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A homage to Hindu civilization.
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    Startling conflict of interest case stares in the face of N. Ram

    Should N. Ram, publisher of a famous paper, donate to a party, even if it is in her personal capacity?

     
    Unknown nexus between AAP and The Hindus comes out in the openUnknown nexus between AAP and The Hindus comes out in the open

    When Aam Aadmi Party was launched in late 2012, they managed to create a huge buzz among the citizens of Delhi. They made a decent start in the 2013 elections, but they reached the peak of their popularity only during the next election which was held in 2015. Between 2014 and 2015, AAP was at the peak of their popularity, and there were two main reasons for this.The first reason of course the push they had received from the Anna Hazare faction, but to be honest, the second and main factor which contributed to their victory was the Indian media. AAP had full page ads, and several journalists who were going out of the way to give AAP a good name. But till date, there was no explanation or solid proof for why the media was really supporting them.

    The Hindu stands exposed!

    Going through the old databases of AAP’s donor list, we came across something that shook us. Although AAP’s donor list is now unavailable online, we got in touch with some sources deep inside the party and got it verified that the media had actually contributed huge sums to AAP! One such popular name that popped up, was that of N. Ram, the former Managing Direcor and Chief Executive Officer of The Hindu.
    There were 3 donations that we were able to trace and verify back to our source within Aam Aadmi Party. The first donation amounting to Rs. 20 Lakhs was made by Mariam Ram, the wife of N. Ram. The other two donations which total to Rs. 20 Lakhs and 30 thousand were made by a company in which both N. Ram and his wife are directors and share holders.

    Details of the donations

    What is interesting is that both these donations were made to AAP at a time when they were gearing up for their second round of elections. The first donation of Rs. 20 Lakhs by TNQ Books and Journals Pvt Ltd was made on Mar 31 2014 at 12:00AM against receipt number HO314287670. The second and third donations of Rs. 20 Lakhs by Mariam Ram and Rs. 30,000 by TNQ Books and Journals were both made on Apr 22 2014 at 12:00AM vide receipts numbers HO414353817 and HO414353821, respectively.
    What is interesting, is that all these three donations were made exactly at 12:00AM, once again raising doubts whether this is another case just like the infamous “Hawala at Midnight” scam, in which AAP was caught.
    N Ram and his wife donations to AAP
    Information about TNQ books and journals private limited
    Information about TNQ books and journals private limited

    It still remains to be seen how N. Ram will react to this expose. The left leaning journalism of N. Ram, who was once the student wing leader of the Communist Prrty in Tamila Nadu, and the same attitude of The Hindu is very well known. Yet, one simple question remains to be answered, is it right on the part of a media house to donate to a political party? 
    This article was complied based on inputs from Sanjay Shiva R. 
    Comments
    1. Mr. Ram has dragged the name of “The Hindu” down the drains. He can think in terms of renaming the paper as “The Anti-Hindu”. It will fit in Communist way of looking at things. For Commies, a pen is “anti-pencil” and vice versa. Worst part of The Hindu is they publish :ghost headlines” (sensationalising like “X” cooks beef etf.) and when questioned by “X” paper says, THE HINDU had reproduced an article (of some 4th grade Tamil paper to escape the consequences. It was a child-habit for me and millions in (TN, AP, Karnataka). But I no longer read “The Hindu”. The HIndu is loosing circulation even in Chennai, papers like ToI and even Deccan Chronicle have eroded its circulation. May be “like the Dawan” of the past, Ram will make “The Hindu” a relic soon.
    2. It’s the biggest irony in India that the newspaper named “The Hindu” is perpetually anti-Hindu in its approach to political reporting. As for the legality and morality of the Rams having the right to give donations to a political party, the basic issue is their honesty in publishiing unbiased coverage of that political party. Has “The Hindu” done that ? Not at all. Therefore, the right to donate funds to a political party by a newspaper must necessarily be linked to its unbiased coverage of that party. As long as that is not done, there definitely is conflict of interest insofar as it is against the interest of the general public that read the newspaper.
        • 101% true. Ram has shamelessly hijacked the good will created by his forefathers in the name HINDU. Morever, as typical convert, he has been painstakingly demolishing HINDU belief and traditions and creating and expanding the market for anti-hindu forces. I ve stopped purchasing hindu and also discourage my friends and family especially my children from reading the HINDU long long ago. He does not have guts to speak about practices in other religions for fear of being lynched. Any way the damage done to him by hindu and his own family in the name of professionalising the newspaper cannot be undone now.
    3. I have been reading Hindu for many years. And I have been noticing this bias in their reporting. The only problem is that it required this much wait, for this government has to break the spine of the Lutyens Journalist to see through. I am not sure if they have some many grudges against hindus they can drop that name Hindu from their publications – after all for the sake of money right?
    4. The Hindu became anti national and anti Hindu paper after N Ram took charge. Stopped reading that paper hence. If each and every one with pateriotic feeling does stop that filthy paper it will see its end soon as NDTV does stare the same fate. Eagerly waiting for that D day
    5. I feel there is nothing bad in donating to the party. If he is personally donating something from his heart then it want be any scam. I am also against AAP party leaders but it doesnt mean that a individual cannot donate anything to the political party then tomorrow same media will ask why people donating huge donations in the temples or charity organisation. Come on be mature let everybody stay independently in our country.
    6. Every individual has rights to donate to a political party in a democratic country. Just that when it comes to social responsibility like media, as long as they are unbiased, there is no issue.
    7. Ram is a pseudo journalist and a card-carrying member of the Communist Party of India, but living in Penthouse! Some Communist! He is a jackass! Sad to see the reputable name of Kasturi Iyengar and the great HINDU paper (not great anymore) being dragged in mud.
    8. N.ram for unknown reasons has been very vindictive and vitriolic towards anything to do with Hindus. One can sense his seething anger and hatred in his interviews. It’s high time someone in the higher up exposes his wheeling dealing… maybe he is a bigger charlatan than prannoy roy.
    9. Media preaches. We have to listen them but they are not for them to follow.They are beyond corruption. NDTV, Hindu are being funded by antinationals. How can we expect them to behave differently.
    10. This man is a compromised man with shady dealings in every sphere of his activities, be it his journalism or personal life involving a woman named above who donated huge sums of money. Both shouild be investigated for anti-national acts and financial frauds..
    11. Why they can not donate?All individuals have right to pursue their political leaning. Mr. And Mrs. Ram, in their personal capacity can donate if they so wish. As a media house, they should have majority shareholders’ support. If it is declared in their IT returns, then it is legal and moral too. To prove it is moral, then they should declare it before their readers/viewers.
    Brief on N. Ram and Mariam Ram: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N._Ram Excerpts: "Narasimhan Ram (born 4 May 1945) is an Indian journalist and prominent member of the Kasturi family that controls The Hindu Group of publications. Ram was the Managing-Director of The Hindu since 1977 and its Editor-in-Chief since 27 June 2003 until 18 January 2012.[2] Ram also headed the other publications of The Hindu Group such as FrontlineThe Hindu Business Line and Sportstar, and has been awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India and Sri Lanka Ratna by the Government of Sri Lanka. He is referred to as a left-wing editor and known to believe in left/communist ideology.[Subsequent to changes in the Editorial & Business of 'The Hindu' on 21 October 2013, N.Ram has become Chairman of Kasturi & Sons Limited and Publisher of 'The Hindu'... Mariam comes from a prosperous family that owned the now defunct Travancore National and Quilon Bank, liquidated in 1938.Has worked in advertising agencies, HTA and O&M. Mariam Ram is presently the managing director of TNQ Books and Journals, that she founded in Chennai in 1998.The company does editing, pagination and design for scientific, technical and medical publishers of the US, the UK and the European Union. As of 2008, the company had an annual turnover of Rs 50 crores and employs 1200 staff."

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    A fact-finding team of UNESCO has informed the Madras High Court that the lacunae in temple conservation work by the state government in Tamil Nadu has badly affected some of the most historic shrines, which include two near Chennai, reported The Times of India.
    The report stated that the Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Department (HR & CE) does not have capacity nor quality experts to carry out work on these monuments. Moreover, no proper system is being followed for documenting, assessing, reporting and tendering of heritage works, the report said. 
    The UNESCO conducted a study between May and June in 10 temples in Tamil Nadu to understand the conservation process used by HR&CE department.
    The study was conducted in temples like Meenakshi Amma Temple in Madurai, Nellaiyappar temple and Vanamamalai Perumal temple in Tirunelveli, Marudhakali Amman temple in Namakkal, Nageswara Swamy temple in Kumbakonam, Naganadha Swamy temple in Manambadi, Aadhi Narayana Perumal temple in Pazhaverkadu near Chennai, Arunachaleswarar temple in Tiruvannamalai, Ranganathaswami temple in Srirangam, Trichy and Kamatchi Amman temple in Kancheepuram, reported TOI. 
    Last year, the Madras High Court had asked UNESCO to be part of restoration projects of Tamil Nadu temples. The court has asked the state government to include UNESCO and requested their presence in the court by August 23. The High Court had also clarified that the government should slow down works on the monuments and it should carry out work only if they thought that the delay will lead to its collapse. 
    The report also stated that UNESCO could carry out a demonstration on one of temples to show the guidelines to be followed while carrying out conservation works. The department might also get macro level management support from UNESCO to maintain 38000 registered by them, reported TOI.













    http://indiafacts.org/bringing-antiquities-home-implications-hrce-judgment-madras-high-court/

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    The spoked wheel, srivatsa around rim is ArakammaTa 'brass mint', maraka 'peacock' marakaka loha 'copper calcining metal'. Nation's wealth.
    Vrishni Coin

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fUK0ki0bL80

    SAMPOORNA JANA GANA MANA WITH LYRICS


    Published on Aug 26, 2011

    Sampoorna Jana-Gana-Mana!
    Music Arrangement - Sukhada Bhave
    Singers - Bhakti Athavle, Anuradha Gangal-Kelkar, Sudhanshu Gharpure, Nikhil Nijasure
    Recording & Mixing - Parikshit Kulkarni (Prabha Digital Studio, Dombivli)
    Produced By - Raashtrapurush Smruti Jaagaran Samiti Dombivli, Bhaarateey Shikshan Mandal Konkan Praant, Bhaarateey Itihaas Sankalan Samiti, Dombivli Shahar Itihaas Mandal

    शुभ कामनाएँ
    Image result for शुभ कामनायें swatantra diwas



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    NaMo (15 Aug. 2017 address to the nation) also speaks about demonetisation and black money. "We have achieved major milestones in relation to anti-corruption through demonetisation. All the currency stashed away had to return to the mainstream. After demonetisation around Rs. 3 lakh crores worth of black money has come back to the system," he says. "Over 18 lakh people have been identified whose income is more than what they have declared." 
    "Out of these 1.75 lakh shell companies have been shut down. Till now, many of these companies were operating from a single address," he says. "I started a war against black money for the sake of the future of the country's youth," he adds.

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    Rohith Vemula didn’t kill self over University action, says inquiry commission

     | Updated: Aug 16, 2017, 04:36 AM IST 
    File photograph shows Rohith Vemula's mother
    NEW DELHI: University of Hyderabad student Rohith Vemula committed suicide of his own volition and the varsity's act of expelling him and four other students from the hostel did not become a trigger for him to end his life, an inquiry commission has said.

    The report, that was made public on Tuesday, said Vemula was a troubled individual and was unhappy for several reasons. "His suicide note is on the record which shows that Rohith Vemula had his own problems and was not happy with worldly affairs," the report said. "He was frustrated for the reasons best known to him...He also wrote that he was all alone from childhood and was an unappreciated man. This also indicates his frustration. He did not blame anybody for his suicide," said the report of the one-man judicial commission under former Allahabad high court judge Justice A K Roopanwal, set up by the HRD ministry.

    The report also did not find then HRD minister Smriti Irani and BJP leader Bandaru Dattareya responsible for the events. Vemula's death had kicked up a controversy that the disciplinary action against him had been prompted by complaints by BJP leaders.


    "If he would have been angry with the decision of the university, certainly either he would have written in specific words or would have indicated in this regard. But he did not do the same. It shows that the circumstances prevailing in the university at that time were not the reasons for committing the suicide," it the report said.

    The report also states that Vemula was not a Dalit by caste. The case gained prominence as a "Dalit" issue as protests, mainly organised by Left groups, said that Vemula was a victim of oppression unleashed by the university and BJP leaders.
    The report, however, said the university does not have a proper mechanism for redressal of the grievances of students in general and those from the reserved categories in particular. Regarding the disciplinary action taken in the case of Vemula, a research scholar, Justice Roopanwal's report said: "In my opinion, the view taken by the Executive Council was the most reasonable one in the circumstances prevailing at that time. The Executive Council mainly focused that the students should keep concentration on their academic career and not on other things. The leniency shown by the Executive Council itself shows that the university administration was not functioning under any influence or pressure, otherwise there could be no occasion to be lenient or to reduce the punishment recommended by the Proctorial Board."

    The report was submitted in August 2016 to the HRD ministry. The UoH's Executive Council in November 2015, expelled five students, all said to be Dalits, from the hostel and barred them access to public places on campus. They were, however, allowed to attend lectures and pursue research. They were punished for allegedly assaulting an ABVP student leader. Vemula committed suicide in a hostel room on January 17, 2016.


    ·         Report on Rohith Vemula's death tabled in Par, is now public


    New Delhi, Jan 23 (PTI) The HRD ministry on Monday made it clear that the Justice (retd.) A K Roopanwal Commission report on the death of Rohith Vemula at Hyderabad Central University has been tabled in both Houses of Parliament and hence it is a public document that can be accessed through RTI


    The ministry was responding to reports that it had rejected an RTI appeal for making public the commission's report on the death of Vemula


    Replying to an RTI query, the ministry had said that the file concerned was "under submission" and a copy of the report cannot be provided


    In a statement on Monday, the 


    ministry said, "The fact of the matter is the said response to an RTI query was given at a time when the report of the Commission of Inquiry constituted by the government had not been laid in Parliament." 


    It is a statutory requirement under the Commissions of Inquiry Act, 1952 to lay the report of the Commission on the Inquiry together with a memorandum of the action taken thereon, before each House of Parliament within six months of submission of the report by the Commission to the government, it said


    "The said report has since been laid in both the Houses of Parliament on December 15, 2016. Therefore, it is a public document and anyone applying now under RTI Act can be provided with a copy of the same," the HRD ministry said.








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    Kalabhras were "vaduga-karunadaththavar" (people from Andhra-Karnataka) as noted in Periyapurāṇam, Saivite literature and copperplates of 10th-12th cent. CE. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalabhra_dynasty M. Raghava Iyengar, identifies the Kalabhras with the Vellala Kalappalars. Kalava-s were navigators.

    Kalabhra dynasty relate to Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) between 300 to 600 CE.
    Fronting the elephant on the Kalabhra coin is a ladder. I suggest that both elephant and ladder are Indus Script hypertexts. It appears that the ladder is topped by 'srivatsa' hypertext which has been deciphered elsewhere as dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' fish fins khambhaṛā 'fin' rebus: kammaa 'mint'. Thus, the 'srivatsa' hypertext together with elephant hieroglyph signifies, iron metalcasting mint.

    களபம்² kaḷapam , n. < kalabha. 1. Young elephant; யானைக்கன்று. மதகரிக் களபமும் (சிலப். 25, 49). 2. Elephant; யானை. (திவா.) The elephant on kalabhra coins signifies kalabha 'elephant', kaḷāra (adj.) cf. Sk. karāla 'projecting of teeth' (Pali) rebus: karba 'iron' (Tulu.Kannada) rebus: கலவர் kalavar n. < கலம்¹. 1. Navigators, sailors; மரக்கலமாக்கள். கடற்குட்டம் போழ்வர் கல வர் (நான்மணி. 16). 2. Passengers in a ship; கப் பலிற் செல்வோர். காற்றத் திடைப்பட்ட கலவர் மனம் போல் (திவ். பெரியதி. 11, 8, 2). 3. Inhabitants of a maritime tract; fishermen; நெய்தனிலமாக்கள். கலவர் . . . மீனெறி சால நேர்விரித் துலர்த்தலும் (சே துபு. கந்தமா. 91). 4. Warriors; படைவீரர். (W.)

    கலப்பற்றுக்காரன் kala-p-paṟṟu-k-kāraṉ 

    n. < id. +. One whose occupation is the calking of ships, boats, etc., calker; படகின் நீக் கலடைப்பவன்.
    கலப்பற்றுத்தோணி kala-p-paṟṟu-t-tōṇi
    n. < id. +. Calked boat, surf-boat, the seams of which are formed by joining planks without lapping; நீக்கலடைக்கப்பட்டுள்ள தோணி. (W.)கலப்பற்றுளி kala-p-paṟṟuḷi
    n. < id. + பற்று + உளி. Calking-iron; படகின் நீக்கலடைக்குங் கருவி.
    Sign 186 *śrētrī ʻ ladder ʼ. [Cf. śrētr̥ -- ʻ one who has recourse to ʼ MBh. -- See śrití -- . -- √śri]Ash. ċeitr ʻ ladder ʼ (< *ċaitr -- dissim. from ċraitr -- ?).(CDIAL 12720)*śrēṣṭrī2 ʻ line, ladder ʼ. [For mng. ʻ line ʼ conn. with √śriṣ2 cf. śrḗṇi -- ~ √śri. -- See śrití -- . -- √śriṣ2]Pk. sēḍhĭ̄ -- f. ʻ line, row ʼ (cf. pasēḍhi -- f. ʻ id. ʼ. -- < EMIA. *sēṭhī -- sanskritized as śrēḍhī -- , śrēṭī -- , śrēḍī<-> (Col.), śrēdhī -- (W.) f. ʻ a partic. progression of arithmetical figures ʼ); K. hēr, dat. °ri f. ʻ ladder ʼ.(CDIAL 12724) Rebus: śrḗṣṭha ʻ most splendid, best ʼ RV. [śrīˊ -- ]Pa. seṭṭha -- ʻ best ʼ, Aś.shah. man. sreṭha -- , gir. sesṭa -- , kāl. seṭha -- , Dhp. śeṭha -- , Pk. seṭṭha -- , siṭṭha -- ; N. seṭh ʻ great, noble, superior ʼ; Or. seṭha ʻ chief, principal ʼ; Si. seṭa°ṭu ʻ noble, excellent ʼ. śrēṣṭhin m. ʻ distinguished man ʼ AitBr., ʻ foreman of a guild ʼ, °nī -- f. ʻ his wife ʼ Hariv. [śrḗṣṭha -- ]Pa. seṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ, Dhp. śeṭhi, Pk. seṭṭhi -- , siṭṭhi -- m., °iṇī -- f.; S. seṭhi m. ʻ wholesale merchant ʼ; P. seṭh m. ʻ head of a guild, banker ʼ, seṭhaṇ°ṇī f.; Ku.gng. śēṭh ʻ rich man ʼ; N. seṭh ʻ banker ʼ; B. seṭh ʻ head of a guild, merchant ʼ; Or. seṭhi ʻ caste of washermen ʼ; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sēṭhi ʻ merchant, banker ʼ, H. seṭh m., °ṭhan f.; G. śeṭhśeṭhiyɔ m. ʻ wholesale merchant, employer, master ʼ; M. śeṭh°ṭhīśeṭ°ṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ; Si. siṭuhi° ʻ banker, nobleman ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 208 (or < śiṣṭá -- 2?)(CDIAL 12725, 12726)

    कलभ [p= 260,3] m. ( √3. कल् Un2. iii , 122), a young elephant (one thirty years old) Ragh. Mr2icch. Pan5cat. &c; a young camel Pan5cat. iv (Monier-Williams)

    Kalabha [cp. Sk. kalabha] the young of an elephant: see hatthi˚ and cp. kalāraKalāra in hatthi˚ at Ud 41, expld in C by potaka, but cp. the same passage at DhA i.58 which reads kalabha, undoubtedly better. Cp. kaḷārikā. Kaḷārikā (f.) [fr. last, lit. with protruding teeth] a kind of large (female) elephant M 1. 178 (so read with v. l. for kāḷ˚). Cp. kalāra. Kaḷāra (adj.) [cp. Sk. karāla projecting (of teeth), whereas kaḍāra means tawny] always referring to teeth: with long, protruding teeth, of Petas (cp. attr. of the dog of the "Underworld" PvA 152: tikhiṇâyatakaṭhina -- dāṭho and the figure of the witch in fairy -- tales) J v.91 (=nikkhantadanto); vi.548 (=sūkara -- dāṭhehi samannāgato p. 549); Pv ii.41 (=k˚ -- danto PvA 90).káḍāra ʻ having projecting teeth ʼ (for this meaning see H. Lüders AO xvi 131), karāla -- (< *kaḷāra -- J. Charpentier MO xxvi 150) ʻ gaping ʼ R., ʻ gaping with projecting teeth ʼ BhP., ʻ dreadful ʼ MBh.Pa. kaḷāra -- ʻ projecting (of teeth) ʼ; Pk. karāla<-> ʻ gaping, dreadful, high ʼ; Ash. kaṛák ʻ wolf ʼ NTS ii 262 with (?), Paš. lagh. kaṛāˊl, dar. karāˊṛ, nir. koṛá̃̄ IIFL iii 3, 98, Phal. karāˊṛo m., karḗṛi f.; N. karālo ʻ steep, slanting ʼ; H. karāl ʻ lofty, terribleʼ, karāl, kaṛāṛā, karārā
     m. ʻ precipice ʼ; G. karāḷ ʻ formidable, lofty ʼ, (Surat) karār ʻ sloping ʼ, karāṛi f. ʻ precipice ʼ, karāṛɔm. ʻ high and steep bank ʼ, °ṛī f. ʻ deep hollow in river -- bed ʼ; M. karaḷ n. ʻ interstice (e.g. in a basket) ʼ, karāḷ or °raḷ j̈āṇẽ ʻ to slope ʼ, kaḍā m. ʻ precipice ʼ (?). -- L. awāṇ. karārā ʻ humorous ʼ (< ʻ *opening the mouth to laugh ʼ?). (CDIAL 2655) kālābhra ʻ black cloud ʼ Apte. [kāla -- 1, abhrá -- 1]OSi. (SigGr) kalab ʻ black cloud ʼ, Si. kalaba, °lam̆ba.(CDIAL 3096) 
    कराल [p= 255,2] mfn. opening wide , cleaving asunder , gaping (as a wound) Mr2icch. Pan5cat. R. &c
    [L=44490]having a gaping mouth and projecting teeth BhP. R. Prab.; formidable , dreadful , terrible MBh. R. Sus3r.காராளர்² kārāḷar

    n. < karāla. 1. A rude tribe of ancient times; முற்காலத்திருந்த ஒரு முருட்டுச்சாதியார். காராளர் சண்பையில் (மணி. 7, 102). 2. A tribe of hunters and cultivators in the hills of Salem and S. Arcot; சேலம் தென்னார்க்காடு ஜில்லாக்களிலுள்ள மலைவாசிகளான ஒரு வேடச்சாதியார். (E. T.) Rebus: காராளர்¹ kār-āḷar
    n. < கார் + ஆள்-. 1. [M. kārāḷar.] Husbandmen, agriculturists; பூவைசியர். (பிங்.) 2. Sudras; சூத்திரர். (பிங்.)

    ‘Galapra’ period coin die made by Roman smiths minted in Sangam Era?


    By Express News Service  |   Published: 02nd March 2017 03:59 AM  |  

    By Express News Service  |   Pub

    lished: 02nd March 2017


    The two faces of the Galapra period coin | Express


    CHENNAI. After a gap of several years, a ‘Galapra’ period coin has been discovered and deciphered in Tamil Nadu, thanks to the efforts of R Krishnamurthy, president, South Indian Numismatic Society (SINS).  
    The coin was collected from the Amaravathi river bed Karur in 1986. The period immediately after Sangam Age in the Tamil Country is called the Kalabhra (also Galapra) Interregnum and  an alien tribe occupied the Tamil Country throwing out the  ancient Chera, Chola and  Pandya kingdoms and ruled for some period for which there is no proper evidence.
    “This is an accidental discovery. When I was rearranging my old collection of Pallava Coins six months ago, I saw a coin which has a different texture not at all connected with the Pallava coin. In the coin holder,  I have written in 1986 that the coin was collected from the Amaravathi river bed, Karur,” Krishnamurthy, an expert in deciphering Brahmi scripts, told Express.
    He also recalled that in 1986 he had published a square copper coin with  an elephant on the obverse and a legend in Brahmi-script  “I read the legend as ‘GALAPIRA’.   Many scholars did not accept  my reading because of some reasons,” he recalled. Krishnamurthy had presented a paper on his recent discovery at the recent conference of SINS at Hyderabad.
    Regarding the date of the coin, Krishnamurthy said, “The coin is die struck and the minting is of high quality. It looks similar to the Roman bronze coin of Third century AD. On going through a Roman Coin  catalogue, I found a coin similar in diameter and weight. The Galapra coin die might have been designed and made by Roman coin die-makers.”
    He further said the ‘Galapra’ coin had four symbols on the obverse top right near the border  which are usually seen in Sangam Age Tamil coins.
     “So, the coin may have been minted  at the fag end of Sangam  Age,” Krishnamurthy said.

