14]

    atha śīrṣṇā yūpamatyujjihīte | amṛtā abhūmeti devalokamevaitenojjayati 

    5:2:1:1414. He then rises by (the measure of) his head over the post, with, 'We have become immortal!' whereby he wins the world of the gods.

    5.2.1.[15]

    atha diśo 'nuvīkṣamāṇo japati | asme vo astvindriyamasme nṛmṇamuta kraturasme varcāṃsi santu va iti sarvaṃ vā eṣa idamujjayati yo vājapeyena yajate prajāpatiṃ hyujjayati sarvamu hyevedam prajāpatiḥ so 'sya sarvasya yaśa indriyaṃ vīryaṃ saṃvṛjya tadātmandhatte tadātmankurute tasmāddiśo 'nuvīkṣamāṇo japati 

    5:2:1:1515. Thereupon, while looking in the different directions, he mutters (Vâg. S. IX, 22), 'Ours be your power, ours your manhood and intelligence ours be your energies!' For he who offers the Vâgapeya wins everything here, winning as he does Prajâpati, and Prajâpati being everything here;--having appropriated to himself the glory, the power, and the strength of this All, he now lays them within himself, makes them his own: that is why he mutters, while looking in the different directions.

    5.2.1.[16]
    athainamūṣapuṭairanūdasyanti | paśavo vā ūṣā annaṃ vai paśavo 'nnaṃ vā eṣa ujjayati yo vājapeyena yajate 'nnapeyaṃ ha vai nāmaitadyadvājapeyaṃ
    tadyadevaitadannamudajaiṣīttenaivaitadetāṃ gatiṃ gatvā saṃspṛśate tadātmankurute tasmādenamūṣapuṭairanūdasyanti


    5:2:1:1616. They throw up to him bags of salt; for salt means cattle, and cattle is food; and he who offers the gapeya wins food, for vâga-peya is the same as anna-peya: thus whatever food he thereby has gained, therewith now that he has gone to the supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and makes it his own,--therefore they throw bags of salt up to him.

    5.2.1.[17]

    āśvattheṣu palāśeṣūpanaddhā bhavanti | sa yadevādo 'śvatthe tiṣṭhata indro maruta upāmantrayata tasmādāśvattheṣu palāśeṣūpanaddhā bhavanti viśo 'nūdasyanti viśo vai maruto 'nnaṃ viśastasmādviśo 'nūdasyanti saptadaśa bhavanti saptadaśo vai prajāpatistatprajāpatimujjayati 

    5:2:1:1717. They (the pieces of salt) are done up in asvattha (ficus religiosa) leaves: because Indra on that (former) occasion called upon the Maruts staying on the Asvattha tree 1, therefore they are done up in asvattha leaves. Peasants (vis) throw them up to him, for the Maruts are the peasants, and the peasants are food (for the nobleman): hence peasants throw them up. There are seventeen (bags), for Prajâpati is seventeenfold: he thus wins Prajâpati.

    5.2.1.[18]

    athemāmupāvekṣamāṇo japati | namo mātre pṛthivyai namo mātre pṛthivyā iti
    bṛhaspaterha vā abhiṣiṣicānātpṛthivī bibhayāṃ cakāra mahadvā ayamabhūdyo
    'bhyaṣeci yadvai māyaṃ nāvadṛṇīyāditi bṛhaspatirha pṛthivyai bibhayāṃ cakāra yadvai meyaṃ nāvadhūnvīteti tadanayaivaitanmitradheyamakuruta na hi mātā putraṃ hinasti na putro mātaram 


    5:2:1:1818. Thereupon; while looking down upon this (earth), he mutters, Homage be to the mother Earth! homage be to the mother Earth!' For when Brihaspati had been consecrated, the Earth was afraid of him, thinking, 'Something great surely has he become now that he has been consecrated: I fear lest he may rend me asunder 2!' And Brihaspati also was afraid of the Earth, thinking, 'I fear lest she may shake me off!' Hence by that (formula) he entered into a friendly relation with her; for a mother does not hurt her son, nor does a son hurt his mother.

    5.2.1.[19]

    bṛhaspatisavo vā eṣa yadvājapeyam | pṛthivyu haitasmādbibheti mahadvā
    ayamabhūdyo 'bhyaṣeci yadvai māyaṃ nāvadṛṇīyādityeṣa u hāsyai bibheti yadvai meyaṃ nāvadhūnvīteti tadanayaivaitanmitradheyaṃ kurute na hi mātā putraṃ hinasti na putro mātaram

    5:2:1:1919. Now the Brihaspati consecration 3 is the same as the Vâgapeya; and the earth in truth is afraid of that (Sacrificer), thinking, 'Something great

    surely has he become now that he has been consecrated: I fear lest he may rend me asunder!' And he himself is afraid of her, thinking, 'I fear lest she may shake me off!' Hence he thereby enters into a friendly relation with her, for a mother does not hurt her son; neither does a son hurt his mother.

    5.2.1.[20]

    atha hiraṇyamabhyavarohati | amṛtamāyurhiraṇyaṃ tadamṛta āyuṣi pratitiṣṭhati


    5:2:1:2020. He then descends (and treads) upon a piece of gold;--gold is immortal life: he thus takes his stand on life immortal.

    5.2.1.[21]

    athājarṣabhasyājinamupastṛṇāti | tadupariṣṭādrukmaṃ nidadhāti
    tamabhyavarohatīmāṃ vaiva 


    5:2:1:2121. Now (in the first place) he (the Adhvaryu) spreads out the skin of a he-goat, and lays a (small) gold plate thereon: upon that--or indeed upon this (earth) itself--he (the Sacrificer) steps.

    5.2.1.[22]

    athāsmā āsandīmāharanti | uparisadyaṃ vā eṣa jayati yo jayatyantarikṣasadyaṃ tadenamuparyāsīnamadhastādimāḥ prajā upāsate tasmādasmā āsandīmāharanti

    5:2:1:2222. They then bring a throne-seat for him; for truly he who gains a seat in the air 1, gains a seat above (others): thus these subjects of his sit below him who is seated above,--this is why they bring him a throne-seat.

    5.2.1.[23]

    audumbarī bhavati | annaṃ vā ūrgudumbara ūrjo 'nnādyasyāvaruddhyai
    tasmādaudumbarī bhavati tāmagreṇa havirdhāne jaghanenāhavanīyaṃ nidadhāti 


    5:2:1:2323. It is made of udumbara wood,--the Udumbara tree being sustenance, (that is) food,--for his obtainment of sustenance, food: therefore it is made of udumbara wood. They set it down in front of the Havirdhâna (cart-shed), behind the Âhavanîya (fire).

    5.2.1.[24]

    athājarṣabhasyājinamāstṛṇāti | prajāpatirvā eṣa yadajarṣabha etā vai prajāpateḥ pratyakṣatamāṃ yadajāstasmādetāstriḥ saṃvatsarasya vijāyamānā dvau trīniti janayanti tatprajāpatimevaitatkaroti tasmādajarṣabas yājinamāstṛṇāti

    5:2:1:2424. He then spreads the goat-skin thereon; for truly the he-goat is no other than Prajâpati, for they, the goats, are most clearly of Prajâpati (the lord of generation or creatures);--whence, bringing forth thrice in a year, they produce two or three 2: thus he thereby makes him (the Sacrificer) to be Prajâpati himself,--this is why he spreads the goat-skin thereon.

    5.2.1.[25]

    sa āstṛṇāti | iyaṃ te rāḍiti rājyamevāsminnetaddadhātyathainamāsādayati yantāsi yamana iti yantāramevainametadyamanamāsām prajānāṃ karoti dhruvo 'si dharuṇa iti dhruvamevainametaddharuṇamasmiṃloke karoti kṛṣyai tvā kṣemāya tvā rayyai tvā poṣāya tveti sādhave tvetyevaitadāha


    5:2:1:2525. He spreads it, with, 'This is thy kingship 1!' whereby he endows him with royal power. He then makes him sit down, with, Thou art the ruler, the ruling lord!' whereby he makes him the ruler, ruling over those subjects of his Thou art firm, and steadfast!' whereby he makes him firm and stedfast in this world;--'Thee for the tilling!--Thee for peaceful dwelling!--Thee for wealth!--Thee for thrift!' whereby he means to say, '(here I seat) thee for the welfare (of the people).'

    http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/1_veda/2_bra/satapath/sb_05_u.htm (Text)

    http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin//sbr/sbe41/sbe4108.htm (Translation)

    baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood'  baḍhibāṛaï 'carpenter' baḍhoe 'a carpenter, worker in wood' badhoria 'expert in working in wood'(Santali) Rebus: bari'merchant'. barea'merchant' (Santali) †*vardhakikarman -- ʻ carpentry ʼ. [vardhaki -- , kár- man -- ] Md. vaḍām ʻ carpentry ʼ.vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh]Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā. *vārdhaka -- . Addenda: vardhaki --: WPah.kṭg. báḍḍhi 
    m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; kṭg. bəṛhe\ibáṛhi, kc. baṛhe ← H. beside genuine báḍḍhi Him.I 135), J. bāḍhi, Garh. baṛhai, A. also bāṛhai AFD 94; Md. vaḍīnvaḍin pl.(CDIAL 11375) vardhaka in cmpd. ʻ cutting ʼ, m. ʻ carpenter ʼ R. [√vardhPa. cīvara -- vaḍḍhaka -- m. ʻ tailor ʼ; Kho. bardog°ox ʻ axe ʼ (early → Kal. wadók before v -- > b -- in Kho.); <-> Wg. wāṭ ʻ axe ʼ, Paš.dar. wāˊṭak (?).(CDIAL 11374) *varddhr̥ ʻ cutter, knife ʼ. [√vardh*varddhrī -- : N. bāṛ ʻ blade of khukri ʼ; Bi. bāṛh ʻ bookbinder's papercutter ʼ; H. bāṛhbāṛ f. ʻ edge of knife ʼ, G. vāḍh f.; -- P. vāḍhbāḍh f. ʻ cutting edge ʼ poss. < *vārddhrī -- . *vardharī -- , *vardhā̆ra -- : Bi. badhrī°riyā°rābadhārū ʻ knife with a heavy blade for reaping with ʼ; <-> WPah.bhad. bardhāṇū ʻ to shear sheep ʼ < *badhār -- ṇū?(CDIAL 11371) বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï. 'carpenter' (Bengali) बारकस bārakaśa 'merchantman' Pa. tacchaka-- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, taccha-- sūkara-- m. ʻ boar ʼ(CDIAL 5618) వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. పట్టడ (p. 696) paṭṭaḍa paṭṭaḍu. [Tel.] n. A smithy, a shop. కుమ్మరి వడ్లంగి మొదలగువారు పనిచేయు చోటు. वराह m. (derivation doubtful) a boar , hog , pig , wild boar RV. &c (ifc. it denotes , " superiority , pre-eminence "; » g.व्याघ्रा*दि); N. of विष्णु in his third or boar-incarnation (cf. वराहा*वतार)
    TA1r. MBh. &c; an array of troops in the form of a boar Mn. vii , 187  varāhá -- , varāˊhu -- m. ʻ wild boar ʼ RV. Pa. Pk. varāha -- m. ʻ boar ʼ; A. B. barā ʻ boar ʼ (A. also ʻ sow, pig ʼ), Or. barāha, (Sambhalpur) barhā, (other dial.) bā̆rihābāriā, H. bā̆rāh m., Si. varā.(CDIAL 11325)

    வடம்¹ vaṭam n. < vaṭa. 1. Cable, large rope, as for drawing a temple-car; கனமான கயிறு. வடமற்றது (நன். 219, மயிலை.). 2. Cord; தாம்பு. (சூடா.) 3. A loop of coir rope, used for climbing palm-trees; மரமேறவுதவுங் கயிறு. Loc. 4. Bowstring; வில்லின் நாணி. (பிங்.) 5. String of jewels; மணிவடம். வடங்கள் அசையும்படி உடுத்து (திருமுரு. 204, உரை). (சூடா.) 6. Strands of a garland; chains of a necklace; சரம். இடை மங்கை கொங்கை வடமலைய (அஷ்டப். திருவேங்கடத் தந். 39).

    வடம்² vaṭam , n. 1. See வட்டம்¹, 1. (அக. நி.) 2. Plank of wood; பலகை. பக்கவடம்; கதவுவடம். Nāñ.

    Indus Script hypertexts explain why Sarasvatī is signified on pōtram पोत्रम्, caṣāla, 'snout of boar' of Yajñavarāha.

    R̥tvij ऋत्व्-िज् priests are: होतृ , अध्वर्यु , ब्रह्मन् , and उद्गातृ

    Each priest has three helpers, thus the total number of priests is sixteen. 

                  Three helpers of hot are: मैत्रा-वरुणअच्छा-वाक, ग्रावस्तुत्. 
                  Three helpers of adhvaryu are: प्रति-प्र-स्थातृ, नेष्टृ, उन्-नेतृ  
                  Three helpers of brahman are: ब्राह्मणाच्छंसिन्अग्नीध्रपोतृ
                  Three helpers of udgātr̥ are: प्रस्तोतृ , प्रतिहर्तृ , सुब्रह्मण्य 

    R̥tvij ऋत्व्-िज्  a priest (usually four are enumerated , viz. होतृ , अध्वर्यु , ब्रह्मन् , and उद्गातृ ; each of them has three companions or helpers , so that the total number is sixteen , viz. होतृ , मैत्रावरुण , अच्छावाक , ग्राव-स्तुत् ; अध्वर्यु , प्रतिप्रस्थातृ , नेष्टृ , उन्नेतृ ; ब्रह्मन् , ब्राह्मणाच्छंसिन् , अग्नीध्र , पोतृ ; उद्गातृ , प्रस्तोतृ , प्रतिहर्तृ , सुब्रह्मण्य A1s3vS3r. iv , 1 , 4-6RV. AV. TS. S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. &c

    Hotr̥ होतृ priest has 3 assistants , sometimes called पुरुषs , viz. the मैत्रा-वरुण , अच्छा-वाक , and ग्रावस्तुत्;  to these are sometimes added three others , the ब्राह्मणाच्छंसिन् , अग्नीध्र or अग्नीध् , and पोतृ  

    Maitrāvarua मैत्रावरुण mf(/ई)n. descended or derived from मित्र and वरुण , belonging to them AV. TS. VS. Br.; relating to the priest called मैत्रावरुण 
    Pan5cavBr.;m. a patr. RV. vii , 33 , 11 (of अगस्त्य or of वाल्मीकि L. f(ई). S3Br. );m. N. of one of the officiating priests (first assistant of the होतृBr. S3rS.

    Acchāvāka अच्छा-वाक m. " the inviter " , title of a particular priest or ऋत्विज् , one of the sixteen required to perform the great yajña-s with the सोम juice.

    ग्राव--स्तुत् grāvastut m. ( Pa1n2. 3-2 , 177) " praising the सोम stones " , one of the 16 priests (called after the hymn [ RV. x , 94 , 1 ff.] addressed to the सोम stones) AitBr. vi , 1 ; vii , 1 S3Br. iv , 3 , 4; xii Ta1n2d2yaBr. A1s3vS3r. S3a1n3khS3r.

    adhvaryu अध्वर्यु a priest of a particular class (as distinguished from the होतृ , the उद्गातृ , and the ब्रह्मन् classes. The अध्वर्यु priests " had to measure the ground , to build the altar , to prepare the yajña vessels , to fetch wood and water , to light the fire , to bring the animal and immolate it " ; whilst engaged in these duties , they had to repeat the hymns of the यजुर्-वेद , hence that वेद itself is also called अध्वर्यु); pl. (अध्वर्यवस्) the adherents of the यजुर्-वेद. अ-ध्वर mfn. ( √ ध्वृ) , not injuring AV. TS.; m. a yajña (especially the सोम yajña);
     m. N. of a वसु; n. sky or air

    Pratiprastāt प्रति-प्र-स्थातृ m. ( √ स्था) N. of a priest who assists the अध्वर्यु TS. Br. S3rS.

    neṣṭr̥ नेष्टृ m. (prob. fr. √ नी aor. stem नेष् ; but cf. Pa1n2. 3-2 , 135 Va1rtt. 2 &c ) one of the chief officiating priests at a सोम yajña, he who leads forward the wife of the yajñika and prepares the सुरा (त्वष्टृ so called RV. i , 15 , 3RV. Br. S3rS. &c (नेष्टृ is substituted for the ग्राव-स्तुत् RV. &c)

    Unnet उन्-नेतृ mfn. one who draws out; m. the priest who pours the सोम juice into the receptacles AitBr. S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vS3r. &c

    Brahman ब्रह्मन् m. one of the 4 principal priests or ऋत्विज् as (the other three being the होतृ , अध्वर्यु and उद्गातृ ; the ब्रह्मन् was the most learned of them and was required to know the 3 वेदs , to supervise the yajña and to set right mistakes ; at a later period his functions were based especially on the अथर्व-वेदRV. &c; m. N. of बृहस्-पति (as the priest of the gods) RV. x , 141 , 3

    Brāhmaācchamsin ब्राह्मणाच्-छंसिन् m. (fr. °णात्-शं°) " reciting after the ब्राह्मण or the ब्रह्मन् " , a priest who assists the ब्रह्मन् or chief priest at a सोम yajña Br. S3rS.

    Agnīdhra अग्नी* ध्र m. (= अग्नि-बाहु) , N. of two men.

    Potṟ पोतृ प्/ओतृ or पोतृm. " Purifier " , N. of one of the 16 officiating priests at a yajña (the assistant of the Brahman ; = यज्ञस्य शोधयिट्रि Sa1y. RV. Br. S3rS. Hariv.

    Udgātr̥ उद्-गातृ m. one of the four chief-priests (viz. the one who chants the hymns of the सामवेद) , a chanter RV. ii , 43 , 2 TS. AitBr. S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Sus3r. Mn. &c

    Prastot प्र-स्तोतृm. N. of the assistant of the उद्गातृ (who chants the प्रस्ताव) Br. S3rS. MBh. &c

    Pratihartप्रति-° हर्तृ  N. of one of the 16 priests (the assistant of the उद्गातृBr. S3rS. &c; m. (cf. प्रती-ह्°) one who draws back or absorbs , a destroyer MBh.

    Subrahmaya सु--ब्रह्मण्य m. N. of one of the three assistants of the उद्गातृ priest Br. S3rS. MBh.



















    hōtṛ होतृ a. (-त्री f.) [हु-तृच्] Performing yajña, offering oblations with fire; बहति विधिहुतं या हविर्या च होत्री Ś.1.1. -m. 1 A yajña priest, especially one who recites the prayers of the Ṛigveda at a yajña; जनकस्य वैदेहस्य होताश्वलो बभूव. -2 A yajñika; इति वादिन एवास्य होतुराहुतिसाधनम् R. 1.82; Ms.11.36. -3 An epithet of Agni. -Comp. -कर्मन् a. the function of the होतृ. -प्रवरः the election of a होतृ. -ष(स)दनम् the होतृ's seat; होतृषदनाद्धैवापि दुरुद्गीथमनुसमाहरति Ch. Up.1.5.5.होतृकः hōtṛkḥ होत्रकः hōtrakḥ होतृकः होत्रकः An assistant of the Hotṛi.होत्रम् hōtram होत्रम् [हु-ष्ट्रन्] 1 Anything fit to be offered as an oblation (as ghee). -2 A burnt offering. -3 A yajña.होत्रा hōtrā होत्रा 1 A yajña-2 Praise; सत्त्वेन कुरुते युद्धे राजन् सुबलवानपि । नोद्यमेन न होत्राभिः सर्वाः स्वीकुरुते प्रजाः ॥ Mb.3.33. 69. -3 Ved. Speech. -4 The office of होतृक priest.होत्रिन् hōtrin होत्रिन् m. A yajña priest who offers the oblations.होत्री hōtrī होत्री The offerer of oblations, one of the eight forms of Śiva; या हविर्या च होत्री Ś.1.1. अग्नि-होत्रिन् mfn. 
    practising the अग्निहोत्र , maintaining the yajña fire S3Br. &c अग्नि--होत्र mfn. (अग्न्/इ-) Performing yajña to अग्नि AV. vi , 97 , 1; n. AV. &c oblation to अग्नि (chiefly of milk , oil , and sour gruel ; there are two kinds of अग्निहोत्र , one is नित्य i.e. of constant obligation , the other काम्य i.e. optional); the sacred fire Mn. Ya1jn5. &c
    होत्रिय hōtriyaहोत्रिय a. [होत्राय हितं होतुरिदं वा छ] Belonging to an oblations. -यः The priest who offers oblations to gods. -यम् The scrificial hall.
    होतृ m. (fr. √1. हु) an offerer of an oblation or burnt-offering (with fire) , yajñika, priest , (esp.) a priest who at a yajña invokes the gods or recites the ऋग्-वेद , a ऋग्-वेद priest (one of the 4 kinds of officiating priest » ऋत्विज् , p.224; properly the होतृ priest has 3 assistants , sometimes called पुरुषs , viz. the मैत्रा-वरुण , अच्छा-वाक , and ग्रावस्तुत् ; to these are sometimes added three others , the ब्राह्मणाच्छंसिन् , अग्नीध्र or अग्नीध् , and पोतृ , though these last are properly assigned to the Brahman priest ; sometimes the नेष्टृ is substituted for the ग्राव-स्तुत्RV. &c; N. of शिव MBh.



