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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Reliquary "The goose once contained a gold strip bearing an inscription, now lost (see Bibliographic field for details). The object itself is not inscribed. The text states that a relic of the Buddha was placed in the goose reliquary for the benefit of Sira's parents in a future existence." Why was the Anser indicus, bar-headed goose chosen to signify the after-life of Sira's parents? The answer is provided by Indian sprachbund expression hamsa which has two meanings: 1. Anser indicus, bar-headed goose; 2. du. " the universal and the individual ātman " ; accord. to Sāyaa, resolvable into अहं स , " I am that ". 

     Bar-headed Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpgBar-headed goose (Anser indicus) is a goose that breeds in Central Asia in colonies of thousands near mountain lakes and winters in South Asia, as far south as peninsular India. It lays three to eight eggs at a time in a ground nest.
    हंस m. (ifc. f(). ; accord. to Un2. iii , 62 fr. √1. हन् , " to go? ") a goose , gander , swan , flamingo (or other aquatic bird , considered as a bird of passage ; sometimes a mere poetical or mythical bird , said in RV. to be able to separate सोम from water , when these two fluids are mixed , and in later literature , milk from water when these two are mixed ; also forming in RV. the vehicle of the अश्विन्s , and in later literature that of ब्रह्मा ; ifc. also = " best or chief among ") RV. &c
    Rebus: the soul or spirit (typified by the pure white colour of a goose or swan , and migratory like a goose ; sometimes " the Universal Soul or Supreme Spirit " , identified with विराज् , नारायण , विष्णु , शिव , काम , and the Sun ; du. " the universal and the individual Spirit " ; accord. to Sa1y. resolvable into अहं स , " I am that ") Up. MBh. Hariv. &c; a man of supernatural qualities born under a partic. constellation VarBr2S; a spiritual preceptor  (Monier-Williams)
    Full: Front















    Full Front
    Front:Bottom
    • Object type

    • Museum number

      1867,0427.2
    • Description

      Bird, probably a goose, carved in rock crystal.
      The bird was found inside BM 1867.0427.1 and contained an inscription (lost). The globular hollow body is open at the top with a rim of rounded section except at the back where it may have been partly flattened in antiquity, perhaps for a lid; a thin hole in the centre of the junction of the tail with the body may have served to attach it. The head is joined to the body by a short neck, and the head has protruding eyes and a broad bill. At the sides projections of oval outline with a cross-hatched band forward and with horizontal grooves to the back (that is, coverts and flight feathers) represent wings, and the tail has regular straight grooves at right angles to the body. The underside is clumsily pierced with two small holes at each side, with local damage to the surface, perhaps to attach legs.
    • School/style

    • Culture/period

    • Date

      • 1stC
    • Production place

      • Made in: Gandhara term details
      • (Asia,South Asia,Pakistan,North West Frontier Province,Gandhara)
    • Findspot

    • Materials

    • Technique

    • Dimensions

      • Height: 3.8 centimetres
      • Diameter: 3.4 centimetres (maximum)
      • Length: 10 centimetres (max.)
      • Width: 6.9 centimetres
    • Inscriptions

        • Inscription Type

          inscription
        • Inscription Script

          Kharoshthi
        • Inscription Comment

          The goose once contained a gold strip bearing an inscription, now lost (see Bibliographic field for details). The object itself is not inscribed. The text states that a relic of the Buddha was placed in the goose reliquary for the benefit of Sira's parents in a future existence.
    • Curator's comments

      Zwalf 1996:
      For the discovery and findspot see BM 1867.0427.1. The goose is said to have lain inverted on the central cone of BM 1867.0427.1 (Loewenthal, 1861: 413: Mitra. 1862: 176). For apparently comparable finds see Pearse, 1865: 113, who states that they are common; Cunningham, 1871: 131, 142. For the inscription see Konow, 1929: 83-6 and pl. XVII. I with references and discussion of the goose as symbol for the soul. For a further comment in this connection see Kottkamp. 1992: 64-5 and fn.Zwalf 1985
      This hollowed goose has a circular body with projections forming the head, neck, wings and tail. The wings and tail have incised lines and cross-hatching; the bottom of the body is pierced with two pairs of small holes. When found the goose contained an inscribed gold plate, now lost, which has been translated as meaning that a relic of the Buddha was placed in the goose by one Sirā for her parents' benefit in a future existence.
    • Bibliography

      • Zwalf 1985 5 bibliographic details
      • Zwalf 1996 657 bibliographic details
      • Koezuka (1994) 74 bibliographic details
      • Errington 1987 p.431 bibliographic details
      • Konow 1929 Pp. 83-6, pl. XVII.1 bibliographic details
    • Location

      Not on display
    • Exhibition history

      Exhibited:
      Buddhism: Art and Faith (BM, 1985) 1994, Kyoto National Museum, Masterpieces of Buddhist and Hindu Sculpture from the British Museum
      1994, Tokyo, Tobu Museum of Art, Masterpieces of Buddhist and Hindu Sculpture from the British Museum 2001 29 Jul-2 Sept, Nara, National Museum; The Aesthetics of Buddhist Relic Worship
    • Condition

      1.Crystal, chipped, cracked and discoloured. 2.Large internal fault or crack from neck to one side shows yellowish discoloration. 3.Proper left wing chipped and end of wing now lost.
    • Subjects

    • Associated names

    • Associated places

      • Used at: Taxila term details
      • (Asia,South Asia,Pakistan,Punjab,Rawalpindi District,Taxila (Gandhara))
    • Acquisition date

      1867
    • Acquisition notes

      Purchased from M. Caspari.
    • Department

      Asia
    • Registration number

      1867,0427.2
    • Additional IDs


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    Discovery of tin-bronzes was momentous in progressing the Bronze Age Revolution of 4th millennium BCE. This discovery created hard alloys combining copper and tin. This discovery was also complemented by the discovery of writing systems to trade in the newly-produced hard alloys.The discovery found substitute hard alloys, to overcome the scarcity of naturally occurring arsenical copper or arsenical bronzes. The early hieroglyph signifiers of tin and copper on an ivory comb made by Meluhha artisans & seafaring merchants point to the contributions made by Bhāratam Janam (RV), ca. 3300 BCE to produce tin-bronzes. The abiding significance of the 'dotted circle' is noted in the continued use on early Punch-marked coins. 

    The dotted circle as a signifier of interactions between Meluhha and Gonur Tepe has been brilliantly analysed in the context of the following artifacts cited by Dennys Frenez in: Manufacturing and trade of Asian elephant ivory in Bronze Age Middle Asia. Evidence from Gonur Depe (Margiana, Turkmenistan) by Dennys Frenez (2017)
    https://www.academia.edu/34596109/Manufacturing_and_trade_of_Asian_elephant_ivory_in_Bronze_Age_Middle_Asia._Evidence_from_Gonur_Depe_Margiana_Turkmenistan
    https://tinyurl.com/y93voqz8

    Trefoil motifs are carved on the robe of the so-called "priest-king" statuette from Mohenjo-daro and are also known from contemporary sites in western Pakistan, Afghanistan, and  southern Central Asia.dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter' tri-dhAtu,'‘three minerals". त्रिधातु mfn. consisting of 3 parts , triple , threefold (used like Lat. triplex to denote excessive)RV. S3Br. v , 5 , 5 , 6; n. the aggregate of the 3 minerals.tri त्रिधा ind. in 3 parts, ways or places; triply, ˚त्वम् tripartition; Ch. Up. -धातुः an epithet of Gaṇeśa. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼMBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ
    lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f.ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773) 

    त्रिधातुः is an epithet of Gaṇeśa. This may indicate three forms of ferrite ores: magnetite, haematite, laterite which were identified in Indus Script as poLa 'magnetite', bichi 'haematite' and goTa 'laterite'. 

    Rebus readings of Indus Script hieroglyphs may explain the त्रिधातुः epithet of Gaṇeśa: karibha 'elephant's trunk' rebus: karba 'iron' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'. 

    It has been suggested at 
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/11/trefoil-of-indus-script-corpora-and.html?view=sidebar that the trefoil decorating the shawl of the 'priest-king' of Mohenjo-daro is a cross-sectional signifier of three strands of rope.

    Thus, a dotted circle is signified by the word: dhāī  'wisp of fibre' (Sindhi). 

     Single strand (one dotted-circle)

    Two strands (pair of dotted-circles)

    Three strands (three dotted-circles as a trefoil)
    These orthographic variants provide semantic elucidations for a single: dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'red stone mineral' or two minerals: dul PLUS dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'cast minerals' or tri- dhātu,      -dhāū, -dhāv 'three minerals' to create metal alloys'. The artisans producing alloys are dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻa caste of iron -- smeltersʼ, dhāvḍī ʻcomposed of or relating to ironʼ)(CDIAL 6773).
    dām 'rope, string' rebus: dhāu 'ore'  rebus: मेढा [mēḍhā] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi). Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic) mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda).

    Semantics of single strand of rope and three strands of rope are: 1. Sindhi dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, Lahnda dhāī˜ id.; 2. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ (RigVeda)



    I suggest that this fillet (dotted circle with a connecting strand or tape is the hieroglyph which signifies धातु (Rigveda) dhāu (Prakrtam) 'a strand' rebus: element, mineral ore. This hieroglyph signifies the पोतृ,'purifier' priest of dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelters' of dhāū, dhāv 'red stone minerals'. 
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/11/priest-of-dhavad-iron-smelters-with.html Orthography of the 'dotted circle' is representation of a single strand: dhāu rebus: dhāū 'red stone minerals. 
    Ta. vaṭam cable, large rope, cord, bowstring, strands of a garland, chains of a necklace; vaṭi rope; vaṭṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to tie. Ma. vaṭam rope, a rope of cowhide (in plough), dancing rope, thick rope for dragging timber. Ka. vaṭa, vaṭara, vaṭi string, rope, tie. Te. vaṭi rope, cord. Go. (Mu.) vaṭiya strong rope made of paddy straw (Voc. 3150). Cf. 3184 Ta. tār̤vaṭam. / Cf. Skt. vaṭa- string, rope, tie; vaṭāraka-, vaṭākara-, varāṭaka- cord, string; Turner, CDIAL, no. 11212. (DEDR 5220)  vaṭa2 ʻ string ʼ lex. [Prob. ← Drav. Tam. vaṭam, Kan. vaṭivaṭara, &c. DED 4268]N. bariyo ʻ cord, rope ʼ; Bi. barah ʻ rope working irrigation lever ʼ, barhā ʻ thick well -- rope ʼ, Mth. barahā ʻ rope ʼ.(CDIAL 11212)


    I suggest that the expression dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter' signified by trefoil or three strands is a semantic duplication of the parole words:

    dhāī 'wisp of fibre' PLUS vaṭa, vaṭara, vaṭi string, rope, tie. Thus, it is possible that the trefoil as a hieroglyph-multiplex was signified in parole 

    by the expression dhā̆vaḍ 'three strands' rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'smelter'.


    The shawl decorated with dhā̆vaḍ 'trefoil' is a hieroglyph: pōta 'cloth' rebus: 

    पोता पोतृ, 'purifier' in a yajna. போற்றி pōṟṟi, போத்தி pōtti Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். Marathi has a cognate in 
    पोतदार [pōtadāra] m ( P) An officer under the native governments. His business was to assay all money paid into the treasury. He was also the village-silversmith. 

    The shawl decorated with dhā̆vaḍ 'trefoil' is a hieroglyph: pōta 'cloth' rebus: 
    पोता पोतृ, 'purifier' in a yajna. போற்றி pōṟṟi, போத்தி pōtti Brahman temple- priest in Malabar; மலையாளத்திலுள்ள கோயிலருச் சகன். Marathi has a cognate in 
    पोतदार [pōtadāra] m ( P) An officer under the native governments. His business was to assay all money paid into the treasury. He was also the village-silversmith. 