     

    http://tinyurl.com/k2gvsnn

    The Itihāsa narratives of kalabhras of Sangam Age are shrouded in mystery and 

    subject to historians' speculations. Some link them to Karnataka-s, some to kalavar 

    (lit. navigators). One reality is emphatic. The kalabhras did issue some coins with unique 

    hieroglyphs.


    Kalabhra coinSince it is speculation

    time, I suggest that some coins attributed to Kalabhras bear Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs.
    In particular, the hieroglyph 'elephant' is a dominant hieroglyph.


    This 'elephant' hieroglyph has clear metallurgical connotations in Meluhha (mleccha):

     karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' ib 'iron'. I am unable to identify other
    hieroglyphs shown on Kalabhra coins. These do NOT seem to be Brahmi syllabary
    but a continuum of Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs. There are indications that Kalabhra
    spoke Prakritam and possibly used words of that that language in their coins.


    One hieroglyph on this square coin of Kalabhra is significant. It signifies 'wave' of water.

    This is a Sarasvati Script hieroglyph: ṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍa 'implements'. 


    Ta. koṭu curved, bent, crooked; Pa. kũḍaŋgey elbow; koḍka billhook.(DEDR 2054)

    rebus: kōḍa 'workshop'.


    I hypothesise that thee word karabha 'elephant' was pronounced in a variant: kalabhra or

    kalabha in ancient times.


    Numismatist R.Krishnamurthy reports a coin found in Amaravathi River, Karur

    which is attributed to Kalabhra. I suggest that the coin is in the Sarasvati Script tradition
    and the hieroglyph 'elephant' signifies karabha 'elephant' (variant in Kannada: kalabha
    'young elephant') rebus: karba 'iron':a. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru
    native metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron. (DEDR 192) Ta. karum poṉ iron;
    kari (-v-, -nt-) to be charred, scorched, become black; (-pp-, -tt-) to char;
    n. charcoal, charred wood, lampblack;Tu. kari soot, charcoal; kariya black;
    karṅka state of being burnt or singed; karṅkāḍuni to burn (tr.); 
    karñcuni to be burned to cinders; karñcāvuni to cause to burn to cinders;
    kardů black; karba iron; karvāvuni to burn the down of a fowl by holding it over the fire;
    (DEDR 1278a)

    Karabha the trunk of an elephant; in karabhoru (k˚+ūru) (a woman) with
     beautiful thighs Mhbv 29.(Pali)


    karabhá m. ʻ camel ʼ MBh., ʻ young camel ʼ Pañcat., ʻ young elephant ʼ BhP. 2.

    kalabhá -- ʻ young elephant or camel ʼ Pañcat. [Poss. a non -- aryan kar -- ʻ elephant ʼ
    also in karḗṇu -- , karin -- EWA i 165 2. Pa. kalabha -- m. ʻ young elephant ʼ,
    Pk. kalabha -- m., °bhiā -- f., kalaha -- m.; Ku. kalṛo ʻ young calf ʼ; Or. kālhuṛi ʻ
    young bullock, heifer ʼ; Si. kalam̆bayā ʻ young elephant ʼ.

    Addenda: karabhá -- : OMarw. karaha ʻ 
    camel ʼ.(CDIAL 2797)


    கலவர் kalavar n. < கலம்¹. 1. Navigators, sailors; மரக்கலமாக்கள். கடற்குட்டம்

    போழ்வர் கல வர் (நான்மணி. 16). 2. Passengers in a ship; கப் பலிற்
    செல்வோர���. காற்றத் திடைப்பட்ட கலவர் மனம் போல்
    (திவ். பெரியதி. 11, 8, 2). 3. Inhabitants of a maritime tract; fishermen;
    நெய்தனிலமாக்கள். கலவர் . . . மீனெறி சால நேர்விரித் துலர்த்தலும்
    (சே துபு. கந்தமா. 91). 4. Warriors; படைவீரர். (W.)


    See: M. Arunachalam, 1979, The Kalabhras in the Pandiya country and their impact on the life and letters there, Univ. of Madras


    "A number of theories have been advanced for the identity of the Kalabhras.

    T. A. Gopinath Rao equates them with the Muttaraiyars, and Kallars and an
    inscription in the Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchi mentions a Muttaraiyar
    named as Kalavara-Kalvan.  The word Kalabhra might possibly be a Sanskrit derivation of the Tamil Kalvan. M. Raghava Iyengar, on the other hand, identifies the Kalabhras with the Vellala
    Kalappalars.The c. 770 Velvikudi plates of the Pandyan king Parantaka 
    Nedunjadaiyan mention the Kalabhras and R. Narasimhacharya and
    V. Venkayya believe them to have been Karnatas.K. R. Venkatarama Iyer
    suggests that the Kalabhras might have settled in the Bangalore-Chittoor region
    early in the 5th century....The history of Cholas of Uraiyur (Tiruchirappalli) is
    exceedingly obscure from 4th to the 9th century, chiefly owing to the occupation of
    their country by the Kalabhras. Buddhadatta, the great writer in Pali, belonged to
    Uraiyur. He mentions his contemporary, King Achyutavikranta of the Kalabharakula,
    as ruling over the Chola country from Kaveripumpattinam. He was a Buddhist. Tamil literary
    tradition refers to an Achyuta who kept the Chera, Chola and Pandya rulers in captivity.
    On the basis of the contemporaneity of Buddhadatta with Buddhaghosha, Achyuta may
     be assigned to the 5th century. ...It is known that the Kalabhras patronised Hinduism,
    Buddhism and Jainism. The late Kalabhras appear to have been Shaivite and Vaishnavite.
     Scholar F. E. Hardy traced the palace ceremony to a Vishnu or Mayon temple to the rule of
     the Kalabhras. They are known for patronising the Hindu god, Skanda or Subramanya.
    They imprinted his image on their 5th-century coins, especially those of the
     Kaveripumpattinam rulers. King Achyuta worshipped Vaishnava Tirumal...
    The rule of the Kalabhras of South India was ended by the counter-invasions of
    Pandyas, Chalukyas and Pallavas. There are other references to the Kalabhras in
    Pallava and Chalukya inscriptions. They were conquered by Pallava, Simhavishnu and Pandya, Kadungon.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalabhra_dynasty

    Kalabhra dynasty 
    [quote]Historians have accepted that the people Muthuraja and its subsects are the descendants of the Kalabhras who invaded the South Indian peninsula including Ceylon and ruled it over for about 300 years. 


    Mutharayars andThe Kalabhra dynasty ruled over entire Tamil country in South Indian between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. It is speculated that a warrior race called Kalabras were causing havoc all over south India. They terrorized the region for several centuries until at the beginning of the seventh century when the Pandias defeated them. They won over the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties and replaced them. There is little information about their origin and details about their reign. They did not leave any monuments. The only source of information on them are to be found in Buddhist and Jain literature.


    A tribe called Kalabhra hailing from the northern borders seems to have occupied and ruled the central and southern parts of the Tamil country. The northern languages, Prakrit first and Sanskrit subsequently, became to some extent the languages of the court and the elite in South Indian lands. Marches and migrations of warlike groups seem to have marked the later half of this period. A prominent martial group called the Kalabhra (or Kalappalar) occupying and ruling over the central and southern parts of the Tamil country is mentioned in some Pali works of the fifth century and in a few later records.

    They were displaced around the 7th century by the revival of Pallava and Pandya power. Hindu scholars and authors who wrote in the 7th and 8th century C.E. when Pandya and Pallava had taken over again have written very little about the Kalabhra in their texts. Perhaps therefore the period of their rule is known as a 'Dark Age'– an interregnum.

    The identification of the Kalabhras is difficult. The most satisfactory theory identifies the Kalabhras with the Kalavar. The chieftains of this tribe mentioned in Sangam literature are Tiraiyan of Pavattiri and Pulli of Vengadam or Tirupati. The latter is described as the cattle lifting robber chief of the frontier. The Kalavar must have been dislodged from their habitat near Tirupati by political events of the third century A.D., viz. the fall of the Satavahanas and the rise of Pallavas, resulting in political confusion in Tondaimandalam.

    Kalabhra => Kalabhrar => Kalabrar => Kalabar => Kalavar
    Kalavar => Kalvar => Kallar

    These Kalavars are the same as Kalabhras. When Satvahanas put pressure on them, these anti-Brahmanic Buddhist people who were ruling around Tirupati migrated to whole of South India and ruled most of it for centuries, and these centuries are now termed by Brahmin historians as `dark age', not only because scanty information is available from Brahmanic sources but also because it was anti-Brahmanic age. They were abused by the Brahmins and their history was wiped out. But the Buddhist books still preserve their history.

    They have also been identified with the line of Muttaraiyar of Kondubalur eighth to eleventh century C.E. Another view is that the Kalabhras were Kalappalar, belonging to the Vellala community referred to in Tamil literature and inscriptions.

    Kalabhra => Kalabhra => Kalabbra => Kalabba => Kalappa => Kalappalar

    Others regard Kalabhras as Karnatas on the strength of a reference in Tamil literature to the rule of a Karnata king over Madurai. Kalappirar or Kalabras were native karnatakas and some claim they even belong to Southern Madhyapradesh.

    Even after Sangam Chola's period, Poompuhar occupied a significant place during the regime of Kalabras, in the 6th century A.D. After Kalabras, Poompuhar came under the Pallava rulers and during that time they built the Pallavaneeswaran temple. Poompuhar in ancient times was the port capital of the Cholas, and indeed puhar means "estuary" or "river mouth of the sea." During the reign of Karikala Cholan, Poompuhar became a great city and Inscriptions at Thiruvengadu talk of a grand festival of Indra later Chola's times.

    Kalabhras of South India were the Kalachuris of Central India
    Basically, Kalchuri kings were supporters of Jainism. Many Pallava and Pandya writings describe that the Kalabhras attacked the Tamil country and defeated the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas and established their kingdom. Prof., Ramaswami Ayangar asserts that these valiant Kalabhra kings were the devoted followers of Jainism. He proved it on the basis of copper plate of Veluikudi and Painyapuranam of Tamil language. Jainism flourished after their reaching in Tamil country. Shri Ayangar presumes that these Kalabhras were a branch of Kalchuri clan. The Kalchuri kings of M.P. wore supporters of Jainism. The evidence on this is that they were closely related to Rashtrakuta. The Rashtrakuta kings had their faith in Jainism. The influence of Jainism during reign of Kalchuri kings of Kalyani was perceptible. The prominent king Vijjala of this clan and his several statesmen had adopted Jainism. Rechmayya, the minister of Kalchuri State set up the image of Tirthankar Shantinath at Shravanabelagola.

    A lot of feudatories of the cholas had kalabra origin.It is the openion of some historians that in the lack of absence of one fight to break the back bone of the all powerful kalbras is that they slowly broke up and emerged as mutharayar, sambuvarayars etc.

    Meenavars ( Kolis ?) might have mixed with Parada or Paratarajas or Parvata Raja Kulam ( Valmikis ? ) , an Indo- Scythian clan and got alienated from the Villavar and Nadalvar (Nadar) clans. Mudirajus or Mutharaiyar a Kalabhra aristocracy who once ruled Chera, Chola and Pandyan kingdoms as Muvendars regard Paratas as one of their own clan. Parataraja.

    Kalabhras were Buddhist & Jain Kings 
    Tamil Sangam Literature such as Manimekalai indicate that there were Buddhists in the Tamil country and that the Buddhist missionaries were active in spreading their religion. Buddhism entered South India during the period of Asoka who established Buddhist missions all over the Indian sub continent and sent missionaries to Sri Lanka and to China.

    Some controversial historians speculate that the Kalabhras followed the Buddhist or Jain faiths and were antagonistic towards the Hindu and Brahman religions of the majority population of the Tamil region during the early centuries C.E. Other controversial historians speculate that they were the product of 'Brahmanism' and tried to destroy 'casteless society'.

    Kalabhras, by invading the Tamil country, disturbed the prevailing order. The Velvikudi inscriptions of the third regnal year of Pandya king Nedunjadaiyan (c.765 - c. 815 C.E.) say that Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi gave the village of Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a Brahmins). It was enjoyed for a long time. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings.

    The period of Kalabhras was marked by the ascendancy of Buddhism, and probably also of Jainism. It was characterized by considerable literary activity in Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head, 'The Eighteen Minor works' might have been written during this period as also the Cilappadhikaram, Manimekalai and other works. Many of the authors were characterised as belonging to the `heretical' sects (meaning Buddhists and Jains).

    The Kalabras were Buddhist, but a remarkable thing about their coins is their popularization of the gods of the Hindu religion like that of Subramanya and Vinayaka. Kalabhras fought against Brahmin supremacy and were abused by Brahmin epigraphists after their rule ended.

    The late Kalabras appear to have been Shivite and Vaishnava. Scholar F.E. Hardy traced the palace ceremony to a Vishnu or Mayon temple to the rule of the Kalabras. Scholar Alice Justina Thinakaran writes that perhaps they were Saiva, Jain or Buddhist.

    In the Brahmanical literature, the Kalabhras are "roundly as evil kings (kali-arasar) who uprooted many and abrogated brahmadeya rights". However, the modern researches have shown that the Kalabhras were neither nor enemies of civilization but were a very civilized people and in fact their reign saw the creation of excellent Tamil mixture. The primary reason as to why they were ignored or by the brahmins was because they were Buddhists.

    The date of Kalabhra invasion looks realistic as we have approximately determined the date of the Arimarthana Pandiyan around A.D.312, and possibly the Kalabhra invasion took place during the rule of his son the Sakanaatha Pandiyan in A.D.350 who is known to us from the "Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam". The Buddhism and Jainism had already spread to some extent in Tamil Nadu earlier during the 3rd Sangam Period, but it was only after the Kalabhra capture of Tamil Nadu the Jainsm became deeply rooted as a religion of this region with the patronage of this king.

    The Velvikkudi Grant
    These inscriptions are one of the few sources that provides information about the Kalabhra Dynasty rule in South India.

    The Velvikkudi grant of Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan, consists of two parts, the Sanskrit and Tamil parts (like the other copper plates) The Sanskrit portion stops with the listing of the geneaology of Parantaka. The Tamil part begins straight away with the details of the appeal that the village Velvikkudi was gifted to one Narkorran (also kniown as Korkai Kilan), by the Pandya ruler, Palyagasalai Mudukudumip peruvaludi, when he completed a Yaga (Velvi). It is said that the village was in the long possession of the donee (nidu bhukti tuyttapin) when the Kali king, named Kalabhra, who overthrew a number of rulers (Adhirajaas), deprived the donee's family, the enjoyment of the village.

    Kalabhras, by invading the Tamil country, disturbed the prevailing order. The Velvikudi inscriptions of the third regnal year of Pandya king Nedunjadaiyan (c.765 - c. 815 C.E.) say that Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi gave the village of Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a Brahmins). It was enjoyed for a long time. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings. and resumed the (village mentioned) above. After that...the Pandyadhiraja Kodungon recovered the territory under the Kalabhra occupation.
    What copper plate grant says ? : One Narkorran complained to the Jatila Varama Parakantan that the village which was given to one of his ancestors by Mutukudumi Peruvaludi was taken possession of by the Kalabhras during their invasion of Madura and that, since then it had remained as Government property. After satisfying that the proofs furnished by Narkkoran were authentic, the king granted the village back to him.

    Not much is known about Kadungon. Most of the knowledge about him comes from the Velvikudi (or Velvikkud) inscription of the Pandya king Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (also Nedunjadaiyan or Nedunchezhiyan). According to this inscription, Kadungon defeated several petty chieftains and destroyed "the bright cities of unbending foes". It describes him as the one who liberated the Pandya country from the Kalabhras and emerged as a "resplendent sun from the dark clouds of the Kalabhras". His defeat of Kalabhras (considered Jains or Buddhists) was hailed as the triumph of Brahminism.

    In the Sendalai Pillar inscription of Perumbidugu Muttaraiya, the latter is styled "the king Maran, the Lord of Tanjai (Ko-Maran-ranjai-kkon) and Kalvar-Kalvan, Tanjai-nar-pugal-alan, a Kalva of Kalvas, the distinguished Lord of tanjai." It is very likely that in the title Kalvar-Kalvan we have to seek the origin of the name Kalabhra. Perhaps Perumbidugu Muttaraiyan was a member of the latter family which in the Velvikudi plates is said to have held the Pandya country under its sway prior to Kadungon.

    King Achchutavikranta 
    The history of Cholas of Uraiyur (Tiruchirappalli) is exceedingly obscure from fourth to the ninth century C.E., chiefly owing to the occupation of their country by the Kalabhras. Buddhadatta, the great writer in Pali, belonged to Uraiyur. A Buddhist writer Buddhadatta or Thera Buddhaatta as he is called lived during the time of Accyutarikkanta, Kalabra ruler of the Cola-nadu. He mentions his contemporary, King Achchutavikranta of the Kalabharakula, as ruling over the Chola country from Kaveripattinam. He was a Buddhist. Tamil literary tradition refers to an Achchuta who kept the Chera, Chola and Pandya kings in captivity. On the basis of the contemporaneity of Buddhadatta with Buddhaghosha, Achchuta may be assigned to the fifth century. Thus, after the Sangam age, the Cholas were forced into obscurity by the Kalabhras, who disturbed the placid political conditions of the Tamil country. Acchchutakalaba is likely the last Kalabhra king.

    The best known of the Kalabhras, Accuta Vikkanta, the Kalabhra ruler and conqueror of Madurai was himself, according to Stein, probably a Buddhist. Jainism and Buddhism had thus a practical egalitarian significance for those who did not want to accept the rigid caste-based socio-ideological frame which was advancing with the agricultural civilization".

    Accuta Vikranta could be the same as Achutha Kalappalan 
    We have little information about the Kalabhra rule in the Tamil country. The Tamil grammar Yapperunkalam refers to a Kalabhra king, namely Achutha Kalappalan. It appeared that he ruled the Tamil country from Uraiyur. He had also patronised the Tamil poets. A Buddhist scholar namely Buddhadatta lived in his kingdom. According to traditions, he imprisoned the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers. He had extended patronage to Buddhism and Buddhist monasteries.

    King Kootruva Nayanar 
    In Periya Puranam we find a Kalabhra King (Kootruva Nayanar) asking theDikhsitars to crown him.But the dikshtars say that "Chozharku anri Veru yarrukum Mudi sootamaatom" and refuse.Also as they have refused to crown the kalabhra they fled to north for safety leaving behind several families.

    For more details about the abovekalabhra kings, readers are requested to see web page "KINGS" in this website.

    King Karunada Venthan 
    According to the text "Life and Works of Buddagosha" by K.C.Law, extracted from "Pallavar Varalaaru" by Dr.M.Rasamanikkanar) and confirmation by the following reference in in Tamil Saiva work titled "Kalladam"

    "……padai naangu udan Panchavan thuranthu Mathurai vaviya Karunada venthan Aruhar sarnthu nintru arutpani adaippa…….",br>
    Panchavan is the Pandiyan and "Karunada venthan" is the Kalabra king, and "Aruhar" are the followers of Jain religion.This Venthan could be a Vethan / Vedhan / Vedan. So the Kalabheas who invaded the South Indian Penensula could be the Valmikis of Thirupathi - Srikalahasti region of Andhra Pradesh. These Valmikis were part of Mudiraja community during medieval times and still a subcaste of Mudiraj in some parts of Andhra Pradseh. These valmikis who are known as vetars / Vetans / Vedans / Kannappakula in Tamilnadu are also a subcaste of Muthuraja community. In Telugu Veta means hunting and Vetar means hunter.

    Veta => Vetar => Vetan => Vethan => Venthan

    King Kurran 
    From about the end of 4th century about the last quarter of 6th, the district, like many other parts of Tamil Nadu was under the Kalabhras. It must have come under the King Kurran, inscription of whom has been found in Pulankurichi near Ponnamaravathi in the district.

    Dr.R.Nagaswamy : Epigraphy The most outstanding discovery in the field of Epigraphy in recent years, is the Pulankuruchi rock inscriptioin of King Cendan ( Centan ) Kurran, brought to light by the Tamilnadu State Department of Archaeology, during the village to village survey of Epigraphs and Antiquities. The Trichy District Archaeological Officer, Thiru D. Tulasiraman discovered this epigraph, inscribed on the slopes of a hillock. The inscription is significant in many respects. It is the longest early inscription noticed so far, running to over 15 metres (45 feet) in length and two metres (6 feet) in height. The record is in excellent Tamil and written with great care, free from orthographical errors. The inscription is dated in the year 192, (Nurru Tonnurru Irandu) and day 36, and month Tai and is inscribed in the reign of King Ko-Cendan Kurran.

    Pulamkuruchi / Pulankuruchi: In this connection, a remarkable epigraph in Tamil, from Pulamkuruchi in the Pudukkotai region deserves notice. (Read and published by me for the first time in 1981). The inscription, is dated in the 3rd cent. CE. There are three segments of the inscriptions. The central one is damaged fully, the first one is damaged at the beginning while the third is in good shape. The record is dated in the year, one hundred ninety two, probably Saka era, and was issued by the king Koccendan Kurran.

    Krishnan reads "Koc Cendan marraimpadu". The word after Cendan has been read as "marrai" i.e. 'and' consequently it is taken that the record dated in the 30th regnal year of Koc Cendan. The ruler is identified by Krishnan with Cendan, the son and successor of Maravarman Avani sulamani. The revised reading according to me would be "Koc Cendan Maran aimpadu" which means the 50th regnal year of Cendan Maran,i.e.Maran, son of Cendan and not of Cendan himself.

    Kalabhra King of Pundra
    Details about this Kalabhra king of Pundra are not available except that he is known to be the ancestor of Dhatusena King of Ceylon 459-477 AD. Kasyapa son of king Dhatusena (459 - 477 AC.) had his father arrested and walled alive within his tomb. His brother Moggallana, who was the legitimate successor to the throne, was sent into exile abroad, and Kasyapa was named king. For more details about King Dhatusena and his sons, readers may see web page "KINGS" in this website. Kasyapa or Kassapa is one of the gotrams of Telugu Mudiraj people today.

    The standing Buddha statue at Aukana, is the one of the tallest in Sri Lanka and is an architectural marvel of the ancient Sri Lankans, and is carved out of a rock boulder. The rock cut statue which stands 38 feet 10 ins (39') above its decorated lotus plinth and 10 feet across the shoulders, belongs to the period of King Dhatusena (459-477 AD), the builder of the great reservoir Kalawewa.

    End of Sangam period with the advent of Kalabhras 
    The Sangam Age came to an end during the middle of theThird century A.D. The closing years of the Sangam Age was called the post-Sangam period. Then the Kalabhras captured the Tamil country from the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers.

    The classical period ended around the fourth century AD with invasions by the Kalabhra, referred to as the kalappirar in Tamil literature and inscriptions. The Cheras of the Sangam Age temporarily went off the stage of Tamil history when the country came under Kalabhra rule. The Tamil Navalar Charitai speaks of Chera submission to the kalabhras.

    There were indications of the declining trends in the Tamil society even during the post-Sangam period. The North Indian religions, namely Buddhism and Jainism began to spread in the Tamil region. The traditional religious beliefs of the Tamil people gave way to the new religious ideas.

    The post-Sangam literature consists of the twin epics - Silappathikaram and Manimekalai and also Pathinen Keezhkanakku. The impulse of these works was oriented towards reforming the society. Morality in political and social life had been strictly insisted in the poems of Thirukkural, Inna Narpathu, Iniyavai Narpathu and Naladiyar. But finally, the Kalabhra rule had put an end to the classic age of the Sangam.

    The Golden Age of Kalabhras termed as Dark Age ( Kalabhra Interregnum ) 
    The last Sangam ended around the 2nd century CE with the invasion of Kalabras from the north. Interregnum is the period starting sometime after the end of the third Sangam and ending sometime prior to the rise of the Pallavas (mid 5th century CE), during which there was a definitive break in the continuity of Tamil culture.