    पोतृ प्/ओतृ or पोतृm. " Purifier " , N. of one of the 16 officiating priests at a yajña (the assistant of the Brahman ; = यज्ञस्य शोधयिट्रि Sa1y. RV. Br. S3rS. Hariv.; N. of विष्णु L. पोत्री f. N. of दुर्गा Gal. (cf. पौत्री). f. a garment (?) DivyA7v.

    pōtana
    पोतन a. 1 Sacred, holy. -2 Purifying.

    pōtṛ पोतृ m. 1 One of the sixteen officiating priests at a yajña (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्). -2 An epithet of Viṣṇu.
    पोत्या pōtyā
    पोत्या A multitude of boats.
    पोत्रम् pōtram
    पोत्रम् [पू-त्र] 1 The snout of a hog; धृतविधुरधरं महा- वराहं गिरिगुरुपोत्रमपीहितैर्जयन्तम् Bk.1.6; Ki.13.53. -2 A boat, ship. -3 A plough share. -4 The thunderbolt. -5 A garment. -6 The office of the Potṛi. -Comp. -आयुधः a hog, boar.
    पोत्रिन् pōtrin
    पोत्रिन् m. A hog, boar.


    போத்தி pōtti n. < போற்றி. 1. Grandfather; பாட்டன். Tinn. 2. Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன்.
    போத்திராயுதம் pōttirāyutam n. < pōtr- āyudha. See போத்திரி. (சங். அக.)
    போத்தரி pōttiri n. < pōtrin. Hog, pig; பன்றி. (சூடா.)


    பொத்தல் pottal , n. < id. [K. poṭṭare, M. pottu, Tu. potre.] 1. Hole, orifice; துவாரம். 

    Pota3 [etym.?] a millstone, grindstone, only as nisada˚ Vin i.201; Vism 252. (Pali)

    பொத்தி¹ potti n. perh. பொத்து-. [T. K. potti.] 1 Unblown flower of the plantain; மடல்விரியா வாழைப்பூ. (J.) 4. Ear of cōḷam in sheath; சோளக்கதிர். (W.) 5. Ear of grain in sheath; தானியக்கதிர். (W.)

    Ta. potti garment of fibres, cloth. Ka. potti cloth. Te. potti bark, a baby's linen, a sort of linen cloth; pottika a small fine cloth; podugu a baby's linen. Kol. (SSTWpot sari. Pa. bodgid a short loincloth. / Cf. Skt. potikā-, Pkt. potti-, pottiā-, etc.; Turner, CDIAL, no. 8400 (DEDR 4515)

     పోతము  pōtamu A cloth, వస్త్రము. శుకపోతము a young parrot. వాతపోతము a young breeze, i.e., a light wind. பொத்தி¹ potti n. perh. பொத்து-. [T. K. potti.] 1. See பொத்தித்தோவத்தி. (W.) 2. Cloth; சீலை. (சங். அக.)  pōta2 m. ʻ cloth ʼ, pōtikā -- f. lex. 2. *pōtta -- 2 (sanskrit- ized as pōtra -- 2 n. ʻ cloth ʼ lex.). 3. *pōttha -- 2 ~ pavásta<-> n. ʻ covering (?) ʼ RV., ʻ rough hempen cloth ʼ AV. T. Chowdhury JBORS xvii 83. 4. pōntī -- f. ʻ cloth ʼ Divyāv. 5. *pōcca -- 2 < *pōtya -- ? (Cf. pōtyā = pōtānāṁ samūhaḥ Pāṇ.gaṇa. -- pṓta -- 1?). [Relationship with prōta -- n. ʻ woven cloth ʼ lex., plōta -- ʻ bandage, cloth ʼ Suśr. or with pavásta -- is obscure: EWA ii 347 with lit. Forms meaning ʻ cloth to smear with, smearing ʼ poss. conn. with or infl. by pusta -- 2 n. ʻ working in clay ʼ (prob. ← Drav., Tam. pūcu &c. DED 3569, EWA ii 319)]
    1. Pk. pōa -- n. ʻ cloth ʼ; Paš.ar. pōwok ʻ cloth ʼ, g ʻ net, web ʼ (but lauṛ. dar. pāwāk ʻ cotton cloth ʼ, Gaw. pāk IIFL iii 3, 150).
    2. Pk. potta -- , °taga -- , °tia -- n. ʻ cotton cloth ʼ, pottī -- , °tiā -- , °tullayā -- , puttī -- f. ʻ piece of cloth, man's dhotī, woman's sāṛī ʼ, pottia -- ʻ wearing clothes ʼ; S. potī f. ʻ shawl ʼ, potyo m. ʻ loincloth ʼ; L. pot, pl. °tã f. ʻ width of cloth ʼ; P. potṛā m. ʻ child's clout ʼ, potṇā ʻ to smear a wall with a rag ʼ; N. poto ʻ rag to lay on lime -- wash ʼ, potnu ʻ to smear ʼ; Or. potā ʻ gunny bag ʼ; OAw. potaï ʻ smears, plasters ʼ; H. potā m. ʻ whitewashing brush ʼ, potī f. ʻ red cotton ʼ, potiyā m. ʻ loincloth ʼ, potṛā m. ʻ baby clothes ʼ; G. pot n. ʻ fine cloth, texture ʼ, potũ n. ʻ rag ʼ, potī f., °tiyũ n. ʻ loincloth ʼ, potṛī f. ʻ small do. ʼ; M. pot m. ʻ roll of coarse cloth ʼ, n. ʻ weftage or texture of cloth ʼ, potrẽ n. ʻ rag for smearing cowdung ʼ.
    3. Pa. potthaka -- n. ʻ cheap rough hemp cloth ʼ, potthakamma -- n. ʻ plastering ʼ; Pk. pottha -- , °aya -- n.m. ʻ cloth ʼ; S. potho m. ʻ lump of rag for smearing, smearing, cloth soaked in opium ʼ.
    4. Pa. ponti -- ʻ rags ʼ.
    5. Wg. pōč ʻ cotton cloth, muslin ʼ, Kt. puč; Pr. puč ʻ duster, cloth ʼ, pūˊčuk ʻ clothes ʼ; S. poco m. ʻ rag for plastering, plastering ʼ; P. poccā m. ʻ cloth or brush for smearing ʼ, pocṇā ʻ to smear with earth ʼ; Or. pucā̆rapucurā ʻ wisp of rag or jute for whitewashing with, smearing with such a rag ʼ.
    *maṣipōtta -- .
    pōta -- 3 ʻ boat ʼ see *plōtra -- .
    pōta -- 4 ʻ foundation ʼ see *pēnda -- .
    *pōtara -- ʻ young ʼ, pōtalaka -- see pṓta -- 1.
    Addenda: pōta -- 2. 2. *pōtta -- 2: S.kcch. potyo m. ʻ small dhoti ʼ.(CDIAL 8400)


    पोत a fetus which has no enveloping membrane (Monier-Williams) pōtḥ पोतः [पू-तन्; Uṇ.3.86] 1 The young of any ani- mal, cub, colt, foal &c.; पिब स्तन्यं पोत Bv.1.6; मृगपोतः; शार्दूल˚ Mu.2.8; करिपोतः &c; वीरपोतः a young warrior; कोप्ययं वीरपोतः U.5.3. -2 An elephant ten years old.-3 A ship, raft, boat; पोतो दुस्तरवारिराशितरणे H.2.124; नभस्वता प्रतीपेन भग्नपोता इवार्णवे Śiva B.22.11; हा विपद्- वारिनिधिपतितजनोद्धरणपोत Nāg.5. -4 A garment, cloth. -5 The young shoot of a plant. -6The site or founda- tion of a house. -7 A foetus having no enveloping membrane. -Comp. -आच्छादनम् a tent. -आधानम् a shoal of small fish. -धारिन् m. the master of a vessel. -प्लवः a mariner, seaman. -भङ्गः a ship-wreck. -रक्षः the rudder of a boat or ship. -वणिज् m. a sea-faring merchant; धत्ते पोतवणिग्जनैर्धनदतां यस्यान्तिके सागरः Śiva B. 29.89. -वाहः a rower, steersman. పోతము  pōtamu An elephant ten years old, పదేండ్ల యేనుగు. పోతము  pōtamu The young of any animal. పిల్ల. శిశువు. Pota1 [cp. Epic Sk. pota, see putta for etym.] the young of an animal J ii.406 (˚sūkara); Cp. i.102 (udda˚); SnA 125 (sīha˚). (Pali) pṓta -- 1, °aka -- m. ʻ young of animal or plant ʼ MBh. 2. *pōtara -- . 3. *pōtala -- , pōtalaka -- m. ʻ young animal ʼ BHSk., gō -- pōtalikā -- f. ʻ heifer ʼ Pat. 4. *pōtāla -- . 5. *pōtta -- 1. 6. *pōṭṭa -- 3. 7. *pōna -- 1. 8. *pōttha -- 1. 9. *phōta -- . 10. *phōtta -- 2. [Variety of form points to non -- Aryan origin (scarcely with Wackernagel AiGr ii 2, 591 < putrá -- ): prob. with T. Burrow BSOAS xii 386 ← Drav. Tam. pōttu &c. DED 3748. -- Cf. pōṭā -- f. ʻ female slave ʼ, pōṭaka -- m. ʻ servant ʼ KātyŚr. com. -- See also *pōṅga -- 2]
    1. Pa. pōta -- , °aka -- m. ʻ young of an animal ʼ, Aś. potake nom. sg. m.; NiDoc. potaǵa ʻ young (of camel) ʼ; Pk. pōa -- , °aya -- m. ʻ young snake, child ʼ; Dm. pâi ʻ son ʼ; Paš. ōya ʻ boy, child, daughter ʼ < *wōyā with special development in word of address (IIFL iii 3, 188 sandhi form < pōtaka -- ); Bshk. pɔ̈̄ ʻ son, boy ʼ; Tor.  m. ʻ child ʼ; Sh.koh. gur.  ʻ sons ʼ (pl. of puc̣h < putrá -- ) → Ḍ. pe_ (pl. of pūc̣); P. poā m. ʻ tender twig ʼ; Ku.gng. pōi ʻ budding of trees in spring ʼ; A. B. po ʻ son ʼ; Or. popoapua ʻ son, shoot of plaintain ʼ, puā ʻ plaintain seedling ʼ, poi ʻ small girl, shrimp ʼ; Mth. poā ʻ tobacco seedling ʼ; Bhoj. pōi ʻ sugarcane sapling ʼ; H. poā m. ʻ young of an animal ʼ; G. poī f., M. poy f. ʻ spike of coconut or other palms containing the spadix ʼ; M. povā m. ʻ young snake ʼ; OSi. povā pl. ʻ youths ʼ, Si. povuvā (st. pov -- ,  -- ) ʻ young of an animal ʼ. -- X *kuḍa<-> q.v.
    2. G. porɔ m. ʻ insect ʼ, porī f. ʻ little girl ʼ, poriyɔ m. ʻ boy ʼ; M. por m. f. n. ʻ young child or animal ʼ.
    3. Pk. pōalaya -- m. ʻ child ʼ; Gaw. pōlá, f. °lī ʻ small ʼ, poliṛá ʻ younger ʼ; A. puli ʻ young plant ʼ; B. polā ʻ child, son ʼ; M. poḷ m. ʻ bull dedicated to the gods ʼ; Si. pollā ʻ young of an animal ʼ.
    4. Pk. pōāla -- m. ʻ child, bull ʼ; A. powāli ʻ young of animal or bird ʼ.
    5. K. pọ̆tu m. ʻ son (esp. an only son), child ʼ, pūtu m. ʻ young chick ʼ, ḍoḍ. pōtō ʻ bird ʼ, kash. ċāwali -- pūt ʻ goat's kid ʼ; H. potī f. ʻ young female of any animal ʼ.
    6. H. poṭā m. ʻ young of animal, unfledged bird ʼ.
    7. A. B. ponā ʻ young fish ʼ (A. also ʻ affectionate term of address to a child ʼ).
    8. Ku. potho ʻ any young animal ʼ, pothilo ʻ young of a bird ʼ; N. pothi ʻ hen bird ʼ, pothro ʻ young tree, bush ʼ.
    9. Phal. phō ʻ boy ʼ, phoyīˊphōī ʻ girl ʼ.
    10. Ku. photo m. ʻ young child, small cucumber, testicle ʼ, photi f. ʻ girl ʼ, phwātā -- photi ʻ children ʼ.
    pōtādhāna -- , *pōtādhāra -- ; *vīrapōta -- , *sarpapōtala -- .
    Addenda: pōta -- 1. 10. *phōtta -- : WPah.kṭg. phɔ́təṛ m. ʻ penis, scrotum ʼ, J. pothaṛ m. ʻ penis ʼ.(CDIAL 8399)




    போத்து¹ pōttu , n. cf. pōta. [T. pōtu, M. pōttu.] 1. Male of animals, especially cattle, tigers, deer; பெற்றம், எருமை, புலி, மரை, புல்வாய் முதலிய விலங்கேற்றின் பொது. (பிங்.) (தொல். பொ. 597.) 2. Male of peafowl, herons and some other birds; மயில் எழால் என்பவற் றின் ஆண். (தொல். பொ. 598.) 3. Male of aquatic animals, as crocodile, etc.; முதலை, சுறாப்போன்ற நீர்வாழ்சாதியின் ஆண். (தொல். பொ. 597.) (பிங்.) 4. Sapling; ஓரறிவுயிரி னிளமை. (தொல். பொ. 580.) 5. Tender branch or shoot of a tree; புதுக்கிளை. மரம் போத்துவிட்டிருக்கிறது. 6. Crow-pheasant. See செம்போத்து. (சங். அக.)

    போத்தரசர் pōttaracar , n. prob. போத்து¹ +. A title of the Pallava kings; பல்லவர் பட்டப்பெயர்களி லொன்று. மயேந்திரப் போத்தரசர் (S. I. I. ii, 341.)

    Rebus 1: పోతము  pōtamu [Skt.] n. A vessel, boat, ship. ఓడ. పోతపాత్రిక pōta-pātrika. n. A vessel, a ship, ఓడ. "సంసార సాగరమతుల ధైర్యపోత పాత్రికనిస్తరింపుముకు మార." M. XII. vi. 222. పోతవణిక్కు or పోతవణిజుడు pōta-vaṇikku. n. A sea-faring merchant. ఓడను కేవుకు పుచ్చుకొన్నవాడు, ఓడ బేరగాడు. పోతవహుడు or పోతనాహుడు pōta-vahuḍu. n. A rower, a boatman, a steersman. ఓడనడుపువాడు, తండేలు. पोत mn. a vessel , ship , boat MBh. Hariv. Var. Ka1v. [cf. Lat. putus ; Lit. pautas.] Pota2 [Epic Sk. pota; dial. form for plota (?), of plu] a boat Dāvs v.58; VvA 42. (Pali)

    Rebus 2: పోత pōta. adj. Molten, cast in metal. పోతచెంబు a metal bottle or jug, which has been cast not hammered. పోత  pōta pōta. [Tel. from పోయు.] n. Pouring, పోయుట. Casting, as of melted metal. Bathing, washing. Eruption of the small pox. ఆకుపోత putting plants into the ground. పెట్టుపోతలు శాశ్వతములుకావు meat and drink (literally, feeding and bathing) are not matters of eternal consequence. Pottha2 [later Sk. pusta, etym. uncertain; loan -- word?] modelling, only in cpd. ˚kamma plastering (i. e. using a mixture of earth, lime, cowdung & water as mortar) J vi.459; carving DhsA 334; and ˚kara a modeller in clay J i.71.  (Pali)

    The two ornaments he gives to the Adhvaryu, the garland to the Udgatr, the round ornament to the Hotr, a horse to the Prastotr and Pratihartr, twelve heifers to the Brahman, a cow to the Maitravaruna, a bull to the Brahmanacchansin, garments to the Nestr and Potr, a wagon drawn by one ox laden with barley to the Achavaka, a draught ox to the Agnidh. (Krishna Yajurveda 1.8)


    yvk.2.5 Clever indeed [1] were the Hotrs of old; there fore the ways were held apart, and the paths did not conflict.
    yvk.4.1 h O ye divine Hotrs, sing ye To our uplifted yajña, to Agni s tongue, Make for us good offering.
    yvk.4.3 m The Maruts, of the year, fair singers, With wide abodes, in troops among men, May they from us unloosen the bonds of tribulation, Those that burn, delighting, granting delight, n Delight the eager gods, O thou most young, Knowing the seasons, O lord of the season, do thou perform yajña here; With the priests divine, O Agni, Thou art the best yajñika of Hotrs.
    yvk.5.1 g First for you have I made glad the two, who share one car, fair of hue, The gods that gaze on all the worlds, Those that ordain your ordinances, The two Hotrs, that indicate the light in its place.


