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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    ANE – Ancient Near East

    dhāī˜ 'wisp of fibre in a twisted rope' (Lahnda); rebus: 'one in role of dice'.The circumference of a circle is slightly more than three times as long as its diameter. 

    Sign 397 dhāī 'strand' PLUS vata, 'string'; together, the expression is:

    a dotted circle + string which signifies dhā̆vaḍ ''iron-smelter' who performs the act of purification to win the wealth, the metal from mere earth and stone -- replicating the immeasurability of cosmic phenomena. This symbol is worn on the fillets of the Mohenjo-daro priest (on his forehead and on his right shoulder).




    These signs (ASI 1977 Mahadevan corpus) may be semantic variants of the ‘dotted circle+ string’ orthography of Sign 397.


    Field Symbol 118 is ‘dotted circle’.Field Symbol figure 123 These hypertexts are also likely to be related to the orthography (and semantics) of ‘dotted circle + string’. Field Symbol figure 123 is associated with a ‘portable furnace’ indicating the possibility of production of ‘crucible steel’..

     Cross-section view of a strand (say, through a bead), ‘dotted circle’: धातु ‘strand, element’ rebus: ‘primary element of the earth, mineral, metal’  dhātu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā] Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ(whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)

    dula‘duplicated’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’PLUS kolmo‘rice plant’ rebus: kolilmi ‘smithy, forge’. Thus, metal casting forge. 

    kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman'




    m2089A m2089BC

    dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'. Thus bronze/bell-metal workshop.

    meḍ ‘body’ rebus: mẽṛhẽt ‘metal’,meḍ ‘iron, copper (red ores)’ (Mu. Ho. Slavic) < mr̥du‘iron’ mr̥id‘earth, clay, loam’ (Samskrtam)
    (Deśīnāmamālā)


    m2090dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal' PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'. Thus bronze/bell-metal workshop.

    meḍ ‘body’ rebus: mẽṛhẽt ‘metal’,meḍ ‘iron, copper (red ores)’ (Mu. Ho. Slavic) < mr̥du‘iron’ mr̥id‘earth, clay, loam’ (Samskrtam)
    (Deśīnāmamālā)








    m2091m2092मेंढाmēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ 'iron'

    (lozenge) Split parenthesis: mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'.

    meḍ ‘body’ rebus: mẽṛhẽt ‘metal’,meḍ ‘iron, copper (red ores)’ (Mu. Ho. Slavic) < mr̥du‘iron’ mr̥id‘earth, clay, loam’ (Samskrtam)
    (Deśīnāmamālā)

    kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal'

    kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman'

    PLUS mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.'

    khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati) PLUS kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kaṁsa'bronze' (Telugu) kharaḍa ‘account day-book’

    dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhāṭnā 'to send out, pour out, cast (metal)' (CDIAL 6771). 

    m2093kolmo‘rice plant’ rebus: kolilmi ‘smithy, forge’. Thus, metal casting forge. 

    dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    धातु ‘strand, element’ rebus: ‘primary element of the earth, mineral, metal’  dhātu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā] Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ(whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)

     

    m2094m2094A See m2093

    m0352Am0352Cm0352Dm0352Em0352F dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar' 

     

    m2112adula‘duplicated’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’ PLUS muh’ingot’ PLUS धातु ‘strand, element’ rebus: ‘primary element of the earth, mineral, metal’  dhātu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā] Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ(whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)

    koa 'one' rebus: ko 'workshop' PLUS meḍ ‘body’ rebus: mẽṛhẽt ‘metal’,meḍ ‘iron, copper (red ores)’ (Mu. Ho. Slavic) < mr̥du‘iron’ mr̥id‘earth, clay, loam’ (Samskrtam)
    (Deśīnāmamālā)

    kāru pincers, tongs. Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith'

    kolom‘three’ rebus: kolimi‘smithy, forge’

    kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bell-metal' PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'. Thus bronze/bell-metal workshop.

    m2113ABDधातु ‘strand, element’ rebus: ‘primary element of the earth, mineral, metal’  dhātu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā] Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ(whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)


    dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhāṭnā 'to send out, pour out, cast (metal)' (CDIAL 6771). 

    dula ‘duplicated’ rebus; dul ‘metal casting’ PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'.

    kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman'

    m1653 ivory plaque19051905

    bhaṭā 'warrior' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'

    kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥकौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith  PLUS dula ‘duplicated’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’. Thus, bronze castings.

     m1654A ivory cubem1654B ivory cube m1654D ivory cube dhāˊtu'strand' Rebus: mineral: dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā] Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773).


    Ivory counters. Mohenjo-daro. The hypertexts signify creation of hard alloys from mineral ores. Hieroglyphs: karaṇḍa'duck' (Sanskrit) karaṛa'a very large aquatic bird' (Sindhi) Rebus: करडा[karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi)  


    dhāˊtu'strand' Rebus: mineral: dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā] Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773).

     Ivory rod, ivory plaque with dotted circles. Mohenjodaro. [Musee National De Arts Asiatiques Guimet, 1988-1989, Les cites oubliees de l’Indus Archeologie du Pakistan.]

     m1951a Hieroglyph: dhāˊtu'strand' Rebus: mineral: dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā] Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773).

     m1272

    Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrowʼ(CDIAL 3023) rebus: kaṇḍa 'implements'.

    a

    aren,'lid' Rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal’ PLUS ko

    a 'one' rebus: ko

     'workshop'

    kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ

    कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith  PLUS dula ‘duplicated’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’. Thus, bronze castings.

    kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman' PLUS sal‘splinter’ rebus: sal‘workshop’

    khaṇḍa 'division'. rebus: kaṇḍa 'implements'

    dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    m1350 2599ranku antelope’ rebus: ranku‘tin’

    kuṭila ‘bent’ CDIAL 3230 kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’, kuṭika— ‘bent’ MBh. Rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) cf. āra-kūṭa, 'brass'  Old English ār 'brass, copper, bronze' Old Norse eir 'brass, copper', German ehern 'brassy, bronzen'. kastīra n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. 2. *kastilla -- .1. H. kathīr m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; G. kathīr n. ʻ pewter ʼ.2. H. (Bhoj.?) kathīl°lā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; M. kathīl n. ʻ tin ʼ, kathlẽ n. ʻ large tin vessel ʼ(CDIAL 2984) कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ

    कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith  PLUS dula ‘duplicated’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’. Thus, bronze castings.


    kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman' PLUS खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon) rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'.

    (lozenge) Split parenthesis: mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Thus, ingot forge. 

    adar‘harrow’ rebus: aduru‘native metal’

    ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' (R̥gveda)

    dhāi 'strand' (R̥gveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a guild of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    kolmo‘rice plant’ rebus: kolilmi ‘smithy, forge’

    m1381A1m1381A2 1559 Seal Impression on a pot

    dhāi 'strand' (R̥gveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    sal ‘splinter’ rebus: sal ‘workshop’

    kāru pincers, tongs. Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' 

    dula ‘duplicated’ rebus: dul‘metal casting’ PLUS dhāḷ 'slanted stroke' rebus: dhāḷako 'ingot' PLUS kolom ‘three’ rebus: kolimi‘smithy, forge’

     m1648shell dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)


    m1684a Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.

    Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.)

    koḍa 'one' rebus: koḍ 'workshop'

    dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'; dhāvḍā 'smelter'

    kolmo‘rice plant’ rebus: kolilmi ‘smithy, forge’.

    m1744 Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.

    Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.)

    aya, ayo'fish' rebus: aya'iron'ayas'metal' PLUS adaren 'lid' rebus: aduru'unsmelted metal'

    मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’
    aDaren,'lid' Rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal'.PLUS dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'; dhāvḍā 'smelter'

    dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhāṭnā 'to send out, pour out, cast (metal)' (CDIAL 6771) PLUS खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon) rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'.

    kamaḍha 'archer, bow' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'

    khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati) PLUS kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kaṁsa 'bronze' (Telugu) kharaḍa ‘account day-book’

    m1744 Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.

    Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.)

    aya, ayo'fish' rebus: aya'iron'ayas'metal' PLUS adaren 'lid' rebus: aduru'unsmelted metal'

    मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’

    a

    aren,'lid' Rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal'.PLUS dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'; dhāvḍā 'smelter'

    dāṭu 'cross' rebus: dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhāṭnā 'to send out, pour out, cast (metal)' (CDIAL 6771) PLUS खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon) rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'.

    kamaḍha 'archer, bow' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'

    khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati) PLUS kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kaṁsa 'bronze' (Telugu) kharaḍa ‘account day-book’


    m1916a Field symbol: kul ‘tiger’ (Santali); kōlu id. (Telugu) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Telugu) कोल्हा[ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [kōlhēṃ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol, kolhe, ‘the koles, iron smelters speaking a language akin to that of Santals’ (Santali) kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)

    adaren 'lid' rebus: aduru'unsmelted metal' PLUS dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'; dhāvḍā 'smelter' PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus sal 'workshop' 

    मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ PLUS meḍ ‘body’ rebus: mẽṛhẽt ‘metal’,meḍ ‘iron, copper (red ores)’ (Mu. Ho. Slavic) < mr̥du‘iron’ mr̥id‘earth, clay, loam’ (Samskrtam)
    (Deśīnāmamālā)

    śrētrī ʻladderʼ rebus: seṭṭha 'guild-master'

    kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman'


    m1120 2362  Field symbol: पोळ [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. पोळी [ pōḷī ] dewlap. पोळाpōḷā ] 'zebu, bos indicus taurus' rebus: पोळाpōḷā ] 'magnetite, ferrite ore: Fe3O4' 

    aren,'lid' Rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal' PLUS dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a guild of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773)

    kāru pincers, tongs. Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' PLUS dula ‘duplicated’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’

    kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe' कर्णिक 'steersman, helmsman' 


    m1688a Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.
    Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.)

    ranku‘liquid measure’ rebus: ranku‘tin’

    kolom'three' rebus: kolimi'smithy, forge'.

    mēṭu 'height, eminence, hillock' rebus:  meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) PLUS kolom ‘thricee’ rebus: kolimi‘smithy, forge’

    Circumscript dula‘two’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’ PLUS खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon) rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'

    ayo, aya'fish' rebus: aya'iron'ayas'metal alloy' (R̥gveda)

    dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773) PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'

    bicha 'scorpion' Rebus: bica 'hematite, sandstone ferrite ore' PLUS PLUS मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Semantic determinant)

    kamaḍha 'archer, bow' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage’

    m1688a Field symbol:  kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. sãgaḍa (double-canoe, catamaran) Hence, smith guild.

    Meaning, artha of inscription: Trade (and metalwork wealth production) of kōnda sangara 'metalwork engraver'... PLUS (wealth categories cited.)

    ranku‘liquid measure’ rebus: ranku‘tin’

    kolom'three' rebus: kolimi'smithy, forge'.

    mēṭu 'height, eminence, hillock' rebus:  meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) PLUS kolom ‘thricee’ rebus: kolimi‘smithy, forge’

    Circumscript dula‘two’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’ PLUS खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon) rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'

    ayo, aya'fish' rebus: aya'iron'ayas'metal alloy' (R̥gveda)

    dhāi 'strand' (Rigveda) tri- dhāu 'three strands' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'. त्रिधातुः (magnetite, hematite, laterite) -- ferrite ores PLUS copper ore M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron-- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ(CDIAL 6773) PLUS sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'

    bicha 'scorpion' Rebus: bica 'hematite, sandstone ferrite ore' PLUS PLUS मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Semantic determinant)

    kamaḍha 'archer, bow' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage’


    0 0

    LOT 317

    A BLACK STONE STELE OF DURGA MAHISHASURAMARDINI

    NORTHEAST INDIA, PALA PERIOD, LATE 10TH/EARLY 11TH CENTURY

    Price realised
    USD 912,500
    Estimate













    USD 800,000 - USD 1,200,000
    A BLACK STONE STELE OF DURGA MAHISHASURAMARDINI
    NORTHEAST INDIA, PALA PERIOD, LATE 10TH/EARLY 11TH CENTURY
    51 ½ in. (131 cm.) high
    Provenance
    Private collection, Germany, since 1970, by repute.
    Consigned to Spink & Son, London, in July 1986.
    New York art market. 
    Acquired by the present owner from the above on 2 January 2007.




























































































    https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-black-stone-stele-of-durga-mahishasuramardini-6129307-details.aspx

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    https://tinyurl.com/ydhggrfr

    This monograph posits and validates hypotheses that 

    1. Kharoṣṭī writing system is a continuum, a legacy of Indus Script wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork rendered in Meluhha (Indian sprachbund, speech  union); 

    2. the compound word Kharoṣṭī  (khār + ओष्ठी oṣṭhī) itself  signifies 'blacksmith lip (expression)'; and 

    3. kharoṣṭī syllabic system is closely aligned to Aramaic syllabary. 

    The most significant evidence is provided by gold ingots discovered in Dal'verzin-Tepe (Uzbekistan, northern Bactria) engraved with their weights in Kharoṣṭī script. This is remarkable evidence of continuum of the raison d'etre of Indus Script which is principally a wealth accounting system of ledgers detailing metalwork catalogues. 

    खरोष्टी f. a kind of written character or alphabet Lalit. x , 29; ; °रोट्ठि Jain.



    " First of all, the historical circumstances of the development of Kharosthl from Aramaic are easily explained by reference to the Achaemenian conquests in the western borderlands of India; as noted by Biihler, "[T]he territory of the Kharosthl corresponds very closely with the extent of the portion of India, presumably held by the Persians" (OKA 47 = OIBA 95). Since Aramaic served as the lingua franca of the Persian empire, it is easy to imagine how the Aramaic alphabet could have been adapted to the local Indian language, namely, Gandhari, as "the result of the intercourse between the offices of the Satraps and of the native authorities" (OKA 49 = OIBA 97).(In this connection Biihler also referred to the use of the Iranian word dipi 'writing' and various derivatives thereof in the KharosthT versions of the Asokan edicts (OKA 46-7 = OIBA 95)... the three main criteria—historical, paleographic, and systemic—for establishing genetic connections between scripts are satisfied in the derivation of KharosthI from Aramaic. The theory has accordingly been accepted by nearly all authorities on the subject, including many of those (e.g., Ojha, BPLM 31-7) who do not accept a Semitic origin for Brahmi."There are indications that the Kharoṣṭī syllabic writing system (with 252 signs for consonant and vowel combinations) is concordant with the Aramaic alphabetic writing system. More than 150 inscriptions in Indian scripts, such as Kharoṣṭī, Brāhmī and other languages (Prākrit and Sanskrit or hybrid Sanskrit), were found at Kara Tepe, as well as 35 at Faiaz Tepe.



    (Source: (Salomon, Richard. 1999. Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Langua. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 58).

    The use of a unique symbol for the numeral '20' is significant. This numeral 20, and the numeral 4 are definitive landing points in Kharoṣṭhī numeration because the signifiers for 30 are the combination of symbols for 20 and 10; similarly, the signifiers for 40 are the duplication of the symbol for 20, the signifiers for 80 are the quadruplication of the symbol for 20. Similarly, the symbols for numbers between 4 and 9 are formed by combinations of the symbol for 4; thus, symbol for 5 is symbol 4 PLUS symbol for 1; symbol for 9 is 4+4+1 which is duplication of symbol 4 (to arrive at 8) PLUS symbol for 1.

    These two landing points in numeration have unique Meluhha (Indian sprachbund) words:

    I suggest that this numeral 20 in Kharoṣṭhī is a Meluhha (Indian sprachbund) word: 

    *kōḍi ʻa score, twentyʼ. [J. Przyluski RoczOrj iv 231 ← Austro -- as. (Mahle kuri, Birhar kuṛi, Kharia kori, Juang koḍi: prob. same as word for ʻ man ʼ, i.e. ʻ 20 fingers ʼ) whence → Drav. (Kurukh kūrī, Malto koṛi, Kui kōḍe)] K. kuri f. ʻ a score ʼ, S. P. koṛī f. (PhonPj 118 < kṓṭi -- 1), N. kori, A. kuri, B. kuṛi, Or. koṛi, H. koṛī f., G. kũḍī f., M. koḍ°ḍī f. S.kcch. koḍī ʻ 20 ʼ(CDIAL 3503).

    This suggests that Kharoṣṭhī is a script which is derived from the Indus Script which is principally premised on Meluhha (Indian sprachbund) words and expressions such as kuṭhi 'smelter', kanka, karṇika 'rim of jar' rebus: karṇī 'supercargo', karnīka 'accountant'.

    gaṇḍaka m. ʻ a coin worth four cowries ʼ lex., ʻ method of counting by fours ʼ W. [← Mu. Przyluski RoczOrj iv 234] S. g̠aṇḍho m. ʻ four in counting ʼ; P. gaṇḍā m. ʻ four cowries ʼ; B. Or. H. gaṇḍā m. ʻ a group of four, four cowries ʼ; M. gaṇḍā m. ʻ aggregate of four cowries or pice ʼ.Addenda: gaṇḍaka -- . -- With *du -- 2: OP. dugāṇā m. ʻ coin worth eight cowries ʼ.(CDIAL 4001)

    The landing point in numeration is suggested by the following etymon in Santali: Four one-s constitute :gaṇḍa, numeral 4 or group 4.