    Kalabhra interregnum is called as 'dark period' because it is so called by earliest Pallava and Medieval Pandya sources. 95% of the earliest Tamil inscrptions called Tamil Brahmi are for the sake of Jain ascetics. These inscriptions are very short, one or two lines only. During kalabhras rule, the Jain and Buddhist religions and literature flurished. Unfortunately, we have very few sources to study the history of the Kalabhras other than the Jain & Buddhist literature. This is one of the reasons to call this period as Dark Age.

    Kalappirar are Jains, and appear to have come from Karnataka, a Jain strong hold. During the Kalabhra period, heterodoxy, opposed to Brahmanical orthodoxy, reigned supreme. Pallavas and Medieval Pandyas, who accepted the varnashrama and Brahmanical orthodoxy, driven out the kalabhra rulers and completely routed out the "heterodox" religions. Both Buddhism and Jainism were practically extinguished. Hence, these "orthodox" sources portray Kalabhra period as "dark period".

    With the ending of the progressive Sangam Age that was beamed with the literary advance in South Indian literature, the light faded and Kerala underwent a dark phase that lasted almost for four centuries. This epoch is known as 'Kalabhra Interregnum' and has been referred as the Dark Age in the history of Kerala. The Kalabhra Kings created mayhem and disrupted the social and political order of the South Indian Peninsula by overthrowing and deracinating the Adhirajas of Chera, Chola and Pandya dynasties which were a part of present day Kerala and Tamil Nadu. These valorous Kalabhra Kings ruled with an upper hand, relentlessly for almost three hundred years from 300 AD to 600AD. The reign of Kalabhras of South India finally came to an end in the 8th Century AD when the Pallavas, Pandyas, Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas extirpated them from South India.

    Little is known about the transition period of around three centuries from the end of the Sangam age (300 AD) to that in which the Pandyas and Pallavas dominate the Tamil country. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries. Later Kalabhras were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the sixth century AD.

    The Kalabhras had occupied the Tamil country from the middle of the Third century A.D. to the end of the Sixth century A.D. The literary sources for this period include Tamil Navalar Charithai, Yapperunkalam and Periyapuranam. The Velvikkudi and Dalavaipuram copper plates also mention about the Kalabhras. The inscriptions at Thiruppugalur and Vaikunda Perumal temple in Kanchipuram also refer to the Kalabhra rule.

    It is significant that during the Kalabhra reign which lasted nearly 300 years, Buddhism was at its best in and around Kanchi, ancient Tondaimandalam. And there flourished a number of Buddhist saints and scholars, such as Nagaguttanar, author of Kundalakesi, (4th century), Buddhadatta, the Pali commentator, (5th Century), Dinaga, the great logician, (5th century), Dhammapala, another Pali commentator, (6th century), and Bodhidharma, the great Dhyana teacher, (6th century). The association of Buddhaghosha, the greatest Pali scholar and commentator, who was contempoary of Buddhadatta, further confirms the ascendency of Buddhism during the Kalabhra Interregnum in the Tamil land.

    Even the Tamil literature got a boost during the Kalabhra reign and this period was marked by great literary activity. Nilakanta Sastri observes: "This dark period marked by the ascendency of Buddhism and probably also of Jainism, was characterized also by great literary activity in Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head The Eighteen Minor Works were written during this period as also the Silappadikaram, Manimckhalai and other works. Many of the authors were the votaries of the 'heretical' sects.

    We can find a lot of difference between the society and culture of the Sangam Age and those of the Kalabhra rule. There was a political chaos during the Kalabhra rule. The secular outlook of the Sangam period gave way to the religious outlook of the Kalabhras. Both Buddhism and Jainism became dominant religions during the Kalabhra period. Particularly, the Jain monks had preached Jainism in the Tamil country. They were patronised by the Kalabhra rulers. At the same time, efforts were made to remove the evils from the society. The Tamil Siddhars like Thirumoolar had preached their philosophical ideas. Morals and ethics had been preached through education and literature.

    The Kalabhra rule in the Tamil country had witnessed the growth of education and literature. Sanskrit and Prakrit languages had been introduced in the Tamil region. This had resulted in the development of a new script called Vattezhththu. The Tamil literature had also taken new forms and the Tamil grammar had also undergone a few changes during this period. Many works under Pathinen Kilkanakku were composed during this period. Epics like Sivaka Chinthamani and Kundalakesiwere written. Nigandus were also composed during the Kalabhra period.

    The Buddhist and Jain monks had contributed much to the growth of education. The Buddhist educational institutions were called Ghatikas. Scholars like Buddhadatta, Buddhaghosha and Bodhidharma lived during this period. The Jain Pallis had remained important educational centres during the Kalabhra rule. The Jain Palli (School) at Thirupathirippuliyur remained an important educational centre during this period. Sarva Nandi and Vajra Nandi were the two great Jain scholars, who lived in this period.

    Vajra is a gotra among Telugu Mudiraj people today and it is difficult to to say if it is having any direct or indirect relation to Vajra Nandi, the jain scholar. 

    During the end of the Kalabhra rule, the religion Saivism began to emerge as a great religion. Some of the Kalabhra rulers had embraced Saivism. However, it was only after the end of the Kalabhra rule, the Bakthi-cult flourished in the Tamil country through which both Saivism and Vaishnavism began to flourish.

    It is significant that during the Kalabhra reign which lasted nearly 300 years, Buddhism was at its best in and around Kanchi, ancient Tondaimandalam. And there flourished a number of Buddhist saints and scholars, such as Nagaguttanar, author of Kundalakesi, (4th century), Buddhadatta, the Pali commentator, (5th Century), Dinaga, the great logician, (5th century), Dhammapala, another Pali commentator, (6th century), and Bodhidharma, the great Dhyana teacher, (6th century). The association of Buddhaghosha, the greatest Pali scholar and commentator, who was contempoary of Buddhadatta, further confirms the ascendency of Buddhism during the Kalabhra Interregnum in the Tamil land.

    There are also literary sources which tell that Woraiyur continued to be under the control of Cholas even during the days of Kalabhra interregnum (A.D. 300 - 575). Tamilakam, the traditional name for the Tamil lands, was politically united during the Kalabhra rule in 3rd and the 6th century CE.

    There was the concept of the Kalabhra Interregnum, based on the statement in Iraiyanar Akapporul that the Kalabhras displaced the Three Great Kings – Muvarasar of Tamilakam – and uprooted the old order of society, polity and culture. In the absence of clear evidence it is difficult to accept that a major shake up of this magnitude occurred in South India. On the other hand we find the continuation of the Muvarasar politics in the later period also.

    Coins of Kalapiras 
    A small number of coins attributed to this dynasty have recently come to light, found in and around Madurai. One of the Kalabhra coins is a small, square specimen, each side measuring 2 cm. made of copper and weighs 7.45 grams. The obverse portrays a big tusker with its trunk hanging downwards and terminating in an inward twist. Above the elephant is a legend in Tamil language and Tamil-Brahmi script, written in anti-clockwise direction. It reads Kalapira.

    The most remarkable thing about the coins is the popularisation by the Kalabras of the cults of the Hindu pantheon like that of Subramanya and Vinayaka. It appears that at a later stage the Kalabras became Hindu. The Kalabras appear to have been Vaishnava. Scholar F.E. Hardy traced the palace ceremony to a Vishnu or Mayon temple to the rule of the Kalabras. Scholar Alice Justina Thinakaran writes that perhaps they were Saiva, Jain or Buddhist

    Kalabhras could be internal revolters but in favour of Buddhism and against Hinduism 
    he Tamil Kings (Pandiyan, Cholan and Cheran) had friendly relations with Mauryan Empire. The Brahamin champaign gradually spread to South India and destroyed the casteless Sanagam Tamil Era. In Tamilnadu a casteless, Sangam period came to an end at about the 2nd or 3rd Century A.D. with the attack or upraisal of Kalavars. With this attack the Tamil Sangam (Champaign to spread Tamil) came to a halt. Kalavaram means upraisal, revolution, chaos in Tamil; The Kalavars were later on called as Kalabras. The raise of the Kalabras made sweeping changes in the South Indian Society. (Though there is no details on who the Kalavars / Kalabras were, Thiru.Devasirvatham thinks the Kalavars / Kalabras were internal revolters that revolted against the Tamil Kings to establish a new order). So the Kalabras may be part of a Brahamin campaign to destroy Tamil Kingdoms that did not support Brahamanism or can be Jain revolters or Robbery tribes that simply looted the well established and civilized non-Brahamin Tamil society and established a different order from 3rd Century A.D. to 5th Century A.D.

    After the 5th Century A.D. the Pallavas and Later Cholas who were Mallas, destroyed the Kalabras and rose to power but gradually and partially adopted Brahamanism because by the time Brahamanism became an unavoidable phenomenon.

    The City of Poompuhar 
    Kalabhras invaded the Poompuhar city of Cholas. Presently it is known as Kaveripoompattinam. Puhar means the estuary of river in the sea. Poombuhar is located in Sirkali Taluk of Nagapattinam District. The ancient Kings like Sembiyan, Musugundhan, Manuneethicholan and Karikal cholan.

    Even after Sangam Chola`s period Poompuhar occupied a significan place during the regime of Kalabras. After the Kalabras in the 6th century A.D. Poompuhar came under the Pallava regime and during that time Pallavaneesswaram temple was built by them.

    The City of Uraiyur 
    he early Chola Empire lasted from 300 BC to 200 AD. Its major cities were Urayur and Kaveripattinam with the original capital being at Urayur. Around 200 AD, they were conquered by the Kalabhras.

    The history of Cholas of Uraiyur ( Tiruchirappalli ) is exceedingly obscure from fourth to the ninth century C.E., chiefly owing to the occupation of their country by the Kalabhras. Buddhadatta, the great writer in Pali, belonged to Uraiyur. He mentions his contemporary, King Achchutavikranta of the Kalabharakula, as ruling over the Chola country from Kaveripattinam.

    The first Pali scholar of Tamil Nadu was Buddhadatta. He was at Uragapura, modem Uraiyur, in the fifth century AD. He called Pali and Buddhism at the Mahavihara at Anuradhapura of Sri Lanka. Buddhadatta was contemporary of the great Pali and commentator, Buddhaghosha.

    The Tamil grammar Yapperunkalam refers to a Kalabhra king, namely Achutha Kalappalan. It appeared that he ruled the Tamil country from Uraiyur. He had also patronised the Tamil poets. A Buddhist scholar namely Buddhadatta lived in his kingdom. According to traditions, he imprisoned the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers. He had extended patronage to Buddhism and Buddhist monasteries.

    End of Kalabhra Dynasty rule 
    The rule of Kalabhras of South India was ended by the counter invasions of Pandyas, Chalukyas and Pallavas. There are other references to the Kalabhras in Pallava and Chalukya inscriptions. They were conquered by Pallava Simhavishnu and Pandya Kadungon.

    By the end of the Sixth century A.D. the Pandyan ruler Kadungon had liberated the southern part of the Tamil country from the Kalabhras. By the same period, the Pallava king, Simhavishnu had captured Tondaimandalam and Cholamandalam from the Kalabhras. Thus, the Kalabhra rule in Tamil country came to an end due to the ascendancy of the Pandyas and Pallavas.

    The rise of the Pallavas began with Simhavishnu about the middle of tile sixth century A.D. He put an end to the Kalabhra Interregnum in Tandaimandalam (Kanchi Region), and extended his kingdom southward up to the Kaveri delta.

    Vikramaditya II (733 – 744 CE) was the son of King Vijayaditya and ascended the Chalukya dynasty throne following the death of his father. The capture of Kanchipuram which in itself symbolised the cumulative power of the three traditional kingdoms of Tamil country placed the Pandyas, Chola and the rulers of Kerala kingdoms at the mercy of Vikramaditya II. He then overran these kingdoms and defeated a Kalabhra ruler as well. These victories were inscribed in his inscription on the shores of the Indian ocean.

    After the decline of the Kalabhra rule, Hinduism was once again revived and Buddhism and Jainism began to decline. The Pandyan kings had patronized Vaishnavism, Saivism and Jainism. The Nayanmars had preached Saivism while the Alwars preached Vaishnavism. They had spread the spirit of Bakthi among the people. The spread of Bakthi cult inculcated religious feelings and service mindedness among the people. These qualities had taken deep roots in the Tamil society. [unquote]

    Senthil Kumaras' note on Kalabhra (3 May 2015

    [quote]

    THE GLORIOUS TAMIL KALABHRAS and THE FIRST REPUBLICS in ancient India


    THE FIRST PEASANT REVOLUTION of the World: South India c.240 CE -the rise of the commons: THE KALABHRAS REPUBLICS:
    • MYTH : Kalabhras were "vaduga-karunadaththavar" as noted in Periyapuraanam and Saivite literature and copperplates of 10th-12th cent. CE. 
    • TRUTH: These literary mentions were a solid 500-700 years past the end of Kalabhras period (250-550 CE). They were  just mentions of misquotes of dreaded legends. Kalabhras were fearsome to the Sanatana Hindus (Brahmins), but friendly to the native followers of the Ancient Tamil Sivanerri, the religion of the masses. They had forbidden the northern Sanatana rituals. 
    • Regarding the names "VADUGA" and "KARUNADU": Vaduga in Tamil denotes "those of the northern boundaries" which are the regions south of the river Krishna and north of the river Tunghabhadra, including  Guntur, Kurnool, Raichur, Koppal, Hospet, and Panjim (Goa). Except Panjim which was probably the Paazhi naadu which is an ancient Tamil kingdom in tussle with the Cheras in the Cankam ages even from around 250 BCE, all the above regions on the southern banks of Krishna, were occupied by Tamil tribals who were illiterates, less civilized, predominantly hunters, robbers, and never formed a kingdom anytime in their history. Kalabhras were called as barbarians by the brahmins and the brahmin-supporting Tamil kings, solely because of the Kalabhras' anti-Vedic preferences, hence the use of the term VADUGA to denote them as barbaric sects. 
    • KARUNADU is nothing but the alternate name for the ancient Tamil country of ERUMAIYUR lying south of Kudagu (Coorg), and to the north of Thoatti malai (Doddabetta, Ooty). Erumaiyur kings were well documented in the Cankam literature from before 300 BCE. Erumaiyur is the current Mysore, the colloquially used name for (Eru)Maiyur. Mai denotes black(or Karu), and Ur denotes place(or nadu), hence  Mysore or Erumaiyur and Karunadu or Karnataka both denote the same region. As seen below one of the seven prime instigators of the Kalabhras revolts was the chieftain of Erumaiyur Aai Viyankoe. Hence partly true in the later mentions is that atleast one of the seven prime Tamil Kalabhra chiefs was a "Karunadagan" from the Tamil country of Erumaiyur.
    • One other important perspective is that the British called the Tamil Nadu in the 1700's as "the Carnatic" region (as evidenced in their historical maps of Eaßt India Company) most probably owing to the dark complexion of the Tamil masses.
    • The ancient kingdoms in the present Karnataka state were the Tamil countries of Kadamba (Uttar Kannad and Hubli), Paazhi (Goa), Erumaiyur (Mysore), Kuttuva nadu (Kodagu), etc. The natives of Karnataka are historically and genotypically Tamils -offshoots of ancient Tamils, and spoke Tamil until the early medieval period, when offshoots of Pallavas and the frequent encroaches of the foreign Chalukyas (of Kolhapur, Badami, and Kalyani present Maharashtra) and Rashtrakutas,  brought isolation and metamorphosis of the Tamil population there into a different culture and language -Kannada.


                                          

    • MYTH: They were barbaarians who brought in the dark ages in ancient Tamil countries.
    • TRUTH: The Kalabhras age was no less in richness and literature than the Cankam or the later religious renaissance ages.
    • Religion of the masses during Kalabhra era: The popular and the state religion was predominantly the ancient Tamil Saivitism (தமிழ்ச் சிவநெறி) from Porunai and Indus ages, in the Pagan mode. The alien Sanskritic practice of Sanatana and the influence of the refugee/immigrant brahmins and their odd rituals were kept to a bare minimum. Secularism was in vogue, and Ajivika, Buddhist and Jain monks were free to practice their modes of worshipping God -Naasthika -"any mode of worship other than the six old north Indian Vedic Aasthikas." 
    • Literature in Tamil from this era include most of the Eighteen of the Next Row -Pathinennkeezhkanakku anthologies, the last three  of the Five Great Epics -Aimperungaapiyangal and the Five Small Epics -Ainjirrukaappiyangal.
    • The first few of Nayanmars and Azhwars were supposed to hail from this era, and some enjoyed the patronage of the heads of these Kalappara states. Most importantly few of the earliest Naayanmaars were some of the Kalabhra chiefs themselves, like Meipporulh Naayanaar and Sundarar.
    • Kalabhras or Kalapparar in Tamil, were literally common men -"peasants" and "labourers" from the Tamil ethnic community. It had been misunderstood that they were outsiders from grossly misinterpreted documentations in Post-Cankam Tamil literature, which just call them as "sects from outside the royal clans".
    • These sects formed a consortium of "kala-parar"  -beginning with widespread successful coups by the "field-toilers" (kalham-field, para/paadu-toil) --the peasants, and the footsoldiers of the infantry in the armies of the three kings the Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras, dismantling the regimes of these kings.
    • Background: Towards the end of 2nd century CE, immigrant Brahmins on the pretext of being Saivites and practicing novel religious rituals such as the Yaagas, Mantras, etc.,  started claiming and enjoying special status with the kings. 
    • It had been documented clearly that whole villages en bloc were used to be donated  by the kings to these Sanskritite scholars, just for the maintenance of rituals in the temples were the brahmins were posted, all carried out on the advice of the latter. 
    • As a fallout of excessive land allocations and donations to the immigrant Brahmin people, large number of people lost their agricultural lands, farms, livelihood areas and even their residential sites to the incoming sects. 
    • Soon the common people rose up against the emperors, kings and overlords, threw the incumbent rulers who were unconcerned about the plight of the natives off their thrones, and established small city-states governed by elected representatives, with the support of local chieftains. Lost lands were secured back from the brahmins. (Though similar grants to the latter visitors were made again extensively in medieval Chola and Pandya periods).
    • Principally headed by Thiraiyan of Pavutirai, Milattumalaiyan, Ilankumanan and Aai Viyankoe, the partial rulers-list of Kalabhras include:
    1. Thiraiyan of Pavuthirai (Thondainadu)    c250 CE
    2. Pulli of Vengadam c250 CE
    3. Kaazhimalaiyan of Miladu c250  CE
    4. Velkezhu Nallikkoen of Thottivettuvam c250 CE
    5. Ilankumanan of Mudhiramalai c250 CE
    6. Idakali of Nadunadu c250 CE
    7. Aai Viyankoe of Erumaiyur c250  CE
    8. Idagazhinan II c325 CE
    9. ...
    10. Achu-thaavi Karanthan c450-506 CE
    11. Kootran a.k.a Kootruva Nayanar        c510 CE
    12. Meyyapporul Nayanar c530 CE
    13. Cedivallavan c540 CE 

    14. ... 
    • From around 76 CE, the Thondaimaans of Kanchi, who were primarily from Ilanthiraiyan Thondaimaan I born to Karikala Chola and a Naga princess from Eezham(Srilanka) continued to rule as kings even during and after the widespread Kalabhra revolts and coups in Tamilagam, since they had befriended the Kalabhras as they had supported the Kalabhra risings in the south. Pavuthiraiyan Thondaiman IIIaround 240 CE had marital relationships with the Pullis of Venkata Nadu, the Vakatakas, and the erstwhile Satavahanas of the far north. The Satavahanas had patronized both Prakrit and Tamil, Tamil because it was probably the lingua franca of their masses.(Evidenced from Tamil script in the Satavahana coins of 1st and 2nd cent. CE).
    • Around 210 CE, the Thondaimaans had unified ten kingdoms - nine smaller neighbour kingdoms like Malli, Poozhi, Aruvaa, Maavilankai, Aamoor, Venkatam, Kanimalai, Kadalmallai and Vaiyavi along with their own Thondainaadu. Hence the unified region was called as "the country of ten states" or "Pallava naadu" and the rulers"Pallavas". (Pal and Paththu in Tamil mean "a set of ten").
    • The Cholas and the Milaattu Malaiyans were the guardians and army chiefs for the Central and Oriental Kalabhra Republican city states. The Chola princes patronized the republic states and gave up their regal claims for the welfare of their masses, and people lived in peace and wars were unheard of until the resurgence of brahminical influence among the Pandiyan kings, that necessitated yet another cleansing of the Madurai aristocrats. 
    • Seemingly the Kalabhras  in the Chola country were not that frequently bothered by the Pallavas due to the cordial relationship with them until Simmavishnu's reign (550 CE). (Mentions of Chola princes and princesses are seen in the documentation of reign and battles of Narasimma Varman and Kochadaiyan Ranadeeran).
    • Starting from around 250 CE until 560 CE, the Kalabhras ruled the city states all over Tamilagam except Kanchi in the northeast. They had replaced the Pandiyas, the Cheras, and the Cholas from the power. 
    • By 506 CE Cholas were handed over the reins by the Kalabhras when they had to concentrate on Madurai following the sudden demise of Achchu-Thaavi Karanthan the Kalabhra great. Pugazhkkoe Cholatook over the Chola country (as per Mahavamsa); he was highly ambitious, he invaded the Cheras defeating Maakkoathai and also sent armies to and conquered Srilanka, and placed five Chola noblemen as governors in North and Central Srilanka who ruled there for the next 27 years. 
    • By 560 CE, Pandiyas under Kadunkoen II had completely seized the Madurai throne after the Kalabhra ruler of Uraiyur, Miladu and Madurai, Meipporul Naayanaar was murdered by a Pandya prince in the disguise of a Saiva saint.
    • Pandya kings' victories over the masses' Kalabhra republics were documented to have been hailed and celebrated by the brahmins in the copperplate inscriptions. 
    • From the earliest times until the 8th-9th century CE there were apparently no unequivocal caste based divisions in Tamilagam. The Brahmins had started moving close with the Pandiya kings by the early 8th century CE and this seemed to have irritated the Chola chiefs of the central Tamilagam, as the former started dominating the political arena and re-instigated northern Sanatana rituals and the brahmadeya grants - the bestowals of  commoners' lands to the Sanatanic Sanskritites.
    •  This bias had been the original cause for the uprising of the foot-soldiers and peasants - the "Kalabhras" about 5 centuries ago.
    • Notwithstanding these discriminations, the Oriental chiefs under the leadership of Chola chieftain Iranhmaya Chola of Pazhaiyaarrai, by 690 - 725 CE had started warring repeatedly with the Pandyas, losing many and winning some battles. Kochadaiyan Ranadeeran seems to have lost his life in one such battle. Around 695 CE when the Pallavas threatened with an invasion he had already defeated and killed Iraniya Varman, the Pallava crown-prince, in a battle on the banks of Vellarru, hence this title. 
    • The Pandyas captured Uraiyur and Southern frontiers of the Cholas by the start of 9th cent. CE, and placed one of their own dominant sects the Mutharaiyas as heads, and initiated the caste hierarchy in the Chola country as well. Due to continuous warfare with the Pandyas and the immigrant dominant Mutharaiyas, the enemy-plotted communal intrusions and the social instability, the Chola chieftains once again were granted overall kingship over erstwhile Kalabhra regions, to safeguard the ancient Tamil-social structuralism and to ward off the varnas-modelled newly synthesized hierarchy of castes. For the next 80 odd years Cholas fought alongside the Pallavas against the Pandyas, to protect their motherland.
    • Brahmins had started propagating their varnasrama theories into the royal minds and into the society via the discretions in the advocacy of various religious practices.
    • As a consequence, the caste and the community systems gradually got rooted down among the overlords who inturn began using these systems as an instrument to extend their domination over the then peasants and downtrodden, and specific sects that were the then dominant ones in each major province had started claiming themselves as of the upper strata community. This has been the unchanged social scene over the past 1300 years in the south and over the past 800 years in the north Tamilakam, till this date.
    • When in 870 CE, Seermaaran Vallabhan tried to eliminate brahmanical influence from the Pandiyan aristocracy, communal riots were instigated and a distant royal cousin and son of a landlord, seized the Madurai throne as an imposter and crowned himself with the regal title "Varagunan II", after the mysterious demise of the king and disappearance of the incumbent royal family along with the next-in scions. The Later Pandyas all belong to another usurper the next ruler, who initiated the Mara-Sundara dynasty, who was killed after just twenty years.
    • The Later Pandyas have the dubious record of abandoning the throne and their country in the early 14th cent. CE, fighting among themselves, letting Malikkafur and the Sultanate into Madurai region, and responsible for creating a power vacuum even long after they were gone, filled in later by the Vijayanagar kings and Nayaks. The current dominant communal sects (of the 20th cent. CE Tamilagam) principally in the south and the east, and also in the central, the west and the north, were the primary reasons for the decline of Tamil supremacy and empires, and handing over of the land to non-native non-Tamil rulers, over the past 700 years. It is to be noted that for many millenia until 700 years ago the integrity and solidarity of Tamilagam had been successfully hailed and maintained by men from those labelled currently the lowest classes in the social hierarchy. (Evidences are overwhelming. There were no records of names of currently dominant sects in Sangam literature. On the contrast there had been umpteen mentions of names of the branded-to-be-lowest social sects. Also the archaic word Pandya has the root word Pallha, denoting people of the plains).
    • The Vijayanagar-Nayak domination was minimized and delayed by some 225 years till 1530's by the Maavali Vaanhar (Banas) rulers of North Madurai, and Cholaraaya Vaanhar rulers of Tanjore.
    [unquote]