    yvk.1.1 k We have come to the path of the gods To accomplish that which we have power to do; Let wise Agni yajña [3], let him be Hotr Let him arrange the offerings him the seasons.
    yvk.1.2 l The great I overcome [4] through kinship and my songs; That hath descended to me from Gotama, my sire; Pay heed to this song of ours, O Hotr, most youthful, skilful, friend of the house.
    yvk.1.4 d In that to day, O Agni, we choose thee As Hotr as our yajña proceeded, Prosperously hast thou performed yajña, Prosperously hast thou laboured; Come wise and foreseeing one to the yajña.
    yvk.1.5 d Here hath he first been established by the establishers, Youngest Hotr to be invoked at the yajña-s, Whom Apnavanaand the Bhrgus caused to shine, Bright in the woods, spreading from house to house.
    yvk.1.6 h O Agni, kindled by the gods, kindled by Manu, with sweet tongue, I touch the head of thee, the immortal, O Hotr, for increase of wealth, good offspring, strength.
    yvk.1.7 When the Hotr summons the Ida, then the yajñika looking at the Hotr should in mind reflect on Vayu [2]; verily he lets the calf go to the mother.
    yvk.1.7 Samsravas Sauvarcanasa said to Tuminja Aupoditi: When thou hast been a Hotr of Sattrins, what Ida hast thou invoked? Her I have invoked he said, who supports the gods by her expiration, men by her cross breathing, and the Pitrs by her inspiration.
    yvk.1.7 When the Hotr utters the name of the yajñika, then he should say, Hither these blessings have come, fain for milking verily he milks the deities which he praises together; verily he milks the yajña on both sides, in front and behind.
    yvk.1.8 k To Agni, lord of the house, hail! To Soma, lord of the forest, hail! To Indra s strength hail! To the Maruts force hail! I The gander seated in purity, the bright one seated in the atmosphere, The Hotr seated at the altar, the guest seated in the house, Seated among men, seated in the highest, seated in holy order, seated in the firmament, Born of the waters, born of the cows, born of holy order, born of the mountain, the great holy order.
    yvk.1.8 The two ornaments he gives to the Adhvaryu, the garland to the Udgatr, the round ornament to the Hotr, a horse to the Prastotr and Pratihartr, twelve heifers to the Brahman, a cow to the Maitravaruna, a bull to the Brahmanacchansin, garments to the Nestr and Potr, a wagon drawn by one ox laden with barley to the Achavaka, a draught ox to the Agnidh.
    yvk.1.8 The Hotr is a Bhargava; the Saman of the Brahman is the Srayantiya; the Agnistoma Saman is the Varavantiya.
    yvk.2.2 The Hotr loosens him that is swallowed by Soma and Rudra and he is liable to be ruined; an ox must be given by the Hotr; the ox is a carrier, the Hotr is a carrier; verily he saves himself as a carrier by means of a carrier.
    yvk.2.5 The Part of the Hotr at the New and Full Moon yajña-s
    yvk.2.5 The Hotr unsurpassed he says, for no one surpasses him [2].
    yvk.2.5 Agni the Hotr [4], he says; Agni is the Hotr of the gods; him he chooses who is the Hotr of the gods.
    yvk.2.5 If he were to say Who hast chosen Agni as Hotr he would surround the yajñika with Agni on both sides, and he would be liable to perish.
    yvk.2.5 Prajapati spake to a Brahman (saying), Explain the phrase, "Make announcement" Hearken to this, O ye gods he said; Agni the god is the Hotr (he said).
    yvk.2.6 The Part of the Hotr in the New and Full Moon yajña
    yvk.2.6 in four; what is divided in four is the offering, what is divided in four is cattle; if the Hotr were to eat it, the Hotr would [1] experience misfortune; if he were to offer it in the fire, he would give the cattle to Rudra, and the yajñika would be without cattle.
    yvk.2.6 Yoke like a charioteer, Agni, The steeds that best invite the gods Set down as ancient Hotr.
    yvk.3.1 n O Jatavedas, go with the caul to the gods, For thou art the first Hotr; With ghee do thou strengthen their bodies; May the gods eat the offering made with the cry of hail! o Hail to the gods; to the gods hail!
    yvk.3.1 From the formula spoken, guard me, from every execration (with these words) he should pour a libation before the morning litany (of the Hotr).
    yvk.3.2 Homage to Indra, slayer of Makha; injure not my power and strength (with these words he reverences) the place of the Hotr; verily he invokes this blessing, for the preserving of his power and strength [2].
    yvk.3.2 In that the Hotr addresses the Adhvaryu, he makes the thunder bolt advance towards him; O reciter of hymns he says in response at the morning pressing; the syllables herein are three, the Gayatri has three Padas, the morning pressing is connected with the Gayatri; verily with the Gayatri he places the thunderbolt within the morning pressing.
    yvk.3.2 The hymn hath been uttered to Indra he says in response at the third pressing; the syllables herein are seven, the Sakvari has seven Padas, cattle are connected with the Sakvari, the third pressing is connected with the Jagati; verily at the third pressing he produces the metres in the response; now the Jagati is cattle, the third pressing is cattle; verily at the third pressing he bestows cattle upon himself that the Hotr addresses the Adhvaryu, he puts fear in him; if be were not to smite it off [4], they would have fear in his house before the year (was over).
    yvk.3.2 The Hotr is this (earth), the Adhvaryu yonder (sky); in that he recites sitting, so the Hotr goes not away from the (earth), for this (earth) is seated as it were; verily thereby the yajña milks this (earth).
    yvk.3.2 In that the Hotr addresses the Adhvaryu, he makes the thunderbolt advance towards him; he turns towards the West; verily he overcomes the thunderbolt.
    yvk.3.2 b Your ancient lofty praise bear To Agni, the Hotr The creator who beareth as it were the light of songs.
    yvk.3.3 f Thee, O Agni, the tribes of men praise, Who knowest the Hotr s duty, discerning, best bestower of jewels, Who art in secret yet, O happy one, seen by all, Of impetuous spirit, a good yajñika, brilliant with ghee.
    yvk.3.5 b He, the Hotr is led forward for the yajña, The servant of the gods; Like a covered chariot glowing He himself knoweth health.
    yvk.3.5 f Sit thou, O Hotr, in thine own world, wise, Place thou the yajña in the birthplace of good deeds Eager for the gods, do thou perform yajña to them with oblation; O Agni, bestow great strength on the yajñika.
    yvk.3.5 g The Hotr hath sat him down in the place of the Hotr wise, Glittering, shining, skilful, With vows and foresight undeceived, most wealthy, Bearing a thousand, pure tongued Agni.
    yvk.4.1 k Sit thou, O Hotr, in thine own world, wise, Place thou the yajña in the birthplace of good deeds, Eager for the gods, do thou perform yajña to them with oblation; O Agni, bestow great strength on the yajñika.
    yvk.4.1 l The Hotr hath sat him down in the place of the Hoty, wise, Glittering, shining, skilful, With vows and foresight undeceived, most wealthy, Bearing a thousand, pure tongued Agni.
    yvk.4.1 n Be born noble in the forefront of the days, Kind to the kindly, red in the woods; Bestowing seven jewels in every home Hath Agni sat him down as Hotr.
    yvk.4.1 g Feeding on wood, sipping clarified butter, The ancient desirable HotrSon of strength, the wondrous.
    yvk.4.2 n The gander seated in purity, the bright one seated in the atmosphere, The Hotr seated at the altar, the guest seated in the house, Seated among men, seated in the highest, seated in holy order, seated in the firmament, Born of the waters, born of the cows, born of holy order, born of the mountain, the great holy order.
    yvk.4.2 r Yoke, like a charioteer, O Agni, The steeds that best invite the gods Sit down as ancient Hotr.
    yvk.4.3 g As thou, O Hotr, in man s worship [2], O son of strength, shalt perform yajña with offerings, Verily do thou to day, gladly, offer yajña To the glad gods together assembled.
    yvk.4.3 h I praise Agni, domestic priest, God of the yajña and priest, The Hotr, best bestower of jewels.
    yvk.4.3 o O Agni, whatever to day, O offering Hotr of the people, O pure [4] and radiant one, thou dost enjoy, for thou art the yajñika, Rightly shalt thou perform yajña, since thou hast grown in might, Carry the oblations that are thine to day, O thou most young.
    yvk.4.4 Banner of the yajña, first domestic priest, Agni men kindle in the three stations; With Indra and the gods conjoined on the strew Let him sit, as Hotr, well skilled for yajña.
    yvk.4.4 aa Agni I deem the Hotr, the generous wealth giver, The son of strength, the all knower, Who knoweth all as a sage, bb Who offereth yajña well, With beauty soaring aloft towards the gods, the god, Following the flames of the ghee, Of the butter of brilliant radiance when offered up.
    yvk.4.6 a He who sat down, offering all these beings, As Hotr, the seer, our father, He seeking wealth with prayer, Hath entered into the boon of the first of coverers.
    yvk.4.6 Hotr Adhvaryu, atoner, fire kindler, Holder of the stone, and skilled reciter, With this well prepared yajña Well offered do ye fill the channels.
    yvk.5.1 Sit thou, O Hotr he says; verily he makes the deities sit down for him; The Hotr down (with these words he makes) men (sit down); Sit thou down (with these words he makes) birds (sit down); Be born noble in the forefront of the days he says; verily he produces for him the common session of gods and men.
    yvk.5.1 May the protectors, he says; the protectors are the Hotr s offices; verily with the Hotr s offices he cooks it.
    yvk.5.1 Tvastr begot the hero with love for the gods; From Tvastr is born the courser, the swift steed [3]; Tvastr produced all this world; The maker of much do thou offer to, as Hotr.
    yvk.5.2 The drop hath fallen (with these words) he touches it; verily he establishes it in the Hotr s offices.
    yvk.5.4 In that the second Hotr recites the unassailable (hymn) the syajñik conquers his foes therewit unassailably; verily also he conquers what has not been conquered.
    yvk.5.4 He puts down on the altar of the Hotr; the Hotr is the abode of the yajñika [3]; verily in his abode he wins for him power and strength.
    yvk.5.7 Seven are thy kindling sticks, O Agni; seven thy tongues he says; verily he wins the Hotr s offices.
    yvk.6.2 That is the place of yajña where the yajñika faces the east, where the Hotr as be recites the Prataranuvaka gazes upon the fire, water, and the sun.
    yvk.6.3 the Ahavaniya, the Agnidh s altar, the Hotr s, and the Marjaliya; therefore they perform yajña on them.
    yvk.6.3 The Hotr is the navel of the yajña; the expiration is above the navel, the inspiration is below; if the Adhvaryu were to go past the Hotr to the west, he would place the expiration in the inspiration, he would be liable to die.
    yvk.6.3 By means of Agni as Hotr the gods defeated the Asuras.
    yvk.6.3 Give directions, O Hotr, for making ready the oblations to the gods he says, for an act that is directed is carried out.
    yvk.6.4 Hotr, give directions for the waters he says; for an action which is directed is done.
    yvk.6.4 The pit is the birthplace of the yajña, the Vasairivaris are the yajña; bringing the bowls of the Hotr and the Maitravaruna into contact he pours in the Vasativaris reciprocally, so that the yajña may have its birthplace; verily he produces it from its own birthplace.
    yvk.6.5 The Dhruva is the life of the yajña, the Hotr is the body; in that he pours the Dhruva down into the goblet of the Hotr, so he places life in the body of the yajña [2].
    yvk.6.6 He gives to the Agnidh; verily he delights the seasons headed by Agni; he gives to the Brahman priest, for instigation; he gives to the Hotr; the Hotr is the self of the yajña; verily he unites the self of the yajña with the gifts.
    yvk.7.1 Now (some say), The thousandth is to be given to the Hotr what is left over, is left over for the Hotr; the Hotr is the receiver of what has not been taken.
    yvk.7.1 He should give her to the Agnidh, or the Brahman, or the Hotr or the Udgatr, or the Adhvaryu.
    yvk.7.1 Then indeed were four sons born for him, a good Hotr, a good Udgatr, a good Adhvaryu, a good councillor.
    yvk.7.1 He, who knowing thus offers the four night rite, has four sons born for him, a good Hotr, a good Udgatr, a good Adhvaryu, a good councillor.
    yvk.7.5 The Hotr (mounts) a swing; verily they mount the back of the firmament.



     https://tinyurl.com/y7kv5glj


    Three geometric hierolyphs on Priest-guild-leader statue of Mohenjo-daro are: 1. trefoil or clover (embroidered on the robe); 2. hole or dotted circle (deployed together with trefoils); 3. dotted circle (on the fillet). In the Egyptian hieroglyphic tradition, trefoil is associated with veneration of ancestors.


    There are three distinct geometric glyphs which are used to compose the hieroglyphs deployed on the 17.5 cm. high statuette of a reverenced person with a smooth hair-do and a neatly trimmed beard. This is clearly indicative of the possible use of a metal or stone razor to trim the hair on the face. That reverence is the intended message is reinforced by the deployment of trefoil hieroglyph on the based used for sacred Sivalinga in Mohenjo-daro.
    It is possible to decipher the hieroglyphs using the rebus-metonymy layered cipher of Indus writing system. 

    The Meluhha semantics of objects signified by these three hieroglyphs are related to metalwork guild.

    Trefoil hieroglyph or three 'beads, orifice' 

    kolom 'three' (Munda) Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. The triplicate  composing the trefoil is a semantic determinant of the signified object: smithy, forge.

    *pōttī ʻ glass bead ʼ.Pk. pottī -- f. ʻ glass ʼ; S. pūti f. ʻ glass bead ʼ, P. pot f.; N. pote ʻ long straight bar of jewelry ʼ; B. pot ʻ glass bead ʼ, putipũti ʻ small bead ʼ; Or. puti ʻ necklace of small glass beads ʼ; H. pot m. ʻ glass bead ʼ, G. M. pot f.; -- Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ rather than < pōtrá -- 1.(CDIAL 8403) பொத்தல் pottal n. < id. [K. poṭṭare, M. pottu, Tu. potre.] 1. Hole, orifice. 

    Rebus: Soma priest, jeweller's polishing stone

    पोतृ pōt " Purifier " , Name of one of the 16 officiating priests at a yajña (the assistant of the Brahman (Rigveda) pōtrá1 ʻ *cleaning instrument ʼ (ʻ the Potr̥'s soma vessel ʼ RV.). [√Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ? -- Rather < *pōttī -- .(CDIAL 8404) pōtṛ पोतृ m. 1 One of the sixteen officiating priests at a yajña (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्). -2 An epithet of Viṣṇu. pōtram पोत्रम् [पू-त्र] 1 The snout of a hog; धृतविधुरधरं महा- वराहं गिरिगुरुपोत्रमपीहितैर्जयन्तम् Bk.1.6; Ki.13.53. -2 A boat, ship. -3 A plough share. -4 The thunderbolt. -5 A garment. -6 The office of the Potṛi. -Comp. -आयुधः a hog, boar. (Samskritam. Apte)

    Hieroglyph: fillet on the forehead 

    பட்டம்² paṭṭam , n. < paṭṭa. 1. Plate of gold worn on the forehead, as an ornament or badge of distinction; சிறப்புக்கு அறிகுறியாக நெற்றி யிலணியும் பொற்றகடு. பட்டமுங் குழையு மின்ன (சீவக. 472). 2. An ornament worn on the forehead by women; மாதர் நுதலணி. பட்டங் கட்டிப்பொற்றோடு பெய்து (திவ். பெரியாழ். 3, 7, 6). 3. Title, appellation of dignity, title of office; பட்டப்பெயர். பட்டமும் பசும்பொற் பூணும் பரந்து (சீவக. 112). 4. Regency; reign; ஆட்சி. 5. Fasteners, metal clasp; சட்டங்களை இணைக்க உதவும் தகடு. ஆணிகளும் பட்டங்களுமாகிய பரிய இரும்பாலேகட்டி (நெடுநல். 80, உரை). 6. Flat or level surface of anything; பட்டைவடிவு. 7. Flat piece, as of bamboo; பட்டையான துண்டு. 8. Cut of a gem; மணிகளில் தீரும் பட்டை. 9. Paper-kite; காற்றாடி. பிள்ளைகள் பற்பலவுயர் பட்டம் விடல்போல் (திருப்போ. சந். பிள்ளைத். சப்பாணி. 8). 10. Cloth; சீலை. (அக. நி.) 11. Large banner; பெருங்கொடி. (பிங்.) 12. High position; உயர் பதவி. (பிங்.) 13. Gold; பொன். (சங். அக.) 

    Rebus: smithy, forge

    பட்டடை¹ paṭṭaṭai, [K.paṭṭaḍi.] Smithy, forge; கொல்லன் களரி.  n. prob. படு¹- + அடை¹-. [T. paṭṭika, K. paṭṭaḍe.] Anvil; அடைகல். (பிங்.) சீரிடங்காணி னெறிதற்குப் பட்ட டை (குறள், 821). பட்டறை² paṭṭaṟai , n. < K. paṭṭale. 1. Community; சனக்கூட்டம். 2. Guild, as of workmen; தொழிலாளர் சமுதாயம்.  பட்டடையார் paṭṭaṭaiyār, n. < id. (W. G.) 1. Master of a shop; கடையின் எசமானர். 2. Overseer; மேற்பார்ப்போர். பட்டக்காரன்¹ paṭṭa-k-kāraṉ, n. < பட்டம்² +.  Title of the headman of the Toṭṭiyar and Koṅkuvēḷāḷa castes; தொட்டியர், கொங்குவேளாளர் சாதித்தலைவரின் சிறப்புப்பெயர். பட்டகசாலை paṭṭaka-cālai , n. < T. paṭa- šāla. [K. paṭṭasāle.] 1. Central or principal hall in a house; கூடம்.

    பட்டங்கட்டு-தல் paṭṭaṅ-kaṭṭu-v. intr. < id. +. 1. To confer a title; பட்டப்பெயர் சூட்டுதல். நன்னெறிப் பட்டங்கட்டி நல்கினான் பரிவட்டங்கள் (திருவாலவா. 39, 27). 2. To invest with office, dignity, authority; to install, crown; அரசு முதலிய பதவி யளித்தல். இராவ ணனை வென்று . . . அவன்றம்பிக்குப் பட்டங்கட்டிய ராமா (தனிப்பா. i, 391, 48). 3. To fasten a gold band on the foreheads of the bridal pair in a marriage; கலியாணத்தில் மணமக்கள் நெற்றியிற் பொற்பட்டம் கட்டுதல். 4. To perform the ceremony of indicating the succession to the estate of deceased person among Maṟavas, wherein, before the corpse is removed, the chief heir and his wife take two balls of cow- dung mixed with various kinds of grain and stick them on to the wall of their house and throw them in water on the eighth day after death; மறவர் சாதியில் இறந்தோனது சவத்தை எடுப்பதற்குமுன் அவனுடைய முக்கிய வாரி சும் அவ்வாரிசின் மனைவியும் தானியங்களோடு கலந்த இரண்டு சாணவுண்டையை வீட்டின் சுவரில் ஒட்டி யும் பிறகு எட்டாநாள் அதனை நீரிற் கரைத்துந் தாமே இறந்தோன் சொத்துக்கு உரிமையுடையவரென்று தெரிவிக்குஞ் சடங்கு செய்தல். (E. T. v, 42.) 5. To perform the ceremony of going round the deceased during cremation; தகனக்கிரியையிற் பிரேதத்தைச் சுற்றிவருதல். Nāñ.

    The tradition in Indian sprachbund records coronation ceremony also to confer a title ācārya, 'teacher' or ācariyakula 'teacher's family' or head of a artisan guild:


    ஆசாரி ācāri n. < ā-cārya. [T. K. Tu. ācāri.] 1. A title adopted by Mādhva and Šrī Vaiṣṇava Brāhmans; மாத்துவ ?வைஷ்ண வப்பிராமணர் பட்டப்பெயர். 2. [M. āšāri.] Title of the five artisan castes; கம்மாளர்பட்டப்பெயர்.

    ācāríya -- , ācāryà -- m. ʻ teacher ʼ AV. [ācāra -- ]Pa. ācariya -- , °aka -- , ācēra -- m., KharI. ayariasa gen., Pk. āyariya -- m., Si. brāhmi inscr. ajara, 10th cent. äjara, mod. ädurā. *ācāriyakula ʻ teacher's family ʼ. [ācāríya -- , kúla -- ] Pa. ācariyakula -- n. ʻ the teacher's clan ʼ; Si. ädurol ʻ line of teachers, tradition ʼ(CDIAL 1072, 1073)
    Sarasvati-Sindhu Valley potters shaped clay pots on a wheel, like this one used by an Indian potter today.

    Discussion

    While it may be debated if a 'temple priest' of the civilization was called pōtti as the gloss is used today in Malayalam, or pōt as the gloss is used today in the performance of a vedic-soma yajñathere seems to be a substantial semantic evidence to relate to the other characteristics of the artifacts deployed in the context of the trefoil symbol: cloth (shawl or upper garment, leaving the right-shoulder bare), young animal. 

    Both symbols -- cloth and young animal -- have pottu as word signifiers. If pōṟṟi or pottu is the word signifier, there is a rebus reading possible: pot 'boat' or pot 'bead' or pote 'long straight bar of jewelry'.

    We seem to be looking at trefoil as a hieroglyph to be read rebus. 

    1. Shown pota 'cloth' worn as a shawl by the important person, the trefoil hieroglyph can be read rebus as the homonymous phonetic-determinant word: pōtṛ 'Soma purification priest'.

    2. Shown on pota 'young animal or heifer', or on beads, the trefoil hieroglyph can be read either as a phonetic determinant for pot 'boat' or pote 'long straight bar of jewelry or bead' or pot 'jeweller's polishing stone'.