    पोतृ पु० पुनाति पु--तृन् । ऋत्विग्मेदे अच्छावाकशब्दे ८५ पृ० दृश्यम् । होत्रादिशब्देन द्वन्द्वे ऋत आत् । पोताहोतारौ ।
    पोता, [ऋ] पुं, (पुनातीति । पू + “नप्तृनेष्टृ-त्वष्टृहोतृपोतृभ्रातृजामातृमातृपितृदुहितृ ।”उणा० २ । ९६ । इति तृन्प्रत्ययेन निपात्यते ।) विष्णुः । इति संक्षिप्तसारोणादिवृत्तिः ॥ऋत्विक् । इति भूरिप्रयोगः ॥ (यथा, ऋग्वेदे ।४ । ९ । ३ ।“स सद्म परि णीयते होता मन्द्रो दिविष्टिषु ।उत पोता नि षीदति ॥”)

    https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/शब्दकल्पद्रुमः पोतृ [p= 650,1] प्/ओतृ or पोतृm. " Purifier " , N. of one of the 16 officiating priests at a sacrifice (the assistant of the Brahman ; = यज्ञस्य शोधयिट्रि Sa1y. )
     RV. Br. S3rS. Hariv. N. of विष्णु L. पौत्रपोत्री f. N. of दुर्गा Gal. (cf. पौत्री). pōtṛ


    पोतृ m. One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice (assistant of the priest called ब्रह्मन्). पोत्रम् [पू-त्र] The office of the Potṛi. ब्रह्मन् m. one of the 4 principal priests or ऋत्विज्as (the other three being the होतृ , अध्वर्यु and उद्गातृ ; the ब्रह्मन् was the most learned of them and was required to know the 3 वेदs , to supervise the sacrifice and to set right mistakes ; at a later period his functions were based especially on the अथर्व-वेद) RV. &c होतृ m. (fr. √1. हु) an offerer of an oblation or burnt-offering (with fire) , sacrificer , priest , (esp.) a priest who at a sacrifice invokes the gods or recites the ऋग्-वेद , a ऋग्-वेद priest (one of the 4 kinds of officiating priest »ऋत्विज् , p.224; properly the होतृ priest has 3 assistants , sometimes called पुरुषs , viz. the मैत्रा-वरुण , अच्छा-वाक, and ग्रावस्तुत् ; to these are sometimes added three others , the ब्राह्मणाच्छंसिन् , अग्नीध्र or अग्नीध् , and पोतृ , though these last are properly assigned to the Brahman priest ; sometimes the नेष्टृ is substituted for the ग्राव-स्तुत्) RV.&c नेष्टृ  m. (prob. fr. √ नी aor. stem नेष् ; but cf. Pa1n2. 3-2 , 135 Va1rtt. 2 &c ) one of the chief officiating priests at aसोम sacrifice , he who leads forward the wife of the sacrificer and prepares the सुरा (त्वष्टृ so called RV. i , 15 ,3) RV. Br. S3rS. &c अध्वर्यु m. 
    one who institutes an अध्वर any officiating priest a priest of a particular class (as distinguished from the होतृ , the उद्गातृ , and the ब्रह्मन् classes. The अध्वर्युpriests " had to measure the ground , to build the altar , to prepare the sacrificial vessels , to fetch wood and water , to light the fire , to bring the animal and immolate it " ; whilst engaged in these duties , they had to repeat the hymns of the यजुर्-वेद , hence that वेद itself is also called अध्वर्यु)pl. (अध्वर्यवस्) the adherents of the यजुर्-वेद; उद्-गातृ m. one of the four chief-priests (viz. the one who chants the hymns of the सामवेद) , a chanterRV. ii , 43 , 2 TS. AitBr. S3Br. 
    Ka1tyS3r. Sus3r. Mn. &c अच्छा-वाकm. " the inviter " , title of a particular priest or ऋत्विज् , one of the sixteen required to perform the great sacrifices with the सोम juice. ग्रावन् m. a stone for pressing out the सोम (originally 2 were used RV. ii , 39 , 1 ; later on 4 [ S3a1n3khBr.xxix , 1] or 5 [Sch. on S3Br. &c ]) RV. AV. VS. S3Br.= ग्राव-स्त्/उत् Hariv. 11363

    pōtrá1 ʻ *cleaning instrument ʼ (ʻ the Potr̥'s soma vessel ʼ RV.). [√]Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ? -- Rather < *pōttī -- .(CDIAL 8404) *pōttī ʻ glass bead ʼ.Pk. pottī -- f. ʻ glass ʼ; S. pūti f. ʻ glass bead ʼ, P. pot f.; N. pote ʻ long straight bar of jewelry ʼ; B. pot ʻ glass bead ʼ, putipũti ʻ small bead ʼ; Or. puti ʻ necklace of small glass beads ʼ; H. pot m. ʻ glass bead ʼ, G. M. pot f.; -- Bi. pot ʻ jeweller's polishing stone ʼ rather than < pōtrá --(CDIAL 8403) pōtana पोतन a. 1 Sacred, holy. -2 Purifying.

    Hence the importance of the office of Potr̥, 'Rigvedic priest of a yajna' signified as 'purifier', an assayer of dhāˊtu 'minerals.

     






    https://tinyurl.com/ycfaahgv


    Indus Script hypertext evidence from Gonur Tepe, Tell Abraq, Mohenjo-daro include the following; both relate to documented accounting ledgers of Tin-Bronze Age metalwork:

     

    1.Hieroglyph of tabernae montana on an ivory comb, on a bronze axe

    2.Hieroglyph of dotted circles on ivory combs and on ivory artifacts


    It is clear from the evidence that there was diffusion of metallurgical technologies between Meluhha artisans and Ancient Near East artisans.

     

    The hypertexts signify: 

    tabar = a broad axe (Punjabi). Rebus: tam(b)ra ‘copper’ tagara ‘tabernae montana’, ‘tulip’. Rebus: tagara ‘tin’.


    Terracotta sivalinga, Kalibangan.Shape of polished lingam found at Harappa is like the summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. Plate X(c), Lingam in situ in trench Ai (MS Vats, 1940, Exxcavations at Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta). In trenches III and IV two more stone lingams were found. (MS Vats, opcit., Vol. I, pp. 51-52). The Hindu traditional metaphor of s'iva is the glacial river Ganga emerging from locks of his hair as he sits in penance on summit of Mt. Kailas, Himalayas. The metaphor results in Kailas in Ellora, showing Ravana lifting up the mountain 


    Two examples from Indus Script Corpora demonstrate that the 'signs''ligatured signs' and pictorial motifs (field symbols) are all hieroglyphs deployed to composed Indus Script Hypertexts in Meluhha to document wealth-producing metalwork activitries.


    See: Hieroglyph ḍhaṁkaṇa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article' proclamations on Indus Script  



    https://tinyurl.com/ybe89ee9



    Image result for pot with lid bharatkalyan97


    Pictorial motifs: erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying 
    uprooted trees] thwarted by a person in the middle with outstretched hands



    m0478B tablet erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying uprooted trees].Aaru twig; airi small and thin branch of a tree; aari small branches (Ka.); aaru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67). Aar = splinter (Santali); rebus: aduru = native metal (Ka.) Vikalpa: kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.) Rebus: kuhi = furnace (Santali) hakhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' (Maithili) era, er-a = eraka = ?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.) •era_ = claws of an animal that can do no harm (G.) •era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali) •Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.)  Hieroglyph: Looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.)


    heraka = spy (Skt.); eraka, hero = a messenger; a spy (Gujarati); er to look at or for (Pkt.); er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.) Rebus: erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.) eraka ‘copper’ (Kannada) 


    Hieroglyph: Looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali)  kola, ‘tiger, jackal’ (Kon.); rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith, ‘alloy of five metals, panchaloha’ (Tamil) kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kolami ‘smithy’ (Telugu) Hieroglyph: era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali)
    •Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Telugu) ḍhaṁkhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. Glyph: ‘impeding, hindering’: taṭu (Ta.) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Ta. taṭu (-pp-, -tt) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist. (DEDR 3031)



    The rim of jar PLUS lid is read as hypertext rebus as: dhakka karni 'bright metal supercargo'.




     kuṭhi karṇī, 'smelter accountant (supercargo)'dhakka karṇī m. ʻferry accountant (supercargo) at quay, wharfʼ.

    Image result for sign variants indus script rim of jarVariants of Sign 342



    This is an addendum to: 
    https://tinyurl.com/y95289xm
    The process deployed is सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined animal parts' to create a catalogue or list. Indus Script hypertext reads rebus sã̄gah, saṅgrahḥ संग्रहः 'catalogue, list' of metalwork artisan guild.
    When pictorial motifs provide catalogue items of wealth-accounting ledgers, ligaturing is the process deployed to create text expressions using hieroglyph-combinations.

    For example, on a unique seal the pictorial motifs (or field symbols) are fused with ligatured 'signs' to convey a unique message on an Indus inscription.


    See: 


     https://tinyurl.com/y8cpuzjv







    m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center points with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand points to the ligatured glyph. Side B: tiger, rhinoceros in procession. kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter', kol 'working in iron', kolle 'blacksmith' gaṇḍá4 m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ lex., °aka -- m. lex. 2. *ga- yaṇḍa -- . [Prob. of same non -- Aryan origin as khaḍgá --1: cf. gaṇōtsāha -- m. lex. as a Sanskritized form ← Mu. PMWS 138]1. Pa. gaṇḍaka -- m., Pk. gaṁḍaya -- m., A. gãr, Or. gaṇḍā. 2. K. gö̃ḍ m., S. geṇḍo m. (lw. with g -- ), P. gaĩḍā m., °ḍī f., N. gaĩṛo, H. gaĩṛā m., G. gẽḍɔ m., °ḍī f., M. gẽḍā m.Addenda: gaṇḍa -- 4. 2. *gayaṇḍa -- : WPah.kṭg. geṇḍɔ mirg m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ, Md. genḍā ← H. (CDIAL 4000). காண்டாமிருகம் kāṇṭā-mirukam , n. [M. kāṇṭāmṛgam.] Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Gujarati) Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)

    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Sign 15) gestured with the left hand. 

    The Pali expression usu -- kāraṇika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ provides the semantics of the word kāraṇika as relatable to a 'maker' of a product. usu-kāraṇika is an arrow-maker. Thus, kuTi kāraṇika can be explained as a smelter-maker. Supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. The Marathi word for Supercargo is: kārṇī . Thus, it can be suggested that kuTi kāraṇika was an ovrseer of the cargo (from smelter) on a merchantship. In the historical periods, the Supercargo has specific duties "The duties of a supercargo are defined by admiralty law and include managing the cargo owner's trade, selling the merchandise inports to which the vessel is sailing, and buying and receiving goods to be carried on the return voyage...A new supercargo was always appointed for each journey who also had to keep books, notes and ledgers about everything that happened during the voyage and trade matters abroad. He was to present these immediately to the directors of the Company on the ship's return to its headquarters ." 
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercargo While a captain was in charge of navigation, Supercargo was in charge of trade.

    कारण 1[p= 274,2] a number of scribes or कायस्थW. instrument , means;that on which an opinion or judgment is founded (a sin, mark; a proof; a legal instrument, document), Mn. MBh.


    कारणिक [p= 274,3] mfn. (g. काश्य्-ादि) " investigating , ascertaining the cause " , a judge Pan5cat. a teacher MBh. ii , 167.

    B. kerā ʻ clerk ʼ (kerāni ʻ id. ʼ < *kīraka -- karaṇika<-> ODBL 540): very doubtful. -- Poss. ← Ar. qāri', pl. qurrā'ʻ reader, esp. of Qur'ān ʼ.(CDIAL 3110) कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread', 'rim of jar', 'pericarp of lotus' karaṇī 'scribe, supercargo', kañi-āra 'helmsman'.  kāraṇika m. ʻ teacher ʼ MBh., ʻ judge ʼ Pañcat. [kā- raṇa -- ] Pa. usu -- kāraṇika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ; Pk. kāraṇiya -- m. ʻ teacher of Nyāya ʼ; S. kāriṇī m. ʻ guardian, heir ʼ; N. kārani ʻ abettor in crime ʼ; M. kārṇī m. ʻ prime minister, supercargo of a ship ʼ, kul -- karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ.(CDIAL 3058) kāraṇa n. ʻ cause ʼ KātyŚr. [√kr̥1Pa. kāraṇa -- n. ʻ deed, cause ʼ; Aś. shah. karaṇa -- , kāl. top. kālana -- , gir. kāraṇa -- ʻ purpose ʼ; Pk. kāraṇa -- n. ʻ cause, means ʼ; Wg. (Lumsden) "kurren"ʻ retaliation ʼ, Paš. kāran IIFL iii 3, 97 with (?); S. kāraṇu m. ʻ cause ʼ; L. kārnā m. ʻ quarrel ʼ; P. kāraṇ m. ʻ cause ʼ, N. A. B. kāran, Or. kāraṇa; Mth. kāran ʻ reason ʼ, OAw. kārana, H. kāran m., G. kāraṇ n.; Si. karuṇa ʻ cause, object, thing ʼ; -- postpositions from oblique cases: inst.: S. kāraṇikāṇe°ṇi ʻ on account of ʼ, L. awāṇ. kāṇAddenda: kāraṇa -- : Brj. kāran ʻ on account of ʼ.(CDIAL 3057) kiraka m. ʻ scribe ʼ lex.

    eraka 'raised arm' Rebus: eraka 'metal infusion' (Kannada. Tulu) 


    Sign 15:  kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka ‘smelting furnace account (scribe)’. 


    Thus, the hieroglyph multiplex on m1405 is read rebus from r.: kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka eraka bharata pattar'goldsmith-merchant guild -- helmsman, smelting furnace account (scribe), molten cast metal. Meaning of hypertexts so derived enable reading in Meluhha expressions and understanding of the purport of Indus Script inscriptions in the context of documenttion of wealth-accounting ledgers related to metalwork.



    Decipherment of Indus Script poses a challenge to historians and students of civilization studies to document the economic history along an Ancient Maritime Tin Route which predated Silk Road by two millennia, creating Arthaśāstra, study of the wealth of a nation. The Tin Route spans -- along the Indian Ocean Rim and Himalayan and Ancient Near Eastern navigable, riverine waterways -- a maritime regime ranging from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel).

    Indus Script Scribes are 4th millennium BCE कारणिका arbiters of metalwork wealth-accounting system symbolised by hieroglyph tagaraka tabernaemontana leguminous shrub. This tagaraka hieroglyph is documented on a potsherd dated to ca.3300 BCE at Harappa, signifying the world's early writing system  for a wealth-acounting system for a hypertext read rebus: tagara kolami 'tin smithy, forge'. The signifier of a smithy is a hieroglyph composed of three long linear strokes. Sign 102 which reads: kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus, smithy, forge is identified as a cluster subset. This cluster subset hieroglyph of Sign 102 'three' explains why tabernae montana hieroglyph is repeated thrice on the porsherd. The larger sets of wealth-creating metalwork are signified by over 100 field symbols which accompany such ciphertexts of accounting category clusters. 

    These larger sets of over 100 field symbols documented on Indus Script are presented in a separate addendum monograph supported by 
    1. over 1150 monographs at https://independent.academia.edu/SriniKalyanaraman and 
    2. over 8000 semantic clusters of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union) in Indian Lexicon of over 25+ ancient languages. 
    3. over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions presented in 3 volumes of Epigraphia Indus Script, Hypertexts and Meanings (2017)
     

    The thesis of this monograph is that Indus Script Scribes are कारणिका teachers, arbiters of metalwork wealth-accounting system. This is demonstrated in the context of the सांगड sāṅgaḍa system of cataloguing which is a 4th millennium BCE innovation of a wealth-accounting ledger entry system to document economic and mercantile transactions. 