    Who are Kalabhras?
    [quote]Who are Kalabhras? 
    1. Let us find out what the existing theories say.
      Muttaraiyar of Kondubalur (eighth to eleventh century C.E.). Some historians believe that Muttaraiyar (Mudirajas) are the descendants of Kalabhras , who lived in the uplands Karnataka (Hampi Region), and Tirupati (Vengadam) Hills. The areas of Hampi and Tirupati hills were part of Dandakaaranya in Deccan India.
    2. Karnatas on the strength of a reference in Tamil literature to the rule of a Karnata king over
    3. MaduraiKalappalar, belonging to Vellala community and referred to in Tamil literature .
    4. Kalabhras with the Kalavar, and the chieftains of this tribe mentioned in Sangam literature are Tiraiyan of Pavattiri and Pulli of Vengadam or Tirupati. The latter is described as the cattle lifting robber chief of the frontier. The Kalavar must have been dislodged from their habitat near Tirupati by political events of the third century A.D., viz. the fall of the Satavahanas and the rise of Pallavas, resulting in political confusion in Tondaimandalam.
    5. Kalabhras => kalabbha => kalamba => kadamba. He is said to have flourished when king Accutavikkanta of the Kalamba (Kadamba) dynasty was one the throne. It is difficult to identify King Accuta or Accutavikkanta (Acyta Vikrama) of Kalabhra with the Kadamba dynasty. But the Kalabhras once made a great influence over the Chola territory and Simhavishnu, the Pallava king, defeated them in late sixth century. Colian king Acytavikranta or Acytavikrama who is described as 'Kalambakulnandana' or 'Kalabbhakulanandana' (also Vaddhana).
    6. According to Poygai Alvar, the Vengadam hill was the habitat of elephants, which the "Kuravars" or "Kurbas" who inhabited or frequented the hill used to capture and tame and also scare away huge pythons. He observes that, the Tamil term Kuravar used by the early Alvars is corruption of "Kuraba", who were residents of this area and also of Kurnool, Mysore, Salem, coimbatore and the Nilgiris. He mentions the names of Kurubalakota, Kurubalpatti, Kuruba Nagalapuram, Kurumba Palayam, Kurumbapatti, Kurumbharhalli etc. in various areas. He says Kurabas or Kuravar were a verile people, who were in possession of Tirupathi Hills and surrounding area before Pallavas conquerred it. Kalabhras => karabhras => kurabhras = kurabaskurabars <=> kuravarskurubas <=> kuruvas
    what does literature says?
    1. Buddhadatta, the great writer in Pali, mentions his contemporary, King Achchutavikranta of the Kalabharakula, as ruling over the Chola country from Kaveripatnam. He was a Buddhist, Tamil literary tradition refers to an Achchuta who kept the Chera, Chola and Pandya king in captivity. On the basis of the time of Buddhadatta with Buddhaghosha, Achchuta may be assigned to the fifth century. Thus after the Sangam age, the Cholas were forced into obscurity by the Kalabhras, who disturbed the placid political conditions of the Tamil country.
    2. The period of Kalabhras was marked by the ascendancy of Buddhism, and probably also of Jainism, was characterized by considerable literary activity in Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head, 'The Eighteen Minor works' might have been written during this period as also the Cilappadhikaram, Manimekalai and other works. Many of the authors were the characterised to belong to the `heretical' (meaning Buddhists and Jains) sects. However, the great Tamil lexicographer Vaiyapuri Pillai had ascribed later dates to many of these works. This theory would undermine the link between the Kalabhras and the Eighteen Minor works.
    what does inscriptions say?The Velvikudi inscriptions of the third regnal year of Pandya king Nedunjadaiyan (c.765 - c. 815 C.E.) say that Pandya king Mudukudumi Peruvaludi gave the village of Velvikudi as brahmadeya (gift to a Brahmins). It was enjoyed for long. Then a Kali king named Kalabhran took possession of the extensive earth, driving away numberless great kings.[unquote]

    Virarajendra's brief study on the Kalabhra (Kalappirar) period of rule in Tamil Nadu

    [quote] A brief study on the Kalabhra (Kalappirar) period of rule of Tamil Nadu

    In the mid fourth century in North India the Sathavaahana Empire reached its maximum territorial expansion with Thondalmandalam and it's capital Kanchipuram being the southern limits of his empire. The Sathavahana king appointed the Andhra-Pallava kings Sivaskandavarman and his brother Vishnu Gopa his allys ruling from the Bellary region of Andhra Pradesh consecutively as his viceroys of the southern region of his empire. 

    With the weakening of the Sathavaahana Empire and the rise of Gupta kings in North India, the king Samudra Gupta invaded and captured many regions of the Sathavaahana's including the Thondaimandalam and its capital the Kanchipuram down south in the year A.D.355. He appears to have handed over the region to its traditional kings the Tamil Thiraiyar dynasty probably under a treaty.

    Taking the opportunity with no North Indian empires holding sway in the South, the Kalabhra dynasty known as 'Vadukak Karunaader' (Vaduka=Andhra) tracing their origin from Andhra and ruling from Kolar region of Karnataka - around Nandhi hills also known as the Kalabhra hills, showed interest in the conquer of the Tamil countries down south leaving the Thondaimandalam and it's capital Kanchipuram being the territories of their ally the Tamil Thiraiyar dynasty of this region. 

    During the the Paandiya country of Tamil Nadu was ruled by king Palyaaka Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi while the Chola country and Chera country were ruled by kings whose name have still not ben established.

    In the year around A.D.355 the king Achchutha Vikkiraanthakan of the Kalabhra dynasty (Kalappirar) invaded Tamil Nadu with a sea of warriors on elephants, horses and foot soldiers with spears - spread all over defeated the Chola king and captured the Chola country with their capitals the Uraiyur and Kaviripoompattinam. They then proceeded towards the south to Pandiya (Paandiya) Nadu defeated the king Palyaaka Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi and captured his capital city the Mathuraapuri (Mathurai). Subsequently he also defeated the Chera king (at Vanchi Nagar) and spread his authority over most parts of then Tamil Nadu (MuthThamil Nadu). It appears the Kalabhra king Atchchutha Vikranthahan kept the three kings the Chera Chola and Pandiya in captivity at Thillai (present Chithambaram). 

    With his capture of Mathurai the Karnataka king gradually favoured the spread of the Jain religion (Samana Samayam) in this region and prevented the Saivite religious practices in Mathurai. They established a Sangam under the Jain monk Vajjira Nanthi at Mathurai probably to promote Jainism through Tamil Lauguage. 


    Evidence


    "......Padai Naanku udantru Panchavan thuranthu Mathurai vaviya Karunada venthan, Arukar saarnthu nintru (Aran) arutpani addaippa......."


    Kallaadam by Kallaadanaar, Vidvan Naarayana Velupillai edition. 

    ".......Palyagasaalai Muthukudumi Peruvaluthi ennum Paandiyathi rasan......Velvikkudi enra pathiyai seerodu thiruvalara seithaar venthan appoluthe neeroda atti koduththamai yaan need pukthi thuiththa pin alavariya Aathiraasarai ahala neekki ahal idaththaik Kalappararennum kali arasan kaikondu athanai irakkiyapin......"

    Velvikkudi Cheppedukal of Nedunchadaiyan Paranthaka Paandiyan - 


    .......kaanak kadisool Vaduhak Karunaadar Kaava(la)n maanap padai mannan valinthu nilam kolvaanaay yaanai kuthirai karuvippadai veerar thinder senai kadalung kodu then thisai noakki vanthaan.


    Vanthuttra perumpadai manputhaip parappi santha Pothiyil Thamil naadudai mannan veeram sintha seru ventru than Aanai seluththu maa aartral kantha polil sool Mathurapuri kaaval kondan.

    ......thaalum kaiyar thavaththai meiyentru saarnthu veelum kodi yon athuvantriyum veyya munnai soolum vinai yaal aravanj sudarthingalodum vaalum sadaiyaan adiyaaraiyum vanmai seivaan......"


    Periya Puraanam by poet Seikeelaar, Moorthi Naayanaar padalam. Thirup Pananthaal Sri Kaasi Madam publication

    It appears Buddhism too flourished during the period of Kalabhras in certain regions of Tamil Nadu unhindered. It was during the period of the Kalabhra king Achchutha Vikkranthahan the Buddhist Monk Buddhadatta a native of Uragapuram (Uraiyur) while at the monastry at Kaviripoompattinam composed the Buddhist text Abhidhammavatara and when residing at the monastry at Bhutamangalam he composed the Buddhist texts Vinaya-Vinicchaya, the Uttara-Vinicchaya, and the Rūpārūpa-Vibhāga all in Pali language. Another Buddhist Monk by the name Buddhagosa who lived both in the Chola country Tamil Nadu and in Sri Lanka around the period (A.D.370-450) was a contemporary of Buddhadatta, which gives us an indication of the actual period of Buddhadatta and the Kalabhra king Achchutha Vikkranthakan. 


    Evidence


    (1) “In the lovely Kaveripattana, crowded with hordes of man and women, not belonging to impure castes, endowed richly with all the requisites of a town ……. beautified with many gardens, and in a beautiful and pleasant monastery adorned with a mansion as high as the peak of Kailasa, built by Kanhadasa ………..while I was living in an old house there, by me who shining with qualities, such as writing beautifully on good topics ………this was composed and propounded extensively.” Colophon: This work named Abhidhammavatara was composed by Buddhadatta Achariya, inhabitant of Urugapuram (‘Uragapuranivasikena Acariyena bhadanta Bhuddhadattena katoAbhidhammavataro namayam’).

    ".......Kaveri-pattane ramme, nanaramo pasobhite
    Karite Kanhadasena dassaniye manorame......." 


    Abhidhammavatara - Slokas 1409-13, Buddhadatta’s Manuals, Parts. I and II, Pali Text Society Publication. 

    Note

    The Urugapuram and Kaveripattana in the above were known then and now as Uraiyur close to present Thirutchiraappalli and Kaviripoompattinam close to present Seerkaali of Tamil Nadu.


    (2) “In the undisturbed town of Bhutamangala, containing all kinds of people which was the navel of the great Chola kingdom and ……… in the beautiful and pleasant monastery surrounded by well built outer walls and moat belonging to Venhudasa, brilliant with vanira trees lining the banks of the river …. by me who lived in a mansion which clarifies the mind was composed in honour of Buddhasimha this compilation on the principles of Vinaya taught by Buddhasimha for the sake of my pupils and for the good of the Bhikkus who wanted to learn the Vinaya in a short time without difficulty. Colophon: It was begun and finished during the reign of the blemishless Acchuta Vikkanta of the Kalabbha kula. ('Accuta Vikkanta Kalabbha kulanandane mahim samanusasante araddho ca samapito')


    ".... Colaratthe Bhutamaiigala-game
    Venhudasassa arame vasantena
    Accutavikkama-namassa colaraiino kale kato...." 


    Vinaya Vinicchaya - Slokas 3168-3179, Buddhadatta’s Manuals, Parts. I and II, Pali Text Society Publication.

    Note

    Bhutamangalam of referred in the above, is presently located halfway in-between the Thanjavur and Nagapattinam highway of Tamil Nadu known as the Budamangalam.

    However the Pallava king Simhavishnu re-established himself at Kanchi and also captured the Chola country from the Kalabhras in the year...... At Mathurai in Paandiya country the Paandiya king Kadungkon drove the Kalabhras and re-established their control over their region in the year....... [unquote]


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    Supreme Court orders NIA probe into Kerala woman’s conversion and marriage case




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    In an interview with News18, scholars like Joydeep Bagchee and Vishwa Adluri talk about historicism. They also drew links between secularism and anti-semitism.

    Eram Agha | News18.com Aug. 16, 2017 4:24 PM

    File photo: Joydeep Bagchee & Vishwa Adluri

    Last week Indian Council for Historical Research organised a lecture on ‘History of History’, a critique of historicism. Speakers — Joydeep Bagchee, post-doctoral fellow Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich and Vishwa Adluri, professor of Religion and Philosophy Hunter College, New York — questioned German Indology for authoring “anti-Brahmanic polemic”.

    In an interview with News18’s Eram Agha they said historicism has collapsed. Hence, time for Mahabharata has come. The scholars also drew links between secularism and anti-semitism.


    Edited excerpts:

    How do you define historicism and what are the deficiencies you see in it?

    The term historicism has many meanings. Minimally, it is the view that all phenomena are historically determined. Beyond this, historicism is associated with an epistemological and ethical relativism — the view that all knowledge is a product of its time (and hence can only be understood out of its social conditions) and that no absolute, eternal, or transcendent values exist. As a movement, historicism traces its origins to figures like Wilhelm von Humboldt and Leopold von Ranke. It emerged in the late eighteenth century as a reaction to Enlightenment Universalism.

    By the nineteenth and twentieth century, it was the centerpiece of the German belief in the uniqueness and superiority of German culture. As a tradition of historical writing, historicism’s distinctive feature is the central role it accords the state. Essentially, historicism is a political theory masquerading as historical research or, rather, it is a tradition of scholarship that subsumes historical research to the needs of political rationality.

    Historicism is deficient because, by denying the natural law tradition, it makes an ethical grounding impossible. The consequences are visible from recent German history. But despite its professed agnosticism towards transcendent, “metaphysical” truths, historicism has a highly determinate anthropology and a theology. It takes its departure from Luther’s view of man as hopelessly fallen and privileges an irrational faith over a rational soteriology. From the Indian perspective, one must know that historicism will always work against traditional cultures, whether Hindu or Jewish.


    You have said that historicism collapsed in post war-Germany. What is the way forward?
    Historicism collapsed in post-war Germany. In the 1960s several historians argued that historicism was implicated in the German intellectual and moral debacle. There is much in favor of this argument.

    If we see historicism as the central concept uniting many elements of the specific course Germany pursued after the eighteenth century (including the peculiar form its academic life took), then we are only now experiencing the aftershocks of this collapse. The way forward will require a reconfiguration of academic and intellectual life given that the modern research university is a German invention.

    Scholars today talk about the humanities’ decline but few see that this decline is not just related to its institutional causes. Rather, an entire approach to the humanities has ended. The way forward requires us to rethink the role of history in human life. This is where the Mahabharata becomes relevant.


    How relevant are Nietzsche and Foucault in questioning historicism?
    Nietzsche was the first to draw attention to historicism’s problems. He diagnosed the European and, especially, German obsession with history as a sickness. For him, the purpose of studying history ought to be life, affirmation of life, and the creation of new values rather than anodyne fact-gathering. Nietzsche was also aware of historicism’s theological dimension: he linked it with philology, and showed how historicist philology served Christianity by burying the ancients.

    As Nietzsche’s greatest student after Bataille, Foucault provides a succinct distillation of Nietzsche’s critique: “The historian is insensitive to the most disgusting things; or rather, he especially enjoys those things that should be repugnant to him. His apparent serenity follows from his concerted avoidance of the exceptional and his reduction of all things to the lowest common denominator. Nothing is allowed to stand above him; and underlying his desire for total knowledge is his search for the secrets that belittle everything: ‘base curiosity’.”


    While talking about the history of German Indology, you made a point about secularism and said that Secularism is the source of anti-semitism. Please explain.
    No, what we said is that Secularism is linked with anti-semitism and that it has an anti-semitic component that cannot be ignored. As scholars now recognize (Anidjar, Yelle, Mufti), secular discourse often targeted Judaism as the paradigmatically “non-modern” tradition.

    Hobbes, for example, combines a defense of a secular republic with explicit anti-Judaic statements in Leviathan. These criticisms were later also extended to other non-Christian traditions, especially insofar as they were thought to replicate features of rabbinic Judaism (e.g., Hinduism which had priests “just like” Judaism).

    If there is one thing lacking in debates on secularism in India today, it is recognition that secularism in its inception had a strong anti-Judaic bias. When individuals in India today attack “Brahmanism” they implicitly draw on these remote German sources. As the paper “Jews and Hindus in Indology” (See Conclusion of the paper appended) argued we must be careful not to delegitimize, wittingly or unwittingly, entire segments of society in our pursuit of a grand narrative of progress.


    Does that mean in the Indian context secularism is a misfit? If yes, then what is the alternative for a pluralistic Indian society’?
    It depends on the vision. If the vision is nineteenth-century Prussia, where the state expanded to absorb the religious, communal, and pedagogic functions the church previously exercised, then secularism is an essential component, though we should be under no illusion that secularism is really secular. But this vision, besides being nostalgic, is also anachronistic. After World War II, no one seriously contemplates a return to nineteenth-century forms of government.

    Philosophers and intellectual historians have critiqued the architects of nineteenth-century Prussia (e.g., Hegel). Incidentally, the real problem with secularism is not the ones usually advanced — it conflicts with people’s religious beliefs, it is a European import, it does not provide a lasting solution to the problem of religious tolerance, Indian society has always had a tradition of religious pluralism. Rather, secularism is problematic because it does not address questions of ultimate meaning, or, rather, it transfers those questions or those expectations to the state. The state now takes the place of religious visions of paradise; it becomes the center around which “religious” forms of life are organized.

    Basically, a new idol. Rather than reduce violence, secularism exacerbates it. José Casanova did an interesting study, where he showed that when people blame religion for violence they are reporting not from their own experience but a seventeenth-century experience, actually, in the terms in which the Enlightenment saw the previous century when it looked back and saw “wars of religion.”


    What are your views on German Indology? Could you please also talk about your book The Nay Science?
    As we showed in The Nay Science, German Indology was far from secular. Most German Indologists were theologically trained Protestants. Several were pronounced anti-semites (Christian Lassen, Rudolf von Roth, Otto von Böhtlingk, Albrecht Weber, Jakob Wilhelm Hauer, Johannes Hertel). Yet others are complicit in the cover-up of the Indologists’ anti-semitism (Klaus Mylius, Eli Franco). The number is larger if we recognize that, in the Indologists’ writings, “Brahmans” was a code for “Jews.” Almost every leading German Indologist of the past two centuries authored an anti-Brahmanic polemic. Besides making explicit comparisons between “Brahmanic” Hinduism and Jewish tradition, the Indologists explicitly advocated a program of reform, entailing breaking the Brahmans’ social status, taking away their authority, and transferring custody of Sanskrit texts to the new priesthood-professoriate.

    A prejudice against traditional hermeneutics and textual transmission was inscribed at the very level of the method. Consequently, regardless of whether they originally shared these prejudices, once students graduated from Indology programs they emerged as critics of Brahmanism. These students now also had a vested interest in attacking Brahmanism, since their livelihood was parasitic on replacing the Brahmans as educators. But if German Indology’s credibility is shot today, it is not merely because it pretended to be an objective, non-confessional science, when, in reality, it was a sub-discipline of Protestant theology. Rather, its credibility is shot because, other than espouse a naïve historicism, German Indologists could never explain what made their discipline scientific.

    Thus, although they claim to represent the heights of European consciousness, their work has become anachronistic within the German university itself. Little wonder that their programs are in decline. From twenty-two and a half chairs in 1997, only sixteen survive. More closures are inevitable.


    How do you see German Indology vis-à-vis American Indology?
    American Indology is a stepchild of German Indology. Almost every leading American program at some point imported German expertise, in the form of either German professors (U. Penn, Harvard) or German-trained returnees (Yale, Bryn Mawr) or German models and ideals of study (almost every Sanskrit doctoral program in the US). Many principles of American Indology (a suspicion of traditional hermeneutics, criticism of the Brahmans, restricting works’ meaning to their sociological context, historicism and a so-called critical philology) are borrowed from German Indology. If American Indology is to survive it will have to learn from German Indology’s demise. We are hopeful American universities will grasp The Nay Science as an historic opportunity to rethink the goals of Sanskrit education. The student numbers are there; the interest is there. The only thing lacking is professors who can engage students and teach the texts with passion, rather than bait Indians and seek to justify their salaries through petitioning, provoking controversy, and inflaming an already volatile political situation.

    What initiatives should be taken to promote Indology among Indians?
    We are skeptical of institutional solutions. If the Indian state suddenly entered, offering to create an indigenous Indology, this would lead to similar problems as the Prussian experiment. You would suddenly get people willing to prostitute themselves to a state ideology — people disinterested in the texts except as they served them as a means to power and a fat salary. Our work is therefore fundamentally apolitical.
    The texts have always survived and will survive because of individuals who care about them. That said, programs are needed to replace those that have collapsed or been discredited. A resurgence of the Indian tradition is underway as people rediscover the texts and are willing to read them with a hermeneutics of respect. The old model of suspicion, a jejune “criticism for criticism’s sake,” has exhausted itself. 

    Forthcoming dissertations and books will be the better for it.



    Conclusion


    The analysis presented here lets us now appreciate the full scope of The Nay Science’s project. Our aim in this work was to ask four questions about Indology as it is currently practiced. The first was epistemological: how was German Indology a science? How did it generate certain, universally valid propositions? Here we showed that Indology did not correspond to any acceptable definition of science. Even though the Indologists claimed that their work was objective and scientific as compared with 
    the allegedly arbitrary interpretations of native commentators, their work was not any more scientific.

    Rather, it was based on racial, anti-Semitic, and anti-Brahmanic principles. The second question we asked was ethical: how did the German Indologists address these problematic aspects of their history? Were they cognizant of them? Had they engaged in a self-critique? Had they corrected for the historical-critical method’s anti-Judaic bias? Once again, we found that, far from addressing these problems, the Indologists were obsessed with defending an institutional hegemony. They failed to acknowledge either their discipline’s involvement in Nazism or their share of responsibility in legitimating Aryanism. The third question we asked was pedagogic: how did German Indology contribute to pedagogy? What was its value to students? Here we showed that the discipline did not actually aim to make texts accessible and transparent. Indeed, it rejected philosophical interpretationas incommensurable with the “scientific” task. Although German Indologists claimed to be part of the humanities, their work favored an arcane, technical style that restricted these texts to other disciplinary “initiates.”  Their work set aside both ethics and pedagogy as beyond Indology’s ambit,and posited a fantastic objectivity instead. The fourth question we asked concerned German Indology’s public value: if the discipline contributed neither to science nor to ethics nor to pedagogy, what function  did it serve? 


    Why was it funded? Here we found that Indology’s main function consisted of oversight over the Brahmanic (read: priestly) tradition. German Indologists had failed to evolve a single positive justification for their discipline, other than offering a counterpoint to the tradition.


    Yet, although they claimed to be historically self-aware, they could not answer a simple question: in what way was their scholarship “critical”? Parasitic on the Indian tradition, using their corporate status to compel respect from the Indians, and yet incapable of dialoguing with them, the Indologists thus represent a failed chapter in German intellectual history. They survive merely on the strength of their institutional arrangements, that is, what Ringer terms “legality.” The present paper brought these points together and showed how, on the back of a supersessionist narrative of liberation from Brahmanism, the German Indologists actually constituted themselves as a new priesthood. Their example is instructive for anyone concerned with the university’s future direction.