    There are other statuettes displaying fillet worn on forehead and upper garment (shawl) on a meditating person leaving the right-shoulder bear -- a traditional pattern of uttariyam-wearing by teachers (AcArya and temple-priests in the Hindu tradition traceable to the Sarasvati-Sindhu (Hindu) Civilization).
    Image result for Fillet worn on the forehead of a person with a neat hair-style and a hair-bun. 40. Head (back), Mohenjo-daro Male head probably broken from a seated sculpture. Finely braided or wavy combed hair tied into a double bun on the back of the head and a plain fillet or headband with two hanging ribbons falling down the back (40).

    Image result for Fillet worn on the forehead of a person with a neat hair-style and a hair-bun. 40. Head (back), Mohenjo-daro Male head probably broken from a seated sculpture. Finely braided or wavy combed hair tied into a double bun on the back of the head and a plain fillet or headband with two hanging ribbons falling down the back (40).Fillet worn on the forehead of a person with a neat hair-style and a hair-bun. 40. Head (back), Mohenjo-daro

    Male head probably broken from a seated sculpture. Finely braided or wavy combed hair tied into a double bun on the back of the head and a plain fillet or headband with two hanging ribbons falling down the back (40). 

    The upper lip is shaved and a closely cropped and combed beard lines the pronounced lower jaw. The stylized almond shaped eyes are framed by long eyebrows. The wide mouth is very similar to that on the "Priest-King" sculpture. Stylized ears are made of a double curve with a central knob.

    Material: sandstone
    Dimensions: 13.5 cm height
    Mohenjo-daro, DK-B 1057
    Mohenjo-daro Museum, MM 431
    Dales 1985: pl. IIb; Ardeleanu-Jansen 1984: 139-157 http://www.harappa.com/indus/40.html

    Image result for Seated male figure with head missing (45, 46).Image result for Seated male figure with head missing (45, 46).
    Seated male figure with head missing (45, 46). On the back of the figure, the hair style can be partially reconstructed by a wide swath of hair and a braided lock of hair or ribbon hanging along the right side of the back. 

    A cloak is draped over the edge of the left shoulder and covers the folded legs and lower body, leaving the right shoulder and chest bare. The left arm is clasping the left knee and the hand is visible peeking out from underneath the cloak. The right hand is resting on the right knee which is folded beneath the body. 

    Material: limestone
    Dimensions: 28 cm height, 22 cm width
    Mohenjo-daro, L 950 
    Islamabad Museum
    Marshall 1931:358-9, pl. C, 1-3 http://www.harappa.com/indus/46.html



    பட்டாபிஷேகம் paṭṭāpiṣēkam 
     , n. < paṭ- ṭābhiṣēka. 1. Coronation, as preceded by anointing and bathing; முடிசூடுகை. 2. Ordination, consecration to the ministry; போதகரின் நியமனச்சடங்கு. Chr
     பட்டாசாரி paṭṭācāri , n. < bhaṭṭa பட்டாசாரியன் paṭṭācāriyaṉ n. < id. +. 1. See பட்டன், 1, 2. (W.) 2. founder of a sub-sect of Mīmāṁsakas; மீமாஞ்ச மதத்தினுள் ஒரு பகுதிக்கு ஆசிரியன். (சி. போ. பா. பக். 44.)பட்டனம் paṭṭaṉamn. < paṭṭaṇa. Sea-port town; கடற்கரையின் பலதீவுப்பண்டம் விற்கும் ஊர். (சூடா.) பட்டன் paṭṭaṉ , n. < bhaṭṭa. 1. Learned man, scholar; புலவன். மறைநான்கு முன் னோதிய பட்டனை (திவ். பெரியதி. 7, 3, 6). 2. Brāhmin-priest of a temple; கோயிலருச்சகன். 3. Spiritual master, god; சுவாமி. ஆலநிழலமர் பட்டனை (தேவா. 926, 1). 4. See பட்டர்பிரான். தண்புது வைப்பட்டன் சொன்ன (திவ். பெரியாழ். 3, 8, 10).பட்டாமணியம் paṭṭā-maṇiyam , n. < U. paṭṭā பட்டாரகன் paṭṭārakaṉ n. < bhaṭṭāraka. 1. Deity; கடவுள். (பிங்.) திருநந்திக்கரை பட் டாரகர் (T. A. S. iii, 206). 2. One who attained the stage of Arhat; அருகபதவி பெற்றோர். நமி பட்டாரகர் (தக்கயாகப். 375, உரை). 3. Spiritual preceptor; ஞானகுரு. (பிங்.) முகுந்தோத்தம பட் டாரகர் (T. A. S. iii, 44). பட்டாமணியகாரன் paṭṭāmaṇiya-kāraṉ 
     , n. < பட்டாமணியம் +. Village munsif; கிராம முனிசீபு. Colloq.
     



    Seated male sculpture, or "Priest King" from Mohenjo-daro (41, 42, 43). Fillet or ribbon headband with circular inlay ornament on the forehead and similar but smaller ornament on the right upper arm. The two ends of the fillet fall along the back and though the hair is carefully combed towards the back of the head, no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately carved bun as is traditional on the other seated figures, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress. 

    Two holes beneath the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. Eyes are deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard frames the face. The large crack in the face is the result of weathering or it may be due to original firing of this object. 

    Material: white, low fired steatite
    Dimensions: 17.5 cm height, 11 cm width
    Mohenjo-daro, DK 1909
    National Museum, Karachi, 50.852
    Marshall 1931: 356-7, pl. XCVIII


    Varuna's tArpya garment is used to invest a yajamana during royal consecration and is decorated with dhiSNya, 'stars' or 'fire-altars'. Ahura Mazda is said to wear such a garment. The sky …which the Wise One is wearing as His garment, is decorated with stars made of heavenly substance' (Yast, 13, 3). धिष्ण्य[p= 516,3] m. (f(). only RV. iv , 3 , 6 ; n. MBh. i , 7944) a sort of subordinate or side-altar (generally a heap of earth covered with sand on which the fire is placed , and of which 8 are enumerated , viz. besides the आग्नीध्रीय[in the आग्नीध्र] those in the सदस् [see s.v.] belonging to the होतृ , the मैत्रा-वरुण or प्र-शस्तृ , the ब्राह्मणाच्छंसिन् , the पोतृ , नेष्टृ and अच्छा-वाक ; and the मार्जालीयBr. S3rS. &c (cf. कॢप्त-&c. m. N. of उशनस् i.e. the planet Venus L. (cf. धिषण)
    तार्प्य [p=444,3] n. a garment made of a particular vegetable substance (तृपा Sa1y. on S3Br. AV. xviii , 4 , 31 (°प्य्/अTS. iiTBr. i , iii S3Br. v , 3 , 5 , 20 Ta1n2d2yaBr. xxi Ka1tyS3r. xv S3a1n3khS3r.
    Mesopotamian lama deity, a bull with a human head, kind, protective spirits associated with the great sun god Shamash. In one inscription, an Assyrian king called upon lama deities to "turn back an evil person, guard the steps, and secure the path of the king who fashioned them." 2100-2000 BCE Serpentine, a smooth green stone the color of life-giving water in a desert area. The hollowed-out shapes on the body originally were inlaid with pearly shell or lapis lazuli.

    "Images of human-headed bulls are found throughout Mesopotamian history. Several statuettes dating from the late third millennium BC show a bearded creature wearing the divine horned headdress, lying down with its head turned to the side. They have been found at various Sumerian sites, the majority from Telloh.

    The human-headed bull

    The animal is shown lying, its head turned to the side and its tail underneath its right hoof. On its head is the divine headdress with three pairs of horns. It has a man's face with large elongated eyes, a beard covering half its cheeks and joining with the mustache before cascading down over its breast, where it ends in small curls, and long ringlets framing its face. The ears, however, are a bull's, though fleecy areas at the shoulders and hindquarters seem to suggest the animal is actually a bison. Another example in the Louvre displays particularly fine workmanship, the eyes and the whole body being enriched with decorative elements, applied or inlaid in trilobate and lozenge-shaped cavities (in the hooves). There is a small group of these recumbent bulls dating from the Neo-Sumerian period (around 2150-2000 BC), one of which is inscribed with the name of Gudea, the Second Dynasty ruler of Lagash. In the Neo-Assyrian period (9th-6th centuries BC), the human-headed bull, now with a pair of wings, becomes the guardian of the royal palace, flanking the doors through which visitors entered. This creature was a lamassu, a benevolent protective spirit generally associated with the sun-god Shamash.http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/recumbent-bull-man-s-head


    A SUMERIAN LAPIS LAZULI AMULET OF A BULL EARLY DYNASTIC III PERIOD, 2650-2350 B.C.Sumerian. lapis lazuli amulet of a bull Early Dynastic III Period, 2650-2350 BCE
    Recumbent bull with man’s head. Mesopotamia, c. 2350–2000 BC. Louvre
    Recumbent bull with man’s head. Mesopotamia, c. 2350–2000 BCE. Louvre

    Sumerian Shell Plaque of Gilgamesh with Bull of Heaven 
    Human-headed bull statuette dedicated by w:Gudea, prince of w:Lagash. Chlorite, Neo-Sumerian Period (ca. 2120 BC). Found in Telloh (ancient city of w:Girsu).The LouvreHuman-headed bull statuette dedicated by w:Gudea, prince of w:Lagash. Chlorite, Neo-Sumerian Period (ca. 2120 BC). Found in Telloh (ancient city of w:Girsu).The Louvre
    Luristan Bronze |   Early Iron Age, ca. 1250 to 700 BCE.Luristan Bronze | Early Iron Age, ca. 1250 to 700 BCE.

    "The trefoil pattern is found in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Crete in comparable associations, and seems likely to represent a common symbolism which may have extended to the Indus valley. The earliest occurrences appear to have been in Mesopotamia: a man-headed 'bull of heaven', probably of late Akkadian period in the Louvre, is carved for trefoil incrustations (1), and others similarly ornamented come from Warka (2) and from Ur (3). The last is of the IIIrd Dynasty, perhaps about 2200 BCE. It bears the symbols of Shamash the Sun-god, Sin the Moon-god, and Ishtar the Morning and Evening Star, together with trefoils which probably represent stars. With similar intent trefoils appear (with quatrefoils) in Egypt on Hathor the Mother-goddess as Lady of Heaven, and are well-exemplified by the Hathor cows which sustain couches in Tutankhamun's tomb (c. 1350 BCE) and by a painted figure of the XVIIIth Dynasty from Deir el-Bahari (4). In Crete the symbol recurs on bull-head (of cow-head) 'rhythons' of about the same period (5). The analogues from Egypt and Mesopotamia at least combine to suggest a religious and in particular an astral connotation for the motif and support the conjecture that the Mohenjo-daro bust may portray a deity or perhaps a priest-king."(Wheeler, Mortimer, 1968, The Indus civilization: suppl. volume to the Cambridge History of India, CUP, p.87)


    Cylinder-seal depiction (ME 89128).  Dating from about 1400BC, it shows the seated Babylonian sun-god Shamash with a Cross and Rosette, "...both probably Sun symbols" according to the British Museum description.


    The hieroglyphs shown together with Shamash on this cylinder seal are: 1. Fire-altar: kanda 'trench' (Pego) 2. karaDa 'safflower' Rebus: 'hard alloy'(Marathi) karNDi 'fire-god' (Remo).
    Black basalt rectangular-sided monument recording Esarhaddon's restoration of Babylon; carved symbols on the upper surface.Irregular rectangular-sided monument recording Esarhaddon's restoration of Babylon; possibly black basalt; carved symbols on the upper surface. Esarhaddon's Succession Treaty is the longest Assyrian treaty known. It sets out in detail the many actions required of his subjects, secured by a long list of fearful curses for anyone who might dare to break their oath. The full text and translation is available online (SAA 2: 006). 672 BCE.

     Detail from Esarhaddon's monument recording the restoration of Babylon. BM 91027
    Black basalt rectangular-sided monument recording Esarhaddon's restoration of Babylon; carved symbols on the upper surface.
    bm-sep-2007-60 - Utu, dieu sumérien, - devenu Shamash, en akkadien. SIPPAR.Utu, dieu sumérien, - devenu Shamash, en akkadien. SIPPAR.

    Bovine head rhytonCrete. Cow-head rhython with trefoil decor.

    1 G. Contenau, Manual d'archeologie orientale, II, Paris, 1931, p. 698-9.
    2 ibid. and A. Evans, the Palace of Mines, II, 1928, p. 261
    3 The Babylonian Legends of the Creation (Brit. Mus. 1931), p. 59; Antiquaries Journal, III, 1923, p.331
    4 Evans, op cit. I, 1921, pp. 513-14
    5 ibid. IV, 1935, p. 315

    miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120)


    Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)mẽṛh t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Munda) 



    "Late Harappan Period dish or lid with perforation at edge for hanging or attaching to large jar. It shows a Blackbuck antelope with trefoil design made of combined circle-and-dot motifs, possibly representing stars. It is associated with burial pottery of the Cemetery H period,dating after 1900 BC.The Late Harappan Period at Harappa is represented by the Cemetery H culture (190-1300 BC) which is named after the discovery of a large cemetery filled with painted burial urns and some extended inhumations. The earlier burials in this cemetery were laid out much like Harappan coffin burials, but in the later burials, adults were cremated and the bones placed in large urns (164). The change in burial customs represents a major shift in religion and can also be correlated to important changes in economic and political organization. Cemetery H pottery and related ceramics have been found throughout northern Pakistan, even as far north as Swat, where they mix with distinctive local traditions. In the east, numerous sites in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab provide evidence for the gradual expansion of settlements into this heavily forested region. One impetus for this expansion may have been the increasing use of rice and other summer (kharif) crops that could be grown using monsoon stimulated rains. Until late in the Harappan Period (after 2200 BC) the agricultural foundation of the Harappan cities was largely winter (rabi) crops that included wheat and barley. Although the Cemetery H culture encompassed a relatively large area, the trade connections with thewestern highlands began to break down as did the trade with the coast. Lapis lazuli and turquoise beads are rarely found in the settlements, and marine shell for ornaments and ritual objects gradually disappeared. On the other hand the technology of faience manufacture becomes more refined, possibly in order to compensate for the lack of raw materials such as shell, faience and possibly even carnelian." (Kenoyer in harappa.com slide description) http://www.harappa.com/indus2/162.html

    Lingamgrey sandstone in situ, Harappa. 

    Terracotta sivalinga, Kalibangan.Shape of polished lingam found at Harappa is like the summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. Plate X(c), Lingam in situ in trench Ai (MS Vats, 1940, Exxcavations at Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta). In trenches III and IV two more stone lingams were found. (MS Vats, opcit., Vol. I, pp. 51-52). The Hindu traditional metaphor of s'iva is the glacial river Ganga emerging from locks of his hair as he sits in penance on summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. The metaphor results in Kailas in Ellora, showing Ravana lifting up the mountain.



    Trefoil inlay decorated base (for linga icon?); smoothed, polished pedestal of dark red stone; National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi; After Mackay 1938: I, 411; II, pl. 107:35; Parpola, 1994, p. 218. "In an earthenware jar, No. 12414, recovered from Mound F, Trench IV, Square I"
    Sumerian marble calf with inlaid trefoils of blue stone. From the late Uruk era, cira 3000 B.C.Sumerian marble calf with inlaid trefoils of blue stone. From the late Uruk era, Jemdet Nasr cira 3300 - 2900 B.C.E 5.3 cm. long; Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin; Parpola, 1994, p. 213.
    Trefoils painted on steatite beads, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXXIII, Fig.2)

    <pitaraku>  {N} ``^spirits of dead ^ancestors, ^relatives who must be worshipped or appeased''.  @6216.  #28481.


    पितृ[p= 626,2] m. (irreg. acc. pl. पितरस् MBh. gen. pl. पित्रिणाम् BhP. ) a father RV. &c &c (in the वेद N. of बृहस्-पति , वरुण , प्रजा-पति , and esp. of heaven or the sky ; अन्तरा पितरं मातरं च , " between heaven and earth " RV. x , 88 , 15)m. pl. (°तरस्) the fathers , forefathers , ancestors , (esp.) the पितृs or deceased ancestors (they are of 2 classes , viz. the deceased father , grandfathers and great-grandfathers of any partic. person , and the progenitors of mankind generally ; in honour of both these classes rites called श्राद्धs are performed and oblations called पिण्डs [q.v.] are presented ; they inhabit a peculiar region , which , according to some , is theभुवस् or region of the air , according to others , the orbit of the moon , and are considered as the regents of the नक्षत्रमघा and मूल ; cf. RTL. 10 &c RV. &c (Monier-Williams) pitŕ̊ (nom. sg. pitāˊ, acc. pitáram, gen. pitúḥ, nom. pl. pitáraḥ) m. ʻ father ʼ RV., pitárā du. ʻ father and mother ʼ RV.
    Pa. pitā nom., pitaraṁpituṁ acc. ʻ father ʼ, Aś. pitā nom., man. shah. pituna inst., Dhp. pidara acc., KharI. pitaraṁpidara acc., pidu gen.,(CDIAL 8179)

    *vaḍradaṇḍa ʻ large pole ʼ. [vaḍra -- , daṇḍá -- ]Bi. baṛẽṛā°ṛī ʻ upper iron bar of pillars supporting a smith's bellows ʼ, bẽriyā (< *baṛẽṛiyā? (CDIAL 11227) *vaḍratara ʻ larger ʼ. [vaḍra -- ]
    Pk. vaḍḍayara -- ʻ very big ʼ, Ap. vaḍḍāra -- ; S. vaḍ̠ero ʻ too large ʼ, m. ʻ headman, ancestor ʼ; P. vaḍerāba° ʻ large ʼ, m. ʻ ancestor ʼ; H. baṛerā ʻ large, principal ʼ; G. vaṛerũ ʻ elderly ʼ.(CDIAL 11226)

     पोतृ [p= 650,1]प्/ओतृ or पोतृm. " Purifier " , N. of one of the 16 officiating priests at a yajña (the assistant of the Brahman ; = यज्ञस्य शोधयिट्रि Sa1y. RV. Br. S3rS. Hariv.

    Kal. rumb. gaṇḍau (st. °ḍāl -- ) ʻ ancestor image ʼ(CDIAL 3998)

    Dotted circle hieroglyph on the bottom of the sacred device, lathe, sangaḍa

    kolom 'three' Rebus: kolami 'smithy'


    kŕ̊tā -- ʻgirlʼ (RV); kuṛäˊ ʻgirlʼ (Ash.); kola ‘woman’ (Nahali); ‘wife’(Assamese). *kuḍa1 ʻ boy, son ʼ, °ḍī ʻ girl, daughter ʼ. [Prob. ← Mu. (Sant. Muṇḍari koṛa ʻ boy ʼ, kuṛi ʻ girl ʼ, Ho koa, kui, Kūrkū kōn, kōnjē); or ← Drav. (Tam. kur̤a ʻ young ʼ, Kan.koḍa ʻ youth ʼ) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 373. Prob. separate from RV. kŕ̊tā -- ʻ girl ʼ H. W. Bailey TPS 1955, 65. -- Cf. kuḍáti ʻ acts like a child ʼ Dhātup.] NiDoc. kuḍ'aǵa ʻ boy ʼ, kuḍ'i ʻ girl ʼ; Ash. kūˊṛə ʻ child, foetus ʼ, istrimalī -- kuṛäˊ ʻ girl ʼ; Kt. kŕū, kuŕuk  ʻ young of animals ʼ; Pr. kyútru ʻ young of animals, child ʼ, kyurú ʻ boy ʼ,kurīˊ ʻ colt, calf ʼ; Dm. kúŕa ʻ child ʼ, Shum. kuṛ; Kal. kūŕ*lk ʻ young of animals ʼ; Phal. kuṛĭ̄ ʻ woman, wife ʼ; K. kūrü f. ʻ young girl ʼ, kash. kōṛī, ram. kuṛhī; L. kuṛā m. ʻ bridegroom ʼ,kuṛī f. ʻ girl, virgin, bride ʼ, awāṇ. kuṛī f. ʻ woman ʼ; P. kuṛī f. ʻ girl, daughter ʼ, P. bhaṭ.  WPah. khaś. kuṛi, cur. kuḷī, cam. kǒḷā ʻ boy ʼ, kuṛī ʻ girl ʼ; -- B. ã̄ṭ -- kuṛā ʻ childless ʼ (ã̄ṭa ʻ tight ʼ)? -- X pṓta -- 1: WPah. bhad.  ʻ son ʼ, kūī ʻ daughter ʼ, bhal. ko m., koi f., pāḍ.kuā, kōī, paṅ. koā, kūī. (CDIAL 3245)


    kōla1 m. ʻ name of a degraded tribe ʼ Hariv. Pk. kōla -- m.;  B. kol  ʻ name of a Muṇḍā tribeʼ(CDIAL 3532). kol 'kolhe, smelters' (Santali); kol 'working in iron' (Tamil).

    Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith.Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmismithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133)

    What gloss connoted a trefoil in Indian sprachbund?

    I find a word in Malayalam which may provide the word as a signifier which matches with trefoil as a 'symbol'.


    These examples may provide signifiers of cloth, of someone of importance, or young animal as may be seen from these artifacts displaying the trefoil. 


    These artifacts evoke the following glosses from Indian sprachbund with literal meanings of 'trefoil' signifiers:


    Glosses (words and semantics): 

    போற்றி pōṟṟi , < id. n. 1. Praise, applause, commendation; புகழ்மொழி. (W.) 2.Brahman temple-priest of Malabar; கோயிற் பூசைசெய்யும் மலையாளநாட்டுப் பிராமணன். (W.) 3. See போத்தி, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; துதிச்சொல்வகை. பொய்தீர் காட்சிப் புரையோய் போற்றி (சிலப். 13, 92).

    potṛ.  pōtrá1 ʻ *cleaning instrument ʼ (ʻ the Potr̥'s soma vessel ʼ RV.). [√pū]

    Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ (CDIAL 8404)


    pṓta, pōtalaka, pōtalikā young animal, heifer; pōāla -- m. ʻ child, bull ʼ

    potṛā m. ʻ baby clothes ʼpotrẽ n. ʻ rag for smearing cowdung ʼ. pōta ʻ covering (?) ʼ RV., ʻ rough hempen cloth ʼ AV pusta --2 n. ʻ working in clay ʼ (prob. ← Drav., Tam. pūcu &c. Pkt. potta -- , °taga -- , °tia -- n. ʻ cotton cloth ʼ செம்பொத்தி cem-potti, n. prob. id. +. A kind of cloth.

    Te. poṭṭi, poṭṭiya scorpion;
    Tu. poṭṭè tender ear of corn; Pa. poṭ grain in embryonic stage.
    Ta. poṭṭu chaff
    Ta. poṭṭu drop, spot, round mark worn on forehead. Ma. poṭṭu, poṟṟu a circular mark on the forehead, mostly red. Ka. boṭṭu, baṭṭu drop, mark on the forehead. Koḍ. boṭṭï round mark worn on the forehead. Tu. boṭṭa a spot, mark, a drop; (B-K.) buṭṭe a dot. Te. boṭṭu a drop, the sectarian mark worn on the forehead. Kol. (SR.) boṭla drop. Pa. boṭ id. Ga. (P.)boṭu drop, spot. Konḍa boṭu drop of water, mark on forehead. Kuwi (F.) būttū, (Isr.) buṭu tattoo.

    Rebus readings:

    pōta ʻ boat ʼ

    H. pot m. ʻ glass bead ʼ, G. M. pot f.; -- Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ; Pk. pottī -- f. ʻ glass ʼ; S. pūti f. ʻ glass bead ʼ, P. pot f.; N. pote ʻ long straight bar of jewelry ʼ; B. pot ʻ glass bead ʼ, putipũti ʻ small bead ʼ; Or. puti ʻ necklace of small glass beads ʼ

    kõda ’young bull calf’ (Bengali) kõdār ’turner’ (Bengali)

    pola (magnetite)
    pōḷī, ‘dewlap, honeycomb’

    पोळी [ pōḷī ] dewlap. Rebus: Russian gloss, bulat is cognate pola 'magnetite' iron in Asuri (Meluhha). Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring igneous and metamorphic rocks with black or brownish-black with a metallic luster. These magnetite ore stones could have been identified as pola iron by Meluhha speakers. Kannada gloss pola meaning 'point of the compass' may link with the characteristic of magnetite iron used to create a compass.pŏlāduwu made of steel; pŏlād प्वलाद् or phōlād फोलाद्  मृदुलोहविशेषः ] m. steel (Gr.M.; Rām. 431, 635, phōlād). pŏlödi  pōlödi  phōlödi लोहविशेषमयः adj. c.g. of steel, steel (Kashmiri) urukku what is melted, fused metal, steel.(Malayalam); ukk 'steel' (Telugu)(DEDR 661) This is cognate with famed 'wootz'steel. "Polad, Faulad" for steel in late Indian languages is traceable to Pokkhalavat, Polahvad. Pokkhalavat is the name of Pushkalavati, capital of Gandhara famed for iron and steel products.

    पोळ [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large (Marathi). 


    (a) Ta. pōṟai hole, hollow in tree, cavern; pōr hollow of a tree. Ko. bo·r vagina. To.  o·ṟ (obl. o·ṯ-) hole, wound. Ka. pōr hole. Te. boṟiya, boṟṟe hole, burrow, hollow, pit; boṟṟa hole, hollow, cavity in a tree. Ga. (S.2borra hole in tree. Konḍa boṟo hole of a crab, etc. Kuwi (P.) borra hole in tree. DED(S) 3765.
    (b) Ta. pōl hollow object, (Koll.) hollowness in a tree. Te. bōlu hollow.(DEDR 4604) போறை pōṟai , n. cf. புரை&sup5;. [T. borre, K. por.] 1. Hole; hollow in a tree; பொந்து. Colloq. 2. Cavity in the side of a well; cavern; கிணறு முதலியவற்றின் வங்கு. (W.)

    Ta. poṭṭu drop, spot, round mark worn on forehead. Ma. poṭṭu, poṟṟu a circular mark on the forehead, mostly red. Ka. boṭṭu, baṭṭu drop, mark on the forehead. Koḍ. boṭṭï round mark worn on the forehead. Tu. boṭṭa a spot, mark, a drop; (B-K.) buṭṭe a dot. Te. boṭṭu a drop, the sectarian mark worn on the forehead. Kol. (SR.) boṭla drop. Pa. boṭ id. Ga. (P.) boṭu drop, spot. Konḍa boṭu drop of water, mark on forehead. Kuwi (F.) būttū, (Isr.) buṭu tattoo. (DEDR 4492)

    போற்றன் pōṟṟaṉ , n. prob. id. Grandfather; பாட்டன். (நாமதீப. 189.) போற்றுநர் pōṟṟunar n. < போற்று-. 1. Relatives, kinsmen; சுற்றத்தார். போற்றா ருயிரினும் போற்றுந ருயிரினும் (பரிபா. 4, 52). 2. Those who understand; நன்குணர்வார். வேற்றுமை யின்றது போற்றுநர்ப் பெறினே (பரிபா. 4, 55). 
    போத்தி pōtti , n. < போற்றி. 1. Grandfather; பாட்டன். Tinn. 2. Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன்.  पोतृ [p= 650,1] प्/ओतृ or पोतृm. " Purifier " , N. of one of the 16 officiating priests at a yajña (the assistant of the Brahman ; = यज्ञस्यशोधयिट्रि Sa1y. RV. Br. S3rS. Hariv.


    போற்றி pōṟṟi , < id. n. 1. Praise, applause, commendation; புகழ்மொழி. (W.) 2.Brahman temple-priest of Malabar; கோயிற் பூசைசெய்யும் மலையாளநாட்டுப் பிராமணன். (W.) 3. See போத்தி, 1.--int. Exclamation of praise; துதிச்சொல்வகை. பொய்தீர் காட்சிப் புரையோய் போற்றி (சிலப். 13, 92).போற்றிசெய்-தல் pōṟṟi-cey-, v. tr. < போற்றி +. To praise, worship, adore; துதித் தல். பரமனை. . . போற்றிசெய்வேனே (திருமந். 3).போற்றிமை pōṟṟimai , n. < id. Honour, reverence; வணக்கம். (W.)
    போற்று² pōṟṟu , n. < போற்று-. 1. Protection; காப்பு. (சங். அக.) 2. Praise, invocation; துதி. (யாழ். அக.)

    Ta. pōṟṟu (pōṟṟi-) to praise, applaud, worship, protect, cherish, nourish, entertain; n. protection, praise; pōṟṟi praise, applause; pōṟṟimai honour, reverence. Ma. pōṟṟuka to preserve, protect, adore; pōṟṟi nourisher, protector. (DEDR 4605)

    kolom 'three' (Munda) Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' (Telugu)

    कण्टक [p=245,2] anything pointed , the point of a pin or needle , a prickle , sting R. Pa. kandi (pl. -l) necklace, beads. Ga. (P.) kandi (pl. -l) bead, (pl.) necklace; (S.2) kandiṭ bead (DEDR 1215) கண்டு³ kaṇṭu, n. < gaṇḍaBead or something like a pendent in an ornament for the neck; ஓர் ஆபரணவுரு. புல்லிகைக்கண்ட நாண் ஒன்றிற் கட்டின கண்டு ஒன்றும் (S.I.I. ii, 429). गण्ड [p=344,1] a mark , spot L. a bubble , boil , pimple Sus3r. S3ak. ii (Prakrit) Mudr. Vop.

    कण्टक workshop , manufactory L. Tu. kandůka, kandaka ditch, trench. Te. kandakamu id.
    Konḍa kanda trench made as a fireplace during weddings. Pe. kanda fire trench. Kui kanda small trench for fireplace. Malt. kandri a pit. (DEDR 1214) கண்டகம்¹ kaṇṭakam 
     , n. < kaṇṭaka. Smithy; கம்மாலை. (யாழ். அக.)

    Ga. kaṇa (pl. kaṇul) hole Te. kanu, kannu eye, small hole, orifice, mesh of net, eye in peacock's feather. Kol. kan (pl. kanḍl) eye, small hole in ground, cave.  Nk. kan (pl. kanḍḷ) eye, spot in peacock's tail. Ta. kaṇ eye, aperture, orifice, star of a peacock's tail.  (DEDR 1159)

    1159 (a) Ta. kaṇ eye, aperture, orifice, star of a peacock's tail. Ma. kaṇ, kaṇṇu eye, nipple, star in peacock's tail, bud. Ko. kaṇ eye. To. koṇ eye, loop in string. Ka. kaṇ eye, small hole, orifice. Koḍ. kaṇṇï id. Tu. kaṇṇů eye, nipple, star in peacock's feather, rent, tear. Te. kanu, kannu eye, small hole, orifice, mesh of net, eye in peacock's feather. Kol. kan (pl. kanḍl) eye, small hole in ground, cave. Nk. kan (pl. kanḍḷ) eye, spot in peacock's tail. Nk. (Ch.) kan (pl. -l) eye. Pa. (S. only) kan (pl. kanul) eye. Ga. (Oll.) kaṇ (pl. kaṇkul) id.; kaṇul maṭṭa eyebrow; kaṇa (pl. kaṇul) hole; (S.) kanu (pl. kankul) eye. Go. (Tr.)kan (pl. kank) id.; (A.) kaṛ (pl. kaṛk) id. Konḍa kaṇ id. Pe. kaṇga (pl. -ŋ, kaṇku) id. Manḍ. kan (pl. -ke) id. Kui kanu (pl. kan-ga), (K.) kanu (pl. kaṛka)id. Kuwi (F.) kannū (pl. kar&nangle;ka), (S.) kannu (pl. kanka), (Su. P. Isr.) kanu (pl. kaṇka) id. Kur. xann eye, eye of tuber; xannērnā (of newly born babies or animals) to begin to see, have the use of one's eyesight (for ērnā, see 903). Malt. qanu eye. Br. xan id., bud. Cf. 1443 Ta. kāṇ and 1182 Ta.kaṇṇāṭi.
    (b) Ta. kaṇ ṇīr tears. Ma. kaṇ ṇīr. Ko. ka(ṇ) ṇi·r. To. keṇi·r. Ka. kaṇ ṇīr. Tu. kaṇṇů nīr. Te. kan nīru. Pa. (S.) kan nīr. Ga. (Oll.) kanīr. Go. (Mu.)kanner, (A.) kaṛel, (Tr. Ph.) kānēr (pl. kānehk), (Ko.) kanḍēr, (Ma. Ko.) kannīr (Voc. 506). Konḍa kaṇer(u). Pe. kaṇer, kāṇel. Kui kanḍru (pl. -ka). Kuwi (F.) kandrū (pl. -ŋa), (S. Su.) kanḍru, (Mah.) kanˀeri. Kur. xańjalxō. Malt. qan amu. Br. xaṛīnk. 

     Pk. kāṇa -- ʻ full of holes ʼ, G. kāṇũ ʻ full of holes ʼ, n. ʻ hole ʼ (< ʻ empty eyehole ʼ? Cf. ã̄dhḷũ n. ʻ hole ʼ < andhala -- ).(CDIAL 3019)

    3019 kāṇá ʻ one -- eyed ʼ RV.Pa. Pk. kāṇa -- ʻ blind of one eye, blind ʼ; Ash. kã̄ṛa°ṛī f. ʻ blind ʼ, Kt. kãŕ, Wg. kŕãmacrdotdot;, Pr. k&schwatildemacr;, Tir. kāˊna, Kho. kāṇu NTS ii 260,kánu BelvalkarVol 91; K. kônu ʻ one -- eyed ʼ, S. kāṇo, L. P. kāṇã̄; WPah. rudh. śeu. kāṇā ʻ blind ʼ; Ku. kāṇo, gng. kã̄&rtodtilde; ʻ blind of one eye ʼ, N.kānu; A. kanā ʻ blind ʼ; B. kāṇā ʻ one -- eyed, blind ʼ; Or. kaṇā, f. kāṇī ʻ one -- eyed ʼ, Mth. kān°nākanahā, Bhoj. kān, f. °nikanwā m. ʻ one -- eyed man ʼ, H. kān°nā, G. kāṇũ; M. kāṇā ʻ one -- eyed, squint -- eyed ʼ; Si. kaṇa ʻ one -- eyed, blind ʼ. --S.kcch. kāṇī f.adj. ʻ one -- eyed ʼ; WPah.kṭg. kaṇɔ ʻ blind in one eye ʼ, J. kāṇā; Md. kanu ʻ blind ʼ.

    khá -- n. ʻ hole, hole in the nave of a wheel to take the axle ʼ RV., ʻ open space, sky ʼ ŚBr. [√khan](CDIAL 3760)

    *khaḍḍa ʻ hole, pit ʼ. [Cf. *gaḍḍa -- and list s.v. kartá -- 1]Pk. khaḍḍā -- f. ʻ hole, mine, cave ʼ, °ḍaga -- m. ʻ one who digs a hole ʼ, °ḍōlaya -- m. ʻ hole ʼ; Bshk. (Biddulph) "kād" (= khaḍ?) ʻ valley ʼ; K. khŏḍ m. ʻ pit ʼ,kh&obrevdotdot;ḍü f. ʻ small pit ʼ, khoḍu m. ʻ vulva ʼ; S. khaḍ̠a f. ʻ pit ʼ; L. khaḍḍ f. ʻ pit, cavern, ravine ʼ; P. khaḍḍ f. ʻ pit, ravine ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ hole for a weaver's feet ʼ (→ Ku. khaḍḍ, N. khaḍ; H. khaḍkhaḍḍā m. ʻ pit, low ground, notch ʼ; Or. khãḍi ʻ edge of a deep pit ʼ; M. khaḍḍā m. ʻ rough hole, pit ʼ); WPah. khaś.khaḍḍā ʻ stream ʼ; N. khāṛo ʻ pit, bog ʼ, khāṛi ʻ creek ʼ, khāṛal ʻ hole (in ground or stone) ʼ. -- Altern. < *khāḍa -- : Gy. gr. xar f. ʻ hole ʼ; Ku. khāṛʻ pit ʼ; B. khāṛī ʻ creek, inlet ʼ, khāṛal ʻ pit, ditch ʼ; H. khāṛī f. ʻ creek, inlet ʼ, khaṛ -- har°al m. ʻ hole ʼ; Marw. khāṛo m. ʻ hole ʼ; M. khāḍ f. ʻ hole, creek ʼ,°ḍā m. ʻ hole ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ creek, inlet ʼ.S.kcch. khaḍḍ f. ʻ pit ʼ; WPah.kṭg. kháḍ m. ʻ hole in the earth, ravine ʼ, poet. khāḍ (obl. -- o) f. ʻ small stream ʼ, J. khāḍ f. (CDIAL 3790)

    6452 *dula ʻ hole ʼ. [√dal1?]Ku. dulo m., °li f., dulno m. ʻ hole, cavity, animal's den ʼ; N. dulo ʻ hole, animal's hole (e.g. of a mouse) ʼ, nāka ko dulo ʻ nostril ʼ, dulko ʻ little hole ʼ; -- M.ḍuḷū̃ n. ʻ little hole ʼ, ḍolā m.; -- poss. Ash. dūra ʻ hole ʼ (kāsāradūˊra ʻ nostril ʼ, dum -- durḗk ʻ smoke -- hole ʼ); Wg. dúridorīˊg ʻ smoke -- hole ʼ: but these poss. < dúr -- . -- Connexion, if any, with P. duḍ(h) f. ʻ wolf's den ʼ, ḍuḍḍ f. ʻ mouse -- hole ʼ s.v. *ṭōṭṭa -- 1 is obscure.

     8398 *pōḍa ʻ hollow ʼ. 2. *pōra -- 1. 3. *pōla -- . 4. *pōlla -- . 5. *phōra -- . 6. *phōlla -- . [Cf. Pa. pōṭa -- ʻ bubble ʼ. <-> See also list s.v. *pōka -- ; -- poss. conn. with *pūliya -- ]1. Ku. nak -- poṛ ʻ nostril ʼ; N. poro ʻ small hole ʼ (or < 2); G. poṛũ n. ʻ thin scaly crust ʼ (semant. cf. *pōppa -- ); M. poḷ°ḷẽ n. ʻ honeycomb ʼ (or < 3: semant. cf. *pōka -- ).2. S. poru m. ʻ cavity ʼ, poro m. ʻ hollow ʼ (or < 3); P. por f. ʻ hollow bamboo ʼ (or < *pōra -- 2); N. see 1.
    3. S. see 2; L. polā ʻ hollow, porous, loose (of soil) ʼ; M. see 1.
    4. Pk. polla -- , °aḍa -- , pulla -- ʻ hollow ʼ; P. pollā ʻ hollow ʼ, pol m., pulāī f. ʻ hollowness ʼ; Or. pola ʻ hollow ʼ, sb. ʻ puffed -- up pastry ʼ, polā ʻ empty ʼ; G.poli f. ʻ cavity ʼ, polũpolrũ ʻ hollow ʼ, polāṇ n. ʻ hollowness ʼ; M. pol n. ʻ empty tube or grain ʼ, polā ʻ hollow ʼ; -- altern. < 3: Woṭ. pōl, f. pyēl ʻ light (in weight) ʼ; Gaw. pōlá, f. pōlī ʻ small ʼ; K. pọ̆lu ʻ weak ʼ, pŏluru ʻ plump but unsubstantial ʼ; Ku. polo ʻ hollow, weak ʼ, m. ʻ beehive ʼ (l or ?); N. polpwāl ʻhole ʼ, polo
    pwālo ʻ beehive ʼ; A. pola -- kaṭā ʻ burglar ʼ; B. polo ʻ basket open at both ends for catching fish ʼ; H. pol f. ʻ hollowness ʼ, polā ʻ hollow, empty, flabby ʼ.
    5. B. Or. phorā ʻ hollow ʼ.6. P. pholuṛ m. ʻ chaff ʼ; H. pholā m. ʻ blister ʼ; G. pholvũ ʻ to husk ʼ; M. phol n. ʻ hollow grain ʼ.Addenda: *pōḍa -- ʻ hollow ʼ. [~ Drav. DED 3726]4. *pōlla -- : WPah.kṭg. pollɔ ʻ hollow ʼ, J. polā.