    The underlying sign design principle सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined parts' is HTTP hypertext transfer protocol. A hypertext on an Indus Script inscription is composed of hieroglyphs joined together which are classified as both composite 'signs' and composite 'field symbols', for e.g.,: 1. on field symbols with composite animals such as hieroglyphs of a bovine body with bos indicus (zebu horns), ram (hoofs), cobrahood (tail), elephant trunk, human face, scarfs on neck,; and 2. on texts with hypertexts wich are composite hieroglyphs such as a water-carrier hieroglyph superscripted by a rim-of-jar hieroglyph. 


    It is indeed surprising that this design principle of Indus Script of the 4th millennium BCE is the underlying principle of the modern-day internet of things, cryptographic and computing systems with transmissions of overlaid texts, images, voice/video.

    This HTTP thesis is elaborated in falsifiable clusters of:

    1. semantics of the expression कारणिक a. (-का or -की f. a teacher MBh. ii , 167. कच्चित्कारणिका धर्मे सर्वशास्त्रेषु कोविदाः Mb.2.5.34.mfn. (g. काश्य्-ादि) " investigating , ascertaining the cause " , a judge (Pañcatantra)(Monier-Williams); Causal, causativ (Apte)

    2. clusters of accounting classifiers of metalwork wealth categories created by śreṇi, guilds of artisans/seafaring-merchants

    Introduction of a unique mercantile transaction system of jangaḍa, 'approval basis invoicing' is evidenced by the written ciphertext expressions of 'joined hieroglyphs': sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S) f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together.(Marathi). For example, Mohenjo-daro Seal m0296 is a सांगड sāṅgaḍa, 'a hypertext orthograph formed of two or more components linked together'. Rebus: sangraha, sangaha 'catalogue, list' Rebus also: sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati). samgraha, samgaha 'catalogue,list, arranger, manager' The earliest documented ledger entry is on a potsherd of Harappa dated in archaeological context by HARP to ca. 3300 BCE.
    Harappa potsherd (discovered by Harvard HARP archeaology team). Accounting ledger entry. kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' tagara 'tabernae montana' rebus: tagara 'tin'. तमर 'tin' (Monier-Williams). Thus,together the hypertext reds: tagara kolami'tin smithy, forge' 

    The orthography of the hieroglyph repeated thrice on the potsherd signified a leguminous herb, āhulyamआहुल्यम् N. of a leguminous shrub (तगर, तरवट &c.) 
    तगरक Tabernaemontana coronaria and a fragrant powder prepared from , it (वराह-मिहिर 's बृहत्-संहिताli)tagara1 n. ʻ the shrub Tabernaemontana coronaria and a fragrant powder obtained from it ʼ Kauś., °aka<-> VarBr̥S. [Cf. sthagara -- , sthakara -- n. ʻ a partic. fragrant powder ʼ TBr.] Pa. tagara -- n., Dhp. takara; Pk. tagara -- , ṭayara -- m. ʻ a kind of tree, a kind of scented wood ʼ; Si. tuvaratōra ʻ a species of Cassia plant. ʼ(CDIAL 5622)tagaravallī f. ʻ Cassia auriculata ʼ Npr. [tagara -- 1, vallī -- ]Si. tuvaralā ʻ an incense prepared from a species of Tabernaemontana ʼ. (CDIAL 5624) Rebus; Ta. takaram tin, white lead, metal sheet, coated with tin. Ma. takaram tin, tinned iron plate. Ko. tagarm (obl. tagart-) tin. Ka. tagara, tamara, tavara id. Tu. tamarů, tamara, tavara id. Te. tagaramu, tamaramu, tavaramu id. Kuwi (Isr.) ṭagromi tin metal, alloy. / Cf. Skt. tamara- id. (DEDR 3001)


    Related imagem0296 See: 


    Ten most frequently used signs, (listed in descending order of frequency from left to right).

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account,karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' (oval-/rhombus-shaped like a bun-ingot)


    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
     dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'


     khareḍo 'a currycomb' Rebus: करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) kharādī' turner, a person who fashions or shapes objects on a lathe ' (Gujarati) 


    Sign 67 khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭamcoinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236) PLUS ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]). Thus, ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metalmint'.
    kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Rebus: khaṇḍa, khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. kanda 'fire-altar'
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)
    eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper' arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass'. 
    Duplicated Sign 391 (as on Dholavira signboard) is read as: dula 'pair' rebus: dul'metal casting' of eraka 'moltencast copper', āra 'brass'. 

    An eleventh sign may be added to the list:
     Sign 123 is comparable to Sign 99 'splinter' hieroglyph. kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā kuṭhi metalware smelter.

     Variants of Sign 293 Sign 293 is a ligature ofSign 287 'curve' hieroglyph and 'angle' hieroglyph (as seen on lozenge/rhombus/ovalshaped hieroglyphs). The basic orthograph of Sign 287 is signifiedby the semantics of: kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith. Sign 293 may be seen as a ligature of Sign 287 PLUS 'corner' signifier: Thus, kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS kuṭila 'curve' rebus: kuṭila 'bronze/pewter' (Pewter is an alloy that is a variant brass alloy). The reading of Sign 293 is: kanac kuṭila 'pewter'.

    I find a surprisingly comparable Indus Script hieroglyphs.
     This 'sign' is a semantic expansion of the Sign 293 'curve +corner' duplicated, i.e.dula 'duplicated' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS kanac kuṭila 'pewter'. May signify pewter casting. Alternative: kaḍī a chain; a hook; a link (G.); kaḍum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaḍiyaṇa, kaḍiyeṇa a woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (Gujarati)

    h1028

    h1029
    Identical to h2049
    h2049a baṭa 'rimless, wide-mouthed pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' PLUS ḍabu 'an iron spoon' (Santali) Rebus: ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo 'lump (ingot?). Thus, together, furnace ingots

    The following 45 clusters of three consecutive signs (triplets) are examples of joined hieroglyph components to create a composite sign or ciphertext. Such 'joined hieroglyphs' exemplify sāṅgaḍa m f (संघट्ट S) f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together.(Marathi). Seal m0296 is a सांगड sāṅgaḍa, 'a hypertext orthograph formed of two or more components linked together'. Rebus: sangraha, sangaha 'catalogue, list' Rebus also: sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati). 

    Cluster1

     Sign 293 kanac kuṭila 'pewter'; kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace', 'factory';

    Sign 123 kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware.

    Sign 343 kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman' PLUS खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā karṇī 'metalware supercargo'.

    The inscription message:Pewter factory, smelter metalware,metalware supercargo.
    Sign 178 is a ligature of  'three short strokes' and 'crook' hieroglyph shown infixed with a circumscript of duplicated four short strokes as in Sign 179
    Sign 178 is: kolmo ‘three’ (Mu.); rebus: kolami ‘smithy’ (Telugu.) मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c.) and attrib. such a stick, horn, bullock. मेढा [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.(Marathi)(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Together: kolami meḍ 'iron smithy'.
    Sign 389 is a composite hypertext composed of Sign 169 infixed in 'oval/lozenge/rhombus' hieoglyph Sign 373. Sign 373 has the shape of oval or lozenge is the shape of a bun ingotmũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced atone time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed likea four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes andformed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt komūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, Sign 373 signifies word, mũhã̄ 'bun ingot'. 
    Sign 169 may be a variant of Sign 162. Sign kolmo 'rice plant' rebus:kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus, the composite hypertext of Sign 389 reads: mũhã̄ kolami 'ingot smithy/forge'.

    Cluster 2

    Sign 12 is kuṭi 'water-carrier' (TeluguRebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546)

    Sign 178 reads:  kolami meḍ 'iron smithy'
    Sign 389 reads: mũhã̄ kolami 'ingot smithy/forge'.

    Sign 15 reads: Sign 12 kuṭi 'water-carrier' (Telugu) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS Sign 342 kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'. Thus, the composite hypertext of Sign 15 reads: kuṭhi karṇika 'smelter helmsman/scribe/supercargo'.

    Cluster 3

      
    kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware. 
    kolami 'smithy/forge' (for)
    khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'implements, (from) smelter'.  

    ||| PLUSSign 190
    Ciphertext 190: Sprouts (in watery field), twigs: kūdī ‘bunch of twigs’ (Sanskrit) rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) PLUS gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar' khaṇḍa 'implements, metalware'.
    ||| Number three reads: kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus,the hypertext of Sign 190 PLUS numeral three reads: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (from) smelter'

    Variants of Sign 190

    h0048 Text of inscription: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (from) smelter'

    Shortugai, Bactria (Jarrige, 1984) Text of inscription: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (from) smelter'. The same expression is a field-ssymbol on B12 set of Mohenjo-daro copper plates (One example out of 205 copper plates;on the reverse tiger PLUS text). kola 'tiger' rebus:kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith'.

     B12 set of an example from 205 Mohenjo-daro copper plates


    Sign 123 kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware.
    Sign 102 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'


    Togetherwith Sign102 and Sign 190, the pair of hieroglyphs reads: kolami khaṇḍa kuṭhi 'smithy/forge (for) implements, (with) smelter'.

    Thus, Sign 123 which occurs in hypertext Cluster 3 is a semantic determinative: that, the products documented and accounted for in samgara, 'catalogue' relate to smithy/forge implements (from) smelter'.
    Cluster 4

     kanac kuṭila kuṭhi khāṇḍā kolami, 'bell-netal, pewter smelter metalware (for/from) smithy/forge'.
    Sign pair of Signs 123, 293 is instructive on the semantics of the hypertext 'slice' PLUS 'notch' hieroglyphs signified by Sign 123 The hypertext reads: kanac kuṭila kuṭhi khāṇḍā 'bell-metalpewter smelter metalware.'


    Sign 293  kanac kuṭila 'pewter'.



    Sign 123 kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, kuṭhi khāṇḍā smelter metalware.

    Sign 102 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'.

    Thus, the hypertext of the triplet of Cluster 4 reads: kanac kuṭila kuṭhi khāṇḍā kolami, 'smelter metalware (for/from) smithy/forge'.

    Cluster 5

     The hypertext reads: ranku kuṭhi kanda kanka 'tin smelter, fire-trench account, karika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsmanPLUS kūdī ‘bunch of twigs’ (Sanskrit) rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) or kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'.


    ranku 'liquid measure' (Santal8i) Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Santali) rango 'pewter'. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).
      raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567) 
    Sign 169 may be a variant of Sign 162. Sign kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. If interpreted as a sprout, the reading is: Sprouts (in watery field), twigs: kūdī ‘bunch of twigs’ (Sanskrit) rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)
    Sign 342kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman.

    Cluster 6

    Hypertext reads: mē̃ḍ koḍ dul kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop';  'metalcast equipment'.

     Variants of Sign 245 Hieroglyph: khaṇḍa'divisions' Rebus: kāṇḍā 'metalware' Duplicated Sign 245: dula 'duplicated' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.
    Sign 25 ciphertext is composed of Sign 1 and Sign 86. mē̃ḍ 'body' rebus: mē̃ḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.)Hypertext reads in a constructed Meluhha expression: mē̃ḍ koḍ 'iron workshop'.

    Cluster 7

     This is Ciphertext comparable to Cluster 6 (without duplication of 'divisions' hieroglyph) PLUS 'notch' hierogglyph:.खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, the hypertext reads: mē̃ḍ koḍ kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop';  'equipment, metalware'. 

    Cluster 8
     Cluster 8 is a variant of Cluster 7.mē̃ḍ koḍ kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop';  'equipment, metalware'. 

    Cluster 9

     kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karika 'scribe, account' karṇī'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman. PLUSkolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. Thus, the hypertext of Sign 345 reads: kolami karṇī 'smithy, forge, supercargo'.

     This is ciphertext comparable to Cluster 7 (but replacing 'notch' hieroglyph with hypertext 'rim-of-jar'+ infixed three short linearstrokes). The hypertext reads: mē̃ḍ koḍ kāṇḍā 'cast iron workshop; PLUS kolami karṇī 'smithy, forge, supercargo'.




    Cluster 10

    Sign 99 is sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    'notch' hierogglyph: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 
    Sign 245 Hieroglyph: khaṇḍa'divisions' Rebus: kāṇḍā 'metalware'. The hypertext Cluster 10 reads: kāṇḍā sal 'metalware workshop'Semantic determinative: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster11

     
     variants of Sign 336
    Hypertext of Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328  baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'. The hypertext reads: mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'
    Sign 102 variant Sign 89 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. 
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 11 reads : (Catalogue accounting ledger entries) --  mū̃h bhaṭa kolami kāṇḍa  'ingot furnace, smithy/forge, metalware'.

