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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    https://tinyurl.com/y784w2nb

    To Karl Popper is attributed a logical postulate that a hypothesis in the empirical sciences can never be proven or verified, but a hypothesis can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments. 

    This 'falsifiability' postulate is restated as follows: a hypoethesis can never be independently verified but can be falsified by empirical evidence of experiments.

    This is particularly true of hypotheses related to the underlying language and the purport/meaning of Indus Script inscriptions which are read as Meluhha language/speech hypertexts (composed of pictorial motifs and hieroglyphs).

    How to validate the decipherment of Indus Script hypertexts in the absence of Rosetta stone or the Canopus Decree (two inscriptions which contained the same message in three scripts including Egyptian hieroglyph)?

    One approach is the suggested approach of 'falsifiability' proposed by Karl Popper to falsify a hypothesis that Indus Script is in a Non-Mleccha language. Cypro-Minoan is a non-Meluhha language and this monograph falsifies the hypothesis that the Indus Script hypertexts on four pure tin ingots found in a shipwreck in Haifa are written in a non-Mleccha language. So,the language is NOT Cypro-Minoan. The language is Meluhha, acording to my hypothesis proven with evidence of over 8000 Indus Script inscriptions in 3 volumes.All the 8000+ hypertexts are read as metalwork wealth accounting ledgers rendered in Meluhha speech [Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union)]
     

    I present evidence in this monograph that the hypothesis related to any Non-mleccha as the underlying rebus language of Indus Script hypertexts can be 'falsified' by empirical evidence.

    The hypothesis that the hypertexts on four tin ingots found in a Haifa shipwreck signified Cypro-Minoan writing has been falsified. After the publication in 1977, of the two pure tin ingots found in a shipwreck at Haifa, Artzy published in 1983 (p.52), two more ingots found in a car workshop in Haifa which wasusing the ingots for soldering broken radiators. Artzy's finds were identical in size and shape with the previous two; both were also engraved with two marks. In one of the ingots, at the time of casting, a moulded head was shown in addition to the two marks. Artzy compares this head to Arethusa. (Artzy, M., 1983, Arethusa of the Tin Ingot, Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research, 250, p. 51-55). Artzy went on to suggest the ingots may have been produced in Iberia and disagreed with the suggestion that the ingot marks were Cypro-Minoan script. The author Michal Artzy (opcit., p. 55) showed these four signs on the four tin ingots to E. Masson who is the author of Cypro-Minoan Syllabary. Masson’s views are recorded in Foot Note 3: “E. Masson, who was shown all four ingots for the first time by the author, has suggested privately that the sign ‘d’ looks Cypro-Minoan, but not the other three signs.” Thus, three of the four signs were NOT Cypro-Minoan according to the known Cypro-Minoan syllabary.

    I submit in this monograph empirical evidence from three pure tin ingots discovered in a shipwreck in Haifa contain Indus Script hypertexts hose meaning relate the four ingots to the message: ranku dhatu mũh. This message translates inMeluhha Bhāratīya sprachbund as: tin mineral ingot. 

    The thesis of this monograph is that mleccha म्लेच्छ is a form of Proto-Indian आर्य-वाच् (Arya speech) traceable from the metalwork, artisanal, seafarer lexis of Aratta in Gujarat as a representative region of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union of ancient India) of ca. 4th millennium BCE. This civilizational indicator of language expressions related principally to metalwork, coincides with the participation of Bhāratam Janam (RV 3.53.12) in the Tin-Bronze revolution. Bhāratam Janam linked Eurasia with Ancient Far East (the largest tin-belt of the globe in the Himalayan river basins of Mekong, Irrawaddy and Salween), as evidenced by the sources of Mon-Khmer languages in Austro-Asiatic framework of speechforms in Munda languages of Bhāratam Janam. The perennial, glacial-sourced Himalayan rivers ground down granite rocks on the river basins and created the cassiterite (tin ore) placer deposits which were mined by tin-panners and mercantile transactions engaged in along the Indian Ocean and Himalayan river waterways by seafaring Meluhha merchants. The thesis is premised on a hypothesis (work in process) that this Ancient Maritime Tin Route pre-dated the Silk Road by about two millennia. This is a work in process because archaeometallurgical investigations are needed to trace the sources of tin used in Eurasia during the millennia of Tin-Bronze revolution from ca. 5th to 2nd millennia BCE. The navigable waterways provided by Himalayan rivers were subject migrations in palaeo-channels, caused by plate tectonic events. The ongoing plate tectonic event is the metaphor of tāṇḍava nr̥tyam,'cosmic dance' which indicates the Indian plate moving northwards at a majestic rate of 6 cm. per year jutting into and lifting up the Eurasian plate by 1cm per year resulting in the Himalayan dynamics.

    The earliest literary citations to mleccha as speech/language occur in Manusmṛti, and Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa (both texts datable to periods earlier than 3rd cent BCE). The lexis of Aratta can be reconstructed from the lexis of over 25+ ancient languages of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union) presented in the Indian Lexicon organized in over 1240 semantic clusters. (Note. Please download file of size 29.7 mb).

    Such word and expressions recorded in this Indian Lexicon explain rebus the Indus Script hypertexts and  meanings inMeluhha speech forms.

    மிழலை¹ miḻalai , n. < மிழற்று-. cf. mlīṣṭa. Prattle, lisp; மழலைச்சொல். (சூடா.)மிழற்றல் miḻaṟṟal
    n. < மிழற்று-. 1. Speaking; சொல்லுகை. (சூடா.) 2. See மிழலை¹. (யாழ். அக.) 3. Noise of speaking; பேசலானெழு மொலி. (யாழ். அக.)மிழற்று-தல் miḻaṟṟu- , 5 v. tr. 1. To prattle, as a child; மழலைச்சொற் பேசுதல். பண் கள் வாய் மிழற்றும் (கம்பரா. நாட்டு. 10). 2. To speak softly; மெல்லக் கூறுதல். யான்பலவும் பேசிற் றானொன்று மிழற்றும் (சீவக. 1626). Southworth suggests that the name mleccha comes from miḻi- "speak, one's speech", derived from one of the Dravidian languages and related to the etymology of the word Tamiḻ. (Southworth, Franklin C. (1998), "On the Origin of the word tamiz", International Journal of Dravidial Linguistics27 (1): 129–132). Given the cognates mleccha and milakkhu (meluhha), it is suggested that the word mleccha is a reference to the speech forms of Bhāratīya sprachbund. That these speakers had exttensive contacts between Hanoi (Vietnam) and Haifa (Israel) is indicated by the evidence of 1. three pure tin ingots with Indus Script inscriptions discovered in a Haifa shipwreck and 2. use of Indus Script hypertexts on Dong Son/Karen Bronze Drums of Ancient Far East (Hanoi).

    Image on the Ngoc Lu bronze drum’s surface, Vietnam. Kur. mūxā frogMalt. múqe id. / Cf. Skt. mūkaka- id.(DEDR 5023) Rebus:  mũh, muhã ‘ingot‘ or muhã ‘quantity of metal taken out of furnace’; मूका f. a crucible L. (= or w.r. for मूषा).
    káṅkata m. ʻ comb ʼ AV. (CDIAL 2598).

    S. kaṅgu m. crane, heron (→ Bal. kang); kaṅká m. heron VS. Rebus: kang ‘brazier, fireplace’ (Kashmiri) kaṅká m. ʻ heron ʼ VS. [← Drav. T. Burrow TPS 1945, 87; onomat. Mayrhofer EWA i 137. Drav. influence certain in o of M. and Si.: Tam. Kan. Mal. kokku ʻ crane ʼ, Tu. korṅgu, Tel. koṅga, Kuvi koṅgi, Kui kohko]Pa. kaṅka — m. ʻ heron ʼ, Pk. kaṁka— m., S. kaṅgu m. ʻ crane, heron ʼ (→ Bal. kang); B. kã̄k ʻ heron ʼ, Or. kāṅka; G. kã̄kṛũ n. ʻ a partic. ravenous bird ʼ; — with o from Drav.: M. kõkā m. ʻ heron ʼ; Si. kokā, pl. kokku ʻ various kinds of crane or heron ʼ, kekī ʻ female crane ʼ, kēki ʻ a species of crane, the paddy bird ʼ (ē?).(CDIAL 2595)
    ranku ‘antelope’ rebus: ranku ‘tin’.
    Đông Sơn bronze drum mid-1st millennium BCE fabricated by the Đông Sơn culture in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam were produced from about 600 BCE or earlier until the third century CE.
    maraka 'peacock' Rebus: marakaka loha 'copper alloy, calcining metal'.
    karibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron'
    Kur. mūxā frog. Malt. múqe id. / Cf. Skt. mūkaka- id. (DEDR 5023) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot' 
    kanku 'crane, egret, heron' rebus: kangar 'portable furnace'
    arka 'sun' rebus: eraka 'moltencast copper', arka 'gold'.
    Dong Song drum findings, Vietnam. Dong Song is a pre-historic Bronze Age culture which dominated the Far East as a continuum of the neolithic Hoabinhian stone tool industry of the Far East.
     Indus Script hypertexts: 'face' 
    mũh
    Rebus:  mũh, muhã ‘ingot‘ or muhã ‘quantity of metal taken out of furnace’; मूका f. a crucible L. (= or w.r. for मूषा). 
    dāu 'cross' rebus: dhatu 'mineral ore' (that is, cast metal from ore). 

    ranku 'liquid measure' ranku 'antelope' (Santali) Rebus: Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Santali) raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. [Cf. nāga -- 2, vaṅga -- 1] Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅrāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ.(CDIAL 10562) B. rāṅ(g) ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.(CDIAL 10567) 

    The inscriptions on two pure tin ingots found in a shipwreck in Haifa have been discussed in: Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies, Vol. 1, Number 11 (2010) — The Bronze Age Writing System of Sarasvati Hieroglyphics as Evidenced by Two “Rosetta Stones” By S. Kalyanaraman (Editor of JIJS: Prof. Nathan Katz)http://www.indojudaic.com/index.php?option=com_contact&view=contact&id=1&Itemid=8 (See embedded document).


    milakkhu-rajana 'copper? dye' (Pali) Rebus: மிலேச்சமுகம் milēcca-mukam , n. < mlēccha-mukha. Copper; செம்பு. (யாழ். அக.) மிலைச்சம் milaiccam , n. < mlēccha. Vermilion; சாதிலிங்கம். (சங். அக.) म्लेच्छ 'copper, vermilion' (Monier-Williams) म्लेच्छ-मुख n. = म्लेच्छा*स्य L. = n. " foreigner-face " , copper (so named because the complexion of the Greek and Muhammedan invaders of India was supposed to be copper-coloured) L. (Monier-Williams) म्लेच्छ a person who lives by agriculture or by making weapons L.;  Rebus: Milakkhu [the Prk. form (A -- Māgadhī, cp. Pischel, Prk. Gr. 105, 233) for P. milakkha] a non -- Aryan D iii.264; Th 1, 965 (˚rajana "of foreign dye" trsl.; Kern, Toev. s. v. translates "vermiljoen kleurig"). As milakkhukaat Vin iii.28, where Bdhgh expls by "Andha -- Damil'ādi."; Milakkha [cp. Ved. Sk. mleccha barbarian, root mlecch, onomat. after the strange sounds of a foreign tongue, cp. babbhara & mammana] a barbarian, foreigner, outcaste, hillman S v.466; J vi.207; DA i.176; SnA 236 (˚mahātissa -- thera Np.), 397 (˚bhāsā foreign dialect). The word occurs also in form milakkhu (q. v.); Milāca [by -- form to milakkha, viâ *milaccha>*milacca> milāca: Geiger, P.Gr. 622; Kern, Toev. s. v.] a wild man of the woods, non -- Aryan, barbarian J iv.291 (not with C.=janapadā), cp. luddā m. ibid., and milāca -- puttā J v.165 (where C. also expls by bhojaputta, i. e. son of a villager)..(Pali) மிலேச்சன் milēccaṉ, n. < milēccha  Person speaking barbarous language; திருத்த மற்ற மொழியைப் பேசுவோன். (சீவக. 93, உரை.) மிலேச்சிதம் milēccitam , n. < mlēcchita. (யாழ். அக.) 1. Ungrammatical speech; இலக்கண வழுவான பேச்சு. 2. Non-Sanskritic language; ஸம்ஸ்கிருதமும் அதனுட்பிரிவான பாஷைகளும் அல் லாத பிறபாஷை.

    आर्य--वाच् mfn. speaking the Aryan language मनु-स्मृति x , 45.; आर्य a master , an owner L.; a man highly esteemed , a respectable , honourable man पञ्चतन्त्रशकुन्तला &c.
    Source: The Institutes of Hindu Law: Or, The Ordinances of Manu, Calcutta: Sewell & Debrett, 1796.