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    In Hindu tradition, Itihāsa has a clear role in human life. Itihāsa is a narrative of human experiences and provides guidelines on dharma, the universal ethic.
    Contrast Itihāsa with Historicism as elaborated by Vishwa Adluri and Joydeep Bagchee. Historicism makes a bogus claim that it is 'scientific' defying any definition of 'science'. Historicism has a muddled role in human life, impelled by the importance given to legitimise the state. Such legitimisation led to the moral collapse of the German historicist during the Second World War. This moral collapse led to the collapse of historicism.
    Itihāsa offers clear ethical narratives to ground human life in universal ethics.
    dhárma m. ʻ what is established, law, duty, right ʼ AV. [dhárman -- n. RV. -- √dhr̥Pa. dhamma -- m. (rarely n.), Aś.shah. man. dhrama -- , gir. kāl. &c. dhaṁma -- ; NiDoc. dham̄a ʻ employment in the royal administration ʼ; Dhp. dharma -- , dhama -- , Pk. dhamma -- m.; OB. dhāma ʻ religious conduct ʼ; H. kāmdhām ʻ work, business ʼ; OSi. dama ʻ religion ʼ (Si. daham ← Pa.).6762 dharmin ʻ pious, just ʼ Gaut. [dhárma -- ] Pa. dhammika -- ʻ righteous ʼ; NiDoc. dharmiyas̱a gen. sg. ʻ title of a king ʼ; Pk. dhammi -- , °ia -- ʻ righteous ʼ (dhamma -- < dharmya -- , cf. Pa. dhammiya -- , or < dhārmá -- ); Paš.ar. dräm ʻ friend ʼ; Si. dämi ʻ righteous ʼ.dharmiṣṭha -- , dhārmiká -- .dharmiṣṭha ʻ very righteous ʼ Mn. [dharmin -- ] Pk. dhammiṭṭha -- ʻ very righteous ʼ; Si. dämiṭudam ʻ kind ʼ. dharmya -- ʻ customary ʼ Mn., ʻ endowed with qualities ʼ KaṭhUp., n. ʻ a customary donation ʼ Pāṇ. [dhárma -- ](CDIAL 6753, 6762, 6763).  dhārmá ʻ relating to dharma ʼ ŚBr. [dhárma -- ] S. dhāmo m. ʻ one person's share in a feast, invitation ʼ; P. dhāmmādhāmã̄ m. ʻ great feast, invitation to a Brahman to a feast ʼ; K.kash. WPah.paṅ. jaun. dhām ʻ feast ʼ; G. dhāmɔ m. ʻ long and continuous stay as a guest ʼ. -- Pa. Pk. dhamma -- ʻ righteous ʼ rather < dharmya -- . dhārmiká ʻ righteous ʼ Mn., m. ʻ judge ʼ lex., ʻ juggler ʼ Ratnāv. [dharmin -- ]Ku. dhāmī m. ʻ drummer who excites people to dance under the inspiration of a deity ʼ; N. dhāmi ʻ wizard ʼ, dhamini ʻ his wife ʼ; H. dhāmiyã̄ m. pl. ʻ a Hindu sect who are followers of Prānnāth ʼ; M. dhāmyā°mādhām -- gãḍ m. ʻ insulting term of address to a Mādhyandina or Yajurvedī ʼ (LM 354 < dharmya -- ).Addenda: dhārmiká -- : Garh. dhāmī ʻ a priest of folk -- religion ʼ.(CDIAL 6796, 6798).
    Contrast this role with the role of Historicism. (Excerpted from Vishwa Adluri & Joydeep Bagchee's writings):
    Historicism muddles the role of history in human life.

    Historicism denies natural law tradition, and hence, it makes an ethical grounding impossible.

    [quote]Historicism collapsed in post-war Germany. In the 1960s several historians argued that historicism was implicated in the German intellectual and moral debacle. 

    The term historicism has many meanings. Minimally, it is the view that all phenomena are historically determined. Beyond this, historicism is associated with an epistemological and ethical relativism — the view that all knowledge is a product of its time (and hence can only be understood out of its social conditions) and that no absolute, eternal, or transcendent values exist. As a movement, historicism traces its origins to figures like Wilhelm von Humboldt and Leopold von Ranke. It emerged in the late eighteenth century as a reaction to Enlightenment Universalism.
    By the nineteenth and twentieth century, it was the centerpiece of the German belief in the uniqueness and superiority of German culture. As a tradition of historical writing, historicism’s distinctive feature is the central role it accords the state. Essentially, historicism is a political theory masquerading as historical research or, rather, it is a tradition of scholarship that subsumes historical research to the needs of political rationality.

    Historicism is deficient because, by denying the natural law tradition, it makes an ethical grounding impossible. The consequences are visible from recent German history. But despite its professed agnosticism towards transcendent, “metaphysical” truths, historicism has a highly determinate anthropology and a theology. It takes its departure from Luther’s view of man as hopelessly fallen and privileges an irrational faith over a rational soteriology. From the Indian perspective, one must know that historicism will always work against traditional cultures, whether Hindu or Jewish.

    Conclusion: collapse of historicism with its bogus 'scientific' claim

    The analysis presented here lets us now appreciate the full scope of The Nay Science’s project. Our aim in this work was to ask four questions about Indology as it is currently practiced. The first was epistemological: how was German Indology a science? How did it generate certain, universally valid propositions? Here we showed that Indology did not correspond to any acceptable definition of science. Even though the Indologists claimed that their work was objective and scientific as compared with 
    the allegedly arbitrary interpretations of native commentators, their work was not any more scientific.


    Rather, it was based on racial, anti-Semitic, and anti-Brahmanic principles. The second question we asked was ethical: how did the German Indologists address these problematic aspects of their history? Were they cognizant of them? Had they engaged in a self-critique? Had they corrected for the historical-critical method’s anti-Judaic bias? Once again, we found that, far from addressing these problems, the Indologists were obsessed with defending an institutional hegemony. They failed to acknowledge either their discipline’s involvement in Nazism or their share of responsibility in legitimating Aryanism. The third question we asked was pedagogic: how did German Indology contribute to pedagogy? What was its value to students? Here we showed that the discipline did not actually aim to make texts accessible and transparent. Indeed, it rejected philosophical interpretationas incommensurable with the “scientific” task. Although German Indologists claimed to be part of the humanities, their work favored an arcane, technical style that restricted these texts to other disciplinary “initiates.”  Their work set aside both ethics and pedagogy as beyond Indology’s ambit,and posited a fantastic objectivity instead. The fourth question we asked concerned German Indology’s public value: if the discipline contributed neither to science nor to ethics nor to pedagogy, what function  did it serve? 
    Why was it funded? Here we found that Indology’s main function consisted of oversight over the Brahmanic (read: priestly) tradition. German Indologists had failed to evolve a single positive justification for their discipline, other than offering a counterpoint to the tradition.
    Yet, although they claimed to be historically self-aware, they could not answer a simple question: in what way was their scholarship “critical”? Parasitic on the Indian tradition, using their corporate status to compel respect from the Indians, and yet incapable of dialoguing with them, the Indologists thus represent a failed chapter in German intellectual history. They survive merely on the strength of their institutional arrangements, that is, what Ringer terms “legality.” The present paper brought these points together and showed how, on the back of a supersessionist narrative of liberation from Brahmanism, the German Indologists actually constituted themselves as a new priesthood. Their example is instructive for anyone concerned with the university’s future direction. [unquote]

    It is time to revisit historiography or history of history.


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    CoA Seeks Supreme Court Directive to Remove BCCI Top Brass

    Cricketnext Staff | Updated: August 16, 2017, 5:52 PM IST

    Committee of Administrators Chief Vinod Rai with BCCI CEO Rahul Johri (Getty Images)
    New Delhi: In a scathing report submitted to the Supreme Court, the Committee of Administrators (COA) has sought the removal of the entire top brass of the Board of Control for Cricket in India. These include acting president CK Khanna, secretary Amitabh Choudhary and treasurer Anirudh Chaudhry for non-compliance of Lodha Panel reforms.

    The fifth status Report, a 26-page report which has now been uploaded on the BCCI website, has asked the apex court to hand over the "governance, management and administration" of the BCCI to them. The CoA has further requested that they would need the help of a professional group, currently headed by BCCI CEO Rahul Johri, to run the board.

    "...it is only fair that the current office-bearers be treated in the same manner because a further period of six months have elapsed since the said office-bearers submitted their undertakings and reforms mandated by Hon'ble Court have still not been implemented.

    "It is clear that current office-bearers are not in position to make good on their undertakings and ensure that reforms mandated by this Hon'ble Court is implemented."

    The SC-appointed Committee of Administrators further pulled up the Board of Control for Cricket in India for deliberately misconstruing the apex court’s order dated July 24 and barring the CEO Rahul Johri and the legal team from attending the Special General Meeting on July 26.

    In what is quoted as a supplement to the previous status report dated July 9, 2017, the COA has said that the BCCI officials also used the apex court’s expression of ‘etc’ with regards to looking into some of the reforms suggested by the Lodha committee to their advantage and included a series of issues aimed at unravelling the fundamental core of the reforms mandated by the SC.

    “First, the CEO of BCCI as well as the administrative staff including the legal team was asked to leave the meeting on the basis that they are not office bearers. Secondly, the totally neutral expression ‘etc’ was treated as an excuse to bring in a series of issues aimed at unravelling the fundamental core of the reforms mandated by this Hon’ble Court including disqualification of office bearers, constitution of apex council, clear demarcation of functions, powers, duties and obligations between professional management and Apex Council, etc,” the report stated.

    The COA has also pulled up the BCCI for not looking into basic issues like ‘conflict of interest’ and the appointment of Ombudsman. “Even fundamental issues such as conflict of interest rules and appointment of Ombudsman were not implemented during the SGM held on July 26, 2017. It is obvious that the whole idea was to stonewall the fundamental core of reforms mandated by this Hon’ble Court and make the same a dead letter.

    “It appears that the intention was also to ensure that the Committee of Administrators would not receive a firsthand account of the proceedings during the SGM and hence the CEO of BCCI and other administrative staff including the legal team were asked to leave the meeting,” the report said.

    “The CEO was asked to leave despite clear directions from the CoA to the effect that the CEO shall be entitled to attend every SGM and other meetings of the BCCI. The office bearers of the BCCI, instead of reprimanding the constituent members who were suggesting that BCCI officials including the CEO leave the meeting, did absolutely nothing.”

    The report also states that DDCA administrator, Justice (Retd) Vikramjit Sen, also pointed out during the SGM that BCCI is "acting contrary" to the Lodha Committee Report.

    The COA also submitted that apart from issues pertaining to membership and selection committees (reducing it from 5 to 3), other issues identified during the SGM held on July 26 form the fundamental core of the reforms mandated by the Supreme Court judgement of July 18, 2016.

    The report states: "Describing these issues as "impracticable" or "difficult" is nothing short of "gross abuse/contempt of the court order dated July 24, 2017 and ought to attract appropriate consequences."

    The status report also mentions about BCCI's failure to appoint an Ombudsman since Justice AP Shah's tenure ended in September, 2016. The COA mentioned that despite giving the BCCI names of six retired judged, it entrusted the office bearers to take a call.

    The other issue mentioned is "failure to adopt new conflict of interest" rules.

    The report mentions that there has been resistance to adopt a new fund disbursement policy as the addition of members would reduce the share of the existing units.
    (With PTI Inputs)
    http://www.news18.com/cricketnext/news/coa-seeks-supreme-court-directive-to-remove-bcci-top-brass-1492845.html

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    https://tinyurl.com/ycu5csox

    Br̥haspati is अधिष्ठाता देवता of puṣya nakshatra. In Bhāratīya Itihāsa,‘ancient traditions’, पुष्य--रथ of इन्द्र--मह Indra festival carries गण--देवता, उषा and two Aśvinīkumāras. उषा f. morning light , dawn , morning RV. AV. xii , 2 , 45 VS. &c.

    Uā (उषस्) is R̥gveda identification with dawn, revealing herself with the daily coming of light to the world, chasing away darkness evil demons, rousing all life, setting all things and activity in motion. She is the life of all living creatures, the impeller of action and breath, the foe of chaos and confusion, the auspicious arouser of cosmic and moral order called the Ṛta in Hinduism. Mother is venerated in all ancient Hindu texts, her disciplined devotion is signified by the sindhur she wears on the maang, the parting of her hair. This method of applying sindhur on the maang is evidenced on to terracotta toys discovered in Nausharo. 

    This is a tribute to Massimo Vidale who has vividly provided an archaeological narrative on what could be pushyaratha of uṣas

    Two bronze statues of 'dancing girls' carrying a lamp on their hands are Indus Script hypertexts attesting to metalwork of the Bronze Age. The deepam-s held in their hands lights up the smelter. They are metaphors of uṣas, 'one who kindles'(smelter).

    A woman's breast and face ligatured to feline hieroglyphs is Indus Script hypertext signifying kola 'woman' kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter', kol 'working in iron'. Sime female figurines with the beaks of birds are Indus Scripthypertexts signifying मुखम् mukham 'beak of a bird', mū̃h 'face' rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' (Santali). mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends;kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Ko. mu·k nose, funnel of bellows signifies the blacksmith as forge-blower: dhamaka'blacksmith'dhmakara'forge-blower'. In an artisan family, the mother is also a participant in the smelting process, performing her role as a forge-blower.
    women blacksmith - Google SearchBlacksmithing mother.
    वाराहीthe शक्ति or female Energy of the Boar form of विष्णु Ya1jn5. Sch.; N. of one of the मातृs attending on स्कन्द MBh. and Gaṇeśa. 

    Image result for ganesa ancient manuscripts

    Gaṇeśa with Saptamatrikas, Aihole, Karnataka, 8th century CE.
    Related image
    The Devi Matrikas (flanked by Shiva and Ganesha), representing various Shakti aspects, from 9th-century Madhya Pradesh
    Saptamātkā-s with Gaṇeśa, at Panchalingeshvara temple in Karnataka.

    Image result for ganas sculptureGaṇeśa with Gaṇa-s in Kailasanatha temple, Kanchipuram (685 to 705 CE, Rajasimha, Pallava dynasty)

    https://www.academia.edu/1315116/Bibliography_for_Archaeology_of_the_goddess_an_Indian_paradox_ Bibliography [for Archaeology of the goddess: an Indian paradox] by A. Di Castro

    Alexandra Ardeleanu-Jansen, “The Terracotta Figurines from Mohenjodaro: Considerations on Tradition, Craft and Ideology in the Harappan Civilization (C. 2400-1800 B.C.)” in S. Settar and Ravi Korisettar eds., Indian Archaeology in Retrospect, Protohistory: Archaeology of the Harrapan Civilization, Vol. II. New Delhi ICHR and Manohar pp. 205-222.

     



    See: http://tinyurl.com/jqw4ltk  Itihāsa of Uā,औषस and links to artisanal work of त्वष्टृ’s ten daughters 

    Maybe, some of these daughters are venerated and signified as Utsava bera on this terracotta artifact of Sarasvati Civilization? Unfathomable are the metaphors in ādibhautika, ādidaivika and ādhyātmika/turiya levels of representation in the Ṛcas of Ṛgveda.


    The Ṛcas which adore Uṣā,औषस in Ṛgveda are embedded for ready reference.

    Lady of the spiked throne. If this not a spiked throne but rays of the Sun, the lady may be Uṣā,औषस of Ṛgveda. प्र- √ भा 1 a [p= 683,3] P. -भाति , to shine forth , begin to become light , shine , gleam RV. &c  ; to appear , seem , look like (nom. with or without इव) MBh. Ka1v. &c  ; to illuminate , enlighten TUp.; N. of a शक्ति Hcat.; of the city of कुबेर L.

    The Power of a Lost Ritual

    An exceptional and controversial recent find in a private collection is analyzed by a leading Italian archaeologist in this fully illustrated complete volume. With many potential implications for understanding ancient Indus culture.

    From the Preface

    In Autumn 2009, I was invited by a private collector to see an artefact that was mentioned as unique and very complex, and reportedly belonged to the cultural sphere of the Indus civilization. I do not have professional links with the antique market and the world of private collectors, but the descrip- tions I had of the find were so puzzling that for once I accepted the invitation to examine the new find. I was generously hosted by the family of the collector and what I saw fully rewarded the trip and the time. There I spend two whole days, looking in detail to the most amazing and better preserved terracotta group sculpture of the 3rd millennium cal BC I had ever seen, while a professional photographer and her assistant took the pictures you see in this book.

    . . . in this case the find is so exceptional, and its archaeological and historical implica- tions so important, that to bury forever the information in the shelves of a private collector would only add damage to damage. After consulting with several colleagues, I decided to publish it. The only purpose of this book is to make the find available to the specialists and to open a discussion on its meaning.

    https://www.harappa.com/content/lady-spiked-throne

    https://www.harappa.com/sites/default/files/pdf/Spiked-Throne.pdf (Full text of the book, 72 pages)
    Total Number of figurines -- riders -- on the boat or chariot: 15. Lady with rays emanting is seated in the middle. On either side of the cabin, 4 male and 4 female figures are seated on cube-like stools (like two rows of rowers or holding reins of the bull which draws the chariot).
    6 other male figurines are standing on the sides, 4 in a cabin and 2 in front, as a sort of entourage.
    See: https://cogniarchae.wordpress.com/2016/08/02/the-lady-of-the-spiked-throne-decoding-the-symbols/
    See: http://learning.brac.net/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=736:eshika-dutta&limitstart=10
    Uṣā Usually means physical dawn. Dawning of spiritual knowledge could be considered as Uṣā (spiritual)(Jñānodaya).


    Uṣā is devata in the following Ṛca-s:

    RV 1.30, 1.48, 1.49, 1.92, 1.95 (?), 1.113, 1.123, 1.124,

    RV 3.61, 4.30, 4.51, 4.52, 5.79, 5.80, 6.64, 6.65, 7.41, 7.75 to 7.81, 8.47, 10.172


    RV 1.95 adores auṣas 'relating to uṣas. This Rca holds the key linking her to artisanal work.

    Reference to त्वष्टृ’s ten daughters in RV 1.95.2

    The reference occurs in the context of devat ā औषस .

    त्वष्टृ [p= 464,1] m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृ) AV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम् अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुs i , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस् or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा 

    TBr. S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23 ; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर् आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. )


    RV 1.95.2 recites:

    Who are he ten daughters of त्वष्ट?  An asterism is called tvāṣṭ त्वाष्ट्र ष्ट्री 1 The asterism चित्रा;  rī त्वाष्ट्र a. [त्वष्टा देवताअस्य अण्] Belonging to Tvaṣṭṛi; U.6.3. (v. l.). 

    Derived fr. उषस्, ‘dawn’, औषसी, औषस refer to 1. several सामन्1s and 2. ten daughters of त्वष्टृ [p= 464,1] who is a form of the sun MBh. iii , 146 Hariv. 13143 BhP. iii , 6 , 15.

    त्वष्टृ is surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii

    Could the expression औषस refer to the generative energy of त्वष्ट and related to uṣas? If so, the reference औषस may explain the ‘dawn’ energy kindling agni to purify somabrought in the chariot by uas.

    त्वष्टृ is father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. ; स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्s x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ;

    औषस [p= 240,2] mf()n. (fr. उषस्) , relating to dawn , early , matutinal TBr. Ii; f. daybreak , morning S3Br. Vi; n. N. of several सामन्1s. (matutinal ‘of or occurring in the morning’).

    1.095.01 Two periods, of different complexions, revolve for their own purposes, and each in succession severally nourishes a son; in one, Hari is the receiver of oblations, in the other, the brilliant Agni is beheld. [viru_pe, of various nature; i.e. of various complexions: black and white, night and day. Day is the mother of fire, which is then, as it were, in an embryo state and is not fully manifested or born until it is dark; hence, the sun is in the womb of night, and is born, or shines, in the morning; Hari, or the sun, being manifested in the morning, is then to be worshipped; Agni, shining at night, is to be worshipped in the evening---tasma_ agnaye sa_yamhu_yate su_rya_ya pra_tar (Taittiri_ya Bra_hman.a 2.1.2.6); aus.asagun.avis'is.t.o agni, s'uddho agnir va_: Agni endowed with the properties of dawn or the simple, discrete Agni].
    1.095.02 The vigilant and youthful Ten beget, through the wind, this embryo Agni, inherent (in all beings), sharp-visaged, universally renowned, shining among men; him they conduct (to every dwelling). [Ten: the ten regions of space, which generate lightning, as an embryo in the clouds, using the winds: agner hi va_yuh ka_ran.am, va_yor agnih, wind is the cause of fire, fire of wind. Tvas.t.uh = wind or its agency: dipta_nmadhyama_d va_yoh sa_kas.a_t, the brilliant central proximity of wind. Ten: the ten fingers which generate Agni through the act of attrition as an embryo in the sticks. vibhr.tram = deposited in all creatures,i.e. inherent].
    1.095.03 They contemplate three places of his birth; one in the ocean, one in the heaven, one in the firmament; and, dividing the seasons of the year for the benefit of earthly creatures, he formed, in regular succession, the eastern quarter. 
    1.095.04 Which of you discerns the hidden Agni? a son, he begets his mothers by oblations; the germ of many (waters), he issues from the ocean, mighty and wise, the recipient of oblations. [hidden agni: latent heat in the waters, in the woods and in all fixed and moveable things; he begets his mothers: Agni, as lightning is the son of the waters collected in the clouds; he generates those waters by the oblations which he conveys; he issues from the ocean: upastha_t (smudra_t) nirgacchati, Agni is thought to rise in the morning in the shape of the sun from out of the ocean].
    1.095.05 Appearing amongst them (the waters), the bright-shining (Agni) increases, rising above the flanks of the waving waters, spreading his own renown; both (heaven and earth) are alarmed, as the radiant Agni is born, and, approaching the lion, they pay him honour. [above the flanks of the waving waters: jihma_na_m apa_m upasthe, above, on the side, or tip, of the crooked waters; reference to Agni as the lightning; approaching the lion: sim.ha applied to Agni, implying sahanas'i_lam, abhibha_vana s'i_lam, ability to suffer or be overcome].
    1.095.06 Both the auspicious ones (day and night or two pieces of wood rubbed together to produce flame) wait upon him like two female attendants, as lowing kine (follow their calves) by the paths (that they have gone); he has been the lord of might among the mighty, whom (the priests) on the right (of the altar) anoint.
    1.095.07 Like the sun, he stretches forth his arms, and the formidable Agni, decorating both heaven and earth (with brightness), labours (in his duties); he draws up from everything the essential (moisture), and clothes (the earth) with new vestments (derived) from his maternal (rains).
    1.095.08 Associated in the firmament with the moving waters, he assumes an excellent and lustrous form, and the wise sustainer (of all things) sweeps over the source (of the rains with his radiance), whence a concentration of light is spread abroad by the sportive deity. [budhna = antariks.a or firmament, as the source of the rains].
    1.095.09 The vast and victorious radiance of you, the mighty one, pervades the firmament; Agni, who have been kindled by us, preserve us with all your undiminished and protecting glories.
    1.095.10 He causes the waters to flow in a torrent through the sky, and with those pure waves he inundates the earth; he gathers all (articles of) food in the stomach, and for that purpose sojourns in the new-sprung parents (of the gain). [navasu prasus.u = in the new parents, or mothers; i.e. in the os.adhis, the annual crops which ripen after the rains and bear food, being impregnated by the terrestrial Agni].
    1.095.11 Agni, who are the purifier, growing with the fuel we have supplied, blaze for the sake of (securing) food to us, who are possessed of wealth; and may Mitra, Varun.a, Aditi--ocean, earth, and heaven, preserve it to us.

    Griffith: HYMN XCV. Agni 95


    1. To fair goals travel Two unlike in semblance: each in succession nourishes an infant.
    One bears a Godlike Babe of golden colour; bright and fairshining-, is he with the other.
    2 Tvastars' ten daughters, vigilant and youthful, produced this Infant borne to sundry quarters.
    They bear around him whose long flames are pointed, fulgent among mankind with native splendour.
    3. Three several places of his birth they honour, in midair-, in the heaven, and in the waters.
    Governing in the east of earthly regions, the seasons hath he stablished in their order.
    4 Who of you knows this secret One? The Infant by his own nature hath brought forth his Mothers.
    The germ of many, from the waters' bosom he goes forth, wise and great, of Godlike nature.
    5 Visible, fair, he grows in native brightness uplifted in the lap of waving waters.
    When he was born both Tvastars' worlds were frightened: they turn to him and reverence the Lion.
    6 The Two auspicious Ones, like women, tend him: like lowing cows they seek him in their manner.
    He is the Lord of Might among the mighty; him, on the right, they balm with their oblations.
    7 Like Savitar his arms with might he stretches; awful, he strives grasping the worlds' two
    borders.
    He forces out from all a brilliant vesture, yea, from his Mothers draws forth new raiment.
    8 He makes him a most noble form of splendour, decking him in his home with milk and waters.
    The Sage adorns the depths of air with wisdom: this is the meeting where the Gods are worshipped.
    9 Wide through the firmament spreads forth triumphant the far resplendent- strength of thee the
    Mighty.
    Kindled by us do thou preserve us, Agni, with all thy selfbright- undiminished succours.
    10 In dry spots he makes stream, and course, and torrent, and inundates the earth with floods that glisten.
    All ancient things within his maw he gathers, and moves among the new fresh sprouting- grasses.
    11 Fed with our fuel, purifying Agni, so blaze to us auspiciously for glory.
    This prayer of ours may Varuna grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.