    Cluster 12 

    Hypertext of Sign 267 is composed of rhombus/oval/bun-ingot shape and signifier of 'corner' hieroglyph. The hypertext reads: mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'. Sign 267 is oval=shape variant, rhombus-shape of a bun ingot. Like Sign 373, this sign also signifies mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá1 m. ʻ metal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Pat. as in S., but would in Pa. Pk. and most NIA. lggs. collide with kāˊṁsya -- to which L. P. testify and under which the remaining forms for the metal are listed. 2. *kaṁsikā -- .1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. ʻ bronze dish ʼ; S. kañjho m. ʻ bellmetal ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ gong ʼ; Or. kãsā ʻ big pot of bell -- metal ʼ; OMarw. kāso (= kã̄ -- ?) m. ʻ bell -- metal tray for food, food ʼ; G. kã̄sā m. pl. ʻ cymbals ʼ; -- perh. Woṭ. kasṓṭ m. ʻ metal pot ʼ Buddruss Woṭ 109.2. Pk. kaṁsiā -- f. ʻ a kind of musical instrument ʼ;  A. kã̄hi ʻ bell -- metal dish ʼ; G. kã̄śī f. ʻ bell -- metal cymbal ʼ, kã̄śiyɔ m. ʻ open bellmetal pan ʼ. (CDIAL 2756)

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 12 reads:  mũhã̄ kañcu sal khāṇḍā 'bun ingot, bell-metal workshop, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster 13

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 13 reads: sal ayas khāṇḍā 'workshop, alloy metal, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster 14

    Hypertext of Sign 267 is composed of rhombus/oval/bun-ingot shape and signifier of 'corner' hieroglyph. The hypertext reads: mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'. Sign 267 is oval=shape variant, rhombus-shape of a bun ingot. Like Sign 373, this sign also signifies mũhã̄ 'bun ingot' PLUS kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá1 m. ʻ metal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Pat. as in S., but would in Pa. Pk. and most NIA. lggs. collide with kāˊṁsya -- to which L. P. testify and under which the remaining forms for the metal are listed. 2. *kaṁsikā -- .1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. ʻ bronze dish ʼ; S. kañjho m. ʻ bellmetal ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ gong ʼ; Or. kãsā ʻ big pot of bell -- metal ʼ; OMarw. kāso (= kã̄ -- ?) m. ʻ bell -- metal tray for food, food ʼ; G. kã̄sā m. pl. ʻ cymbals ʼ; -- perh. Woṭ. kasṓṭ m. ʻ metal pot ʼ Buddruss Woṭ 109.2. Pk. kaṁsiā -- f. ʻ a kind of musical instrument ʼ;  A. kã̄hi ʻ bell -- metal dish ʼ; G. kã̄śī f. ʻ bell -- metal cymbal ʼ, kã̄śiyɔ m. ʻ open bellmetal pan ʼ. (CDIAL 2756)
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 15 reads: mũhã̄ 'kañcu 'ayas khāṇḍā 'bun ingot, bell metal, alloy metal, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Cluster 16

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Hypertext of Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328  baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'. The hypertext reads: mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'
    Sign 211 'arrow' hieroglyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers (CDIAL 3024). Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) Thus ciphertext kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ is rebus hypertext kāṇḍa 'excellent iron', khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 

    Hypertext Cluster 16 reads: sal, mū̃h bhaṭa, khāṇḍā   'workshop, ingot furnace, tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'.

    Cluster 17

    kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' (oval-/rhombus-shaped like a bun-ingot)
    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 17 reads:  kañcu muhã karṇī  'bell-metal ingot, supercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 18

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner (DEDR 1236) Thus, ayo  kammaṭa, 'alloymetal mint'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 18 reads: sal kammaṭa karṇī 'workshop, alloymetal mint, supercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 19

    eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper' arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass'. 
    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 19 reads: eraka āra sal karṇī ''moltencast, copper, brass workshop, supercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 20

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'


    Variants of Sign 347
    Sign 347 is duplicated Sign 162: dula 'duplicated,, pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali). The hypertext Sign 347 reads: dul kolami 'metal casting smithy, forge'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 20 reads:  sal dul kolami karṇī workshop, metal casting smithy, forgesupercargo, scribe' 

    Cluster 21

     Variants of Sign 293 Sign 293 is a ligature ofSign 287 'curve' hieroglyph and 'angle' hieroglyph (as seen on lozenge/rhombus/ovalshaped hieroglyphs). The basic orthograph of Sign 287 is signifiedby the semantics of: kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith. Sign 293 may be seen as a ligature of Sign 287 PLUS 'corner' signifier: Thus, kanac 'corner' rebus: kañcu 'bell-metal'.kaṁsá 1 m. ʻmetal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metalʼ PLUS kuṭila 'curve' rebus: kuṭila 'bronze/pewter' (Pewter is an alloy that is a variant brass alloy). The reading of Sign 293 is: kanac kuṭila 'pewter'.
     Sign 123 is comparable to Sign 99 'splinter' hieroglyph. kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā kuṭhi metalware smelter.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 21 reads:  kuṭila kañcu khāṇḍā kuṭhi karṇī  'pewter, bell-metal metalware, smelter, scribe, supercargo;.

    Cluster 22

    Sign 65 is a hypertext composed ofSign 59 and 'lid of pot' hieroglyph.Sign 134 ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS dhakka 'lid of pot' rebus: dhakka 'bright' Thus, ayo dhakka, 'bright alloy metal.' Thus, Sign 65 hypertext reads: ayo dhakka 'bright alloy metal'
    ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner (DEDR 1236) Thus, ayo  kammaṭa, 'alloymetal mint'

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Clust 22 reads: ayo dhakka ayo  kammaṭa karṇī , 'bright alloy metal alloymetal mint, scribe, supercargo.'

    Cluster 23


    Sign 160 is a variant of Sign 137Variants of Sign 137 dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu 'mineral' (Santali)
     Sign 123 is comparable to Sign 99 'splinter' hieroglyph. kuṭi 'a slice, a bit, a small piece'(Santali) Rebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546) PLUS 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. Thus, khāṇḍā kuṭhi metalware smelter.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 23 reads: khāṇḍā kuṭhi dhatu karṇī  'metalware smelter, mineral, scribe, supercargo'

    Cluster 24

    Hypertext of Sign 336 has hieroglyph components: muka 'ladle' (Tamil)(DEDR 4887) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' (Santali).PLUSSign 328  baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: baṭa 'iron' bhaṭa 'furnace'. The hypertext reads: mū̃h bhaṭa 'ingot furnace'
    Sign 102 variant Sign 89 kolomo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. 
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 24 reads: mū̃h bhaṭa kolami, karṇī 'ingot furnace, smithy, forge, scribe, supercarggo'

    Cluster 25

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    käti ʻwarrior' (Sinhalese)(CDIAL 3649). rebus:  khātī m. ʻ 'member of a caste of wheelwrights'ʼVikalpa: bhaa 'warrior' rebus: bhaa 'furnace'.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 25 reads: sal khäti ʻkarṇī 'workshop, wheelwright, scribe, supercargo'

    Cluster 26

    Sign 249 ranku 'liquid measure' rebus: ranku 'tin' Rebus: rango ‘pewter’. ranga, rang pewter is an alloy of tin, lead, and antimony (anjana) (Santali).  Hieroglyhph: buffalo: Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ (or < raṅku -- ?).(CDIAL 10538, 10559) Rebus: raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567)
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 26 reads: ranku kolami karṇī 'tin smithy, forge, scribe, supercargo'

    Cluster 27

    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali) PLUS semantic determinative: kolom 'thrice' rebus:kolami 'smithy, forge'.

    Thus, hypertext Cluster 27 reads: kolami 'smithy, forge'.

    Cluster 28



    eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper' arā 'spoke' rebus: āra 'brass'. 
     Sign 99 sal 'splinter rebus: sal 'workshop'
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext Cluster 28 reads: eraka āra  sal kolami 'moltencast copper,brass workshop, smithy,forge'.

    Cluster 29



    Variants of Sign 343
    Sign 343 hypertext is a composite of: 1. rim-of-jar hieroglyph and 2. notch. 'notch' hieroglyph:  खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware' PLUS कार्णिक rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe',कर्णिक helmsman' कारणिका 'accountant'. Thus, the hypertext reads: khāṇḍā karṇī 'equipment scribe, accountant'

    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 S3Br. ix Ka1tyS3r. &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant essel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 29 reads: khāṇḍā karṇī kolami karṇika कर्णिक 'equipment scribe, accountant, smithy/forge, helmsman'.

    Cluster 30


    Variants of Sign 328
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'. dula 'duplicated' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'. Thus, hypertext of duplicated Sign328 hieroglyphs is read: dul bhaṭa 'metalcasting furnace'

    Sign 12 variants
    Sign 12 hieroglyph kuṭi 'water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' 

    Hypertext Cluster 30 reads: kuṭhi dul baṭa bhaṭa 'smelter, iron metalcasting furnace
    Cluster 31

    See: 

    2. Bharat, name of a nation. Root: bharatiyo 'caster of metals', bharat 'metal alloy' in Indus Script  http://tinyurl.com/k58uysu
    Variants of Sign 48 Seal published by Omananda Saraswati. In Pl. 275: Omananda Saraswati 1975. Ancient Seals of Haryana (in Hindi). Rohtak.This pictorial motif gets normalized in Indus writing system as a hieroglyph sign: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu)
     Sign 48 is a 'backbone, spine' hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) Tir. mar -- kaṇḍḗ ʻ back (of the body) ʼ; S. kaṇḍo m. ʻ back ʼ, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻ backbone ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇḍ, °ḍī ʻ back ʼH. kã̄ṭā m. ʻ spine ʼ, G. kã̄ṭɔ m., M. kã̄ṭā m.; Pk. kaṁḍa -- m. ʻ backbone ʼ.(CDIAL 2670) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) bharatiyo = a caster of metals; a brazier; bharatar, bharatal, bharata = moulded; an article made in a mould; bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (Gujarati) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā = a brazier, worker in metal; bha, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Sanskrit. )baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) 
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext Cluster 31 reads: bhaṭa bharat kolami 'furnace, mixed alloy (copper, zinc,tin)smithy, forge'. The word bharat may explain the semantics of Bhāratīya, 'people working with bharata metal alloys'. bharatiyo are metalcasters, who -- together with agriculturists, textile workers, sculptors, śilpi, seafaring merchant guilds --śreṇi --, medicinemen -- created the wealth of a nation by the key economic factor of 'corporate form of organization' called śreṇi which contributed to 33% of global GDP in 1 CE (pace Angus Maddison).


    Cluster 32

    Variants/Sign modifications of Sign 373   
    Sign 386 is a hypertext composed of Sign 373 and notch. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware' PLUS mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' (oval-/rhombus-shaped like a bun-ingot).The hypertext Sign 386 reads two distinct wealth categories: muhã khāṇḍā 'ingots, equipment, tools, metalware'.

    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext Cluster 32 reads: muhã khāṇḍā bhaṭa kolami 'ingots, equipment, tools, metalware, iron furnace, smithy, forge'.

    Cluster 33

    Sign 12 is kuṭi 'water-carrier' (TeluguRebus: kuṭhi. 'iron smelter furnace' (Santali) kuṭhī factory (A.)(CDIAL 3546)
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge. Vikalpa: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus: pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    Hypertext of Cluster 33 reads: kuṭh bhaṭa kolami ' 'iron smelterfactory, furnace, smithy, forge'.


    Cluster 34

    Sign 67 khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236) PLUS ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]). Thus, ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metalmint'.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.
    Variants of Sign 176
    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Hypertext Cluster 34 reads: ayo kammaṭa karṇī karaḍā खरडें  'alloy metal mint, supercargo, scribe, daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. kharādī ' turner' 

    Cluster 35

     Sign 48 is a 'backbone, spine' hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) Tir. mar -- kaṇḍḗ ʻ back (of the body) ʼ; S. kaṇḍo m. ʻ back ʼ, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻ backbone ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇḍ, °ḍī ʻ back ʼH. kã̄ṭā m. ʻ spine ʼ, G. kã̄ṭɔ m., M. kã̄ṭā m.; Pk. kaṁḍa -- m. ʻ backbone ʼ.(CDIAL 2670) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) bharatiyo = a caster of metals; a brazier; bharatar, bharatal, bharata = moulded; an article made in a mould; bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (Gujarati) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā = a brazier, worker in metal; bha, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Sanskrit. )baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) 

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.
    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 36

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 37


    Sign 65 is a hypertext composed ofSign 59 and 'lid of pot' hieroglyph.Sign 134 ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' ays 'iron' PLUS dhakka 'lid of pot' rebus: dhakka 'bright' Thus, ayo dhakka, 'bright alloy metal.' Thus, Sign 65 hypertext reads: ayo dhakka 'bright alloy metal'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Hypertext Cluster 37 reads: ayo dhakka karṇī karaḍā खरडें 'bright alloy metal, scribe, supecargo, daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 38

    Sign 193 signifies a structure, perhaps a pair of warehouse. A variant may be seen on Sohgaura copperplate topline of Indus Script hieroglyphs. dula 'two, pair' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS koṭhāri 'treasurer, warehouse'. Rebus: kuṭhāru 'armourer' Together the hypertext reads: dul kuṭhāru 'metalcasting armourer'
    Sohgaura copper plate. Bilingual (Indus Script hypertext+ Brāhmi syllabary) inscription describes functions of two warehouses for itinerant merchants.


    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Sign 176 khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Hypertext Cluster 38 reads:   dul kuṭhāru karṇī karaḍā खरडें 'metalcasting armourer, scribe, supecargo, daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati). 

    Cluster 39

    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.])

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 39 reads: dul ayas karṇī 'metalcasting, alloy metal, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 40

    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 40 reads:  sal, dul, karṇī 'workshop, metalcasting, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 41



    Variants of Sign 403
    Sign 403 is a duplication of  dula 'pair, duplicated' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS  Sign'oval/lozenge/rhombus' hieoglyph Sign 373. Sign 373 has the shape of oval or lozenge is the shape of a bun ingotmũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced atone time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed likea four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes andformed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt komūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, Sign 373 signifies word, mũhã̄ 'bun ingot'. Thus, hypertext Sign 403 reads: dul mũhã̄ 'metalcast ingot'.

    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 41 reads:dul mũhã̄ dul karṇī 'metalcast ingot, metalcasting, scribe (engraver), supercargo'.

    Cluster 42


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    Sign 87 dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 

    Hypertext Cluster 42 reads: sal dul aya 'workshop, metalcasting, alloymetal'

    Cluster 43


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' अयस् n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c ) RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10;  gold (नैघण्टुक , commented on by यास्क); steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]) 
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 43 reads: sal aya karṇī 'workshop, alloy metal, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 44


    sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'
    käti ʻwarrior' (Sinhalese)(CDIAL 3649). rebus:  khātī m. ʻ 'member of a caste of wheelwrights'ʼVikalpa: bhaa 'warrior' rebus: bhaa 'furnace'.
    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'.