    Translation by .G.Buhler: X.43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras;
    X.44. (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas.
    X.45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans.
    http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/manu/manu10.htm

    Manusmṛti, 'reflections of Manu' is ancient legal text dated to ca. 2nd century BCE, among the many Dharmaśāstras of Hindu dharma. It is also referred to as Mānava-Dharmaśāstra. The Dharmasya Yonih (Sources of the Law) has twenty-four verses. 
    वेदोऽखिलो धर्ममूलं स्मृतिशीले च तद्विदाम् । आचारश्चैव साधूनामात्मनस्तुष्टिरेव च ॥
    Translation 1: The whole Veda is the (first) source of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the (Veda further), also the customs of holy men, and (finally) self-satisfaction (Atmana santushti).[23]
    Translation 2: The root of the religion is the entire Veda, and (then) the tradition and customs of those who know (the Veda), and the conduct of virtuous people, and what is satisfactory to oneself.[24]
    — Manusmriti 2.6
    वेदः स्मृतिः सदाचारः स्वस्य च प्रियमात्मनः । एतच्चतुर्विधं प्राहुः साक्षाद् धर्मस्य लक्षणम् ॥
    Translation 1: The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs of virtuous men, and one's own pleasure, they declare to be the fourfold means of defining the sacred law.[23]
    Translation 2: The Veda, tradition, the conduct of good people, and what is pleasing to oneself – they say that is four fold mark of religion.[24]
    — Manusmriti 2.12
    The closing verses of Manusmriti declares,
    एवं यः सर्वभूतेषु पश्यत्यात्मानमात्मना । स सर्वसमतामेत्य ब्रह्माभ्येति परं पदम् ॥
    He who thus recognizes in his individual soul (Self, Atman), the universal soul that exists in all beings,
    becomes equal-minded towards all, and enters the highest state, Brahman.
    — Manusmriti 12.125, Calcutta manuscript with Kulluka Bhatta commentary. 

    Manu notes (10.45):

    mukhabāhūrupajjānām yā loke jātayo bahih

    mlecchavācaś cāryavācas te sarve dasyuvah smtāh

    This shows a two-fold division of dialects: arya speech and mleccha speech. The language spoken was an indicator of social identity. In ancient Bhāratiya texts, mleccha, a Prāktam, was recognised as an early speech form, a dialect referred to in  Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa and Mahābhārata, a dialect which required a translator for a Mesopotamian transacting with a sea-faring Meluhha merchant of Saptasindhu region.  


    Mahābhārata refers to many groups of people such as: Sakas, Huns, Yavanas(Greek), Kambojas, Pahlavas, Bahlikas, Rishikas, Chinas(China).  The text describes mleccha with "heads completely shaved or half-shaved or covered with matted locks, [as being] impure in habits, and of crooked faces and noses", as "dwellers of hills" and "denizens of mountain-caves. Mlecchas were born of the cow, Nandini, (belonging to Vasiṣṭha), of fierce eyes, accomplished in smiting looking like messengers of death, and all conversant with the deceptive powers of the Asuras". The text gives the following information regarding  mleccha:
    • Mleccha who sprang up from the tail of the celestial cow Nandini sent the army of Viswamitra flying in terror.
    • Bhagadatta was the king of mlecchas.
    • Pāṇḍavas, like BhimaNakula and Sahadeva once defeated them.
    • Karna during his world campaign conquered many mleccha countries.
    • The wealth that remained in the Yāgaśāla of Yudhiṣṭhira after the distribution as gifts to Brāhmaṇa-s was taken away by the mlecchas.
    • The mlecchas drove angered elephants on the army of the Pāṇḍavas.

    Amarakośa describes the Kiratas , Khasas and Pulindas as the Mleccha-jatis. In some ancient texts, Indo-GreeksScythians,and Kushanas were also mlecchas The VāyuMatsya and Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇas state that the seven Himalayan rivers pass through mleccha countries. Baudhāyana Sutra-s refer to a mleccha as someone "who eats meat or indulges in self-contradictory statements or is devoid of righteousness and purity of conduct." (reference citation not provided). 

    Ānava with variant pronunciations of words/expressions were located on frontiers of  Āryāvarta in regions such as Gāndhāra, Kāśmīra and Kāmbojas. 

    Such Ānava could be in the lineage of Āmāvasu mentioned in: Baudhāyana Śrautasūtra (BSS) 18.45 and the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa 11.5.1 which indicate the wanderings of lineage of Pururavas took place from KurukshetraPururavas and Urvaśi had two sons, Āyu and Āmāvasu. According to the Vādhūla Anvākhyāna 1.1.1, yajña rituals were not performed properly before the attainment of the gandharva fire and the birth of Āyu who ensures the continuation of the human lineage that continues down to the Kuru kings, and beyond. 

    Clearly, Caland interpreted the passage to mean that from a central region, the Arattas, Gandharis and Parsus migrated west, while the Kasi-Videhas and Kuru-Pancalas migrated east. Combined with the testimony of the Satapatha Brahmana (see below), the implication of this version in the Baudhāyana śrautasūtra, narrated in the context of the Agnyadheya rite is that that the two outward migrations took place from the central region watered by the Sarasvati. (Kashikar, Chintamani Ganesh. 2003. Baudhāyana śrautasūtra (Ed., with an English translation). 3 vols. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass/IGNCA).

    Ṛgveda hymn 6.61.9,12 says that 5 Aryan groups of people spread beyond the seven sister-rivers (sapta sindhavah)!

    In volume III of his translation, on p. 1235, Kashikar translates the relevant sentences of the text BSS 18.44 as follows- 
    "Ayu moved towards the east. Kuru-Pancala and Kasi-Videha were his regions. This is the realm of Ayu. Amavasu proceeded towards the west. The Gandharis, Sparsus and Arattas were his regions. This is the realm of Amavasu." 

    Baudhāyana’s Śrautasūtra 18.4 mentions two migrations of the Vedic people. One was eastward, the Āyava. The other was westward, the Āmāvasa, and this produced the Gāndhāris (Gandhāra and Bactria), the Parśus Persians and the Arattas (of Urartu and/or Ararat on the Caucasus?). Map showing the “seven rivers and Sarasvatī”; various sites with Harappan artefacts far from Saptasindhu; also the two movements eastward by Āyu and westward by Āmāvasu. Read more at: https://www.newsgram.com/vedic-sanskrit-older-than-avesta-baudhayana-mentions-westward-migrations-from-india-dr-n-kazanas

    In an obscure study15 of the Urvashi legend in Dutch, he focuses on the version found in Baudhāyana śrautasūtra 18.44-45 and translates the relevant sentences of text as (Caland, Willem. 1903. "Eene Nieuwe Versie van de Urvasi-Mythe". In Album-Kern, Opstellen Geschreven Ter Eere van Dr. H. Kern. E. J. Brill: Leiden, pp. 57-60).
    "Naar het Oosten ging Ayus; van hem komen de Kuru's, Pancala's, Kasi's en Videha's. Dit zijn de volken, die ten gevolge van het voortgaan van Ayus ontstonden. Naar het Westen ging Amavasu; van hem komen de Gandhari's. de Sparsu's en de Aratta. Dit zijn de volken, die ten gevolge van Amavasu's voortgaan ontstonden." 
    Translated into English (by Koenraad Elst.), this reads – 
    "To the East went Ayus; from him descend the Kurus, Pancalas, Kasis and Videhas. These are the peoples which originated as a consequence of Ayus's going forth. To the West went Amavasu; from him descend the Gandharis, the Sparsus and the Arattas. These are the peoples which originated as a consequence of Amavasu's going forth." 

    In his recent study [Tushifumi Goto. 'Pururavas und Urvasi" aus dem neuntdecktem Vadhula-Anvakhyana (Ed. Y. Ikari)'. pp. 79-110 in Tichy, Eva and Hintze, Almut (eds.). Anusantatyai; J. H. Roll: Germany (2000)] of the parallel passages dealing with the Agnyadheya rite, Goto translates the Sutra passage in the following words (p. 101 sqq.) – 
    ""Nach Osten wanderte Ayu [von dort] fort. Ihm gehdie genannt werden: "kurus und pancalas, kazis und videhas."{87} Sie sind die von Ayu stammende Fortfuehrung. {88} Nach Westen gewandt [wanderte] amavasu [fort]. Ihm gehoeren diese: "gandharis, parzus, {88} arattas". Sie sind die von amAvasu stammende [Fortfuehrung]. {90} {87}iti kann hier kaum die die Aufzaehlung abschliessende Partikel (Faelle bei OERTEL Synt. of cases, 1926, 11) sein. In den beiden Komposita koennte der Type ajava'h' [die Gattung von] Ziegen und Schafen' vorliegen: pluralisches Dvandva fuer die Klassifikation, vgl. GOTO Compositiones Indigermanicae, Gs. Schindler (1999) 134 n. 26. {88} Gemeint ist hier wohl die Erbschaft seiner Kolonisation ("Fortwanderung"); mit 
    bekannter Attraktion des Subj.-Pronomens in Genus und Numerus an das Pr 
    {89} Mit WITZEL, Fs. Eggermont (1987) 202 n. 99, Persica 9 (1980) 120 n.126 als gandharayas parsavo statt -ya sparsavo aufgefasst, wofuer dann allerdings im rezenten BaudhSrSu die Schreibung gandharayah parsavo zu erwarten wals -SP- ausgesprochen wurde (wie z.B. in der MS, vgl. AiG I 342) und noch kein H (fÔr das erste s) eingefuehrt wurde. -yaspa- entging einer  (interpretatorischen) {90} Dahinter steckt wohl die Vorstellung von Ayu' als normales Adjektiv 'lebendig, beweglich' und entsprechend, wie KRICK 214 interpretiert, von amavasu-: "nach Westen [zog] A. (bzw.: er blieb im Westen in der Heimat, wie sein Name 'einer, der Gueter daheim hat' sagt."." 
    Loosely translated23 into English, this reads – 
    "From there, Ayu wandered Eastwards. To him belong (the groups called) 'Kurus and Panchalas, Kashis and Videhas' (note 87). They are the branches/leading away (note 88) originating from Ayu. From there, Amavasu turned westwards (wandered forth). To him belong (the groups called) 'Gandharis, Parsus (note 89) Arattas'. They are the branches/leading away originating from Amavasu. (note 90)." {90}: It appears that the notion of 'Ayu' as an normal adjectival sense 'living', 'agile' underlies this name. Correspondingly, Krick 214 interprets Amavasu as – "Westwards [travelled] A. (or: he stayed back in the west in his home, because his name says –'one who has his goods at home')". 

    A very strong piece of evidence for deciding the correct translation of Baudhāyana śrautasūtra 18.44 is the passage that occurs right after it, i.e., Baudhāyana śrautasūtra 18.45...From this text, it is clear that Urvasi, Pururava and their two sons were present in Kurukshetra in their very lifetimes. There is no evidence that they traveled all the way from Afghanistan to Haryana (where Kurukshetra is located), nor is there any evidence that she took her sons from Kurukshetra to Afghanistan after disposing off the pitcher. The passage rather only to indicate that the family lived in the vicinity of Kurukshetra region. Therefore, the possibility that Amavasu, one of the two sons of Pururava and Urvasi lived in Afghanistan from where Ayu, the other son, migrated to India is totally negated by this passage. Rather, BSS 18.45 would imply that the descendants of Amavasu, i.e., Arattas, Parsus and Gandharis migrated westwards from the Kurushetra region. (It may be pointed out that in Taittiriya Aranyaka 5.1.1, the Kurukshetra region is said to be bounded by Turghna (=Srughna or the modern village of Sugh in the Sirhind district of Punjab) in the north, by Khandava in the south (corresponding roughly to Delhi and Mewat regions), Maru (= desert, noting that the Thar has advanced eastward into Haryana only in recent centuries) in the west, and 'Parin' (?) in the east. This roughly corresponds to the modern state of Haryana in India)...

    Locus of Aratta

    Baudhāyana Dharmasūtra (with Govindswami's commentary, and a gloss by Chinnaswami Shastri). Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series: Varanasi) First Sūtra 1.1.2.10 defines Aryavarta as the land west of Kalakavana (roughly modern Allahabad), east of 'adarsana' (the spot where Sarasvati disappears in the desert), south of Himalayas and north of the Vindhyas. An alternate definition of Aryavarta in tra 1.1.2.11 restricts Aryavarta to the Ganga-Yamuna doab. The text then enumerates the following peoples who are of 'mixed' origins, and therefore whose traditions are not worthy of emulation by the residents of Aryavarta – 
    "Avanti (-Ujjain), Anga (= area around modern Bhagalpur in Bihar), Magadha, Surashtra (= modern Kathiawar), Upavrta, Sindhu (= modern Sindh), Sauvira (= modern Bahawalpur, and Pakistani Panjab south of Multan) are (i.e., the residents of these regions are) of mixed origin." Baudhāyana  Dharmasūtra   1.1.2.14 "Aratta, Karaskara (=Narmada valley?), Pundra (=northern Bengal), Sauvira, Vanga (= southern Bengal), Kalinga – whosoever visits these areas should perform Punastoma or Sarvaprshthi sacrifices as an expiation." Baudhāyana Dharmasūtra 1.1.12.15.

    In such an enumeration as in Baudhāyana  Dharmasūtra 1.1.2.14, Aratta may also be interpreted as a reference to Gujarat region where the lingua franca was mleccha bhāṣā or mleccha vācas. (cf. Hemacandra's magnum opus deśīnāmamālā).