    A second argument for suggesting that the inventors of Kharoṣṭhī syllabic script are inventors of Indus Script is the fact that almost all the Indus Script inscriptions are wealth accounting ledgers or metalwor catalogues. The word Kharoṣṭhī is an expression composed of two words: khar + ṓṣṭha.  These are signified in Indu Script with rebus readings follows: khār 'blacksmith' PLUS ṓṣṭha m. ʻlipʼ (R̥gveda).. Thus, together, the combined expression Kharoṣṭhī can be semantically interpreted as 'blacksmith lip (expression)', to explain that the script is intended to signify the spoken forms of words of blacksmiths (metalwork artisans).


    khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -द्वकुरु‍&below; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -ग&above;जि&below; or -güjü -ग&above;जू&below; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू&below;), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü -कूरू‍&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -क&above;टु&below; । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü -क&above;टू&below; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.(Kashmiri)


    ṓṣṭha m. ʻ lip ʼ RV. Pa. oṭṭha -- m., Pk. oṭṭha -- , uṭ°hoṭṭha -- , huṭ° m., Gy. pal. ōšt, eur. vušt m.; Ash. ọ̈̄ṣṭ, Wg. ṳ̄ṣṭwūṣṭ, Kt. yūṣṭ (prob. ← Ind. NTS xiii 232); Paš. lauṛ. ūṭh f. ← Ind. (?), gul. ūṣṭ ʻ lip ʼ, dar. weg. uṣṭ ʻ bank of a river ʼ (IIFL iii 3, 22); Kal. rumb. ūṣṭuṣṭ ʻ lip ʼ; Sh. ō̃ṭṷ m. ʻ upper lip ʼ, ō̃ṭi̯ f. ʻ lower lip ʼ (→ Ḍ ōṭe pl.); K. wuṭh, dat. °ṭhas m. ʻ lip ʼ; L. hoṭh m., P. hoṭhhõṭh m., WPah. bhal. oṭh m., jaun. hōṭh, Ku. ū̃ṭh, gng. ōṭh, N. oṭh, A. ō̃ṭh, MB. Or. oṭha, Mth. Bhoj. oṭh, Aw. lakh. ō̃ṭhhō̃ṭh, H. oṭhõṭhhoṭhhõṭh m., G. oṭhhoṭh m., M. oṭhõṭhhoṭ m., Si. oṭa. ōṣṭhī -- .Addenda: ṓṣṭha -- : WPah.poet. oṭhḷu m. ʻ lip ʼ, hoṭṛu, kṭg. hóṭṭh, kc. ōṭh, Garh. hoṭhhō̃ṭ.(CDIAL 2563) †*adhaōṣṭha -- ʻ lower lip ʼ (cf. adharauṣṭha -- m. n. ʻ upper and lower lip, the lips ʼ Kālid.) suggested by K. R. Norman (quoted by J. D. Smith Vīsaḷa 335). [adháḥ, ṓṣṭha -- ]Pk. hōṭṭha -- , huṭṭha -- ʻ lip ʼ, P. H. G. hoṭh, M. hoṭ m.(CDIAL 245a) †*adhamauṣṭha -- ʻ lower lip ʼ. [Cf. adharauṣṭha -- s.v. †*adhaōṣṭha -- : adhamá -- , ṓṣṭha -- ] P. WPah.jaun. H. Aw.lakh. hõṭh m.; rather < or X ṓṣṭha -- : Ku. ū̃ṭh, gng. ō̃ṭh, A. M. õṭh. (CDIAL 247a).


    The expression Kharoṣṭhī is found in Judges (Old Bible) included in the expression harosheth-hagoyim which is pronounced as: Khar-o'-sheth hagoyim. Hence, I suggest that the expression harosheth-hagoyim is derived from the Meluhha expression Kharoṣṭhī goya. Thus, Harosheth hagoyim kharoṣṭhī goya = khār 'blacksmith' PLUS ओष्ठी f. (in a compound the  of ओष्ठ forms with a preceding  either वृद्धि  , or गुण  Ka1ty. on Pa1n2. 6-1 , 94) ; ([cf. Zd. aoshtra ; O. Pruss. austa , " mouth " ; O. Slav. usta , " mouth. "])PLUS goya 'gotra, kinsman, guild', thus, 'blacksmith speech guild'. This blacksmith speech guild are Meluhha speakers as demonstrated in the decipherment of 8000 Indus Script inscriptions.

    "Harosheth-hagoyim was the home of general Sisera, who was killed by Jael during the war off Naphtali and Zebulunagainst Jabin, king of Hazor in Canaan (Judges 4:2). The lead players of this war on the side of Israel were the general Barak and the judge Deborah. The name Harosheth-hagoyim occurs three times in the fourth chapter of Judges (Judges 4:2, 4:13 and 4:16)." http://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Harosheth.html#.WrR6FYhubIU The expression harosheth hagoyim is interpreted as 'smithy of nations'.

    For a discussion on the work done by this 'smithy of nations' see: 

     https://tinyurl.com/yc3zndc6 This monogrpah provides the following picture of a bronze lynch-pin of a chariot: "A 3,200-year-old round bronze tablet with a carved face of a woman, found at the El-ahwat excavation site near Katzir in central Israel, is part of a linchpin that held the wheel of a battle chariot in place. This was revealed by scientist Oren Cohen of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa. “Such an identification reinforces the claim that a high-ranking Egyptian or local ruler was based at this location, and is likely to support the theory that the site is Harosheth Haggoyim, the home town of Sisera, as mentioned in Judges 4-5,” says Prof. Zertal."


    Woman on the chariot lynchpin is Meluhha lady, the bronze act is the work of Meluhha smiths of Harosheth Hagoyim. See S.Kalyanaraman's book published on Amazon for detailed arguments and evidences of comparable images.
    Related image

    The woman on the lynchpin is an Indus Script hypertext: kola 'woman' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelter'.  Thus, the product from a smelter by a Meluhha blacksmith, ironsmith.

    *skabha ʻ post, peg ʼ. [√skambh]Kal. Kho. iskow ʻ peg ʼ BelvalkarVol 86 with (?)(CDIAL 13638) Rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. Thus, the pin signifies: kolhe kammaṭa 'smelter mint' (product)

    See: 

     http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2011/11/archaeological-mystery-solved-site-of.html


    gōtrá n. ʻ cowpen, enclosure ʼ RV., ʻ family, clan ʼ ChUp., gōtrā -- f. ʻ herd of cows ʼ Pāṇ. 2. gōtraka -- n. ʻ family ʼ Yājñ. [gṓ -- ]1. Pa. gotta -- n. ʻ clan ʼ, Pk. gotta -- , gutta -- , amg. gōya -- n.; Gau. gū ʻ house ʼ (in Kaf. and Dard. several other words for ʻ cowpen ʼ > ʻ house ʼ: *gōśrayaṇa -- , gōṣṭhá -- , *gōstha -- (?), ghōṣa -- ); Pr. gūˊṭu ʻ cow ʼ; S. g̠oṭru m. ʻ parentage ʼ, L. got f. ʻ clan ʼ, P. gotar, got f.; Ku. N. got ʻ family ʼ; A. got -- nāti ʻ relatives ʼ; B. got ʻ clan ʼ; Or. gota ʻ family, relative ʼ; Bhoj. H. got m. ʻ family, clan ʼ, G. got n.; M. got ʻ clan, relatives ʼ; -- Si. gota ʻ clan, family ʼ ← Pa.2. B. H. gotā m. ʻ relative ʼ.Garh. got ʻ clan ʼ; -- A. goṭāiba ʻ to collect ʼ(CDIAL 4279). (Z) [kORa] {N} ``^sun ^clan''. #17410.(Z) {N} ``^girl of the ^sun ^clan''. | `child', cf. `daughter'. #17420. (Munda etyma) gōtrin m. ʻ relative ʼ Vet., gōtrika -- ʻ relating to a family ʼ Jain. [gōtrá -- ]Pk. gotti -- , °ia -- , guttiya -- m. ʻ kinsman ʼ; S. g̠oṭrī ʻ related ʼ, P. gotī; N. goti, gotiyā bhai ʻ kinsman ʼ, Or. goti; H. gotī ʻ belonging to the same clan ʼ, G. gotrī, M. gotī; -- N. goyā, guĩyā bhai ʻ very close friend ʼ, H. goiyã̄, guiyā m.f. ʻ companion ʼ (cf. Pk. amg. gōya -- < gōtrá -- )?(CDIAL 4281) Goy (Hebrew: גוי‎, regular plural goyim גוים or גויים) is a Hebrew biblical term for "nation". .. In the Torah/Hebrew Bible, goy and its variants appear over 550 times in reference to Israelites and to Gentile nations. The first recorded usage of goy occurs in Genesis10:5 and applies innocuously to non-Israelite nations. The first mention in relation to the Israelites comes in Genesis 12:2, when God promises Abraham that his descendants will form a goy gadol ("great nation"). On one occasion, the Jewish people are referred to as a goy kadosh, a "holy nation." While the earlier books of the Hebrew Bible often use goy to describe the Israelites, the later ones tend to apply the term to other nations…The Rabbinic literature conceives of the nations (goyim) of the world as numbering seventy, each with a distinct language. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goy

    Aramaic-kharoṣṭī interactions was noticed and recorded precisely by Monier-Williams: "Perhaps a more likely conjecture is that Hindu traders, passing up the Persian Gulf, had commercial dealings with Aramaean traders in Mesopotamia, and, becoming acquainted with their graphic methods, imported the knowledge and use of some of their phonetic signs into India. This view was first propounded in the writings of the learned Professor A. Weber of Berlin, and has recently been ably argued in a work on 'Indische Palaeographie', by the late Professor Buhler of Vienna (published in 1896). If Indian Pandits will consult that most interesting standard work, they will there find a table exhibiting the most ancient of known Phoenician letters side by side with the kindred symbols used in the Moabite inscriptions of King Mesha -- which, as before intimated, is known to be as old as about 850 B.C. -- while in parallel columns, and in a series of other excellent tables, are given the corresponding phonographic symbols from the numerous inscriptions of King Asoka scattered everywhere throughout Central and Northern India." (Monier-Williams, Introduction, Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p.xxv) http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw010029.pdf

    Vima Kadphises (Kushan languageΟοημο ΚαδφισηςEarly Middle Chinese: 阎膏珍 pron. jiam-kaw-trin) was a Kushan emperor from "approximately 90–100 CE. According to the Rabatak inscription, he was the son of Vima Takto and the father "of Kanishkahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vima_Kadphises


    'smelter'

    The hypertext ligatured to dotted circle (referred to as śrīvatsa or tri-ratna) on tens of thousands of Ujjain and other coins from Ancient Indian mints, is explained as: dul aya kammaṭa ’metal casting, alloy metal mint’.



    Image result for coin wima kadphisesThe gold coin of Vima Kadphises contains an Indus Script Hypertext: dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS aya khambhaṛā (Lahnda) rebus: aya 'iron' PLUS kamma'mint' (Kannada)== 'fish PLUS fin' rebus: ayas kammaa 'metal mint'  PLUS dotted circle: I have suggested that a dotted circle hieroglyph is a cross-section of a strand of rope: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ (R̥gveda), m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) धवड [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of iron (Marathi).  Thus, the hypertextsignifies: kammaa 'mint' PLUS dhāvaḍaधावड 'iron smelter'.



    Ancient Coins - INDIA, Kushan: Vima Kadphises AE didrachm or half unit. VERY RARE!

    Obverse King standing facing, sacrificing at altar left, tamgha and club in right field, Greek legend around: BACIΛEVC BACIΛEWN CWTHP MEΓAC OOhMO KAΔΦICHC
    Reverse Oesho (Siva) standing facing, Bull Nandi behind, nandipada at left, Kharoshthi legend around: maharajasa rajadirajasa sarvaloga isvarasa mahisvarasa vima kathphishasa tratara
    Date c. 112-127 CE
    Weight 8.89 gm.
    Diameter 21 mm.
    Die axis 12 o'clock
    Reference Göbl 763, MAC 3048


    "Kharoshti (Bactrian) was the ancient north Afghan language which is a derivative of Aramaic, which in turn is a derivative of Hebrew. It was unique among the Iranian language in the sense it is written using Greek scripts, a legacy which Alexander the Great had left behind after his victory over Bactrian in the fourth century BC. Soon after the conquest of Bactria by the nomadic people, Greek was the official language and script for administrative purposes. It's new rulers (Kushanas) Kujula Kadphises, Vima Takto (Kujula's son), Vima Kadphises continued the usage of Greek script to write the local language. It is Kanishka who adopted Bactrian as the language on his coins, thus became a cause for Greek language to disappear slowly. Kanishka introduced the Iranian title, Shaonanoshao - "King of Kings" in place of Greek form Basileos Basileon. Bactrian emerged as the most important language throughout the Kushana empire at least for six centuries even after the fall of Kushanas. Certain Brahmi letters seems to have distinguished in the coins of successive rulers." Govindraya Prabhu in: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/india/kushana/kus_language.html


    "Archaeological excavations in recent decades in southern Uzbekistan (formerly USSR) have yielded several dozen specimens of Indie inscriptions from various sites in the region of ancient Bactria, mainly Kara Tepe and Faiaz Tepe near Termez in Uzbekistan. (A few have also been found at Pendzhikent, Adzhina Tepe, and other sites in neighboring Tajikistan.)...The newest discoveries in this region have included dedicatory KharosthI inscriptions on stone and clay from Termez (Vestnik Drevnei Istorii 1974.1, 116-26) and on gold ingots from Dal'verzin-Tepe (Vestnik Drevnei Istorii 1976.1, 72-9)... "Old Saka" era (epoch uncertain) It is generally agreed that the dates in an unspecified era of several early Kharosthi (and perhaps a few Brahml) inscriptions of the Scythian period cannot, on geographical and historical grounds, be attributed to known historical reckonings such as the Vikrama and Saka eras. Such inscriptions are ascribed to a hypothetical reckoning generally referred to as the "Old Saka" era, to distinguish it from the Saka era of A.D. 78 (5.5.1.4). Among the earlier inscriptions usually attributed to this Old Saka era are the Taxila copper plate of the year 78 (CII 2.1, 23-9) and the Taxila silver vase of 191 (CII 2.1, 81-2). Several later Kharosthi inscriptions with dates in the three hundreds of an unspecified era, for example, Skarah DherT (399;CII2.1,124-7) are also usually attributed to this era, as is a Brahml Jaina inscription from Mathura dated 299 (IA 37, 33-4).M(Salomon, Richard. 1999. Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Langua. New York: Oxford University Press, p.153-154, 181).
    Vertogradova, V. V. Indiiskaia Epigrafika iz Kara-tepe v Starom Termeze: Problemy Deshifrovki i Interpretatsii [Indian Epigraphy from Kara-tepe in Old Termez: Problems of Decipherment and Interpretation]. Moscow: Vostochnaia Literatura, 1995.
    Dalverzin Tepe (Uzbekistan) KharosthI gold ingot inss.: M. I. Vorob'eva-Desiatovskaia, Vestnik Drevnei Istorii 1976.1, 72-9; B. N. Mukherjee, JAS 23, 1981, 163-4. 130, 154 
    Kara Tepe (Termez [q.v.], Uzbekistan) bowl ins.: O. von Hiniiber, Studies in Indo-Asian Art and Culture 6, 1980, 123-5. 154
    Kara Tepe Brahml and KharosthI inss.: M. I. Vorob'eva-Desiatovskaia, "Pamiatniki pis'mom kxaroshtxi i braxmi iz sovetskoi Srednei Azii" [see bibliography]. 154  
    Termez (KaraTepe and Faiz Tepe) Kharosthi inss.: M. I. Vorob'eva-Desiatovskaia, Vestnik Drevnei htorii 1974.1, 116-26; V. V. Vertogradova, Indiiskaia Epigrafika iz Karatepe v Starom Termeze. 153-54

    "DAL’VERZIN TEPE, a large site in southern Uzbekistan located not far from the bank of the Surkhan­darya river near Denau, a small city approximately 60 km northeast of Termez; it has yielded valuable data on the civilization and arts of northern Bactria and Tokharistan...Historical and archeological data suggest that this town was the original capital of the people designated in the Chinese chronicle Zan Han-shu as Yue-zhi (Yueh-chih), who founded it “on the northern side of the river Gui-Shui (Amu Darya)” (Bichurin, pp. 183-84). It was in the Kushan period (1st-3rd centuries C.E.) that the town experienced its most active period of urban and defensive construction; the Greco-Bac­trian nucleus was rebuilt as a citadel, and the fortifica­tion walls became almost twice as thick...In one house a treasure of gold objects was discovered; it included necklaces, torques, bracelets, earrings, and gold in­gots, some of them engraved with their weights in Kharoṣṭhī script. Both local and imported gems were found, as well as whole sets of beautifully executed Kushan ceramics.":(G. A. Pugachenkova, “DAL’VERZIN TEPE,” Encyclopædia Iranica, VI/6, pp. 614-615, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dalverzin-tepe
    "Dalverzin Tepe is an ancient archaeological site located in the northern part of the region of Bactria, southern modern Uzbekistan, about 120 km north-east of Termez.It is the location of Hellenistic constructions made during the time of the Greco-Bactrians, perhaps a small fortress. In the first century BC it grew to a substantial city. The place flourished especially under the Kushan Empire. The city was well organised with quarters for the administration, for religious buildings, living quarters and industrial areas. In one of the houses was found a treasure hoard of many golden objects. After the 3rd century the city declined." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalverzin_Tepe



    0 0

    https://tinyurl.com/yat83f5t

    syllabary on gold ingots of Dalverzin-tepe and gold pendant with Indus Script inscription attest to the function served by the two writing systems (of ca. 3rd cent. & 3rd millennium BCE) to create trade data archives, wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork artisans & seafaring merchants of Sarasvati Civilization.