    7703 paṭṭakila m. ʻ tenant of royal land ʼ Vet. -- . [*paṭṭakinpaṭṭa -- 1]
    Pk. paṭṭaïl(l)a -- m. ʻ village headman ʼ; G. paṭel m. ʻ hereditary headman ʼ (whence paṭlāṇi f. ʻ his wife ʼ); OM. pāṭaïlu, M. pāṭel°ṭīl m. ʻ village headman ʼ.

    7692 paṭa m. ʻ woven cloth ʼ MBh., °aka -- m., paṭikā -- f. lex., paṭīˊ -- f. Pāṇ.gaṇa. [Cf. paṭṭa -- 2, paṭṭa -- 3, *palla -- 3, pallava -- 2. -- Prob. withkarpaṭa -- and karpāsa -- ← Austro -- as. J. Przyluski BSL xxv 70; less likely with A. Master BSOAS xi 302 ← Drav.]
    Pa. paṭa -- m., °ṭi -- , °ṭikā -- f. ʻ cloth, garment ʼ; Pk. paḍa<-> m. ʻ cloth ʼ, °ḍī -- , °ḍiyā -- f. ʻ a kind of garment ʼ; Wg. paṛīk ʻ shawl ʼ; S. paṛu m. ʻ covering of cloth for a saint's grave ʼ, paṛo m. ʻ petticoat ʼ; Si. paḷapala ʻ cloth, garment ʼ, piḷiya ʻ cloth, clothes ʼ; Md. feli ʻ cotton cloth ʼ.

    7699 paṭṭa1 m. ʻ slab, tablet ʼ MBh., °ṭaka -- m., °ṭikā -- f. Kathās. [Derivation as MIA. form of páttra -- (EWA ii 192), though very doubtful, does receive support from Dard. *paṭṭa -- ʻ leaf ʼ and meaning ʻ metal plate ʼ of several NIA. forms of páttra -- ]
    Pa. paṭṭa -- m. ʻ slab, tablet ʼ; Pk. paṭṭa -- , °ṭaya -- m., °ṭiyā<-> f. ʻ slab of stone, board ʼ; NiDoc. paṭami loc. sg., paṭi ʻ tablet ʼ; K. paṭa m. ʻ slab, tablet, metal plate ʼ, poṭu m. ʻ flat board, leaf of door, etc. ʼ, püṭü f. ʻ plank ʼ, paṭürü f. ʻ plank over a watercourse ʼ (< -- aḍikā -- ); S. paṭo m. ʻ strip of paper ʼ, °ṭi f. ʻ boat's landing plank ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ board to write on, rafter ʼ; L. paṭṭ m. ʻ thigh ʼ, f. ʻ beam ʼ, paṭṭā m. ʻ lease ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ narrow strip of level ground ʼ; P. paṭṭ m. ʻ sandy plain ʼ, °ṭā m. ʻ board, title deed to land ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ writing board ʼ; WPah.bhal. paṭṭ m. ʻ thigh ʼ, °ṭo m. ʻ central beam of house ʼ; Ku. pāṭo ʻ millstone ʼ, °ṭī ʻ board, writing board ʼ; N. pāṭo ʻ strip, plot of land, side ʼ, °ṭi ʻ tablet, slate, inn ʼ; A. pāṭ ʻ board ʼ, paṭā ʻ stone slab for grinding on ʼ; B. pāṭ°ṭā ʻ board, bench, stool, throne ʼ, °ṭi ʻ anything flat, rafter ʼ; Or. pāṭa ʻ plain, throne ʼ, °ṭipaṭā ʻ wooden plank, metal plate ʼ; Bi. pāṭ ʻ wedge fixing beam to body of plough, washing board ʼ, °ṭī ʻ side -- piece of bed, stone to grind spices on ʼ, (Gaya) paṭṭā ʻ wedge ʼ; Mth. pāṭ ʻ end of handle of mattock projecting beyond blade ʼ, °ṭāʻ wedge for beam of plough ʼ; OAw. pāṭa m. ʻ plank, seat ʼ; H. pāṭ°ṭā m. ʻ slab, plank ʼ, °ṭī ʻ side -- piece of bed ʼ, paṭṭā m. ʻ board on which to sit while eating ʼ; OMarw. pāṭī f. ʻ plank ʼ; OG. pāṭīuṁ n. ʻ plank ʼ, pāṭalaü m. ʻ dining stool ʼ; G. pāṭ f., pāṭlɔ m. ʻ bench ʼ, pāṭɔ m. ʻ grinding stone ʼ, °ṭiyũ n. ʻ plank ʼ,°ṭṛɔ m., °ṭṛī f. ʻ beam ʼ; M. pāṭ m. ʻ bench ʼ, °ṭā m. ʻ grinding stone, tableland ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ writing board ʼ; Si. paṭa ʻ metal plate, slab ʼ. -- Deriv.: N. paṭāunu ʻ to spread out ʼ; H. pāṭnā ʻ to roof ʼ.

     7700 paṭṭa2 m. ʻ cloth, woven silk ʼ Kāv., ʻ bandage, fillet turban, diadem ʼ MBh. [Prob. like paṭa -- and *phēṭṭa -- 1 from non -- Aryan source, of which *patta -- in Gy. and *patra -- in Sh. may represent aryanization of paṭṭa -- . Not < páttra -- nor, with P. Tedesco Archaeologica Orientalia in Memoriam Ernst Herzfeld 222, < *pr̥ṣṭa<-> ʻ woven ʼ, while an assumed borrowing from IA. in Bur. ph*llto -- čiṅ ʻ puttees ʼ is too flimsy a basis for *palta -- (~ Eng.fold, &c.) as the source NTS xiii 93] Pa. paṭṭa -- m. ʻ woven silk, fine cloth, cotton cloth, turban ʼ, °ṭaka -- ʻ made of a strip of cloth ʼ, n. ʻ bandage, girdle ʼ, °ṭikā -- f.; NiDoc. paṭa ʻ roll of silk ʼ Lüders Textilien 24; Pk. paṭṭa -- m. ʻ cloth, clothes, turban ʼ; Paš. paṭā ʻ strip of skin ʼ, ar. weg. paṭīˊ ʻ belt ʼ; Kal.rumb. pāˊṭi ʻ scarf ʼ; Phal. paṭṭaṛa ʻ bark ʼ; K. paṭh, dat. °ṭas m. ʻ long strip of cloth from loom ʼ, poṭu m. ʻ woollen cloth ʼ, pôṭu m. ʻ silk, silk cloth ʼ (← Ind.?); S. paṭū m. ʻ silk ʼ, paṭū̃ m. ʻ a kind of woollen cloth ʼ, paṭo m. ʻ band of cloth ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ bandage, fillet ʼ; L. paṭṭ m. ʻ silk ʼ, awāṇ. paṭṭī f. ʻ woollen cloth ʼ; P. paṭṭ m. ʻ silk ʼ, paṭṭī f. ʻ coarse woollen cloth, bandage ʼ; WPah.bhal. peṭṭu m. sg. and pl. ʻ woman's woollen gown ʼ; Ku. pāṭ ʻ silk ʼ; N. pāṭ ʻ flax, hemp ʼ; A. B. pāṭ ʻ silk ʼ (B. also ʻ jute ʼ); Or. pāṭaʻ silk, jute ʼ, paṭā ʻ red silk cloth, sheet, scarf ʼ, (Bastar) pāṭā ʻ loincloth ʼ; Bhoj. paṭuā ʻ jute ʼ; OAw. pāṭa m. ʻ silk cloth ʼ; H. paṭ m. ʻ cloth, turban ʼ, paṭṭū m. ʻ coarse woollen cloth ʼ, paṭṭī f. ʻ strip of cloth ʼ, paṭkā m. ʻ loincloth ʼ; G. pāṭ m. ʻ strip of cloth ʼ, °ṭɔ m. ʻ bandage ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ tape ʼ; Ko. pāṭṭo ʻ strap ʼ; Si. paṭaʻ silk, fine cloth ʼ, paṭiya ʻ ribbon, girdle, cloth screen round a tent ʼ. -- Gy. rum. pato ʻ clothing ʼ, gr. patavo ʻ napkin ʼ, wel. patavō ʻ sock ʼ, germ. phār ʻ silk, taffeta ʼ; Sh.koh. gur. pāc̣ṷ m. ʻ cloth ʼ, koh. poc̣e ʻ clothes ʼ.WPah.poet. pakṭe f. ʻ woman's woollen gown ʼ (metath. of *paṭke with -- akka -- ); Md. fořā ʻ cloth or Sinhalese sarong ʼ, fařu(v)i ʻ silk ʼ, fař ʻ strip, chain ʼ, fař jehum ʻ wrapping ʼ (jehum verbal noun of jahanī ʻ strikes ʼ).


    See: http://karava.org/karava_kings notes on Karava, continuing traditions of coronation of royalty.

    Tri-foliate bilva leaves (aegle marmelos) held sacred for worship of Sivalinga; Clover (trifolium sp.) short-lived herbaceous plants. 
    See: http://www.mushroomstone.com/fleurdelisorigin.htm Decoding the Fleur de lis -- Carl de Borhegyi (2012)

    http://tinyurl.com/ohhz8lw

    The orthography of triskelion hieroglyph on a Kirkburn linch-pin yields a clue to decipher the cognate trefoil hieroglyph of Indus Script Corpora. The trefoil is a composite of three crucibles joined together. Crucibles are used to produce hard alloys. Trefoil hieroglyph-multiplexes adorn a Mohenjo-daro statuette of a person with a well-trimmed beard and wearing fillet on his forehead and on his shoulder. The hieroglyph-multiplexes are deciphered The trefoil adornment on a statuette of Mohenjo-daro of पोतृ pōtṛ " Purifier "(Rigveda) is identified as a composite of three crucibles (koṭhārī) joined together and deciphered as koṭhārī खोद khōda kolimi  paṭṭaḍa 'treasurer, engraver (scribe) of the smithy (workshop)'.

    I do not know why the trefoils adorn bulls forming a funeral couch of an Egyptian ruler Tutankhamen. Do the koṭhārī 'crucibles' signify a veneration of the temples as treasury, he left behind?

    Triskelion and spirals on a Galician torc terminal (Museu do Castro de Santa Tegra).

    Castro torc terminal from the oppidum of Santa Tegra, A GuardaFile:Torque de Santa Tegra 1.JPG Celtic
    http://www.eccentricbliss.com/tag/museu-do-castro-de-santa-tegra/
    Stone work: Castro culture

    Triskelion of the oppidum of Coeliobriga

    A selection of motifs and carvings from the oppida region "From the 2nd century BC, specially in the south, some of the hill-forts turned into semi-urban fortified towns, oppida.The terms oppida and urbs are used by classical authors such as Pliny the Elder and Pomponius Mela for describing the major fortified town of NW Iberia.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castro_culture#cite_note-14


    Back of a sitting statue


    Torque de Foxados, Museo de Pontevedra, Galicia

    Torcs from northern Galicia

    కొఠారు [ koṭhāru ] Same as కొటారు.కొటారు [ koṭāru ] , కొటారము or కొఠారు koṭāru.[Tel.] n. A store, a granary. A place to keep grain, salt, &c.
    కొఠీ [ koṭhī ] koṭhī. [H.] n. A bank. A mercantile house or firm. కొషీవేయు to set up or open a bank.
    கொட்டகாரம் koṭṭakāram
    , n. prob. kōṣṭha + agāra. [T. koṭāramu, M. koṭṭakāram, Tu. koṭṭāra.] Store-room, granary; நெல்முதலிய பண்டம்வைக்கும் அறை. நெற்கூட்டி னிரைசெறிந்த புரிபலவா நிலைக்கொட்டகாரத்தில் (பெரியபு. இடங் கழி. 7).கொட்டடி koṭṭaṭi
    , n. < U. kōṭhari. cf. Mhr. kōṭhaḍi. 1. Room, as kitchen, store- room; சமையல் முதலியவற்றிற்கு உதவும் அறை. 2. Cattle-shed; மாட்டுக்கொட்டில். 3. Prisoner's cell; சிறைச்சாலை அறை. 4. Check, silk cloth of a woman; சேலைவகை.கொட்டாரம் koṭṭāram
    , n. cf. Mhr. kōṭhāra. [T. koṭāramu, K. Tu. koṭṭāra, M. koṭṭāram.] 1. cf. kōṣṭhāgāra. Granary; தானியக் களஞ்சியம். படைக்கலக் கொட்டிலும் புடைக்கொட் டாரமும் (பெருங். மகத. 14, 19). 2. [K. koṭārū.] Place where paddy or other grains are husked; நெல் முதலிய தானியம் குத்துமிடம். 3. Elephant-stall; யானைக்கூடம். Loc. 4. Palace; அரண்மனை. Loc. 5. cf. kōṭṭāra. Principal entrance of a palace, etc.; porch; அரண்மனை முதலியவற்றின் தலைவாசல். (W.)கொட்டி³ koṭṭi n. cf. kōṭṭāra. 1. Tower- gate in a temple; கோபுரவாசல். 2. Gate; வாயில். (அக. நி.)

    खोंडरूं [ khōṇḍarūṃ ] n A contemptuous form of खोंडा in the sense of कांबळा-cowl.खोंडा [ khōṇḍā ] m A कांबळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood.खोंडी [ khōṇḍī ] f An outspread shovelform sack (as formed temporarily out of a कांबळा, to hold or fend off grain, chaff &c.) See under खुंडी. 2 A species or variety of जोंधळा.

    खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi)

    खोदणी [ khōdaṇī ] f (Verbal of खोदणें) Digging, engraving &c. खोदणें [ khōdaṇēṃ ] v c & i ( H) To dig. 2 To engrave.खोदाई [ khōdāī ] f ( H) Price or cost of digging or of sculpture or carving.
    खोदींव [ khōdīṃva ] p of खोदणें Dug. 2 Engraved, carved, sculptured.खोदकाम [ khōdakāma ] n Sculpture; carved work or work for the carver.खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f Sculpture, carving, engraving: also sculptured or carved work.खोदणावळ [ khōdaṇāvaḷa ] f (खोदणें) The price or cost of sculpture or carving.

    kōnda कोंद, see kō̃dakrāl क्राल् । कुलालः m. (the f. is kröjü  q.v., and signifies either his wife, or a female potter), a potter (always a Musalmān) (El.; K.Pr. 114; L. 462; W. 17; H. xi, 1, 11).-kō̃da -कोँद । कुलालकन्दुः f. a potter's kiln. -khŏḍ -ख्व़ड् । स्थानविशेषः m. N. of a quarter in Śrīnagar, near the Haba Kadal bridge, and inhabited by potters.sērĕ-kajāba सेर्य-कजाब । इष्टिकाकूटम् m. a pyramid-shaped pile of bricks. -kölib -का&above;लिब् । इष्टिकायन्त्रम् m. a brick-mould (cf. ). -kō̃da -कोँद । इष्टिकाभ्राष्ट्रः f. a brick-kiln. kō̃da-bal, a brick-kiln or a potter's kiln bāna 1 बान । पात्रम् m. a vessel  -kō̃da -कोँद । कुलालचुल्लिः f. a potter's furnace, the pile of combustible materials in which he bakes his earthen vessels. -kã̄dur -काँदुर् । काष्ठमयो&1;लिंजरविशेषः m. (sg. dat. -kã̄daras -काँदरस्), a large kind of jar, wrapped round with twigs cased in mud, kept in kitchens as a receptacle for articles frequently required; a china merchant (El.) kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- khasüñü -- । कुलालादिकन्दुयथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist. Cf. Śiv. 133, where the causal form of the verb is used. kō̃da khārüñü, to raise a kiln; met. to raise or make a really good kiln in which only perfect bricks are baked (Śiv. 133; cf. kō̃da khasüñü, p. 384b, l. 28).payĕn-kō̃da पयन्-कोँद । परिपाककन्दुः f. a kiln (a potter's, a lime-kiln, and brick-kiln, or the like); a furnace (for smelting). -thöji -था&above;जि&below; or -thöjü ; । परिपाक-(द्रावण-)मूषा f. a crucible, a melting-pot. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । परिपाकोपयोगिशान्ताङ्गारसमूहः f.pl. a special kind of charcoal (made from deodar and similar wood) used in smelting furnaces. -wôlu -वोलु&below; । धात्वादिद्रावण-इष्टिकादिपरिपाकशिल्पी m. a metal-smelter; a brick-baker. -wān -वान् । द्रावणचुल्ली m. a smelting furnace.(Kashmiri) پجه pajaʿh, s.f. (3rd) A brick-kiln, a furnace. Pl. يْ ey.پجه pajaʿh, s.f. (3rd) A furnace, a place for the manufacture of glass, a glass-house, a place where glass is made. Pl. يْ ey.(Pashto)

    OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible ʼ, P. kuṭhālī f., H. kuṭhārīf. (CDIAL 3546)



     Sv. dāntar -- kuṭha ʻ fire -- place ʼ (CDIAL 3546)








    WPah.kṭg. kóṭṭhi f. ʻtemple treasury, name of a partic. temple' 

    (CDIAL 3546)

    Rebus: kṓṣṭha 3546 kṓṣṭha2 n. ʻ pot ʼ Kauś., ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ MBh., ʻ inner apartment ʼ lex., °aka -- n. ʻ treasury ʼ, °ikā f. ʻ pan ʼ Bhpr. [Cf. *kōttha -- , *kōtthala -- : same as prec.?]Pa. koṭṭha -- n. ʻ monk's cell, storeroom ʼ, °aka<-> n. ʻ storeroom ʼ; Pk. koṭṭha -- , kuṭ°koṭṭhaya -- m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ; Sv. dāntar -- kuṭha ʻ fire -- place ʼ; Sh. (Lor.) kōti (ṭh?) ʻ wooden vessel for mixing yeast ʼ; K. kōṭha m. ʻ granary ʼ, kuṭhu m. ʻ room ʼ, kuṭhü f. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ; S. koṭho m. ʻ large room ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ storeroom ʼ; L. koṭhā m. ʻ hut, room, house ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ shop, brothel ʼ, awāṇ. koṭhā ʻ house ʼ; P. koṭṭhākoṭhā m. ʻ house with mud roof and walls, granary ʼ, koṭṭhīkoṭhī f. ʻ big well -- built house, house for married women to prostitute themselves in ʼ; WPah. pāḍ. kuṭhī ʻ house ʼ; Ku. koṭho ʻ large square house ʼ, gng. kōṭhi ʻ room, building ʼ; N. koṭho ʻ chamber ʼ, °ṭhi ʻ shop ʼ; A. koṭhākõṭhā ʻ room ʼ, kuṭhī ʻ factory ʼ; B. koṭhā ʻ brick -- built house ʼ, kuṭhī ʻ bank, granary ʼ; Or. koṭhā ʻ brick -- built house ʼ, °ṭhī ʻ factory, granary ʼ; Bi. koṭhī ʻ granary of straw or brushwood in the open ʼ; Mth. koṭhī ʻ grain -- chest ʼ; OAw. koṭha ʻ storeroom ʼ; H. koṭhā m. ʻ granary ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ granary, large house ʼ, Marw. koṭho m. ʻ room ʼ; G. koṭhɔ m. ʻ jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ large earthen jar, factory ʼ; M. koṭhā m. ʻ large granary ʼ, °ṭhī f. ʻ granary, factory ʼ; Si. koṭa ʻ storehouse ʼ. -- Ext. with -- ḍa -- : K.kūṭhürü f. ʻ small room ʼ; L. koṭhṛī f. ʻ small side room ʼ; P. koṭhṛī f. ʻ room, house ʼ; Ku. koṭheṛī ʻ small room ʼ; H. koṭhrī f. ʻ room, granary ʼ; M. koṭhḍī f. ʻ room ʼ; -- with -- ra -- : A. kuṭharī ʻ chamber ʼ, B. kuṭhrī, Or. koṭhari; -- with -- lla -- : Sh. (Lor.) kotul (ṭh?) ʻ wattle and mud erection for storing grain ʼ; H.koṭhlā m., °lī f. ʻ room, granary ʼ; G. koṭhlɔ m. ʻ wooden box ʼ.
    kōṣṭhapāla -- , *kōṣṭharūpa -- , *kōṣṭhāṁśa -- , kōṣṭhāgāra -- ; *kajjalakōṣṭha -- , *duvārakōṣṭha -- , *dēvakōṣṭha -- , dvārakōṣṭhaka -- .Addenda: kṓṣṭha -- 2: WPah.kṭg. kóṭṭhi f. ʻ house, quarters, temple treasury, name of a partic. temple ʼ, J. koṭhā m. ʻ granary ʼ, koṭhī f. ʻ granary, bungalow ʼ; Garh. koṭhu ʻ house surrounded by a wall ʼ; Md. koḍi ʻ frame ʼ, <-> koři ʻ cage ʼ (X kōṭṭa -- ). -- with ext.: OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible ʼ, P. kuṭhālī f., H. kuṭhārīf.; -- Md. koṭari ʻ room ʼ. kōṣṭhapāla 3547 kōṣṭhapāla m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ W. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, pāla -- ]M. koṭhvaḷā 
    m. (CDIAL 3546, 3547) kōṣṭhāgāra 3550 kōṣṭhāgāra n. ʻ storeroom, store ʼ Mn. [kṓṣṭha -- 2, agāra -- ]Pa. koṭṭhāgāra -- n. ʻ storehouse, granary ʼ; Pk. koṭṭhāgāra -- , koṭṭhāra -- n. ʻ storehouse ʼ; K. kuṭhār m. ʻ wooden granary ʼ, WPah. bhal. kóṭhār m.; A. B.kuṭharī ʻ apartment ʼ, Or. koṭhari; Aw. lakh. koṭhār ʻ zemindar's residence ʼ; H. kuṭhiyār ʻ granary ʼ; G. koṭhār m. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ, koṭhāriyũ n. ʻ small do. ʼ; M. koṭhār n., koṭhārẽ n. ʻ large granary ʼ, -- °rī f. ʻ small one ʼ; Si. koṭāra ʻ granary, store ʼ.kōṣṭhāgārika -- .Addenda: kōṣṭhāgāra -- : WPah.kṭg. kəṭhāˊr, kc. kuṭhār m. ʻ granary, storeroom ʼ, J. kuṭhārkṭhār m.; -- Md. kořāru ʻ storehouse ʼ ← Ind.