    Hypertext Cluster 44 reads: sal bhakarṇī 'workshop, furnace, scribe (engraver), supercargo'

    Cluster 45


    Variants of Sign 48 Seal published by Omananda Saraswati. In Pl. 275: Omananda Saraswati 1975. Ancient Seals of Haryana (in Hindi). Rohtak.This pictorial motif gets normalized in Indus writing system as a hieroglyph sign: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu)
     Sign 48 is a 'backbone, spine' hieroglyph: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) Tir. mar -- kaṇḍḗ ʻ back (of the body) ʼ; S. kaṇḍo m. ʻ back ʼ, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻ backbone ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇḍ, °ḍī ʻ back ʼH. kã̄ṭā m. ʻ spine ʼ, G. kã̄ṭɔ m., M. kã̄ṭā m.; Pk. kaṁḍa -- m. ʻ backbone ʼ.(CDIAL 2670) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) bharatiyo = a caster of metals; a brazier; bharatar, bharatal, bharata = moulded; an article made in a mould; bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (Gujarati) bhart = a mixed metal of copper and lead; bhartīyā = a brazier, worker in metal; bha, bhrāṣṭra = oven, furnace (Sanskrit. )baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) 

    kanda kanka 'rim of jar' कार्णिक 'relating to the ear' rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇika 'scribe, account' karṇī 'supercargo',कर्णिक helmsman'.Note: Hieroglyph: कर्ण [p= 256,2] the handle or ear of a vessel RV. viii , 72 , 12 Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa ix (कात्यायन-श्रौत-सूत्र)
    &c Rebus: कर्ण the helm or rudder of a ship R. कर्णी f. of °ण ifc. (e.g. अयस्-क्° and पयस्-क्°) Pa1n2. 8-3 , 46" N. of कंस's mother " , in comp. Rebus: karṇī, 'Supercargo responsible for cargo of a merchant vessel'
    baṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace' baṭa 'iron'.

    Hypertext Cluster 45 reads: 
    bharat karṇī bhaṭa 'mixed alloys (5 copper, 4 zinc,1 tin), scribe (engraver), supercargo, iron furnace'.

    Background note on how cluster analysis of Indus Script sign hypertexts help identify repeating, freuquently occurring triplets (i.e. three 'signs' in sequence) constituting a semantic cluster

    This monograph is in effect an addendum to the cluster analysis of 'signs' presenting the 'sematnic' structure or accounting classifiers of wealth-accounting ledgers.

     

    Using partition-based clustering (K-means algorithm) to analyse Indus Script texts, Nisha Yadav et al identify the following dominant (high-frequency occurrence) clusters. The cluster analysis is based on a subset of inscriptions. The number of texts included in a computer corpus called EBUDS is 1548. This is a filtered corpus excluding duplicates and ambiguous texts.EBUDS identifies 377 distinct signs. Strings of sign images are read from right to left. The statistical approach in creating EBUDS is detailed in:
    Yadav, N., Vahia, M. N., Mahadevan, I. and Joglekar, H. 2008. A Statistical Approach for Pattern Search in Indus Writing. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics. vol. XXXVII, pp. 39-52.

    These 45 Semantic clusters of metalwork wealth-accounting are valided in a monograph Table 6 which lists 45 triplets of signs, which are of frequent occurrence.
    After Table 6 in: Nisha Yadav, Ambuja Salgaonkar and Mayank Vahia. Clustering Indus Texts using K-means. International Journal of Computer Applications 162(1):16-21, March 2017

    See:  

    https://tinyurl.com/y8gr7amt This monograph is an addendum emphasising the significance of this brilliant cluster analysis done by Nisha Yadav, Ambuja Salgaonkar and Mayank Vahia (2017). At the outset, congratulations to Nisha Yadav, Ambuja Salgaonkar, and Mayank Vahia for this lucid, precisely presented, outstanding contribution which validates the decipherment of the Indus Scipt Cipher as a cataloguing, sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' rebus: samgraha, samgaha 'catalogue,list, arranger, manager' -- an accounting classification of ledgers for wealth accounting during the Tin-Bronze Revolution, 4th millennium BCE.

     


    Thesis of the monograph: Indus Script Field symbols are accounting ledger classifications of wealth categories, classified as metalwork.

    This thesis is validated by a Cluster analysis of 33 sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' Indus Script Field symbols evidences samgaha wealth categories for accounting ledgers, samgaha 'catalogue, list, arranger, manager'. The cargo listed in samgaha are inscribed -- as Indus Script inscriptions -- for delivery by જંગડિયો jangaḍiyo 'military guard who accompanies treasure into the treasury' (Gujarati)  --in mercantile transactions on janga ,'invoiced on approval basis'. This mercantile process explains the repeated and frequent deployment of sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' princple of writing system for both 'signs' and 'field symbols'.

    Executive Summary

    The cluster analysis presented in this monograph identify superstructures of wealth categories to which the ‘triplets of signs’ are substructures. The study suggests that there are 33 distinct structures relatedto wealth categories of metalwork to document work on: 1. Minerals; 2. Smelting; 3. Use of furnaces to create alloys by mixing minerals or infusing carbon element through carburization processes; smithy, forge work; 4. Forging of implements, tools, metalware; 5. Metalcasting, including cire perdue (lost-waxmethods) of metal casting; 6. Organization in guilds of artisans/seafaring merchants.


    The following 38 categories of wealth accounting ledgers are identified by cluster analysis 

    Cluster 1 Eagle in flight cluster, thunderbolt weapon, blacksmith classifier

    Cluster 2 Metallurgical invention of aṅgāra carburization, infusion of carbon element to harden molten metal

    Cluster 3 Svastika cluster, zinc wealth category

    Cluster 4 Ficus clusters, copper wealth category

    Cluster 5 Tiger cluster, smelter category

    Cluster 6 Spearing a bovine cluster, smelter work

    Cluster 7 A metallurgical process narrative in four clusters -- four sides of a tablet: 

    Cluster 8 Seafaring boat cluster, cargo wealth category

    Cluster 9 Bier cluster, wheelwright category

    Cluster 10 Sickle cluster, wheelwright category

    Cluster 11 Sun's rays cluster, gold wealth category

    Cluster 12 Body of standing person cluster, element classifier

    Cluster 13 Frog cluster, ingot classifier

    Cluster 14 Serpent cluster as anakku, 'tin ore' classifier

    Cluster 15 Tortoise, turtle clusters, bronze classifiers

    Cluster 16 Seated person in penance, mint classifier

    Cluster 17 Archer cluster, mint classifier

    Cluster 18 ayakara 'metalsmith' cluster, alloy metal smithy, forge classifier

    Cluster 19 Smelter cluster, wealth-category of smelted mineral ores

    Cluster 20 Magnetite, ferrite ore cluster wealth-category or wealth-classification

    Cluster 21 Dhokra 'cire perdue' metal cassting artisans classifier

    Cluster 22 dhāvḍī ʻcomposed of or relating to ironʼ, dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelters' cluster, Iron, steel product cluster 

    Cluster 23 Endless knot cluster, yajña dhanam, iron category, hangar ‘blacksmith’ category

    Cluster 24 Dance-step cluster, iron smithy/forge

    Cluster 25 Minerals Smelter, metals furnace, clusters

    Cluster 26 Armoury clusters

    Cluster 27 Double-axe cluster, armourer category

    Cluster 28 Seafaring merchant clusters

    Cluster 29 Smithy, forge clusters

    Cluster 30 Equipment making blacksmithy/forge

    Cluster 31 Tin smithy, forge clusters

    Cluster 32 Alloy metal clusters

    Cluster 33 Metal equipment, product clusters

    -- Metalwork samgaha, 'catalogues' cluster सं-ग्रह complete enumeration or collection , sum , amount , totality (एण , " completely " , " entirely ") (याज्ञवल्क्य), catalogue, list

    Cluster 34 śreṇi Goldsmith Guild clusters 

    Cluster 34a Three tigers joined, smithy village,smithy shop category

    Cluster 35 पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu'cluster,  magnetite ore category pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide

    Cluster 36 Dotted circles, Indus Script Hypertexts dhāv 'red ores'

    Cluster 37 Indus Script inscriptions on ivory artifacts signify metalwork wealth accounting

    Cluster 38 Diffusion of Metallurgy: Meluhha and western Afghanistan sources of tin


    This accounting classification of metalwork wealth categories is consistent with the finding that the writing system with a recognized pattern of clustering pictorial motifs was consistently used over the entire gamut of contact areas of Sarasvati civilization. Decipherment of the hieroglyph components of field symbols yields the semantic structure of underlying Meluhha speech in Bhāratīya sprachbund(Speech union).


    The total number of objects on M Corpus with distinct, unambiguous pictorials or field symbols is 1894. It is unfortunate that most decipherment claims ignore an analysis of this dominant portion of the documented evidence of the civilization. Some brush them aside as 'cult symbols', some say they are 'religious symbols'. 

    A cluster analysis of these 1894 Indus Script Field symbols has also been ignored by the cluster analysis of triplets of 'signs' done by K-means by Nisha Yadav et al. I submit that pictorial motifs or field symbols are integral parts of the hypertext messaging system of the Indus Script inscriptions. It should be noted that these pictorial motifs or field symbols occupy the major portion of the space for messaging used on an inscribed object in Indus Script Corpora (which now total over 8000 inscriptions). 

    This demonstrable laxity in most decipherment claims or cluster analyses is governed by a hypothesis of the 'text' as the writing system, and perhaps ignoring the field symbol or pictorial motifs are extraneous to the messaging system. 

    I submit that the field symbols or pictorial motifs are the dominant classifiers of the Indus accounting system to identify distinct wealth-accounting category ledgers to document the wealth of a guild of artisans and seafaring merchants. This monograph demonstrates the semantic structure of the field symbols or pictorial motifs in the framework of the principal design principle of the script (which applies to both 'signs' and 'field symbols') which is: sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' rebus: samgraha, samgaha 'catalogue, list, arranger, manager' janga ,'invoiced on approval basis' -- an accounting classification of ledgers for wealth accounting during the Tin-Bronze Revolution, 4th millennium BCE. This sāṅgāḍī 'joined parts' principle of writing system design explains why animal parts are joined together to create 'fabulour' or 'composite' animal pictorial motifs or field symbols.

    See:  

    33 clusters of field symbols signify 33 metalwork wealth/guild work classifiers for accounting ledgers

    FS 1-7                    1159 One-horned young bull (bos indicus aurochs)

    FS 120                       67 One or more dotted circles

    FS 122-123                19 Standard device

    FS 8-9                          5 Two-horned young bull (bos indicus aurochs)

    FS 10                         54 Bos indicus, zebu

    FS 11-13                    95 Short-horned bull or ox (aurochs)

    FS 15-17                    14 Buffalo

    FS 18-20                    55 Elephant

    FS 22-23                    16 Tiger

    FS 24-25                       5 Horned tiger

    FS 16-28                    39 Rhinoceros

    FS 29                            1 Two rhinoceroses

    FS 30-38                    36 Goat-antelope, short tail

    FS 39-41                    26 Ox-antelope

    FS 42                         10 Hare

    FS 43                           1 Hare

    FS 51                         20 Fabulous animal

    FS 56                           9 Fabulous animal

    FS 63-67                    49 Gharial (crocodile + fish)

    FS 68                         14 Fish

    FS 73                           9 Entwined serpent, pillar or rings on pillar

    FS 74                           4 Bird (eagle) in flight

    FS 75-77                    34 Kino tree on platform

    FS 79                            3 Pipal leaf

    FS 80-90                     22 Horned standing persons

    FS 105                           3 Person grappling two tigers

    FS 109                           5 Person seated on tree branch

    FS 111                           3 Woman grappling two men with uprooted trees\

    FS 118-119                  50 Svastika (on seals of Indus Script Corpora)

    FS 124                           4 Endless knot, twisted rope

    FS 125                           3 Boat

    FS 131                           6 Sickle

    FS 130                           3 Writing tablet

    FS 133-139                  51 ornamental edges


    TOTAL                    1894
    ...

    Read on...https://tinyurl.com/y7tebv96





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    https://tinyurl.com/y8j2smk8This is an addendum to: https://tinyurl.com/yca5pdcu Arsh gallery, auctioneer, Islamabad presents unprovenanced Indus Script hieroglyphs, hypertexts, all related to rebus metalwork translations. Three unprovenanced seals kept in the gallery are read as Indus Script inscriptions in Meluhha rebus readings related to wealth accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues.
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    Seal 1, 2, 3 I suggest that the following three 'signs' on the three Indus Script seals of Arsh gallery -- labeled as Seals 1,2,3 are orthographic variants of Sign 124 (ASI 1977 Mahadevan concordance). Sign 124 reads rebus as Meluhha hypertext: ḍhālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'.

    Seal 1 has the pictograph of a peacock : moraka, 'peacock' rebus: morakkaka (loha) 'calcining metal'. Thus, together with Sign 124, the inscription reads: morakaka 'calcining metal' PLUS
    ḍhālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'.

    Pictorial motifs on Seal 2 signify kundakō̃da कोँद gold furnace, phaa, paṭṭaa 'metals manufactory': Pictorial motifs on Seal 2: One-horned young bull with a cobra hood in front and perhaps a lady in a dance-step: phaa 'cobrahood', rebus: phaa, paṭṭaa 'metals manufactory' PLUS me 'dance step' rebus: me 'iron, copper' (Santali.Mu.Ho.Slavic languages). The text message on Seal 2:  hālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'; kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin).  Seal 3 shows a man standing beside a woman with dance-step and wearing a head-gear with twigs. The man standing is a dhangar 'blacksmith' PLUS kola 'woman' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' PLUS kūdī 'twig' rebus: kuhi 'smelter' The text message is: पोलाद pōlāda, 'crucible steel cake' explained also as mūhā mẽhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali) --पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel' = ukku 'wootz steel' PLUS hālako khāṇḍā 'ingots, metalware'.