    The functions of these artisans from Meluhha get recorded in 
    Judges (Old Bible 4:2) included in the expression harosheth-hagoyim which is pronounced as: Khar-o'-sheth hagoyim. The expression harosheth-hagoyim signifies 'smithy of nations'; the cognate Meluhha expression Kharoṣṭī goya signifies khār 'blacksmith' + oṣṭī ओष्ठी 'lip' + goya'gotra, guild' = 'blacksmith speech guild'. The semantics of Kharoṣṭī (writing system) are also relatable to Epigraphist R. Salomon's discussions on an inscribed silver Buddhist reliquary of the time (5-6 CE) of king Kharaosta and prince Indravarman. 

    Kharahostes Northern Satrap with Azes and Tyche Nandipada behind king.jpgCoin of Kharahostes (or possibly his son Mujatria),[1] in the name of Azes.
    Obv. Azes riding, with corrupted Greek legend (WEIΛON WEOΛΛWN IOCAAC) for ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΖΟΥ "King of Kings Azes", and Buddhist Triratna symbol behind the head of the king.
    Rev. City goddess Tyche standing left holding cornucopia and raised right hand. Kharoshthi legendMaharajasa mahatasa Dhramakisa Rajatirajasa Ayasa "The Great king followower of the Dharma, King of Kings Azes"Kharahostes or Kharaostasa was an Indo-Scythian ruler (probably a satrap) in the northern Indian subcontinent around 10 BCE – 10 CE. He is known from his coins, often in the name of Azes II, and possibly from an inscription on the Mathura lion capital, although another satrap Kharaostes has been discovered in Mathura. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kharahostes


    Gold pendant with Indus Script inscription is a professional calling card -- describing professional competence and ownership of specified items of property -- of the wearer of the pendant.

    The writing in free-hand is done with a needle-like instrument of the pendant and using melā 'ink'. I suggest that this competence of writing gave the name, 'Meluhha' in cuneiform records, to identify the artisans of Sarasvati Civilization.

    melā any black substance used for writing , ink L. ; antimony , eye-salve L. ; the indigo plant L.

    melāmandā f. an ink-bottle L.

    melāmaṇi mf. ink L.

    melāmbu (%{melā7mbu}) n. ink L.

    melānanda m. (and %{ā} f.) an inkbottle L. (cf. %{-mandA}) ; %{-dAya} Nom. A1. %{-yatc} , to become an ink-bottle Va1s.

    melāndhu or (%{mi4ā7ndh-}) , an ink-bottle L.

    melāndhuka (%{mi4ā7ndh-}) , an ink-bottle L. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/tamil/recherche
    Three gold writing needles with nibs of Mohenjo-daro to engrave or paint Indus Script hieroglyphs are presented. 

    Inscription painted on one of the needles is a gold pendant of Mohenjo-daro deciphered is a professional calling card of a metalworker.


    The decipherment of the inscription on one of these three gold pendants points to the function of the writing system as a catalogue proclaiming the profession and metalwork competence of the pendant wearer.

    I would, therefore, suggest that the three gold pendants with needle-like endings were 'writing' instruments to engrave or paint Indus Script hieroglyphs.


    Ivory rod, Needle-endings of Gold pendants as writing instruments of Indus Script scribes

    3 Gold pendants: Jewelry Marshall 1931: 521, pl. CLI, B3

    The comments made by John Marshall on three curious objects at bottom right-hand corner of Pl. CLI, B3: “Personal ornaments…Jewellery and Necklaces…Netting needles (?) Three very curious objects found with the studs and the necklace appear to be netting needles of gold. They are shown just above the ear-studs and also in the lower right-hand corner of Pl. CLI, B, 3-5 and 12-14. The largest of these needles (E 2044a) is 2.5 inches long. The handle is hollow and cylindrical and tapers slightly, being 0.2 inch in diameter at the needle-end. The needle point is 0.5 inch long and has a roughly shaped oval eye at its base. The medium sized needle (E 2044b) is 2.5 inches long and of the same pattern: but the cap that closed the end of the handle is now missing. The point which has an oval eye at its base is 0.3 inch long. The third needle (E 2044c) is only 1.7 inches long with the point 0.3 inch in length. Its handle, which is otherwise similar to those of the other two needles, is badly dented. The exact use of these three objects is open to question, for they could have been used for either sewing or netting. The handles seem to have been drawn, as there is no sign of a soldered line, but the caps at either end were soldered on with an alloy that is very little lighter in colour than the gold itself. The two smaller needles have evidently been held between the teeth on more than one occasion.” (p.521)

    Evidently, Marshall has missed out on the incription written in paint, as a free-hand writing, over one of the objects: Pl. CLI, B3.

    This is an extraordinary evidence of the Indus writing system written down, with hieroglyphs inscribed using a coloured paint, on an object.

    What could these three objects be? Sewing needles? Netting needles?

    I surmise that all the three gold objects could be pendants tagged to other jewellery such as necklaces. The pendants were perhaps worn with a thread of fibre passing through the eye of the needle-like ending of the pendants.

    Why needle-like endings? Maybe, the pendants were used as 'writing' devices 1) either to engrave hieroglyphs into objects; 2)or to use the needle-ending like a metal nib to dip into a colored ink or liquid or zinc-oxide paste or cinnabar-paste. This possibility is suggested by the use of cinnabar in ancient China to paint into lacquer plates or bowls. Cinnabar or powdered mercury sulphide was the primary colorant lof lacquer vessels. "Known in China during the late Neolithic period (ca. 5000–ca. 2000 B.C.), lacquer was an important artistic medium from the sixth century B.C. to the second century A.D. and was often colored with minerals such as carbon (black), orpiment (yellow), and cinnabar (red) and used to paint the surfaces of sculptures and vessels...a red lacquer background is carved with thin lines that are filled with gold, gold powder, or lacquer that has been tinted black, green, or yellow.http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2009/cinnabar

    Red paint on the tip of an ivory rod discovered in Lothal in a toilet set of combs, suggests that women of the civilization could have used the ivory rods to inscribe Indus Script hieroglyphs.

    This 2.5 inch long gold pendant has a 0.3 inch nib; its ending is shaped like a sewing or netting needle. It bears an inscription painted in Indus Script. This inscription is deciphered as a proclamation of metalwork competence.
    Gold pendant with Indus script inscription. The pendant is needle-like with cylindrical body. It is made from a hollow cylinder with soldered ends and perforated joint. Museum No. MM 1374.50.271; Marshall 1931: 521, pl. CLI, B3 (After Fig. 4.17 a,b in: JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 196). 

    Writtein in 'ink' is the Indus Script inscription.
    kanac'corner' Rebus: kancu'bronze'; sal'splinter' Rebus: sal'workshop'; dhatu'cross road' Rebus: dhatu'mineral'; gaṇḍa'four' Rebus: khaṇḍa'implements'; kolmo'three' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'; Vikalpa: ?ea ‘seven’ (Santali); rebus: ?eh-ku ‘steel’ (Te.)aya 'fish' Rebus: aya'iron'(Gujarati) ayas'metal' (Rigveda) PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kammaa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.

    Thus, the inscription is: kancu sal (bronze workshop), dhatu aya kaṇḍ kolami mineral, metal, furnace/fire-altar smithy.

    The inscription is a professional calling card -- describing professional competence and ownership of specified items of property -- of the wearer of the pendant.

    syllabary on gold ingots of Dalverzin-tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)

    Addendum to 

     https://tinyurl.com/ydhggrfr


    In 1976, Vorob’eva-Desyatovskaya firmly identified three abbreviations sa, dra and dha on gold bars – each weighing about 17.53 grams --discovered in Dalverzin-tepe (Southern Uzbekistan) excavations. (M.I. Vorob’eva-Desyatovskaya, nadpisi pis’mom kcharostchi na olotych predmetach iz dal’verzin-tepe (Inscriptions in the Kharoshthi alphabet on gold objects from Dalverzin-Tepe), Vestnik drevnej istorii, 1976, 72-79.) 

    These abbreviations are in Kharoṣṭhī syllabary. Vorob’eva-Desyatovskaya also posited the ratios within this set of three weight measures signified on the gold bars (ingots).


    The weights are:


    Sa -sadera (Attic stater)

    Dra -drakhma (trakhma)

    Dha -dhanea, dhanaia ordhane. (On some gold-bars of Dalverzin-tepe dhanaia occurs twice in the fraction aḍha dhanaiasa, ‘half of a dhanaia’.


    On the reliquary of Kharaosta-Indravarman, the weight unit māṣa is recognized by Salomon:‘śa (for sadera) 20 44 ana (for dhana) 4 ma 11’ (R. Salomon, An inscribed silverBuddhist reliquary of the time of king Kharaosta and prince Indravarman, in: Journal of the American Oriental Society, 116, 1996, pp. 418-452, p.432). See: Henry Falk, 2001, Names and weights inscribed on some vessels from the silver hoard in:Journal des Savants  Année 2001  2  pp. 308-319 https://www.persee.fr/doc/jds_0021-8103_2001_num_2_1_1646

    The weight ratios seen from the Dalverzin-tepe gold bars are:


    4 aṇḍika = 1 dhanea

    6 dhanea = 1 drakhma

    4 drakhma = 1 sadera



    "The stater (/ˈsttər/ or /stɑːˈtɛər/;Ancient Greekστατήρ IPA: [statɛ̌ːr], literally "weight") was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece. The term is also used for similar coins, imitating Greek staters, minted elsewhere in ancient Europe...The stater, as a Greek silver currency, first as ingots, and later as coins, circulated from the 8th century BC to AD 50. The earliest known stamped stater (having the mark of some authority in the form of a picture or words) is an electrum turtle coin, struck at Aegina that dates to about 700 BC.It is on display at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. According to Robin Lane Fox, the stater as a weight unit was borrowed by the Euboean stater weighing 16.8 grams (0.59 oz) from the Phoenician shekel, which had about the same weight as a stater (7.0 g, 0.25 oz) and was also one fiftieth of a mina." 
    Early 6th-century BC Lydian electrum coin denominated as ​13stater


    "Greek drachma...Initially a drachma was a fistful (a "grasp") of six oboloí or obeloí(metal sticks, literally "spits") used as a form of currency as early as 1100 BC and being a form of "bullion": bronze, copper, or iron ingots denominated by weight...The Athenian tetradrachm was called owl...The 5th century BC Athenian tetradrachm ("four drachmae") coin was perhaps the most widely used coin in the Greek world prior to the time of Alexander the Great (along with the Corinthian stater).
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_drachma

    Ancient India had specific terms to signify weight measures of ancient coins.

    Karsha = ¼ Pala

    Pala = 320 krishnala or Rati. Thus, Karsha or Pana or Suvarna - 80 Rati
    Average weight of Rati = 1.83 grains. Thus, Karshapana = 146.4 grains in weight.

    Mashaka and Kakini are sub-divisions of Karsha.

    5 Krishnala or gunja = 1 masha

    16 masha = 1 Karsha = 1 Suvarna or 80 Ratis or Gunjas.



    pala1 n. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ Mn., ʻ a fluid measure ʼ Nir., ʻ a measure of time ʼ Gaṇit. Pa. pala -- (in cmpds.) ʻ a partic. weight ʼ, Pk. pala -- n.; K. pal m. ʻ a weight (= 4 toals) ʼ; P. pal m. ʻ a second of time ʼ, palā m. ʻ a ladle holding 1/4 seer of oil ʼ; Ku. pal ʻ a measure of capacity, a second ʼ, palī ʻ spoon to take oil out of a jar, spoonful ʼ; N. pal, palo ʻ a moment ʼ, A. B. pal; Or. paḷa ʻ a weight (= 4 tolas), a second ʼ; H. pal, palā m. ʻ a moment ʼ, G. paḷ n. f.; M. paḷ n. ʻ a weight, a second ʼ, paḷī f. ʻ ladle ʼ, °ḷā m. ʻ large do. ʼ; Si. pala ʻ a weight of gold or silver (= 4 karṣas), asecond ʼ; -- H. palā m., °lī f. ʻ ladle ʼ (see s.v. parighá -- ).(CDIAL 7952)


    kārṣāpaṇá m.n. ʻ a partic. coin or weight equivalent to one karṣa ʼ. [karṣa -- m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ Suśr. (cf. OPers. karša -- ) and paṇa -- 2 or āpana -- EWA i 176 and 202 with lit. But from early MIA. kā̆hā°]Pa. kahāpaṇa -- m.n. ʻ a partic. weight and coin ʼ, KharI. kahapana -- , Pk. karisāvaṇa -- m.n., kāhāvaṇa -- , kah° m.; A. kaoṇ ʻ a coin equivalent to 1 rupee or 16 paṇas or 1280 cowries ʼ; B. kāhan ʻ 16 paṇas ʼ; Or. kāhā̆ṇaʻ 16 annas or 1280 cowries ʼ, H. kahāwankāhankahān m.; OSi. (brāhmī) kahavaṇa, Si. kahavuṇa°vaṇuva ʻ a partic. weight ʼ.(CDIAL 3080) 

    ṭaṅka1 m.n. ʻ weight of 4 māṣas ʼ ŚārṅgS., ʻ a stamped coin ʼ Hit., °aka -- m. ʻ a silver coin ʼ lex. 2. ṭaṅga -- 1 m.n. ʻ weight of 4 māṣas ʼ lex. 3. *ṭakka -- 1. [Bloch IA 59 ←Tatar tanka (Khot. tanka = kārṣāpaṇa S. Konow Saka Studies 184)]1. Pk. ṭaṁka -- m. ʻ a stamped coin ʼ; N. ṭã̄k ʻ button ʼ (lw. with k); Or. ṭaṅkā ʻ rupee ʼ; H. ṭã̄k m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ; G. ṭã̄k f. ʻ a partic. weight equivalent to 1/72 ser ʼ; M. ṭã̄k m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ.2. H. ṭaṅgā m. ʻ a coin worth 2 paisā ʼ.3. Sh. ṭăk m. ʻ button ʼ; S. ṭako m. ʻ two paisā ʼ, pl. ʻ money in general ʼ, ṭrakaku ʻ worth two paisā ʼ, m. ʻ coin of that value ʼ; P. ṭakā m. ʻ a copper coin ʼ; Ku. ṭākā ʻ two paisā ʼ; N. ṭako ʻ money ʼ; A. ṭakā ʻ rupee ʼ, B. ṭākā; Mth. ṭakāṭakkāṭakwā ʻ money ʼ, Bhoj. ṭākā; H. ṭakā m. ʻ two paisā coin ʼ, G. ṭakɔ m., M. ṭakā m.*uṭṭaṅka -- , *ṣaṭṭaṅka -- , ṭaṅkaśālā -- .Addenda: ṭaṅka -- 1 [H. W. Bailey in letter of 6.11.66: Khot. tanka is not = kārṣāpaṇa -- but is older Khot. ttandäka ʻ so much ʼ < *tantika -- ](CDIAL 5426)

    *ardhamāṣaka ʻ half the weight māṣaka ʼ. [ardhá -- 2, māṣaka -- ]Pa. aḍḍhamāsaka -- m. ʻ half a bean as a measure of value or weight ʼ; Si. aḍumahu°massa ʻ a coin worth half a massa ʼ.(CDIAL 669)*ardhamaṇa ʻ half a maṇa ʼ. [ardhá -- 2, maṇa -- ]P. addhaṇ, dhauṇ m. ʻ half a maund ʼ; H. adhwan, adhaun, dhaun m. ʻ half a maund, half of anything ʼ.(CDIAL 667)


    *ardhamāna ʻ a half measure ʼ. [ardhá -- 2, māˊna -- 2]Pa. addhamāna -- n. ʻ a partic. measure equivalent to half a māna ʼ; OSi. aḍmanā, Si. aḍamanāva ʻ a partic. measure of liquids or grain (CDIAL 668)ʼ.



    0 0

    https://tinyurl.com/ycjfprkd

    The ancient fame of Indian Ink as a writing medium, provides leads to unravel the semantics of mel-uh-ha. Languages retain ancient memories with extraordinary fidelity and help us retrace wading through the mists of time, the extraordinary enterprise and endeavours of early explorers, early metalworkers and seafaring maritime traders.

    Maritime activity of Sarasvati Civilization is evidenced by cuneiform records. Three regions associated with boats during the reign of Sargon of Akkad (c. 2334 = 2279 BCE) are: Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha. Dilmun is Bahrain, Magan is Oman/United Arab Emirates. Meluhha is Sarasvati Civilzation. That ships from Sarasvati Civilization reached Agade is seen from the boast of Sargon in an inscription: "He moored the ships of Meluhha, the ships of Magan and the ships of Dilmun at the quay of Akkad." Gregory Possehl refers to 76 cuneiform documents which mention the word 'meluhha' in the context of catalogues of products of trade: stones and pearls, carnelian; lapis lazuli, pearls; wood and plants, fresh dates (gis-ab-ba-me-luh-ha; mesu wood; animals, birds (as figurines dar me-luh-ha, dar me-luh-ha mushen the black bird which could be pōlaḍu, 'black drango' rebus: pōlaḍu 'steel' shown perched on zebu which is pōla 'zebu' rebus: pōla 'magnetite, ferrite ore'), dog, cat; metals -- copper, gold;Meluhhan-style objects: ships, furniture, bird figurines (Possehl, Gregory L., 1996. Meluhha. pp. 133–208 in: Reade, Julian (ed.), The Indian Ocean in antiquity. London: Kegan Paul International in association with the British Museum). The fame of Sarasvati Civiliation for carnelian is well-known. Agate (chalcedony) is associated with the Deccan trap of Gujarat and South India (Narmada river, riverbeds of Saurashtra). Lapis lazuli is a product of Meluhha, Badakshan, Sar-i-Sangh mines of northeast Afghanistan. Lazurite is a member of the sodalite group of minerals, notes Daniel Potts. (Daniel T. Potts, ed., 2012, A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1p.763)


    The word melaka मेलक, mēlā signifies an association of people. The melaka are also scribes who use mēlā मेला 'ink' and produce mēlā मेला 'indigo plant dye'. మేలిమి mēlimi. n. Fineness, excellence. Pure gold. తప్త కాంచనము, అపరంజి. మేలిమి or మేలి adj. Fine, excellent. B. X. 207. The word mēlā मेला also signifies antimony, a metal which is commonly used to create alloys with lead. 