    Aratta is identified as a region on the periphery of Aryavarta (Ganga-Yamuna doab) but close to it. Such a region was peopled by Meluhha (mleccha) speakers who can be distinguished from Arya vācas, speech of residents of Aryavarta. With such a distinction, it is possible to postulate Meluhha (mleccha) as proto-Indo-Aryan or precursor versions ofPrākts or deśiSuch Mleccha vācas of 'impure regions' detailed in both the texts identified the Meluhha region  and Meluhha artisans/traders had their sea-faring merchandise and donkey caravans along the Tin road of the bronze age extending from Meluhha into the Fertile Crescent. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2014/01/proto-indian-meluhha-precursor-of.html 

    This identification of thelocus of Aratta is consistent with Caland interpretation of the BSS passage to mean that from a central region, the Arattas, Gandharis and Parsus migrated west.

    map

    Sanskrit Speech, of early times evolved into the various local modern Sanskrit-derived languages. " "Correct speech" was a crucial component of being about to take part in the appropriate yajnas (religious rituals and sacrifices). Thus, without correct speech, one could not hope to practice correct religion, either.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mleccha

    Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ mleccha, ම්ලේච්ච meaning "non-Vedic"), are also spelled Mlechchha or Maleccha to indicate the uncouth, misspelt, ungrammatical and incomprehensible or indistinct speech. 

    ti is an extended kinship group which evolved out of the interactions related to the core doctrines. No wonder, Mahāvīra explains jaina ariya dhamma in mleccha (ardhamāgadhi), which differentiates into the present-day language kaleidoscope of Bhārat. It is not a mere accident that the discourses of the Buddha were in Pāli, a lingua franca of the times. Automatic transformation of ardhamāgadhi speech into the languages of the listeners is a way of affirming the nature of the lingua franca, Prāktam, when Mahavira communicates Jaina dhamma as ariya dhamma. There is explicit permission to use Prāktam, as a non-ariya language, that is non-use of grammatically correct Samsktam, to communicate to all people: This is categorically stated in Kundakunda's Samayasāra, verse 8: yatha a vi sakkam aajjo an.ajjabhāsam viṇā du gāhedum taha vavahārea viṇā paramatthuva
    desaam asakkam

    This is a crucial phrase, vyavahāra or vavahāra, the spoken tongue in vogue, or the lingua franca, or what french linguists call, parole. The use of vyavahā bhāsa, that is mleccha tongue, was crucial for effectively communicating Mahavira's message on ariya dhamma. The study of Sanskrit and Prakrit as parallel cultural streams, together with yajna and vrata as parallel streams of dharma should be explored further through studies in an institution such as Itihaasa Bharati to unravel the contributions of janajāti to hindu thought, culture and heritage and to constitute a Hindumahāsāgar parivār (Indian Ocean Community).


    The evidence of four pure tingots with Indus Script hypertexts, with the message of inscription:  tin mineral ingot validates that Bhāratīya Meluhha speakers (of Bhāratīya sprachbund) mediated as seafaring merchants and artisans with their counterparts in Mon-Khmer speaker areas of Ancient Far East to make available tin ingots to further advance the Tin Bronze Revolution which was founded ca. 4th millennium BCE.

    0 0

    https://tinyurl.com/ybpcac89


    Indus Script Meluha hyper texts process auditory, sensory information through sphoṭa, 'bursting' in semantic neural networks.


    La Théorie Sensorielle, 'sensory theory' elaborated (2014) by Philip Roi et al., suggests analogy between Urukean harp and the auditory system. 

    The fundamental process of 'hearing' as a phenomenon of brain functions is well-illustrated compared with the imagery of 'lyre-players or harpists' of Ancient Near East. See: Philippe Roi and Tristan Girard, 2014, Analogy between the Urukean Harp and the Auditory System in the theory posited.


    Codage et Traitement de l'Information Sensorielle par le Cerveau Translation from French: The Sensory Theory, Coding and Treatment of Sensory Information by the Brain (2014)
    https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/


    How is the auditory sensory information processed in the brain to realise 'meaning' of the coded & processed information? One theory is 

    स्फोट sphoṭa, 'm. bursting , opening , expansion , disclosure (cf. नर्म-स्फ्°) MBh. Ka1v. &c.; the eternal and imperceptible element of sounds and words and the real vehicle of the idea which bursts or flashes on the mind when a sound is uttered.'(पतञ्जलि)


    Let us take an example of Urukean auditory information (heard from the lyre/harp shown on the cylinder seal impression. I suggest that the cylinder seal is a wealth-production accounting ledger in Meluhha Indus Script cipher.

    Source: Fig. 3 of cylinder seal impression from Choga Mish. 4th millennium BCE. Potters at work are accompanied by hardp players, and other musicians playing clappers?, trumpets and a drum. 

    The narrative includes a person playing a lyre. I suggest that this is an Indus Script hypertext. Hieroglyph: tanbūra  'lyre' Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper'.


    Indus Script hyper texts related to metalwork of the Tin-Bronze Revolutionary Age, from ca. 4th millennium BCE provide evidences of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union of Ancient India). Two vivid hieroglyph-multiplexes or hypertexts in Indus Script Corpora are: bull-men (
    hangar, 'bull') and lyre-players (tambur, 'lyre, harp'). 


    Another example is a plaque from Lagash which shows a bull in front of a lyre player. I suggest that the Lagash plaque is a wealth-production accounting ledger in Meluhha Indus Script cipher.


    Lyre-player, from one of the steles of king Gudea of Lagash. The lyre has eleven strings. Around 2150 BCE 


    Louvre, Departement des Antiquites Orientales, Paris, France Glyph: tambura ‘harp’; rebus: tambra ‘copper’ (Pkt.) ḍangar ‘bull’ (Hindi) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi).

    ḍangur‘bullock’ (Kashmiri) rebus: bull-men, ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi); tambura 'lyre'-players (harpists) rebus: tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya) Indus Script Meluhha hypertexts of Ancient Near East.

    I suggest that the Urukean lyre/harp and the Lagash plaque are hypertexts to signify the profession of a coppersmith, in the context of metaslwork by artisans/potters. The presence of a lyre/harp in a narrative on Indus Script writing system, is not always to be interpreted as musical accompaniment of smithywork. A cylinder seal impression uses lyre/harp together with other hypertexts such as trumpet-players to signify artisanal life-activities specifying metalwork related to tambra 'copper' and tuttha, 'copper sulphate'. 


    I suggest that the auditory information processed through cochli are further processed in the deep brain, not only to record and record 'meanings' of the heard sounds, tunes and rhythms, but also to link the auditory data sets with pre-recorded visual data sets evoked by the 'meanings' of heard sounds, tunesand rhythms.

    For example, the heard sound of a lyre evokes the image of a lyre. The image of a lyre links with the related semantics: tanbura 'lyre, harp' rebus: tambra 'copper'.

    Thus, when a person receives an Indus Script hypertext object containing the hieroglyph the visual sensory neuronal sets related to tanbura 'lyre, harp', are spontaneously evoke (or trigger or activate) the data sets of auditory neuronal sets of networks which recollect or record the heard sounds and understand the 'meaning' of the sounds, in the context of Meluhhan life-activity of working with coppersmithy or copper metalwork.

    The recipient of auditory and visual sensor information from the sound of a tanbura or the visual information or image of a tanbura (say, on a cylinder seal) are somehow linked. This linkage of auditory and visual data sets (in neuronal networks) results in an understanding of 'meaning' by the relational datasets of neuronal networks related to the recipient's life experience of heard tanbura sounds and seen images of tanbura lyre or harp.

    Thus, when a recipient hears a tanbura or sees an image of a tambura (say, from a cylinder seal impression) or recollects the related image visual/auditory sensory networks from memory, the life-activity of cognate sound: tambra 'copper' is flashed as meaning of the sensory experience related to earlier life-experience working with copper metal.

    This is a possible neuroscience process to explain the rebus principle in Indus Script cipher which links visual form and life-function related to a wealth-producing activity of metalwork.

    The  (bursting forth) of the sound sequence 'tambura' recollected from neuronal networks results in the instantaneous recognition of 'meaning' associated with 1. lyre/harp as a musical instrument and 2. rebus tambra as a copper smithy life-activity.

    This is a falsifiable hypothesis suggesting a functional neuroscience model of brain activity, within the deep structures of the brain linking audotory, visual and memory data sets related to the wealth-giving meaning set: tambra 'copper'.


    ḍangur ‘bullock’ 
    (Kashmiri) rebus: bull-men, ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi); tambura 'lyre'-players (harpists) rebus: tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya) Indus Script Meluhha hypertexts of Ancient Near East.

    It is suggested the lyre/harp is a hypertext to signify the profession of a coppersmith, in the context of metaslwork by artisans/potters. The presence of a lyre/harp in a narrative on Indus Script writing system, is not always to be interpreted as musical accompaniment of smithywork. A cylinder seal impression uses lyre/harp together with other hypertexts such as trumpet-players to signify artisanal life-activities specifying metalwork related to tambra 'copper' and tuttha, 'copper sulphate'. 


    Tanbur, a long-necked, string instrument originating in the Southern or Central Asia (Mesopotamia and Persia/Iran)

    Iranian tanbur (Kurdish tanbur), used in Yarsan rituals
    Turkish tambur, instrument played in Turkey
    Yaylı tambur, also played in Turkey
    Tanpura, a drone instrument played in India
    Tambura (instrument), played in Balkan peninsula
    Tamburica, any member of a family of long-necked lutes popular in Eastern and Central Europe
    Tambouras, played in Greece
    Tanbūra (lyre), played in East Africa and the Middle East
    Dombra, instrument in Kazakhstan, Siberia, and Mongolia
    Domra, Russian instrument

    It is possible that the stupa mound of Mohenjo-daro may have a signified a ziggurat comparable to the Chogah Zanbil ziggurat.


    Hieroglyph: tambura 'lyre, harp', rebus:  tambra 'copper', tāmbarā

    'coppersmith' (Oriya)


    Hieroglyph: bugle-horn: Ta. tuttā̆ri a kind of bugle-horn. Ma. tuttāri horn, trumpet. Ka. tutūri, tuttāri, tuttūri a long trumpet. Tu. tuttāri, tuttūri trumpet, horn, pipe. Te. tutārā a kind of trumpet. / Cf. Mar. tutārī a wind instrument, a sort of horn. (DEDR3316)  tūra m. ʻ a musical instrument ʼ Yaś., tūla -- 3 BHSk. 2. tūrya -- n. Pāṇ. Mn. 3. *tūriya -- .1. Pk. tūra -- , turu -- m.n.; P. turhī f. ʻ trumpet ʼ (+?), N. turahiturai, B. turaṛi, Or. tura, H. turhīturaī f., G. tūr n., turāī f.; Si. turu ʻ drum ʼ.2. Pk. tujja -- n. ʻ a musical instrument 3. Pa. tū˘riya -- n., Pk. tū˘ria -- n.; K. tūrī f. ʻ trumpet ʼ, S. turī f., Ku. turi, H. G. turī f.(CDIAL 5901) Rebus: tutthá n. (m. lex.), tutthaka -- n. ʻ blue vitriol (used as an eye ointment) ʼ Suśr., tūtaka -- lex. 2. *thōttha -- 4. 3. *tūtta -- . 4. *tōtta -- 2. [Prob. ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 381; cf. dhūrta -- 2 n. ʻ iron filings ʼ lex.]1. N. tutho ʻ blue vitriol or sulphate of copper ʼ, B. tuth.2. K. thŏth, dat. °thas m., P. thothā m.3. S. tūtio m., A. tutiyā, B. tũte, Or. tutiā, H. tūtātūtiyā m., M. tutiyā m.4. M. totā m. (CDIAL 5855)

    Drummer, musician,metalworker: ḍamaru m. ʻ drum ʼ Rājat., °uka -- m. lex. 2. *ḍam- baru -- . [Onom. and perh. ← Mu. EWA i 460, PMWS 86] 1. Pk. ḍamarua -- m.n.; L. awāṇ. P. ḍaurū m. ʻ tabor, small drum ʼ; Ku. ḍaũrḍaũru ʻ drum ʼ; M. ḍaurḍavrā m. ʻ hourglass -- tabor ʼ, ḍaurī m. ʻ itinerant musician ʼ.2. N. ḍambaruḍamaru ʻ small drum ʼ, A. ḍambaru, B. ḍamru, Or. ḍambaruḍamaru, H. ḍamrū m., G. M. ḍamru m.Other variants: K. ḍābürü f. ʻ large drum used for proclamations ʼ; -- Or. ḍempha ʻ shallow kettledrum ʼ; -- N. ḍamphu°pho ʻ small drum or tambourine ʼ; B. ḍamphu ʻ drum ʼ; -- Ku. ḍãphṛī ʻ drum ʼ, ḍaphulo°uwā ʻ small drum ʼ; N. ḍaph ʻ a partic. musical instrument played during Holi ʼ; G. ḍaph f.n. ʻ a kind of tabor ʼ; <-> G. ḍamkɔ m. ʻ drum ʼ.ḌAMB ʻ push ʼ: viḍambatē.*ḍamba -- ʻ belly ʼ see ḍimba -- 2.Addenda: ḍamaru -- . 1. WPah.J. ḍõru m. ʻ small drum ʼ, Garh. ḍɔ̃ru m., Brj. ḍaurū˘.2. *ḍambaru -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍɔmru m. id.*ḍambaru -- ʻ drum ʼ see ḍamaru -- Add2.(CDIAL 5531)
    Hieroglyp: drummer: 
    dhārmiká ʻ righteous ʼ Mn., m. ʻ judge ʼ lex., ʻ juggler ʼ Ratnāv. [dharmin -- ]Ku. dhāmī m. ʻ drummer who excites people to dance under the inspiration of a deity ʼ; N. dhāmi ʻ wizard ʼ, dhamini ʻ his wife ʼ; H. dhāmiyã̄ m. pl. ʻ a Hindu sect who are followers of Prānnāth ʼ; M. dhāmyā°mādhām -- gãḍ m. ʻ insulting term of address to a Mādhyandina or Yajurvedī ʼ (LM 354 < dharmya -- ). Addenda: dhārmiká -- : Garh. dhāmī ʻ a priest of folk -- religion ʼ.(CDIAL 6798)
    ḍōmba
     m. ʻ man of low caste living by singing and music ʼ Kathās., ḍōma -- m. lex., ḍōmbinī -- f. [Connected with Mu. words for ʻ drum ʼ PMWS 87, EWA i 464 with lit.]Pk. ḍoṁba -- , ḍuṁba -- , ḍoṁbilaya -- m.; Gy. eur. rom m. ʻ man, husband ʼ, romni f. ʻ woman, wife ʼ, SEeur. i̦om ʻ a Gypsy ʼ, pal. dōm ʻ a Nuri Gypsy ʼ, arm. as. (Boša) lom ʻ a Gypsy ʼ, pers. damini ʻ woman ʼ; Ḍ. ḍōm (pl. °ma) ʻ a Ḍom ʼ; Paš. ḍōmb ʻ barber ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) ḍom ʻ musician, bandsman ʼ; Sh. ḍom ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, K. ḍūmbḍūmm., ḍūmbiñ f.; S. ḍ̠ūmu m., ḍūmṛī f. ʻ caste of wandering musicians ʼ, L. ḍūm m., ḍūmṇī f., (Ju.) ḍ̠om m., ḍ̠omṇīḍomṛī f., mult. ḍōm m., ḍōmṇī f., awāṇ. naṭ -- ḍūm ʻ menials ʼ; P. ḍūmḍomrā m., ḍūmṇī f. ʻ strolling musician ʼ, ḍūmṇā m. ʻ a caste of basket -- makers ʼ; WPah. ḍum ʻ a very low -- caste blackskinned fellow ʼ; Ku. ḍūm m., ḍūmaṇ f. ʻ an aboriginal hill tribe ʼ; N. ḍum ʻ a low caste ʼ; A. ḍom m. ʻ fisherman ʼ, ḍumini f.; B. ḍomḍam m. ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, ḍumni f. (OB. ḍombī); Or. ḍoma m., °aṇī f., ḍuma°aṇīḍambaḍama°aṇī ʻ a low caste who weave baskets and sound drums ʼ; Bhoj. ḍōm ʻ a low caste of musicians ʼ,H. ḍombḍomḍomṛāḍumār m., ḍomnī f., OMarw. ḍūma m., ḍūmaṛī f., M. ḍõbḍom m. -- Deriv. Gy. wel. romanō adj. (f. °nī) ʻ Gypsy ʼ romanō rai m. ʻ Gypsy gentleman ʼ, °nī čib f. ʻ Gypsy language ʼ.(CDIAL 5570) *ḍōmbakuṭaka ʻ a Ḍom's hut ʼ. [ḍōmba -- , kuṭī -- ]Ku. ḍumauṛo ʻ habitation of the Ḍoms Rebus:*ḍōmbadhāna -- , or *ḍōmbādhāna -- , ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ. [*ḍōmba -- , dhāˊna -- or ādhāˊna -- ]Ku. ḍumāṇo ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ.*ḍōlla -- ʻ bucket ʼ see *dōla -- 2.Addenda: *ḍōmbadhna -- or †*ḍōmbādhāna -- .Garh. ḍumāṇu ʻ part of a village where Ḍoms live ʼ. (CDIAL 5571, 5572). Dombs are metalworkers.