    kōṣṭhāgārika 3551 kōṣṭhāgārika m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ BHSk. [Cf. kōṣṭhā- gārin -- m. ʻ wasp ʼ Suśr.: kōṣṭhāgāra -- ] Pa. koṭṭhāgārika -- m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ; S. koṭhārī m. ʻ one who in a body of faqirs looks after the provision store ʼ; Or. koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ; Bhoj. koṭhārī ʻ storekeeper ʼ, H. kuṭhiyārī m.Addenda: kōṣṭhāgārika -- : G. koṭhārī m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ.(CDIAL 3550, 3551) Koṭṭhaka1 (nt.) "a kind of koṭṭha," the stronghold over a gateway, used as a store -- room for various things, a chamber, treasury, granary Vin ii.153, 210; for the purpose of keeping water in it Vin ii.121=142; 220; treasury J i.230; ii.168; -- store -- room J ii.246; koṭthake pāturahosi appeared at the gateway, i. e. arrived at the mansion Vin i.291. -- bala -- k. a line of infantry J i.179. -- koṭṭhaka -- kamma or the occupation connected with a storehouse (or bathroom?) is mentioned as an example of a low occupation at Vin iv.6; Kern, Toev. s. v. "someone who sweeps away dirt."(Pali)

    kolom 'three' (Mu.)Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë 
    blacksmith.Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmismithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133) <kol>\\<koRa>(D)  {N} ``^oven, ^fireplace, ^hearth''.  #40042 So<koRa>//<kol>(L)  {N} ``^oven, ^fireplace, ^hearth''..(Munda)

    मेढा [ mēḍhā ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl.(Marathi)  *mēṇḍhī ʻ lock of hair, curl ʼ. [Cf. *mēṇḍha -- 1 s.v. *miḍḍa -- ]
    S. mī˜ḍhī f., °ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ, L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔmiḍ° m. ʻ braid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ; M. meḍhā m. ʻ curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread ʼ.(CDIAL 10312)
    मेढी [ mēḍhī ] f (Dim. of मेढ) A small bifurcated stake: also a small stake, with or without furcation, used as a post to support a cross piece. (Marathi) मेढ्या [ mēḍhyā ] a (मेढ Stake or post.) A term for a person considered as the pillar, prop, or support (of a household, army, or other body), the staff or stay. 2 Applied to a person acquainted with clandestine or knavish transactions.


    meď 'copper' (Slovak)

    Santali glosses:
    Wilhelm von Hevesy wrote about the Finno-Ugric-Munda kinship, like "Munda-Magyar-Maori, an Indian link between the antipodes new tracks of Hungarian origins" and "Finnisch-Ugrisches aus Indien". (DRIEM, George van: Languages of the Himalayas: an ethnolinguistic handbook. 1997. p.161-162.) Sumerian-Ural-Altaic language affinities have been noted. Given the presence of Meluhha settlements in Sumer, some Meluhha glosses might have been adapted in these languages. One etyma cluster refers to 'iron' exemplified by meD (Ho.). The alternative suggestion for the origin of the gloss med 'copper' in Uralic languages may be explained by the word meD (Ho.) of Munda family of Meluhha language stream:

    Sa. <i>mE~R~hE~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mE~RhE~d</i>(M).

    Ma. <i>mErhE'd</i> `iron'.

    Mu. <i>mERE'd</i> `iron'.

      ~ <i>mE~R~E~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mENhEd</i>(M).

    Ho <i>meD</i> `iron'.

    Bj. <i>merhd</i>(Hunter) `iron'.

    KW <i>mENhEd</i>

    @(V168,M080)


    — Slavic glosses for 'copper'

    Мед [Med]Bulgarian

    Bakar Bosnian

    Медзь [medz']Belarusian

    Měď Czech

    Bakar Croatian

    KòperKashubian

    Бакар [Bakar]Macedonian

    Miedź Polish

    Медь [Med']Russian

    Meď Slovak

    BakerSlovenian

    Бакар [Bakar]Serbian

    Мідь [mid'] Ukrainian[unquote]

    Miedź, med' (Northern Slavic, Altaic) 'copper'.  


    One suggestion is that corruptions from the German "Schmied", "Geschmeide" = jewelry. Schmied, a smith (of tin, gold, silver, or other metal)(German) result in med ‘copper’.
    Architectural fragment with relief showing winged dwarfs (or gaNa) worshipping with flower garlands, Siva Linga. Bhuteshwar, ca. 2nd cent BCE.
    Relief with Ekamukha linga. Mathura. 1st cent. CE (Fig. 6.2).
    Sivalinga. Terracotta. 4.5x4.5 cm. Kalibangan.
    Sivalinga. Harappa.

    Image result for Mohenjo Daro, tablet in bas relief (M-478)Image result for Mohenjo Daro, tablet in bas relief (M-478)Mohejodaro, tablet in bas relief (M-478)

    m1356, m443 table मेढा [ mēḍhā ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl.(Marathi) mer.ha = twisted, crumpled, as a horn (Santali.lex.) meli, melika = a turn, a twist, a loop, entanglement; meliyu, melivad.u, meligonu = to get twisted or entwined (Te.lex.) [Note the endless knot motif]. Rebus: med. ‘iron’ (Mu.) sattva 'svastika glyph' Rebus: sattva, jasta 'zinc'.

    Altar, platform:  Ta. mēṭai platform, raised floor, artificial mound, terraced house. Ma. mēṭa raised place, tower, upper story, palace. Te. mēḍa house with two or more stories, upper chamber. Pa. mēṛ ole bungalow. Go. (Ko.) mēṛā large house, bungalow (Voc. 2965). Konḍa mēṛa mide terraced building (see 5069). Pe. mēṛstoried house, mansion. Kuwi (S.) mēḍa illu storied house; (Isr.) mēṛa upstair building. / Cf. Skt. (lex.meṭa- whitewashed storied house; Pkt. meḍaya- id. (DEDR 4796) మేడ (p. 1034) [ mēḍa ] mēḍa. [Tel.] n. A mansion or large house: an upper chamber, a storey,(Telugu) pīṭha n. ʻ stool, bench ʼ Gr̥S., °aka -- m.n. BhP., pīṭhī -- , °ṭhikā -- f. R. 2. *pēḍha -- 1. 3. *pēḍḍha -- . [Variety of form suggests non -- Aryan origin]
    1. Pa. pīṭha -- , °aka -- n., pīṭhikā -- f.; Pk. pīḍha -- , °aga<-> n. ʻ stool ʼ, pīḍhī -- f. ʻ supporting beam of a house ʼ, °ḍhiā<-> f. ʻ a kind of seat ʼ; Pr. pīrə ʻ outside wall ʼ NTS xv 269; K. pīrpīrü f. ʻ stool ʼ; S. pīṛhī f. ʻ throne ʼ; L. pihṛā m., °ṛī f. ʻ stool ʼ, awāṇ. pīˋṛā, P. pīṛhā m., °ṛhī f., Ku. pīṛo m.; N. pirā ʻ stool, bench ʼ; A. pirā ʻ stool ʼ, pīri ʻ beam of a boat, flat pieces of wood fixed crosswise over shafts of a cart ʼ; Or. piṛha ʻ altar, platform ʼ, piṛhā ʻ stool ʼ, piṛhi ʻ footstool ʼ; Bi. pīṛhā°ṛhīpiṛhiyā ʻ wooden seat on which a woman sits at the handmill ʼ, piṛhiyā ʻ apex triangle in front of driver's seat in a cart ʼ, (Gaya) pīṛhā ʻ pastry -- board ʼ; Mth. pīṛhā°ṛhi ʻ stool ʼ, Bhoj. pīṛhā, OAw. pīḍha; H. pīṛhā m. ʻ large square stool ʼ, pīṛhī f. ʻ small do. ʼ; G. pīḍhiyũ n. ʻ beam to which floor planks are fastened ʼ, pīḍhi f., ʻ molar tooth ʼ, pīḍhiyũ n. ʻ molar tooth, gums ʼ (cf. dantapīṭhāḥ m. pl. ʻ tooth sockets ʼ VS. com. and semant. bársva -- ʻ tooth -- socket ~ bunch, bolster ʼ P. Thieme ZDMG 62, 47); M. piḍhẽ n. ʻ stool ʼ; Si. piḷapila ʻ ledge along a house to sit on, veranda, portico ʼ.2. Pk. pēḍha -- m., °ḍhī -- , °ḍhiā -- f. ʻ stool ʼ.3. Paš.weg. nir. peṛāˊ ʻ stairs ʼ (IIFL iii 3, 147 < pīṭha -- ?); S. peḍhī f. ʻ shelf fixed in a wall ʼ; G. peḍhī f. ʻ step of a ladder ʼ; M. peḍhī f. ʻ raised place on the floor ʼ.(CDIAL 8222)

     करडी [ karaḍī ] f (See करडई) Safflower: also its seed. Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy' of arka 'copper'. Rebus: fire-god: @B27990.  #16671. Remo <karandi>E155  {N} ``^fire-^god''.(Munda).

    sangi 'mollusc', Rebus: sangi 'pilgrim'





    Rings on neck: koDiyum (G.) koṭiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; koṭ = neck (G.lex.)

    Rebus: koD  'artisan's 



    workshop'

    (Kuwi) koD  = place where artisans work (Gujarati). 



    koṭe 'forge' (Mu.)


    koṭe meṛed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari)





    Hieroglyph: Bi. goṭā ʻ seed Rebus: L.  khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P.  khoṭ 'alloy'


    *gōṭṭa ʻ something round ʼ. [Cf. guḍá -- 1. -- In sense ʻ fruit, kernel ʼ cert. ← Drav., cf. Tam. koṭṭai ʻ nut, kernel ʼ, Kan. goṟaṭe &c. listed DED 1722]K. goṭh f., dat. °ṭi f. ʻ chequer or chess or dice board ʼ; S. g̠oṭu m. ʻ large ball of tobacco ready for hookah ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ small do. ʼ; P. goṭ f. ʻ spool on which gold or silver wire is wound, piece on a chequer board ʼ; N. goṭo ʻ piece ʼ, goṭi ʻ chess piece ʼ; A. goṭ ʻ a fruit, whole piece ʼ, °ṭā ʻ globular, solid ʼ, guṭi ʻ small ball, seed, kernel ʼ; B. goṭā ʻ seed, bean, whole ʼ; Or. goṭā ʻ whole, undivided ʼ, goṭi ʻ small ball, cocoon ʼ, goṭāli ʻ small round piece of chalk ʼ; Bi. goṭā ʻ seed ʼ; Mth.goṭa ʻ numerative particle ʼ; H. goṭ f. ʻ piece (at chess &c.) ʼ; G. goṭ m. ʻ cloud of smoke ʼ, °ṭɔ m. ʻ kernel of coconut, nosegay ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ lump of silver, clot of blood ʼ, °ṭilɔ m. ʻ hard ball of cloth ʼ; M. goṭā m. ʻ roundish stone ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ a marble ʼ, goṭuḷā ʻ spherical ʼ; Si. guṭiya ʻ lump, ball ʼ; -- prob. also P. goṭṭā ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ, H. goṭā m. ʻ edging of such ʼ (→ K. goṭa m. ʻ edging of gold braid ʼ, S. goṭo m. ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ); M. goṭ ʻ hem of a garment, metal wristlet ʼ.
    *gōḍḍ -- ʻ dig ʼ see *khōdd -- .Addenda: *gōṭṭa -- : also Ko. gōṭu ʻ silver or gold braid ʼ.(CDIAL 4271)

     L. khoṭ f. ʻ alloy, impurity ʼ, °ṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻ base, alloy ʼ (PhonPj 117 Bshk. khoṭ ʻ embers ʼ, Phal. khūṭo ʻ ashes, burning coal ʼ(CDIAL 3931)
    Crucibles. Ban Chiang. "These thick-walled spouted vessels were made of clay. Analysis of the interiors shows that they were used to melt bronze, copper, and tin for casting in molds. A notable feature of crucibles in the Ban Chiang area is lagging, the thin quartz-rich clay layer deliberately added to the interior of the crucible. The lagging layer would tend to reflect heat into the metal and also retard crucible disintegration. The use of a lagging layer indicates that the Ban Chiang metalworkers possessed a sophisticated understanding of refractory principles. Some crucible fragments have several layers of lagging, indicating that they were used repeatedly.http://penn.museum/banchiang/findings/pottery/



    Two views of a fine crucible that was found in one of the pits. It would have been used in the manufacture of copper or silver objects.
     Find out more at http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/projects/county/hampshire/28-jewry-street-winchester

    Trefoil inlay decorated on a bull calf. Uruk (W.16017) ca. 3000 BCE. kõdā 'young bull calf' Rebus: kõdā 'turner-joiner' (forge),

    damkom = a bull calf (Santali) Rebus: damha = a fireplace; dumhe = to heap, to collect together (Santali)

    Trefoil design on the uttarIyam of the priest, AcArya, PotR. This denotes: three strands of rope: dāmā 'rope' rebus: dhāma ʻreligious conduct'.Trefoil designs on the shawl garment of the 'priest' Mohenjo-daro statue. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel.  Material: white, low fired steatiteDimensions: 17.5 cm height, 11 cm width Mohenjo-daro, DK 1909 National Museum, Karachi, 50.852 Marshall 1931: 356-7, pl. XCVIII

    The trefoil hieroglyph on the priest's shawl, on the body of a bull calf and on the base pedestal of a s'ivalinga is comparable to the hieroglyph which appears on painted lid or dish -- in the context of venerating the dead. This points to reverence for ancestors.Sumerian marble calf with inlaid trefoils of blue stone. From the late Uruk era, cira 3000 B.C.Sumerian marble calf with inlaid trefoils of blue stone. From the late Uruk era, Jemdet Nasr cira 3300 - 2900 B.C.E 5.3 cm. long; Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin; Parpola, 1994, p. 213.

    Image result for Steatite statue fragment; Mohenjodaro (Sd 767)Steatite statue fragment; Mohenjodaro (Sd 767); trefoil-decorated bull; traces of red pigment remain inside the trefoils. After Ardeleanu-Jansen 1989: 196, fig. 1; Parpola, 1994, p. 213.
    Trefoils painted on steatite beads, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXXIII, Fig.2)
    Harry Burton photograph taken during the excavation of the tomb in 1922 in pharaoh's Antechamber, Treasury and Burial chamber.
    King Tut's burial bed in the form of the Celestial Cow. The Cow represents the Goddess Hathor Mehet-Urt, whose horns are decorated with the solar disk.
    Funeral couch of Tutankhamen (1336 BC - 1327 BCE) features cow with solar disc and inlay blue glass trefoils decorating the body. Said to represent Goddess Hathor.
    "An inscription from The Book of the divine cow found in the Burial chamber alludes to its sacred function as a solar barque for bearing the pharaoh to the heavens...Hieroglyphs carved on the footboard promise the protection of Isis and the endurance of Osiris."http://www.kingtutexhibit.com/catalogs/tutankhamun_catalog.pdf


    Lingamgrey sandstone in situ, Harappa. 

    Terracotta sivalinga, Kalibangan.Shape of polished lingam found at Harappa is like the summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. Plate X(c), Lingam in situ in trench Ai (MS Vats, 1940, Exxcavations at Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta). In trenches III and IV two more stone lingams were found. (MS Vats, opcit., Vol. I, pp. 51-52). The Hindu traditional metaphor of s'iva is the glacial river Ganga emerging from locks of his hair as he sits in penance on summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. The metaphor results in Kailas in Ellora, showing Ravana lifting up the mountain.

    Stone base for Sivalinga.Tre-foil inlay decorated base (for linga icon?); smoothed, polished pedestal of dark red stone; National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi; After Mackay 1938: I, 411; II, pl. 107:35; Parpola, 1994, p. 218.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 two decorated basesTwo decorated bases and a lingam, Mohenjodaro. Trefoil inlay decorated base (for linga icon?); smoothed, polished pedestal of dark red stone; National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi; After Mackay 1938: I, 411; II, pl. 107:35; Parpola, 1994, p. 218. "In an earthenware jar, No. 12414, recovered from Mound F, Trench IV, Square I"

    If one end of a tape or belt is turned over three times and then pasted to the other, a trefoil knot results. (Shaw, George Russell (MCMXXXIII). Knots: Useful & Ornamental, p.11.)
    It is possible to decipher the hieroglyphs using the rebus-metonymy layered cipher of Indus writing system. 

    The Meluhha semantics of objects signified by these three hieroglyphs are related to metalwork guild.

    Trefoil hieroglyph or three 'beads, orifice' 
    kolom 'three' (Munda) Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. The triplicate  composing the trefoil is a semantic determinant of the signified object: smithy, forge.

    *pōttī ʻ glass bead ʼ.Pk. pottī -- f. ʻ glass ʼ; S. pūti f. ʻ glass bead ʼ, P. pot f.; N. pote ʻ long straight bar of jewelry ʼ; B. pot ʻ glass bead ʼ, putipũti ʻ small bead ʼ; Or. puti ʻ necklace of small glass beads ʼ; H. pot m. ʻ glass bead ʼ, G. M. pot f.; -- Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ rather than < pōtrá -- 1.(CDIAL 8403) பொத்தல் pottal n. < id. [K. poṭṭare, M. pottu, Tu. potre.] 1. Hole, orifice. 