    Association with navigation is also seen in expressions: மாலுமி mālumi , n. cf. U. muallin. [T. mālimi.] Captain of a vessel; pilot, navigator; கப்பலோட்டி. (பிங்.)మాలిమి mālimi mālimi. [Tel.] n. Familiarity, love, attachment, affection. వాత్సల్యము. చిన్నవారితో చేయు స్నేహము, ముచ్చిక. The science of navigation, ఓడనడుపు శాస్త్రము. మాలిమి or మాలిమికాడు a navigator, ఓడ నడపు శాస్త్ర మెరిగినవాడు. Ta. maḷḷu rafter. Ma. mallu rafters, side-posts, sloping beams. (DEDR 4759)

    Thus, I suggest that the word mēlā मेला which signifies ink (writing medium), indigo dye, antimony and gold (mēlimisignifies Indian sprachbund (speech union) speakers as melu-h-ha. This word has cognates milakkhu (Pali) and mleccha (Samskrtam) as speakers who tend to mispronounce words (as viewed by literati who comment on grammatical errors and mispronunciations which mar the sacredness of yajña processes which enjoin purity of expression in chantings with error-free utterances of mantras). It is significant that milakkhu (Pali) and mleccha (Samskrtam) signify 'copper (workers)', relating the expression to artisans engaged in metalwork. In Pali, milakkhu relates to use of dye in the expression, milakkhu rajana: milakkhu [the Prk. form (A -- Māgadhī, cp. Pischel, Prk. Gr. 105, 233) for P. milakkha] a non -- Aryan D iii.264; Th 1, 965 (˚rajana "of foreign dye" trsl.; Kern, Toev. s. v. translates "vermiljoen kleurig"). As milakkhuka at Vin iii.28, where Bdhgh expls by "Andha -- Damil'ādi." 

    The मेलक, mēlā association of people working with metals and dyes and engaged in 'writing with mēlā मेला 'ink' are identified as speakers of melu-h-ha (cuneiform records) and mleccha (ancient Indian texts) -- both melu-h-ha and mleccha refer to speech forms (language). This is the reason why almost all 8000+ Indus Script inscriptions have been successfully deciphered as wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork catalogues to support maritime trade and further the Tin-Bronze Revolution characterised by extensive trade transactions in an extensive area spread from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haifa (Israel), along the Ancient Maritime Tin Route of the Indian Ocean Rim and waterways of Himalayan Rivers, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween, Brahmaputra, Ganga, Sarasvati, Sindhu, wateways of Persian Gulf. Tigris-Euphrates rivers, Meditarranean Sea. This riverine, maritime trade is the most significant aspect of the Tin-Bronze Industrial Revolution which started ca. 5th millennium BCE, at least 2 millennia earlier than the Silk Route interactions among people (Tocharian Indo-European speakers attested by the word ancu'iron' cognate amśu 'Soma') and trade transactions.

    The most significant feature inferred from hundreds of archaeological sites of Sarasvati Civilization is that the artisans/merchants worked together to engage in industrial-level production of metals/minerals and maritime trade. The formation of artisan/merchant guilds attested in early guilds called śreṇi in ancient Indian tradition point to the commonwealth form of corporations which produced the wealth of the civilization and documented the wealth in over 8000 inscriptions which are wealth accounting ledgers of metalwork. The key word for such association of people is melaka मेलक, mēlā and this is the word which finds mention in the expression melu-h-ha in cuneiform records of Ancient Near East.


    The word mēlā मेला signifies ink, indigo plant and the wordமேலார் mēlār signifies 'warriors'. Indian documents written in Kharosthi with ink have been unearthed in Chinese Turkestan. (Sircar, D.C. (1996).Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass, p.206) "About 1,600 years ago, a popular ink recipe was created. The recipe was used for centuries. Iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate (made by treating iron with sulfuric acid), were mixed with tannin from gallnuts (they grow on trees) and a thickener. When first put to paper, this ink is bluish-black. Over time it fades to a dull brown.Scribes in medieval Europe (about AD 800 to 1500) wrote principally on parchment or vellum. One 12th century ink recipe called for hawthorn branches to be cut in the spring and left to dry. Then the bark was pounded from the branches and soaked in water for eight days. The water was boiled until it thickened and turned black. Wine was added during boiling. The ink was poured into special bags and hung in the sun. Once dried, the mixture was mixed with wine and iron salt over a fire to make the final ink." (Sharon J.Huntington, "Think Ink! Christian Science Monitor, September 21, 2004.")

    mēlā मेला signifies "Antimony which is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latinstibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl....Antimony forms a highly useful alloy with lead, increasing its hardness and mechanical strength. For most applications involving lead, varying amounts of antimony are used as alloying metal." 

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimony "Kohl (Arabicكُحْل‎) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara. It is widely used in the Middle EastNorth Africa, the MediterraneanEastern EuropeLatin AmericaSouth AsiaSoutheast Asia, the Horn of Africa, and parts of West Africa as eyeliner to contour and/or darken the eyelids and as mascara for the eyelashes. It is worn mostly by women, but also by some men and children. Kohl has also been used in India as a cosmetic for a long time. In addition, mothers would apply kohl to their infants' eyes soon after birth. Some did this to "strengthen the child's eyes", and others believed it could prevent the child from being cursed by the evil eye.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohl_(cosmetics)


    "The color indigo is named after the indigo dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species...Species of Indigofera were cultivated in East Asia, EgyptIndia, and Peru in antiquity. The earliest direct evidence for the use of indigo dates to around 4000 BC and comes from Huaca Prieta, in contemporary Peru.[4] Pliny the Elder mentions the Indus Valley Civilization as the source of the dye after which it was named. It was imported from there in small quantities via the Silk Road.[5] The Ancient Greek term for the dye was Ἰνδικὸν φάρμακον ("Sindhi dye"), which, adopted to Latin as indicum and via Portuguese gave rise to the modern word indigo." 
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigo
    Extract of natural indigo applied to paper नील mf( or  ; cf. Pa1n2. 4-1 , 42 Va1rtt. Va1m. v , 2 , 48)n. of a dark colour , (esp.) dark-blue or dark-green or black RV. &c; dyed with indigo Pa1n2. 4-2 , 2 Va1rtt. 2 Pat.; n. indigo Ya1jn5. iii. 38; antimony; नीला f. the indigo plant (Indigofera TinctoriaL. (cf. नीली)(Monier-Williams)

    "Ink pigments are both inorganic and organic. Most red writing inks are a dilute solution of the red dye eosin. Blue colour can be obtained with substituted triphenylmethane dyes. Many permanent writing inks contain iron sulfate and gallic and tannic acids as well as dyes."
    https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/ink-chemistry/3002158.article (Joy Kunjappu, Ink Chemistry)

    I suggest that the word 'melu-h-ha' used in cuneiform records signifies artisans who had engaged in metals/minerals trade in Ancient Near East and had the competence to produce written documents using black Indian ink and other dye-based writing media. Such a writing ink was called  mēlā मेला which also signifies 'indigo dye'. The suffix -ha in ancient Persian signifies a plural and hence a group of people.Thus, the expression melu-h-ha in cuneiform records is semantically explained as 'speakers of milakkhu (with mis-pronunciations)'spoken form of மிழலை¹ miḻalai, n. < மிழற்று-. cf. mlīṣṭa. Prattle, lisp; மழலைச்சொல். (சூடா.), traders of milakkhu 'copper', writers in ink'. మేలుబంతి mēlu-banti. n. The top line, the copy set to a schoolboy learning to write. A pattern, கீழ்மேலா-தல் kīḻ-mēl-ā-, v. intr. < id. +. [M. Tu. kīḻmēl.] To be turned upside down, topsy-turvy; தலைகீழாதல். பள்ளந்தா ழுறுபுனலிற் கீழ்மேலாக (திருவாச. 5, 21).

    The hypertext on Shu-ilishu cylinder seal to signify a meluhha (copper merchant, meluhha speaker) is composed with a goat held by the merchant: mr̤eka, melh 'goat' (Telugu, Brahui) rebus: milakkhu, mleccha-mukha'copper' (Pali.Samskrtam). It is significant that the meluhha merchant is accompanied by a woman carrying a liquid measure: kola'woman' rebus:kol'working in iron', kolhe 'smelter' PLUS ranku'liquid measure' rebus: ranku'tin'.

    I also suggest that in Sarasvati Civilization from 4th millennium BCE, indigo-dye based ink was used to write on birchbark. Trade in indigo and source of materials to make the carbon pigment in India ink are possibly the inventions of Meluhha speakers who used the word mēlā मेला to signify both indigo dye used to dye cotton fabrics and ink used as a writing medium using a stylus. See the monograph which presents a gold pendant with a nib with a 'written, painted' Indus Script inscription: 

     

    https://tinyurl.com/yat83f5t 

    Gold pendant with Indus script inscription. The pendant is needle-like with cylindrical body. It is made from a hollow cylinder with soldered ends and perforated joint. Museum No. MM 1374.50.271; Marshall 1931: 521, pl. CLI, B3 (After Fig. 4.17 a,b in: JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 196). 

    Writtein in 'ink' is the Indus Script inscription.
    kanac 'corner' Rebus: kancu 'bronze'; sal 'splinter' Rebus: sal 'workshop'; dhatu 'cross road' Rebus: dhatu 'mineral'; gaṇḍa 'four' Rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'; kolmo 'three' Rebus:kolami 'smithy, forge'; Vikalpa: ?ea ‘seven’ (Santali); rebus: ?eh-ku ‘steel’ (Te.)aya 'fish' Rebus:aya 'iron'(Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda) PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kamma'mint, coiner, coinage'.

    Thus, the inscription is: kancu sal (bronze workshop), dhatu aya kaṇḍ kolami mineral, metal, furnace/fire-altar smithy.

    The inscription is a professional calling card -- describing professional competence and ownership of specified items of property -- of the wearer of the pendant.

    Ink drawing of Ganesha under an umbrella (early 19th century). Ink, called masi, an admixture of several chemical components, has been used in India since at least the 4th century BC.[2] The practice of writing with ink and a sharp pointed needle was common in early South India.[3] Several Jain sutras in India were compiled in ink. (Sircar, D.C. (1996).Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass, p.67)

    "Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and lithographic printing.
    Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescents, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink's carrier, colorants, and other additives affect the flow and thickness of the ink and its dry appearance...Many ancient cultures around the world have independently discovered and formulated inks for the purposes of writing and drawing. The knowledge of the inks, their recipes and the techniques for their production comes from archaeological analysis or from written text itself. Ink was used in Ancient Egypt for writing and drawing on papyrus from at least the 26th century BC. The history of Chinese inks can be traced to the 23rd century BC, with the utilization of natural plant (plant dyes), animal, and mineral inks based on such materials as graphite that were ground with water and applied with ink brushes...The process of making India ink was known in China as early as the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, during Neolithic China.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ink



    மெல்லம்புலம்பன் mellampulampaṉ n. < மெல்லம்புலம்பு. Chief of a maritime tract; நெய்தனிலத்தலைவன். மெல்லம்புலம்பன் பிரிந் தென (குறுந். 5). (பிங்.) மெல்லம்புலம்பு mellam-pulampu , n. < மெல் + புலம்பு. Maritime tract; நெய்தனிலம். (திருக்கோ. 379, உரை.)

    மெல்லெழுத்து mel-l-eḻuttu, n. < id. +. (Gram.) The six consonants, ṅ, ñ, ṇ, n, m, ṉ, classified as soft or nasal consonants, dist. fr. val-l-eḻuttuiṭai-y-eḻuttu; மெல்லோசை யுடைய ங், ஞ், ண், ந், ம், ன், என்ற எழுத்துக்கள். (தொல். எழுத். 20.)

    mēlḥ मेलः [मिल्-घञ्] 1 Meeting, union, intercourse. -2 A fair. -3 A company, an assembly. -4 Conjunction (of planets). (Also मेलक). mēlanam मेलनम् [मिल्-ल्युट्] 1 Union, junction. -2 Associa- tion. -3 Mixture. -4 An encounter; a fight. mēlā मेला [मिल्-णिच् अच् टाप्] 1 Union, intercourse. -2 A company, assembly, a society.  mēla m. ʻ meeting ʼ Kathās., °aka -- m. Pañcat. 2. *mēḍa -- . [√mil]1. Pa. mēlā -- f. ʻ meeting ʼ, Pk. mēla -- , °aa -- m., K. myūlu m.; L. mēlā m. ʻ assembly ʼ, awāṇ. mēl ʻ union ʼ; P. mel m. ʻ friendship ʼ, melāmellā m. ʻ crowd, fair ʼ, melī m. ʻ wedding guest ʼ; Ku. mel m. ʻ meeting ʼ, melo m. ʻ task ʼ, pl. myālā ʻ fair ʼ; N. mel ʻ agreement ʼ, melo ʻ allotted task ʼ; A. B. mel ʻ meeting, fair ʼ; Or. meḷa ʻ meeting ʼ, meḷā ʻ assembly ʼ; H. melā m. ʻ fair ʼ; Marw. meḷo m. ʻ embrace ʼ; G. M. meḷ m. ʻ agreement ʼ; G. meḷɔ m. ʻ assembly, fair ʼ, M. meḷā m.2. S. meṛu m. ʻ crowd ʼ, meṛo m. ʻ assembly, fair, agreement ʼ, meṛī f. ʻ deputation ʼ; Si. meḷamela ʻ meeting, collection ʼ.Addenda: mēla -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) meḷɔ m. ʻ market, fair ʼ; Garh. meḷāk ʻ collection ʼ, meḷu ʻ congregation, fair ʼ.(CDIAL 10331) mēlayati, mēlāpayati ʻ brings together ʼ Kāv. 2. *mēḍayati, [√mil1. Pk. mēlaïmelā̆vaï ʻ collects ʼ; K. mēlun ʻ to be joined with, be met with, be found, enjoy (a woman) ʼ; L. mēlaṇ, pres. part. milēnda tr. ʻ to unite ʼ, P. meḷnā; B. melā ʻ to close ʼ; OAw. meraï ʻ mixes, fixes, puts ʼ; H. melnā ʻ to convene ʼ; OMarw. melaï ʻ places, puts ʼ. -- X lábhatē: WPah.bhal. m&tildemacrepsilon;haṇū ʻ to get, obtain ʼ, pāḍ. mēaṇ.2. S. meṛaṇu ʻ to cause to meet, collect, sweep, cause to copulate ʼ; N. meṛyāunu ʻ to compare ʼ (lw. with ).Addenda: mēlayati. 2. *mēḍayati: WPah.kṭg. méṛhnõ intr. ʻ to gather ʼ, lōg meṛia ʻ people gather ʼ.(CDIAL 10332) mēl मेल् । संयोगः m. meeting, coming together, assemblage (Gr.Gr. 124); union, intercourse; mixture, mixing together (Śiv. 12); agreement, reconciliation; concord, intimacy, friendship, acquaintance (Gr.M.); .M.). ; an interview; metting (Gr.M.). -gēl -गेल् । मैत्रीप्रीत्याद्याचरणम्m. close intimacy, close alliance; familiarity. -- gaʦhun -- गछ&dotbelow;ुन् । योगापत्तिः m.inf. friendship, intimacy to occur; a meeting (of two persons) to occur; mixing together, trituration together to occur; and so on through the various meanings of mēl. -- thawun -- थवुन् । संयोगपरि<-> पालनम् m.inf. to have or keep up an intimate friendship, to associate (with) (Gr.M.).(Kashmiri)