    Hieroglyh: ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'

    Indus Script hyper texts related to metalwork of the Tin-Bronze Revolutionary Age, from ca. 4th millennium BCE provide evidences of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union of Ancient India). Two vivid hieroglyph-multiplexes or hypertexts in Indus Script Corpora are: bull-men (hangar, 'bull') and lyre-players (tambur, 'lyre, harp').  *ḍaṅgara1 ʻ cattle ʼ. 2. *daṅgara -- . [Same as ḍaṅ- gara -- 2 s.v. *ḍagga -- 2 as a pejorative term for cattle]1. K. ḍangur m. ʻ bullock ʼ, L. ḍaṅgur, (Ju.) ḍ̠ãgar m. ʻ horned cattle ʼ; P. ḍaṅgar m. ʻ cattle ʼ, Or. ḍaṅgara; Bi. ḍã̄gar ʻ old worn -- out beast, dead cattle ʼ, dhūr ḍã̄gar ʻ cattle in general ʼ; Bhoj. ḍāṅgar ʻ cattle ʼ; H. ḍã̄gar,ḍã̄grā m. ʻ horned cattle ʼ.

    2. H. dã̄gar m. = prec.(CDIAL 5526)

    The rebus readings are: hangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi), tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya).



    Related image

    A bronze four sided stand showing a man carrying a copper ox-hide ingot and tree. 12th Century BC, possibly from Kourion, British Museum. The same stand also portrays a lyre-player. "There is evidence to suggest that copper was initially smelted into rough products - bars and ox-hide ingots - close to the mines.  This was then transported for further refinement and working to the coastal settlements. 

     

    Ceremonial bronze stand, possibly Kourion, Cyprus. Shows a man carrying an oxhide ingot towards a tree, and another playing a Lyre. "Bronze tools and weapons were cast in double moulds. The cire perdue process was evidently employed for the sockets of the fine decorated spear-heads of the Late Minoan period. Copper was available in some parts of Crete, notably in the Asterousi mountains which border the Mesara plain on the south, but it may have been imported from Cyprus as well. The standard type of ingot found throughout the East Mediterranean in the Late Bronze Age was about two or three feet long, with inward-curving sides and projections for a man to grasp as he carried it on his shoulder. Smaller bun-shaped ingots were also in use." (Sinclair Hood, 1971, The Minoans: Crete in the Bronze Age, Thames and Hudson, p. 106)

     

    Oxhide ingot in Indus Script is signified by the word: ḍhālako  'a large metal ingot' (Gujarati) This shape of ingot is sshown on a Mohenjo-daro seal with a boat carrying a pair of such ingots. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus,metal casting ingots. The association of the lyre-player or harpist with the person carrying an ox-hide ingot is significant. This lyre-player signifies: tanbura 'harp' rebus: tambra 'copper'. Thus, the oxhide ingot is a large copper ingot. Tamar (Hebrew: תמר ) is a female name of Hebrew origin, meaning "date" (the fruit), "date palm" or just "palm tree" Renis" tambra 'copper' as signified by the two palm trees on the Mohenjo-daro boat tablet which carried a consignment of oxhide ingots. An alternative is that the palm tree hieroglyph: ताल् m. the palmyra tree or fan palm, Borassus flabelliformis. (Kashmiri) Rebus: ḍhālako  'a large metal ingot' (Gujarati) The pair of bird hieroglyphs flanking the pair of oxhide ingots on the boat: Pa. kāraṇḍava -- m. ʻ a kind of duck ʼ; Pk. kāraṁḍa -- , °ḍaga -- , °ḍava -- m. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ Rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy'. 


    A characteristic representation of bull-man occurs on many Sumerian/Mesopotamian artifacts and cylinder seals. This hieroglyph-multiplex has its roots in the hieroglyphs used on Indus Script Corpora which display horned persons with the hindparts of a bovine and wearing headdress of a twig which in Indus Script cipher is kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) 
    "... head and torso of a human but the horns, lower body and legs of a bull...Baked clay plaques like this were mass-produced using moulds in southern Mesopotamia from the second millennium BCE. British Museum. WCO2652Bull-manTerracotta plaque. Bull-man holding a post. Mesopotamia, ca. 2000-1600 BCE." Terracotta. This plaque depicts a creature with the head and torso of a human but the horns, lower body and legs of a bull. Though similar figures are depicted earlier in Iran, they are first seen in Mesopotamian art around 2500 BC, most commonly on cylinder seals, and are associated with the sun-god Shamash. The bull-man was usually shown in profile, with a single visible horn projecting forward. However, here he is depicted in a less common form; his whole body above the waist, shown in frontal view, shows that he was intended to be double-horned. He may be supporting a divine emblem and thus acting as a protective deity. 

    Harp, tantiburra, tambur, BAN.TUR (Sumerian) is an Indus Script hypertext. "Burra" is referred to tambura, a musical string instrument with a hollow shell. (Telugu). "burrakatha" means story narrated to the accompaniment of a lyre or harp Burra means a skull in Telugu. The shell resembles a human skull. It is made of baked clay or dried pumpkin, or of brass and copper. The instrument looks very similar to veena and the performer can pull and press strings to get music.


    Hieroglyph: tantiburra, tambura 'lyre, harp, string musical instrument' rebus: tambra 'copper'. Tamba (nt.) [Sk. tāmra, orig. adj.=dark coloured, leaden; cp. Sk. adj. taŋsra id., to tama] copper ("the dark metal"); usually in combinations, signifying colour of or made of (cp. loha bronze), e. g. lākhātamba (adj.) Th 2, 440 (colour of an ox); ˚akkhin Vv 323 (timira˚) Sdhp 286; ˚nakhin J vi.290; ˚nettā (f.) ibid.; ˚bhājana DhA i.395; ˚mattika DhA iv.106; ˚vammika DhA iii.208; ˚loha PvA 95 (=loha).(Pali)  tāmrá ʻ dark red, copper -- coloured ʼ VS., n. ʻ copper ʼ Kauś., tāmraka -- n. Yājñ. [Cf. tamrá -- . -- √tam?]Pa. tamba -- ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ copper ʼ, Pk. taṁba -- adj. and n.; Dm. trāmba -- ʻ red ʼ (in trāmba -- lac̣uk ʻ raspberry ʼ NTS xii 192); Bshk. lām ʻ copper, piece of bad pine -- wood (< ʻ *red wood ʼ?); Phal. tāmba ʻ copper ʼ (→ Sh.koh. tāmbā), K. trām m. (→ Sh.gil. gur. trām m.), S. ṭrāmo m., L. trāmā, (Ju.) tarāmã̄ m., P. tāmbā m., WPah. bhad. ṭḷām n., kiũth. cāmbā, sod. cambo, jaun. tã̄bō, Ku. N. tāmo (pl. ʻ young bamboo shoots ʼ), A. tām, B. tã̄bātāmā, Or. tambā, Bi tã̄bā, Mth. tāmtāmā, Bhoj. tāmā, H. tām in cmpds., tã̄bātāmā m., G. trã̄bũtã̄bũ n.;M. tã̄bẽ n. ʻ copper ʼ, tã̄b f. ʻ rust, redness of sky ʼ; Ko. tāmbe n. ʻ copper ʼ; Si. tam̆ba adj. ʻ reddish ʼ, sb. ʻ copper ʼ, (SigGr) tamtama. -- Ext. -- ira -- : Pk. taṁbira -- ʻ coppercoloured, red ʼ, L. tāmrā ʻ copper -- coloured (of pigeons) ʼ; -- with -- ḍa -- : S. ṭrāmiṛo m. ʻ a kind of cooking pot ʼ, ṭrāmiṛī ʻ sunburnt, red with anger ʼ, f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; Bhoj. tāmrā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; H. tã̄bṛātāmṛā ʻ coppercoloured, dark red ʼ, m. ʻ stone resembling a ruby ʼ; G. tã̄baṛ n., trã̄bṛītã̄bṛī f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; OM. tāṁbaḍā ʻ red ʼ. -- X trápu -- q.v. tāmrika -- ; tāmrakāra -- , tāmrakuṭṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭaka -- , tāmracūḍa -- , *tāmradhāka -- , tāmrapaṭṭa -- , tāmrapattra -- , tāmrapātra -- , *tāmrabhāṇḍa -- , tāmravarṇa -- , tāmrākṣa -- .Addenda: tāmrá -- [< IE. *tomró -- T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 65] S.kcch. trāmotām(b)o m. ʻ copper ʼ, trāmbhyo m. ʻ an old copper coin ʼ; WPah.kc. cambo m. ʻ copper ʼ, J. cāmbā m., kṭg. (kc.) tambɔ m. (← P. or H. Him.I 89), Garh. tāmutã̄bu.tāmrakāra m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ lex. [tāmrá -- , kāra -- 1]Or. tāmbarā ʻ id. ʼ.tāmrakuṭṭa m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ R. [tāmrá -- , kuṭṭa -- ] 
    N. tamauṭetamoṭe ʻ id. ʼ.Addenda: tāmrakuṭṭa -- : Garh. ṭamoṭu ʻ coppersmith ʼ; Ko. tāmṭi.

    tāraká -- 1 see tārā -- Add2.*tāmraghaṭa ʻ copper pot ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]

    Bi. tamheṛī ʻ round copper vessel ʼ; -- tamheṛā ʻ brassfounder ʼ der. *tamheṛ ʻ copper pot ʼ or < next?

     *tāmraghaṭaka ʻ copper -- worker ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 2]Bi. tamheṛā ʻ brass -- founder ʼ or der. fr. *tamheṛ see prec. tāmracūḍa ʻ red -- crested ʼ MBh., m. ʻ cock ʼ Suśr. [tāmrá -- , cūˊḍa -- 1]Pa. tambacūḷa -- m. ʻ cock ʼ, Pk. taṁbacūla -- m.; -- Si. tam̆basiluvā ʻ cock ʼ (EGS 61) either a later cmpd. (as in Pk.) or ← Pa. *tāmradhāka ʻ copper receptacle ʼ. [tāmrá -- , dhāká -- ]

    Bi. tama ʻ drinking vessel made of a red alloy ʼ.

     tāmrapaṭṭa m. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ Yājñ. [Cf. tāmrapattra -- . -- tāmrá -- , paṭṭa -- 1]
    M. tã̄boṭī f. ʻ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick ʼ.

    tāmrapattra n. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ lex. [Cf. tāmrapaṭṭa -- . -- tāmrá -- , páttra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoti ʻ copper plate ʼ.

    tāmrapātra n. ʻ copper vessel ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , pāˊtra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoi ʻ copper vessel for water ʼ.