    Sign 124 This sign is a hypertext composed of a slanted stroke ligaturred with a slanted notch. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 


    Hieroglyph:  dhāḷ 'a slope'; 'inclination'  ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- .1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f.Addenda: ḍhāla -- . 2. *ḍhāllā -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f.(CDIAL 5583). ḍhālako a large metal ingot.
    Sign 293 kuṭila 'bent' CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. 'curve', kuṭika— 'bent' MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) 
    Sign 373
    I submit that these oval spots signify पोलाद pōlāda, 'crucible steel cake' explained also as mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali) --पोलाद pōlāda, 'steel' = ukku 'wootz steel' 

    Image result for zebu ingot shape bharatkalyan97
    Slide 33. Early Harappan zebu figurine with incised spots from Harappa. Some of the Early Harappan zebu figurines were decorated. One example has incised oval spots. It is also stained a deep red, an extreme example of the types of stains often found on figurines that are usually found in trash and waste deposits. Approximate dimensions (W x H(L) x D): 1.8 x 4.6 x 3.5 cm. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow) http://www.harappa.com/figurines/33.html
    The oval spots are shaped like the copper ingots shown on this photograh of Maysar, c. 2200 BCE:
    Maysar c.2200 BCE Packed copper ingots INGOTSRelated imageCrucible steel button. Steel smelted from iron sand in a graphite crucible.https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crucible_steel_button.jpg See: 
    Indus Script hypertext पोळ pōḷa, 'zebu, bos indicus' signifies pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4', पोलाद pōlāda, 'crucible steel cake'


    kod. 'one horn'; kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.)kamarasa_la = waist-zone, waist-band, belt (Te.)kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.) [cf. the orthography of rings on the neck of one-horned young bull]. Te. kōḍiya, kōḍe young bull; adj. male (e.g. kōḍe dūḍa bull calf), young, youthful; kōḍekã̄ḍu a young man. Kol. (Haig) kōḍē bull. Nk. 
    khoṛe male calf. Konḍa kōḍi cow; kōṛe young bullock. Pe. kōḍi cow. Manḍ.kūḍi id. Kui kōḍi id., ox. Kuwi (F.) kōdi cow; (S.) kajja kōḍi bull; (Su. P.) kōḍi cow.(DEDR 2199). Ka. gōnde bull, ox. Te. gōda ox. Kol. (SR.) kondā bull; (Kin.) kōnda bullock. Nk (Ch.) kōnda id. Pa. kōnda bison. Ga. (Oll.)

    kōnde cow; (S.) kōndē bullock. Go. (Tr.) kōnḍā, (other dialects) kōnda bullock, ox (DEDR 2216). खोंड khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf. kōnda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.)(DEDR 2216). Te. kōḍiya, kōḍe young bull; adj. male (e.g. kōḍe dūḍa bull calf), young, youthful; kōḍekã̄ḍu a young man. Kol. (Haig) kōḍē bull.

    kōnde cow; (S.) kōndē bullock. Go. (Tr.) kōnḍā, (other dialects) kōnda bullock, ox (DEDR 2216). खोंड khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf. kōnda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.)(DEDR 2216). Te. kōḍiya, kōḍe young bull; adj. male (e.g. kōḍe dūḍa bull calf), young, youthful; kōḍekã̄ḍu a young man. Kol. (Haig) kōḍē bull.

    Rebus: kod. = place where artisans work (Gujarati) kod. = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.lex.) gor.a = a cow-shed; a cattleshed; gor.a orak = byre (Santali.lex.) कोंड [ kōṇḍa ] A circular hedge or field-fence. 2 A circle described around a person under adjuration. 3 The circle at marbles. 4 A circular hamlet; a division of a मौजा or village, composed generally of the huts of one caste.कोंडडाव (p. 180) [ kōṇḍaḍāva ] m Ring taw; that form of marble-playing in which lines are drawn and divisions made:--as disting. from अगळडाव The play with holes.कोंडवाड [ kōṇḍavāḍa ] n f C (कोंडणें & वाडा) A pen or fold for cattle.कोंडाळें (p. 180) [ kōṇḍāḷēṃ] n (कुंडली S) A ring or circularly inclosed space. 2 fig. A circle made by persons sitting round.


    कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa, 'cattlepen' kundaṇa 'goldsmith guild'.since the Marathi word has the meaning: कोंडण kōṇḍaṇa f A fold or pen. Rebus: kunda1 m. ʻ a turner's lathe ʼ lex. [Cf. *cunda -- 1] N. kũdnu ʻ to shape smoothly, smoothe, carve, hew ʼ, kũduwā ʻ smoothly shaped ʼ; A. kund ʻ lathe ʼ, kundiba ʻ to turn and smooth in a lathe ʼ, kundowā ʻsmoothed and rounded ʼ; B. kũd ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdākõdā ʻ to turn in a lathe ʼ; Or. kū˘nda ʻ latheʼ, kũdibākū̃d° ʻ to turn ʼ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ʻ lathe ʼ); Bi.kund ʻ brassfounder's lathe ʼ; H. kunnā ʻ to shape on a lathe ʼ, kuniyā m. ʻ turner ʼ, kunwā m. (CDIAL 3295). kundakara m. ʻ turner ʼ W. [Cf. *cundakāra -- : kunda -- 1, kará -- 1] A. kundār, B. kũdār°ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ.(CDIAL 3297). Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold.Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold. (DEDR 1725).

    kō̃da कोँद  कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् ।कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165)(Kashmiri) 




    0 0


    -- Meluhha Indus Script hypertexts, wealth accounting ledgers of artisan & seafaring merchant guilds, signified by Varāha & Gaṇeśa 

    Predating the anthropomorph with a boar's head found in the context of Copperhoard culture of Ancient Bharat, to signify a metalworker and metals merchant is a tradition traceable to Indus Script Hypertexts which signify Varāha and Gaeśa shown in pratimā as dancers together with other members of ga-- artisan & seafaring merchant guilds. Varāha and Gaeśa signified as dancers relates to the dancing halls --नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse -- which is a component of structures used as metals manufactories called फडphaa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'. 

    R̥gveda describes Marut gaṇa as dancers through the air; this metaphor leads to the sculptural frescos showing Marutgaṇa as dancers; the sculptural tradition is traceable to the pratimā created by craftsmen who created rock-cut sculptures of Badami caves (see the sculptural fresco of Naarāja with Gaṇeśa's dance-step: 

    Image result for nataraja badami

    RV 8.020.22 Maruts, dancing (through the air), decorated with golden breast-plates, the mortal (who worships you) attains your brotherhood; speak favourably to us, for your affinity is ever (made known) at the regulated (sacrifice).



    Image result for kailasanatha maruts
    Marut-gaṇa including Gaṇeśa (third from left) & Varāha (fourth from left) on a sculptural panel. Kailasanatha Temple,Kanchipuram.

    R̥gveda gaṇa are Vrātam Vrātam gaam gaam, guilds of artisans, seafaring merchants. R̥gveda extols the contributions made by gaa to the creation and sharing of wealth created, using the vivid expression: Vrātam Vrātam gaam gaam. The semantics of this expression elaborate as guilds of artisans, seafaring merchants. The guild-master of such guilds is gaṇanāyaka also called gaṇapati, mahāvināyaka. A pratimā of mahāvināyaka is archaeologically attested in Gardez with precise semantic explanations using Indus Script hypertexts of cobrahood and feline paw, detailed in this monograph.

    The veneration of gaṇapati as guild-master, Marut gaṇa is traceable to the tradition of R̥gveda attested in RV 3.26.6, RV 6.66, RV 2.23, RV 10.112.9.

    This abiding veneration  finds expression in sculptural frescos all over the world which adores R̥gveda tradition.

    RV 3.26.6 refers to Gaṇa in the context of Marut-s: व्रातं व्रातं गणम् गणम् Vrātam Vrātam gaṇam gaṇam In this expression, व्रात signifies a particular form of assembly, a guild. व्रात m. (connected with √1. वृ , or with व्रत्/अ and √2. वृ) a multitude , flock , assemblage , troop , swarm , group , host (व्र्/आतं व्रातम् , in companies or troops ; प्/अञ्च व्र्/आतास् , the five races of men) , association , guild RV. &c; n. manual or bodily labour , day-labour (Monier-Williams)


    namo gaṇebhyo gaṇapatibhyaś ca vo namo namo vrātebhyo vrātapatibhyaś ca vo namo namaḥ (MS 2.9.4)


    R̥gveda gaṇa are Marut gaṇa with two remarkable anthropomorphs: v, with the head of a boar and Gaṇeśa, with the head of an elepant. I suggest that v, with the head of a boar and Gaṇeśa, with the head of an elepant are Indus Script hypertexts. The hypertexts signify:

    1.baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: बढई bahī m ( H) A carpenter; barea 'merchant'; and

    2. karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'. Gaṇeśa is shown with a) cobrahood and b) tiger vestment to further add the semantic identifiers of: 

    a) फडphaḍa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons' and 

    b) panja 'claw of beast, feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln', i.e. boar and elephant signify wood/iron worker and smelter guild. 

    baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: बढई bahī m ( H) A carpenter. (Marathi)
    baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood' bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) 
    వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు (p. 1126) vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh] Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā.(CDIAL 11375)
    বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.
    बढई bahī m ( H) A carpenter. (Marathi)  పట్టడ paṭṭaa paṭṭau. [Tel.] n. A smithy, a shop. కుమ్మరి వడ్లంగి మొదలగువారు పనిచేయు చోటువడ్రంగివడ్లంగి,వడ్లవాడు varagi, valagi, valavāu or వడ్లబత్తుడు varangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగమువడ్లపనివడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము varangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తివడ్రంగిపనివడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట varangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటమువడ్లకంకణము vala-kankaamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదమువడ్లత or వడ్లది valata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh] Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ°aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. hōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) hi m., N. bahaïbaahi, A. bārai, B. °ui, Or. bahaï°hāi, (Gajād) hoi, Bi. baahī, Bhoj. H. bahaī m., M. hāyā m., Si. vau -- vā.*vārdhaka -- .Addenda: vardhaki -- : WPah.kg. ḍḍhi m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; kg. he\ihi, kc. bahe  H. beside genuine ḍḍhi Him.I 135), J. hi, Garh. bahai, A. also hai AFD 94; Md. vaīnvain pl.(CDIAL 11375)  






    Nataraja with 18 arms. gaṇa play drums. Gaṇeśa  in dance-step.
    Also in the cave are Karthikeya and Gaṇeśa

    Harihara with dancing gaṇa.
    Fused sculpture of a composite animal. Elephant. Zebu.

    Cave 2, Badami for Vishnu
    Varaha anthropomorph.
    Part human – part boar, holding Bhudevi (earth) in one hand, his discus (chakra) in the other. His left foot rests in the netherworld, as he rescues Bhudevi from the depths of the ocean. 
    Svastika pattern.

    Wheel with 16 spokes on the ceiling of Cave 2. Each spoke is a fish surrounding the central lotus.

    This is an Indus Script hypertext. Eraka ‘nave of wheel’ rebus: eraka ‘copper, moltencast’ PLUS ayo ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘alloy metal’ PLUS t

    tāmarasa ‘lotus’ rebus: rebus: tamba ‘copper’.
    Cave 3, Badami, Vishnu
    Image result for badami dancing gana sculpture

    The Durga Temple, Aihole, and the Saṅgameśvara Temple, KūḐavelli: A Sculptural Review

    Carol Radcliffe Bolon
    Ars Orientalis
    Ars Orientalis
    Vol. 15 (1985), pp. 47-64 (18 pages)
    Published by: Freer Gallery of Art, The Smithsonian Institution and Department of the History of Art, University of Michigan
    https://www.jstor.org/stable/4543046


    Aihole showing the dance poses of Gaṇeśa and Varaha.

    Gaṇa are shown as kharva, 'dwarfs' on sculptures to signifya nidhi or treasure of Kubera. खर्व mfn. (cf. /अ- , त्रि-) mutilated , crippled , injured , imperfect TS. ii , 5 , 1 , 7 Rebus: खर्व  m. N. of one of the nine निधिs or treasures of कुबेर L

     https://tinyurl.com/y9ug5h9y The guild-master signs off on the inscription by affixing his hieroglyph: palm squirrel,Sciurus palmarum' Hieroglyph: squirrel:  *śrēṣṭrī1 ʻ clinger ʼ. [√śriṣ1]Phal. šē̃ṣṭrĭ̄ ʻ flying squirrel ʼ?(CDIAL 12723) Rebus: guild master khāra, 'squirrel', rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)*śrēṣṭrī1 ʻ clinger ʼ. [√śriṣ1] Phal. šē̃ṣṭrĭ̄ ʻ flying squirrel ʼ? (CDIAL 12723) Rebus: śrēṣṭhin m. ʻ distinguished man ʼ AitBr., ʻ foreman of a guild ʼ, °nī -- f. ʻ his wife ʼ Hariv. [śrḗṣṭha -- ] Pa. seṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ, Dhp. śeṭhi, Pk. seṭṭhi -- , siṭṭhi -- m., °iṇī -- f.; S. seṭhi m. ʻ wholesale merchant ʼ; P. seṭh m. ʻ head of a guild, banker ʼ,seṭhaṇ°ṇī f.; Ku.gng. śēṭh ʻ rich man ʼ; N. seṭh ʻ banker ʼ; B. seṭh ʻ head of a guild, merchant ʼ; Or. seṭhi ʻ caste of washermen ʼ; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sēṭhi ʻ merchant, banker ʼ, H. seṭh m., °ṭhan f.; G. śeṭhśeṭhiyɔ m. ʻ wholesale merchant, employer, master ʼ; M. śeṭh°ṭhīśeṭ°ṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ; Si. siṭuhi° ʻ banker, nobleman ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 208 (or < śiṣṭá -- 2?) (CDIAL 12726) I suggest that the šē̃ṣṭrĭ̄ ʻ flying squirrel ʼ? is read rebus: śeṭhīśeṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ (Marathi) or eṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ(Prakrtam)
    The key factor (together with land (resources), labour and capital) conributing to the wealth of bhārata of Veda times is a form of social economic organization called gaṇa. This gaṇa organizational form is also called śreṇi or guild which predates the Roman corporation by ca two millennia. श्रेणि f. ( L. also m. ; according to Un2. iv , 51 , fr. √ श्रि ; connected with श्रेटी above ) a line , row , range , series , succession , troop , flock , multitude , number RV. &c; a company of artisans following the same business , a guild or association of traders dealing in the same articles Mn. MBh. &c  
    I suggest that the expression and metaphor of tāṇḍava nr̥tyam, the cosmic dance of शिव is a replication of the Soma samsthā yajña, to win the vasu, the wealths. The role of ताण्डव-प्रिय शिव, शिव's door-keeper नन्दिन् of yajña is replicated on wealth accounting archives of Indus Script Corpora.
    An early form of dance is traceable to Rudra's dance. 
    Bhīṣma's treatise of Mahābhārata on gaṇa (appended) provides the theoretical framework of  Arthaśāstraon creation of a nation's wealth. This treatise demonstrates how the R̥gveda narratives of Rudra, Marut, व्रातं व्रातं गणम् गणम् are the framework of metaphors in sculptures and Indus Script Hypertexts to document how ancient bhārata contributed to 33% of World GDP in 1 CE. 
    IMG_2759Rudra, in a dance pose. Maruts, Rudra.
    tāṇḍava nr̥tyam is a frantic dance by Naṭarāja Śiva accompanied by his व्रातं व्रातं गणम् गणम्. Many ancient sculptural friezes attest to this accompaniment.  