    मषि mf. (or f(°षी). ; cf. below) powder , (esp.) a black powder used to paint the eyes , soot , lampblack , ink Ka1v. Var. Sus3r. &c (Monier-Williams) The अम्बु  suffix in mēlā अम्बु 'ink' is related to: अंबवारंग ambavāraṅga m (अंबा Mango, रंग Color.) A color or dye prepared with indigo and turmeric-colored zedoary. (Marathi) mēlā मेला [मिल्-णिच् अच् टाप्] Antimony. -The indigo plant. - Ink. -A musical scale. -Comp. -अन्धुकः, -नन्दः, -नन्दा, -मन्दा an ink-stand, ink- bottle. -अम्बु ink. மேலை² mēlai, n. (யாழ். அக.) 1. Black bismuth. See கருநிமிளை. 2. Ink; மை. மையூட்டு-தல் mai-y-ūṭṭu-, v. intr. < id. +. 1. See மையிடு-, 1. (W.) 2. To ink a written ōla; ஓலைக்கு மைதடவுதல். மையெழுத்து mai-y-eḻuttu , n. < id. +. Writing, in ink; மையால் எழுதும் எழுத்து. மை யெழுத்தூசியின் மாண்டதோர் தோட்டிடை . . . கரந் தெழுத்திட்டாள் (சீவக. 1767).மையெழுது-தல் mai-y-eḻutu-, v. intr. < id. +. See மையிடு-, 1. மையெழுதிப் பொட் டெழுதி (கூளப்ப. 132). máṣi m.f. (MW.), °ṣī -- f. (VarBr̥S.), masi -- m.f. (Lalit.), °sī -- f. (Suśr.), maśĭ̄ -- (BHSk.) ʻ black powder, lampblack, ink ʼ Suśr. [← Drav., Tam. mai &c.]Pa. masi -- ʻ soot ʼ; Pk. masi -- f. ʻ soot, ink ʼ; Ku. masī ʻ ink ʼ, moso ʻ soot ʼ, gng. mwaś; N. masi ʻ ink ʼ, moso ʻ soot ʼ; A. mahi ʻ ink ʼ, B. Or. masi; Mth. masīmosi ʻ ink ʼ, misi ʻ black dye ʼ; OAw. masi f. ʻ ink ʼ, H. masmasī f. (→ P. L. mass f., S. masu m.); G. meśme_śmasī f. ʻ soot ʼ, M. mas m.f., maśīf.; Ko. maśi ʻ lampblack ʼ; Si. mäsi -- dā̤ ʻ a black mineral substance used in medicine ʼ. -- Deriv. Or. masiā ʻ dirty ʼ. -- See miśrita -- s.v. miśrayatimaṣidhāna (masi°) n., masidhānī -- , f. ʻ inkstand ʼ lex. [máṣi -- , dhāˊna -- ]N. masyāni°sini ʻ inkpot ʼ, Mth. masihānī, H. masīhān f.(CDIAL 9920, 9921) bōla-mīl बोल-मील् । मषीविशेषः f. a kind of ink, usually employed for writing in the Persian character. It is made up with burnt rice, beeswax, and other ingredients.mīl मील् । मषी f. (sg. dat. mīli मीलि), ink (Gr.M., W. 8, L. 461). -- karüñü -- कर&above;ञू‍&below; । राश्यादेः अङ्कनम् f.inf. to mark a heap (of grain or the like to prevent theft). mīli-onduru
    mīli-onduru मीलि-अं&above;दुरु&below; । मषीपात्रम् m. an ink-pot, an ink-bottle; cf. andar. -bônu -बोनु‍&below; । मषीपात्रम् m. an ink-vessel, an ink-bottle; cf. bāna 1. -ḍṻs -डू&above;स् । मषीलगुडः m. an ink-stick, a stick used for mixing ink. -dawāth -दवाथ् f. an inkstand, a pencase and ink-bottle combined (W. 33). -goru -ग&above;रु‍&below; । मषीसंपादकः m. an ink-maker, an ink-seller. -kalam -कलम् । मषीलेखनी m. an ink-pen, a pen suitable for writing with ink; a pen full of ink. -ʦrüṭü -च&dotbelow;्र&above;टू‍&below; । मषीगुलिकाविशेषःf. a pill of dry ink, from which ink is made by mixture with water. -wôñu -वोञु‍‍&below; । मषीजलम् m. ink-water, the water with which an inkbottle is washed, inky water. -wörü -वा&above;रू&below;‍ । मषीधानिका f. an ink-vessel, a jar in which ink is stored (not an ink-bottle for writing).(Kashmiri)

    Ta. mai collyrium for the eye, ink, ink-paste, black pigment, black, blackness, darkness, spot as of moon, blemish, dark cloud; fault, sin; dirt; (-pp-, -tt-) to become black, be dim; maippu black, blackness. Ma. mai blackness, antimony. To. moy- (moc-) to become dark, become evening; moy ashes (in songs); moQp darkness before dawn or after sunset. Ka. masi dirt, impurity, the black of culinary vessels, soot, lamp-black, black colour, blackness, ink, antimony. Koḍ. masi charcoal. Tu. maji coal, black powder, ink; maiyi a kind of collyrium; maivaripuni to paint the eyes with antimony or collyrium; maipè, maippè a black or dark-coloured fowl. Kor. (O.) majji soot. Te. masi blackness, sootishness, soot, charcoal, ink. Nk. (Ch.) mas soot. Go. (G.) masi id. (Voc. 2760). Kur. maī˜s ink. Cf. 4627 Ta. macaṅku, 4781 Ta. , and 4792 Ta. mācu. / Cf. Skt. maṣi- ink, lamp-black; Turner, CDIAL, no. 9920; ? cf. Skt. mecaka- black, dark blue(DEDR 5101)

    mēlāpakḥ मेलापकः 1 Uniting, bringing together, collecting. -2 Conjunction of planets. -3 A crowd, assembly.
    mēlāyanam मेलायनम् Combination, junction.மேளனம் mēḷaṉam , n. < mēlana. 1. Mixing; கலக்கை. 2. (Mus.) Attunement; concord, harmony; இசைக்கருவிகளின் கருதியியைபு. 3. Crowd, assembly; கூட்டம்.மேளி-த்தல் mēḷi- , 11 v. tr. < id. [K. meḷisu.] To assemble, collect; கூட்டுதல். (இலக். அக.)

    மேலா¹ mēlā , n. perh. மேல். Superior or higher authorities; மேற்பட்ட அதிகாரஸ்தானம். மேலாவிலிருந்து உத்தரவு வந்தது. Loc.மேலாயினார் mēl-āyiṉār , n. < மேல் + ஆ&sup6;-. [K. mēlādavaru.] Elders; உயர்ந்தோர். இது மேலாயினாரிடங்களிற் பூப்புணர்த்துமாறு (இறை. 43, பக். 175).மேலார் mēlār
    n. < id. 1. See மேலாயினார். 2. Warriors; வீரர். மேலாரிறையமருள் (பு. வெ. 9, 8).மேலோர் mēlōr
    n. < id. 1. Those who are seated high, as on horses; மேலிடத்தோர். காழோர் கையற மேலோ ரின்றி (மணி. 4, 35). 2. The great, those of superior rank or caste; உயர்ந்தோர். மேலோர் மூவர்க்கும் புணர்த்த கரணம் (தொல். பொ. 144). 3. Poets; men of learning; புலவர். (பிங்.) 4. Ancestors, ancients; முன்னோர். 5. Celestials; வானோர். (சூடா.)

    மேலகம் mēl-akam , n. < id. +. See மேல் வீடு, 2. (W.)மேல்வீடு mēl-vīṭu , n. < id. +. 1. Storeyed house; மெத்தைவீடு. (W.) 2. Upper storey; மாடி. Loc. 3. Heaven; மோட்சம். (ஈடு.)

    மேல்வாசகம் mēl-vācakam n. < id. +. [M. mēlvācakam.] See மேல்விலாசம். Loc.மேல்விலாசம் mēl-vilācam , n. < id. +. Superscription, address, as of a letter; கடிதப் புறத்தே கடிதத்தைப்பெறுவோரின் ஊர் பெயர் முதலி யன குறிக்கும் வாசகம்.
    மேல்வாரம் mēl-vāram
    n. < மேல் +. [K. mēlvāra, M. mēlvāram.] The proportion of the crop or produce claimed by the landholder, dist. fr. kuṭi-vāram; விளைவிலிருந்து சுவான்தாருக்குக் கொடுத்தற்குரிய தானியம். (C. G.)

    மேல்வாயிலக்கம் mēlvāy-ilakkam
    n. < id. +. 1. Enumeration of whole numbers, as from one upwards, dist. fr. kīḻvāy-ilakkam; ஒன்றிலிருந்து மேலெண்ணப்படும் எண்முறை. 2. (Arith.) Numerator of a fraction; பின்னத்தில் மேலெழுதப்படும் எண். (W.)

    மேல்சாந்தி mēl-cānti
    n. < id. +. Chief priest, in a temple; கோயிலின் தலைமைப்பூச கன். (T. A. S. ii. 48, 49.)

    மேல் mēl
    , [T. K. mēlu, M. mēl.] n. 1. That which is above or over; upper side; surface; மேலிடம். ஒலை . . . தொட்டு மேற்பொறியை நீக்கி (சீவக. 2143). 2. Extra; அதிகப்படி. 3. Sky; வானம். (சூடா.) மேலுயர் கைலையை (கம்பரா. யுத்த. மந்திரப். 80). 4. West; மேற்கு. (பிங்.) 5. Head; தலை. மேவா ருயிருணங்க மேன்முடித்த பிள்ளையன் (பு. வெ. 2, 8). 6. Leadership; superiority; தலைமை. மேலதிகாரி. 7. Excellence; மேன்மை. (பிங்.) 8. The great; உயர்ந் தோர். இன்னாமை நோக்கிப் பசைதல் பரியாதா மேல் (நாலடி, 60). 9. Body; உடம்பு. மேலுக்குச் சுகமில்லை. 10. Knowledge; science; வித்தை. (தக்கயாகப். 545, உரை.) 11. Place; இடம். (பிங்.) 

    మేళనము mēḷanamu mēḷanamu. [Skt.] n. Mecting, union, coming together. Connection, affinity, as of two languages. కలియడము, కూడిక. మేళము mēḷamu. n. Union, కూడిక. A set of musical instruments, వాద్యముల౛త. A band of musicians, a set of dancers or singers. The music used by them. వేషగాండ్రయొక్కయు నటుల యొక్క యుగుంపు, పాటగాండ్రగుంపు. ఆ పెండ్లికి నాలుగుమేళములను పిలిపించినారు they sent for four bands to come to the wedding. అది యిప్పుడు మేళానికి పోవడములేదు she does not now dance. పోకిరిమేళము a pack of rascals. మేళతాళములు instrumental music. మేళవించు or మేళగించు mēḷa-vinṭsu. v. n. To unite, be joined, ౛తగూడు, కలియు. v. a. To mix, unite in harmony, as the sound of various instruments. కలుపు, ౛తకుర్చు, శ్రుతికూర్చు. "అతడు నపుడు పాటకాయి తముగ, వీణెమేళవించి వెలుపలి మొసలనునిచిలోనికరగి." KP. ii. 98. "వీరశృంగారములు మేళవించునట్టి, చెలువమునవిందు ముఖులు." Jaimini. v. 125. 



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    https://tinyurl.com/ybckcjwp

    This is an addendum to: 

     https://tinyurl.com/ycjfprkd


    I am grateful to  Eugenia Andreeva, Head of the VDI editorial office who sent me an ecopy of the entire issue in which the monograph by Vorobyeva-Desyatovskaya Margarita I is included. The e-copy of pages 70 to 79 reproduced below include two pages showing images of the gold ingots with Kharoṣṭhī inscriptions. It is to the credit of  Vorobyeva-Desyatovskaya Margarita I that she clearly identified three Kharoṣṭhī syllables used in the inscriptions to signify the weight measures. 

    Kharoṣṭhī syllables identified:

    Sa -sadera (Attic stater)

    Dra -drakhma (trakhma)

    Dha -dhanea, dhanaia or dhane. (On some gold-bars of Dalverzin-tepe dhanaia occurs twice in the fraction aḍha dhanaiasa, ‘half of a dhanaia’.

    Two insights of significance emerge from this brilliant insight provided by Vorobyeva-Desyatovskaya Margarita I:

    1. That the goldsmith had the competence to write on gold bars (using Kharoṣṭhī to signify gold weight measures which had been standardised ca. 2nd cent.BCE) .
    2.That the measure of wealth is recorded on the inscriptions on gold bars by signifying gold weight measures.

    I suggest that both these signifiers are a continuum of Indus Script Cipher. As noted in the following example of a gold pendant with Indus Script from Mohenjo-daro,  that 1. the goldsmith artisan had the competence to write on the gold pendant; and 2. recorded the artisanal competence signified by Indus Script Hypertexts working with a variety of metals and a variety of metallurgical processes.

    This 2.5 inch long gold pendant has a 0.3 inch nib; its ending is shaped like a sewing or netting needle. It bears an inscription painted in Indus Script. This inscription is deciphered as a proclamation of metalwork competence.
    Gold pendant with Indus script inscription. The pendant is needle-like with cylindrical body. It is made from a hollow cylinder with soldered ends and perforated joint. Museum No. MM 1374.50.271; Marshall 1931: 521, pl. CLI, B3 (After Fig. 4.17 a,b in: JM Kenoyer, 1998, p. 196). 

    Writtein in 'ink' is the Indus Script inscription.
    kanac 'corner' Rebus: kancu 'bronze'; sal 'splinter' Rebus: sal 'workshop'; dhatu 'cross road' Rebus: dhatu 'mineral'; gaṇḍa 'four' Rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'; kolmo 'three' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'; Vikalpa: ?ea ‘seven’ (Santali); rebus: ?eh-ku ‘steel’ (Te.)aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron'(Gujarati) ayas'metal' (Rigveda) PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kamma'mint, coiner, coinage'.

    Thus, the inscription is: kancu sal (bronze workshop), dhatu aya kaṇḍ kolami mineral, metal, furnace/fire-altar smithy.

    The inscription is a professional calling card -- describing professional competence and ownership of specified items of property -- of the wearer of the pendant.

    Inscriptions in the Kharoshthi Alphabet on Gold Objects from Dalverzin-tepe

    Vorobyeva-Desyatovskaya Margarita I.

    Journal of Ancient History, Pages 70-79 http://vdi.igh.ru/issues/269?locale=en












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    https://tinyurl.com/y7nutkk2

    Do Indus Script inscriptions contain recorded weights of metal equipment, ingots produced? The answer is NO.

    While balances & weights were found in Mohenjo-daro, there is no indication that the Indus Script recorded weights; as a wealth accounting system, script hieroglyphs/hypertexts signify metals,minerals, alloys, mints, ingots, equipment, phaḍa, pattaḍa 'manufactories'.

    The earliest evidence for inscriptions certifying weights of objects is found in Persepolis, ca. 6th cent. BCE.

    “A weight made of diorite weighing 120 karsha (9.950 kg) with a trilingual cuneiform inscription certifying its weight, has also been found in Persepolis…One diorite weighs 60 karsha…One of these weights (weighing 2,222.425 grams) is preserved in the Oriental Institute in Leningrad. It is inscribed with a cuneiform text, as is the case on other weights, certifying its weight.” (Muhammad A. Dandamaev, Vladimir G. Lukonin, 2004, The Culture and Social Institutions of Ancient Iran, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 202=203).


    "In considering the variations of weights which is found, the view I take is that, whilst cases of deliberate fraud are rare, the balances used in those days were of primitive construction and only capable of rough weighing. Consequently, though the standards kept might be artistically and carefully finished, they would not be consistent amongst themselves according to our modern scientific ideas of accuracy.” ("A. S. Hemmy, Systems of Weights at Mohenjo-Daro, in: J. Marshall, ed.' Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization. Vol. 2 London: A. Probsthain, 1931p.672).

    "Weight(s) and Measurements
    C, 2500 B.C.
    Place of Origin: Mohenjo-Daro
    Materials: Weight: Chert
    Balance: Copper
    Dimensions: Balance Stick : 12 x 0.3 cm
    Balance Plate: 15.7 x 5.7 cm
    Weight: Biggest: 2.4 x 2.4 x 1.8 cm
    Smallest: 0.7 x 0.7 x 0.6 cm
    Acc. No. DK-80/2604 and DK I-355/2605 (Balance)

    An index to an advanced stage of trade, and its essential element, the recovery of this balance and weights from Mohenjo-Daro suggests that Harappan settlers not only pursued systematic trade activities but also had in prevalence weights and measures ensuring accuracy, consistency, transparency and fairness of trade-system and commercial behaviour. Far ahead of the primitive measuring vessels of bartering goods Harappan settlers maintained consistent standards of weights and regularized weights' based pricing system. Though re-fabricated, this balance is estimated to be about four and a half millenniums old. These finds attest with great certainty the advanced stage of trade amongst Harappan settlers. The recovered weights range from the heavier ones with lifting rings attached to those of micro-miniaturised sizes used probably by jewelers for weighing precious metals, jewellery items and perhaps some rare and scarce spices. Harappan settlers seem to have decimal system in use for defining higher weights as also for measuring lengths. It seems some central authority controlled and ensured adherence to strict standards and fairness in trade and commercial activities. A large number of small rectangular blocks - both cubical and cylindrical made of tawny chert and marked with light grey bands, have been excavated from Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The archaeologists have identified these blocks as weights. Interestingly, all these finds are well finished and have polished faces. Occasionally they also have beveled edges, though none of them bears an inscription or mark indicating a weight and value. Along such weights Mohenjo-Daro excavations have also revealed a copper balance."
    http://www.nationalmuseumindia.gov.in/prodCollections.asp?pid=41&id=1&lk=dp1

    :Cubical weights in graduated sizes.These weights conform to the standard Harappan binary weight system that was used in all of the settlements. The smallest weight in this series is 0.856 grams and the most common weight is approximately 13.7 grams, which is in the 16th ratio. In the large weights the system become a decimal increase where the largest weight is 100 times the weight of the 16th ratio in the binary system. These weights were found in recent excavations at Harappa and may have been used for controlling trade and possibly for collecting taxes. (Harappa Archaeological Research Project.7)

    https://www.harappa.com/slide/weights-harappa

    "The weights are precisely made, well polished and systematic (though unfortunately not inscribed with any Indus characters, which would have helped scholars to decipher the script's numerical system). Unique in the ancient world, the Indus weight system does not correspond to any of the weight systems used in Mesopotamia or Egypt. It has left a remarkable legacy in India. It provided the weight standards for the earliest Indian coins, issued in the seventh century BC. It was identical with the system used by the first Gangetic kingdoms around 300 BC (just prior to the reign of Asoka). And it still functions, in the third millennium AD, for weighing small quantities in traditional markets in both Pakistan and India." (Andrew Robinson, The Indus, p. 64). https://www.harappa.com/blog/ancient-indus-weights

    See: 

    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/zd4aatp

    The note discusses the possibility that Indus Script cipher tradition evidenced in Sanchi/Bharhut sculptural friezes also provides for signifying kārṣāpaṇá, 'Eng.cash, Kannada kāsu, copper pice'. The copper pice is so-called because it is derived in a smelting process from a fire-pit, straits: kārṣū, kāci. Such a smelting process is, perhaps, signified on a Harappa tablet h386 by a unique hieroglyph of two horizontal lines which occupies the entire field of one side of a tablet.