    Four Rcas of Āngīrasa are succinct and precise statements on Uṣas: RV 10.172

    RV 1.30:

    20 What mortal, O immortal Dawn, enjoyeth thee? Where lovest thou?
    To whom, O radiant, dost thou go?
    21 For we have had thee in our thoughts whether anear or far away,
    Redhued- and like a dappled mare.
    22 Hither, O 
    Daughter of the Sky, come thou with these thy strengthenings,
    And send thou riches down to us.

    RV 1.48

    HYMN XLVIII. Dawn. 48


    1 DAWN on us with prosperity, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
    Dawn with great glory, Goddess, Lady of the Light, dawn thou with riches, Bounteous One.
    2 They, bringing steeds and kine, boongivers- of all wealth, have oft sped forth to lighten us.
    O Usas, waken up for me the sounds of joy: send us the riches of the great.
    3 Usas hath dawned, and now shall dawn, the Goddess, driver forth of cars
    Which, as she cometh nigh, have fixed their thought on her, like gloryseekers- on the flood.
    4 Here Kanva, chief of Kanvas' race, sings forth aloud the glories of the heroes' names,
    The. princes who, O Usas, as thou comest near, direct their thoughts to liberal gifts.
    5 Like a good matron Usas comes carefully tending everything:
    Rousing all life she stirs all creatures that have feet, and makes the birds of air fly up.
    6 She sends the busy forth, each man to his pursuit: delay she knows not as she springs.
    O rich in opulence, after thy dawning birds that have flown forth no longer rest.
    7 This Dawn hath yoked her steeds afar, beyond the rising of the Sun:
    Borne on a hundred chariots she, auspicious Dawn, advances on her way to Men.
    8 To meet her glance all living creatures bend them down: Excellent One, she makes the light.
    Usas, the Daughter of the Sky, the opulent, shines foes and enmities away.
    9 Shine on us with thy radiant light, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
    Bringing to us great store of high felicity, and beaming on our solemn rites.
    10 For in thee is each living creatures' breath and life, when, Excellent! thou dawnest forth.
    Borne on thy lofty car, O Lady of the Light, hear, thou of wondrous wealth, our call.
    11 O Usas, win thyself the strength which among men is wonderful.
    Bring thou thereby the pious unto holy rites, those who as priests sing praise to thee.
    12 Bring from the firmament, O Usas, all the Gods, that they may drink our Soma juice,
    And, being what thou art, vouchsafe us kine and steeds, strength meet for praise and hero might.
    13 May Usas whose auspicious rays are seen resplendent round about,
    Grant us great riches, fair in form, of all good things, wealth which light labour may attain.
    14 Mighty One, whom the Rsis of old time invoked for their protection and their help,
    O Usas, graciously answer our songs of praise with bounty and with brilliant light.
    15 Usas, as thou with light to day hast opened the twin doors of heaven,
    So grant thou us a dwelling wide and free from foes. O Goddess, give us food with kine.
    16 Bring us to wealth abundant, sent in every shape, to plentiful refreshing food,
    To allsubduing- splendour, Usas, Mighty One, to strength, thou rich in spoil and wealth.


    RV 1.49


    HYMN XLIX. Dawn. 49


    1 EEN' from above the skys' bright realm come, Usas, by auspicious ways:
    Let red steeds bear thee to the house of him who pours the Soma, juice.
    2 The chariot which thou mountest, fair of shape, O Usas light to move,
    Therewith, O Daughter of the Sky, aid men of noble fame today.
    3 Bright Usas, when thy times return, all quadrupeds and bipeds stir,
    And round about flock winged birds from all the boundaries of heaven.
    4 Thou dawning with thy beams of light illumest all the radiant realm.
    Thee, as thou art, the Kanvas, fain for wealth, have called with sacred songs.


    RV 1.92


    HYMN XCII. Dawn. 92

    1.    THESE Dawns have raised their banner; in the eastern half of the midair- they spread abroad
    their shining light.
    Like heroes who prepare their weapons for the war, onward they come bright red in hue, the Mother
    Cows.
    2 Readily have the purple beams of light shot up; the Red Cows have they harnessed, easy to be
    yoked.
    The Dawns have brought distinct perception as before: redhued-, they have attained their fulgent
    brilliancy.
    3 They sing their song like women active in their tasks, along their common path hither from far
    away,
    Bringing refreshment to the liberal devotee, yea, all things to the worshipper who pours the juice.
    4 She, like a dancer, puts her broidered garments on: as a cow yields her udder so she bares her
    breast.
    Creating light for all the world of life, the Dawn hath laid the darkness open as the cows their
    stall.
    5 We have beheld the brightness of her shining; it spreads and drives away the darksome monster.
    Like tints that deck the Post at sacrifices, Heavens' Daughter hath attained her wondrous
    splendour.
    6 We have overpast the limit of this darkness; Dawn breaking forth again brings clear perception.
    She like a flatterer smiles in light for glory, and fair of face hath wakened to rejoice us.
    7 The Gotamas have praised Heavens' radiant Daughter, the leader of the charm of pleasant voices.
    Dawn, thou conferrest on us strength with offspring and men, conspicuous with kine and horses.
    8 O thou who shinest forth in wondrous glory, urged onward by thy strength, auspicious Lady,
    Dawn, may I gain that wealth, renowned and ample, in brave sons, troops of slaves, farfamed- for
    horses.
    9 Bending her looks on all the world, the Goddess shines, widely spreading with her bright eye
    westward.
    Waking to motion every living creature, she understands the voice of each adorer.
    10 Ancient of days, again again born newly, decking her beauty with the selfsame- raiment.
    The Goddess wastes away the life of mortals, like a skilled hunter cutting birds in pieces.
    11 She hath appeared discovering heavens' borders: to the far distance she drives off her Sister.
    Diminishing the days of human creatures, the Lady shines with all her lovers' splendour.
    12 The bright, the blessed One shines forth extending her rays like kine, as a flood rolls his
    waters.
    Never transgressing the divine commandments, she is beheld visible with the sunbeams.
    13 O Dawn enriched with ample wealth, bestow on us the wondrous gift
    Wherewith we may support children and childrens' sons.
    14 Thou radiant mover of sweet sounds, with wealth of horses and of kine
    Shine thou on us this day, O Dawn auspiciously.
    15 O Dawn enriched with holy rites, yoke to thy car thy purple steeds,
    And then bring thou unto us all felicities.
    16 O Asvins wonderful in act, do ye unanimous direct
    Your chariot to our home wealthy in kine and gold.
    17 Ye who brought down the hymn from heaven, a light that giveth light to man,
    Do ye, O Asvins, bring strength hither unto us.
    18 Hither may they who wake at dawn bring, to drink Soma both the Gods
    Healthgivers- WonderWorkers-, borne on paths of gold.

    RV 1.113

    HYMN CXIII. Dawn. 113


    1. This light is come, amid all lights the fairest; born is the brilliant, farextending-
    brightness.
    Night, sent away for Savitars' uprising, hath yielded up a birthplace- for the Morning.
    2 The Fair, the Bright is come with her white offspring; to her the Dark One hath resigned her
    dwelling.
    Akin, immortal, following each other, changing their colours both the heavens move onward.
    3 Common, unending is the Sisters' pathway; taught by the Gods, alternately they travel.
    Fairformed-, of different hues and yet oneminded-, Night and Dawn clash not, neither do they
    travel.
    4 Bright leader of glad sounds, our eyes behold her; splendid in hue she hath unclosed the portals.
    She, stirring up the world, hath shown us riches: Dawn hath awakened every living creature.
    5 Rich Dawn, she sets afoot the coiledup- sleeper, one for enjoyment, one for wealth or worship,
    Those who saw little for extended vision. All living creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
    6 One to high sway, one to exalted glory, one to pursue his gain, and one his labour:
    All to regard their different vocations, all moving creatures hath the Dawn awakened.
    7 We see her there, the Child of Heaven apparent, the young Maid, flushing in her shining raiment.
    Thou sovran Lady of all earthly treasure, flush on us here, auspicious Dawn, this morning.
    8 She first of endless morns to come hereafter, follows the path of morns that have departed.
    Dawn, at her rising, urges forth the living him who is dead she wakes not from his slumber.
    9 As thou, Dawn, hast caused Agni to be kindled, and with the Suns' eye hast revealed creation.
    And hast awakened men to offer worship, thou hast performed, for Gods, a noble service.
    10 How long a time, and they shall be together, Dawns that have shone and Dawns to shine hereafter?
    She yearns for former Dawns with eager longing, and goes forth gladly shining with the others.
    11 Gone are the men who in the days before us looked on the rising of the earlier Morning.
    We, we the living, now behold her brightness and they come nigh who shall hereafter see her.
    12 Foechaser-, born of Law, the Laws' protectress, joygiver-, waker of all pleasant voices,
    Auspicious, bringing food for Gods enjoyment, shine on us here, most bright, O Dawn, this morning.
    13 From days eternal hath Dawn shone, the Goddess, and shows this light today-, endowed with
    riches.
    So will she shine on days to come immortal she moves on in her own strength, undecaying.
    14 In the skys' borders hath she shone in splendour: the Goddess hath thrown off the veil of
    darkness.
    Awakening the world with purple horses, on her wellharnessed- chariot Dawn approaches.
    15 Bringing all lifesustaining- blessings with her, showing herself she sends forth brilliant
    lustre.
    Last of the countless mornings that have vanished, first of bright morns to come hath Dawn arisen.
    16 Arise! the breath, the life, again hath reached us: darkness hath passed away and light
    approacheth.
    She for the Sun hath left a path to travel we have arrived where men prolong existence.
    17 Singing the praises of refulgent Mornings with his hymns' web the priest, the poet rises.
    Shine then today-, rich Maid, on him who lauds thee, shine down on us the gift of life and
    offspring.
    18 Dawns giving sons all heroes, kine and horses, shining upon the man who brings oblations,
    These let the Somapresser- gain when ending his glad songs louder than the voice of Vayu.
    19 Mother of Gods, Aditis' form of glory, ensign of sacrifice, shine forth exalted.
    Rise up, bestowing praise on our devotion allbounteous-, make us chief among the people.
    20 Whatever splendid wealth the Dawns bring with them to bless the man who offers praise and
    worship,
    Even that may Mitra, Varuna vouchsafe us, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.


    RV 1.123


    HYMN CXXIII. Dawn. 123

    1.    THE Daksinas' broad chariot hath been harnessed: this car the Gods Immortal have ascended.
    Fain to bring light to homes of men the noble and active Goddess hath emerged from darkness.
    2 She before all the living world hath wakened, the Lofty One who wins and gathers treasure.
    Revived and ever young on high she glances. Dawn hath come first unto our morning worship.
    3 If, Dawn, thou Goddess nobly born, thou dealest fortune this day to all the race of mortals,
    May Savitar the God, Friend of the homestead, declare before the Sun that we are sinless.
    4 Showing her wonted form each day that passeth, spreading the light she visiteth each dwelling.
    Eager for conquest, with bright sheen she cometh. Her portion is the best of goodly treasures.
    5 Sister of Varuna, sister of Bhaga, first among all sing forth, O joyous Morning.
    Weak be the strength of him who worketh evil: may we subdue him with our car the guerdon.
    6 Let our glad hymns and holy thoughts rise upward, for the flames brightly burning have ascended.
    The farrefulgent- Mornings make apparent the lovely treasures which the darkness covered.
    7 The one departeth and the other cometh: unlike in hue days', halves march on successive.
    One hides the gloom of the surrounding Parents. Dawn on her shining chariot is resplendent.
    8 The same in form today-, the same tomorrow, they still keep Varunas' eternal statute.
    Blameless, in turn they traverse thirty regions, and dart across the spirit in a moment.
    9 She who hath knowledge Of the first days' nature is born refulgent white from out the darkness.
    The Maiden breaketh not the law of Order, day by day coming to the place appointed.
    10 In pride of beauty like a maid thou goest, O Goddess, to the God who longs to win thee,
    And smiling youthful, as thou shinest brightly, before him thou discoverest thy bosom.
    11 Fair as a bride embellished by her mother thou showest forth thy form that all may see it.
    Blessed art thou O Dawn. Shine yet more widely. No other Dawns have reached what thou attainest.
    12 Rich in kine, horses, and all goodly treasures, in constant operation with the sunbeams,
    The Dawns depart and come again assuming their wonted forms that promise happy fortune.
    13 Obedient to the rein of Law Eternal give us each thought that more and more shall bless us.
    Shine thou on us today-, Dawn, swift to listen. With us be riches and with chiefs who worship.

    RV 1.124


    HYMN CXXIV. Dawn. 124

    1.    THE Dawn refulgent when the fire is kindled, and the Sun rising, far diffuse their brightness.
    Savitar, God, hath sent us forth to labour, each quadruped, each biped, to be active.
    2 Not interrupting heavenly ordinances, although she minisheth human generations.
    The last of endless morns that have departed, the first of those that come, Dawn brightly shineth.
    3 There in the eastern region she, Heavens' Daughter, arrayed in garments all of light, appeareth.
    Truly she followeth the path of Order, nor faileth, knowing well, the heavenly quarters.
    4 Near is she seen, as it were the Bright Ones' bosom: she showeth sweet things like a new
    songsinger-.
    She cometh like a fly awaking sleepers, of all returning dames most true and constant.
    5 There in the east half of the watery region the Mother of the Cows hath shown her ensign.
    Wider and wider still she spreadeth onward, and filleth full the laps of both heir Parents.
    6 She, verily, exceeding vast to look on debarreth from her light nor kin nor stranger.
    Proud of her spotless form she, brightly shining, turneth not from the high nor from the humble.
    7 She seeketh men, as she who hath no brother, mounting her car, as it were to gather riches.
    Dawn, like a loving matron for her husband, smiling and well attired, unmasks her beauty.
    8 The Sister quitteth, for the elder Sister, her place, and having looked on her departeth.
    She decks her beauty, shining forth with sunbeams, like women trooping to the festal meeting.
    9 To all these Sisters who ere now have vanished a later one each day in course succeedeth.
    So, like the past, with days of happy fortune, may the new Dawns shine forth on us with riches.
    10 Rouse up, O Wealthy One, the liberal givers; let niggard traffickers sleep on unwakened:
    Shine richly, Wealthy One, on those who worship, richly, glad.
    Dawn while wasting, on the singer.
    11 This young Maid from the east hath shone upon us; she harnesseth her team of bright red oxen.
    She will beam forth, the light will hasten hither, and Agni will be present in each dwelling.
    12 As the birds fly forth from their resting places, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
    Yea, to the liberal mortal who remaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.
    13 Praised through my prayer be ye who should be lauded. Ye have increased our wealth, ye Dawns
    who love us.
    Goddesses, may we win by your good favour wealth to be told by hundreds and by thousands.

    RV 3.61


    HYMN LXI. Usas. 61


    1. O Usas, strong with strength, endowed witli knowledge, accept the singers' praise, O wealthy
    Lady.
    Thou, Goddess, ancient, young, and full of wisdom, movest, allbounteous-! as the Law ordaineth.
    2 Shine forth, O Morning, thou auspicious Goddess, on thy bright car awaking pleasant voices.
    Let docile horses of farreaching- splendour convey thee hitherward, the goldencoloured.
    3 Thou, Morning, turning thee to every creature, standest on high as ensign of the Immortal,
    To one same goal ever and ever wending now, like a wheel, O newlyborn-, roll hi ther.
    4 Letting her reins drop downward, Morning cometh, the wealthy Dame, the Lady of the dwelling;
    Bringing forth light, the Wonderful, the Blessed hath spread her from the bounds of earth and
    heaven.
    5 Hither invoke the radiant Goddess Morning, and bring with reverence your hymn to praise her.
    She, dropping sweets, hath set in heaven her brightness, and, fair to look on, hath beamed forth
    her splendour.
    6 From heaven, with hymns, the Holy One was wakened: brightly to both worlds came the wealthy Lady.
    To Morning, Agni, when she comes refulgent, thou goest forth soliciting fair riches.
    7 On Laws' firm base the speeder of the Mornings, the Bull, hath entered mighty earth and heaven.
    Great is the power of Varuna and Mitra, which, bright, hath spread in every place its splendour.


    RV 4.30


    8 And this heroic deed of might thou, Indra, also hast achieved,
    That thou didst smite to death the Dame, Heavens' Daughter, meditating ill.
    9 Thou, Indra, Mighty One, didst crush Usas, though Daughter of the Sky.
    When lifting up herself in pride.
    10 Then from her chariot Usas fled, affrighted, from her ruined car.
    When the strong God had shattered it.
    11 So there this car of Usas lay, broken to pieces, in Vipas,
    And she herself fled far away.


    RV 4.51, 4.52


    HYMN LI. Dawn. 51


    1. FORTH from the darkness in the region eastward this most abundant splendid light hatb mounted.
    Now verily the farrefulgent- Mornings, Daughters of Heaven, bring welfare to the people.
    2 The richlycoloured- Dawns have mounted eastward, like pillars planted at our sacrifices,
    And, flushing far, splendid and purifying, unbarred the portals of the fold of darkness.
    3 Dispelling gloom this day the wealthy Mornings urge liberal givers to present their treasures.
    In the unlightened depth of darkness round them let niggard traffickers sleep unawakened.
    4 O Goddesses, is this your car, I ask you, ancient this day, or is it new, ye Mornings,
    Wherewith, rich Dawns, ye seek with wealth Navagva, Dasagva Angira, the seventoned- singer?
    5 With horses harnessed by eternal Order, Goddesses, swiftly round the worlds ye travel,
    Arousing from their rest, O Dawns, the sleeping, and all that lives, man, bird, and beast, to
    motion.
    6 Which among these is eldest, and where is she through whom they fixed the Rbhus' regulations?
    What time the splendid Dawns go forth for splendour, they are not known apart, alike, unwasting.
    7 Blest were these Dawns of old, shining with succour, true with the truth that springs from holy
    Order;
    With whom the toiling worshipper, by praises, hymning and lauding, soon attained to riches.
    8 Hither from eastward all at once they travel, from one place spreading in the selfsame manner.
    Awaking, from the seat of holy Order the Godlike Dawns come nigh like troops of cattle.
    9 Thus they go forth with undiminished colours, these Mornings similar, in selfsame- fashion,
    Concealing the gigantic might of darkness with radiant bodies bright and pure and shining.
    10 O Goddesses, O Heavens' refulgent Daughters, bestow upon us wealth with store of children.
    As from our pleasant place of rest ye rouse us may we be masters of heroic vigour.
    11 Wellskilled- in lore of sacrifice, ye Daughters of Heaven, refulgent Dawns, I thus address you.
    May we be glorious among the people. May Heaven vouchsafe us this, and Earth the Goddess,


    HYMN LII. Dawn. 52


    1. THIS Lady, giver of delight, after her Sister shining forth, Daughter of Heaven, hath shown
    herself.-
    2 Unfailing, Mother of the Kine, in colour like a bright red mare,
    The Dawn became the Asvins' Friend.
    3 Yea, and thou art the Asvins' Friend, the Mother of the Kine art thou:
    O Dawn thou rulest over wealth.
    4 Thinking of thee, O joyous One, as her who driveth hate away,
    We woke to meet thee with our lauds.
    5 Our eyes behold thy blessed rays like troops of cattle loosed to feed.
    Dawn hath filled full the wide expanse.
    6 When thou hast filled it, Fulgent One! thou layest bare the gloom with light.
    After thy nature aid us, Dawn.
    7 Thou overspreadest heaven with rays, the dear wide region of midair-.
    With thy bright shining lustre, Dawn.


    RV 5.79


    HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79


    1. O HEAVENLY Dawn, awaken us to ample opulence today-
    Even as thou hast wakened us with Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy steeds!
    2 Daughter of Heaven, thou dawnedst on Sunitha Sucadrathas' son,
    So dawn thou on one mightier still, on Satyasravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    3 So, bringing treasure, dawn today- on us thou Daughter of the Sky,
    As thou, O mightier yet. didst shine for Satyatravas, Vayyas' son, highborn-! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    4 Here round about thee are the priests who laud thee, Bright One, with their hymns,
    And men with gifts, O Bounteous Dame, splendid with wealth and offering much, highborn-!
    delightful with thy steeds!
    5 Whatever these thy bands perform to please thee or to win them wealth,
    even fain they gird us round and give rich gifts which Never are reft away, highborn-! delightful
    with thy steeds!
    6 Give to these wealthy patrons fame, O affluent Dawn, with hero sons,
    To these our princes who have brought rich gifts Never to be reft away, highborn! delightful with
    thy steeds!
    7 Bring lofty and resplendent fame, O thou munificent Dawn, to these
    Our wealthy patrons who bestow rich gifts on us of steeds and kine, highborn-! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    8 Bring us, O Daughter of the Sky, subsistence in our herds of kine,
    Together with the sunbeams, with the shine of pure refulgent flames, highborn! delightful with thy
    steeds!
    9 O Daughter of the Sky, shine forth; delay not to perform thy task.
    Let not the Sun with fervent heat consume thee like a robber foe, highborn-! delightful with the
    steeds!
    10 So much, and more exceedingly, O Dawn, it suits thee to bestow,
    Thou Radiant One who ceasest not to shine for those who sing thy praise, highborn! delightful with
    thy steeds!


    RV 5.80


    HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80


    1. THE singers welcome with their hymns and praises the Goddess Dawn who bringeth in the sunlight,
    Sublime, by Law true to eternal Order, bright on her path, redtinted-, farrefulgent-.
    2 She comes in front, fair, rousing up the people, making the pathways easy to be travelled.
    High, on her lofty chariot, allimpelling-, Dawn gives her splendour at the days' beginning.
    3 She, harnessing her car with purple oxen. injuring none, hath brought perpetual riches.
    Opening paths to happiness, the Goddess shines, praised by all, giver of every blessing.
    4 With changing tints she gleams in double splendour while from the eastward she displays her body.
    She travels perfectly the path of Order, nor fails to reach, as one who knows, the quarters.
    5 As conscious that her limbs are bright with bathing, she stands, as it were, erect that we may
    see her.
    Driving away malignity and darkness, Dawn, Child of Heaven, hath come to us with lustre.
    6 The Daughter of the Sky, like some chaste woman, bends, opposite to men, her forehead downward.
    The Maid, disclosing boons to him who worships, hath brought again the daylight as aforetime.


    RV 6.64, RV 6.65


    HYMN LXIV. Dawn. 64


    1. THE radiant Dawns have risen up for glory, in their white splendour like the waves of waters.
    She maketh paths all easy, fair to travel, and, rich, hath shown herself benign and friendly.
    2 We see that thou art good: far shines thy lustre; thy beams, thy splendours have flown up to
    heaven.
    Decking thyself, thou makest bare thy bosom, shining in majesty, thou Goddess Morning.
    3 Red are the kine and luminous that bear her the Blessed One who spreadeth through the distance.
    The foes she chaseth like a valiant archer, like a swift warrior she repelleth darkness.
    4 Thy ways are easy on the hills: thou passest Invincible! Se1fluminous-! through waters.
    So lofty Goddess with thine ample pathway, Daughter of Heaven, bring wealth to give us comfort.
    5 Dawn, bring me wealth: untroubled, with thine oxen thou bearest riches at thy will and pleasure;
    Thou who, a Goddess, Child of Heaven, hast shown thee lovely through bounty when we called thee
    early.
    6 As the birds fly forth from their restingplaces, so men with store of food rise at thy dawning.
    Yea, to the liberal mortal who rernaineth at home, O Goddess Dawn, much good thou bringest.


    HYMN LXV. Dawn. 65

    1.    SHEDDING her light on human habitations this Child of Heaven hath called us from our slumber;
    She who at nighttime- with her argent lustre hath shown herself even through the shades of
    darkness.
    2 All this with redrayed- steeds have they divided: the Dawns on bright cars shine in wondrous
    fashion.
    They, bringing near the stately rites' commencement, drive far away the nights' surrounding
    shadows.
    3 Dawns, bringing hither, to the man who worships, glory and power and might and food and vigour,
    Opulent, with imperial sway like heroes, favour your servant and this day enrich him.
    4 Now is there treasure for the man who serves you, now for the hero, Dawns! who brings oblation;
    Now for the singer when he sings the praisesong-. Even to one like me ye brought aforetime.
    5 O Dawn who standest on the mountain ridges, Angirases now praise thy stalls of cattle.
    With prayer and holy hymn they burst them open: the heroes' calling on the Gods was fruitful.
    6 Shine on us as of old, thou Child of Heaven on, him, rich Maid! who serves like Bharadvaja.
    Give to the singer wealth with noble heroes, and upon us bestow widespreading- glory.