    *tāmrabhāṇḍa ʻ copper vessel ʼ. [tāmrá -- , bhāṇḍa -- 1]
    Bhoj. tāmaṛātāmṛā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; G. tarbhāṇũ n. ʻ copper dish used in religious ceremonies ʼ (< *taramhã̄ḍũ).

     tāmravarṇa ʻ copper -- coloured ʼ TĀr. [tāmrá -- , várṇa -- 1]
    Si. tam̆bavan ʻ copper -- coloured, dark red ʼ (EGS 61) prob. a Si. cmpd.

     tāmrākṣa ʻ red -- eyed ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , ákṣi -- ]
    Pa. tambakkhin -- ; P. tamak f. ʻ anger ʼ; Bhoj. tamakhal ʻ to be angry ʼ; H. tamaknā ʻ to become red in the face, be angry ʼ.


    tāmrika ʻ coppery ʼ Mn. [tāmrá -- ]
    Pk. taṁbiya -- n. ʻ an article of an ascetic's equipment (a copper vessel?) ʼ; L. trāmī f. ʻ large open vessel for kneading bread ʼ, poṭh. trāmbī f. ʻ brass plate for kneading on ʼ; Ku.gng. tāmi ʻ copper plate ʼ; A. tāmi ʻ copper vessel used in worship ʼ; B. tāmītamiyā ʻ large brass vessel for cooking pulses at marriages and other ceremonies ʼ; H. tambiyā m. ʻ copper or brass vessel ʼ.
    (CDIAL 5779 to 5792)
    *ut -- stambha ʻ support ʼ. [Cf. údastambhīt RV., Pk. uṭṭhaṁbhaï ʻ supports ʼ: √stambh]OG. uṭhaṁbha m.(CDIAL 1897) stambha m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ Kāṭh., °aka -- m. Mahāvy. [√stambh]
    Pa. thambha -- m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Aś.rum. thabhe loc., top. thaṁbhe, ru. ṭha()bhasi, Pk. thaṁbha -- , °aya -- , taṁbha -- , ṭhaṁbha -- m.; Wg. štɔ̈̄ma ʻ stem, tree ʼ, Kt. štom, Pr. üštyobu; Bshk. "ṭam"ʻ tree ʼ NTS xviii 124, Tor. thām; K. tham m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ, S. thambhu m.; L. thammthammā m. ʻ prop ʼ, (Ju.) tham°mā, awāṇ. tham, khet. thambā; P. thamb(h), thamm(h) ʻ pillar, post ʼ, Ku. N. B. thām, Or. thamba; Bi. mar -- thamh ʻ upright post of oil -- mill ʼ; H. thã̄bhthāmthambā ʻ prop, pillar, stem of plantain tree ʼ; OMarw. thāma m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Si. ṭäm̆ba; Md. tambutabu ʻ pillar, post ʼ; -- ext. --  -- : S. thambhiṛī f. ʻ inside peg of yoke ʼ; N. thāṅro ʻ prop ʼ; Aw.lakh. thãbharā ʻ post ʼ; H. thamṛā ʻ thick, corpulent ʼ; -- -- ll -- ; G. thã̄bhlɔthã̄blɔ m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ. -- X 
    sthūˊṇā -- q.v.*ut -- stambha -- , *kāstambha -- ; *kūpastambha -- . stambha -- : S.kcch. thambhlo m. ʻ pillar ʼ, A. thām, Md. tan̆bu.(CDIAL 13682)
    stambhana ʻ stopping ʼ MBh., n. ʻ stiffening ʼ Suśr., ʻ means of making stiff ʼ Hcat. [√
    stambh]Pa. thambhanā -- f. ʻ firmness ʼ; Pk. thaṁbhaṇa -- n., °ṇayā -- f. ʻ act of stopping ʼ; S. thambhaṇu m. ʻ glue ʼ, L. thambhaṇ m.(CDIAL 13683)

    Hieroglyph: dewlap: stambá m. ʻ tuft or clump of grass, cluster, bunch ʼ AV. [Cf. 
    stábaka -- . -- For ʻ cluster ʼ words see *stu -- 3]
    Pa. thambha -- , °aka -- m. ʻ clump of grass ʼ; Pk. thaṁba -- m. ʻ bunch, tuft of grass &c. ʼ; Kal. istam ʻ first blossoms of spring ʼ; Si. tam̆ba ʻ dew -- lap of a bullock ʼ.(CDIAL 13681)

    ḍangar ‘bull’ (Hindi) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi). 

    Harp, tantiburra, tambur, BAN.TUR (Sumerian) is an Indus Script hypertext. 


    Hieroglyph: tantiburra, tambura 'lyre, harp, string musical instrument' rebus: tambra 'copper'. Tamba (nt.) [Sk. tāmra, orig. adj.=dark coloured, leaden; cp. Sk. adj. taŋsra id., to tama] copper ("the dark metal"); usually in combinations, signifying colour of or made of (cp. loha bronze), e. g. lākhātamba (adj.) Th 2, 440 (colour of an ox); ˚akkhin Vv 323 (timira˚) Sdhp 286; ˚nakhin J vi.290; ˚nettā (f.) ibid.; ˚bhājana DhA i.395; ˚mattika 
    DhA iv.106; ˚vammika DhA iii.208; ˚loha PvA 95 (=loha).(Pali)  tāmrá ʻ dark red, copper -- coloured ʼ VS., n. ʻ copper ʼ Kauś., tāmraka -- n. Yājñ. [Cf. tamrá -- . -- √tam?]Pa. tamba -- ʻ red ʼ, n. ʻ copper ʼ, Pk. taṁba -- adj. and n.; Dm. trāmba -- ʻ red ʼ (in trāmba -- lac̣uk ʻ raspberry ʼ NTS xii 192); Bshk. lām ʻ copper, piece of bad pine -- wood (< ʻ *red wood ʼ?); Phal. tāmba ʻ copper ʼ (→ Sh.koh. tāmbā), K. trām m. (→ Sh.gil. gur. trām m.), S. ṭrāmo m., L. trāmā, (Ju.) tarāmã̄ m., P. tāmbā m., WPah. bhad. ṭḷām n., kiũth. cāmbā, sod. cambo, jaun. tã̄bō, Ku. N. tāmo (pl. ʻ young bamboo shoots ʼ), A. tām, B. tã̄bātāmā, Or. tambā, Bi tã̄bā, Mth. tāmtāmā, Bhoj. tāmā, H. tām in cmpds., tã̄bātāmā m., G. trã̄bũtã̄bũ n.;M. tã̄bẽ n. ʻ copper ʼ, tã̄b f. ʻ rust, redness of sky ʼ; Ko. tāmbe n. ʻ copper ʼ; Si. tam̆ba adj. ʻ reddish ʼ, sb. ʻ copper ʼ, (SigGr) tamtama. -- Ext. -- ira -- : Pk. taṁbira -- ʻ coppercoloured, red ʼ, L. tāmrā ʻ copper -- coloured (of pigeons) ʼ; -- with -- ḍa -- : S. ṭrāmiṛo m. ʻ a kind of cooking pot ʼ, ṭrāmiṛī ʻ sunburnt, red with anger ʼ, f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; Bhoj. tāmrā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; H. tã̄bṛātāmṛā ʻ coppercoloured, dark red ʼ, m. ʻ stone resembling a ruby ʼ; G. tã̄baṛ n., trã̄bṛītã̄bṛī f. ʻ copper pot ʼ; OM. tāṁbaḍā ʻ red ʼ. -- X trápu -- q.v.
    tāmrika -- ; tāmrakāra -- , tāmrakuṭṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭa -- , *tāmraghaṭaka -- , tāmracūḍa -- , *tāmradhāka -- , tāmrapaṭṭa -- , tāmrapattra -- , tāmrapātra -- , *tāmrabhāṇḍa -- , tāmravarṇa -- , tāmrākṣa -- .Addenda: tāmrá -- [< IE. *tomró -- T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 65] S.kcch. trāmotām(b)o m. ʻ copper ʼ, trāmbhyo m. ʻ an old copper coin ʼ; WPah.kc. cambo m. ʻ copper ʼ, J. cāmbā m., kṭg. (kc.) tambɔ m. (← P. or H. Him.I 89), Garh. tāmutã̄bu.

    tāmrakāra m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ lex. [tāmrá -- , kāra -- 1]Or. tāmbarā ʻ id. ʼ.

    tāmrakuṭṭa m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ R. [tāmrá -- , kuṭṭa -- ]
    N. tamauṭetamoṭe ʻ id. ʼ.
    Addenda: tāmrakuṭṭa -- : Garh. ṭamoṭu ʻ coppersmith ʼ; Ko. tāmṭi.
    tāraká -- 1 see tārā -- Add2.

    *tāmraghaṭa ʻ copper pot ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]
    Bi. tamheṛī ʻ round copper vessel ʼ; -- tamheṛā ʻ brassfounder ʼ der. *tamheṛ ʻ copper pot ʼ or < next?

     *tāmraghaṭaka ʻ copper -- worker ʼ. [tāmrá -- , ghaṭa -- 2]
    Bi. tamheṛā ʻ brass -- founder ʼ or der. fr. *tamheṛ see prec.

     tāmracūḍa ʻ red -- crested ʼ MBh., m. ʻ cock ʼ Suśr. [tāmrá -- , cūˊḍa -- 1]
    Pa. tambacūḷa -- m. ʻ cock ʼ, Pk. taṁbacūla -- m.; -- Si. tam̆basiluvā ʻ cock ʼ (EGS 61) either a later cmpd. (as in Pk.) or ← Pa.

     *tāmradhāka ʻ copper receptacle ʼ. [tāmrá -- , dhāká -- ]
    Bi. tama ʻ drinking vessel made of a red alloy ʼ.

     tāmrapaṭṭa m. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ Yājñ. [Cf. tāmrapattra -- . -- tāmrá -- , paṭṭa -- 1]
    M. tã̄boṭī f. ʻ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick ʼ.

    tāmrapattra n. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ lex. [Cf. tāmrapaṭṭa -- . -- tāmrá -- , páttra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoti ʻ copper plate ʼ.

    tāmrapātra n. ʻ copper vessel ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , pāˊtra -- ]
    Ku.gng. tamoi ʻ copper vessel for water ʼ.

    *tāmrabhāṇḍa ʻ copper vessel ʼ. [tāmrá -- , bhāṇḍa -- 1]
    Bhoj. tāmaṛātāmṛā ʻ copper vessel ʼ; G. tarbhāṇũ n. ʻ copper dish used in religious ceremonies ʼ (< *taramhã̄ḍũ).

     tāmravarṇa ʻ copper -- coloured ʼ TĀr. [tāmrá -- , várṇa -- 1]
    Si. tam̆bavan ʻ copper -- coloured, dark red ʼ (EGS 61) prob. a Si. cmpd.

     tāmrākṣa ʻ red -- eyed ʼ MBh. [tāmrá -- , ákṣi -- ]
    Pa. tambakkhin -- ; P. tamak f. ʻ anger ʼ; Bhoj. tamakhal ʻ to be angry ʼ; H. tamaknā ʻ to become red in the face, be angry ʼ.

    tāmrika ʻ coppery ʼ Mn. [tāmrá -- ]
    Pk. taṁbiya -- n. ʻ an article of an ascetic's equipment (a copper vessel?) ʼ; L. trāmī f. ʻ large open vessel for kneading bread ʼ, poṭh. trāmbī f. ʻ brass plate for kneading on ʼ; Ku.gng. tāmi ʻ copper plate ʼ; A. tāmi ʻ copper vessel used in worship ʼ; B. tāmītamiyā ʻ large brass vessel for cooking pulses at marriages and other ceremonies ʼ; H. tambiyā m. ʻ copper or brass vessel ʼ.(CDIAL 5779 to 5792).

    Flag-staff (ḍhāla, thãbharā) carried as a Meluhha proclamation (ketu) of metalwork competence, rebus: ḍhālako'ingot', tambra 'copper', tāmbarā 'coppersmith' (Oriya) 

    Girsu (Tlloh) archaeological find. 11 ft. tall copper plated flagpost. This may relate to a period when 
      
     Girsu (ca. 2900-2335 BCE) was the capital of Lagash at the time of Gudea.


    ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati)Allograph: ढाल [ ḍhāla ] f (S through H) The grand flag of an army directing its march and encampments: also the standard or banner of a chieftain: also a flag flying on forts &c. ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. 2 fig. The leading and sustaining member of a household or other commonwealth. 5583 ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- . 1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f. WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f. (CDIAL 5583).