    In the expression,kārṣāpaṇápaṇá, 'equivalent of 80 cowries'(Sinhalese) is a semantic determinant of thekarsha as a 'coin, a unit of exchange value'.

    It is a debatable argument in linguistics if the Old Persian word karsha is cognate with and derived from the Samskrtam word, karsha, 'unit of weight, coin unit of money'. Since the rebus reading of 'khambhaṛā' (Lahnda) rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coinage' (Kannada) is attested in some Indus Script orthography of focus on 'fish-fins', it is likely that the word karsha meaning 'coin' was also a gloss in the metalwork lexis of Prakrtam, the spoken forms of the word. Some indications are provided by the phonetic forms in languages of the Indian sprachbund, such as: Ko. ka·c rupee. To. ko·s id. Ka. 
    kāsu the smallest copper coin, a cash, coin or money in general. Tu. kāsů an old copper coin worth half a pie, a cash. Te. kāsu a cash, a coin in general, a gold coin, money. Go. (Ko.) kāsu pice -- all traceable to the word karsha 'a weight of silver or gold equal to 1400 of a tulā' (Samskrtam).

    There is a possibility that the hieroglyph which could read rebus as kāci was an orthograph signifying 'furrow, ploughing'. Such a signifier is present in an Indus Script inscription: Harappa tablet h386.

    The hieroglyphs 'fish', 'water-carrier PLUS rim of jar', three linear strokes are read rebus:

    aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS  'khambhaṛā' (Lahnda) rebus: kammaTa 'mint' (Kannada)
    kuTi 'water-carrier' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' PLUS karNika 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'supercargo', karNIKa 'writer, engraver, account-keeper.
    On side h386E, two horizontal lines signify a furrow which can be read rebus: karṣūˊ -- f. ʻ furrow, trench ʼ (Vedic) rebus: karsha 'a unit of weight, a coin'.

    HARP team has discovered a potsherd at Harappa with Indus Script dated to ca. 3300 BCE making this perhaps one of the earliest writing systems of the world. Contemporary to this discovery is Proto-Elamite script which was used in southwestern Iran between c. 3400-2800 BCE,  (See discussion at http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/07/ancient-near-east-transition-fro-bullae.htmlBronze Age revolution in metal crafts was complemented by a writing system to create document innovative processes in such metal crafts. (This five-petal flower may signify tabernae montana as a hieroglyph read rebus: tagaraka 'fragrant flower' (Samskrtam) rebus: tagara 'tin' (a mineral which alloys with copper to produce a hard alloy of bronze for castings, tools, weapons).



    The Bronze Age metallurgical discoveries of alloying and cire perdue (lost-wax) created an industrial revolution. The production of metal implements, weapons, pots and pans. The production of metal coins (copper, silver, gold) also rtransformed an exchange economy based on barter transactions into a market economy based on the use of 'money or cash'.

    There is considerable force in the argument that signs incised on pottery in the Pre-Harappan period did develop as glyphs used on Indus writing. Lal has shown that the signs continued in use after the Indus writing ceased to be used. It is not unreasonable to build on the assumption that the potter's marks provided sign-substratum  for Indus writing and also for Proto-Elamite writing. Thus, Potts makes a reasoned statement: "If there is any connection between the corpus of Proto-Elamite signs used at the beginning of the third millennium and the later Harappan signary, I suggest it is via the medium of the potter's marks in use throughout the Indo-Iranian borderlands which absorbed certain signs of ultimate Proto-Elamite origin, some of which were in time incorporated into the Harappan script." (Potts, D.T., 1981, The Potter's Marks of Tepe Yahya, in: Paleorient, Vol. 7, Issue 7-1, p.116)..

    Thus, not only World Monetary History is born but a writing system evolved to describe the metallurgical techniques and mineral resources used to create metal products of exchange value.

    The roots of the word 'cash' in English are traced to Indus Script hieroglyph writing tradition.

    See: Indus Script hieroglyphs on early Magadha pre-karshapana 5 punch-marked coins 6th centBCE deciphered http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/03/indus-script-hieroglyphs-on-early.html The decipherment based on Indus Script cipher establishes the continuum of a writing system into the historical periods and use in ancient mints starting with pre-Mauryan janapadas.

    Such karshapana, ancient coins of ca. 7th cent. BCE are identified by the punch-marks which are Indus Script hieroglyphs.

    The English word 'cash' is derived from  karsha. (C.A.S.Williams. Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs. Tuttle Publishing. p. 76).So is, kAsu of Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada. D.R.Bhandarkar.indicates that nishka, krishnala (Vedic terms) as karshapana were stored in treasuries and the possibility that such coins were in vogue ca. 10th cent. BCE. (Bhandarkar, DR, Lectures on Ancient Indian Numismatics. Asian Educational Services. pp. 55, 62, 79).

    (Arabo-Pers. sekka), standardized units of metal used as a medium of exchange, first introduced into Persia by the Achaemenid Darius I (521-486 B.C.E.)"... a papyrus document from Egypt dating from the 5th century B.C.E. confirms that merchants paid “according to the stone (weight) of the king”: 1 kereš (O.Pers. karša) = 10 shekels, 1 shekel = 4 quarters, 1 quarter = 2 dānaka (O.Pers. *dānaka; attested in El. da-na-kaš; Cameron, p. 132; > Gk. dana “obol,” i.e., one-sixth drachmḗ “drachma” > Mid.Pers. dāng, Pers. dāng“one-sixth”; Horn, Etymologie, no. 536; Bivar, p. 622)...http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/coins-and-coinage-

    Thus, it is seen that shekel which became a currency unit was preceded by  kereš (O.Pers. karša) = 10 shekels. This  kereš (O.Pers. karša) = 10 shekels, is related to the Samskrtam word karsha which meant 'a weight of silver or gold equal to 1400 of a tulā' (Samskrtam).

    I suggest that the Latin and French cognate words together with Old Persian karša are derived from the Samskrtam gloss. Latin: capsa 'money box', French caisse, English cash, Portuguese caixa are thus derivatives from Samskrtam and OPersian karsha, 'a particular weight, money unit'.

    kārṣāpaṇá m.n. ʻ a partic. coin or weight equivalent to one karṣa ʼ. [karṣa -- m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ Suśr. (cf. OPers. karša -- ) and paṇa -- 2 orāpana -- EWA i 176 and 202 with lit. But from early MIA. kā̆hā°]Pa. kahāpaṇa -- m.n. ʻ a partic. weight and coin ʼ, KharI. kahapana -- , Pk. karisāvaṇa -- m.n., kāhāvaṇa -- , kah° m.; A. kaoṇ ʻ a coin equivalent to 1 rupee or 16 paṇas or 1280 cowries ʼ; B. kāhan ʻ 16 paṇas ʼ; Or. kāhā̆ṇa ʻ 16 annas or 1280 cowries ʼ, H. kahāwankāhankahān m.; OSi. (brāhmī) kahavaṇa, Si. kahavuṇa°vaṇuva ʻ a partic. weight ʼ.kāˊrṣāpaṇika ʻ worth or bought for a kārṣāpaṇa ʼ Pāṇ. [kārṣāpaṇá -- ]Pa. kāhāpaṇika -- , Or. kāhāṇiã̄.(CDIAL 3080, 3081) Ta. kācu gold, gold coin, money, a small copper coin. Ma. kāśu gold, money, the smallest copper coin. Ko. ka·c rupee. To. ko·s id. Ka. kāsu the smallest copper coin, a cash, coin or money in general. Tu. kāsů an old copper coin worth half a pie, a cash. Te. kāsu a cash, a coin in general, a gold coin, money. Go. (Ko.) kāsu pice (< Te.; Voc. 663). / ? Cf. Skt. karṣa-. (DEDR 1431) kāsi 'coin' (Sinhalese).

    The early Portuguese writers represented the native word by cas, casse, caxa, the Fr. by cas, the Eng. by cass: the existing Pg. caixa and Eng. cash are due to a natural confusion withCASH n.1. From an early date the Portuguese applied caixa (probably on the same analogy) to the small money of other foreign nations, such as that of the Malay Islands, and especially the Chinese, which was also naturally made into cash in English. (Yule)" ("Cash, n.²"Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.)The English word "cash," meaning "tangible currency," is an older word from Middle French caisse.(Douglas Harper (2001). "Online Etymology Dictionary"). 

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_(currency) In Latin, capsa means a “money box” (cf. OPers. Kshatrapavan = Satrap “an ancient Persian commercial and state confinement”) and a cognate word is: case which refers to a box. French word caisse means “money in hand, coin.” Old Persian karsha means  “a unit of value equivalent to one cash coin” and "was first employed during the reign of Cyrus II followed by the establishment of the “formal” banking system and around the same time of the establishment of the credit and checking unions during the reign of Darius I who also minted the first face-coins. (Jean-Luc Dumont. "The Establishment of the Banking “Industry” – a 2500 Year Old Aryan ICH and Commercial Industry" |https://docs.google.com/document/d/1USeT6-9KtdA0zdQ73GGh-N_k9JYvUW7y-8zDnPdIhcM/edit?usp=sharing,  ACHF, 2016.)

    Kārshāpaṇa (Sanskritकार्षापण) is attested by Panini ca. 6th cent. BCE and in Samvidhān Brāhmana, S'atapatha Brāhmana, Dhammapada verse 186. They are generally silver pieces with 5 or 6 punch-marks (Indus Script hieroglyphs) and attested in mints of many early janapadas of Bharatam. Patanjali refers to it as a coin: कार्षापणशो ददाति "he gives a Karshapaṇa coin to each" or कार्षापणम् ददाति "he gives a Kārshāpaṇa",  The suffix – शस् taken up by Pāṇini in Sutra V.iv.43 indicates that a coin is referred to. "During the Mauryan Period, the punch-marked coin called Rūpyārūpa, which was same as Kārshāpaṇa or Kahāpana or Prati or Tangka, was made of alloy of silver (11 parts), copper (4 parts) and any other metal or metals (1 part).https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karshapana While  Kārshāpaṇa were of copper, Dharana or Purana were of silver and Suvarna were of gold. PaNa were punch-marked coins. The Vedic weight of karsha was equal to 16 mAshas. Lakshanadhyaksha of Arthas'astra could identify the symbols (hieroglyphs); he was a Rupadarshaka, 'examiner of coins'. 

    Thanks to Indus Script cipher, it is now possible to pin-down the meanings of the punch-marks which are a continuum of Indus Script hieroglyph tradition.

    कार्षा* पण[p= 276,3]mn. (g. अर्धर्चा*दि ; cf. कर्ष्) " weighing a कर्ष " , a coin or weight of different values (if of gold , = 16 माष» कर्ष ; if of silver , = 16 पणs or 1280 Kowries , commonly termed a Kahan ; if of copper , = 80 रक्तिकाs or about 176 grains ; but accord. to some = only 1 पण of Kowries or 80 Kowries) Mn. viii , 136 ; 336 ; ix , 282(ifc.) worth so many कार्षापणPa1n2. 5-1 , 29n. money , gold and silver L. कर्ष [p=260,1]mn. a weight of gold or silver (= 16 माषs = 80 Rettis = 1÷पल = 1÷400 of a तुला = about 176 grains troy ; in common use 8 Rettis are given to the माष , and the कर्ष is then about 280 grains troy) Sus3r. VarBr2S. &c

    कर्ष mn. Terminalia Bellerica (also called अक्ष q.v.L.
    "The nuts of the tree are rounded but with five flatter sides. It seems to be these nuts that are used as dice in the epic poem Mahabharata. A handful of nuts would be cast on a gaming board and the players would have to call whether an odd or even number of nuts had been thrown." ( Bennett, Deborah (1999). Randomness. Boston: Harvard University Press. p. 24.). A synonym for कर्ष mn. Terminalia Bellerica in Samskrtam is अक्ष

    Terminalia bellirica hanging fruit at 23 Mile near Jayanti in Buxa Tiger Reserve in Jalpaiguri district of West BengalIndia

    The seed of this nut is used as a die in the game of dice. akSa also means a sensual perception, a law-suit, hence अक्ष--पटल [p= 3,2] n. court of law depository of legal document Ra1jat.


    Hieroglyphy: furrow, trench: कर्ष [p=259,3] m. ( √कृष्) , the act of drawing , dragging Pa1n2.(with and without हलस्य) ploughing , agriculture A1p. Ya1jn5. ii , 217 karṣí ʻ furrowing ʼ Kapiṣṭh. [Cf. kāˊrṣi -- ʻ ploughing ʼ VS., karṣūˊ -- f. ʻ furrow, trench ʼ ŚBr.: √kr̥ṣPr. kṣe_ ʻ plough -- iron ʼ, Paš. kaṣí ʻ mattock, hoe ʼ; Shum. káṣi ʻ spade, pickaxe ʼ; S. kasī f. ʻ trench, watercourse ʼ; L. kass m. ʻ catch drain, ravine ʼ, kassī f. ʻsmall distributing channel from a canalʼ; G. kã̄s m. ʻartificial canal for irrigationʼ -- Dm. Phal. khaṣīˊ ʻ small hoe ʼ perh. X khánatiAddenda: karṣí -- (kaṣĭ̄ -- f. ʻ spade ʼ lex.). [Like Av. karšivant<-> ʻ cultivator ʼ < IE. *kworsi -- with alternative development of IE. o ~ kāˊrṣi -- , kārṣīvaṇa -- ʻ cultivator ʼ T. Burrow, BSOAS xxxviii 63, 70; cf. karṣūˊ -- ~ †*kārṣū -- Turner BSOAS xxxvi 425](CDIAL 2909) *kārṣū -- f. ʻ furrow, trench ʼ ~ karṣūˊ -- with dial. IA. a for ā < IE. o as in Av. karšū ʻ ploughed land ʼ and in karṣí -- ~ kāˊrṣi -- T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 70, Turner BSOAS xxxvi 429. Pa. kāsū -- in aṅgāra -- kāsū -- f. ʻ fire -- pit ʼ.(CDIAL 3081a).Ta. kāci difficulty, straits (< Te.). Ka. gāsi, ghāsi trouble, fatigue, pain. Tu. gāsi id. Te. gāsi id.; gāsincu to harass, vex, fatigue, exhaust; gāsil(l)u to labour, be wearied, be harassed. (DEDR 1430)

    Kasi and Kasī (f.) [fr. kasāti] tilling, ploughing; agricul- ture, cultivation M ii.198; S i.172, 173=Sn 76 sq.; Vin iv.6; Pv i.56 (k˚, gorakkha, vaṇijjā); PvA 7; Sdhp 390 (k˚, vaṇijjā); VvA 63. -- ˚ŋ kasati to plough, to till the land J i.277; Vism 284.
       -- kamma the act or occupation of ploughing, agriculture J ii.165, 300; iii.270. -- karaṇa ploughing, tilling of the field PvA 66; -- khetta a place for cultivation, a field PvA 8 (kasī˚); -- gorakkha agriculture and cattle breeding D i.135; -- bhaṇḍa ploughing implements DhA i.307. Kasati [kṛṣ or karṣ] to till, to plough S i.172, 173=Sn 80; Th i.531; J i.57; ii.165; vi.365. -- kassate (3rd sing. med.) Th 1, 530. -- pp. kattha (q. v.) Caus. II. kasāpeti Miln 66, 82; DhA i.224.Kasana (nt.) ploughing, tilling J iv.167; vi.328, 364; Vism 384 (+vapana sowing). Kasita (pp. of kasati) ploughed, tilled Anvs 44; -- a˚ un- tilled ibid. 27, 44. -- Cp. vi˚. Kassaka [fr. kasati] a husbandman, cultivator, peasant, farmer, ploughman D i.61 (k˚ gahapatiko kārakārako rāsi -- vaḍḍhako); A i.241; A. i.229, 239 (the three duties of a farmer); S i.172=Sn 76; iii.155 (v. l. for T. kasaka); iv. 314; Vin iv.108; Bdhd 96; DA i.170; often in similes, e. g. Pv i.11ii.968 (likeness to the doer of good works); Vism 152, 284, 320. -- vaṇṇa (under) the disguise of a peasant S i.115 (of Māra). (Pali)

    Square coins are carried as a banner by the elephant rider in the middle. These are kahapana (Pali). This is a proclamation of the coinage work carried out by the artisans of Bharhut..
    Jetvan bharhut.JPG


    Square coins are spread out in the Jetavana narrative at Bharhut. Anathapindika covers Jetavana with coins (BharhutBrahmi text: jetavana ananthapindiko deti kotisanthatena keta. Also called Sudatta, he was a banker (setthi) of Sāvatthi who became famous because of his unparalleled generosity to the Buddha. His first meeting with the Buddha was during the first year after the Enlightenment, in Rājagaha (the story is given in Vin.ii.154ff; SA.i.240ff, etc.), whither Anāthapindika had come on business.These square coins shown on Bharhut sculpturl frieze are: Kahāpaṇa [doubtful as regards etym.; the (later) Sk. kārṣāpaṇa looks like an adaptation of a dial. form] 1. A square copper coin M ii.163; A i.250; v.83 sq.; Vin ii.294; iii.238; DhsA 280 (at this passage included under rajataŋ, silver, together with loha -- māsaka, dārumāsaka and jatu -- māsaka); S i.82; A i.250; Vin ii.294; iv.249; J i.478, 483; ii.388; Mhvs 3014. The extant specimens in our museums weigh about 5/6 of a penny, and the purchasing power of a k. in our earliest records seems to have been about a florin. -- Frequent numbers as denoting a gift, a remuneration or alms, are 100,000 (J ii.96); 18 koṭis (J i.92); 1,000 (J ii.277, 431; v.128, 217; PvA 153, 161); 700 (J iii.343); 100 (DhA iii.239); 80 (PvA 102); 10 or 20 (DhA iv.226); 8 (which is considered, socially, almost the lowest sum J iv.138; i.483). A nominal fine of 1 k. (=a farthing) Miln 193. -- ekaŋ k˚ pi not a single farthing J i.2; similarly eka -- kahāpaṇen' eva Vism 312. -- Various qualities of a kahāpaṇa are referred to by Bdhgh in similes at Vism 437 and 515. Black kahāpaṇas are mentioned at DhA iii.254. -- See Rh. Davids, Ancient Measures of Ceylon; Buddh. India, pp. 100 -- 102, fig. 24; Miln trsl. i.239 -- gabbha a closet for storing money, a safe DhA iv.104; -- vassa a shower of money Dh 186 (=DhA iii.240).(Pali)

    See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/03/indus-script-hieroglyphs-on-early.html 



    paṇa1 m. ʻ wager ʼ Yājñ., ʻ stake, wages ʼ MBh. [Cf. páṇatē ʻ barters ʼ ŚBr. (EWA ii 194 < *pr̥ṇāti?), Pa. paṇati ʻ bargains, bets ʼ. -- √paṇ]Pk. paṇa -- ʻ wealth, bet, promise ʼ; A. pan ʻ wager, vow ʼ; B. pan ʻ oath, promise, dowry ʼ; Or. paṇa ʻ vow ʼ; OMth. pana ʻ stipulation, bargain ʼ; H. pan m. ʻ promise ʼ; OG. paṇa m. ʻ stake ʼ; G. paṇ n. ʻ promise ʼ; M. paṇ m. ʻ bet, promise ʼ; Si. paṇa ʻ bet, wages ʼ.*agryapaṇa -- , *gharapaṇa -- .paṇa2 m. ʻ a coin (= 80 cowries) ʼ Mn. [← Austro -- as. EWA ii 196 with lit.]S. paṇu m. ʻ a dry measure ʼ; Si. paṇa ʻ a measure of account in cowries (= 80) ʼ.(CDIAL 7714, 7715).

    Hieroglyph: drum: 
    paṇava m. ʻ drum ʼ MBh. (hypersanskritism in pra- ṇava -- m. lex.). [← Drav. T. Burrow TPS 1946, 10]Pa. Pk. paṇava -- m. ʻ small drum ʼ, Si. paṇā.(CDIAL 7716) Ta. paṇai drum, large drum. Ka. paṇe, paṇa small drum or tabor. / Cf. Skt. paṇava- id.; Turner, CDIAL, no. 7716.(DEDR 3893)


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    The Priesthood of Uruk in Late First Millennium BCE Babylonia

    The Priesthood of Uruk in Late First Millennium BCE Babylonia
    YBC 13150

    YBC 16216
    Sealed house sale - the Eanna temple purchases two built houses from the  Šigûa family
    © 2017, Yale Babylonian Collection, New Haven 
    Our research project revolves around the southern Mesopotamian urban centre of Uruk (Biblical Erech, modern Warka). It is known as one of the earliest cities in history, also believed in ancient mythology to have been ruled over by the legendary hero Gilgameš. In the ‘long sixth century’ (ca. 620 - 484 BCE) between the ascent of the Neo-Babylonian kingdom after the fall of Assyria and a major disruption of social and economic life in Babylonia after the Babylonian rebellion against the Persian king Xerxes, this city and its main temple the Eanna, sanctuary of the goddess Ištar, were key players in the regional and inter-regional network of people and goods that flowed south from Babylon along the Euphrates. The project aims to reconstruct an important facet of the religious and social landscape of Babylonia through a study of the Urukean clergy as attested in the Eanna archive and in the private archives from Uruk...
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    Coins current during the 7th and the 6th century BCE onwards, unstamped and stamped (āhata).

    All the symbols used on early coins of Ancient Near East and Ancient India are Indus Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts which signify wealth accounting ledgers, metalwork catalogues.

    कर्ष  is expanded semantically with the expression कार्षापणः kārṣāpaṇḥ when the nugget of gold/silver of a specified weight is used in trade transactions, i.e.after the monetary system replaces the barter systems of trade. Indications are that the use of 'money'  कार्षापणः kārṣāpaṇḥ started ca. 6th century BCE with the introduction of the Lydia electrum coin.
    The nuggets pour out of the mouth of the lion which faces a one-horned young bull on Lydia electrum coin. The hypertext readings in Indus Script are: arya 'lion' rebus: ara 'brass'  गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'round pebbles, stones' rebus: गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'A lump of silver'  panja 'claw of feline' rebus: panja 'kiln' konda 'young bull' rebus: kō̃da -कोँद ।'kiln'; kundana 'fine gold' khoṇḍ, kõda 'young bull-calf' Rebus 1: kũdār 'turner'.PLUS ko 'horn' rebus: ko 'workshop'.


    Hieroglyph: कर्ष m. ( √कृष्) , the act of drawing , dragging Pa1n2.; (with and without हलस्य) ploughing , agriculture A1p. Ya1jn5. ii , 217; mn. a weight of gold or silver (= 16 माषs = 80 Rettis = 1÷पल = 1÷400 of a तुला = about 176 grains troy ; in common use 8 Rettis are given to the माष , and the कर्ष is then about 280 grains troy) Sus3r. VarBr2S. &c; mn. a boat L. माष partic. weight of gold (= 5 कृष्णलs = 1÷10 सुवर्ण ; the weight in common use is said to be about 17 grains troy) Mn. Ya1jn5.; N. of a ऋषि-गण (the children of सु-रभि , to whom RV. ix , 86 , 1-10 is ascribed) RAnukr. R. Hariv.(Monier-Williams) अक्षः akṣḥ  weight equal to 16 māṣas and called कर्ष.कार्षापणः kārṣāpaṇḥ णम् ṇam कार्षापणः णम् (or पणकः) A coin or weight of different values; पुराकल्प एतदासीत् षोडश माषाः कार्षापणं Mbh. on P.I.2.64. कार्षापणं तु विज्ञेयस्ताम्रिकः कार्षिकः पणः Ms.9.136,336;9.282. (= कर्ष). न हि काकिन्यां नष्टायां तदन्वेषणं कार्षापणेन क्रियते ŚB. on MS.4.3.39. -णम् Money, gold and silver (Apte).  पणm. (ifc. f().) play , gaming , playing for a stake , a bet or a wager (with gen. ; loc. or ifc. ; पणं- √कृ , to make a bet ; पणे नि- √अस् , to stake at play) Ya1jn5. MBh. R. &c; a weight of copper used as a coin (= 20 माषs = 4 काकिनीs) Mn. Ya1jn5.; partic. measure Pa1n2. 3-3 , 66 (" a handful " Sch.); a commodity for sale L.; price; wealth , property L.;business पणि m. a bargainer , miser , niggard (esp. one who is sparing of sacrificial oblations) RV. AV.; N. of a class of envious demons watching over treasures RV. (esp. x , 108AV. S3Br.; market (Monier-Williams)



    Kārshāpaṇa कार्षापण,śatamāna शत--मान are a development of the narrative of कर्ष 'money, gold and silver' relatable to a period 2 millennia later, i.e. to the 6th century BCE when gold, silver, copper coins of particular weight were brought into vogue in janapada-s to leap into a monetary system to replace barter trade transactions (which are referredto as पण ,'wealth,business'; cf.  the derivative: paṇi, 'merchant,market').

    I suggest that the rebus reading of कर्ष 'act of drawing, dragging' signifies कर्ष with the semantics 'gold'. Thus, the Kalibangan terracotta cake signifies smelting processes (cf.kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working with iron' kolhe 'wmelter') to produce gold. There are no indications that the word कर्ष was used ca. 2500 BCE to signify 'gold or silver coin of a particular weight'.




    Pl. XXII B. Terracotta cake with incised figures on obverse and reverse, Harappan. On one side is a human figure wearing a head-dress having two horns and a plant in the centre; on the other side is an animal-headed human figure with another animal figure, the latter being dragged by the former. If the act of 'drawing, dragging' is so vividly signified on the Kalibangan terracottacake, was it the intention of the artisan who made the orthographs to signify, कर्ष m. ( √कृष्) , the act of drawing , dragging to be interpreted rebus: कर्ष 'weight of metal object (coin); weight of gold or silver (= 16 माषs = 80 Rettis = 1÷पल = 1÷400 of a तुला = about 176 grains troy'? Does the pictorial narrative signify a goldsmith working to produce gold objects of the desired weight of kara?



    A terracotta type found in Kalibangan has the hieroglyph of a warrior: bhaTa 'warrior' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace', thus reinforcing the smelting process in the fire-altars. Smelters might have used bhaThi 'bellows'. bhástrā f. ʻ leathern bag ʼ ŚBr., ʻ bellows ʼ Kāv., bhastrikā -- f. ʻ little bag ʼ Daś. [Despite EWA ii 489, not from a √bhas ʻ blow ʼ (existence of which is very doubtful). -- Basic meaning is ʻ skin bag ʼ (cf. bakura<-> ʻ bellows ʼ ~ bākurá -- dŕ̊ti -- ʻ goat's skin ʼ), der. from bastá -- m. ʻ goat ʼ RV. (cf.bastājina -- n. ʻ goat's skin ʼ MaitrS. = bāstaṁ carma Mn.); with bh -- (and unexpl. -- st -- ) in Pa. bhasta -- m. ʻ goat ʼ, bhastacamma -- n. ʻ goat's skin ʼ. Phonet. Pa. and all NIA. (except S. with a) may be < *bhāsta -- , cf. bāsta -- above (J. C. W.)]With unexpl. retention of -- st -- : Pa. bhastā -- f. ʻ bellows ʼ (cf. vāta -- puṇṇa -- bhasta -- camma -- n. ʻ goat's skin full ofwind ʼ), biḷāra -- bhastā -- f. ʻ catskin bag ʼ, bhasta -- n. ʻ leather sack (for flour) ʼ; K. khāra -- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ; -- S. bathī f. ʻ quiver ʼ (< *bhathī); A. Or. bhāti ʻ bellows ʼ, Bi. bhāthī, (S of Ganges) bhã̄thī; OAw. bhāthā̆ ʻ quiver ʼ; H. bhāthā m. ʻ quiver ʼ, bhāthī f. ʻ bellows ʼ; G. bhāthɔ,bhātɔbhāthṛɔ m. ʻ quiver ʼ (whence bhāthī m. ʻ warrior ʼ); M. bhātā m. ʻ leathern bag, bellows, quiver ʼ, bhātaḍ n. ʻ bellows, quiver ʼ; <-> (X bhráṣṭra -- ?) N. bhã̄ṭi ʻ bellows ʼ, H. bhāṭhī f.

    *khallabhastrā -- .Addenda: bhástrā -- : OA. bhāthi ʻ bellows ʼ .(CDIAL 9424) bhráṣṭra n. ʻ frying pan, gridiron ʼ MaitrS. [√bhrajj] Pk. bhaṭṭha -- m.n. ʻ gridiron ʼ; K. büṭhü f. ʻ level surface by kitchen fireplace on which vessels are put when taken off fire ʼ; S. baṭhu m. ʻ large pot in which grain is parched, large cooking fire ʼ, baṭhī f. ʻ distilling furnace ʼ; L. bhaṭṭh m. ʻ grain -- parcher's oven ʼ, bhaṭṭhī f. ʻ kiln, distillery ʼ, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭhm., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnace ʼ, bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ; N. bhāṭi ʻ oven or vessel in which clothes are steamed for washing ʼ; A. bhaṭā ʻ brick -- or lime -- kiln ʼ; B. bhāṭi ʻ kiln ʼ; Or. bhāṭi ʻ brick -- kiln, distilling pot ʼ; Mth. bhaṭhībhaṭṭī ʻ brick -- kiln, furnace, still ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhāṭhā ʻ kiln ʼ; H. bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ, bhaṭ f. ʻ kiln, oven, fireplace ʼ; M. bhaṭṭā m. ʻ pot of fire ʼ, bhaṭṭī f. ʻ forge ʼ. -- X bhástrā -- q.v.bhrāṣṭra -- ; *bhraṣṭrapūra -- , *bhraṣṭrāgāra -- .Addenda: bhráṣṭra -- : S.kcch. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ʻ distil (spirits) ʼ.*bhraṣṭrāgāra ʻ grain parching house ʼ. [bhráṣṭra -- , agāra -- ]P. bhaṭhiār°ālā m. ʻ grainparcher's shop ʼ.(CDIAL 9656, 9658) 


    Decipherment of hieroglyphs on the Kalibangan terracotta cake:

    bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'
    koD 'horn' rebus: koD 'workshop'

    kola 'tiger' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith', kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron'

    The tiger is being pulled to be tied to a post, pillar.
    Hieroglyph: Ka. kunda a pillar of bricks, etc. Tu. kunda pillar, post. Te. kunda id. Malt. kunda block, log. ? Cf. Ta. kantu pillar, post. (DEDR 1723) Rebus: (agni)kuNDA 'fire-altar, vedi'.
    Hieriglyph: meṛh rope tying to post, pillar: mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts ʼ AV., °thī -- f. KātyŚr.com., mēdhī -- f. Divyāv. 2. mēṭhī -- f. PañcavBr.com., mēḍhī -- , mēṭī -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, N. meh(e), mihomiyo, B. mei, Or. maï -- dāṇḍi, Bi. mẽhmẽhā ʻ the post ʼ, (SMunger) mehā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. mehmehā ʻ the post ʼ, (SBhagalpur)mīhã̄ ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, (SETirhut) mẽhi bāṭi ʻ vessel with a projecting base ʼ.2. Pk. mēḍhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, mēḍhaka<-> ʻ small stick ʼ; K. mīrmīrü f. ʻ larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts ʼ (for semantic relation of ʻ post -- hole ʼ see kūpa -- 2); L. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ; P. mehṛ f., mehaṛ m. ʻ oxen on threshing floor, crowd ʼ; OA meṛhamehra ʻ a circular construction, mound ʼ; Or. meṛhī,meri ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ; Bi. mẽṛ ʻ raised bank between irrigated beds ʼ, (Camparam) mẽṛhā ʻ bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. (SETirhut) mẽṛhā ʻ id. ʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.mēthika -- ; mēthiṣṭhá -- . mēthika m. ʻ 17th or lowest cubit from top of sacrificial post ʼ lex. [mēthí -- ]Bi. mẽhiyā ʻ the bullock next the post on threshing floor ʼ.mēthiṣṭhá ʻ standing at the post ʼ TS. [mēthí -- , stha -- ] Bi. (Patna) mĕhṭhā ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, (Gaya) mehṭāmẽhṭā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ.(CDIAL 10317 to, 10319) Rebus: meD 'iron' (Ho.); med 'copper' (Slavic)
    Weight (coin): कार्षा* पण mn. (g. अर्धर्चा*दि ; cf. कर्ष्) " weighing a कर्ष " , a coin or weight of different values (if of gold , = 16 माष» कर्ष ; if of silver , = 16 पणs or 1280 Kowries , commonly termed a Kahan ; if of copper , = 80 रक्तिकाs or about 176 grains ; but accord. to some = only 1 पण of Kowries or 80 Kowries)Mn. viii , 136 ; 336 ; ix , 282(ifc.) worth so many कार्षापणPa1n2. 5-1 , 29; n. money , gold and silver L. ; m. pl. N. of a warrior-tribe g. पर्श्व्-ादि; m. the chief of this tribe ib. and 4-1 , 177 Va1rtt. 2. (Monier-Williams)

    शत--मान mfn. (शत्/अ-.) hundred-fold VS.; weighing a hundred (रक्तिकाSch.TS. Ka1t2h. S3Br. &c; m. any object made of gold which weighs a hundred मानS3Br. Ka1tyS3r.; m. n. a weight (or gift) of a hundred मानs in gold or silver ( -दक्षिण mfn. Ka1tyS3r. ib. Mn. Ya1jn5. &c; m. a पल of silver W.; m. an आढक (q.v.W.  
    आढक mn. (g. अर्धर्चा*दि q.v. ; ifc. f(). Pa1n2. 4-1 , 22 and v , 1 , 54 Comm.) a measure of grain (= 1÷द्रोण = 4 प्रस्थs = 16 kudavas = 64 पलs = 256 कर्षs = 4096 माषs ; = nearly 7 lbs. 11 ozs. avoirdupois ; in Bengal = two mans or 164 lbs. avds.)
    Coins bearing this name were in circulation during the Sutraand the Brāhmana period and also find a mention in the early Buddhist (Dhammapada verse 186) and Persian texts of that period. Patanjali in his commentary on the vārttikas of Kātyāyana on Aṣṭādhyāyī uses the word, "Kārshāpaṇa", to mean a coin – कार्षापणशो ददाति "he gives a Karshapaṇa coin to each" or कार्षापणम् ददाति "he gives a Kārshāpaṇa", while explaining the use of the suffix – शस् taken up by Pāṇini in Sutra V.iv.43, in this case, कार्षापण + शः to indicate a "coin". (The Ashtadhyayi of Panini Vol.2. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 998.) "During the Mauryan Period, the punch-marked coin called Rūpyārūpa, which was same as Kārshāpaṇa or Kahāpana or Prati or Tangka, was made of alloy of silver (11 parts), copper (4 parts) and any other metal or metals (1 part).The early indigenous Indian coins were called Suvarṇa(made of gold), Purāṇa or Dhārana (made of silver) and Kārshāpaṇa (made of copper). The Golakpur (Patna) find is mainly pre-Maurya, possibly of the Nanda era, and appear to have been re-validated to make them kośa- praveśya (legal tender); the coins bearing larger number of marks are thought to be older in origin. The Maurya Empire was definitely based upon money-economy.The punch-marked copper coins were called paṇa...The term Kārshāpaṇa referred to gold, silver and copper coins weighing 80 ratis or 146.5 grains; these coins, the earliest square in shape, followed the ancient Indian system of weights described in Manu Smriti.Use of money was known to Vedic people much before 700 BCE. The words, Nishka and Krishnala, denoted money, and Kārshāpaṇas, as standard coins, were regularly stored in the royal treasuries.The Local silver punch-marked coins, included in the Bhabhuā and Golakpur finds, were issued by the Janapadas and were in circulation during the rule of the Brihadratha Dynasty which was succeeded by the Magadha empire founded by the Haryanka dynasty in 684 BCE; these coins show four punch-marks - the sun-mark, the six-armed symbol, arrows (three) and taurine (three) which were current even during the rule of Bimbisara (604-552 BCE). Ajatashatru (552-520 BCE) issued the first Imperial coins of six punch-marks with the addition of the bull and the lion. The successors of Ajatashatru who ruled between 520 and 440 BCE and the later Shishunaga dynasty and the nanda dynasty issued coins of five symbols – the sun-mark, the six-armed symbol and any three of the 450 symbols. The Maurya coins also have five symbols – the sun-mark, the six-armed symbol, three-arched hill with crescent at top, a branch of a tree at the corner of a four-squared railing and a bull with a taurine in front. Punch-marked copper coins were first issued during the rule of Chandragupta Maurya or Bindusara. The Bhīr find includes Maurya coins and a coin of Diodotus I (255-239 BCE) issued in 248 BCE." (D.R.Bhandarkar. Lectures on Ancient Indian Numismatics. Asian Educational Services. pp. 55, 62, 79.; Parmeshwari Lal Gupta. Coins. National Book Trust. pp. 17–20, 239–240.)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karshapana "Even during the Harappan Period (ca 2300 BCE) silver was extracted from argentiferous galena. Silver Kārshāpaṇas show lead impurity but no association with gold. The internal chronology of Kārshāpaṇa and the marks of distinction between the coins issued by the Janapadas and the Magadhan issues is not known, the Arthashastra of Kautilya speaks about the role of the Lakshanadhyaksha ('the Superintendent of Mint') who knew about the symbols and the Rupadarshaka 
    ('Examiner of Coins'), but has remained silent with regard to the construction, order, meaning and background of the punched symbols on these coins hence their exact identification and dating has not been possible.(C. Bhardwaj. Aspects of Ancient Indian Technology. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 140, 142.)"


    [quote]
    Coinage of India, issued by imperial dynasties and middle kingdoms, began anywhere between 6th century BCE to 1st millennium BCE and consisted mainly of copper and silver coins in its initial stage. (Allan, J. & Stern, S. M. (2008), coin, Encyclopædia Britannica.)Scholars remain divided over the origins of Indian coinage.(Dhavalikar, M. K. (1975), "The beginning of coinage in India", World Archaeology, 6 (3): 330-338, Taylor & Francis, Ltd.)


    Cowry shells was first used in India as commodity money.The Indus Valley Civilization dates back between 2500 BCE and 1750 BCE.What is known, however, is that metal currency was minted in India well before the Mauryan Empire (322–185 BCE),and as radio carbon dating indicates, before the 5th century BCE. (Kramer, History Begins at Sumer, pp. 52–55.  https://www.rbi.org.in/currency/museum/c-ancient.html Sellwood, D. G. J. (2008), coin, Encyclopædia Britannica.)

    The practice of minted coins spread to the Indo-Gangetic Plain from West Asia. The coins of this period were called PuranasKarshapanas or Pana.(See P.L. Gupta: Coins, New Delhi, National Book Trust, 1996, Chapter II.)These earliest Indian coins, however, are unlike those circulated in West Asia, were not disk-shaped but rather stamped bars of metal, suggesting that the innovation of stamped currency was added to a pre-existing form of token currency which had already been present in the Mahajanapada kingdoms of the Indian Iron Age. Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included GandharaKuntalaKuruPanchalaShakyaSurasena and Surashtra.
     "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Gandhara Janapada". Coinindia.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Kuntala Janapada". Coinindia.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Kuru Janapada". Coinindia.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Panchala Janapada". Coinindia.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Shakya Janapada". Coinindia.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Shurasena Janapada". Coinindia.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2012-05-22. "The COININDIA Coin Galleries: Surashtra Janapada". Coinindia.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
    The tradition of Indian coinage was further influenced by the coming of Turkic and Mughal invaders in India.(Allan, J. & Stern, S. M. (2008), coin, Encyclopædia Britannica.)The East India Company introduced uniform coinage in the 19th century CE, and these coins were later imitated by the modern nation states of Republic of IndiaPakistanSri Lanka, and Bangladesh.[9] Numismatics plays a valuable role in determining certain period of Indian history.(Sutherland, C. H. V. (2008), coin, Encyclopædia Britannica)

    Post Maha Janapadas period (600 BCE – 200 BCE)

    Punch-marked coins are a type of early Coinage of India, dating to between about the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE.
    The first coins in India were minted around the 6th century BCE by the Mahajanapadas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and certainly before the invasion of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE. The coins of this period were punch-marked coins called Puranas
    Karshapanas or Pana. Several of these coins had a single symbol, for example, Saurashtra had a humped bull, and Dakshin Panchala had a Swastika, others, like Magadha, had several symbols. These coins were made of silver of a standard weight but with an irregular shape. This was gained by cutting up silver bars and then making the correct weight by cutting the edges of the coin.(Śrīrāma Goyala (1994). The Coinage of Ancient India. Kusumanjali Prakashan.)
    They are mentioned in the ManuPanini, and Buddhist Jataka stories and lasted three centuries longer in the south than the north (600 BCE – 300 CE).("Puranas or Punch-Marked Coins (circa 600 BC – circa 300 AD)". Government Museum Chhennai.)
    Early coins of India (400 BCE – 100 CE) were made of silver and copper, and bore animal and plant symbols on them.Magadha Kingdom coin, circa 350 BCE, Karshapana.

          Magadha kingdom, circa 430–320 BCE, Karshapana.
              Magadha kingdom, circa 430–320 BCE, Karshapana.

              Classical period (300 BCE – 1100 CE)

              Coins of the Mauryas

              The Mauryan Empire coins were punch marked with the royal standard to ascertain their authenticity. (Prasad, P.C. (2003), Foreign trade and commerce in ancient India, Abhinav Publications, p.168). The Arthashastra, written by Kautilya, mentions minting of coins but also indicates that the violation of the Imperial Maurya standards by private enterprises may have been an offence.(ibid.). Kautilya also seemed to advocate a theory of bimetallism for coinage, which involved the use of two metals, copper and silver, under one government.(ibid., p.166)
              Maurya Empire coinage

              Introduction of cast die-struck technique (end of 3rd century BCE)

              Ancient Indian Coin from Taxila, India
              Ancient Indian Coin from Taxila, India, dating back to the 304-232 BC. One of the earliest style coins from ancient India. On the obverse, it has an Elephant advancing right, and on the reverse, a Lion standing left, with hill to left and swastika above.
              Punch marked coins were replaced at the fall of the Maurya Empire by cast, die-struck coins.(Recent Perspectives of Early Indian History Book Review Trust, New Delhi, Popular Prakashan, 1995, p.151)Each individual coins was first cast by pouring a molten metal, usually copper or silver, into a cavity formed by two molds. These were then usually die-struck while still hot, first on just one side, and then later on the two sides. The coin devices are Indian, but it is thought that this coin technology was introduced from the West, either from the Achaemenid Empire or from the neighboring Greco-Bactrian kingdom.(The Coins Of India, by Brown, C.J. p.13-20 )

              Coins of the Indo-Greeks Further information: Post-Mauryan coinage of Gandhara


              Silver tetradrachm of Indo-Greek king Philoxenus.
              Obv: Helmetted, diademed and draped bust of Philoxenus. Greek legend BASILEOS ANIKETOU PHILOXENOU "Of the Invincible King Philoxenus"
              Rev: King on prancing horse in military dress. Kharoshtilegend MAHARAJASA APADIHATASA PHILASINASA "Undefeatable King Philoxenus".
              Coin of Apollodotus I, with a nandipada taurinesymbol on the hump of the zebu bull.
              The Indo-Greek kings introduced Greek types, and among them the portrait head, into the Indian coinage, and their example was followed for eight centuries.(Brown C.J (1992)) Every coin has some mark of authority in it, this is what known as "types". It appears on every Greek and Roman coin.Demetrios was the first Bactrian king to strike square copper coins of the Indian type, with a legend in Greek on the obverse, and in Kharoshthi on the reverse.Copper coins, square for the most part, are very numerous. The devices are almost entirely Greek, and must have been engraved by Greeks, or Indians trained in the Greek traditions. The rare gold staters and the splendid tetradrachms of Bactria disappear. The silver coins of the Indo-Greeks, as these later princes may conveniently be called, are the didrachm and the hemidrachm. With the exception of certain square hemidrachms of Apollodotos and Philoxenos, they are all round, are struck to the Persian (or Indian) standard, and all have inscriptions in both Greek and Kharoshthi characters.(Brown C.J (1992))
              Coinage of Indo-Greek kingdom began to increasingly influence coins from other regions of India by the 1st century BCE. By this time a large number of tribes, dynasties and kingdoms began issuing their coins; Prākrit legends began to appear.The extensive coinage of the Kushan empire (1st–3rd centuries CE) continued to influence the coinage of the Guptas (320 to 550 CE) and the later rulers of Kashmir.
              During the early rise of Roman trade with India up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India.("The Geography of Strabo published in Vol. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1917")Gold coins, used for this trade, was apparently being recycled by the Kushan empire for their own coinage. In the 1st century CE, the Roman writer Pliny the Eldercomplained about the vast sums of money leaving the Roman empire for India:

              The trade was particularly focused around the regions of Gujarat, ruled by the Western Satraps, and the tip of the Indian peninsular in Southern India. Large hoards of Roman coins have been found and especially in the busy maritime trading centers of South India.(Curtin, Philip DeArmond etc. (1984), Cross-Cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge University Press. p.100). The South Indian kings reissued Roman-like coinage in their own name, either producing their own copies or defacing real ones in order to signify their sovereignty. (Kulke, Hermann & Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, Routledge, p.108).

              Coins of the Sakas and the Pahlavas (200 BCE – 400 CE)

              Coin of Indo-Scythian Northern Satrap RajuvulaObv.Bust of king and Greek legend. Rev. Athena Alkidemos andKharoshthi legend chatrapasa apratihatachakrasa rajuvulasa"the Satrap Rajuvula whose discus [cakra] is irresistible".The coins are derived from the Indo-Greek types of Strato II.(The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans, by John M. Rosenfield, University of California Press, 1967 p.135 [)
              During the Indo-Scythians period whose era begins from 200 BCE to 400 CE, a new kind of the coins of two dynasties were very popular in circulation in various parts of the then India and parts of central and northern South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar). These dynasties were Saka and The Pahlavas.After the conquest of Bactria by the Sakas in 135 BCE there must have been considerable intercourse sometimes of a friendly, sometimes of a hostile character, between them and the Parthians, who occupied the neighboring territory.
              Maues, whose coins are found only in the Punjab, was the first king of what may be called the Azes group of princes. His silver is not plentiful; the finest type is that with a "biga" (two-horsed chariot) on the obverse, and this type belongs to a square Hemi drachm, the only square aka silver coin known. His most common copper coins, with an elephant's head on the obverse and a "Caduceus" (staff of the god Hermes) on the reverse are imitated from a round copper coin of Demetrius. On another copper square coin of Maues the king is represented on horseback. This striking device is characteristic both of the Saka and Pahlava coinage; it first appears in a slightly different form on coins of the Indo-Greek Hippostratos; the Gupta kings adopted it for their "horseman" type, and it reappears in Medieval India on the coins of numerous Hindu kingdoms until the 14th century CE
              Coins of Kanishka and Huvishka (100 CE – 200 CE)
              Coin of Kanishka in Greek script, with illustration of the Buddha on the reverse.
              Kanishka's copper coinage which came into the scene during 100–200 CE was of two types: one had the usual "standing king" obverse, and on the rarer second type the king is sitting on a throne. At about the same time there was Huvishka's copper coinage which was more varied; on the reverse, as on Kanishka's copper, there was always one of the numerous deities; on the obverse the king was portrayed (1) riding on an elephant, or (2) reclining on a couch, or (3) seated cross-legged, or (4) seated with arms raised.

              Coinage of the Guptas Empire (320 CE – 480 CE)

              Silver coin of Chandragupta II of Gupta Empire, in the style of the Western Satrap, with pseudo-Greek script on the obverse, 400 CE.
              Gold coins of Chandragupta II of Gupta Empire, 400 CE.
              The Gupta Empire produced large numbers of gold coins depicting the Gupta kings performing various rituals, as well as silver coins clearly influenced by those of the earlier Western Satraps by Chandragupta II.
              The splendid gold coinage of Guptas, with its many types and infinite varieties and its inscriptions in Sanskrit, are the finest examples of the purely Indian art that we possess.Their era starts from around 320 with Chandragupta I's accession to the throne.[18]Son of Chandragupta I-Samudragupta, the real founder of the Gupta Empire had coinage made of gold only.There were seven different varieties of coins that appeared during his reign.Out of them the archer type is the most common and characteristic type of the Gupta dynasty coins, which were struck by at least eight succeeding kings and was a standard type in the kingdom.
              The silver coinage of Guptas starts with the overthrow of the Western Satraps by Chandragupta II. Kumaragupta and Skandagupta continued with the old type of coins (the Garuda and the Peacock types) and also introduced some other new types.[18] The copper coinage was mostly confined to the era of Chandragupta II and was more original in design. Eight out of the nine types known to have been struck by him have a figure of Garuda and the name of the King on it. The gradual deterioration in design and execution of the gold coins and the disappearance of silver money, bear ample evidence to their curtailed territory.[18] The percentage of gold in Indian coins under the reign of Gupta rulers showed a steady financial decline over the centuries as it decreases from 90% pure gold under Chandragupta I (319-335) to a mere 75-80% under Skandagupta (467).

              Coinage of the Rajputs (900 CE – 1400 CE)

              The coins of various Rajput princes's ruling in Hindustan and Central India were usually of gold, copper or billon, very rarely silver. These coins had the familiar goddess of wealth, Lakshmi on the obverse. In these coins, the Goddess was shown with four arms than the usual two arms of the Gupta coins; the reverse carried the Nagari legend. The seated bull and horseman were almost invariable devices on Rajput copper and bullion coins.
              Gold coin of Raja Raja Chola I, 985–1014 CE.
              [unquote]





                Very probably the earliest Indian coin: a large silver śatamāna (double siglos or bent bar) issue, Gandhara, c.600-500 BCE (43mm long, 10mm wide); *another example, showing the bend*


                Another example of these very early Gandharan silver bar coins

                Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/jencek/store/viewitem.asp?idProduct=5504
                (downloaded July 2007)

                "Gandhara, Circa 600-300 B.C.E AR śatamāna (43 mm, 11.26 g). Gandhara symbol on each end."

                One more of these very early Taxila "śatamāna bent bar" coins, seen from all angles (length 11.3mm / 0.44 inches; weight 11.25 gm (100 ratti)
                A "bent bar"śatamāna from the Kuru and Panchala janapada, c.500-350 BCE

                Source: http://www.vcoins.com/ancient/saylesandlavender/store/viewitem.asp?idProduct=5939

                A silver 1/8 Kārshāpaṇa coin from Taxila, in the Gandhara janapada, 400's BCE
                Punchmarked silver 1/8 shatamana, Gandhara Janapada, minted ca.500-400 BC, India
                Taxila single-die local coinage. Pile of stones, hill, river and Svastika(220-185 BCE).