    RV 7.41


    HYMN XLI. Bhaga. 41


    6 To this our worship may all Dawns incline them, and come to the pure place like Dadhikravan.
    As strong steeds draw a chariot may they bring us hitherward Bhaga who discovers treasure.
    7 May blessed Mornings dawn on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
    Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    RV 7.75 to RV 7.81


    HYMN LXXV. Dawn. 75


    1. BORN in the heavens the Dawn hath flushed, and showing her majesty is come as Law ordaineth.
    She hath uncovered fiends and hateful darkness; best of Angirases, hath waked the pathways.
    2 Rouse us this day to high and happy fortune: to great felicity, O Dawn, promote us.
    Vouchsafe us manifold and splendid riches, famed among mortals, manbefriending- Goddess!
    3 See, lovely Mornings' everlasting splendours, bright with their varied colours, have approached
    us.
    Filling the region of midair-, producing the rites of holy worship, they have mounted.
    4 She yokes her chariot far away, and swiftly visits the lands where the Five Tribes are settled,
    Looking upon the works and ways of mortals, Daughter of Heaven, the worlds' Imperial Lady.
    5 She who is rich in spoil, the Spouse of Surya, wondrously opulent, rules all wealth and
    treasures.
    Consumer of our youth, the seers extol her: lauded by priests rich Dawn shines out refulgent.
    6 Apparent are the steeds of varied colour, the red steeds carrying resplendent Morning.
    On her alllovely- car she comes, the Fair One, and brings rich treasure for her faithful servant.
    7 True with the True and Mighty with the Mighty, with Gods a Goddess, Holy with the Holy,
    She brake strong fences down and gave the cattle: the kine were lowing as they greeted Morning.
    8 O Dawn, now give us wealth in kine and heroes, and horses, fraught with manifold enjoyment.
    Protect our sacred grass from mans' reproaches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXVI. Dawn. 76


    1. SAVITAR God of all men hath sent upward his light, designed for all mankind, immortal.
    Through the Gods power that Eye was first created. Dawn hath made all the universe apparent.
    2 I see the paths which Gods are wont to travel, innocuous paths made ready by the Vasus.
    Eastward the flag of Dawn hath been uplifted; she hath come hither over the tops of houses.
    3 Great is, in truth, the number of the Mornings which were aforetime at the Suns' uprising.
    Since thou, O Dawn, hast been beheld repairing as to thy love, as one no more to leave him.
    4 They were the Gods companions at the banquet, the ancient sages true to Law Eternal.
    The Fathers found the light that lay in darkness, and with effectual words begat the Morning.
    5 Meeting together in the same enclosure, they strive not, ofone mind, one with another.
    They never break the Gods eternal statutes, and injure none, in rivalry with Vasus.
    6 Extolling thee, Blest Goddess, the Vasisthas, awake at early mom, with lauds implore thee.
    Leader of kine and Queen of all that strengthens, shine, come as first to us, O highborn- Morning.
    7 She bringeth bounty and sweet charm of voices. The flushing Dawn is sung by the Vasisthas,
    Giving us riches famed to distant places. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXVIT. Dawn. 77


    1. SHE hath shone brightly like a youthful woman, stirring to motion every living creature.
    Agni hath come to feed on mortal? fuel. She hath made light and chased away the darkness.
    2 Turned to this All, farspreading-, she hath risen and shone in brightness with white robes about
    her.
    She hath beamed forth lovely with golden colours, Mother of kine, Guide of the days she bringeth.
    3 Bearing the Gods own Eye, auspicious Lady, leading her Courser white and fair to look on,
    Distinguished by her beanis- Dawn shines apparent, come forth to all the world with wondrous
    treasure.
    4 Draw nigh with wealth and dawn away the foeman: prepare for us wide pasture free from danger.
    Drive away those who hate us, bring us riches: pour bounty, opulent Lady, on the singer.
    5 Send thy most excellent beams to shine and light us, giving us lengthened days, O Dawn, O
    Goddess,
    Granting us food, thou who hast all things precious, and bounty rich in chariots, kine, and horses.
    6 O Usas, noblyborn-, Daughter of Heaven, whom the Vasisthas with their hymns make mighty,
    Bestow thou on us vast and glorious riches. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXVIII. Dawn. 78


    1. WE have beheld her earliest lights approaching: her many glories part, on high, asunder.
    On car sublime, refulgent, wending hither, O Usas, bring the Wealth that makes us happy.
    2 The fire wellkindIed- sings aloud to greet her, and with their hymns the priests are chaming
    welcome.
    Usas approaches in her splendour, driving all evil darkness far away, the Goddess.
    3 Apparent eastward are those lights of Morning, sending out lustre, as they rise, around them.
    She hath brought forth Sun, sacrifice, and Agni, and far away hath fled detested darkness.
    4 Rich Daughter of the Sky, we all behold her, yea, all men look on Dawn as she is breaking.
    fler car that moves selfharnessed- hath she mounted, the car drawn onward by her wellyoked- horses.
    5 Inspired with loving thoughts this day to greet thee, we and our wealthy nobles have awakened.
    Show yourselves fruitful, Dawns, as ye are rising. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXIX. Dawn. 79


    1. ROUSING the lands where mens' Five Tribes are settled, Dawn hath disclosed the pathways of the
    people.
    She hath sent out her sheen with beauteous oxen. The Sun with light hath opened earth and heaven.
    2 They paint their bright rays on the skys' far limits. the Dawns come on like tribes arrayed for
    battle.
    Thy cattle, closely shutting up the darkness, as Savitar spreads his arms, give forth their lustre.
    3 Wealthy, most like to Indra, Dawn hath risen, and brought forth lauds that shall promote our
    welfare.
    Daughter of Heaven, a Goddess, she distributes, best of Angirases, treasures to the pious.
    4 Bestow on us, O Dawn, that ample bounty which thou didst send to those who sang thy praises;
    Thou whom with bellowings of a bull they quickened: thou didst unbar the firmset- mountains'
    portals.
    5 Impelling every God to grant his bounty sending to us the charm of pleasant voices,
    Vouchsafe us thoughts, for profit, as thou breakest. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXX. Dawn. 80


    1 THE priests, Vasisthas, are the first awakened to welcome Usas with their songs and praises,
    Who makes surrounding regions part asunder and, shows apparent all existing creatures.
    2 Giving fresh life when she hath hid the darkness, this Dawn hath wakened there with newborn-
    lustre.
    Youthful and unrestrained she cometh forward: she hath turned thoughts to Sun and fire and worship.
    3 May blessed Mornings shine on us for ever, with wealth of kine, of horses, and of heroes,
    Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.


    HYMN LXXXI. Dawn. 81

    1.    ADVANCING, sending forth her rays, the Daughter of the Sky is seen.
    Uncovering, that we may see, the mighty gloom, the friendly Lady makes the light.
    2 The Sun ascending, the refulgent Star, pours down his beams together with the Dawn.
    O Dawn, at thine arising, and the Suns', may we attain the share allotted us.
    3 Promptly we woke to welcome thee, O Usas, Daughter of the Sky,
    Thee, Bounteous One, who bringest all we long to have, and to the offerer health and wealth.
    4 Thou, dawning, workest fain to light the great world, yea, heaven, Goddess! that it may be seen.
    We yearn to be thine own, Dealer of Wealth: may we be to this Mother like her sons.
    5 Bring us that wondrous bounty, Dawn, that shall be famed most far away.
    What, Child of Heaven, thou hast of nourishment for man, bestow thou on us to enjoy.
    6 Give to our princes opulence and immortal fame, and strength in herds of kine to us.
    May she who prompts the wealthy, Lady of sweet strains, may Usas dawn our foes away.

    RV 8.47


    HYMN XLVII. Adityas. 47


    1. GREAT help ye give the worshipper, Varuna, Mitra, Mighty Ones! No sorrow ever reaches him whom
    ye, Adityas, keep from harm. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.
    2 O Gods, Adityas, well ye know the way to keep all woes afar.
    As the birds spread their sheltering wings, spread your protection over us.
    3 As the birds spread their sheltering wings let your protection cover us.
    We mean all shelter and defence, ye who have all things for your own.
    4 To whomsoever they, Most Wise, have given a home and means of life,
    Over the whole riches of this man they, the Adityas, have control.
    5 As drivers of the car avoid ill roads, let sorrows pass us by.
    May we be under Indras' guard, in the Adityas' favouring grace.
    6 For verily men sink and faint through loss of wealth which ye have given.
    Much hath he gained from you, O Gods, whom ye, Adityas, have approached.
    7 On him shall no fierce anger fall, no sore distress shall visit him,
    To whom, Adityas, ye have lent your shelter that extendeth far.
    8 Resting in you, O Gods, we are like men who fight in coats of mail.
    Ye guard us from each great offence, ye guard us from each lighter fault.
    9 May Aditi defend us, may Aditi guard and shelter us,
    Mother of wealthy Mitra and of Aryaman and Varuna.
    10 The shelter, Gods, that is secure, auspicious, free from malady,
    A sure protection, triply strong, even that do ye extend to us.
    11 Look down on us, Adityas, as a guide exploring from the bank.
    Lead us to pleasant ways as men lead horses to an easy ford.
    12 Ill be it for the demons' friend to find us or come near to us.
    But for the milchcow- be it well, and for the man who strives for fame.
    13 Each evil deed made manifest, and that which is concealed, O Gods,
    The whole thereof remove from us to Trita Aptya far away.
    14 Daughter of Heaven, the dream that bodes evil to us or to our kine,
    Remove, O Lady of the Light, to Trita Aptya far away.
    15 Even if, O Child of Heaven, it make a garland or a chain of gold,
    The whole bad dream, whatever it be, to Trita Aptya we consign.
    16 To him whose food and work is this, who comes to take his share therein,
    To Trita, and to Dvita, Dawn! bear thou the evil dream away.
    17 As we collect the utmost debt, even the eighth and sixteenth part,
    So unto Aptya we transfer together all the evil dream.
    18 Now have we conquered and obtained, and from our trespasses are free.
    Shine thou away the evil dream, O Dawn, whereof we are afraid. Yours are incomparable aids, and good the succour they afford.



    RV 10.172

    HYMN CLXXII. Dawn. 172

    1. WITH all thy beauty come: the kine approaching with full udders follow on thy path.
    2 Come with kind thoughts, most liberal, rousing the warriors' hymn of praise, with bounteous ones,
    3 As nourishers we tie the thread, and, liberal with our bounty, offer sacrifice.
    4 Dawn drives away her Sisters' gloom, and, through her excellence, makes her retrace her path.
    Image result for terracotta sindhur nausharoharappa.com "Slide 88. Three objects (harappa.com) Three terra cotta objects that combine human and animal features. These objects may have been used to tell stories in puppet shows or in ritual performances. On the left is a seated animal figurine with female head. The manner of sitting suggests that this may be a feline, and a hole in the base indicates that it would have been raised on a stick as a standard or puppet. The head is identical to those seen on female figurines with a fan shaped headdress and two cup shaped side pieces. The choker with pendant beads is also common on female figurines. Material: terra cotta Dimensions: 7.1 cm height, 4.8 cm length, 3.5 cm width Harappa, 2384 Harappa Museum, HM 2082 Vats 1940: 300, pl. LXXVII, 67 In the center is miniature mask of horned deity with human face and bared teeth of a tiger. A large mustache or divided upper lip frames the canines, and a flaring beard adds to the effect of rage. The eyes are defined as raised lumps that may have originally been painted. Short feline ears contrast with two short horns similar to a bull rather than the curving water buffalo horns. Two holes on either side allow the mask to be attached to a puppet or worn as an amulet. 
    Material: terra cotta Dimensions: 5.24 height, 4.86 width Harappa Harappa Museum, H93-2093 Meadow and Kenoyer, 1994 On the right is feline figurine with male human face. The ears, eyes and mouth are filled with black pigment and traces of black are visible on the flaring beard that is now broken. The accentuated almond shaped eyes and wide mouth are characteristic of the bearded horned deity figurines found at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro (no. 122, 123). This figurine was found in a sump pit filled with discarded goblets, animal and female figurines and garbage. It dates to the final phase of the Harappan occupation, around 2000 B. C.
    Harappa, Lot 5063-1 Harappa Museum, H94-2311 Material: terra cotta Dimensions: 5.5 cm height, 12.4 cm length, 4.3 cm width 
    Indus Valley Figurines: Slide #72 Slide72. Two composite anthropomorphic / animal figurines from Harappa. Whether or not the attachable water buffalo horns were used in magic or other rituals, unusual and composite animals and anthropomorphic/animal beings were clearly a part of Indus ideology. The ubiquitous "unicorn" (most commonly found on seals, but also represented in figurines), composite animals and animals with multiple heads, and composite anthropomorphic/animal figurines such as the seated quadruped figurines with female faces, headdresses and tails offer tantalizing glimpses into a rich ideology, one that may have been steeped in mythology, magic, and/or ritual transformation. 
    Approximate dimensions (W x H(L) x D) of the larger figurine: 3.5 x 7.1 x 4.8 cm. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow)
    Related image
    Image result for terracotta sindhur nausharoImage result for terracotta sindhur nausharo
    Nausharo: female figurines. Wearing sindhur at the parting of the hair. Hair painted black, ornaments golden and sindhur red. Period 1B, 2800 – 2600 BCE.
    Two terracotta figurines. Nausharo. With sindhur (saffron?) at the parting of the hair. A cultural tradition which continues in Indian sprachbund.
    Tradition of sindhur adornment. Sindhur worn in the parting of the hair. Nausharo: female figurine. Period IB, 280-2600 BCE. 11.6X30.9 cm. (The eyes are puctated and theornaments and hair are all appliqué. This figurine comes from Nausharo, Period IB, but is identical to many figurines from Mehergarh Period VII, datin between 2800 and 2600 BCE. Material: terracotta;11.6 cm. high, 30.9 cm. wide. Nausharo NS 91.01.32.01. Dept. of Arch., Karachi. Jarrige 1988: 87, fig.41 (After fig. 2.19, Kenoyer, 2000). Hair is painted black and parted in the middle of the forehead, with traces of red pigment in the parting. This form of ornamentation may be the origin of the later Hindu tradition where a married woman wears a streak of vermilion or powdered cinnabar (sindhur) in the part of her hair. Choker and pentant necklace are also painted with red pigment, possibly to represent carnelian beads.

    "The fact that Puranic evidence locates the Bahlikas in Uttarapatha and further the close association of the Bahlikas with the Kambojas as well as with Tusharas, Sakas and Yavanas in the Atharvaveda Parisista and in some other ancient sources suggests that the Bahlikas were located as a close neighbor to the Tusharas, Sakas, Yavanas and the Kambojas etc. Since the Kambojas were located in Badakshan and Pamirs, the Tusharas on the north of Pamirs and the Sakas on the river Jaxartes and beyond, the Bahlikas or Bahlams, as neighbors to these people should be placed in Bactria...The Iron pillar of Delhi inscription by King Chandra (4 CE), also makes mention of Bahlikas as living on the west side of the Indus River (Sindhu). After crossing the seven mouths of the Indus, King Chandra is stated to have defeated the Bahlikas...These above several references attest that the Bahlikas were originally located beyond the seven mouths of river Indus in the country of Bactria and the land was watered by the river Oxus. But later, a section of these people had moved from Balkh to Punjab while still others appear to have moved to south-western India as neighbors to the Saurashtras and Abhiras of Sauviras...The ancient Bahlika appears to have spanned a large expanse of territory. The commentator of Harsha-Carita of Bana Bhatta also defines the Kambojas as Kambojah-Bahlika-Desajah i.e. the Kambojas originated in/belonged to Bahlika. Thus, it seems likely that in the remote antiquity, the ancestors of the Uttarakurus, Uttaramadras and the Parama Kambojas were one people or otherwise were closely allied and had lived in/around Bahlika (Bactria)...The Bahlikas have been equated to Mlechchas in the later Brahmanical literature. There is a distinct prophetic statement in the Mahabharata that the mlechcha kings of Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas etc. will rule unrighteously in Kali yuga. (3.188.34-36) Brahmanda (V), III, Upodghata-Pada, Ch 16.17." Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahlikas
    Image result for mohenjodaro dancingDancing girl, Mohenjodaro. Hypertext with comparable hieroglyph on potsherd, Bhirrana. Dance step is the signifier hieroglyph.

    meṭ sole of foot, footstep, footprint (Ko.); meṭṭu step, stair, treading, slipper (Te.)(DEDR 1557). Rebus:meḍ ‘iron’(Munda); मेढ meḍh‘merchant’s helper’(Pkt.) meḍ  iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda)
    Santali glosses.
    Place of Origin: Mohenjodaro Materials: Bronze Dimensions: 10.5 x 5 x 2.5 cm.  Acc. No. 5721/195 National Museum. New Delhi ca. 2500 BCE

    I suggest that the object held in her hand is a deepam, diya, lamp. It is possible that the lamp held on her hand was used with a wick and oil to light up like a lamp as a demonstration piece, an exhibit of the metallurgical competence of the artisans of Mohenjo-daro.
    The dancing girl statue is shown wearing wristlets and bangles on her arms.

    Hieroglyph: karã̄ n. pl. ʻwristlets, bangles ʼ(Gujarati)(CDIAL 2779) Rebus:  khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -द्वकुरु‍&below; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -ग&above;जि&below; or -güjü -ग&above;जू&below; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू&below;), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü -कूरू‍&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -क&above;टु&below; । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü -क&above;टू&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun]), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् ।लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil. (Kashmiri)

    Hieroglyph: várti1 (and vartí -- ) f. ʻ wick ʼ MBh., ʻ small compress ʼ Suśr., ʻ lamp ʼ lex., °ikā -- f. ʻ wick ʼ KālP. [√vr̥t1]Pa. vaṭṭi -- , °ikā -- f. ʻ wick ʼ, Pk. vaṭṭĭ̄ -- , °ṭiā -- , vatti -- f.; Sh. batīˊ ʻ unlit native lamp, candle, wick of European lamp ʼ (← H.?); S. vaṭi f. ʻ wick ʼ; L. vaṭṭf. ʻ roll of grass, wick ʼ, awāṇ. vaṭ ʻ wick ʼ, P. vaṭṭī, ba°, battī f.; N. bāti ʻ lamp ʼ (bati ← H.), A. bāti; B. bāti ʻ wick, lamp, candle ʼ; Or. bati ʻ lamp ʼ (← H.), Bi. Mth. Bhoj. bātī; OAw. bātĭ̄ ʻ wick ʼ, H. bātī, battī f. (→ N. Or. and prob. Sh.); G. vāṭ f. ʻ lamp ʼ, vātī f. ʻ perfumed match or taper ʼ; M. vāt f. ʻ wick ʼ, Ko.vāti; Si. väṭ -- a ʻ lamp ʼ, väṭi -- ya ʻ wick ʼ; Md. vo'ʻ lamp ʼ; -- with -- o as from an orig. masculine: Ku. bāto m. ʻ wick, lamp ʼ; N. bāto ʻ rope of twisted cane (to tie down thatch) ʼ.Addenda: várti -- 1: S.kcch. batī, bhatī f. ʻ lamp, torch ʼ ← H.; WPah.kṭg. batti, kc. baṭe f. ʻ wick, lamp, light ʼ, J. bāṭī f.(CDIAL 11359) Rebus 1:  vartalōha n. ʻ a kind of brass (i.e. *cup metal?) ʼ lex. [*varta -- 2 associated with lōhá -- by pop. etym.?] Pa. vaṭṭalōha -- n. ʻ a partic. kind of metal ʼ; L.awāṇ. valṭōā ʻ metal pitcher ʼ, P. valṭoh, ba° f., vaṭlohā, ba° m.; N. baṭlohi ʻ round metal vessel ʼ; A. baṭlahi ʻ water vessel ʼ; B. bāṭlahi, bāṭulāi ʻ round brass cooking vessel ʼ; Bi. baṭlohī ʻ small metal vessel ʼ; H. baṭlohī, °loī f. ʻ brass drinking and cooking vessel ʼ, G.vaṭloi f. Addenda: vartalōha -- : WPah.kṭg. bəlṭóɔ m. ʻ large brass vessel ʼ. (CDIAL 11357) Rebus 2: baTa ‘iron’ bhaTa ‘furnace’. 9656 bhráṣṭra n. ʻ frying pan, gridiron ʼ MaitrS. [√bhrajj]Pk. bhaṭṭha -- m.n. ʻ gridiron ʼ; K. büṭhü f. ʻ level surface by kitchen fireplace on which vessels are put when taken off fire ʼ; S. baṭhu m. ʻ large pot in which grain is parched, large cooking fire ʼ, baṭhī f. ʻ distilling furnace ʼ; L. bhaṭṭh m. ʻ grain -- parcher's oven ʼ, bhaṭṭhī f. ʻ kiln, distillery ʼ, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭhm., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnace ʼ, bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ; N. bhāṭi ʻ oven or vessel in which clothes are steamed for washing ʼ; A. bhaṭā ʻ brick -- or lime -- kiln ʼ; B. bhāṭi ʻ kiln ʼ; Or. bhāṭi ʻ brick -- kiln, distilling pot ʼ; Mth. bhaṭhī, bhaṭṭī ʻ brick -- kiln, furnace, still ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhāṭhā ʻ kiln ʼ; H. bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ, bhaṭ f. ʻ kiln, oven, fireplace ʼ; M. bhaṭṭā m. ʻ pot of fire ʼ, bhaṭṭī f. ʻ forge ʼ. -- X bhástrā -- q.v.bhrāṣṭra -- ; *bhraṣṭrapūra -- , *bhraṣṭrāgāra -- .Addenda: bhráṣṭra -- : S.kcch. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ʻ distil (spirits) ʼ.(CDIAL 9656)

    Thus karã̄ 'hands with wristlets and bangles' PLUS baṭi  'lamp' Rebus: khāra-bhāṭi 'blacksmith's smelter'.
    Image result for earthen lampModern. Terracotta lamp holding a single lighted wick.
    Image result for paavaivilakku bronzeModern. Bronze lamp holding lady, pāvai-viḷakku(Tamil).
    பாவைவிளக்கு pāvai-viḷakkun. < id. +. Lamp with a damsel-shaped stand; பிரதிமை விளக்கு. பொலம்பாலிகைகளும் பாவைவிளக்கும் பல வுடன் பரப்புமின் (மணி. 1, 45).

    There is another bronze of Mohenjodaro showing a lady holding perhaps a deepam comparable to pāvai-viḷakku bronzes in South Indian tradition.

    See: 

     


    An exquisite bronze figurine from Mohenjo-daro has not received as much attention from art critics and archaeologists as the bronze statue of dancing girl. This figurine holds some object on her right hand. This figurine is now held in Karachi Museum. Request information which may help identify the object held by this slender lady with a hair-knot, wearing wristlets, bangles and anklets. Thanks.

     What is the female figurine with wristlets, bracelets, anklets and hair-knot carrying in her right hand?