    *ut -- stambha ʻ support ʼ. [Cf. údastambhīt RV., Pk. uṭṭhaṁbhaï ʻ supports ʼ: √stambh]OG. uṭhaṁbha m.(CDIAL 1897) stambha m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ Kāṭh., °aka -- m. Mahāvy. [√stambh]
    Pa. thambha -- m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Aś.rum. thabhe loc., top. thaṁbhe, ru. ṭha()bhasi, Pk. thaṁbha -- , °aya -- , taṁbha -- , ṭhaṁbha -- m.; Wg. štɔ̈̄ma ʻ stem, tree ʼ, Kt. štom, Pr. üštyobu; Bshk. "ṭam"ʻ tree ʼ NTS xviii 124, Tor. thām; K. tham m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ, S. thambhu m.; L. thammthammā m. ʻ prop ʼ, (Ju.) tham°mā, awāṇ. tham, khet. thambā; P. thamb(h), thamm(h) ʻ pillar, post ʼ, Ku. N. B. thām, Or. thamba; Bi. mar -- thamh ʻ upright post of oil -- mill ʼ; H. thã̄bhthāmthambā ʻ prop, pillar, stem of plantain tree ʼ; OMarw. thāma m. ʻ pillar ʼ, Si. ṭäm̆ba; Md. tambutabu ʻ pillar, post ʼ; -- ext. --  -- : S. thambhiṛī f. ʻ inside peg of yoke ʼ; N. thāṅro ʻ prop ʼ; Aw.lakh. thãbharā ʻ post ʼ; H. thamṛā ʻ thick, corpulent ʼ; -- -- ll -- ; G. thã̄bhlɔthã̄blɔ m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ. -- X sthūˊṇā -- q.v.*ut -- stambha -- , *kāstambha -- ; *kūpastambha -- . stambha -- : S.kcch. thambhlo m. ʻ pillar ʼ, A. thām, Md. tan̆bu.(CDIAL 13682)

    stambhana ʻ stopping ʼ MBh., n. ʻ stiffening ʼ Suśr., ʻ means of making stiff ʼ Hcat. [√stambh]Pa. thambhanā -- f. ʻ firmness ʼ; Pk. thaṁbhaṇa -- n., °ṇayā -- f. ʻ act of stopping ʼ; S. thambhaṇu m. ʻ glue ʼ, L. thambhaṇ m.(CDIAL 13683)

    Hieroglyph: dewlap: stambá m. ʻ tuft or clump of grass, cluster, bunch ʼ AV. [Cf. stábaka -- . -- For ʻ cluster ʼ words see *stu -- 3]Pa. thambha -- , °aka -- m. ʻ clump of grass ʼ; Pk. thaṁba -- m. ʻ bunch, tuft of grass &c. ʼ; Kal. istam ʻ first blossoms of spring ʼ; Si. tam̆ba ʻ dew -- lap of a bullock ʼ.(CDIAL 13681)

    ḍangar ‘bull’ (Hindi) Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi). 
    Rebus: ḍān:ro = a term of contempt for a blacksmith (N.)(CDIAL 5524).   ṭhākur = blacksmith (Mth.) (CDIAL 5488).


    Sign 311 Indus Script Sign List (Mahadevan)  tantrīˊ f. ʻ string of a lute ʼ ŚāṅkhŚr. [tántra -- ]


    तन्ति f. ( Pa1n2. 6-4 , 39 Ka1s3. on iii , 3 , 174 and vii , 2 , 9) a cord , line , string (esp. a long line to which a series of calves are fastened by smaller cords) RV. vi , 24 , 4 BhP. Sch. on S3Br. xiii and Ka1tyS3r. xx (ifc.) Rebus: a weaver.

    Pa. tanti -- f. ʻ lute ʼ, Pk. taṁtī -- f.; OAw. tāṁti ʻ string of a musical instrument ʼ, H. tant f.; Si. täta ʻ string of a lute ʼ.(CDIAL 5667)
    Ta. taṇṭu lute. Ma. taṇṭi a musical instrument. (DEDR 3057)


    Hieroglyph: kora 'harp' rebus: koraga 'musician' (Tulu) khār 'blacksmith'


    Pict-63

    Pict-90
    Image result for Pict- bharatkalyan97Pict-91

    ḍhaṁkaṇa 'lid' rebus dhakka 'excellent, bright, blazing metal article'. Ta. taṅkam pure gold, that which is precious, of great worth. Ma. taṅkam pure gold. / ? < Skt. ṭaṅka- a stamped (gold) coin.(DEDR 3013) ṭaṅka1 m.n. ʻ weight of 4 māṣas ʼ ŚārṅgS., ʻ a stamped coin ʼ Hit., °aka -- m. ʻ a silver coin ʼ lex. 2. ṭaṅga -- 1 m.n. ʻ weight of 4 māṣas ʼ lex. 3. *ṭakka -- 1. [Bloch IA 59 ← Tatar tanka (Khot. tanka = kārṣāpaṇa S. Konow Saka Studies 184)]
    1. Pk. ṭaṁka -- m. ʻ a stamped coin ʼ; N. ṭã̄k ʻ button ʼ (lw. with k); Or. ṭaṅkā ʻ rupee ʼ; H. ṭã̄k m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ; G. ṭã̄k f. ʻ a partic. weight equivalent to 1/72 ser ʼ; M. ṭã̄k m. ʻ a partic. weight ʼ. 2. H. ṭaṅgā m. ʻ a coin worth 2 paisā ʼ.3. Sh. ṭăk m. ʻ button ʼ; S. ṭako m. ʻ two paisā ʼ, pl. ʻ money in general ʼ, ṭrakaku ʻ worth two paisā ʼ, m. ʻ coin of that value ʼ; P. ṭakā m. ʻ a copper coin ʼ; Ku. ṭākā ʻ two paisā ʼ; N. ṭako ʻ money ʼ; A. ṭakā ʻ rupee ʼ, B. ṭākā; Mth. ṭakāṭakkāṭakwā ʻ money ʼ, Bhoj. ṭākā; H. ṭakā m. ʻ two paisā coin ʼ, G. ṭakɔ m., M. ṭakā m.*uṭṭaṅka -- , *ṣaṭṭaṅka -- , ṭaṅkaśālā -- .Addenda: ṭaṅka -- 1 [H. W. Bailey in letter of 6.11.66: Khot. tanka is not = kārṣāpaṇa -- but is older Khot. ttandäka ʻ so much ʼ < *tantika -- ] (CDIAL 5426) 

    Rebus: ṭaṅkaśālā -- , ṭaṅkakaś° f. ʻ mint ʼ lex. [ṭaṅka -- 1, śāˊlā -- ]

    N. ṭaksāl°ār, B. ṭāksālṭã̄k°ṭek°, Bhoj. ṭaksār, H. ṭaksāl°ār f., G. ṭãksāḷ f., M. ṭã̄ksālṭāk°ṭãk°ṭak°. -- Deriv. G. ṭaksāḷī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ, M. ṭāksāḷyā m.Addenda: ṭaṅkaśālā -- : Brj. ṭaksāḷī, °sārī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ.(CDIAL 5438)
     ṭaṅka2 m.n. ʻ spade, hoe, chisel ʼ R. 2. ṭaṅga -- 2 m.n. ʻ sword, spade ʼ lex.
    1. Pa. ṭaṅka -- m. ʻ stone mason's chisel ʼ; Pk. ṭaṁka -- m. ʻ stone -- chisel, sword ʼ; Woṭ. ṭhõ ʻ axe ʼ; Bshk. ṭhoṅ ʻ battleaxe ʼ, ṭheṅ ʻ small axe ʼ (< *ṭaṅkī); Tor. (Biddulph) "tunger" m. ʻ axe ʼ (? AO viii 310), Phal. ṭhō˘ṅgif.; K.ṭŏnguru m. ʻ a kind of hoe ʼ; N. (Tarai) ṭã̄gi ʻ adze ʼ; H. ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ; G. ṭã̄k f. ʻ pen nib ʼ; M. ṭã̄k m. ʻ pen nib ʼ, ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ.
    2. A. ṭāṅgi ʻ stone chisel ʼ; B. ṭāṅg°gi ʻ spade, axe ʼ; Or. ṭāṅgi ʻ battle -- axe ʼ; Bi. ṭã̄gā°gī ʻ adze ʼ; Bhoj. ṭāṅī ʻ axe ʼ; H. ṭã̄gī f. ʻ hatchet ʼ.(CDIAL 5427)Image result for pot with lid bharatkalyan97m478B Part of pictorial motif: Rim of jar + lid (pot cover)

    कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'rim of jar''rim of jar', 'pericarp of lotus' karaṇī 'scribe, supercargo', kañi-āra 'helmsman'.Ka. diṅku a jump, leap, skipping about in frolic, gambol. Go. (Mu.) ḍev-, (SR. G. Ma. Pat. S.) ḍey-, (Tr.) ḍai-, (Y.) ḍhay-, (W. Ph.) ḍahk-, (M.) ḍehk-, (L.) dehek- to jump (Voc. 1584). Kui dega (degi-) to run, jump, leap; n. running, jumping, jump, leap; detka (detki-) to jump; n. a jump. Kuwi (F.) devali to bound, jump; (S.) ḍēwinai to leap; (Su.) ḍēv- (-it-) to jump; (Isr.) ḍēv-/ḍēm- (-it-) id. Kur. ḍegnā to leap, jump. / Cf. Pkt. ḍev- to jump. There is some connection with items in Turner, CDIAL, no. 5534, ḍáyate; cf. esp. Or. ḍeĩbā to jump. (DEDR 2971)
    *ṭakk1 ʻ remain, stop ʼ. 2. *ṭikk -- . 3. *ṭēkk -- usu. tr. [Cf. *ḍakk -- 3, *ṭhēkk -- ]
    1. Sh. (Lor.) ṭak boiki ʻ to be hampered, be stuck ʼ; P. ṭakk m. ʻ settlement of price ʼ; N. ṭakka aṛinu ʻ to come to a dead stop ʼ; G. ṭakvũ ʻ to stop ʼ; M. ṭākṇẽ ʻ to leave ʼ.
    2. Kho. (Lor.) tika ʻ support, cushion behind the back ʼ; S. ṭikaṇu ʻ to remain, be firm ʼ; L. ṭikkaṇ ʻ to stay ʼ; P. ṭikṇā ʻ to stay ʼ, ṭikkṇā ʻ to appoint ʼ; N. ṭiknu ʻ to remain, last ʼ; A. ṭikiba ʻ to last, be of service ʼ; B. ṭikā ʻ to remain ʼ; Or. ṭikibā ʻ to last, be effective ʼ; H. ṭiknā ʻ to stop, remain ʼ; M. ṭikṇẽ ʻ to stay ʼ.
    3. P. ṭekṇā ʻ to prop ʼ, ṭekaṇ m. ʻ prop, bundle of wood ʼ; Ku. ṭekṇo ʻ to prop ʼ, ṭeko ʻ prop, obstacle ʼ; N. ṭeknu ʻ to set up ʼ, ṭek ʻ obstinacy ʼ, ṭekan ʻ prop ʼ; A. ṭek ʻ middle part of a dam ʼ; B. ṭẽkā ʻ to remain ʼ; Or. ṭekibā ʻ to lift up ʼ; OAw. ṭekaï ʻ puts, stops ʼ, ṭeka f. ʻ prop ʼ; H. ṭeknā ʻ to prop ʼ; G. ṭekvũṭek m.f. ʻ support ʼ; M. ṭekṇẽ tr. and intr. ʻ to rest ʼ.
    Addenda: *ṭakk -- 1. 2. *ṭikk -- : WPah.J. ṭikṇu ʻ to stop ʼ.
    3. *ṭēkk -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ṭekṇõ ʻ to stop, stay, stand, support, endure, place ʼ; J. ṭekṇu ʻ to support ʼ.(CDIAL 5420)Ta. takai (-v-, -nt-) to stop, resist, check, deter, obstruct or forbid by oath, seize, take hold of, overpower, subdue, shut in, enclose, include, bind, fasten, yoke; (-pp-, -tt-) to check, resist, stop, deter, bind, fasten; n.binding, fastening, garland, obstruction, check, hindrance, armour, coat of mail; takaippu surrounding wall, fortress, palatial building, section of house, apartment, battle array of an army. Ka. taga, tagave, tagahu, tagedelay, obstacle, hindrance, impediment; tage to stop, arrest, obstruct, impede, stun; tagar to be stopped or impeded, impede, etc.(DEDR 3006) Ta. taṅku (taṅki-) to stay, sojourn, abide, remain, be stable, firmly established, be retained in the mind, exist, halt, wait, delay, be obstructed, reserved, or kept back; n. staying, stopping; taṅkal stopping, halting, resting, delay, halting place, persistence, stability; takku (takki-) to come to stay, become permanent, lasting (as a possession or acquisition), be retained; takkam stability. Ma. taṅṅuka to stop, come into possession, be there, be arrested in the midst of progress; taṅṅal rest, shelter; taṅṅikka to delay, stop; takkuka to be obtained; tañcuka to stop, remain; tañcam being at rest, posture. Ko. taŋg- (taŋgy-) to spend time in a place away from home. To. tok- (toky-) to last long (money, situation), (child) lives long; to&ztail; other, different (i.e. the remaining one, the other one). Ka. taṅgu to stop, stay, tarry, sojourn, lodge; n. stoppage, halt, a day's journey; dakku to accrue to, be obtained, fall to one's share, come into and remain in one's possession, remain, be preserved; n. acquirement, attainment, possession, property; dakkisu to cause to be obtained, etc. Tu.dakkati possession, control, appropriation, digest; dakkāvoṇuni to retain or digest anything eaten, misappropriate successfully, take charge of; daksāvuni to bring into another's possession; daksuni to be retained or digested as food, medicine, etc., be misappropriated successfully. Te. takku to remain, be left, be excepted or omitted; n. remainder, other; takkina remaining, other; dakku, ḍakku to remain, be left as a balance or residue, be saved or spared. Kol. tak- (takt-) to live (in a place), remain, stay (e.g. silent). Nk. tak- to stay, remain. Go. (Tr.) taggānā to wear well (of clothes), remain in one's service (of servants); (A.) tagg- to stay, last (Voc. 1642).(DEDR 3014)