    YajñaVarāha, Indus Script hypertexts baḍhia, barāha, rebus baḍhi, bāṛaï ' worker in wood and iron’ 

    https://tinyurl.com/y9y2ubaw


    Maruts are described as having wheels of gold and rushing like boars with tusks of iron (ayodaṁṣṭrān vidhâvato varâhûn). Association of Varāhu's tusk or tooth with ayo 'iron' is significant in the context of Bronze Age metalwork metaphors abounding in ancient ākhyāna.

     


    RV8.20.22 8.020.22 Maruts, dancing (through the air), decorated with golden breast-plates, the mortal (who worships you) attains your brotherhood; speak favourably to us, for your affinity is ever (made known) at the regulated (sacrifice).
                                                                                                               [quote]'In Hinduism, the Marutas (/məˈrʊts/Sanskritमरुत), also known as the Marutagana and sometimes identified with Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Prisni and attendants of Indra. The number of Marutas varies from 27 to sixty (three times sixty in RV 8.96.8). They are very violent and aggressive, described as armed with golden weapons i.e. lightning and thunderbolts, as having iron teeth and roaring like lions, as residing in the north, as riding in golden chariots drawn by ruddy horses.
    Hymn 66 of Mandala VI of the Rig Veda is an eloquent account of how a natural phenomenon of a rain-storm metamorphose into storm deities.
    In the Vedic mythology, the Marutas, a troop of young warriors, are Indra's companions. According to French comparative mythologist Georges Dumézil, they are cognate to the Einherjar and the Wild hunt.
    According to the Rig Veda, the ancient collection of sacred hymns, they wore golden helmets and breastplates, and used their axes to split the clouds so that rain could fall. They were widely regarded as clouds, capable to shaking mountains and destroying forests.
    According to later tradition, such as Puranas, the Marutas were born from the broken womb of the goddess Diti, after Indra hurled a thunderbolt at her to prevent her from giving birth to too powerful a son. The goddess had intended to remain pregnant for a century before giving birth to a son who would threaten Indra.'[unquote]
    मरुत् [p= 790,2] m. pl. (prob. the " flashing or shining ones " ; cf. मरीचि and Gk. Î¼Î±ÏÎ¼Î±Î¯ÏÏ‰) the storm-gods (इन्द्र's companions and sometimes e.g. Ragh. xii , 101 = देवाः , the gods or deities in general ; said in the वेद to be the sons of रुद्र and पृश्नि q.v. , or the children of heaven or of ocean ; and described as armed with golden weapons i.e. lightnings and thunderbolts , as having iron teeth and roaring like lions , as residing in the north , as riding in golden cars drawn by ruddy horses sometimes called पृषतीः q.v. ; they are reckoned in Naigh. v , 5 among the gods of the middle sphere , and in RV. viii , 96 , 8 are held to be three times sixty in number ; in the later literature they are the children of दिति , either seven or seven times seven in number , and are sometimes said to be led by मातरिश्वन्) RV. &c; the god of the wind (father of हनुमत् and regent of the north-west quarter of the sky) Kir. Ra1jat. (cf. comp.); = ऋत्विज् Naigh. iii , 18; gold ib. i , 2

    RV 6.66


    6.066.01 May the like-formed, benevolent, all-pervading, all humiliating troop (of the Maruts) be promptly with the prudent man; the troop that ever cherishes all that among mortals is designed to yield (them) advantage; and (at whose wil) Pr.s'ni gives milk from (her) bright udder once (in the year). [That ever cherishes: marttes.u anyad dohase pi_pa_ya = tad ru_pam (maruta_m), martyaloke anyad os.adhi vanaspatya_dikam ka_ma_n dogdhum a_ya_yagoti, that form of the Maruts cause one or other thing in the world, herbaceous plants, forest trees, and the like, of flourish, so as to milk or yield wht is desired; Pr.s'ni: implies the firmament, which, by the influence of the winds, sends down its milk, i.e. rain, once, i.e. at the rainy season].

    6.066.02 Unsoiled by dust the golden chariots of those Maruts, who are shining like kindled fires, enlarging themselves (at will) twofold and threefold, and (charged) with riches and virile energies, are manifest.
    6.066.03 They (who are) the sons of the showerer Rudra, whom the nursing (firmamen is able) to sustain, and of whom, the mighty ones, it is known that the great Pr.s'ni has received the germ for the benefit (of man).
    6.066.04 They who approach not to men any conveyance, being already in their hearts, purifying their defects; when brilliant they supply their milk (the rain) for the gratification (of their worshippers); they are watering the earth (manifesting their collective); from with splendour. [Being already in their hearts: the Maruts are regarded as identical wit the Pra_n.a_h, vital airs].
    6.066.05 Approaching nigh to whom, and repeating the mighty name of the Maruts, (the worshipper is able) quickly to obtain (his wishes); the liberal donor pacifies the angry Maruts, who are otherwise in their might the resistless plunderers (of their wealth). [He pacifies those na ye stauna_ aya_so mahna_ nu cid, who now are thieves going with greatness verily ever].
    6.066.06 THose fierce and powerfully arrayed (Maruts) unite by their strength the two beautiful (regions) heaven and earth; in them, the self-radiant, heaven and earth abide; the obstruction (of light) dwells not in those mighty ones. [Unite by their strength: by the rain, which may be said to form a bond of union between heaven and earth].
    6.066.07 May your chariot, Maruts, be devoid of wickedness; that which (the worshipper) impels, and which without driver, without horses, without provender, without traces, scattering water and accomplishing (desires), traverses heaven and earth and the paths (of the firmament).
    6.066.08 There is no propeller, no obstructer, of him, whom, Maruts, you protect in battle; he whom (you prosper) with sons, grandsons, cattle, and water, is in war the despoiler of the herds of his ardent (foes). [Despoiler of the herds: sa vrajam darta_ pa_rye adha dyoh = sa gava_m san:gham da_rayita_ san:gra_me dyoh; dyoh = vijigis.or va_ s'atroh, of one desirous to overcome, or an enemy].
    6.066.09 Offer to the loud-sounding, quick-moving, self-invigorating company of the Maruts, excellent (sacrificial) food; (to them) who overcome strength by strength; the earth trembles, Agni, at the adorable (Maruts).
    6.066.10 The Maruts are resplendent as if iluminators of the sacrifice, (bright) as he flames of Agni; entitled are they to donation, and like heroes making (adversaries) tremble; brilliant are they from birth, and invincible.
    6.066.11 I worship with oblations that exalted company of the Maruts, the progeny of Rudra, armed with shining lances; the pure and earnest praises of the devout (adorer) are emulous in the invigoration (of the Maruts), as the clouds (vie in the emission of the rain). [The pure and earnest praises: divah s'ardha_ya s'ucayo manis.a_ girayo na_pa ugra_ aspr.dhran = of heaven of the strength pure praises mountains like waters fierce have vied; divah = stotuh, of the praiser or worshipper; s'ardha_ya = ma_ruta_ya, for the strength of the Maruts; giri = megha, a cloud].

    मरुत्तः, पुं, (मरुदस्त्यस्येति । मरुत् + “तप् पर्व्वमरुद्भ्याम् ।” ५ । २ । १२२ । इत्यत्र काशि-कोक्त्या तप् ।) चन्द्रवंशीयराजविशेषः । स चअवीक्षिद्राजपुत्त्रः । यथा --क्रोष्टुकिरुवाच ।“अवीक्षितस्य नृपतेर्मरुत्तस्य महात्मनः ।श्रोतुमिच्छामि चरितं श्रूयते सोऽतिचेष्टितः ॥चक्रवर्त्ती महाभागः शूरः क्षान्तो महामतिः ।धर्म्मविद्धर्म्मकृच्चैव सम्यक् पालयिता भुवः ॥मार्कण्डेय उवाच स पित्रा समनुज्ञातो राज्यं प्राप्य पितामहात् ।धर्म्मतः पालयामास प्रजाः पुत्त्रानिवौरसान् ॥इयाज सुमहायज्ञान् यथावत् प्राज्यदक्षिणान् ।ऋत्विक्पुरोहितादेशादनिर्विण्णो महीपतिः ॥तस्याप्रतिहतं चक्रमासीद्द्वीपेषु सप्तसु ।गतयश्चाप्यविच्छिन्नाः स्वःपातालजलादिषु ॥”इति मार्कण्डेयपुराणे १०३ अध्यायः ॥(यदुवंशीयः करन्धमपुत्त्रः । यथा, श्रीमद्भाग-वते । ९ । २३ । १७ ।https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/शब्दकल्पद्रु
    मःमरुत् पु० मृ उति । १ वायौ अमरः २ मरुवके भावप्र० ३ देवे ४ ग्रन्धिपर्णे न० मेदि० । ५ पृक्कायां स्त्री शब्दर० ।स्वार्थे प्रज्ञाद्यण् । मारुतोऽप्यत्र । पृषो० ह्रस्वः ।मरुतोऽपि देवे च वायौ च व्याडिः ।
    https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/वाचस्पत्यम्

    I submit that (dh)makara is a hypertext to signify a forge-bellows, blown by a blacksmith, to smelt mineral ores. The term Emūṣa to signify Varāha is also a hypertext: मूष [p= 827,2] m. f( and ). a rat , mouse Pan5cat. L. rebus: मूष, मूषिका [p= 827,2] a crucible Ma1rkP. Kull. L. Emūṣa signifiesVarāhamūṣa 'mouse' signifies Vāhana of Tridhātu Gaṇeśa. Thus, Rudra, Marut gaṇa, Tridhātu Gaṇeśa & Emūṣa Varāha are all hypertexts producing the wealth of the Bronze Age from smelters/forges/foundries. They are also ādidaivikā, ādhyātmikā and cosmological metaphors -- cosmic phenomena of storms, clouds, winds and meteors -- of unsurpassed excellence, insights, in Chandas and other ancient texts such as Mahābhārata with ākhyāna as itihāsa -- an abiding documentation of ancient traditions.  

    See:  https://tinyurl.com/y84r4oyr Tridhātu Gaṇeśa & Emūṣa Varāha are Maruts, a Rudra gaṇa (offspring of Rudra) -- disgorged by makara -- working with smelters, forge-blowers and iconographically depicted emerging out of the snout/breath of hypertext: (dh)makara 'makara' rebus:   dhmakara, 'forge-blower',dhamaka 'blacksmith'. The breath of the makara is a metaphor for the winds blown from the bellows to increase the intensity of the blazing fires and ignite the mere earth, the mineral ores in the smelter. Maruts, sons of Rudra are the winds as R̥bhu-s, artisans, work to fashion the earth and minerals into wealth. This is a cosmic dance enacted in the kole.l 'smithy, forge' which is kole.l 'temple.

    dhmakara 'forge-blower' is makara, the hypertext iconograph.
    See: Indus Script hypertext makara rebus dhmakara ‘forge-blower, blacksmith’ is a divine signifier of wealth, nidhi 
    https://tinyurl.com/yb2nabnf

    Monument/Object: sculpture
    Current Location: Indian Museum, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
    Subject: Varuna, on makara
    Photo Depicts: front
    Monument/Object: sculpture
    Current Location: Indian Museum, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
    Subject: Varuna, on makara
    Photo Depicts: front

    Location: Bharhut Village, Satna Dt., Madhya Pradesh, India
    Site: Bharhut Village
    Monument/Object: Bharhut Stupa, architectural fragment, vedika (railing)
    Current Location: Bharat Kala Bhavan, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Subject: elephant, with fishtail
    Photo Depicts: roundel
    Date: 2nd - 1st century BCE
    Religious Affiliation: Buddhist
    Material: stone
    Scan Number: 11598
    Photo Date: 1984
    Image Source: Huntington Archive

    Marut-s as Rudra-s, नृतु m. (nom. /ऊस्) a dancer , an actor RV. &c
    A major wealth-producing activity of Bhāratam Janam has been metalwork. This monograph suggests that the forms of Gaṇeśa pratimā evolve in Indus Script hypertext tradition to document wealth-producing metalwork.

    फडकरी phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). फडझडती phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. (Marathi) 

    गण m. a flock , troop , multitude , number , tribe , series , class (of animate or inanimate beings) , body of followers or attendants RV. AV. &c; troops or classes of inferior deities (especially certain troops of demi-gods considered as शिव's attendants and under the special superintendence of the god गणे* ; cf. -देवताMn. Ya1jn5. Lalit. &c; a company , any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims Mn. Ya1jn5. Hit. (in summary, a guild).                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Gaņā or hosts of Bŗihaspathi—Brahmaņaspathi are venerated:

    gaṇānāṃ tvā gaṇapatiṃ havāmahe kaviṃ kavīnām upamaśravastamam |  jyeṣṭharājam brahmaṇām brahmaṇas pata ā naḥ śṛṇvann ūtibhiḥ sīda sādanam ||RV_2,023.01|| This veneration of the leader of the guild posits Gaṇeśa as a Vedic divinity of the highest order, the leader of the heavenly bands and a sage (kavi) among sages.

    sa suṣṭubhā sa ṛkvatā gaṇena valaṃ ruroja phaligaṃ raveṇa | bṛhaspatir usriyā havyasūdaḥ kanikradad vāvaśatīr ud ājat ||RV 4,050.05 ||

    गण, also signify hosts of divine beings. Indra is a leader of the gana of Maruts.

    ni ṣu sīda gaṇapate gaṇeṣu tvām āhur vipratamaṃ kavīnām | na ṛte tvat kriyate kiṃ canāre mahām arkam maghavañ citram arca ||RV_10,112.09||

    [quote] The mantra ‘namo Gaebhyo gaapathibyasha vo namo’ (16-25) that occurs in  Śukla Yajurveda samhita refers to ganas, in plural, and says: salutations to you, Gaas and to the Lord of the Ganas. This mantra appears also in the Rudra praśnam (4.1.5) and in the Maitrāyaṇī Samhitā (2,9.4). Gaa  in these contexts signifies a group of people as also a collection of mantras. 

    namo gaṇebhyo gaṇapatibhyaś ca vo namo namo vrātebhyo vrātapatibhyaś ca vo namo namaḥ kṛchrebhyaḥ kṛchrapatibhyaś ca vo namo namo virūpebhyo viśvarūpebhyaś ca vo namo namaḥ senābhyaḥ senānībhyaś ca vo namo namo rathibhyo varūthibhyaś ca vo namo namaḥ kṣattṛbhyaḥ saṃgrahītṛbhyaś ca vo namo namo bṛhadbhyo ‘rbhakebhyaś ca vo namo namo yuvabhya āśīnebhyaś ca vo namo namaḥ //MS_2,9.4//
    The Taittirīya Samhitā interprets Gaas as paśus (the beasts of Śiva). They are the Gaas of Shiva — Rudrasya Ganapathyam .There were also Bhuta ganas, the weird and grotesque looking guards of Shiva. Thus, Shiva the Paśupathi; and Śiva the Bhūtanāth was also a Gaapathi.[unquote] https://sreenivasaraos.com/tag/ganesha                                                                     


    Dancing Ganesha, Gangaikonda-cholapuram, Tamil Nadu, 11th century CE.
    Image result for dancing gana bharatkalyan97
    Dancing Gaṇeśa in relief at Hoysaleshwara temple, Halebidu
    A tree associated with smelter and linga from Bhuteshwar, Mathura Museum. Architectural fragment with relief showing winged dwarfs (or gaNa) worshipping with flower garlands, Siva Linga. Bhuteshwar, ca. 2nd cent BCE. Lingam is on a platform with wall under a pipal tree encircled by railing. (Srivastava,  AK, 1999, Catalogue of Saiva sculptures in Government Museum, Mathura: 47, GMM 52.3625) The tree is a phonetic determinant of the smelter indicated by the railing around the linga: kuṭa°ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ  Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'. kuṭa, °ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ lex., °ṭaka -- m. ʻ a kind of tree ʼ Kauś.Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ, dar. kaṛék ʻ tree, oak ʼ ~ Par. kōṛ ʻ stick ʼ IIFL iii 3, 98. (CDIAL 3228)

    Relief with Ekamukha linga. Mathura. 1st cent. CE (Fig. 6.2). This is the most emphatic representation of linga as a pillar of fire. The pillar is embedded within a brick-kiln with an angular roof and is ligatured to a tree. Hieroglyph: kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter'. In this composition, the artists is depicting the smelter used for smelting to create mũh 'face' (Hindi) rebus: mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) of mēḍha 'stake' rebus: meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho. Munda)मेड (p. 662) [ mēḍa ] f (Usually मेढ q. v.) मेडका m A stake, esp. as bifurcated. मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] f A forked stake. Used as a post. Hence a short post generally whether forked or not. मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. 2 A dense arrangement of stakes, a palisade, a paling. मेढी (p. 665) [ mēḍhī ] f (Dim. of मेढ) A small bifurcated stake: also a small stake, with or without furcation, used as a post to support a cross piece. मेढ्या (p. 665) [ mēḍhyā ] a (मेढ Stake or post.) A term for a person considered as the pillar, prop, or support (of a household, army, or other body), the staff or stay. मेढेजोशी (p. 665) [ mēḍhējōśī ] m A stake-जोशी; a जोशी who keeps account of the तिथि &c., by driving stakes into the ground: also a class, or an individual of it, of fortune-tellers, diviners, presagers, seasonannouncers, almanack-makers &c. They are Shúdras and followers of the मेढेमत q. v. 2 Jocosely. The hereditary or settled (quasi fixed as a stake) जोशी of a village.मेंधला (p. 665) [ mēndhalā ] m In architecture. A common term for the two upper arms of a double चौकठ (door-frame) connecting the two. Called also मेंढरी & घोडा. It answers to छिली the name of the two lower arms or connections. (Marathi)
    मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end rebus: meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho. Munda) 

    The association of dwarfs, gaNa is consistent with the interpretation of Ganesa iconography with elephant trunk: karibha 'elephant trunk' (Pali) rebua: karba 'iron' (Tulu); ib 'iron' (Santali) kara 'trunk' khAr 'blacksmith'. Siva's gaNa are Bharatam Janam, metalcaster folk engaged with पोतृ pōtṟ 'purifier priest' to signify dhā̆vaḍ, dhamaga 'smelter, blacksmith' working in alloy of three mineral ores. The garland depicted on Bhutesvar sculptural friezes signifies: dhAman 'garland, rope' rebus: dhamaga 'blacksmith', dhmAtr 'smelter'.
    Glyph: meD 'to dance' (F.)[reduplicated from me-]; me id. (M.) in Remo (Munda)(Source: D. Stampe's Munda etyma)Ta. meṭṭu (meṭṭi-) to spurn or push with the foot. Ko. meṭ- (mec-) to trample on, tread on; meṭ sole of foot, footstep, footprint. To. möṭ- (möṭy-) to trample on; möṭ step, tread, wooden-soled sandal. Ka. meṭṭu to put or place down the foot or feet, step, pace, walk, tread or trample on, put the foot on or in, put on (as a slipper or shoe); n. stepping, step of the foot, stop on a stringed instrument; sandal, shoe, step of a stair; meṭṭisu to cause to step; meṭṭige, meṭla step, stair. Koḍ. moṭṭï footprint, foot measure, doorsteps. Tu. muṭṭu shoe, sandal; footstep; steps, stairs. Te meṭṭu step, stair, treading, slipper, stop on a lute; maṭṭu, (K. also) meṭṭu to tread, trample, crush under foot, tread or place the foot upon; n. treading; maṭṭincu to cause to be trodden or trampled. Ga. (S.3meṭṭu step (< Te.). Konḍa maṭ- (-t-) to crush under foot, tread on, walk, thresh (grain, as by oxen); caus.maṭis-. Kuwi (S.) mettunga steps. Malt. maḍye to trample, tread. (DEDR 5057)

    Image result for kailasanatha maruts
    Marut-gaṇa including Gaṇeśa & Varaha on a sculptural panel. Kailasanatha Temple,Kanchipuram.
    Dancing dwarves, gaa.
    Candi-Sukuh Gaṇeśa is shown in a dance-step, in the context of smelting, forging of sword by Bhima and by the bellows-blower Arjuna. The building in the background is a smelter/forge.
    The dance step of Ganesa (elephant head ligatured to a dancing person) on Candi Sukuh frieze is also explained by the gloss: meD 'dance step' rebus: meD 'iron'.

    The association of Gaṇeśa with iron-working gives him the name tri-dhātu 'three minerals' wich are:
    goṭa 'laterite, ferrite ore' poḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore' bicha 'haemtite, ferrite ore'. These three ferrite ores are signified by the hieroglyphs: goṭa 'round pebble stone' poḷa 'zebu, dewlap, honeycomb' bica'scorpion'. 

    Gaṇeśa is signified as part of Marut गण[p= 343,1] troops or classes of inferior deities (especially certain troops of demi-gods considered as शिव's attendants and under the special superintendence of the god गणे*श ; cf. देवता) Mn. Ya1jn5. Lalit. &c;  m. a flock , troop , multitude , number , tribe , series , class (of animate or inanimate beings) , body of followers or attendants RV. AV. &c. 

    Source: 
    Une tête d'éléphant en terre cuite de Nausharo (Pakistan)
    In: Arts asiatiques. Tome 47, 1992. pp. 132-136. Jarrige Catherine
    http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/arasi_0004-3958_1992_num_47_1_1330

    The elephant head ligatured with a buffalo at Nausharo is a curtain-raiser for the practice of ligaturing in Indian tradition for utsava bera 'idols carried on processions'. The phrase utsava bera denotes that processions of the type shown on Mesopotamian cylinder seals or Mohenjo-daro tablets are trade processions for bera 'bargaining, trade'. Thus, the processions with hieroglyphs may be part of trade-exchange fairs of ancient times. It is significant that the utsava bera of Ganesa is shown together with a rat or mouse -- as vāhana: ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron'. mūṣa 'rat, mouse' Rebus: mūṣa 'crucible'.  Thus both rat/mouse and elephant face ligatured to a body, are Meluhha hieroglyphs related to metallurgical processes.

    sangaDa 'joined animals' rebus: sangara 'proclamation': karibha 'elephant trunk' (Pali) Rebus: karba 'iron' (Tulu) ib 'iron' (Santali) kara 'trunk of elephant' Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' ranga 'buffalo' Rebus: ranga 'pewter'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'smithy, temple' kolimi 'smithy, forge'.
    Related image
    Location: Amaravati, Guntur Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India
    Site: Amaravati
    Monument/Object: sculpture
    Current Location: Madras Government Museum, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India
    Subject: Sankhanidhi, with purse of coins in left hand
    Period: Satavahana
    Date: ca. late 2nd - 3rd century CE
    Religious Affiliation: Buddhist
    Material: marble, white
    Scan Number: 26927
    Copyright: Huntington, John C. and Susan L.
    Location: Amaravati, Guntur Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India
    Site: Amaravati
    Monument/Object: relief sculpture, fragment
    Current Location: Madras Government Museum, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India
    Subject: gana, dancing
    Photo Depicts: front
    Period: Satavahana
    Date: ca. 2nd century CE
    Religious Affiliation: Buddhist
    Material: marble, white
    Scan Number: 27734
    Copyright: Huntington, John C. and Susan L.
    Image result for dancing gana bharatkalyan97
    meḍ 'dance-step' rebus: meḍ 'iron'
    Why are dwarfs shown on Begram ivories, Bharhut, Sanchi, Mathura sculptures and stone reliefs? The reason is the Indian sprachbund gloss: kharva which means 'dwarf'. The rebus-metonymy-layered rendering reads: kharva 'a navanidhi, a treasure, wealth' (one of nine nidhis or nine treasures of Kubera). The dwarf image is also used to denote gaNa of Siva or Rudra.

    खर्व (-र्ब) a. [खर्व्-अच्] 1 Mutilated, crippled, imperfect; Yv. Ts.2.5.1.7. -2 Dwarfish, low, short in stature. -र्वः, -र्वम् A large number (1,,,). -3 N. of one of the treasures of Kubera. -Comp. -इतर a. not small, great; प्रमुदितहृदः सर्वे खर्वेतरस्मयसंगताः Śiva. B.22.71. -शाख a. dwarfish, small, short.खर्वित kharvita खर्वित a. (anything) That has become dwarfish; निशुम्भभरनम्रोर्वीखर्विताः पर्वता अपि Ks.51.1.

    खार्वा khārvā The Tretā age or second Yuga of the world. (Samskritam)

    Rebus: खर्वटः kharvaṭḥ टम् ṭam खर्वटः टम् [खर्व्-अटन्] 1 A market-town. -2 A village at the foot of a mountain; this word generally occurs joined with खेट; Bhāg.1.6.11;4.18.31;7.2.14; धनुःशतं परीणाहो ग्रामे क्षेत्रान्तरं भवेत् । द्वे शते खर्वटस्य स्यान्नगरस्य चतुःशतम् ॥ Y.2.167. Mitākṣarā says खर्वटस्य प्रचुरकण्टक- सन्तानस्य ग्रामस्य खर्वटानि कुनगराणि । (प्रश्नव्याकरणसूत्रव्याख्याने). -3 A mixed locality on the bank of river, partly a village and partly a town (according to the text of Bhṛigu, quoted in Shrīdharasvāmin's commentary on the Bhāg.); cf. Rājadharmakaustubha, G. O. S.72, p.13. -4 A principal village among two hundred ones (Dānasāgara, Bibliotheca Indica 274, Fasc. I, p.145); cf. also दण्डविवेक, G. O. S.52, p.277.

    Hieroglyph: gaNa, 'dwarf' Rebus: gaNa is a guild. Accoding to NaighaNTu, gaNa is speech, Mleccha, Meluhha speech as distinct from chandas, prosody: m. = वाच् (i.e. " a series of verses ") Naigh. i , 11