    Bronze statue of a woman holding something in her hand, Mohenjodaro; copper alloy made using cire perdue method DK 12728; Mackay 1938: 274, pl. LXXIII, 9-11


    Lost-wax casting. Bronze statue, Mohenjo-daro. Bronze statue of a woman holding a small bowl, Mohenjo-daro; copper alloy made using cire perdue method (DK 12728; Mackay 1938: 274, Pl. LXXIII, 9-11)

    Second bronze statue of a girl c.2500 BC, now displayed at Karachi Museum, Pakistan. Original publicationErnest Mackay, Further Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro, 1927-31, New Delhi (1937-38).  Ernest Mackay discovered this during his final full season of 1930-31 at DK-G area in a house, Mohenje-daro. "Bronze female figure, Mohenjodaro"masterfile.com. Masterfile. Retrieved 15 November 2014https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dancing_Girl_(Mohenjo-daro)#cite_note-7

    See: http://www.masterfile.com/image/en/841-02824318/Bronze-female-figure-Mohenjodaro-Karachi-Museum-Pakistan-Asia

    The first statue of 'dancing girl' is displayed in National Museum, New Delhi. http://nationalmuseumindia.gov.in/prodCollections.asp?pid=44&id=1&lk=dp1
    Hypothesis: The second bronze female figurine is also that of a dancing girl. The arguments are:

    I have not been able to access a clear photograph of the second 'dancing-girl' bronze statue. She also has her bent left arm with the wrist on her waist as if in a dancing pose. A flipped pose compared with the first dancing girl pose. In the second statue, she holds some object on her right hand. I think it may also be a diya as if she is a dĭ̄palakshmi offering an ārati to Skambha Pillar of Light :)-- to complete the phrase khāra-baṭi 'blacksmith furnace' based on rebus rendering of the hieroglyphs: karā 'wristlets, bracelets' PLUS bātĭ̄ ʻ wick ʼ(Old Awadhi), vaṭṭi -- , °ikā -- f. ʻ wick ʼ(Pali), vaṭṭĭ̄ -- , °ṭiā -- , vatti -- f.  'wick of lamp' (Prakritam) varti id. (Samskritam) http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/09/second-bronze-female-figurine-from.html  ārātrika n. ʻ the ceremony of waving a lamp in front of an image at night ʼ AVPariś., ʻ the lamp so waved ʼ Śaṁkara [*ārātri -- ]Pk. ārattiya -- n.; K. āra f. ʻ a special kind of address to a god ʼ; S. āratī f. ʻ the ārātrika ceremony ʼ, P. ārtī, Ku. ārti; N. ārati ʻ the song sung at this ceremony ʼ; A. B. ārati ʻ the ceremony ʼ, Or. āratīāḷati; Bi. ārtī ʻ a lamp with four or five wicks used in a temple ʼ; Aw. ārati ʻ the ceremony ʼ, H. ārtī f., ārtā m. ʻ marriage ceremony in which a lamp is waved ʼ; G. M. ārtī f. ʻ the ceremony ʼ, M. ārat f.(CDIAL 1315)*ārātri or *ārātra -- (1) ʻ evening ʼ, (2) ʻ from after night, i.e. morning ʼ. [rāˊtri -- ].(1) K. arāth, dat. arātas m. ʻ nightfall, evening ʼ. -(2) Bshk. árat ʻ morning ʼ (or poss. ʻ one night ʼ NTS xviii 125), Tor. (Barth) "ẓhāt"ʻ morning ʼ.
    ​(CDIAL 1314)​


    meṭ sole of foot, footstep, footprint (Ko.); meṭṭu step, stair, treading, slipper (Te.)(DEDR 1557). Rebus:meḍ ‘iron’(Munda); मेढ meḍh‘merchant’s helper’(Pkt.) meḍ  iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda)



    The ‘Dancing Girl’ (Mohenjo-daro), made by the lost-wax process; a bronze foot and anklet from Mohenjo-daro; and a bronze figurine of a bull (Kalibangan). (Courtesy: ASI) "Archaeological excavations have shown that Harappan metal smiths obtained copper ore (either directly or through local communities) from the Aravalli hills, Baluchistan or beyond. They soon discovered that adding tin to copper produced bronze, a metal harder than copper yet easier to cast, and also more resistant to corrosion.

    Whether deliberately added or already present in the ore, various ‘impurities’ (such as nickel, arsenic or lead) enabled the Harappans to harden bronze further, to the point where bronze chisels could be used to dress stones! The alloying ranges have been found to be 1%–12% in tin, 1%–7% in arsenic, 1%–9% in nickel and 1%–32% in lead. Shaping copper or bronze involved techniques of fabrication such as forging, sinking, raising, cold work, annealing, riveting, lapping and joining. Among the metal artefacts produced by the Harappans, let us mention spearheads, arrowheads, axes, chisels, sickles, blades (for knives as well as razors), needles, hooks, and vessels such as jars, pots and pans, besides objects of toiletry such as bronze mirrors; those were slightly oval, with their face raised, and one side was highly polished. The Harappan craftsmen also invented the true saw, with teeth and the adjoining part of the blade set alternatively from side to side, a type of saw unknown elsewhere until Roman times. Besides, many bronze figurines or humans (the well-known ‘Dancing Girl’, for instance) and animals (rams, deer, bulls...) have been unearthed from Harappan sites. Those figurines were cast by the lost-wax process: the initial model was made of wax, then thickly coated with clay; once fired (which caused the wax to melt away or be ‘lost’), the clay hardened into a mould, into which molten bronze was later poured. Harappans also used gold and silver (as well as their joint alloy, electrum) to produce a wide variety of ornaments such as pendants, bangles, beads, rings or necklace parts, which were usually found hidden away in hoards such as ceramic or bronze pots. While gold was probably panned from the Indus waters, silver was perhaps extracted from galena, or native lead sulphide...While the Indus civilization belonged to the Bronze Age, its successor, the Ganges civilization, which emerged in the first millennium BCE, belonged to the Iron Age. But recent excavations in central parts of the Ganges valley and in the eastern Vindhya hills have shown that iron was produced there possibly as early as in 1800 BCE. Its use appears to have become widespread from about 1000 BCE, and we find in late Vedic texts mentions of a ‘dark metal’ (krṣnāyas), while earliest texts (such as the Rig-Veda) only spoke of ayas, which, it is now accepted, referred to copper or bronze.

    A ‘Sheffield of Ancient India’: Chanhu-Daro’s Metal working Industry. Illustrated London News 1936 – November 21st, p.909. 10 x photos of copper knives, spears , razors, axes and dishes.

    The Lady of the Spiked Throne

    पुष्य--रथ [p= 640,2]  m. the asterism पुष्य as a car S3is3. पुष्यm. N. of the 6th (or 8th , but » नक्षत्र) lunar asterism (also called सिध्य and तिष्य) AV. &c पुष्या f. the asterism पुष्य L. पुष्य m. (= -योग) , the conjunction of the moon with पुष्य Mn. MBh. &c; पुष्यः puṣyḥ पुष्यः 1 The Kali age. -2 The month called पौष. -3 The eighth lunar mansion (consisting of three stars), written also तिष्य. -ष्यम् Ved. -1 The blossom. -2 Foam, scum. -ष्या The asterism called पुष्य-Comp. -अभिषेकः, -स्नानम् a ceremony of coronating a king &c., when the moon stands in the asterism Puṣya. -नेत्रा f. The night on which the Puṣya planet is seen for all the time. -योगः the moon when in conjunction with Puṣya. -रथः = पुष्परथः q. v. युक्तः पुष्परथश्च Pratimā 1.3. -रागः = पुष्परागः q. v.; Kau. A.2.11.29.

    See:  

    I suggest that the ratha reported by Massimo Vidale from Sarasvati Civilization ca. 2700 BCE is पुष्य--रथ of इन्द्र--मह Indra festival carrying गण--देवता, उषा and two Aśvinīkumāras.


    An expression used in Ṛgveda Ṛca 1.122.2 is:.uṣāsānaktamउषासानक्तम् Ved. Dawn and night; उषासानक्ता पुरुधा विदाने (RV 1.122.2) 

    I suggest that the artifact signifies उस्र usra in Ṛgveda refers to uṣā, a bull, two Aśvinīkumāras. These divinities together गणदेवता constitute the eight rowers occupying the boat/chariot. पुष्य--रथ [p= 640,2] m. the asterism पुष्य as a car S3is3.a carriage for pleasure ib. (cf. पुष्प-र्°).

    The chariot could be used on festive occasions: puṣyaratha m. ʻ a carriage for pleasure ʼ Śiś. [Cf. puṣparatha -- m. R. -- púṣya -- 1, rátha -- ]Pa. pussaratha -- , phu° m.; Si. pusriya ʻ a kind of cart ʼ, puyariya ʻ chariot used on festive occasions ʼ.(CDIAL 8309) रथ 1 [p= 865,2]
    m. ( √4. ऋ) " goer " , a chariot , car , esp. a two-wheeled war-chariot (lighter and swifter than the अनस्q.v.) , any vehicle or equipage or carriage (applied also to the vehicles of the gods) , waggon , cart RV. &c (ifc. f(आ).प्रिय--रथ [p= 710,2] [L=140577] m. (prob.) (प्रिय्/अ-) , N. of a man RV. i , 122 , 7 (accord. to Sa1y. mfn. = प्रीयमाण-रथ-युक्त).
    I submit that the figures taken on utsava bera, temple procession may relate to some of the metaphors used in this Ṛca 1.122.2. The entire scene may signify 

    वामन vāmana :Venerable; मध्ये वामनमासीनं विश्वेदेवा उपासते Kaṭh.5.3. The eight rowers seated on the boat/ratha could signify some of the divinities of  विश्वेदेवा  viśvedevā ceremony and constitute one of the 9 गणs enumerated under गणदेवता 

    उस्रा [p= 220,3] f. ( Un2. ii , 13) morning light , daybreak , brightness RV.(personified as a red cow); a cow RV. AV. xii , 3 , 73 MBh. xiii Nir. &cm. the sun;m. an ox , bull RV. vi , 12 , 4 VS. iv , 33; m. N. of the अश्विन्s RV. ii , 39 , 3 ; iv , 62 , 1 ; vii , 74 , 1.  usrá m. ʻ ray, sun, day ʼ, usŕ̊ -- f. ʻ morning light ʼ, usrāˊ -- f. ʻ daybreak, cow ʼ RV. [√vas3] Pk. usa -- m. ʻ ray ʼ, ussā -- f. ʻ cow ʼ; M. ustẽ n. ʻ first morning light ʼ ( - tẽ < tḗjas -- ).(CDIAL 2399)

    गण--देवता [p= 343,1] f. pl. troops of deities who generally appear in classes (आदित्यs , विश्वs , वसुs , तुषितs , आभास्वरs , अनिलs , महाराजिकs , साध्यs , and रुद्रs) L.

    The two guards of उषा seated on the throne may signify two Aśvin.

    उस्र usra a. 1 Relating to, or seen in, the morning. -2 Bright, shining. -स्रः 1 A ray (of light), beam; सर्वैरुस्रैः समग्रैस्त्वमिव नृपगुणैर्दीप्यते सप्तसप्तिः M.2.13; R.4.66; Ki.5.31,34. शीर्षपुष्पोच्छ्रितैरुस्रैरुत्तंसितशिरोरुहाम्; Parṇāl. 4.36. -2 A bull; Rv.6.12.4. -3 A god. -4 The sun. -5 A day. -6 The two Aśvinīkumāras; Rv.2.39.3. -स्रा 1 Morning, dawn. -2 Light; bright sky. -3 A cow; स्वयमुस्राश्च दुह्यन्ते Mb.12.263.31. -4 The earth. -Comp. -धन्वन् a. having a bright bow. -m. N. of Indra. -यामन् a. going out early in the morning (as the Aśvins); Rv.7.74.1.

    इन्द्रः उत्सवः a festival honouring Indra.-ऋषभ a. having Indra as a bull, or impregnated by Indra, an epithet of the earth. इन्द्रऋषभा द्रविणे नो दधातु Av.12.1.6. इन्द्र--मह [p= 166,3]m. a festival in honour of इन्द्र MBh. Hariv. &c; इन्द्र--मख [p= 166,3]m. a sacrifice to इन्द्र.
     
    उषा signified by the prabha (spiked rays of the sun) may be सूर्या f. the daughter of सूर्य or the Sun (» RV. i , 116 , 17 ; also described as daughter of प्रजापति or of सवितृ and wife of the अश्विन्s , and in other places as married to सोम ; in RV. i , 119 , 2 she is called ऊर्जानी , and in vi , 55 , 4 , vi , 58 , 4 the sister of पूषन् [q.v.] , who is described as loving her , and receiving her as a gift from the gods ; accord. to some she represents a weak manifestation of the Sun ; सूर्या सावित्री is regarded as the authoress of the सूर्या-सूक्त RV. x , 85) RV. AV. AitBr. Kaus3.;f. = वाच् Naigh. i , 11; f. = सूर्या-सू*क्ता (q.v.S3a1n3khGr2.; f. a new bride.

    अ-घ्न्य  (2 , 3) or अ-घ्न्य्/अ (2 , 3), m. " not to be killed " , a bull; f. a cow RV. AV.

    The bull as the boat/chariot: वृषन् [p= 1012,3] mfn. (acc. व्/ऋषाणम् nom. pl. °षाणस् ; prob. originally " raining , sprinkling , impregnating ") manly , vigorous , powerful , strong , mighty , great (applied to animate and inanimate objects) RV. AV. VS. Br. (superl. -तम); m. a man , male , any male animal , a bull , stallion &c (also N. of various gods , as implying strength , esp. of इन्द्र and the मरुत्s) ib.

    विश्व [p= 992,2] m. pl. (व्/इश्वे , with or scil. देव्/आस् cf. विश्वे-देव , p.995) " all the gods collectively " or the " All-gods " (a partic. class of gods , forming one of the 9 गणs enumerated under गणदेवता q.v. ; accord. to the विष्णु and other पुराणs they were sons of विश्वा , daughter of दक्ष , and their names are as follow , 1. वसु , 2. सत्य , 3. क्रतु , 4. दक्ष , 5. काल , 6. काम , 7. धृति , 8. कुरु , 9. पुरू-रवस् , 10. माद्रवस् [?] ; two others are added by some , viz. 11. रोचक or लोचन , 12. ध्वनि [or धूरि ; or this may make 13]: they are particularly worshipped at श्राद्धs and at the वैश्वदेव ceremony [Religious Thought and Life in India, also called 'ब्राह्मन् ism and हिन्दू ism,' (RTL) by Sir M. Monier-Williams, page 416] ; moreover accord. to मनु [iii , 90 , 121] , offerings should be made to them daily - these privileges having been bestowed on them by ब्रह्मा and the पितृs , as a reward for severe austerities they had performed on the हिमा*लय: sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the expression विश्वे देवाः refers to all the gods or to the particular troop of deities described above ) RV. &c

    सूर्य a [p= 1243,2] m. the sun or its deity (in the वेद the name सूर्य is generally distinguished from सवितृ [q.v.] , and denotes the most concrete of the solar gods , whose connection with the luminary is always present to the poet's mind ; in Nir. vii , 5 he is regarded as one of the original Vedic triad , his place being in the sky , while that of अग्नि is on the earth , and that of इन्द्र is in the atmosphere ; ten hymns in the RV. are entirely in praise of सूर्य e.g. i , 50 , i , 115 &c , also AV. xiii , 2 ; he moves through the sky in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares [see सप्ता*श्व , हरित् , हरिद्-श्व] ; in the later mythology सूर्य is identified with सवितृ as one of the 12 आदित्यs or emblems of the Sun in the 12 months of the year , and his seven-horsed chariot is said to be driven by अरुण or the Dawn as its charioteer , who is represented without legs ; the Sun , whether named सूर्य or विवस्वत् , has several wives » सूर्या below) RV. &c (cf. IW. 11 ; 16 &c RTL. 341)



    1.122.01 Present, mild-tempered (priests), the sacrificial viands which you have prepared, to there warm-showering Rudra. I praise him who, with his heroid (followers) as (with shafts) from a quiver, expelled (the asuras) from heaven; and (I praise) the Maruts, (who abide) between heaven and earth. [Mild-tempered: raghu-manyavah,of light or little anger; fr. raghu = laghu, light and manyu = anger. The second pa_da: lit. 'I have praised of the expeller from heaven with arrows as if from a quiver the Maruts of heaven and earth'].
    1.122.02 Animated by our diversified praise, hasten, Morning and Night, to attend to our first invocation, as a wife (to the first call of her husband); and may the--Dawn, beautiful with the lustre of the (rising) Sun, and robbing like the Sun (her) vast expanse with golden rays, (come to our early rite). [Stari_h = what covers or expands, smoke; the Sun invested or clothed with light, or destructive of foes: s'atru_n.a_m him.sakah tejasa_channo va_ A_dityah].
    1.122.03 May the circumambient divinity, the wearer of various forms, grant us delight; may the wind, the shedder of rain, grant us delight; do you, Indra and Parvata, sharpen our (intellects), and may all the gods show us favour. [Agni = vasarha_n, i.e. assuming various vestures (vasa) or forms (ga_rhapatya and other fires); or, as destroyingthe vesture of the earth--the trees; or, as causing the revolutions of day and night].
    1.122.04 Whenever I, the son of Us'ij, worship with my offerings (of food) those two (As'vins) who eat and drink (of oblations and libations) at (the season) of the world-whitening (dawn); do you, Priests, glorify the grandson of the waters (Agni), and render (the divinities of the day and night) the mothers (as it were) of the man who repeats their praise. [Trees and shrubs spring up from the moisture of the waters, and fire proceeds from timber;hence, Agni is the grandson of the waters; or son of the waters (Manu, IX. 321)].
    1.122.05 I, the son of Us'ij, address to you (As'vins) audible praises, in like manner as Ghos.a_ praised you for the removal of her white-tinted (skin); I glorify (gods) the bountiful Pu_s.an (associated) with you, and I proclaim the munificence of Agni.
    1.122.06 Mitra and Varun.a, hear these my invocations, and moreover listen to those (that are) everywhere (uttered) in the chamber of sacrifice; and may Sindhu, the renowned bestower of wealth, hear us, (fertilizing our) broad fields with water. [Sindhu: deity presiding over water, jala_bhima_ni devah].
    1.122.07 I praise you, Mitra and Varun.a, for your gift of numerous cattle to the Pajra, and (from those praises) may abundant food (proceed). May (the gods), bestowing nourishment on me, come quickly unimpeded, (each) in his famous and favourite car. [Kaks.i_vat, of the family of Pajra; s'rutarathe priyarathe (mayi): 'on me possessing a famous car'].
    1.122.08 I laud the treasures of that opulent (assemblyof the gods); may we, men who (are blessed) with excellent descendants, partake of them together; the assembly conferring upon the Pajras abundant food, has been my benefactor, and has made me the master of horses and chariots. [mahimaghasya ra_dhas = the riches of that, or of him, who or which ispossessed of great wealth; i.e., deva-san:gha, the assembly or company of the gods; the assembly: the text ahs: jano yah, the man who; yas'ca deva san:ghah, the assembly of the gods which].
    1.122.09 The man who does you wrong, Mitra and Varun.a, who injures you in any way, who does not present you with oblations, contracts for himself sickness in his heart; but he who, performing worship, (celebrates it) with praises. [aks.n.aya_ dhruk: cakren.a, ma_rgen.a druhyati, offends by a wheel, or a way; this is the equivalent of anyatha_ prakaren.a, in another manner; yaks.mam hr.daye nidhatte:he places or deposits consumption in the heart; but yaks.ma = vya_dhi, sickness in general; a reference, perhaps, to the sense of mortification experienced by those who neglect the gods on observing the blessings which recompense devotion.
    1.122.10 He, borne by well-trained horses, endowed with surpassing strength, renowned above men, munificent in gifts, moves a hero, ever undaunted in all combats, (even) against mightymen.
    1.122.11 Royal bestowers of delight, listen to the invocation of (your) undying worshipper, and then come hither, that you who traverse the sky may be propitiated by the greatness of the (sacrificial) wealth presented to you by the sacrificer, who acknowledges no other protector. [amr.tasya nahus.o havam sureh = a_hava_nam amarn.asya stotra_diprerakasya manus.yasya mama, the invocation of me, a mortal, instigating praises and the like, not dying. Alternative rendering: the invocation of the immortal (deity) by me, a mortal worshipper].
    1.122.12 The gods have declared: we confer present vigour upon the worshipper (who invokes us) to partake of the (ibation). May all (the gods) in whom splendour and riches abound, bestow (abundant) food at (solemn) sacrifices. [das'ataya = a decade: food, by which the vigour of the ten senses is augment; or Soma offered in ten ladles. Alternative rendering of the second pa_da:  May all the gods partake of the abundant food (or Soma) at those sacrifices in which the priests are the distributors of the riches of copious libations].
    1.122.13 We rejoice tha tfor the satisfaction of the ten (organs of sense), the (priests) bearing the twice five (ladles of) sacrificial food, proceed (to the altar). What can Is.t.as'va, (what can) Is.t.aras'mi, (what can) those who are now lords of the earth, achieve (with respect) to the leaders of men, the conquerors of their foes? [das'ataya = das'atayasya dha_se, i.e. the ten indriyas,or organs of sense; twice five: ten ladles by the Soma is thrown on the fire; or, the ten articles offered in sacrifices, such as honey,butter, curds, milk, water, grain, offered to fire at the as'vamedha; whaat can those: what can the princes who are named, or any other princes, do against those who enjoy the protection of Mitra and Varun.a].
    1.122.14 May all the gods favour us with a person decorated with golden earrings and jewel necklace; may the venerable (company of the deities) be propitiated by the praises issuing (from the mouth of the worshipper); may our offerings be acceptable to them, and (may they be pleased) with both (our praises and offerings). [arn.as = ru_pe, form; i.e., a son; may they be pleased with both = may they reward us in both worlds; the text has only ubhayes.u, in both].
    1.122.15 The four (silly) sons of Mas'ar's'a_ra, the three of the victorious monarch A_yavasa (annoy) me. Let your spacious and bright-rayed chariot, Mitra and Varun.a, blaze (before them) like the sun (filling them with fear). [s'is'vah = s'is'avah, infant, i.e. infantile, childish].
    Griffith: HYMN CXXII Visvedevas. 122
    1. SAY, bringing sacrifice to bounteous Rudra, This juice for drink to you whose wrath is fleeting!
    With Dyaus the Asuras' Heroes I have lauded the Maruts as with prayer to Earth and Heaven.
    2 Strong to exalt the early invocation are Night and Dawn who show with varied aspect.
    The Barren clothes her in widewoven- raiment, and fair Morn shines with Suryas' golden splendour.
    3 Cheer us the Roamer round, who strikes at morning, the Wind delight us, pourer forth of waters!
    Sharpen our wits, O Parvata and Indra. May all the Gods vouchsafe to us this favour.
    4 And Ausija shall call for me that famous Pair who enjoy and drink, who come to brighten.
    Set ye the Offspring of the Floods before you; both Mothers of the Living One who beameth.
    5 For you shall Ausija call him who thunders, as, to win Arjunas' assent, cried Ghosa.
    I will invoke, that Pusan may be bounteous to you, the rich munificence of Agni.
    6 Hear, MitraVaruna-, these mine invocations, hear them from all men in the hall of worship.
    Giver of famous gifts, kind hearer, Sindhu who gives fair fields, listen with all his waters!
    7 Praised, MitraVaruna! is your gift, a hundred cows to the Prksayamas and the Pajra.
    Presented by carfamous- Priyaratha, supplying nourishment, they came directly.
    8 Praised is the gift of him the very wealthy: may we enjoy it, men with hero children:
    His who hath many gifts to give the Pajras, a chief who makes me rich in cars and horses.
    9 The folk, O MitraVaruna-, who hate you, who sinfully hating pour you no libations,
    Lay in their hearts, themselves, a wasting sickness, whereas the righteous gaineth all by worship.
    10 That man, most puissant, wondrously urged onward, famed among heroes, liberal in giving,
    Moveth a warrior, evermore undaunted in all encounters even with the mighty.
    11 Come to the mans', the sacrificers' calling: hear, Kings of Immortality, joygivers-!
    While ye who speed through clouds decree your bounty largely, for fame, to him the chariot rider.
    12 Vigour will we bestow on that adorer whose tenfold draught we come to taste, so spake they.
    May all in whom rest splendour and great riches obtain refreshment in these sacrifices.
    13 We will rejoice to drink the tenfold present when the twicefive come bearing sacred viands.
    What can he do whose steeds and reins are choicest? These, the allpotent-, urge brave men to
    conquest.
    14 The sea and all the Deities shall give us him with the golden ear and neck bejewelled.
    Dawns, hasting to the praises of the pious, be pleased with us, both offerers and singers.
    15 Four youthful sons of Masarsara vex me, three, of the king, the conquering Ayavasa.
    Now like the Sun, O Varuna and Mitra, your car hath shone, longshaped- and reined with splendour.



    Could the entire narrative be a boat-journey, journey on a bagalo -- across cosmic sea -- अन्तरिक्षम् -- of uṣas and Suryā and bagaḷā - The sun (feminine) and Pleiades?
    Image result for mohenjodaro lamp lady
    The Power of a Lost Ritual
    An exceptional and controversial recent find in a private collection is analyzed by a leading Italian archaeologist in this fully illustrated complete volume. With many potential implications for understanding ancient Indus culture.
    From the Preface
    In Autumn 2009, I was invited by a private collector to see an artefact that was mentioned as unique and very complex, and reportedly belonged to the cultural sphere of the Indus civilization. I do not have professional links with the antique market and the world of private collectors, but the descrip- tions I had of the find were so puzzling that for once I accepted the invitation to examine the new find. I was generously hosted by the family of the collector and what I saw fully rewarded the trip and the time. There I spend two whole days, looking in detail to the most amazing and better preserved terracotta group sculpture of the 3rd millennium cal BC I had ever seen, while a professional photographer and her assistant took the pictures you see in this book.

    . . . in this case the find is so exceptional, and its archaeological and historical implica- tions so important, that to bury forever the information in the shelves of a private collector would only add damage to damage. After consulting with several colleagues, I decided to publish it. The only purpose of this book is to make the find available to the specialists and to open a discussion on its meaning.
    https://www.harappa.com/content/lady-spiked-throne
    https://www.harappa.com/sites/default/files/pdf/Spiked-Throne.pdf





    Image result for mohenjodaro lamp ladySeal. Indus Script.

    Image result for harappa clay figurinesIndus Valley Civilization Terracotta Fertility Goddess. Pakistan/Western India. 3500-2500 BCE

    Related imageSmall Female figur