     *ḍakk3 ʻ stop ʼ. [Cf. *ṭakk -- 1]L. ḍakkaṇ, (Ju.) ḍ̠a° ʻ to stop, obstruct ʼ; P. ḍakkṇā ʻ to block up, hinder ʼ, ḍakk m. ʻ hindrance ʼ, ḍakkā m. ʻ plug ʼ.(CDIAL 5518)  *ḍhakk ʻ cover ʼ. 2. *ḍhaṅk -- . [Cf. ḍhakkana -- n. ʻ shutting ʼ Śīl.]1. Pk. ḍhakkaï ʻ shuts ʼ; S. ḍhakaṇu ʻ to cover ʼ; L. ḍhakkaṇ ʻ to imprison ʼ; P. ḍhakkṇā ʻ to cover ʼ, Ku. ḍhakṇo, N. ḍhāknu, A. ḍhākiba, B. ḍhākā, Bhoj. ḍhākal, OMarw. ḍhakaï; -- Pk. ḍhakkiṇī -- f. ʻ lid ʼ, S. ḍhakkaṇī f., P. ḍhakṇā m., °ṇī f., WPah. bhad. ḍhakkaṇ n., Ku. ḍhākaṇ, N. ḍhakni, A. ḍhākni, B. ḍhākanḍhāknā°ni; Bi. ḍhaknā ʻ cover of grain -- pot ʼ, Mth. ḍhākni; Bhoj. ḍhaknī ʻ lid ʼ. -- Poss. K. ḍākürü f. ʻ wide shallow basket ʼ; N. ḍhāki ʻ basket ʼ, ḍhākar ʻ a kind of large basket ʼ; Bi. mag. ḍhākā ʻ large open basket ʼ; -- P. ḍhakkā m. ʻ pass between two hills ʼ.2. Pk. ḍhaṁkissaï ʻ will cover ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) ḍaṅgeik ʻ to cover, shut, bury ʼ; Phal. ḍhaṅg -- ʻ to bury ʼ; Or. ḍhaṅkibā ʻ to cover ʼ, H. ḍhã̄knā, Marw. ḍhã̄kṇo, G. ḍhã̄kvũ, M. ḍhã̄kṇẽ; -- Pk. ḍhaṁkaṇa -- n., °ṇī -- f. ʻ cover, lid ʼ, Or. ḍhāṅkuṇi, H. ḍhãknī f., G. ḍhã̄kṇũ n., °ṇī f., M. ḍhã̄kaṇ n., ḍhã̄kṇī f.*ḍhagga -- ʻ defective ʼ see *ḍagga -- 2.
    *ḍhaṅk -- ʻ cover ʼ see *ḍhakk -- .*ḍhaṅkha -- ʻ defective ʼ see *ḍagga -- 2.Addenda: *ḍhakk -- 1: S.kcch. ḍhakṇū ʻ to cover, shut (a door) ʼ, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhàkṇõ, Garh. ḍhakṇu; A. ḍhākiba (phonet. dh -- ) ʻ to cover ʼ, G. ḍhākvũ, M. ḍhākṇẽ.(CDIAL 5574) 


    Rebus: धक्क (p. 245dhakka a (Imit.) Steady, enduring, unshaken (as under misfortune): hale, hearty, stanch, unflinching--man or animal: stout, sound, firm, fit to render good service--cloth, an article gen. 2 Brightshining, brilliant, very lustrous--metal, a gem, a firework. Hence 3 Bright and good, altogether excellent--a rupee or other coin. *dhakṣati ʻ burns ʼ [Cf. fut. part. vidhakṣyánt -- , aor. part. dhákṣat RV. -- √dahG. dhakhvũ ʻ to get into a passion ʼ, dhakhāvvũ ʻ to make hot ʼ, dhakh f. ʻ thirst ʼ.Addenda: dhákṣu -- : S.kcch. ḍakho m. ʻ quarrel ʼ; B. dhak ʻ sudden blaze ʼ, Or. dhaka ʻ blaze ʼ (rather than < *dhagg -- ).(CDIAL 6703)

    Rebus: *tāmradhāka ʻ copper receptacle ʼ. [tāmrá -- , dhāká -- ]Bi. tama ʻ drinking vessel made of a red alloy ʼ. (CDIAL 5785)



    ^  Inverted V, m478 (lid above rim of narrow-necked jar) The rimmed jar next to the tiger with turned head has a lid. Lid ‘ad.aren’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ karnika 'rim of jar' Rebus: karni 'supercargo' (Marathi) Thus, together, the jar with lid composite hieroglyhph denotes 'native metal supercargo'. karn.aka = handle of a vessel; ka_n.a_, kanna_ = rim, edge; kan.t.u = rim of a vessel; kan.t.ud.iyo = a small earthen vessel; kan.d.a kanka = rim of a water-pot; kan:kha, kankha = rim of a vessel. In an alternative reading, the pot PLUS lid is read rebus as: dhakka karni 'bright metal supercargo'.Mahadevan concordance Field Symbol 83: Person wearing a diadem or tall head-dress standing within an ornamented arch; there are two stars on either side, at the bottom of the arch.मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] 'the polar star' (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.)
    Hieroglyph: karã̄ n. pl. ʻwristlets, bangles ʼ (Gujarati); kara 'hand' (Rigveda) Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) 
    The bunch of twigs = ku_di_, ku_t.i_ (Skt.lex.) ku_di_ (also written as ku_t.i_ in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kaus’ika Su_tra (Bloomsfield’s ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk,98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badari_, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).[Note the twig adoring the head-dress of a horned, standing person]
    Horned person. Terracotta. Harappa.

    mēd 'body' (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ 'iron' (Ho.)  Ta. mēṉi body, shape, colour, beauty; mēl body. Ma. mēni body, shape, beauty, excellence; mēl body. Koḍ. me·lï body. Te. mēnu id.; mēni brilliancy, lustre; belonging to the body, bodily, personal. Kol. me·n (pl.me·nḍl) body. Nk. mēn (pl. mēnuḷ) id. Nk. (Ch.) mēn id. Pa. mēn (pl. mēnul) id. Ga. (S.) mēnu (pl. mēngil), (P.) mēn id. Go. (Tr.) mēndur (obl. mēnduḍ-), (A. Y. W. M.) mēndul, (L.) meṇḍū˘l, (SR.) meṇḍol id. (Voc.2963). Konḍa mēndol human body. Kur. mē̃d, mēd body, womb, back. Malt. méth body (DEDR 5099)

    Ta. kōṭu (in cpds. kōṭṭu-) horn, tusk, branch of tree, cluster, bunch, coil of hair, line, diagram, bank of stream or pool; kuvaṭu branch of a tree; kōṭṭāṉ, kōṭṭuvāṉ rock horned-owl (cf. 1657 Ta. kuṭiñai). Ko. ko·ṛ (obl.ko·ṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kw&idieresisside;ṛ (obl. kw&idieresisside;ṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn. Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn. Ga. (Oll.) kōr (pl. kōrgul) id. Go. (Tr.) kōr (obl. kōt-, pl. kōhk) horn of cattle or wild animals, branch of a tree; (W. Ph. A. Ch.) kōr (pl. kōhk), (S.) kōr (pl. kōhku), (Ma.) kōr̥u (pl. kōẖku) horn; (M.) kohk branch (Voc. 980); (LuS.) kogoo a horn. Kui kōju (pl. kōska) horn, antler. 
      (DEDR 2200) Rebus: koḍ artisan's workshop (Kuwi) Ta. koṭṭakai shed with sloping roofs, cow-stall; marriage pandal; koṭṭam cattle-shed; koṭṭil cow-stall, shed, hut; (STD) koṭambe feeding place for cattle. Ma. koṭṭil cowhouse, shed, workshop, house. Ka. koṭṭage, koṭige, koṭṭige stall or outhouse (esp. for cattle), barn, room. Koḍ. koṭṭï shed. Tu. koṭṭa hut or dwelling of Koragars; koṭya shed, stall. Te. koṭṭā̆mu stable for cattle or horses; koṭṭāyi thatched shed. Kol. (Kin.) koṛka, (SR.) korkā cowshed; (Pat., p. 59) konṭoḍi henhouse. Nk. khoṭa cowshed. Nk. (Ch.) koṛka id. Go. (Y.) koṭa, (Ko.) koṭam (pl. koṭak) id. (Voc. 880); (SR.) koṭka shed; (W. G. Mu. Ma.) koṛka, (Ph.) korka, kurkacowshed (Voc. 886); (Mu.) koṭorla, koṭorli shed for goats (Voc. 884). Malt. koṭa hamlet. / Influenced by Skt. goṣṭha-. (DEDR 2058)




    Sign 418


    Variants Sign 12

    Sign 418








    Variants Sign 50, Sign 51
    Daimabad seal. Rimofjar Kalibangan pottery. Sign 342                                                                       See: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/harp By Bo Lawergre, 2003, in: Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XII, Fasc. 1, pp. 7-13. "HARP (čang, q.v.),a string instrument which flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 3000 B.C.E., until the 17th century. The original type was the arched harp as seen at Čoḡā Miš and on later third millennium seals (Figure 1a-c)...Third millennium B.C.E. This was the era of arched harps in Persia. It came to an end with the arrival of angular harps, ca. 1900 B.C.E. (Figure 5a). However, arched harps survived in India and diffused from there during the first millennium C.E. (Lawergren, 1995/6, pp. 244-45), including to Panjikent (Figure 1d)."


    harp02.gif (39545 bytes)
    FIGURE 1. Arched harps on Persian seal impressions (second millennium B.C.E.). a. Čoḡa Miš, Persia, 3300-3100 B.C.E.; a celebrant on a cushion (far right) is faced by an ensemble (left) consisting of a singer, horn player (?), harper, and drummer (Delougaz and Kantor, 1996, Pls. 45N and 155A). b. Southeastern Persia, 2500 B.C.E.; a harp appears among participants in a ritual involving animal parts (shown between two vertical lines); snakes protrude from the shoulders of the central participant seated below the harp (Porada, 1965, fig. 16; Porada, 1988, Pl. IV; Amiet, 1986, fig. 132 [10]). c. Southeastern Persia, 2300-2100 B.C.E.; a cult scene involving the same participant as above (a snake-man); the harpist sits near a table that supports this participant (Amiet, 1986, fig. 132 (12), Musée du Louvre, Paris). d. Panjikent (Sogdiana, Greater Persia), 8th century (Lawergren, 1996, fig. 3i; Lawergren, 1995/96, fig. 3C).



    FIGURE 2. Robust, vertical, angular harps (first millennia B.C.E. and C.E.). a. Extant Egyptian harp, 1000-500 B.C.E. (Musée du Louvre, Paris). b. Terracotta plaque, Persia, 250 B.C.E.-223 C.E. (Colledge, 1967, Pl. 20d). c. Mosaic, Bišāpur (Persia), 250-300 C.E. (Musée du Louvre, Paris). d. Silver vessel, Persia/Central Asia, 8-9th c. C.E. (Farmer, 1966, Pl. 7). e. Silver vessel, Persia/Central Asia, 8-9th c. C.E. (Gunter and Jett, 1992, p. 163).


    FIGURE 3. Horizontal, angular harps. a. Terracotta plaque, Iščāli (Mesopotamia), 1900-1500 B.C.E. (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 71). b. Terracotta figurine, Susa, 1900-1500 B.C.E. (Spycket, 1992a, Pl. 95, no. 803). c. Silver plate, Persia, 8th-10th century C.E. (Farmer, 1966, Pl. 6).
    FIGURE 4. Light, vertical, angular harps. a. Wall relief, Ṭāq-e Bostān (Persia), ca. 600 C.E. (Fukai et al., 1972, Pl. LIXb). b. Shōsōin Treasure Depository, Nara (Japan), extant specimen, eighth century C.E. (Hayashi et al., 1967, a composite of Pls. 93-99, 106-7).
    FIGURE 5. Robust vertical harps (second millennium B.C.E.). a. Terracotta plaque, Babylon, 1900-1500 (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 62). b. Terracotta figurine, Babylon, 1900-1500 (Rashid, 1984, Pl. 70). c. Terracotta figurine, Susa, 1900-1500 (Spycket, 1992a, Pl. 96, no. 813).

    The Figure 5c. dancing terracotta figure is cognate with the narrative of नाचण्याचा फड A nach house in the following Meluhha expressions related to phaḍā a metals manufactory.

    phaḍā related Meluhha expressionsफडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or स (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस

    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 

    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 

    फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 
    FIGURE 6. Elamite (Persian) angular harps (first millennium B.C.E.). a. Rock reliefs at Kul-e Fara, near Iḏa/Malāmir (Lawergren, 1997a, fig. 26). Kul-e Fara I: end of 7th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 30) or 7th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-151). Kul-e Fara III: 8-7th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 32) or 6th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-51). Kul-e Fara IV: 9th century (De Waele, 1989, p. 33) or 6th century (Calmeyer, 1973, pp. 149-51). b. Wall relief of Madaktu ensemble, 650 B.C.E. shown in Aššurbanipal’s Palace, Nineveh.
    FIGURE 7. Harps illustrated in Persian miniature manuscripts produced in various workshops during the Islamic period. Dates are given in C.E.

    See: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/cang-harp ČANG “harp” (Pahl. čang, mentioned in Xusrō ī Kawādān ud rēdag, pars. 62-63), a musical instrument of the free-stringed family. By Ḥosayn-ʿAlī Mallāḥ, 1990. "The oldest known harps are arched like a bow with a sound box added to the lower end. The oldest record of an arched harp in Persia is an engraving on a seal datable to 3400 b.c. found at Čoḡā Mīš in Ḵūzestān during excavations by Helen J. Cantor and Pinhas P. Delugaz in 1961-66 (Figure 55)...The instrument mentioned as čangby Rīāḥī (p. 25) is a lyre (tanbūra), called čang by the Baluch. In Afghanistan and Tajikistan čang designates a type of santūr. In Georgia harps are called čangī and six types are in use, four rectangular and two acute-angled..."

    https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/the-boat-shaped-lyre/
    Sumerian Musicians on Relief
    Sumerian bas relief depicting musicians playing various instruments. The steatite relief was excavated at ancient Adab, a city of ancient Sumer. The bas relief dates back to around 3000 BC. There are two harp players, a drummer, a trumpet player, and a conducter with a leaf baton.
    http://www.bible-history.com/studybible/Genesis/4/8/


    Image result for sumer cylinder seal harp
     SCENE ON A GOLD CYLfNDER SEAL from a grave in the Ur cemetery (PG L054). In the bottom register are 2 “cymbalists” (figures playing clappers), a dancer, and a seated figure playing a bovine lyre. The top register shows festive banqueters. U. 11904. From Woolley 1934, pt. 1: fig. 23
    https://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/the-musical-instruments-from-ur-and-ancient-mesopotamian-music/
    Mosaic panel (the 'Royal Standard of Ur') from Ur, ca. 2450 BCE (Rashid 1984: 45 Abb.12; Woolley 1934: pl. 91)
    Image result for harp cylinder seals ancient near east
    The association of 'harp' with a one-horned young bull is seen on this frieze from Ur.  kundār ‘young bull' rebus: kundār ‘turner’ kundaṇa 'fine gold'.
    Related image
    From the Standard of Ur.