    Rebus: Soma priest, jeweller's polishing stone

    पोतृ pōt " Purifier " , Name of one of the 16 officiating priests at a yajña (the assistant of the Brahman (Rigveda) pōtrá1 ʻ *cleaning instrument ʼ (ʻ the Potr̥'s soma vessel ʼ RV.). [√Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ? -- Rather < *pōttī -- .(CDIAL 8404) pōtṛ पोतृ m. 1 One of the sixteen officiating priests at a yajña (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्). -2 An epithet of Viṣṇu.
    Mesopotamian lama deity, a bull with a human head, kind, protective spirits associated with the great sun god Shamash. In one inscription, an Assyrian king called upon lama deities to "turn back an evil person, guard the steps, and secure the path of the king who fashioned them." 2100-2000 BCE Serpentine, a smooth green stone the color of life-giving water in a desert area. The hollowed-out shapes on the body originally were inlaid with pearly shell or lapis lazuli.

    "Images of human-headed bulls are found throughout Mesopotamian history. Several statuettes dating from the late third millennium BC show a bearded creature wearing the divine horned headdress, lying down with its head turned to the side. They have been found at various Sumerian sites, the majority from Telloh.


    Bovine head rhytonCrete. Cow-head rhython with trefoil decor.

    1 G. Contenau, Manual d'archeologie orientale, II, Paris, 1931, p. 698-9.
    2 ibid. and A. Evans, the Palace of Mines, II, 1928, p. 261
    3 The Babylonian Legends of the Creation (Brit. Mus. 1931), p. 59; Antiquaries Journal, III, 1923, p.331
    4 Evans, op cit. I, 1921, pp. 513-14
    5 ibid. IV, 1935, p. 315

    miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120)

    Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)mẽṛh t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Munda) 
    "Late Harappan Period dish or lid with perforation at edge for hanging or attaching to large jar. It shows a Blackbuck antelope with trefoil design made of combined circle-and-dot motifs, possibly representing stars. It is associated with burial pottery of the Cemetery H period,dating after 1900 BC.The Late Harappan Period at Harappa is represented by the Cemetery H culture (190-1300 BC) which is named after the discovery of a large cemetery filled with painted burial urns and some extended inhumations. The earlier burials in this cemetery were laid out much like Harappan coffin burials, but in the later burials, adults were cremated and the bones placed in large urns (164). The change in burial customs represents a major shift in religion and can also be correlated to important changes in economic and political organization. Cemetery H pottery and related ceramics have been found throughout northern Pakistan, even as far north as Swat, where they mix with distinctive local traditions. In the east, numerous sites in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab provide evidence for the gradual expansion of settlements into this heavily forested region. One impetus for this expansion may have been the increasing use of rice and other summer (kharif) crops that could be grown using monsoon stimulated rains. Until late in the Harappan Period (after 2200 BC) the agricultural foundation of the Harappan cities was largely winter (rabi) crops that included wheat and barley. Although the Cemetery H culture encompassed a relatively large area, the trade connections with thewestern highlands began to break down as did the trade with the coast. Lapis lazuli and turquoise beads are rarely found in the settlements, and marine shell for ornaments and ritual objects gradually disappeared. On the other hand the technology of faience manufacture becomes more refined, possibly in order to compensate for the lack of raw materials such as shell, faience and possibly even carnelian." (Kenoyer in harappa.com slide description) http://www.harappa.com/indus2/162.html
    The chariot linch-pin found at Kirkburn has a triskele hieroglyph-multiplex with an orthography of hierolyph components signifying associated semantics of metalwork. The circular edge of the ends of the linch-pin is embossed with raised circles signifying ingots out of the three sets of crucibles. 
    Copper alloy and iron linch pin; exposed iron shank, rectangular in section and markedly off-centre to the upper terminal.  Upper terminal slightly lop-sided, its perforation is clear of corrosion, and there are wear facets at two points on the edge of th

    In this hieroglyph-multiplex, the central hieroglyph component is  three curved (crucibles) emanating from the centre. At the tip of each of the three cuve-endings, an explanatory hieroglyph component signifies: 1. crucible; and 2. a round ingot emanating from the crucible. Orthography clearly signifies metalwork by a Celtic artisan. The bend in the curved legs emanating from the centre in the triskele is relatable to: कोट or bend, कोटः kōṭḥ Crookedness. A beard (Samskritam. Apte)

    Hieroglyph: koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible  (Old Punjabi)(CDIAL 3546) Rebus: Pk. koṭṭhāgāra -- , koṭṭhāra -- n. ʻ storehouse ʼ; K. kuṭhār m. ʻ wooden granary ʼ, WPah. bhal. kóṭhār m.; A. B. kuṭharī ʻ apartment ʼ, Or. koṭhari; Aw. lakh. koṭhār ʻ zemindar's residence ʼ; H. kuṭhiyār ʻ granary ʼ; G. koṭhār m. ʻ granary, storehouse ʼ, koṭhāriyũ n. ʻ small do. ʼ; M. koṭhār n., koṭhārẽ n. ʻ large granary ʼ, -- °rī f. ʻ small one ʼ; Si.koṭāra ʻ granary, store ʼ.(CDIAL 3550).

    *gōṭṭa ʻ something round ʼ. [Cf. guḍá -- 1. -- In sense ʻ fruit, kernel ʼ cert. ← Drav., cf. Tam. koṭṭai ʻ nut, kernel ʼ, Kan. goṟaṭe &c. listed DED 1722] K. goṭh f., dat. °ṭi f. ʻ chequer or chess or dice board ʼ; S. g̠oṭu m. ʻ large ball of tobacco ready for hookah ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ small do. ʼ; P. goṭ f. ʻ spool on which gold or silver wire is wound, piece on a chequer board ʼ; N. goṭo ʻ piece ʼ, goṭi ʻ chess piece ʼ; A. goṭ ʻ a fruit, whole piece ʼ, °ṭā ʻ globular, solid ʼ, guṭi ʻ small ball, seed, kernel ʼ; B. goṭā ʻ seed, bean, whole ʼ; Or. goṭā ʻ whole, undivided ʼ, goṭi ʻ small ball, cocoon ʼ, goṭāli ʻ small round piece of chalk ʼ; Bi. goṭā ʻ seed ʼ; Mth. goṭa ʻ numerative particle ʼ; H. goṭ f. ʻ piece (at chess &c.) ʼ; G. goṭ m. ʻ cloud of smoke ʼ, °ṭɔm. ʻ kernel of coconut, nosegay ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ lump of silver, clot of blood ʼ, °ṭilɔ m. ʻ hard ball of cloth ʼ; M. goṭā m. ʻ roundish stone ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ a marble ʼ, goṭuḷā ʻ spherical ʼ; Si. guṭiya ʻ lump, ball ʼ; -- prob. also P. goṭṭā ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ, H. goṭā m. ʻ edging of such ʼ (→ K. goṭa m. ʻ edging of gold braid ʼ, S. goṭo m. ʻ gold or silver lace ʼ); M. goṭ ʻ hem of a garment, metal wristlet ʼ.*gōḍḍ -- ʻ dig ʼ see *khōdd -- .Addenda: *gōṭṭa -- : also Ko. gōṭu ʻ silver or gold braid ʼ.(CDIAL 4271) Rebus: खोट (p. 212) [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge.(Marathi)

    kōṣṭhāgārika m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ BHSk. [Cf. kōṣṭhā- gārin -- m. ʻ wasp ʼ Suśr.: kōṣṭhāgāra -- ] Pa. koṭṭhāgārika -- m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ; S. koṭhārī m. ʻ one who in a body of faqirs looks after the provision store ʼ; Or. koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ; Bhoj. koṭhārī ʻ storekeeper ʼ, H. kuṭhiyārī m.Addenda: 
    kōṣṭhāgārika -- : G. koṭhārī m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ.(CDIAL 3551)

    The Kirkburn triskele yields the following hieroglyphs and rebus readings:

    Hieroglyphs: 1. कोटः kōṭḥ Crookedness. 2. Bi. goṭā ʻ seed Rebus: L.  khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P.  khoṭ 'alloy'

    Hieroglyph: koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible' Rebus: koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ

    Hieroglyph: kolom 'three' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'.Hieroglyph: koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible' Thus, the triskele/trefoil reads: kolom khoṭ Rebus: kolimi 'smithy' koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ

    The trefoil wearing statuette signifies the message of a treasurer of the smithy:  kolimi koṭhārī 


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    https://tinyurl.com/ycjn4ytv

    शफ an eighth (because of the divided hoofs of the cow ; cf. पाद , a fourth or aṣṭau śaphāh, 'eight hoofs'RV. TS. Śatapatha Brāhmaṇaa wooden implement formed like a claw or hook (for lifting an iron pot or pan from the fire)ब्राह्मण; लाट्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र.

    According to the R̥gveda 5.30.15, the Mahāvīra  vessel  was made of metal (ayasmaya) and it was called Gharma, which is also the word for the milk poured into a heated vessel. In later Vedic texts, the vessel became known as Pravargya, which is initially the name of the ritual.  The Pravargya ritual is not directly mentioned in the R̥gveda. However, its name is derived from the R̥gvedic word pravr̥j mentioned in the same hymn. This word means ‘ceremonial heating and boiling’.

    Thus, śaphau are two hoofs of a cow, often referred to as nandipada (Nandi's footprint) symbol.

    Atharvaveda 5.14.3: 
    r̥ṣasyeva parīśāsam parikr̥tya pari tvacah

    kr̥tyām  kr̥tyākr̥te deva niṣkam iva pratimumuñcata


    Translation: O gods, chop off the spell like the single horn (parīśāsam)of the r̥ṣya around its skin and fasten the spell upon him, who prepares it, as (one fastens) an ornament.


    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa 14, 2, 1, 16 is cited to describe the pair of tongs: “You are Gāyatrī metre and you are Triṣṭubh metre” (while reading this mantras,) then he holds (two tongs) of the implement śaphau. Thus, he actually encompasses (the Pravargya vessel) with Gāyatrī and Triṣṭubh metre. “I will encompass you with heaven and earth.” Indeed, heaven and earth are (two tongs) of  pariśāsau, and the sun is Pravargya.”


    "Vedic people made a pair of tongs out of two objects called pariśāsas; hence, the (wooden) implement was known to them as pariśāsau. pariśāsa (single in number) is described in the Atharvaveda as an object protruding above the skin of a r̥ṣya." -- Gautam V. Vajracharya

    ऋश्य or (in later texts) ऋष्यm. the male of a species of antelope , the painted or white-footed antelope RV. viii , 4 , 10 AV. v , 14 , 3 VS. AitBr. Sus3r. (Monier-Williams)

    The overlapping erect earlobe shown in profile just next to the single horn on the following Indus script seals indicate the portrayal of a bull with two horns.
     

    I see pictorial motifs as signifiers of a young bull, rendered as an Indus Script hypertext with hieroglyph components explaining pictorially in script, the revolution unleashed during the Tin-Bronze Revolution of 4th millennium BCE: one horn, young bull, pannier, rings on neck PLUS reinforced by the 'standard device' normally shown in front of the young bull on thousands of inscriptions. Read rebus in Bhāratīya sprachbund--spoken Samskr̥tam

    See: http://tinyurl.com/ktafaud karba 'culm of millet' rebus: karba 'iron' ajirda karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu) 

    The culm of millet is held up as a flagstaff by Mari priest (See pictures). On top of the flagpost is the 'unicorn'

    பொத்தி¹ potti n. perh. பொத்து-. [T. K. potti.] 1 Unblown flower of the plantain; மடல்விரியா வாழைப்பூ. (J.) 4. Ear of cōḷam in sheath; சோளக்கதிர். (W.) 5. Ear of grain in sheath; தானியக்கதிர். (W.) Rebus: potti ‘Po tṟ, purifier priest’
    खोंड khōṇḍa 'A young bull, a bullcalf'; rebus kundaṇa, 'fine gold' (Kannada), ) kunda 'a treasure of Kuberakondar 'turner'
    sāṅgāḍī 'part of turner's apparatus to hold a turned object steady' rebus: sangatarāśū'stone cutter' (Telugu)  sangar'fortification', sangara 'trade', sanghāta'adamantine glue' (Varāhamihira) sangara [fr. saŋ+gṛ] promise, agreement J iv.105, 111, 473; v.25, 479 (Pali) 3. jangaḍ  id. (Hindi. Gujarati.Marathi) 
    Goods were couriered and delivered by consignor on entrustment basis for the consignee to make the settlements AFTER the goods are finally sold to third parties. Such an accounting system was called jangaḍThe meaning of ‘Janga’ is well-settled in Indian legal system. Janga means "Goods sent on approval or 'on sale or return'. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/06/ancient-near-east-jangad-accounting-for.html The couriers who effect the delivery of the goods are called jangaḍiyo. In old Gujarati, the term jangaḍiyo  ‘military guard who accompanies treasure into the treasury’. The term sanghāḍiyo 'a worker on a lathe' (Gujarati)
    Inline image 3Inline image 4
    Frieze of a mosaic panel Circa 2500-2400 BCE Temple of Ishtar, Mari (Tell Hariri), Syria Shell  and shale André Parrot excavations, 1934-36 AO 19820 

    Vajracharya identifies the 'unicorn' on Indus inscriptions as r̥ṣya, a bull and provides illustrations to show that Vedic people designated the pair of tongs as śaphau. The pair of tongs were made of two 'unicorn' curvilinear horns.
     
    In the presentation, Vajracharya does not explain why fish-fins (or fishtail like legs of nandipada) are shown on the Bharhut sculptural frieze and on a copper coin of 2nd century BCE.

    http://www.ejvs.laurasianacademy.com/Unicorn-compressed.pdf





    The 'nandipada' symbol is read as:tāmarasa'lotus' rebus:  tāmra'copperp; ayo'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaṭa  'mint, coiner, coinage' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, together the hypertext signifies tāmra dul ayo kammaṭa'copper metalcasting, alloy metal mint'.

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    February 4, 2018

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    A remarkable judgement of Bombay High Court justifies the rebus readings of Indus Script hypertexts in the context of a unique Bhāratīy mercantile transaction called Janga or Entrust Receipt. All the transactions recorded for wealth accounting of metalwork transactions and trade are janga 'Entrust Receipts'.

    Thus, the decipherment of Indus Script hypertexts contributes to an understanding of the honour-based trade transactions -- a unique method of mercantile transactions -- which are in vogue even today based on the method of janga or Entrust Receipts. This is a well-settled system in Bhāratīya juridprudence.

    This is an addendum to: 

     https://tinyurl.com/ycjn4ytv



    The most frequently occurring hypertexts of Indus Script Corpora are:1.one-horned young bull; and 2. standard device in front of the young bull.

    The standard device is a hypertext combining two major components PLUS hieroglyph of dotted circles. The two major components are: 1. lathe (top register); 2. portable furnace (bottom register). Dotted circles signify: dhāv 'throw of one in dice' rebus: dhāv 'red ores' PLUS vaṭa 'round' Thus, together, the hypertext reads rebus: dhāvaḍ 'smelter'.

    The lathe is: sangaḍa. The portable furnace is sangaḍa.  सांगड sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S) A float composed of two canoes or boats bound together: also a link of two pompions &c. to swim or float by. 2 f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together. 3 That member of a turner's apparatus by which the piece to be turned is confined and steadied. सांगडीस धरणें To take into linkedness or close connection with, lit. fig.; सांगडणें sāṅgaḍaṇēṃ v c (सांगड) To link, join, or unite together (boats, fruits, animals). 2 Freely. To tie or bind up or unto.

    Hieroglyphs: sāṅgāḍī 'part of turner's apparatus to hold a turned object steady'

    Rebus readings are: sangatarāśū 'stone cutter' (Telugu)  sangar'fortification', sangara'trade', sanghāta 'adamantine glue' (Varāhamihira) sangara [fr. saŋ+gṛ] promise, agreement J iv.105, 111, 473; v.25, 479 (Pali) 3. jangaḍ  id. (Hindi. Gujarati.Marathi) Jangaḍ 'entrustment receipt'.

    Janga or Entrust Receipt is denoted by the 'standard device' hieroglyph read: sangaḍ 'lathe/gimlet, portable furnace'. Note: The meaning of ‘Janga’ is well-settled in Indian legal system. Janga means "Goods sent on approval or 'on sale or return'… It is well-known that the Janga transactions in this country are very common and often involve property of a considerable value." Bombay High Court Emperor vs Phirozshah Manekji Gandhi on 13 June, 1934 Equivalent citations: (1934) 36 BOMLR 731, 152 Ind Cas 706 Source: http://www.indiankanoon.org/doc/39008/ 
    The terms jangad and karanika are represented as the most frequently used hieroglyphs on Indus writing. The hieroglyphs are: sangaḍa 'lathe, portable furnace' and kanka 'rim of jar' represented by the following glyphs: sangaḍa appears on the round as a ivory object together with other examples of specific glyphic features deployed on objects inscribed with Indus writing. kanka 'rim of jar' is shown on a circular Daimabad seal. The mercantile agents who were jangadiyo had received goods on jangad 'entrusted for approval'.
    m1429 Mohenjo-dar tablet showing a boat carrying a pair of metal ingots. bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (G.lex.) bagala = an Arab boat of a particular description (Ka.); bagalā (M.); bagarige, bagarage = a kind of vessel (Ka.) bagalo = an Arabian merchant vessel (G.lex.) cf. m1429 seal. 

     The note presents many parallels between hieroglyphs used rebus on Indus writing and on ancient Near East artifacts. The names Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha appear on ancient cuneiform documents in the context of maritime trade, in particular with Sea-faring merchants from Meluhha (Mleccha, that is part of Indian sprachbund).

    There is a remarkable statement in Tolkappiyam an ancient text of Sangam period:


    பொய்யும் வழுவும் தோன்றியபின்னர் 

    அய்யர் யாத்தனர் கரணம் என்ப  (தொல் காப்பியம் பொருள் அதிகாரம்)

    When falsehood and deception came into vogue, the Brahmin scholars codified the accounting system.


    An ancient Near East accounting system was jangaḍ. The system of jangaḍ simply meant 'goods on approval' with the agent -- like the Meluhhan merchant-agents or brokers living in settlements in ancient near East -- merely responsible for showing the goods to the intended buyers.

     

     
    We are dealing with the times of Indus-Sarasvati civilization when goods were transacted without definitive settlements of purchase. Mercantile transactions took place on the basis of trust. This system of trust gets institutionalised in the trusteeship system which is the central regulating feature of śreṇi, artisan-merhant guilds. Actions such as criminal breach of trust or deception  or criminal conspiracy were rare occurrences.

    Goods were couriered and delivered by consignor on entrustment basis for the consignee to make the settlements AFTER the goods are finally sold to third parties. Such an accounting system was called jangaḍ


    The couriers who effect the delivery of the goods are called jangaḍiyo. In old Gujarati, the term jangaḍiyo  ‘military guard who accompanies treasure into the treasury’. The term sanghāḍiyo 'a worker on a lathe' (Gujarati)


    Image result for daimabad sealDaimabad seal. 
    kanka, karaka'rim of jar' reebus: karī  'supecargo, script, engrave' 

    karaka ‘scribe’ (Skt.) kar
    ṇikā कर्णिका 'steersman, helmsman' (seafaring merchant) 

    Goods taken from a shop – without definitive settlement of purchase

    Some lexemes from Indian sprachbund:
    जांगड [jāṅgaḍa] ad Without definitive settlement of purchase--goods taken from a shop. जांगड [ jāṅgaḍa ] f ( H) Goods taken from a shop, to be retained or returned as may suit: also articles of apparel taken from a tailor or clothier to sell for him. 2 or जांगड वही The account or account-book of goods so taken.

    कारणी or कारणीक [kāraī or kāraīka] a (कारण S) That causes, conducts, carries on, manages. Applied to the prime minister of a state, the supercargo of a ship &c करणी [ karaī ] f (करणें) Presenting (in marriages) of cloths, ornaments &c. to the bridegroom and his party. v कर. (Marathi) కరణము [karaamu] karaamu. [Skt.] n. A village clerk, a writer, an accountant. వాడు కూత కరణముగాని వ్రాతకరణముకాడు he has talents for speaking but not for writing. స్థలకరణము the registrar of a district. కరణికము or కరణీకము karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam