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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    0 0 (10:30) In four sections, the video presents the knowledge system of metaphors of Veda divinities on Varāha (Khājurāho), hypertexts of over 8000 inscriptions of Indus Script, how ancient Indian artisans/seafaring merchants acted as the bridge between Ancient Far East and Ancient Near East participating in the Tin-Bronze Revolution led by śreṇi, guilds with a dharma of shared commonwealth. The Story of a Civilization is the Story narrating how wealth of a Rāṣṭram was created from 8th millennium BCE. This is an archaeological validation of the metaphors of R̥gveda in Rāṣṭrī Suktam (RV 10.125); listen to the chandas chanting rendered in a R̥gveda prayer. The Suktam is a celebration of creation of wealth of nations.

    0 0

    This is an addendum to Rāṣṭrī Suktam R̥gveda 10.125 & archaeology of wealth of a Rāṣṭram, Ancient India of Tin-Bronze revolution

    The divinities venerated in the Rāṣṭrī Suktam (RV 10.125) are त्वष्टृ, वसु, रुद्र all metaphors in Chandas in the context of wealth of a nation. Hence, the use of the central phrase: Rāṣṭram personified, deified as fem. Rāṣṭrī. This divinity of the Suktam makes an offering to Devatā ātmā. 

    ātmā means principle of life and sensation, that is life activities people engaged in producing, acquiring wealth. Since Indus Script Hypertexts in over 8000 inscriptions are wealth accounting ledgers, metalworking catalogues, I suggest that the narrative of these inscriptions constitute the quintessence of the Rāṣṭrī suktam (RV 10.125) which categorically states that I am the Rāṣṭram, the collectress, mover of wealth. In the context of life activities, the devatā of the Suktam is ātmā, 'life principle and sensation' which is epitomised in the activities of artisans and seafaring Meluhha merchants engaged in creating the wealth of a Nation, Rāṣṭram. 

    I, therefore, submit that RV 10.125 Rāṣṭrī suktam is the R̥gveda textual metaphor Chandas equivalent of the Indus Script Hypertexts rendered in Meluhha speech forms (Indian sprachbund, speech union).

    त्वष्टृ m. a carpenter , maker of carriages (= त्/अष्टृAV. xii , 3 , 33; " creator of living beings " , the heavenly builder , N. of a god (called सु-क्/ऋत् , -पाण्/इ , -ग्/अभस्ति , -ज्/अनिमन् , स्व्-/अपस् , अप्/असाम् अप्/अस्तम , विश्व्/अ-रूप &c RV. ; maker of divine implements , esp. of इन्द्र's thunderbolt and teacher of the ऋभुi , iv-vi , x Hariv. 12146 f. R. ii , 91 , 12 ; former of the bodies of men and animals , hence called " firstborn " and invoked for the sake of offspring , esp. in the आप्री hymns RV. AV. &c MBh. iv , 1178 Hariv. 587 ff. Ragh. vi , 32 ; associated with the similar deities धातृ , सवितृ , प्रजा-पति , पूषन् , and surrounded by divine females [ग्न्/आस् , जन्/अयस् , देव्/आनाम् प्/अत्नीस् ; cf. त्व्/अष्टा-व्/अरूत्री] recipients of his generative energy RV. S3Br. i Ka1tyS3r. iii ; supposed author of RV. x , 184 with the epithet गर्भ-पति RAnukr. ; father of सरण्यू [सु-रेणु Hariv. स्व-रेणु L. ] whose double twin-children by विवस्वत् [or वायु ? RV. viii , 26 , 21 f.] are यमयमी and the अश्विन्x , 17 , 1 f. Nir. xii , 10 Br2ih. Hariv. 545 ff. VP. ; also father of त्रि-शिरस् or विश्वरूप ib. ; overpowered by इन्द्र who recovers the सोम [ RV. iii f. ] concealed by him because इन्द्र had killed his son विश्व-रूप TS. ii S3Br. i , v , xii ; regent of the नक्षत्र चित्रा TBr.S3a1n3khGr2. S3a1ntik. VarBr2S. iic , 4 ; of the 5th cycle of Jupiter viii , 23 ; of an eclipse iii , 6 ; त्वष्टुर् आतिथ्य N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. ); a form of the sun MBh. iii , 146 Hariv. 13143 BhP. iii , 6 , 15;name of an आदित्य MBh. i Hariv. BhP. vi , 6 , 37 VP. i , 15 , 130 ; ii , 10 , 16; name of a रुद्र , i , 15 , 122.

    वसु N. of the gods (as the " good or bright ones " , esp. of the आदित्यs , मरुत्s , अश्विन्s , इन्द्र , उषस् , रुद्र , वायु , विष्णु , शिव , and कुबेरRV. AV. MBh. R.; of a partic. class of gods (whose number is usually eight , and whose chief is इन्द्र , later अग्नि and विष्णु ; they form one of the nine गणs or classes enumerated under गण-देवता q.v. ; the eight वसुs were originally personifications , like other Vedic deities , of natural phenomena , and are usually mentioned with the other गणs common in the वेद , viz. the eleven रुद्रs and the twelve आदित्यs , constituting with them and with द्यौस् , " Heaven " , and पृथिवी , " Earth " [or , according to some , with इन्द्र and प्रजा-पति , or , according to others , with the two अश्विन्s] , the thirty-three gods to which reference is frequently made ; the names of the वसुs , according to the विष्णु-पुराण , are , 1. आप [connected with अप् , " water "] ; 2. ध्रुव , " the Pole-star " ; 3. सोम , " the Moon " ; 4. धव or धर ; 5. अनिल , " Wind " ; 6. अनल or पावक , " Fire " ; 7. प्रत्यूष , " the Dawn " ; 8. प्रभास , " Light " ; but their names are variously given ; अहन् , " Day " , being sometimes substituted for 1 ; in their relationship to Fire and Light they appear to belong to Vedic rather than Puranic mythology) RV. &c; a partic. ray of light VP.; a symbolical N. of the number " eight " (वराह-मिहिर 's बृहत्-संहिता)

    रुद्र m. " Roarer or Howler " , N. of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the रुद्रs and मरुत्s (in the वेद he is closely connected with इन्द्र and still more with अग्नि , the god of fire , which , as a destroying agent , rages and crackles like the roaring storm , and also with काल or Time the all-consumer , with whom he is afterwards identified ; though generally represented as a destroying deity , whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle , he has also the epithet शिव , " benevolent " or " auspicious " , and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere ; in the later mythology the word शिव , which does not occur as a name in the वेद , was employed , first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for रुद्र , who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle ; while a new class of beings , described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number , though still called रुद्रs , took the place of the original रुद्रs or मरुत्s: in VP. i , 7रुद्र is said to have sprung from ब्रह्मा's forehead , and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female , the former portion separating again into the 11 रुद्रs , hence these later रुद्रs are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of शिव , and most of their names , which are variously given in the different पुराणs , are also names of शिव ; those of theVa1yuP. are अजैकपाद् , अहिर्-बुध्न्य , हर , निरृत , ईश्वर , भुवन , अङ्गारक , अर्ध-केतु , मृत्यु , सर्प , कपालिन् ; accord. to others the रुद्रs are represented as children of कश्यपand सुरभि or of ब्रह्मा and सुरभि or of भूत and सु-रूपा ; accord. to VP. i , 8रुद्र is one of the 8 forms of शिव ; elsewhere he is reckoned among the दिक्-पालs as regent of the north-east quarter) RV. &c (cf. RTL. 75 &c ) (3:29) A recording of RV 10.125, "Devī Suktam"

    /Wilson translation RV 10.125
    10.125.01 I proceed with the Rudras, with the Vasus, with the ādityas, and with the Viśvedevā; I support both Mitra and Varua, Agni and Indra, and the two Aśvins.[Deity Pramātmā: the word, or first of creatures].
    10.125.02 I support the foe-destroying Soma, Tvaṣṭā, Pūṣan and Bhaga; I bestow wealth upon the institutor of the rite offering the oblation, deserving of careful protection, pouring forth the libation.
    10.125.03 I am the sovereign queen, the collectress of treasures, cognizant (of the Supreme Being), the chief of objects of worship; as such the gods have put me in many places, abiding in manifold conditions, entering into numerous (forms.
    10.125.04 He who eats food (eats) through me; he who sees, who breathes, who hears what is spoken, does so through me; those who are ignorant of me perish; hear you who have hearing, I tell that which is deserving of belief.
    10.125.05 I verily of myself declare this which is approved of by both gods and men; whomsoever I will, I render formidable, I make him a Brahmā
    , a r̥ṣi, or a sage. [A Brahman: Brahmā, the creator].
    10.125.06 I bend the bow of Rudra, to slay the destructive enemy of the Brāhmaa-s, I wage war with (hostile) men. I pervade heaven and earth.
    10.125.07 I bring forth the paternal (heaven) upon the brow of this (Supreme Being), my birthplace is in the midst of the waters; from thence I spread through all beings, and touch this heaven with my body.
    10.125.08 I breathe forth like the wind giving form to all created worlds; beyond the heaven, beyond this earth (am I), so vast am I in greatness.
    Griffith translation RV 10.125

    1. I TRAVEL with the Rudras and the Vasus, with the Adityas and AllGods- I wander.
    I hold aloft both Varuna and Mitra, Indra and Agni, and the Pair of Asvins.
    2 I cherish and sustain highswelling- Soma, and Tvastar I support, Pusan, and Bhaga.
    I load with wealth the zealous sdcrificer who pours the juice and offers his oblation
    3 I am the Queen, the gathererup- of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.
    Thus Gods have stablished me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in.
    4 Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, each man who sees, brewhes, hears the word
    They know it not, but yet they dwell beside me. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.
    5 1, verily, myself announce and utter the word that Gods and men alike shall welcome.
    I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him a sage, a Rsi, and a Brahman.
    6 I bend the bow for Rudra that his arrow may strike and slay the hater of devotion.
    I rouse and order battle for the people, and I have penetrated Earth and Heaven.
    7 On the worlds' summit I bring forth the Father: my home is in the waters, in the ocean.
    Thence I extend over all existing creatures, and touch even yonder heaven with my forehead.
    8 I breathe a strong breath like the wind and tempest, the while I hold together all existence.
    Beyond this wide earth and beyond the heavens I have become so mighty in my grandeur.

    0 0

    This is an addendum to: 

    1.      Chariot boxes of Baghpat, Harappa, Chanhudaro compared

    2.      Bronze model chariot box of Chanhudaro compares with chariot box on Standard of Ur

    3.      Significance of Baghpat archaeological discoveries to promote archaeo-metallurgical investigations and re-evaluate parallels in Ancient Near East

    4.      Artifacts discovered in Baghpat relate to documentation of metalwork wealth accounting ledgers in Indus Script tradition

    5.               5. Baghpat anthropomorph with horned pipal leaf, dagger, Indus Script hypertexts lohār, kammaṭīḍu 'ironsmith, goldsmith', kamāṭhiyo 'soldier, śreṣṭhin श्रेष्ठिन्'foreman of kammaṭa 'mint' guild' ttps://

    These monographs evaluated and commented upon the discoveries of swords, three chariots, copper anthropomorphs on a coffin in the context of continuum of Indus Script cipher.

    This monograph addendum focusses attention on the helmet discovered. While awaiting detailed technical report of ASI on the helmet, some comparators from Ur are evaluated with particular reference to the gold helmet of Meskalamdug, King of Kish.

    Attention is also invited to the spectacular metaphors of Mohenjodaro seal m0304 in the context of eight horned copper anthropomorphs found on the lid of a wooden coffin of Baghpat.

    Kernunno of Gundestrup Cauldron/Pilier des Nautes, is Tvaṣṭṛ Triśiras r̥ṣi of R̥gveda on Indus Script seal m0304, evokes cognate kārṇī 'supercargo of a ship'
    m0304 shows a seated person, in penance, with three faces. The identity is Tvaṣṭṛ Triśiras r̥ṣi of R̥gveda on Indus Script seal m0304.

    There is a possibility that the eight copper anthropomorphs on the Baghpat coffin led is a prayer to the eight Vasu-s. 

    वसु Names of a partic. Class s of gods (whose number is usually eight , and whose chief is इन्द्र , later अग्नि and विष्णु ; they form one of the nine गणs or classes enumerated under गण-देवता q.v. ; the eight वसुs were originally personifications , like other Vedic deities , of natural phenomena , and are usually mentioned with the other गणs common in the वेद , viz. the eleven रुद्रs and the twelve आदित्यs , constituting with them and with द्यौस् , " Heaven " , and पृथिवी , " Earth " [or , according to some , with इन्द्र and प्रजा-पति , or , according to others , with the two अश्विन्s] , the thirty-three gods to which reference is frequently made ; the names of the वसुs , according to the विष्णु-पुराण , are , 1. आप [connected with अप् , " water "] ; 2. ध्रुव , " the Pole-star " ; 3. सोम , " the Moon " ; 4. धव or धर ; 5. अनिल , " Wind " ; 6. अनल or पावक , " Fire " ; 7. प्रत्यूष , " the Dawn " ; 8. प्रभास , " Light " ; but their names are variously given ; अहन् , " Day " , being names substituted for 1 ; in their relationship to Fire and Light they appear to belong to Vedic rather than Puranic
    mythology) RV. &c See: Vasu-s venerated in RV 10.125: Wealth of a Rāṣṭram venerated in Rāṣṭrī suktam (RV 10.125) is a Chandas metaphor of Indus Script Hypertexts Meluhha wealth accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues See: त्रिशिरस् is dharma saṁjñā,
    Indus script hieroglyph koD 'horn''workshop', कूदी 'twig' kuṭhi 'smelter' kamaḍha 'penance' kammaṭa 'mint' bārī 'bangle',vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchant', karṇika 'helmsman' 

    The Spectacular War Helmet of Meskalamdug, the Powerful King of Kish, Meskalamdug 

    Image result for helmet ur burial

    22 JUNE, 2016 - 03:37 DHWTY The war helmet of Meskalamdug is an artifact that was discovered in one of the graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. This grave was found to have belonged to an ensi (roughly translated as ‘ruler’) of Ur by the name of Meskalamdug. Based on an inscription on a lapis lazuli bead discovered in the ancient city of Mari, Meskalamdug was a King of Kish, a title said to have been held by one who ruled over both Sumer and Akkad. Nevertheless, there had been two rulers by the name of Meskalamdug, one being the grandfather of the other, and it is unclear if the owner of the war helmet was the older or younger Meskalamdug.The grave of Meskalamdug was discovered in 1924 by the renowned British archaeologist Leonard Woolley. This grave was initially named as PG 755 (PG being an acronym for ‘Private Grave’). Within the grave, Woolley discovered a skeleton that was buried with numerous grave goods. Based on analyses of the bones, the skeleton belonged to a man who was probably under 30 years of age at the time of death. The man was of a strong build, and was around 1.7 m (5.5 ft.) in height.

    PG. 755 “Private Grave”

    PG. 755 “Private Grave” (
    As the archaeological evidence suggests, the deceased was buried with a large amount of grave goods, including simple household vessels, weapons, tools and personal ornaments. Amongst these objects were one copper and three gold vessels which had the name ‘Meskalamdug’, though without a title, inscribed on them. It was from these inscriptions that the owner of the grave was identified. Although a seal is said to have been found on the belt of the man buried in PG 755, it was too damaged to be deciphered.
    As mentioned earlier, an inscription on a lapis lazuli bead from Mari indicates that there had been a king by the name of Meskalamdug. Additionally, such inscriptions have also been found in several of the other graves in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. For example, RT. (Royal Tomb) 1054 once had a wooden box, which had rotted away prior to the tomb’s discovery by Woolley. Whilst the box no longer exists, its contents, two gold daggers and a seal were found. It was established that the seal was inscribed for a man by the name of Meskalamdug, who held the title lugal, or ‘king’. Some have suggested that the Meskalamdug in PG. 755 and the one mentioned on inscriptions outside that grave are two different individuals, with the former being a less illustrious grandson of the latter.
    Apart from inscriptions, another object that may help to determine the identity of the person buried in PG. 755 is the gold helmet that was found in the grave. The helmet was made to look like its wearer’s own hair. Details that can be seen on this piece of headdress include a knotted bun at the back, a woven band on the top, and ears on the sides. At the bottom of the helmet are small holes, which are believed to have held a piece of cloth that lined the inside of this object.
    Gold helmet
    Being made of gold, it has been commonly thought that the owner of the helmet had royal status. It has been argued, however, that instead of just being a royal, the helmet’s owner was the King of Kish, the ruler of both Sumer and Akkad. It has been pointed out that two other figures who wore such a helmet were Sargon the Great and Eannatum. As both these men are said to have held the title of ‘King of Kish’, Experts suggest that this type of helmet was used exclusively by the kings of Kish. Based on this line of reasoning, the person buried in PG. 755 is indeed the Meskalamdug that was mentioned in the inscriptions found in locations outside his tomb.
    Top image: The Gold helmet of Meskalamdug. Photo source: (

    खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?                   [ Edited By: आदित्य बिड़वई ]


    एतिहासिक खोज

    एतिहासिक खोज
    Drawing of a suggeted reconstruction (Sanjay Kumar Manjul)

  • खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
    1 / 10
    उत्तर प्रदेश के बागपत में आर्कियॉलजिकल सर्वे ऑफ इंडिया (एएसआई) को 4000 साल पुरानी सभ्यता के अवशेष मिले हैं. खेत की जमीन से महज दस सेंटीमीटर नीचे मिली कांस्य युगीन सभ्यता के बारे में जानकारों का कहना है कि यह सभ्यता  मेसोपोटामिया जैसी समृद्ध रही होगी.खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
  • 2 / 10
    एएसआई के अधिकारियों ने बताया कि हम बागपत के सादिकपुर सनौली गांव में खुदाई कर रहे हैं. इस इलाके में इतनी प्राचीनतम सभ्यता मिलना हैरान करने वाला है. इसमें भी सबसे बड़ी बात तो यह कि इस इलाके में खुदाई में शाही कब्रों का एक समूह मिला है. महाभारत काल में पांडवों के मांगे 5 गांवों में बागपत भी शामिल था. इसलिए इस सभ्यता के अवशेष को महाभारत काल से जोड़कर भी देखा जा रहा है.
  • 3 / 10
    इस खुदाई का काम देख रहे एएसआई अधिकारी डॉ एस के मंजुल का कहना है कि अभी तक जो तथ्य मिले हैं उससे तो यह लगता है कि यह काल 4000 साल पुराना रहा होगा. यानी लगभग 1800 से 2000 ईसा पूर्व का.
  • खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
    4 / 10
    इसके अलावा कब्रें और अंतिम संस्कार के जो साक्ष्य मिले हैं उनमें पहली बार ताबूत में रखी इतनी पुरानी कब्रें मिली हैं. तमाम कब्रें लकड़ी के ताबूत में बंद हैं. इनकी दीवारों पर तांबे की प्लेटिंग है, जिस पर तमाम तरह की आकृतियां उकेरी गई हैं.खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
  • 5 / 10
    इतना ही नहीं, ताबूत में तांबे की कीलों का इस्तेमाल किया गया है. इसके पास ही एक गढ्ढे में दो रथ, ताबूत के सिरहाने में मुकुट जैसी चीज के अवशेष भी मिले हैं.
  • 6 / 10
    यही नहीं, ताबूत के पास तीन तलवारें, दो खंजर, एक ढाल, एक मशाल और एक प्राचीन हेलमेट भी मिला है.
  • खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
    7 / 10
    खुदाई में एक महिला का कंकाल भी मिला है, जिसका ताबूत पूरी तरह से गल चुका था. इस महिला के सिरहाने एक सोने का बीड के साथ चांदी का कुछ सामान, सींग का बना कंघा और एक तांबे का आइना भी है.खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
  • 8 / 10
    एएसआई अधिकारियों ने बताया कि साल 2005 में इसी जगह से 120 मीटर की दूरी पर एक कब्रगाह मिली थी, जिसमें से लगभग 116 कब्रें मिली हैं. उन कब्रों के पास भी तलवारें आदि मिली थी.
  • खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
    9 / 10
    अधिकारियों का मानना है कि शायद यह कब्रें योद्धाओं की रही होगी. साथ ही इनके शाही होने से भी इनकार नहीं किया जा सकता.
  • खुदाई में मिले 4000 साल पुराने रथ-मुकुट, क्या है महाभारत से ताल्लुक?
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    एएसआई डॉ एस के मंजुल का कहना है कि पूरे भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप में यह पहला मामला है, जहां पूरा रथ मिला है. इसके पहले रथ कहीं भी खुदाई में नहीं मिले हैं.                                                 June 6, 2018                                                                              The three chariots found in the burial pits could remind one of the familiar images of horse-drawn carriages from mythological television shows. The relics suggest the existence of a two-wheeled open vehicle that may have been driven by one person. "The wheels rotated on a fixed axle linked by a draft pole to the yoke of a pair of animals. The axle was attached with a superstructure consisting of a platform protected by side-screens and a high dashboard," S K Manjul, director of Delhi-based Institute of Archaeology, said. The wheels and the pole have been found decorated with copper triangles, symbolic of the rays of the sun. Manjul termed the digging drive a "path-breaking" one, also because of the copper plated anthropomorphic figures -- having horns and peepal-leafed crowns -- found on the coffins, that indicated a possiblity of "royal burials". "For the first time in the entire sub-continent we have found this kind of a coffin. The cover is highly decorated with eight anthropomorphic figures. The sides of the coffins are also decorated with floral motifs," Manjul said. While coffins have been discovered during past excavations in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and Dholavira (Gujarat), but never with copper decorations, he added.
  • The findings also shed light on the noteworthy progress the Indian civilisation had made at the time, making it at par with the 2000 BC Mesopotamia.

    "We are now certain that when in 2000 BC, the Mesopotamians were using chariots, swords, and helmets in wars, we also had similar things."

    The swords, daggers, shields and a helmet confirmed the existence of a warrior population, and the discovery of earthen and copper pots, semi-precious and steatite beads, combs, and a copper mirror from the burial pits point towards a "sophisticated" craftsmanship and lifestyle.

    "It is confirmed that they were a warrior class. The swords have copper-covered hilts and a medial ridge making it strong enough for warfare. We have also found shields, a torch and daggers," the archaeologist said.

    The current site lies 120 meters from an earlier one in the village, excavated in 2005, where 116 burials were found along with antenna swords and pottery.

    While it was difficult to ascertain the exact race of the latest buried remains, Manjul asserted that the chariots and coffins did not belong to the Harappan civilisation.

    "The findings of the 2005 excavation -- pottery, beads and other cultural material -- were similar to those of the Harappan civilisation."

    Manjul said the similarities could have been an outcome of the migration of the Harappans to the Yamuna and the upper planes during the late mature Harappan era.

    However, the recent findings were "completely different" from the ancient civilisation.                                                              
    In the past there has been evidence of horse in the Chalcolithic period. This discovery is an added thrust to inquire further into ancient Indian history.

    Updated:June 5, 2018, 9:53 AM IST

    Baghpat: For the first time in the Indian sub-continent, burial pits have been found with chariots that date back to the Pre-Iron Age(Bronze). This new finding is set to create space for further investigation on dating of the Mahabharata period and further inquiry into the origins of the horse in the Harappa age, as per the experts involved in the three-month trial dig Uttar Pradesh's Sanauli.

    The excavations that the team of archaeologists conducted was unveiled on Monday showing burial pits with chariots in the Pre-Iron Age (Bronze). 

    The burial pits have been found in the past excavations at Rakhigarhi, Kalibangan, and at Lothal, but the chariot has figured for the first time. 

    The excavation started in March 2018 at Sanauli and was conducted by a 10-member team with SK Manjul, of Institute of Archaeology, established in 1985, heading it. The co-director was Arvin Manjul. 

    Speaking on the development, Manjul said, “We have the place in the ancient global history. To name a few of our contemporary cultures, chariot appears in Mesopotamia, Georgia, Greek civilisations, and with this finding we can say that among our contemporary cultures in the Pre-Iron Age we too had chariots.”

    He added, “This is giving our history and our past a new dimension – we have to rethink our past and approach it with a fresh perspective – with the elements found in the burial pits it shows we were a warrior clan in the Pre Iron Age.”

    Who rode the chariot in the Bronze Age?

    If there was a chariot in the Bronze Age, would it not need a beast to run it? Was it a bull or a horse? Manjul said, “This is debatable, it could be a bull or a horse but having said that the preliminary understanding points at the horse. The chariot is a lookalike of the ones found in its contemporary cultures like Mesopotamia, it is a solid wheel with no spokes.”

    The chariot is with solid wheel and pole; in one of the pits the excavators have also found crown or helmet worn by the rider of the chariot.

    Chariots figure prominently in the Rigveda, which gives evidence of their presence in India in the 2nd millennium BCE. Among Rigvedic deities, notably Ushas (the dawn) rides in a chariot, as well as Agni in his function as a messenger between gods and men).

    Manjul added that in the past there has been evidence of horse in the Chalcolithic period. This discovery is an added thrust to inquire further into ancient Indian history.

    If we go by the world history, there is evidence of wheeled vehicles only from the mid-4th millennium BCE in Mesopotamia, the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture Bronze Age) and Central Europe. The question concerning which culture originally invented the wheeled vehicle remains unresolved.

    The objective of the research

    In 2005, excavations around 116 graves belonging to Indus Valley Civilisation were found. These graves, dated 2200–1800 BC were a fairly recent addition to the list of Indus Valley Civilisation sites in India.

    The archaeological experts wanted to take the research and investigation in that region further and conducted excavations just 120 meters away from the earlier site, as a trail dig, and found chariot in the excavation. They dug eight burials and each tells a different story of the life and style prevalent in Pre Iron Age period. These decomposed wooden coffins were decorated with copper but with time have turned green due to patina.

    “The challenges were many – we had to dig in a way that the structure standing tall does not get damaged in further deeper digging. This is the first time we used the X-Ray, CT scan to find the nails embedded in the wooden coffins,” added Manjul.

    There are eight burial pits – which have skeletons, beads, pottery, chariot, sword, torch. These are wooden decomposed coffins with copper decorations that made the spotting of the coffin easier. There are eight anthromorphic figures having horned and peepal leafed crown decorated on cover of coffin. The designs are aesthetic and say a lot about the society in Pre-Iron Age.

    “This throws light on the lifestyle and cultures of the people who lived in the Pre Iron Age – there are mirrors with copper, the elaborate burials, all this shows the society was technologically advanced, aesthetic and had the sense of art and craft. They were warrior clans, and had a sophisticated lifestyle,” added Manjul. The evidence found here is important to conduct further investigation in finding “horse skeletons”.

    In one of the burials, one can find the dog being buried; in Hindu mythology, dog is the vehicle of Yama. There are symbolic burials with just objects buried without a body, maybe in reverence of the deceased not found and twin burials showing two skeletons in one grave.


    The horse driven chariots are known in the Vedic period, said historian DN Jha. “However, iron makes appearance in the post Vedic or not earlier than the late Vedic period. This find cannot be dated to the pre-Vedic/Harappa phase,” said Jha.

    Several scholars have written on the dating of the Mahabharata, but Jha said that he is not aware of who has used the evidence of chariots for dating the text of Mahabharat.

    Some archaeologists like B B Lal have argued for the 8th century BC, on the basis of the silt deposited at Hastinapur, which was flooded following the Great War. “But this hardly inspires confidence. In fact the text is so full of interpolations that it cannot belong to one point of time,” said Jha

    According to V S Sukthankar, whose work on the chronology of the text is authoritative, Mahabharata’s composition spreads over several centuries. “The general consensus is that the text was composed over a period of about a millennium - roughly between 400BC to 400AD. However, there are some scholars who argue for a shorter period. In any case the Mahabharata in its present form cannot be the work of single author and that is one of the reasons which make its dating difficult,” Jha added.


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    Eight Baghpat copper anthropomorphs indus script hypertexts signify guildmaster metals workshops

    -- Eight vasu-s are mtals workshops creating the wealth for the guild and the nation, signified by eight copper anthropomorphs on lid of Baghpat burial casket and explain the wealth of the Rāṣṭram as wealth accounting ledgers in Indus Script

    -- The weapon on the waist of each anthropomorph signifies kamaḍha 'hunter' (Prakritam) Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner'

    n  Eight copper anthropomorphs carry weapons, wear horns with ficus leaf signifying metalwork leadership; koḍ‘horns’ rebus: kondaṇa‘cowpen, guild’

    n  Hence, the anthropomosph signifies mintmaster of metals workshop.

    This monograph firmly anchors the archaeological finds of Baghpat as a continuum of metalwork competence of artisans of Sarasvati Civilization. I suggest that there should be a re-evaluation of the copperhoard culture of the Ganga-Yamuna doab in the context of this principal finding from Baghpat (Sinauli)

    An earlier find of Sinauli (Baghpat) crown reconstructed.

    Ficus leaf is an Indus Script hieroglyph/hypertext, signifies lohakāra‘metalsmith’


    A number of examples of the hieroglyph in significant metalwork contexts are included inthis monograph.

    Horned person in a ficus leaf arch with other Indus Script hypertexts (Decipherment presented in this monograph)

    Kalibangan seal. Ficus on summit of a mountain range. Hypertext is deciphered: kanda ‘mountain’ loa‘ficus glomerata’ rebus: lokhaṇḍa‘metal implements’.

    Potsherd with ficus leaves. Baluchistan?

    Hieroglyph components on the head-gear of the person on cylinder seal impression 

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    I suggest that Vasu, wealth-givers are venerated in Rāṣṭrī Suktam R̥gveda 10.25; wealth of a Rāṣṭram are in document archives of over 8000 Indus Script Inscriptions. 

    I suggest that the eight copper anthropomorphs discovered at Baghpat are a veneration of Vasu divinities. An example of such veneration of Vasu-s and Tvaṣṭr̥, the quintessential Veda metaphor of artisans and seafaring merchants who generate the wealth of a Rāṣṭram, constituting themselves into guilds, śreṇi as commonwealth communities following the dharma of a Corporate form of organization which is a key element called 'organization' in the creation of wealth of nations together with three other factors of production: land, labour and capital.


    1. Eight Baghpat copper anthropomorphs indus script hypertexts signify guildmaster metals workshops 

    2. Wealth of a Rāṣṭram venerated in Rāṣṭrī suktam (RV 10.125) is a Chandas metaphor of Indus Script Hypertexts Meluhha wealth accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues

    The eight anthropomorphs signify the wealth accounting activities recorded in Indus Script Corpora as metalwork catalogues which are veritable data archives of the wealth of a ṣṭram.

    The Thirty-three deities (Sanskrit: trayastriṃśat), a pantheon of Vedic deities are:

    • Eight Vasus (deities of material elements) – Dyauṣ "Sky", Pṛthivī "Earth", Vāyu "Wind", Agni "Fire", Nakṣatra "Stars", Antarikṣa"Atmosphere" or "Space", Sūrya "Sun", Chandra "Moon"; Eight elemental gods (called "Aṣṭa-vasu", 'Eight Vasus') representing aspects of nature (The Five Elements - Pancha Bhoothas) and also representing cosmic natural phenomenon (The Sun, The Moon and The Stars). The name Vasu means 'Brilliance' or 'Wealth Givers'.
    • Twelve Ādityas (personified deities) – VishnuAryamanIndra (Śakra), TvāṣṭṛVaruṇaBhagaSavitṛVivasvatAṃśaMitraPūṣanDakṣa. This list sometimes varies in particulars.
    • Eleven Rudras, consisting of:
      • Five abstractions – Ānanda "bliss", Vijñāna "knowledge", Manas "thought", Prāṇa "breath" or "life", Vāc "speech",
      • Five names of Śiva – Īśāna "revealing grace", Tatpuruṣa "concealing grace", Aghora "dissolution/rejuvenation", Vāmadeva "preserving aspect", Sadyojāta "born at once"
      • Ātmā "self"
    •  Two Aśvins (or Nāsatyas), twin solar deities.

    There are eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Âdityas; and these two, Heaven and Earth, are the (thirty-second and) thirty-third. And there are thirty-three gods, and Pragâpati is the thirty-fourth;--thus he makes him (the sacrificer, or Yagña) to be Pragâpati 2: now that 3 is, for that is immortal, and what is immortal that is. But what is mortal that also is Pragâpati; for Pragâpati is everything: thus he makes him to be Pragâpati, and hence there are these thirty-four utterances, called expiations. Satapatha Brahmana 4:5:7:2 (aṣṭau vasavaḥ | ekādaśa rudrā dvādaśādityā ime eva dyāvāpṛthivī trayastriṃśyau trayastriṃśadvai devāḥ prajāpatiścatustriṃśastadenam prajāpatiṃ karotyetadvā astyetaddhyamṛtaṃ yaddhyamṛtaṃ taddhyastyetadu tadyanmartyaṃ sa eṣa prajāpatiḥ sarvaṃ vai prajāpatistadenam prajāpatiṃ karoti tasmādetāścatustriṃśadvyāhṛtayo bhavanti prāyaścittayo nāma)

    Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa SEVENTH BRÂHMANA. Now, there are here thirty-four utterances, called expiations 1. Pragâpati, forsooth, is that sacrifice which is performed here, and from which these creatures have been produced,--and in like manner are they produced therefrom even to this day. There are eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Âdityas; and these two, Heaven and Earth, are the (thirty-second and) thirty-third. And there are thirty-three gods, and Pragâpati is the thirty-fourth;--thus he makes him (the sacrificer, or Yagña) to be Pragâpati 2: now that 3 is, for that is immortal, and what is immortal that is. But what is mortal that also is Pragâpati; for Pragâpati is everything: thus he makes him to be Pragâpati, and hence there are these thirty-four utterances, called expiations.

    Though the Shatapatha Brahmana uses the Brhad-Aranyaka names, most later texts follow the Mahabharata names with the exception that Āpa 'water' usually appears in place of Aha. The Vishnu Purana equates Prabhāsa with the lights of the 27 or 28 Nakshetra (Constellations/Lunar Mansions) and Dhruva with Akash Tatwa, that is "space", Dhruva seemingly taking over Aha's role when Aha is replaced by Āpa.


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    वसु vasu ओ (औ) कसारा 1 N. of Amarāvatī, the city of Indra. -2 of Alakā, the city of Kubera; 'वस्वौकसारा श्रीदस्य शक्रस्य नलिनी पुरी'इति हरिः; वस्वौकसारां नलिनीमतीत्यैवोत्तरान् कुरून् Rām.2.94.26; व्यक्तं वस्वोकसारेयम् Mb.7.67.16. (com. वस्वोकसारा सलोप आर्षः । कनकमयानि ओकांसि सारो यस्याः सा तथा). -3 of a river attached to Amarāvatī and Alakā;  कासारः kāsārḥ रम् ram कासारः रम् A pond, pool, lake; शुष्के नीरे कः कासारः Charpaṭapañjarī; Bv.1.43; Bh.1.32. विकाशः कासारो- पवनपवनो$पि व्यथयति Gīt.2.(Apte). Thus, the expression vaso kāsārḥ signifies 'city of Indra or Kubera, a city of wealths, riches'.The metahpor is 'ponds of wealth'. In anient Iran, there is a dynasty called Qajar dynasty. "The Qajar dynasty ( Persian: سلسله قاجارSelsele-ye Qājār; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Azerbaijani: قاجارلرQacarlar) was an Iranianroyal dynasty of Turkic origin,specifically from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1785 to 1925...The Qajar rulers were members of the Karagöz or "Black-Eye" sect of the Qajars, who themselves were members of the Qajars (tribe) or "Black Hats" lineage of the Oghuz Turks...The Kajars are considered a subgroup of the Azerbaijanis. Historically, they have been a Turkic Tribe who lived in Armenia."

    Prods Oktor Skjaervo notes (see excerpt from Encyclopaedia Irania annexed): 

    "There is an ambiguity in the acc. kauuaēm, which is also a form of the derived adjective kauuaiia found in kauuaēm xᵛarənō (gen. kāuuaiiehe-ca) “the xᵛarənah of the kauuis”...The term may be older than Indo-Iranian, if Lydian kaveś and the Samothracean title cited by Hesychius as koíēs or kóēs are related..." I suggest that the expression koíēs refers to kolhe 'smelters', kol'working in iron'. Hence, the Kavi may be a reference to metalworkers who became warriors and kings.

    Based on the similarity of the crowns discovered in Baghpat (Sinauli) and the Qajar/Kayani crowns of ancient Iran, it is hypothesised that the vasau kāsāra of R̥gveda were the heroes/warriors of the city of wealths, riches signify the  lineage of Qajar dynasty linked to qajar community ('Black hat' lineage of the Oghuz Turks) of Armenia. The Kayani are cognate with kavi of R̥gveda.

    Thus, I submit that the eight copper anthropomorphs on a Baghpat coffin lid wear crowns comparable to a crown found in Sinauli with foliage between horns (in the case of anthropomorphs, only ficus leaf is shown betwixt the horns).

    Nicholar Kazanas has demonstrated the relative chronology of R̥gveda and Avesta

    Consistent with this thesis, the vasau kāsāra of R̥gveda signified by the artisans of Baghpat migrated westwards into Armenia, Turkey and Iran to constitute the Qajar/Kayani dynasties.

    Kavi may refer to: kavi (कवि या चारण ) is a term for Poet specially used in some Indian languages. The word kavi ( कवि) is in these languages and Literature used to denote a Poem, sing a poetry. Example: Poem : कविता (Kavita) Poet.  : कवि (Kavi)

    Kavi collectively, refer to the Kayanian kings as the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran's national epic. The semantic root of the word is traceable to  R̥gveda.
     Kavi (from a root "to cry out") is a Sanskrit term for thinker, intelligent man, man of understanding, leader; a wise man, sage, seer, prophet; a singer, bard, poet. Also related root is Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". 
    Some applications:
      • the primeval poet-seers (rishis) who composed the mantras (Vedas).
      • an epithet of various gods, including Varuna, Indra, the Ashvins, the Maruts, the Adityas, Soma, the Rbhus
      • Pushan, the Hindu god of meeting
      • a son of Brahma
      • a son of Bhrigus
      • a son of Shukra
      • the sons of several Manus
      • a son of Kaushika, pupil of Garga
      • a son of Rsabha
      • name of the gates of the sacrificial enclosure (TS
      • the soul, in Samkhya philosophy

    "The Kayanians, also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids. Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran's national epic.
    As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno, the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold. The Kiani Crown is a physical manifestation of that belief...
    The earliest known foreshadowing of the major legends of the Kayanian kings appears in the Yashts of the Avesta, where the dynasts offer sacrifices to the gods in order to earn their support and to gain strength in the perpetual struggle against their enemies, the Anaryas (non-Aryans, sometimes identified as the Turanians).
    In Yasht 5, 9.25, 17.45-46, Haosravah, a Kayanian king later known as Kay Khosrow, together with Zoroaster and Jamasp (a premier of Zoroaster's patron Vishtaspa, another Kayanian king) worship in Airyanem Vaejah. The account tells that King Haosravah united the various Aryan (Iranian) tribes into one nation (Yasht 5.49, 9.21, 15.32, 17.41)."

    The Kiani Crown was the traditional coronation crown in the Iranian Crown Jewels which was used during the Qajar dynasty (1796–1925).
    The crown itself is made of red velvet, on which thousands of gems were set. The Kiani Crown is highly decorated, possessing 1800 small pearls, many only 7 millimetres in diameter, stitched onto it. It has approximately 300 emeralds and 1800 rubies. The crown is 32 cm (12.5 in.) high and 19.5 cm (7.5 in.) wide. It is currently kept in the National Treasury of Iran in Tehran.
    Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, had his own Pahlavi Crown designed but the Kiani Crown was present during his coronation in 1926."

    Kiani Crown of Imperial Iran (heraldry).svgKiani Crown of Imperial Iran (heraldry)
    Фатх Али шах, Лувр.jpg 
    Fath Ali Shah (Fat′h Ali Shah Qajar), Louvre 
    Qajar Kings (in persian) 
    People of the Qajar dynasty (130).jpg 
    Mohammad Ali Shah on Iranian stamp, 50 Krans issue 1908. 

    Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar wearing the Kayanid Crown, One of 274 Vintage Photographs. Brooklyn Museum. 

    The Kiani Crown was used during the Qajar dynasty. Reza Shah, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, had his own crown designed but the Kiani crown was present during his coronation.
    The crown itself is made of red velvet which has thousands of gems set onto it. Fathali Shah is often shown in paintings wearing a similar crown - it is not known whether there were a number of crowns in use at the time which looked similar, or whether the artists simply portrayed the same crown in different ways.
    The Kiani crown has about 1800 pearls sown onto it, each from 7 to 9 mm. in diameter. There are approximately 300 emeralds set on the crown, the largest of which is about 80 cts. There are also about 1800 rubies and spinels on the crown, the largest of which is 120 cts. The largest diamond is 23 cts.
    The total height of the crown is 32 cm. (12.5 in.) without the aigrette, and the total width is 19.5 cm. (7.5 in.)
    An elaborate diamond and emerald Aigrette, set in silver. Part of the Iranian Crown Jewels. "The Imperial crown jewels of Iran (Persian: جواهرات ملی ایران‎, Jawāhrāt-e millī-ye Irān) include elaborate crowns, thirty tiaras, and numerous aigrettes, a dozen bejeweled swords and shields, a number of unset precious gems, numerous plates and other dining services cast in precious metals and encrusted with gems, and several other more unusual items (such as a large golden globe with the oceans made of emeralds) collected by the Iranian monarchy from the 16th century (Safavid dynasty) on. The collection is housed at The Treasury of National Jewels (the official name) but is known colloquially as the Jewellery Museum." 
    Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar with the Royal Mace of Iran at his knees "The Royal Mace of Iran is a jewel-encrusted ceremonial mace, a part of the Iranian Crown Jewels. It was a favorite of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar, who is often shown holding it in his miniature portraits. The mace is encrusted with spinels and diamonds, from end to end. It is 73 cm (2.4 ft) long. The largest diamond weighs 17 carats (3.4 g), and is located on the very top of the mace. The largest spinels are the six surrounding the top of the mace, each weighing 40 carats (8 g)."

    Replica of Kiani Crown. Iran. 1796. Gold, silver. Red velvet. Pearls. Diamond.
    KAYĀNIĀN  (Kayanids), in the early Persian epic tradition a dynasty that ruled Iran before the Achaemenids, all of whom bore names prefixed by Kay from Avestan kauui (see below, i). They are preceded by the dynasty of the Pišdādiān (Pishdadids), which begins with Kayumarṯ (see GAYŌMART, HŌŠANG, JAMŠID).
    The Kayanids are included by all the early Muslim historians, from Abu Ḥanifa Dinavari (d. between 281 and 290/ 894-903), Ṭabari (224-310/ 839-923), Abu ʿAli Amirak Balʿami (d. between 382 and 387/ 992-97), and others down to Mirḵᵛānd (836-903/ 1433-98; see IRAN iii. TRADITIONAL HISTORY).
    The principal modern descriptions of the Kayanids are those of Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā (pp. 484-544) and Ehsan Yarshater. On the Persian epic in general, see Theodor Nöldeke, 1904, 1920; Arthur Christensen, 1936; Ḏabiḥ- Allāh Ṣafā; see also EPICS. On the Kayanids in modern storytelling, see Enjavi Širāzi. For the Avestan names, see Mayrhofer, s.vv., as well as Schmitt (see indexes). (For source references, see bibliography at end of  KAYĀNIĀN XIV. THE KAYANIDS IN WESTERN HISTORIOGRAPHY.)
    [Note: A proper name that begins with the element "Kay,” when cited here in the context of a specific source, is hyphenated if it is written as a single word in the source.]

    (Prods Oktor Skjærvø)

    Kayanids or Kayanians of Ancient Iran are linked to kavi, 'poet-singers' of  Rgveda

    कवि mfn. ( √1. कू cf. 2. कव , /आकूत , /आकूति , काव्य Naigh. iii , 15 Nir. xii , 13 Un2. iv , 138) gifted with insight , intelligent , knowing , enlightened , wise , sensible , prudent , skilful , cunning; m. a thinker , intelligent man , man of understanding , leader; m. a wise man , sage , seer , prophet; m. a singer , bard , poet (but in this sense without any technical application in the वेद) RV. VS. TS. AV. S3Br. i , 4 , 2 , 8 Kat2hUp. iii , 14 MBh. Bhag. Bha1gP. Mn. vii , 49 R. Ragh.; m.N. of several gods , (esp.) of अग्नि RV. ii , 23 , 1 ; x , 5 , 4 , 3 ; iii , 5 , 1 ; i , 31 , 2 ; 76 , 5; m. of वरुण , इन्द्र , the अश्विन्s , मरुत्s , आदित्यs; m. of the सोम; m. of the सोम priest and other sacrificers; /अङ्गिरस् ( Mn. ii , 151) and उश्/अनस् ( Bhag. x , 37); m. of the ancient sages or patriarchs (as spirits now surrounding the sun); m. a keeper or herd RV. vii , 18 , 8; m. (fig.) N. of the gates of the sacrificial enclosure TS. v , 11 , 1 , 2 (cf.कव्/अष्); m. a cunning fighter (Monier-Williams)
    [quote]i. Kavi: Avestan kauui, Pahlavi kay

    Kavi is the Indo-Iranian term for “(visionary) poet.” The Avestan word is declined according to an archaic i-declension, which also includes Young Avestan haxi- “companion”: sing. nom. kauuā (YAv. kauua), acc. kauuaēm (< *kavayam; cf. OInd. sakhāyam), gen. YAv. kauuōiš, plur. nom. kauuaiiō (kāuuaiias-cā), gen. kaoiiąm (cf. haxa, haxāim < *haxāyam, haxaiiō, hášąm < *haxyām). There is an ambiguity in the acc. kauuaēm, which is also a form of the derived adjective kauuaiia found in kauuaēm xᵛarənō (gen. kāuuaiiehe-ca) “the xᵛarənah of the kauuis” (see below, xii).
    The term may be older than Indo-Iranian, if Lydian kaveś and the Samothracean title cited by Hesychius as koíēs or kóēs are related and, perhaps, to be compared with Scandinavian skue “see” and English show, German schauen, etc. (Watkins, p. 88).
    Indo-Iranian poets also performed the sacrifices (yaj-/yaz-), the primary purpose of which was to fight darkness and evil and reestablish order in the universe by making the sun rise and the rains fall. Of the Iranian kauuis/kays, Kauui Haosrauuah/Kay Husrōy and Kauui Vištāspa/Kay Wištāsp play central roles in the universal eschatology, while the role of the others is more generally to keep the forces of evil at bay.
    In the oldest Indic poetry, the Rigveda, the term kaví refers to poets and priests and is frequently applied to gods (Agni, Indra, Soma, Mitra, Varuṇa, and others) performing this function. The kavís of old (pū́rva, pūrvyá) were “singers” (verb gṝ-), “libators” (hotar), and sacrificers (verb yaj-); they “announce” (verb śaṃs-) “words” (vac), “well-spoken words” (sūkta); and they serve as the gods’ charioteers (vahni) in the race to make the sun rise from the “rock” (aśman) and the world ocean. Their poems are made by their thoughts (mati, etc.), and they send their “poetic visions” (dhī) into the divine world. “Sustainers of ṛtá and discoverers of non-ṛtá, they set out on “great paths” (mahás patháḥ, Rigveda 2.24.7); and they find the hidden light and regenerate dawn (Rigveda 7.76.4). They are characterized by krátu, a kind of knowledge that permits them to perform their special functions: note kavíkrátu “having the krátu of the kavís” (Rigveda 3.2.4). The krátus of travelers are compared with charioteers or draft animals pulling chariots (cf. Rigveda 7.48.1, 90.5, etc.; see also Jamison, 2007, pp. 123-24).
    In the Old Avesta, the generic term having become daēvic, the poet no longer refers to himself as kauui, but as “singer” (jaritar from gṝ-), “libator” (zaotar = OInd. hótar); he “announces” (verb sə̄ṇgha- = OInd. śaṃs-) “words” (vac), “well-spoken words” (hūxta), fashioned in his thoughts (manah-), and he sends his “visionary thoughts” (daēnā; cf. OInd. dhī) into the divine world. Similar to the krátus of the Old Indic poets, the “(guiding) thoughts” (xratu) of the saošiiaṇts, the successful Gathic poets, serve as the draft animals that pull the chariot of the sun, goaded by the poet’s announcements (Yasna 46.3; cf. Rigveda 7.77.2, 79.1).
    The evil kauuis, however, together with the “glutton” (? grə̄hma), deposit their xratus in the glutton’s tangled web (Yasna 32.14), and it is by their incorrect sacrifices that the titles or functions of kauui and karapan have been ruined (Yasna 32.15; Skjærvø, 2001, pp. 352, 358-59; on the “quoting” function of the derivatives in -tāt-, see idem, 2007, p. 903; idem, 2009a, pp. 167-68). By their evil work, they destroy the new existence (Yasna 46.11). Thus  they contrast in detail with the successful sacrificers, and there is no reason to doubt that they too are sacrificers, albeit unsuccessful ones. The Old Indic uśíj, another kind of priest, was also demonized as Old Avestan usixš, mentioned together with the kauui and karapan as mistreating the cow (Yasna 44.20; see Skjærvø, 2001, p. 354).
    The term kəuuīna, traditionally thought to refer to a “princeling” whose favor, apparently, Zarathustra failed to win (Yasna 51.12), is more likely to refer to a “poetaster,” and its epithet vaēpiia (cf. OInd. vepī “inspired” [+ song: gir]) to the trembling and shaking (OInd. verb vip-) in pretended poetic ecstasy, rather than to his sexual practices (Avestan vaēpaiia- and vifiia-, to have active and passive anal intercourse; see HOMOSEXUALITY i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM). Note the common juxtaposition of Rigvedic kaví and viprá (e.g., Rigveda 6.15.7, 8.44.21, 9.18.2; see Jamison, 2007, p. 124) and, especially, Rigveda 3.3.7, where Agni is said to be the uśíj with good kratu among the inspired (vip) gods.
    In the Old Avesta, only Vištāspa has the epithet/title kauui. His name is mentioned three times in connection with the divine reward, which agrees with his mention at the end of the hymn to Anāhitā (q.v.) as a model of those who won the race (Yašt 5.132). Once, apparently, he has the epithet zaraθuštri (Yasna 53.2), which, in the Young Avesta, is an epithet of the priest, usually paired with mazdaiiasna (e.g., Yasna 12), probably “Zarathustrid” in the sense of “following the tradition of Zarathustra.”
    The notion that the title kauui (Middle and New Persian kay) refers to sovereignty is based upon an interpretation of the Pahlavi and Perso-Arabic texts. There, the sequence of heroes and kays is presented as a chronological sequence of rulers (kayān; see, e.g., Skjærvø, 1995, pp. 189-91; Kellens, 1999-2000, pp. 744-51) and Kauui Vištāspa as the benevolent ruler who received Zarathustra’s new religion, and this led 19th- and early 20th-century Western scholars to assume that the Avestan term, too, meant “prince” or “ruler,” an opinion that survives to this day. There is little or no evidence for this, however. It is noteworthy that Balʿami thought that Pahlavi kay meant “good” (niku; ed. Bahār, p. 524; ed. Maškur, p. 46, and Zotenberg, p. 407, have malek-e nik “good king”). The Mojmal al-tawāriḵ reports another tradition (p. 29): “Kay” was applied to all the kings in this line by analogy with Kay Qobād, who had this title (laqab) from Zāl, meaning “origin” (aṣl). Ḵᵛārazmi (p. 100) defined kay as jabbār and kayān as jabāber “giant(s),” followed by Mirḵᵛānd (I, p. 568), who remarks at the beginning of his narrative of the Kayanids that kay was how they said jabbār (giant) in Pahlavi, a meaning the word has in Manicheism (see below). Asadi Ṭusi defined kay as “greatest king,” citing a verse from Daqiqi (p. 177; also in Šams-e Faḵri, p. 381) and also has an entry kāv “a courageous and tall and fit fighter,” citing no authority (p. 170, but doubtful according to Dabirsiāqi in n. 1; see on the use in Manicheism, below) and gav [!] “fighter,” citing Ferdowsi (ed. Khaleghi, II, p. 173, v. 690; also in Šams-e Faḵri, p. 394).
    In the Young Avesta, the kauuis are listed together with the karpans (Avestan karapan-/karafn-, Pahlavi karb; see KARAPAN), sorcerers, witches, false teachers (sāstar), and other evil beings. Here, the term denotes unsuccessful priests who have joined with the forces of darkness and evil (the original, literal, meanings of these terms may no longer have been known). The term karpan has been connected with Choresmian karb-, apparently “mumbler” (Henning, 1951, p. 45; see also Skjærvø, 2001, pp. 353-54). In the 19th century, it was connected with Old Indic kalp-, which expresses ritual ordering (e.g., Bartholomae, AirWb., col. 455). The verb kalpaya- takes yajña “sacrifice” as direct object (Rigveda 8.58.1, 10.52.4), and Agni is once said to be priest, sacrificing and ordering the ṛtus (cf. Avestan ratu “ritual models” of the cosmos, Rigveda 10.2.3).
    In the Young Avesta, kauui is used in the singular only as epithet or title of a small set of heroes who sacrifice to various deities and, in the plural, together with karpan to denote unsuccessful sacrificers who side with the forces of darkness and evil. It is never used instead of or parallel with daŋ́ hupaiti (lord of the land), which is probably the term closest to our “king.” Similarly, in the Pahlavi texts, kay is never interchangeable with šāh or dahībed (ruler, lord of the land), and Persian kay is never used to mean “king” or “prince” as a homonym of šāh (there is no “Kayān Kay”). Both Pahlavi and Persian kayān refer exclusively to the kays.
    There is also no direct evidence that Old and Young Avestan xšaθra refers to secular command. Only the Pishdadid heroes in the Young Avesta (Haošiiaŋha, etc.) are said to ask for xšaθra- “(royal or ritual) command” or are said to have “ruled” (xšaiia-), the objects of the rule being members of the evil creation: daēuuas (see DAIVA) and men, sorcerers and witches, and the like. Their xšaθra- is therefore not necessarily different from that of the Old Avestan poetsacrificer, who, by his sacrifice, (re)generates for himself and Ahura Mazdā the command that permits them to overcome the powers of evil and darkness (see Yasna 8.5-6). Only in the Old Persian inscriptions (e.g., DB I) does the word (xša.a) clearly refer to the secular political power of the king, the ruler (xšāyaθiya), whose xša.a was given to him by god as his chosen earthly representative.
    In Manicheism. The word was used in Iranian Manichean texts in the form kaw and kāw in the sense of “giant”; for instance, the Book of Giants (see GIANTS, BOOK OF THE) was the Kāwān. The term is also applied to the Twelve Eons, second of the Five Greatnesses, a group of inhabitants of the Light Paradise (Waldschmidt and Lentz, pp. 553-54), as well as to the messengers or prophets who appeared at intervals in the history of the world to bring Gnosis to mankind, the last of whom was Mani, also invoked as kāw (Durkin-Meisterernst and Morano, p. 155, sec. 497b; see also the review by Skjærvø). Christian Sogdian par kawyāq “by (their) being kaws” renders Syriac gaṉbārāʾīṯ “like gabbārs” (Sims-Williams, ed., 1985, pp. 142, 144, 152). [unquote]  (Prods Oktor Skjærvø, “KAYĀNIĀN i. Kavi: Avestan kauui, Pahlavi kay,” Encyclopaedia Iranica,online edition, 2016, available at (accessed on 20 September 2016).

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    The emblem has Indus script hypertexts.

    arya 'lion' rebus: āra 'brass'
    gaṇḍa 'four' rebus:  kaṇḍa 'implements'
    poḷa 'zebu' rebus: poḷa 'magnetite ferrite ore'
    eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast' arka 'gold, copper'
    makara 'makara hypertext' rebus dhmakara 'bellows blower, blacksmith'
    dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS  śyena 'falcon' aśáni f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ RV., °nī -- f. ŚBr. [Cf. áśan -- m. ʻ sling -- stone ʼ RV.]Pa. asanī -- f. ʻ thunderbolt, lightning ʼ, asana -- n. ʻ stone ʼ; Pk. asaṇi -- m.f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ; Ash. ašĩˊ ʻ hail ʼ, Wg. ašē˜ˊ, Pr. īšĩ, Bashg. "azhir", Dm. ašin, Paš. ášen, Shum. äˊšin, Gaw. išín, Bshk. ašun, Savi išin, Phal. ã̄šun, L. (Jukes) ahin, awāṇ. &circmacrepsilon;n (both with n, not ), P. āhiṇ, f., āhaṇaihaṇ m.f., WPah. bhad. ã̄ṇ, bhal. ´tildemacrepsilon;hiṇi f., N. asino, pl. °nā; Si. senaheṇa ʻ thunderbolt ʼ Geiger GS 34, but the expected form would be *ā̤n; -- Sh. aĩyĕˊr f. ʻ hail ʼ (X ?). -- For ʻ stone ʼ > ʻ hailstone ʼ Sh. aĩyĕˊr (Lor. aĩyār → Bur. *lhyer ʻ hail ʼ BurLg iii 17) poss. < *aśari -- from heteroclite n/r stem (cf. áśman -- : aśmará -- ʻ made of stone ʼ).(CDIAL 910)rebus: āhangar 'blacksmith, thunderbolt-maker'. آهن āhan P آهن āhan, s.m. (9th) Iron. Sing. and Pl. آهن ګر āhan gar, s.m. (5th) A smith, a blacksmith. Pl. آهن ګران āhan-garān. آهن ربا āhan-rubā, s.f. (6th) The magnet or loadstone. (Pashto)

    Thus, together, the hypertexts signify wealth creation of a Rāṣṭram with the gaṇḍa bheruṇḍa thunderbolt-maker smith  guild as signifiers of heroism and valour while creating wealth accounting systems.

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    That the Yavana soldier of Bharhut sculptural frieze, with the broad sword is a battle-field warrior is semantically reinforced by the grape-vine or bunch of grapes carried in his right hand.

    Hieroglyph: Grape: मृद्वी mṛdvī मृद्वीका mṛdvīkā मृद्वी मृद्वीका A vine or bunch of grapes; वाचं तदीयां परिपीय मृद्वीं मृद्वीकया तुल्यरसां स हंसः N.3.6; मृद्वीका रसिता सिता समशिता... Bv.4.13,37; Mb.7.64.7.

    Rebus: warrior:  मृध्  f. fight , battle RV. i , 174 , 4 ( Sāyaṇa) मृध् mṛdh मृध् f. Ved. 1 Battle, fight; भक्तिमान् स्वामिनि मृधे शक्ति- मानतिकोपनः Śiva B.22.13. -2 An enemy.मृधस् mṛdhas मृधस् n. Ved. 1 War; दैत्यराजस्य च ब्रह्मन् कस्माद् हेतोरभून्मृधः Bhāg.3.14.3. -2 Contempt, disregard.मृधम् mṛdham मृधम् War, battle, fight; सत्त्वविहितमतुलं भुजयोर्बलंमस्य पश्यत मृधे$धिकुप्यतः Ki.12.39; हत्वा निवृत्ताय मृधे खरादीन् R.13.65; Mv.5.13. -Comp. -भूf. a field of battle.
    Rebus: mṛdu'iron'meḍ'iron' (Mu.Ho.) med'copper (Slavic languages)

    He guards the wealth-producing mint of Bharhut.

    The message is that the battlefield ṭamkam'sword' is made in kammata, 'mint' (signified in the welcome proclamation on the gateway, toraṇa). It is significant that ṭaṅkaśālā, 'sword mint' is also semantically reinforced by the determinative of the meaning of Indus Script Hypertext śrivatsa which is Indus Script Meluhha expression: ayo kammata, 'metals mint'.

    ṭaṅka2 m.n. ʻ spade, hoe, chisel ʼ R. 2.ṭaṅga -- 2 m.n. ʻ sword, spade ʼ lex.
    1. Pa. ṭaṅka -- m. ʻ stone mason's chisel ʼ; Pk. ṭaṁka -- m. ʻ stone -- chisel, swordʼ; Woṭ. ṭhõʻ axe ʼ; Bshk. ṭhoṅʻ battleaxe ʼ, ṭheṅʻ small axe ʼ (< *ṭaṅkī); Tor. (Biddulph) "tunger" m. ʻ axe ʼ (? AO viii 310), Phal. ṭhō˘ṅgi f.; K. ṭŏnguru m. ʻ a kind of hoe ʼ; N. (Tarai) ṭã̄giʻ adze ʼ; H. ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ; G. ṭã̄k f. ʻ pen nib ʼ; M. ṭã̄k m. ʻ pen nib ʼ, ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ.2. A. ṭāṅgiʻ stone chisel ʼ; B. ṭāṅg, °giʻ spade, axe ʼ; Or. ṭāṅgiʻ battle -- axe ʼ; Bi. ṭã̄gā, °gīʻ adze ʼ;Bhoj. ṭāṅīʻ axe ʼ; H. ṭã̄gī f. ʻ hatchet ʼ. (CDIAL 5427)

    Rebus: ṭaṅkaśālā -- ,ṭaṅkakaś° f. ʻ mint ʼ lex. [ṭaṅka -- 1, śāˊlā -- ] N. ṭaksāl, °ār, B. ṭāksāl, ṭã̄k°, ṭek°, Bhoj. ṭaksār, H. ṭaksāl, °ār f., G. ṭãksāḷ f., M. ṭã̄ksāl, ṭāk°, ṭãk°, ṭak°. -- Deriv. G. ṭaksāḷī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ, M. ṭāksāḷyā m. Addenda: ṭaṅkaśālā -- : Brj. ṭaksāḷī, °sārī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ.ṭaṅga -- 3 ʻ leg ʼ(CDIAL 5434) 

    ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal alloy' (Rigveda) PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus:Ta.kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma.kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint. Ka.kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236) See the expression used in Mahavamsa, XXV, 28: ayo-kammata-dvara which is a reference to the fish-fin pair on the Bharhut/Sanchi toraṇa.

    Indus Script Hypertext on Sanchi toraa. ayo kammata sīpī'iron mint artificer'शिल्पिन्m. an artificer , artisan , craftsman , artist Gaut. Mn. MBh. &c;mfn.belonging to or skilled in art;  m.(ifc.) fashioner of (नैषध-चरित)

    Vikalpa: r̥ṣṭí f. ʻ spear, lance ʼ RV. [√r̥ṣ] Pa. iṭṭhi -- ʻ spear ʼ J. Charpentier IL ii 51; Pk. riṭṭhi<-> f. ʻ swordʼ (sanskritized as riṣṭi -- 2 f., riṣṭa -- 3 m. ʻ sword ʼ lex.); Kho. Kal. heṣṭʻ yoke -- pole ʼ Belvalkar Vol 91; H. rīṭh f. ʻ sword ʼ, īṭhī f. ʻ spear, spear -- shaft ʼ; M. vīṭ, iṭā, vi° m. ʻ a spear carried before a rājā in procession ʼ. -- Perh. also, though loss of aspiration is unexpl.: S. iṭī f. ʻ the bit of stick struck in the game of trapstick ʼ, H. īṭhī, īṭī f., M. iṭī LM 294.(CDIAL 2461) karapāla m. ʻ swordʼ, °aka -- m., °ikā -- f. lex., karavāla -- , °aka -- , karabāla -- m. [At least by pop. etym. from kará -- 1, pālá -- cf. *bhujapāla EWA i 165] Pa. karapālikā -- f. ʻ wooden sword, cudgel ʼ; Pk. karavāla -- m. ʻ sword ʼ; Bi. karuārʻ paddle ʼ; H. karwāl, karuār, karwār, °rā m. ʻ oar, rudder, sword ʼ; G. karvālf., °lũ n. ʻ sword ʼ with l, not ḷ.(CDIAL 2796)
    The Bharhut Yavana with details. Warrior. Bharhut, c. 100 BCE. Indian Museum, Calcutta The Greeks (speciafically Indo-Greeks) were evidently known at this date to people in the middle of India; here, a Greek warrior has been coopted into the role of dvarapala. The evidence includes his hairstyle, tunic, and boots. In his right hand he holds a grape plant, emblematic of his origin. The sheath of his broadsword is decorated with a nandipada.
    The inscription at the top, classified as Inscription 55 in the Pillars of Railing of the SW Quadrant at Bharhut (The Stupa of Bharhut, Cunningham, p.136).

    Inscription 55 in the Pillars of Railing of the SW Quadrant at Bharhut.
    The inscription  in Brāhmī  script, reads from left to right:
    "Bhadanta Mahilasa thabho dânam"
    "Pillar-gift of the lay brother Mahila."
    — Inscription of the Bharhut Yavana

    Yavana with headband fighting a Makara. Torana of Stupa 3 in Sanchi. Indus Script hypertext: makara 'composite animal' rebus; dhmakara 'bellows-blower, blacksmith'.
    Yavana holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.Bharhut. arye 'lion' rebus: āra'brass'dula'pair' rebus; dul'metal casting' Twig on the head of the lion: The word for twig in the Atharvaveda (5:19.12) is kudi. A Santali word kuthi meaning ‘smelting furnace’ would be a homonym for kudi.

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    Veda, knowledge system and wealth of nations, India links Ancient Far East & Ancient Near East (Video: 23 mins. 493mb) including Rāṣṭrī Suktam (RV 10.125) which is a chandas metaphor for wealth of nations. This metaphor is matched by data archives of wealth accounting ledgers of over 8000 Indus Script Inscriptions which are metalwork catalogues in Meluhha hypertexts

    --Ancient Wealth of a Rāṣṭram, how India contributed to 33% of World GDP in 1 CE
    -- Technology & organization of guilds as key factors in wealth of a nation creating a commonwealth, shared resource of communities
    -- Arthaśāstra Economic History of Veda culture
    -- Archives of metalwork wealth in Indus Script & Sarasvati civilization

    Presented in 4 sections as Story of Indian Civilization:
    Key components of Wealth of a Rāṣṭram
    Sarasvati Civilization maritime trade contacts with Ancient Near East
    India links with Ancient Far East
    Rebirth of River Sarasvati, Renaissance of a civilization with roots traced to 8th millennium BCE

    A recording of the vedic Chandas RV 10.125, "Rāṣṭrī Suktam"

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    A magnificent narrative covers Hindu dharma & adoration of the river confluence, with stunning visual frames. कुम्भ्, कुम्ब् कुम्बति , °बयति , to cover Pāṇini. 3-3 , 105 Dhātupāṭha What is the propaganda machinery which makes such an event happen?
    Kalyanaraman Sarasvati Research Centre

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    Harappa to hieroglyphs: Meet the 17-year-old who digs archaeology

    TNN | Jul 1, 2018, 12.30 AM IST
    Ali visited Egypt to establish the link between Ashoka and the spread of Buddhism


    Ali, who lives in allahabad, was only 15 when he set off on his first excavation to the harappan site of binjor in rajasthan, with the archaeological survey of india

    ·         He’s currently translating the Vedas into hieroglyphs, the ancient Egyptian writing system

    'Egyptian Buddhism’ doesn’t seem like the kind of subject to interest a 17-year-old. But for Arsh Ali, it’s the subject that has consumed him for the past few years. He recently delivered a talk on it as part of the National Museum’s India and the World lecture series. While teens his age spend most of their time on social media, Ali, who is perhaps the country’s youngest archaeologist, prefers shovels and soil.   Ali, who lives in Allahabad, was only 15 when he set off on his first excavation to the Harappan site of Binjor in Rajasthan, with the Archaeological Survey of India. Next, came the Indus valley site of Rakhigari, led by Dr Vasant Shinde from Deccan College. He’s currently translating the Vedas into hieroglyphs, the ancient Egyptian writing system. “When I was in class 2, I started studying hieroglyphs. There are lakhs of symbols so you need to know the grammar,” he says.

    Dr B R Mani, director general of the National Museum, who invited Ali to be a part of their India and the World lecture series, describes him as a ‘wonder boy’. “I met Arsh in Guwahati in 2015 at a seminar and was instantly impressed by the number of things he had done in different areas of excavation, history and art at such a young age. He’s perhaps the only person in India who knows hieroglyphic writing,” he says.

    Walking through Delhi’s National Museum, he points out objects that catch his eye. He’s at once didactic in his explanations and childlike in his enthusiasm for everything from Japanese pottery to biology.

    Ali has been attending an open school since 2016, which allows him pursue his various interests. “There was a stage when I was failing my classes and had attendance problems because of my extra-curricular activities,” he says. 

    This year has been busy with visits to Buddhist sites, such as Sanchi and Supara in India and Cairo and Saqqara in Egypt to establish the link between Emperor Ashoka and the spread of Buddhism in Egypt and the rest of the Hellenic world.

    It was the presence of the Dharmachakra, a Buddhist symbol, engraved on Egyptian tombstones that piqued his interest. It was seen by other experts as an anomaly, but Ali was sure there was more. “The evidence that Ashoka sent emissaries to Egypt to spread Buddhism is quite clear. I expected to find two or three links, but ended up finding 50 to 80. What really made me confident that these links could be made was an Ashokan inscription I saw in a book in which Ashoka clearly names Egyptian pharaohs and Greek kings, and says that he sent ‘dharma’ to these kingdoms,” he says, and then begins to recite the inscription in Brahmi, another script he is familiar with.
    In his visit to Egypt, he also found Brahmi inscriptions on pots and evidence of Indian pepper.

    Ali says it’s his mother Fatima who encouraged his interest in history. When he was 14, she arranged for him to take the Advanced Placement college-level examinations that American high school students do. “My mother also got in touch with the Archaeological Survey of India, and convinced Dr Syed Jamal Hasan, the former director of excavations and explorations, to meet me after which he authorized me for digs,” he says.

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    nत्वष्टृ,  ऋभु R̥bhu-s  'artisans' who signify wealth creation in a Rāṣṭram

    This monograph demonstrates that Varāha pratimā is a scuptural metaphor by a śilpin of Indus Script Hypertexts.

    The central theme of the Varāha pratimā is wealth creation using terrestrial resources. battuḍu, vāḍhī, '5 artificers, merchant' as rebus renderings of Varāha, baḍhia 'a castrated boar, a hog' (Santali) are the artisans and seafaring merchants who created the wealth of a Rāṣṭram. 

    Varāha pratimā is a kole.l'temple' because the metaphor for a temple is a workshop of a smith.: kole.l 'smithy, forge' of the type shown in the background of Porus-Alexander painting of Ranchi Institute of Steel Authority of India, is rebus: kole.l 'temple'(Kota language). 
    Porus presents an ukku, utsa 'wootz' sword to Alexander

    On a Varāha pratimā, a register records the Indus Script hieroglyphs of svastika, elephant, zebu. sattuvu 'svastika' rebus: sattuvu 'pewter, zinc'; karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'; poḷa 'zebu' rebus: poa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'. The sword presented by Porus to Alexander is made of pola and the steel used is called polad.(signified by hieroglyph poladu, 'black drongo' bird).

    The breath-taking varieties of etyma with an array of variant pronunciations, speech forms, which signify Varāha, 'boar' are matched by one central theme: wealth exemplified by the abiding semantics of metrics and measure of wealth, a gold coin: వరహా varahā or వరా varahā. [from Skt. వరాహము.] n. The gold coin bearing the impression of a boar (వరాహము.) and termed a pagoda. equal to 3 1/2 rupees. కరుకువరహా a coin equal to four rupees. కంఠీరవరాయ వరహాలు Kanterai pagodas, 105 of which are equal to rupees 305-7-4. The weight called వరహాయెత్తు is equal to 52.56. grains avoirdupois. తొమ్మిదిచిన్నములయెత్తు బంగారపుముద్రిక. 

    Image result for boar pagoda coinImage result for varaha coinGold coins of Kalyani Chalukya-s (9th-10th cent.) called Varāha or Pagoda

    Association with metalwork artificers is examplified by the signifiers of Varāha on bronze axes.
    Image result for boar bronze axeImage result for boar bronze axeImage result for boar bronze axe

    Shaft-hole axe head with bird-headed demon, boar, and dragon; Met Museum. Silver, gold foil; 15 cm. long; accession no. 1982.5 Cast axe-head; tin bronze inlaid with silver; shows a boar attacking a tiger which is attacking an ibex. British Museum No.123268

    Male Nubian ibex (Capra ibex). Markhor (Capra falconeri) Punjabi. mẽḍhā m. 'markhor'.(CDIAL 10310) miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ(Tor.) Rebus: mẽḍh 'iron' (Mu.) meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic languages) PLUS kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' PLUS  See:

    Varāha pratimā is a temple of Rāṣṭrī, samgamanī vasūnām'accumulator, mover of wealth', Veda Sarasvatī, is a metaphor of a nadī, 'river', a metaphor of Vāk devi, 'divinity of speech'. This Sarasvatī is venerated in the zoomorphic, anthropomorphic temple called Varāha pratimā. The speaking human repesentation in anthropomorphic metaphor is Devi Sarasvatī.

    Varāha pratimā itself constitutes a temple. On the snout, चषालः caṣāla Varāha's snout, is shown Devi Sarasvatī; closeby is bhūĩ 'earth' as bhudevi Rebus: bhũ 'wheat chaff' as annam in smelting to obtain अमृत, 'Soma juice', performing Vajapeya Soma Yaga. चषालः caṣāla is wheat-chaff ring atop the Yupa Skambha to infuse carbon element into the molten metal of the fire-altar, furnace, to harden the ayas, alloymetal.
     Devi Sarasvatī stands on the tongue of Varāha pratimā, Eran. Vākdevi, speech divinity.
    KSP_5065KSP_5055Devi Sarasvatī shown with vīṇā on the चषालः caṣāla, 'snout' of Varāha pratimā. वीणा f. (of doubtful derivation) the वीणा or Indian lute (an instrument of the guitar kind , supposed to have been invented by नारद q.v. , usually having seven wires or strings raised upon nineteen frets or supports fixed on a long rounded board , towards the ends of which are two large gourds ; its compass is said to be two octaves , but it has many varieties according to the number of strings &c ) (तैत्तिरीय-संहिता, शतपथ-ब्राह्मण)

    1. phaḍā 'serpent hood' rebus: फडा phaḍā 'metals, wood manufactory' పట్టడ paṭṭaḍa paṭṭaḍu. [Tel.] n. A smithy, a shop. కుమ్మరి వడ్లంగి మొదలగువారు పనిచేయు చోటు.
    2. వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. బత్తుడు battuḍu. n. A worshipper. భక్తుడు. The caste title of all the five castes of artificers as వడ్లబత్తుడు a carpenter. కడుపుబత్తుడు one who makes a god of his belly. L. xvi. 230. బత్తి  batti The caste title of all the five castes of artificers as వడ్లబత్తుడు a carpenter. பஞ்சகம்மாளர் pañca-kammāḷar
    n. < pañcantaṭṭāṉ, kaṉṉāṉ, ciṟpaṉ, taccaṉ, kollaṉ; தட்டான், கன்னான், சிற்பன், தச்சன் கொல்லன் என்ற ஐவகைப் பட்ட கம்மாளர். (சங். அக.)
    3. శిల్పము  śilpamu ṣilpamu. [Skt.] n. An art, any manual or mechanical art. చిత్తరువు వ్రాయడము మొదలైనపని. శిల్పి or శిల్పకారుడు ṣilpi. n. An artist, artisan, artificer, mechanic, handicraftsman. పనివాడు. A painter, ముచ్చి. A carpenter, వడ్లంగి. A weaver, సాలెవాడు. (Usually) a stonecutter, a sculptor, కాసెవాడు. శిల్పిశాస్త్రము ṣilpi-ṣāstramu. n. A mechanical science; the science of Architecture. చిత్రాదికర్మలను గురించిన విధానము. 

    Varāha is Indus Script Hypertext, signifies wealth-creation by artisans/seafaringmerchants, signified as  R̥gveda temple of divinities & scholars. The Varāha pratimā compare with Dudhai (Chandela) temple which is a celebration of merchants, in Baniya ki Barat temple complex.

    The hypertexts of the Varāha pratimā signify a metals/carpentry manufactory, trade of a carpenter working in iron and wood, an artist, an artisan: baḍhi, bāṛaï 'worker in wood and iron' (Santali) baḍhia 'a castrated boar, a hog'(Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: baḍhi 'worker in wood and iron' (Santali) bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea  'merchant' (Santali) vāḍhī, 'one who helps a merchant (Hemacandra Desinamamamala). It is a celebration of ऋभु R̥bhu, 'wealth, artisans' ऋभु mfn. ( √रभ्) , clever , skilful , inventive , prudent (said of इन्द्र , अग्नि , and the आदित्यRV. ; also of property or wealth RV. iv , 37 , 5 ; viii , 93 , 34 ; of an arrow AV. i , 2 , 3); m. an artist , one who works in iron , a smith , builder (of carriages &c ) , N. of three semi-divine beings (ऋभु , वाज , and विभ्वन् , the name of the first being applied to all of them ; thought by some to represent the three seasons of the year [Ludwig RV. vol.iii , p.187] , and celebrated for their skill as artists ; they are supposed to dwell in the solar sphere , and are the artists who formed the horses of इन्द्र , the carriage of the अश्विन्s , and the miraculous cow of बृहस्पति ; they made their parents young , and performed other wonderful works [Sv-apas] ; they are supposed to take their ease and remain idle for twelve days [the twelve intercalary days of the winter solstice] every year in the house of the Sun [Agohya] ; after which they recommence working ; when the gods heard of their skill , they sent अग्नि to them with the one cup of their rival त्वष्टृ , the artificer of the gods , bidding the ऋभुs construct four cups from it ; when they had successfully executed this task , the gods received the ऋभुs amongst themselves and allowed them to partake of their sacrifices &c cf. Kaegi 
    RV. p.53 f.RV. AV. &c; m. they appear generally as accompanying इन्द्र , especially at the evening sacrifice. Cognate words are: Lat. labor ; Goth. arb-aiths ; Slav. rab-u8.


    The stump on the neck of the boar signifies kolā rebus: kol 'working in iron'. The semantics are reinforced by the two personalised treasures (padmanidhi and śaṅskhanidi) set below the boar’s belly, whereas Brahmā sits beside the cakra, with a devotee drinking from his large sacrificial spoon.
    Hypertexts from the r.: padmanidhi and 
    śaṅskhanidi. Brahmā sits beside the cakra, with a devotee drinking from his large sacrificial spoon. I suggest that the narrative of sipping from the spoon is a signifier of अ-मृत n. the nectar (conferring immortality , produced at the churning of the ocean) , ambrosia RV. (or the voice compared to it , N. Ragh. ); property; gold.

    See:  In Ancient Bharatiya tradition exemplified in the veneration of বরাহ barāha as the third avatara, third incarnation, after matsya (ayo) and kurma (kamaTha) of the Supreme Divine, in places such as Udayagiri caves (near Vidisha), Eran, Khajuraho and many other sites all over Bharatam are celebrations of Vedic culture. A বরাহ barāha sculpture is a quintessential veda purusha, a yajnavaraha embodying all the Vedic divinities, as demonstrated on the Khajuraho murti. He signifies the work of a digger of mines, unearthing the mineral resources from the earth, he is a worker in wood and iron and he is a seafaring merchant on  bārakaśa 'seafaring vessel, merchantman'. All three avatara metaphors are founded on three Indus Script hieroglyphs: ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint'; kamaTha 'turtle' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner' kamaTa 'portable furnace'; baḍhia, বরাহ barāha 'boar' baḍhi, bāṛaï 'carpenter' , vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchant' bārakaśa 'seafaring vessel'. The Indus Script Corpora are thus a historical chronicle, a documentation archive recording the progression in bronze age cultures with the discoveries of new minerals such as pyrites, tin and zinc, alloys of metals, and cire perdue (lost-wax) casting techniques to create metal articles-- pots and pans, weapons, tools and implements. In one narrative, the adhyatmika enquiry recognizes the incarnations celebrating pilgrims' progress and in another archaeometallurgical enquiry related to creation of wealth resources, the metal- and mint-work and commodity exchanges of seafaring merchants become a celebration of an extensive civilization area with extensive contacts during the Bronze Age revolution. 

    The narrative of Indus Script Corpra data mining is thus a narrative of the progress of civilization in Eurasia in the space spanning from Hanoi to Haifa and during the time spanning from 7th to 2nd millennia. Bronze Age revolution is a celebration.

    It is a veneration of the ताण्डव नृत्यम् Cosmic Dance, tāṇḍava nr̥tyam, as noted by Atharva veda Sukta X.7 (embedded), lives on as the dharma-dhamma continuum.

    In all the decipherments suggested, the reading for 'rhinoceros' on copper table inscriptions should be complemented with this reading for 'boar': বরাহ barāha 'boar' baḍhi, rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter', vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchant' bārakaśa 'seafaring vessel'.

    Hieroglyph: क्रोडी  a sow, swine; क्रोड  m. a hog  पञ्चरात्र, भागवत-पुराण, वराह-पुराण,कथासरित्सागर)
    Rebus: क्रोड  (named as a place where money is kept)  (मृच्छकटिका)

    Hieroglyph:  kola'tiger, jackal'(Konkani.) Kol. keḍiak tiger. Nk. khaṛeyak panther. Go. (A.) khaṛyal tiger; (Haig) kariyāl panther (Voc. 999). Kui kṛāḍi, krānḍi tiger, leopard, hyena. Kuwi (F.) kṛani tiger; (S.) klā'ni tiger, leopard; (Su. P. Isr.) kṛaˀni (pl. -ŋa)tiger. / Cf. Pkt. (DNM) karaḍa- id. (DEDR 1132) kul 'tiger' (Santali) 

    Rebus: Working in iron: kolhe'smelter'kol'working in iron'kolle'blacksmith'. Ta. kor̤u bar of metal, ploughshare. Ma. kor̤u ploughshare. Ko. kov iron point of plough. To. ku· ploughshare (< Badaga g&udieresisside;, Language 15.47; the word occurs only in one passage and the meaning is arrived at by etymology). Ka. kur̤a, kur̤u, gur̤a, gur̤u ploughshare, iron used in cauterizing. Tu. koru a bar of metal. (DEDR 2147) Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulmefire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133)

    Hieroglyph: A stump rises up behind the boar’s head. kolī f. ʻ chest of an animal ʼ (Lahnda) kolā ʻhaving an inflated throatʼ (Bengali) koḷẽ n. ʻ hump on a bull ʼ.(Marathi)K. körü f. ʻneckʼ (Kashmiri) *kulla1 ʻ neck, back, buttock ʼ.Pk. kulla -- , kōla -- m. ʻ neck ʼ, kulla -- m.n. ʻ buttock ʼ; L. kullhā m. ʻ that part of a bullock's hump on which yoke rests ʼ; P. kullā m. ʻ hip, buttock ʼ; H. kulā m. ʻ hip, buttock, waist ʼ; G. kulɔ m. ʻ hip, buttock ʼ; M. kulā,kullā°āṇākulhā°āṇā m. ʻ buttock ʼ, kolẽ n. ʻ hump of buffalo ʼ. -- B. kolā ʻ having an inflated throat ʼ? -- Si. kulala ʻ neck ʼ?(CDIAL 3553) क्रोडा f. the breast , bosom; krōḍá m. ʻ breast, bosom ʼ AV. 2. kōlá -- 2 m. ʻ breast, lap ʼ lex. [kōla -- prob. MIA. < krōḍá -- which if nonAryan (with early ʻ intrusive ʼ r F. B. J. Kuiper IL 1958 Turner Jubilee Vol i 354) may be conn. *gōdda -- ]1. Gy. eur. korkorí f. ʻ neck ʼ; Dm. kurouŕu ʻ breast ʼ (bec. of anaptyctic vowel between k and r prob. a lw. NTS xii 129), Kal. kŕuŕa, Phal. kirṓṛ m.; K. körü f. ʻ neck ʼ; S. koṛo m. ʻ bosom, breast ʼ, °ṛī f. ʻ breast ʼ; L. koṛīf. ʻ breast of a quadruped ʼ; Or. koṛa ʻ lap ʼ; Si. koňḍa ʻ top of arm, head of shoulder ʼ (with unexpl. nasal); -- altern. < MIA. kōla -- below: Mth. kor ʻ lap ʼ, Bhoj. korā; H. kor f. ʻ womb ʼ; M. koḷ m. ʻ lap ʼ, koḷẽ n. ʻ humpon a bull ʼ.2. Pk. kōla -- m. ʻ breast, bosom ʼ; L. kolī f. ʻ chest of an animal ʼ; Ku. kol ʻ womb ʼ; A. kol°lā ʻ lap, hip on which children are carried ʼ; B. kol ʻ lap ʼ, Or. koḷa; OMarw. kola m. ʻ foetus ʼ; -- Bi. Mth. Bhoj. H. forms with -- r -- , see 1 above. -- Ext.: N. kolṭo ʻ side ʼ, A. kolṭhi ʻ front side of a large fish ʼ. -- Prob. Bi. kōlā°lī°lwāī ʻ small patch of ground to the side of a house ʼ; -- adv. and postp.: L. kol ʻ with ʼ, kolhũkolõ ʻ from ʼ; P. kolkole ʻ near ʼ, kolõ ʻ from ʼ.Addenda: krōḍá -- : Garh. koḷkoli ʻ lap ʼ; Brj. kūlho m. ʻ hip ʼ. <-> Cf. S.kcch. khauro m. ʻ lap ʼ, G. khoḷɔ. (CDIAL 3607)

    Rebus:  Burning charcoal: kōilā -- f., kolla -- m.n. ʻ burning charcoal ʼ(Pkt) kōkila2 m. ʻ lighted coal, charcoal ʼ lex. [PMWS 47 sanskritized from MIA. kōila -- ← Proto -- muṇḍa *ko(y)ila = Sant. kuilạ ʻ black ʼ: all NIA. forms must or may rest on *kōilla -- ]Pk. kōilā -- f., kolla -- m.n. ʻ burning charcoal ʼ; S. koilo m. ʻ dead coal ʼ, pl. ʻ charcoal ʼ, L. koilā f. (?), kolā m., P. koilākolā m., Ku. kwelo, N. koilā, B. kayalā, Or. koilā, Bi. koelā, Mth. H. koilā m., Marw. koilo m., G. kɔyalɔ m.Addenda: kōkila -- 2: S.kcch. koylo m. ʻ coal ʼ; WPah.kc. koilo m.(CDIAL 3484)

    Related image

    Figure of Varāha, the Boar incarnation of Viṣṇu

    Description: In a creation myth, Vishnu took the form of a boar to rescue Bhuvedi, the Earth goddess from the depths of the primordial waters. In this sculpture, Bhudevi stands to the right of the boar’s head, while a serpent-goddess (nagini) appears in front. Rows of sages, deities and other figures appear on the body of the cosmic boar. The prominent conch shell, discus and mace below are all symbols of Vishnu.

    Associated place
    Bihar (po
    north Madhya Pradesh (possible place of creation)

    The objective of this monograph is to present some hypertexts of Harappa Script tradition and relate them to Hindu iconographic traditions.

    कल्प [p= 262,2] mf(आ)n. ( √कॢप्) , practicable , feasible , possible S3Br. ii , 4 , 3 , 3 m. (प्रथमः कल्पः , a rule to be observed before any other rule , first duty Mn. iii , 147 MBh. &c ; एतेन कल्पेन , in this way ; cf. पशु-क्° , &c )m. the most complete of the six वेदाङ्गs (that which prescribes the ritual and gives rules for ceremonial or sacrificial acts)Mun2d2Up. Pa1n2. &c m. a fabulous period of time (a day of ब्रह्मा or one thousand युगs , a period of four thousand , three hundred and twenty millions of years of mortals , measuring the duration of the world ; a month of ब्रह्मा is supposed to contain thirty such कल्पs. ; according to the MBh. , twelve months of ब्रह्मा constitute his year , and one hundred such years his lifetime ; fifty years ofब्रह्मा's are supposed to have elapsed , and we are now in the श्वेतवाराह-कल्प of the fifty-first ; at the end of a कल्प the world is annihilated ; hence कल्प is said to be equal to कल्पा*न्त below L. ; with Buddhists the कल्पs.are not of equal duration) VP. BhP.Ra1jat. &c m. resolve , determination MW.

    A synonym for Varāha is kolakola also refers to a 'tiger'. Rebus: kol 'blacksmith, working in iron'. kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'.

    The word kola is, thus, of extraordinary significance in the Hindu ādhyāmika and āgama traditions.

    Another word for Varāha is Varā (Prakrtam) Rebus: barea 'merchant' baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi 'a caste who work both in iron and wood'. The association of Varāha with ancient metalwork is evidenced by the association with metrology and ancient coins: வராகனெடை varākaṉ-eṭai , n. < id. +. Weight of a pagoda, a unit of weight = &frac516; rupee = 54 gr.; பொன்நிறுக்கும் நிறைவகை. பருமுளைவராகன் parumuḷai-varākaṉ n. A coin; நாணயவகை. (M. E. R. 1923-4, p. 110.) கட்டிவராகன் kaṭṭi-varākaṉ , n. < கெட்டி +. A gold coin, the varākaṉ. கட்டிலோ மெத் தையோ கட்டிவராகனோ. (குற்றா. குற.). వరహా (p. 1132) varahā or వరా varahā. [from Skt. వరాహము.] n. The gold coin bearing the impression of a boar (వరాహము.) and termed a pagoda. equal to 3 1/2 rupees. కరుకువరహా a coin equal to four rupees. కంఠీరవరాయ వరహాలు Kanterai pagodas, 105 of which are equal to rupees 305-7-4. The weight called వరహాయెత్తు is equal to 52.56. grains avoirdupois. తొమ్మిదిచిన్నములయెత్తు బంగారపుముద్రిక. 

    "संस्कृत भाषायाम् कोलस्य अर्थं वराहः अस्ति। वराहस्य प्रवृत्तिः सर्वदा भूमिखनने भवति। पुराणेषु, यदा वराहदेहस्य प्रत्येकं अंगं यज्ञस्य रूपं धारयति, तदा तस्य संज्ञा यज्ञवराहः भवति। सः भूम्याः जलात् उद्धारं करोति। आधुनिक भौतिकविज्ञानं आधारं कृत्वा अयं कथितुं शक्यते यत् आंग्लभाषायाः कोलः चेतनायाः सुप्त स्थितिरस्ति एवं चेतनायाः जाग्रत स्थित्याः निरूपणं कुल शब्द द्वारा भवति। यः चेतना एतेषां द्वयानां स्थितीनां मध्ये अस्ति, तस्य संज्ञा नकुलं भवति। भौतिकविज्ञानानुसारेण कोल अथवा कार्बन तत्वस्य परमाणु मध्ये  अयं गुणमस्ति यत् तस्य षट् इलेक्ट्रान संज्ञक विद्युत कणेषु एकं इलेक्ट्रान ऊर्जां गृहीत्वा उत्तेजित अवस्थायां वसतिं करोति। एवं यदा सर्वे परमाणवः एकैकं इलेक्ट्रानं उत्तेजित अवस्थायां प्रेषयन्ति, तदा ते उत्तेजित इलेक्ट्रानाः परस्परं सहयोगं कृत्वा क्रमिक रूपेण जाग्रत चेतनायाः निर्माणं कुर्वन्ति।
    A composite copper Anthropomorphic figure along with a copper sword was found by Dr. Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005. This composite copper Anthropomorph is a solitary example in the copper hoard depicting aVarah head. The Anthropomorphic figure, its inscription and animal motif that it bears, illustrate the continuity between the Harappan and Early Historical period

    वराहः, पुं, (वरान् आहन्ति इति दुर्गः । कृत्० ४ । ३ । ४९ । हन् + डः ।) पशु- विशेषः । वरा इति भाषा । तत्पर्य्यायः ।
    शूकरः २ घृष्टिः ३ कोलः ४ पोत्री ५ किरिः ६ किटिः ७ द्रंष्ट्री ८ घोणी ९ स्तब्घरोघ्ना १० क्रोडः ११ भूदारः १२ । इत्यमरः ॥ किरः १३ मुस्तादः १४ मुखलाङ्गूलः १५ । इति जटा- धरः ॥ स्थूलनासिकः १६ दन्तायुधः १७ वक्र- वक्त्रः १८ दीर्घतरः १९ आखनिकः २० भूक्षित् २१ बहुसूः २२ । इति शब्दरत्ना- वली ॥ अस्य मांसस्य गुणाः । वृष्यत्वम् । वातघ्नत्वम् । बलवर्द्धनत्वञ्च । इति राजवल्लभः ॥ बद्धमूत्रत्वम् । विरूक्षणत्वञ्च । इति तत्रैव पाठान्तरम् । अन्यत् शूकरशब्दे द्रष्टव्यम् ॥ * ॥शब्दकल्पद्रुमः/

    Varāha is an embodiment of the Vedas, of knowledge systems, of Varāha kalpa, 'cosmic time'. 

    There are 765 figures sculpted on the body of Varaha; they signify divinities of the Veda, knowledge system.
     Varāha temple, Khajuraho.
    Vedic divinities engraved on the side of the metal Varāha.Broken metal foot
    The broken metal foot compares with the bronze foot and anklet of Mohenjo-daro.
    Image result for bronze foot anklet mohenjodaroFoot with anklet; copper alloy. Mohenjo-daro (After Fig. 5.11 in Agrawal. D.P. 2000. Ancient Metal Technology & Archaeology of South Asia. Delhi: Aryan Books International.) karaṇa, (rebus karṇi 'supercargo') meṭ sole of foot, footstep, footprint (Ko.); meṭṭu step, stair, treading, slipper (Te.)(DEDR 1557). Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Munda)
    File:Bactrian axe BM 123628.jpg
    Cast axe-head; tin bronze inlaid with silver; shows a boar attacking a tiger which is attacking an 2500 -2000 BCE Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. Length: 17.8 cm (7 in). Weight: 675.5 g (23.82 oz). British Museum.ME 123268 (1913,0314.11913,0314.1) R. Maxwell-Hyslop, 'British Museum “axe” no. 123628: a Bactrian bronze', Bulletin of the Asia Institute, NS I (1987), pp. 17-26
    Shaft-hole axe head with bird-headed demon, boar, and dragon.Bronze Age, ca. late 3rd–early 2nd millennium B.C.,Bactria-Margiana
    Shaft-hole axe head with bird-headed demon, boar, and dragon.Bronze Age, ca. late 3rd–early 2nd millennium B.C.,Bactria-Margiana

    Gold sheet and silver, Late 3rd/early 2nd millennium B.C.E.

    Gurjara Pratiharas, Bhoja I, Silver or billon drachm, c. 9th century CE
    King Bhoja standing triumphant right, foot resting on lion below,
         Various Vaishnavite symbols at right /
    Two-line legend: srimad adi / varaha,
         symbols below
    Weight: 4.03 gm., Diam: 17-18 mm.
    Ref: Mitchiner Non-Islamic 335

    It is a silver drachm issued by the Pratihara king Bhoja I (836-885), who chose for himself the name Adivaraha, which was also a name of Lord Vishnu. The front of the coin features an image that appears to be Lord Vishnu in his form as the boar Adivaraha. The style and pose closely parallel an image of Adivaraha at the 6th century Gupta site of Udaigiri, in which the great boar is shown trampling the demon Naga as he rescues the goddess Ganga, and with her the world. 

    Maitreya inquires of his teacher, Parāsara, the origin and nature of the universe. Parāsara responds, repeats the Viṣṇu Purāna.

    The response of Parāsara is a precise statement of the weltanschauung of Bhāratam Janam, exemplified in the Hindu traditions of iconography and Harappa Script.

    A good example is the sets of hypertexts/hieroglyphs of Varāha which signify Brahma’s day which is kalpaand explains the origin and nature of the universe.

    After studying hundreds of iconographic details of Hindu traditions, TA Gopinatha Rao makes the following observations in relation to Varāha:

    “21. And the age of Brahma consists of a hundred years – according to the enumeration of day and night. One half of his age has elapsed, and this present Kalpa is the first in the remaining half of his age.

    22. Out of this present Kalpa six manus with their sandhis, and twenty-seven yugas of the seventh Manu called Vaivaswata have passed away.

    23. Of the twenty-eighth great yuga, the Krita Yuga has passed away. Let (a calculator) reckoning this time from this end of the Krita compute the number of years passed.”

    (Translation of the Surya Siddhanta (1861), by Pundit Bapu Deva Sastri, and of the Siddhanta Siromaniby the Late Lancelot Wilkinson, revised by Pundit Bapu Deva Sastri, Calcutta, The Baptist Mission Press, 1861)

    Brahma's day is Kalpa, is also named as śveta Varāha Kalpa. 

    Within this Day, six Manvantaras have already elapsed.

    We are in the seventh Manvantara, named as – Vaivasvatha Manvantara (or Sraddhadeva Manvantara).

    Within the Vaivasvatha Manvantara, 27 Mahayugas (4 Yugas together is a Mahayuga), and the Krita Treta and Dwapara Yugas of the 28th Mahayuga have elapsed. 

    This Kaliyuga is in the 28th Mahayuga. This Kaliyuga began in the year 3102 BCE (at midnight of 17 February/18 February) in the proleptic Julian Calendar. (Burgess, E., 1866, Translation of the Surya Siddhanta, a Text-book of Hindu Astronomy, (From the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. VI, 1866), p.17)

    Currently, 50 years of Brahma have elapsed. The last Kalpa at the end of 50th year is called Padma Kalpa. We are currently in the first 'day' of the 51st year. (Burgess, Ebenezer Translation of the Sûrya-Siddhânta: A text-book of Hindu astronomy, with notes and an appendix Originally published: Journal of the American Oriental Society 6 (1860) 141–498 Chapter 1, Verses 21, 22, 23).

    As of 2016 CE, only 5,118 years are passed out of 432,000 years of current Kali Yuga. Hence, another 426,882 years are left to complete this 28th Kali Yuga of Vaivaswatha Manvantara.

    Since 50 years of Brahma have already elapsed, this is the second Parardha, also called as Dvithiya Parardha.

    The time elapsed since the current Brahma has taken over the task of creation can be calculated as

    432000 × 10 × 1000 × 2 = 8.64 billion years (2 Kalpa (day and night) )

    8.64 × 109 × 30 × 12 = 3.1104 Trillion Years (1 year of Brahma)
    3.1104 × 1012 × 50 = 155.52 trillion years (50 years of Brahma)

    (6 × 71 × 4320000 ) + 7 × 1.728 × 10^6 = 1852416000 years elapsed in first six Manvataras, and Sandhi Kalas in the current Kalpa

    27 × 4320000 = 116640000 years elapsed in first 27 Mahayugas of the current Manvantara

    1.728 × 10^6 + 1.296 × 10^6 + 864000 = 3888000 years elapsed in current Mahayuga

    3102 + 2016 = 5118 years elapsed in current Kaliyuga.

    So the total time elapsed since current Brahma is

    155520000000000 + 1852416000 + 116640000 + 3888000 + 5118 = 155,521,972,949,118 years

    From 3102 BCE till 2016 CE is 5,118 years.  

    The total time elapsed since Brahma began the creation is: one hundred fifty-five trillion, five hundred twenty-one billion, nine hundred seventy-two million, nine hundred forty-nine thousand, one hundred seventeen years as of 2016 AD

    From Vishnupurana

    1.    Sacred Text, Vishnu Purana - English translation of by Horace Hayman Wilson

    2.    Vishnu Purana PDF - English translation by Horace Hayman Wilson

    3.    Vishnu Purana - Wikipedia

    Measure of time. Moments or Kashthas, &c.; day and night; fortnight, month, year, divine year: Yugas, or ages: Mahayuga, or great age: day of Brahma: periods of the Manus: a Manwantara: night ofBrahma, and destruction of the world: a year of Brahma: his life: a Kalpa: a Pararrdha: the past, or Padma Kalpa: the present, or Varaha.

    Brahma day, that is, a day of Brahma; the term Brahma() being the derivative form. At the end of this day a dissolution of the universe occurs, when all the three worlds, earth, and the regions of space, are consumed with fire. The dwellers of Maharloka (the region inhabited by the saints who survive the world), distressed by the heat, repair then to Janaloka (the region of holy men after their decease). When the three worlds are but one mighty ocean, Brahma, who is one with Narayana, satiate with the demolition of the universe, sleeps upon his serpent bed contemplated, the lotus born, by the ascetic inhabitants of the Janaloka for a night of equal duration with his day; at the close of which he creates anew. Of such days and nights is a year of Brahma composed; and a hundred such years constitute his whole life 7. One Pararddha 8, or half his existence, has expired, terminating with the Maha Kalpa 9 called Padma. The Kalpa (or day of Brahma) termed Varaha is the first of the second period of Brahma s existence.

    This was the creation of Swayambhuva Manu, by which the earth was peopled, when he presided over the first Manwantara, in the Kalpa of Varaha.

    In the country of BhadraswaVishnu resides as Hayasira (the horse headed); in Ketumala, as Varaha(the boar); in Bharata, as the tortoise Kurma(); in Kuru, as the fish Matsya(); in his universal form, every where; for Hari pervades all places: he, Maitreya, is the supporter of all things; he is all things. In the eight realms of Kimpurusha and the rest (or all exclusive of Bharata) there is no sorrow, nor weariness, nor anxiety, nor hunger, nor apprehension; their inhabitants are exempt from all infirmity and pain, and live in uninterrupted enjoyment for ten or twelve thousand years. Indra never sends rain upon them, for the earth abounds with water. In those places there is no distinction of KritaTreta, or any succession of ages. In each of these Varshas there are respectively seven principal ranges of mountains, from which, oh best of Brahmans, hundreds of rivers take their rise.

    acquainted with the Puranas enumerate eighteen, or the BrahmaPadmaVaishnava, saiva,BhagavataNaradiyaMarkandeya, agneya, BhavishyatBrahma VaivarttaLaingaVarahaSkanda,VamanaKaurmmaMatsyaGarudaBrahmanda. The creation of the world, and its successive reproductions, the genealogies of the patriarchs and kings, the periods of the Manus, and the transactions of the royal dynasties, are narrated in all these Puranas. This Purana which I have repeated to you, Maitreya, is called the Vaishnava, and is next in the series to the Padma; and in every part of it, in its narratives of primary and subsidiary creation, of families, and of periods, the mighty Vishnu is declared in this Purana 7.

    mountains, the earth, the sun, and the planets? what are the families of the gods and others, the Manus, the periods calledManwantaras, those termed Kalpas, and their subdivisions, and the four ages: the events that happen at the close of a Kalpa, and the terminations of the several ages 11: the histories, oh great Muni, of the gods, the sages, and kings; and how the Vedas were divided into branches (or schools), after they had been arranged by Vyasa: the duties of the Brahmans, and the other tribes, as well as of those who pass through the different orders of life? All these things I wish to hear from you, grandson of Vasishtha. Incline thy thoughts benevolently towards me, that I may, through thy favour, be informed of all I desire to know.

    Affecting then the quality of activity, Hari, the lord of all, himself becoming Brahma, engaged in the creation of the universe. Vishnuwith the quality of goodness, and of immeasurable power, preserves created things through successive ages, until the close of the period termed a Kalpa; when the same mighty deity, Janarddana 32, invested with the quality of darkness, assumes the awful form ofRudra, and swallows up the universe. Having thus devoured all things, and converted the world into one vast ocean, the Supremereposes upon his mighty serpent couch amidst the deep: he awakes after a season, and again, as Brahma, becomes the author of creation.

    Measure of time. Moments or Kashthas, &c.; day and night; fortnight, month, year, divine year: Yugas, or ages: Mahayuga, or great age: day of Brahma: periods of the Manus: a Manwantara: night of Brahma, and destruction of the world: a year of Brahma: his life: aKalpa: a Pararrdha: the past, or Padma Kalpa: the present, or Varaha.

    Brahma day, that is, a day of Brahma; the term Brahma() being the derivative form. At the end of this day a dissolution of the universe occurs, when all the three worlds, earth, and the regions of space, are consumed with fire. The dwellers of Maharloka (the region inhabited by the saints who survive the world), distressed by the heat, repair then to Janaloka (the region of holy men after their decease). When the three worlds are but one mighty ocean, Brahma, who is one with Narayana, satiate with the demolition of the universe, sleeps upon his serpent bed contemplated, the lotus born, by the ascetic inhabitants of the Janaloka for a night of equal duration with his day; at the close of which he creates anew. Of such days and nights is a year of Brahma composed; and a hundred such years constitute his whole life 7. One Pararddha 8, or half his existence, has expired, terminating with the Maha Kalpa 9 calledPadma. The Kalpa (or day of Brahma) termed Varaha is the first of the second period of Brahma s existence.

    Narayana s appearance, in the beginning of the Kalpa, as the Varsha or boar: Prithivi Earth() addresses him: he raises the world from beneath the waters: hymned by Sanandana and the Yogis. The earth floats on the ocean: divided into seven zones. The lower spheres of the universe restored. Creation renewed.

    Maitreya. Tell me, mighty sage, how, in the commencement of the (present) KalpaNarayana, who is named Brahma, created all existent things 1.

    At the close of the past (or PadmaKalpa, the divine Brahma, endowed with the quality of goodness, awoke from his night of sleep, and beheld the universe void. He, the supreme Narayana, the incomprehensible, the sovereign of all creatures, invested with the form ofBrahma, the god without beginning, the creator of all things; of whom, with respect to his name Narayana, the god who has the form ofBrahma, the imperishable origin of the world, this verse is repeated, "The waters are called Nara, because they were the offspring ofNara (the supreme spirit); and as in them his first Ayana() progress (in the character of Brahma) took place, he is thence namedNarayana (he whose place of moving was the waters) 2." He, the lord, concluding that within the waters lay the

    Vishnu as Brahma creates the world. General characteristics of creation. Brahma meditates, and gives origin to, immovable things, animals, gods, men. Specific creation of nine kinds; MahatTanmatraAindriya, inanimate objects, animals, gods, men, Anugraha, andKaumara. More particular account of creation. Origin of different orders of beings from Brahma s body under different conditions; and of the Vedas from his mouths. All things created again as they existed in a former Kalpa.

    Brahma having created, in the commencement of the Kalpa, various plants, employed them in sacrifices, in the beginning of the Tretaage. Animals were distinguished into two classes, domestic (village) and wild (forest): the first class contained the cow, the goat, the hog, the sheep, the horse, the ass, the mule: the latter, all beasts of prey, and many animals with cloven hoofs, the elephant, and the monkey. The fifth order were the birds; the sixth, aquatic animals; and the seventh, reptiles and insects.

    In this manner all creatures, great or small, proceeded from his limbs. The great progenitor of the world having formed the gods, demons, and Pitris, created, in the commencement of the Kalpa, the YakshasPisachas (goblins), Gandharbas and the troops ofApsarasas the nymphs of heaven, Naras (centaurs, or beings with the limbs of horses and human

    And the creator displayed infinite variety in the objects of sense, in the properties of living things, and in the forms of bodies: he determined in the beginning, by the authority of the Vedas, the names and forms and functions of all creatures, and of the gods; and the names and appropriate offices of the Rishis, as they also are read in the Vedas. In like manner as the products of the seasons designate in periodical revolution the return of the same season, so do the same circumstances indicate the recurrence of the sameYuga, or age; and thus, in the beginning of each Kalpa, does Brahma repeatedly create the world, possessing the power that is derived from the will to create, and assisted by the natural and essential faculty of the object to be created.

    In the beginning of the Kalpa, as Brahma purposed to create a son, who should be like himself, a youth of a purple complexion 2 appeared, crying with a low cry, and running about 3. Brahma, when he beheld him thus afflicted, said to him, "Why dost thou weep?""Give me a name," replied the boy. Rudra" be thy name," rejoined the great father of all creatures: "be composed; desist from tears." But, thus addressed, the boy still wept seven times, and Brahma therefore gave to him seven other denominations; and to these eight persons regions and wives and posterity belong. The eight manifestations, then, are named RudraBhava, sarva, IsanaPasupati,BhimaUgra, and Mahadeva, which were given to them by their great progenitor. He also assigned to them their respective stations, the sun, water, earth, air, fire, ether, the ministrant Brahman, and the moon; for these are their several forms 4. The wives

    princely birth in the illustrious mansion of Uttanapada. But that which would have been thought a great boon by others, birth in the race of Swayambhuva, you have not so considered, and therefore have propitiated me. The man who worships me obtains speedy liberation from life. What is heaven to one whose mind is fixed on me? A station shall be assigned to thee, Dhruva, above the three worlds 8; one in which thou shalt sustain the stars and the planets; a station above those of the sun, the moon, Mars, the son of Soma Mercury(),Venus, the son of Surya Saturn(), and all the other constellations; above the regions of the seven Rishis, and the divinities who traverse the atmosphere 9. Some celestial beings endure for four ages; some for the reign of a Manu: to thee shall be granted the duration of a Kalpa. Thy mother Suniti, in the orb of a bright star, shall abide near thee for a similar term; and all those who, with minds attentive, shall glorify thee at dawn or at eventide, shall acquire exceeding religious merit.

    and piled them over him for many thousand miles: but he, still with mind undisturbed, thus offered daily praise to Vishnu, lying at the bottom of the sea, under the mountain heap. Glory" to thee, god of the lotus eye: glory to thee, most excellent of spiritual things: glory to thee, soul of all worlds: glory to thee, wielder of the sharp discus: glory to the best of Brahmans; to the friend of Brahmans and of kine; to Krishna, the preserver of the world: to Govinda be glory. To him who, as Brahma, creates the universe; who in its existence is its preserver; be praise. To thee, who at the end of the Kalpa takest the form of Rudra; to thee, who art triform; be adoration. Thou,Achyuta, art the gods, Yakshas, demons, saints, serpents, choristers and dancers of heaven, goblins, evil spirits, men, animals, birds, insects, reptiles, plants, and stones, earth, water, fire, sky, wind, sound, touch, taste, colour, flavour, mind, intellect, soul, time, and the qualities of nature: thou art all these, and the chief object of them all. Thou art knowledge and ignorance, truth and falsehood, poison and ambrosia. Thou art the performance and discontinuance of acts 4: thou art the acts which the Vedas enjoin: thou art the enjoyer of the fruit of all acts, and the means by which they are accomplished. Thou, Vishnu, who art the soul of all, art the fruit of all acts of piety. Thy universal diffusion, indicating might and goodness, is in me, in others, in all creatures, in all worlds. Holy

    This was the creation of Swayambhuva Manu, by which the earth was peopled, when he presided over the first Manwantara, in the Kalpaof Varaha.

    Below the seven Patalas is the form of Vishnu, proceeding from the quality of darkness, which is called sesha 4, the excellencies of which neither Daityas nor Danavas can fully enumerate. This being is called Ananta by the spirits of heaven, and is worshipped by sages and by gods. He has a thousand heads, which are embellished with the pure and visible mystic sign 5: and the thousand jewels in his crests give light to all the regions. For the benefit of the world he: deprives the Asuras of their strength. He rolls his eyes fiercely, as if intoxicated. He wears a single ear ring, a diadem, and wreath upon each brow; and shines like the white mountains topped with flame. He is clothed in purple raiment, and ornamented with a white necklace, and looks like another Kailasa, with the heavenly Gangaflowing down its precipices. In one hand he holds a plough, and in the other a pestle; and he is attended by Varuni (the goddess of wine), who is his own embodied radiance. From his mouths, at the end of the Kalpa, proceeds the venomed fire that, impersonated asRudra, who is one with Balarama, devours the three worlds.

    Above Dhruva, at the distance of ton million leagues, lies the sphere of saints, or Mahar loka, the inhabitants of which dwell in it throughout a Kalpa, or day of Brahma. At twice that distance is situated Janaloka, where Sanandana and other pure minded sons ofBrahma, reside. At four times the distance, between the two last, lies the Tapo loka (the sphere of penance), inhabited by the deities called Vaibhrajas, who are unconsumable by fire. At six times the distance (or twelve Crores, a hundred and twenty millions of leagues) is situated Satya loka, the sphere of truth, the inhabitants of which never again know death 3.

    Wherever earthy substance exists, which may be traversed by the feet, that constitutes the sphere of the earth, the dimensions of which I have already recounted to you. The region that extends from the earth to the sun, in which the Siddhas and other celestial beings move, is the atmospheric sphere, which also I have described. The interval between the sun and Dhruva, extending fourteen hundred thousand leagues, is called by those who are acquainted with the system of the universe the heavenly sphere. These three spheres are termed transitory: the three highest, JanaTapa, and Satya, are styled durable 4: Maharloka, as situated between the two, has also a mixed character; for although it is deserted at the end of the Kalpa, it is not destroyed. These seven spheres, together with the Patalas, forming the extent of the whole world, I have thus, Maitreya, explained to you.

    The path of the gods lies to the north of the solar sphere, north of the Nagavithi 23, and south of the seven Rishis. There dwell theSiddhas, of subdued senses, continent and pure, undesirous of progeny, and therefore victorious over death: eighty eight thousand of these chaste beings tenant the regions of the sky, north of the sun, until the destruction of the universe: they enjoy immortality, for that they are holy; exempt from covetousness and concupiscence, love and hatred; taking no part in the procreation of living beings, and detecting the unreality of the properties of elementary matter. By immortality is meant existence to the end of the Kalpa: life as long as the three regions (earth, sky, and heaven) last is called exemption from (reiterated) death 24. The consequences of acts of iniquity or piety, such as Brahmanicide or an Aswamedha, endure for a similar period, or until the end of a Kalpa 25, when all within the interval between Dhruva and the earth is destroyed.

    Parasara. The chariot of the moon has three wheels, and is drawn by ten horses, of the whiteness of the Jasmine, five on the right half (of the yoke), five on the left. It moves along the asterisms, divided into ranges, as before described; and, in like manner as the sun, is upheld by Dhruva; the cords that fasten it being tightened or relaxed in the same way, as it proceeds on its course. The horses of the moon, sprung from the bosom of the waters 1, drag the car for a whole Kalpa, as do the coursers of the sun. The radiant sun supplies the moon, when reduced by the draughts of the gods to a single Kala, with a single ray; and in the same proportion as the ruler of the night was exhausted by the celestials, it is replenished by the sun, the plunderer of the waters: for the gods, Maitreya, drink the nectar and ambrosia accumulated in the moon during half the month, and from this being their food they are immortal. Thirty six thousand three hundred and thirty three divinities drink the lunar ambrosia. When two digits remain, the moon enters the orbit of the sun, and abides in the ray called Ama; whence the period is termed Amavasya. In that orbit the moon is immersed for a day and night in the water; thence it enters the branches and shoots of the trees; and thence goes to the sun. Consequently any one who cuts off a branch, or casts down a leaf, when the moon is in the trees (the day of its rising invisible), is guilty of Brahmanicide. When the remaining portion of the

    The period of Swayambhuva Manu, in the beginning of the Kalpa, has already been described by me, together with the gods, Rishis, and other personages, who then flourished 1. I will now, therefore, enumerate

    An entire Kalpa, oh Brahman, is said to comprise a thousand ages, or fourteen Manwantaras 13; and it is succeeded by a night of similar duration; during which, he who wears the form of BrahmaJanarddana, the substance of all things, the lord of all, and creator of all, involved in his own illusions, and having swallowed up the three spheres, sleeps upon the serpent sesha, amidst the ocean 14. Being after that awake, he, who is the universal soul, again creates all things as they were before, in combination with the property of foulness (or activity): and in a portion of his essence, associated with the property of goodness, he, as the Manus, the kings, the gods, and their Indras, as well as the seven Rishis, is the preserver of the world. In what manner Vishnu, who is characterised by the attribute of providence during the four ages, effected their preservation, I will next, Maitreya, explain.

    [paragraph continues] saulkayani, and PippaladaPathya had three pupils, JajaliKumudadi, and saunaka; and by all these were separate branches instituted. saunaka having divided his Sanhita into two, gave one to Babhru, and the other to Saindhavayana; and from them sprang two schools, the Saindhavas and Munjakesas 4. The principal subjects of difference in the Sanhitas of the Atharvaveda are the five Kalpas or ceremonials: the Nakshatra Kalpa, or rules for worshipping the planets; the Vaitana Kalpa, or rules for oblations, according to the Vedas generally; the Sanhita Kalpa, or rules for sacrifices, according to different schools; the angirasaKalpa, incantations and prayers for the destruction of foes and the like; and the Santi Kalpa, or prayers for averting evil 5.

    The four Vedas, the six Angas (or subsidiary portions of the Vedas, viz. siksha, rules of reciting the prayers, the accents and tones to be observed; Kalpa, ritual; Vyakarana, grammar; Nirukta, glossarial comment; Chhandas, metre; and Jyotish, (astronomy), withMimansa (theology), Nyaya (logic), Dharma (the institutes of law), and the Puranas, constitute the fourteen principal branches of knowledge: or they are considered as eighteen, with the addition of these four; the ayur veda, medical science (as taught byDhanwantari); Dhanur veda, the science of archery or arms, taught by BhriguGandharba veda, or the drama, and the arts of music, dancing, &c., of which the Muni Bharata was the author; and the Artha sastram, or science of government, as laid down first byVrihaspati.

    t, sprung from the quality of darkness, fierce, fraudulent, and cruel. Glory to thee, Janarddana, who art that piety which is the instrument of recompensing the virtues of those who abide in heaven. Glory to thee, who art one with the saints, whose perfect nature is ever blessed, and traverses unobstructed all permeable elements. Glory to thee, who art one with the serpent race, double tongued, impetuous, cruel, insatiate of enjoyment, and abounding with wealth. Glory to thee, who art one with the Rishis, whose nature is free from sin or defect, and is identified with wisdom and tranquillity. Glory to thee, oh lotus eyed, who art one with time, the form that devours, without remorse, all created things at the termination of the KalpaGlory to thee, who art Rudra, the being that

    earth sustains living and inanimate things? and that, in the character of uncreated time, with its divisions of ages, developed from an instant, thou devourest the world? As the waters of the sea, when swallowed up by submarine flame, are recovered by the winds, and thrown, in the form of snow, upon the Himachala, where coming into contact with the rays of the sun, they reassume their watery nature 2; so the world, being devoured by thee at the period of dissolution, becomes of necessity, at the end of every Kalpa, the world again, through thy creative efforts. Thou and I, soul of the universe, are but one and the same cause of the creation of the earth, although, for its protection, we exist in distinct individuals. Calling to memory who thou art, O being of illimitable might, destroy of thyself the demon. Suspending a while your mortal character, do what is right."

    Maitreya. You have narrated to me, illustrious sage, the creation of the world, the genealogies of the patriarchs, the duration of theManwantaras, and the dynasties of princes, in detail. I am now desirous to hear from you an account of the dissolution of the world, the season of total destruction, and that which occurs at the expiration of a Kalpa 1.

    Parasara. Hear from me, Maitreya, exactly the circumstances of the end of all things, and the dissolution that occurs either at the expiration of a Kalpa, or that which takes place at the close of the life of Brahma. A month of mortals is a day and night of the progenitors: a year of mortals is a day and night of the gods. Twice a thousand aggregates of the four ages is a day and night ofBrahma 2. The four ages are the KritaTretaDwapara, and Kali; comprehending together twelve thousand years of the gods. There are infinite successions of these four ages, of a similar description, the first of which is always called the Krita, and the last the Kali. In the first, the Krita, is that age which is created by Brahma; in the last, which is the Kali age, a dissolution of the world occurs.

    THE dissolution of existing beings is of three kinds, incidental, elemental, and absolute 1. The incidental is that which relates toBrahma, and occurs at the end of a Kalpa: the elemental is that which takes place after two Pararddhas: the absolute is final liberation from existence.

    occurs, when all the discrete products of nature are withdrawn into their indiscrete source. The shortest period of time is a Matra, which is equal to the twinkling of the human eye. Fifteen Matras make a Kashtha; thirty Kashthas, one Kala; fifteen Kalas, one Nadika. ANadika is ascertained by a measure of water, with a vessel made of twelve Palas and a half of copper, in the bottom of which there is to be a hole made with a tube of gold, of the weight of four Mashas, and four inches long 4. According to the Magadha measure, the vessel should hold a Prastha (or sixteen Palas) of water. Two of these Nadis make one Muhurtta; thirty of which are one day and night.Thirty such periods form a month; twelve months make a year, or a day and night of the gods; and three hundred and sixty such days constitute a year of the celestials. An aggregate of four ages contains twelve thousand divine years; and a thousand periods of four ages complete a day of Brahma. That period is also termed a Kalpa, during which fourteen