    Image result for harp cylinder seals ancient near east
    This silver lyre from ancient Mesopotamia is over 4,500 years old. Music was an important aspect of many celebrations and rituals.



    Eleven stringed instruments were recovered at Ur (two harps and nine lyres)

    FIG. 3. TilE MEDIUM-SIZED SILVER BOVINE LYRE NOW IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM might have sounded like a cello. ©The British Museum. 121199, neg. E 2241. H. 97.5 em. L. 69 011

    Bull-headed harp with inlaid sound box, from the tomb of Pu-abi (tomb 800), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600-2400 BCE.  Wood, gold, lapis lazuli, red limestone, and shell, 3′ 8 1/8″ high.  British Museum, London.
    Related image

    Sound box of the bull-headed harp from tomb 789 (“King’s Grave”), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq,ca. 2600-2400 BCE.  Wood, lapis lazuli, and shell, 1′ 7″ high.  University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia. 

    "Great Lyre" from Ur: Ht 33 cm. 2550 - 2400 BCE, royal tomb at Ur (cf. pg. 106 of J. Aruz and R. Wallenfels (eds.) 2003  Art of the First Cities).

    Great Lyre from the "King's Grave" (left)
    and Detail of Front Panel of the Great Lyre from the "King's Grave" (right)
    Ur, Iraq, ca. 2650–2550 B.C.
    Gold, silver, lapis lazuli, shell, bitumen, and wood
    Height: 35.6 cm (head), 33 cm (plaque)
    PG 789; B17694 (U.10556)
    University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
    "The figures featured on the sound box of the harp are shell and red limestone and are seperated by registers.  The bottom register features a scorpion-man in composite and a gazelle bearing goblets.  Above them are an ass playing the harp, ajackal playing the zither and a bear steadying the harp or dancing.  The second register from the top has a dog wearing a dagger and carrying a laden table with a lion bringing the beverage service.  The uppermost register features the hero, also in composite, embracing two man-bulls in a heraldic composition.  The meaning behind the sound box depictions is unclear but could be of funerary significance, suggesting that the creatures inhabit the land of the dead and the feast is what awaits in the afterlife.  In any case, the sound box provides a very early specimen of the depiction of animals acting as people that will be found throughout history in art and literature."
    https://klimtlover.wordpress.com/mesopotamia-and-persia/mesopotamia-and-persia-sumerian-art/
    bull-head-lyre-panel
    DETAIL FROM THE PANEL ON THE BULL-HEADED LYRE showing an 8-stringed bovine lyre being played. At the top of the lyre, braided material is wrapped around the crossbar under the tuning sticks. The small fox-like animal facing the front of the lyre holds a sistrum, or rattle. UPM 817694. Detail of neg. 735-110

    Inlay panel from the soundbox of lyre.from Ur, c. 2600 B.C.E Gold, lapis lazuli, shell and bitumen
    tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper' Alternative: khara 'onager', kora 'harp' rebus: khār 'blacksmith'
    barad, barat 'bull' Rebus: bharata, baran 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'
    kola 'tiger, jackal' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'


    bica 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'hematite, ferrite ore'.

    Othmar Keel (2009) "Othmar Keel's scientific work exploring the links between the imagery of the Ancient Near East and the Bible and the religious history of Palestine / Israel...In his biblical studies, he has shown how the pictorial symbolism of ancient oriental cultures can serve as a key to the understanding of Old Testament texts (eg, High Song , Gospel in the Book of Job , YHWH Visions in the Books of Isaiah , Ezekiel and Zechariah ).An announcement on 24 Oct 2017 08:40 AM PDT referred to a newly added  title to Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Online
    The following image sources from Plates XXXIII and XXXIV are cited by Brent A. Strawn & Joel M LeMon, following the iconographic analytical method given academic respectability by the work of Othmar Keel.
    Plate XXXIII

    Plate XXXIV. Fig. 1
    Brent A. Strawn & Joel M LeMon, opcit. analyse the following pictorials for the symbolism signified.

    On Figures 14, 15, and 16, onagers are signified as harp-players, performing in presence of a lion. The Indus Script hypertext readings: arye'lion' rebus: ara'brass'khar 'ass, onager' (Kashmiri) rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' A phonetic determinative: kora 'harp'.


    On harp-playing onager on the lyre it is noted by Brent A. Strawn & Joel M. LeMon, that an onager as harp-player. On the hieroglyphs, deployed a one-horned young bull is also shown in the presence of a jackal. कोला (p. 105) kōlā m (Commonly कोल्हा) A jackal. For compounds see under कोल्हे.  कोल्हा (p. 105) kōlhā m A jackal, Canis aureus. Linn. कोल्ही (p. 105) kōlhī A she-jackal.कोल्हें (p. 105) kōlhēṃ n A jackal. Without reference to sex. Pr. अडलें कोल्हें मंगळ गाय Even the yelling jackal can sing pleasantly when he is in distress. कोल्हें लागलें Applied to a practical joke. कोल्हेभूंक (p. 105) kōlhēbhūṅka or -भोंक f (कोल्हा & भुंकणें To bark.) The yelling of jackals. 2 Early dawn; peep of day.  rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'.

    In the bottom register, a scorpion-man is shown. bici 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'haematite, ferrite ore'.

    Inlay panel from the soundbox of lyre.from Ur, c. 2600 B.C.E Gold, lapis lazuli, shell and bitumen
    tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper' Alternative: khara 'onager', kora 'harp' rebus: khār 'blacksmith'
    barad, barat 'bull' Rebus: bharata, baran 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'
    kola 'tiger, jackal' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'

    bica 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'hematite, ferrite ore'.
    A number of lute or harp string instruments are attested in Bronze Age. Typically, the categories are: koradomrayār̤. 
    Hence, a hypothesis is that the onager called khara 'onager' was read rebus -- by the artists who composed the Standard of Ur -- as kora 'harp' (iconography and khār 'blacksmith' (Indus Script hypertext).

    Onager shown on Standard of Ur (2600 BCE) is also shown on Indus Script inscriptions. An example is the seal from Mohenjo-daro (m290)(ca. 2500 BCE) which is a documentation of metalwork wealth by smelters' guild.


    Thus, the symbolic ensemble is a documentation of metalwork in Indus Script Cipher.
    Image result for mohenjodaro seal onagerm290 Mohenjo-daro seal. Decipherment: kola 'tiger' Rebus; kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'smithy, temple' kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattar 'guild of goldsmiths'. panja 'feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln, furnace'
    ṭāṅka ʻleg, thighʼ (Oriya) rebus:  ṭaṅka 'mint'

    khar 'ass, onager' (Kashmiri) rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' khāra-- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ (Kashmiri)(CDIAL 9424)
    kharedo = a currycomb (Gujarati) rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati)

    khaṛ m. ʻ grass, weeds ʼ (Sindhi): khaṭa m., khaḍa -- m.n. ʻ thatching grass ʼ lex. [Cf. kaṭa -- 2, khēṭa -- 4 n. ʻ grass ʼ lex.: ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 368] Pk. khaḍa -- n. ʻ grass ʼ; K. khoru m. ʻ a round -- leaved swamp plant used for fodder, Limnanthemum nymphoides ʼ; L. khaṛ ʻ a tall grass used for fodder ʼ; P. khaṛ m. ʻ straw ʼ; Ku. khaṛ ʻ thatching grass ʼ, N. khar; A.khari ʻ fuel ʼ, kharikā ʻ the stiff part of thatching grass ʼ; B. khaṛ ʻ straw, grass ʼ, khaṛuyā ʻ thatched with straw ʼ; Or. khaṛā ʻ a kind of spinach ʼ; Bi. khar ʻ thatching grass ʼ; Mth. khaṛkhaṛh ʻ grass, esp. long thatching grass ʼ, khaṛa ʻ long stiff grass for thatching ʼ; H. khaṛ m. ʻ ricestalk, rice straw ʼ, khaṛhkhar f. ʻ grass, straw, long grass for thatching ʼ; G. khaṛ n. ʻ grass, weeds ʼ; M. khaḍ f. ʻ short tender grass, fodder (grass, grain, oilcake, &c.) ʼ; -- poss. therefore also S. khaṛu m. f. ʻ dregs of mustard seed after the oil is pressed out, oilcake ʼ if not < khalī -- for which there is no other evidence of earlier --  -- .khaṭakkikā -- ? Addenda: khaṭa -- : S.kcch. khaṛ m. ʻ grass, weeds ʼ; WPah.kṭg. khɔ́̄ṛ m., poet. khɔṛu m. ʻ grass, straw, grass for fodder ʼ, J. khauṛ m.(CDIAL 3769)

    cf. karba 'culm of millet' (Punjabi) rebus: karba 'iron'. When signified as a flagpost to hold aloft a one-horned young bull, the metallurgical association is expressed: kundār 'young bull' rebus; kundaṇa 'fine gold'

    Alternative: कोल्ही (p. 105) kōlhī f A variety of जोंधळा. Its corn is hidden in the ear.  जोंधळा (p. 187) jōndhaḷā m A cereal plant or its grain, Holcus sorghum. Eight varieties are reckoned, viz. उता- वळी, निळवा, शाळू, रातडी, पिवळा जोंधळा, खुंडी, काळबोंडी जोंधळा, दूध मोगरा. There are however many others as केळी, अरगडी, डुकरी, बेंदरी, मडगूप &c. The 'culm of millet' orthography may also relate to a variety of holcus sorghum. Rebus: kolhe 'smelter'.
    Kora DSC 0355.JPGWest African stringed instrument with 21 strings. The kora is a 21-string lute-bridge-harp used extensively in West Africa...Kora players have traditionally come from griot families (also from the Mandinka nationalities) who are traditional historians, genealogists and storytellers who pass their skills on to their descendants.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kora_(instrument)
    Master kora-maker Alieu Suso of the Gambia

      Ta. yāḷi, āḷi a lion; a mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks. Ma. yār̤i lion; panther; āḷi a fabulous animal.(DEDR 5158)

      யா-த்தல் yā- To tell, utter; சொல்லுதல். சூத் திரத்தியல்பென யாத்தனர் புலவர் (தொல். பொ. 655).யாழ் yāḻ, n. perh. யா-.  Stringed musical instruments, of which there are four kinds, viz., pēri-yāḻ, cakōṭa-yāḻ, makara- yāḻ, ceṅkōṭṭi-yāḻ; பேரியாழ், சகோடயாழ், மகர யாழ், செங்கோட்டியாழ் என்ற நால்வகை வீணைக் கருவி. (சிலப். 3, 26.) (பிங்.) (Mus.) Melody-type; பண். (இறை. 1, உரை.) யாழ்ப்பாணர் yāḻ-p-pāṇar 
      n. < யாழ் +. An ancient caste of lute-players; யாழ்வாசினை யில் வல்ல 
      பாணர்வகையார். (பு. வெ. 9, 19, கொளு.)
      Samudragupta, gold dinar, c. 335-375 CE
      Weight: 7.85 gm, Diameter: 20 mm.
      King seated left on a couch, playing the vina
           circular Brāhmī legend around /
      Lakshmi seated left on a stool, holding a cornucopia and diadem,
           Brāhmī legend at right: Samudraguptah
      The Lyrist type of Samudragupta is also a very beautiful and unique design. On this coin, the king is shown seated at ease on a high-backed couch, playing a string instrument like a simple lyre or lute. The fact that the king wanted to publicize an image of himself as a musician is remarkable and a window into the value system of the Gupta state. Samudragupta is known to have been a great patron of the arts and was indeed an accomplished musician and poet.

      This variety has a tamgha in front of Lakshmi's face and no letter below the king's couch.

       variants were described ranging from 14 to 17 strings, and the instrument used by wandering minstrels for accompaniment...(Kamil Zvelebil (1992). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. BRILL. p 145). Ta. yār̤, ñār̤ stringed musical instrument; er̤u (-v-, -nt-) to emit sound; er̤āl musical notes of the yār̤, the yār̤, human voice; er̤uppu (er̤uppi-) to call forth (as melody from an instrument), raise (as the voice in speaking or singing); er̤uvu (er̤uvi-) to produce or call forth sound; eṭu (-pp-, -tt-) to utter or sing in a loud voice; eṭuppu (eṭuppi-) to produce (as harmonious sounds from an instrument). Ma. ēr̤il music. Ko. et- (eyt-) to sing (song), play musical instrument. (TPM, p. 227, for Ta. yār̤ : er̤u.)

      ḍomrā  'strolling musician' who plays a string instrument domra. Tanbur was called 'tunbur' or 'tunbureh/tunbura' in Al-Hirah, and in Greek it was named tambouras, then went to albania as tampura, in Russia it was named domra, in Siberia and Mongolia as dombra...
      Tanburs have been present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the third millennium BC.Three figurines have been found in Susa that belong to 1500 BCE, and in hands of one of them is a tanbur-like instrument...In the tenth century AD Al-Farabi described two types of tanburs found in Persia, a Baghdad tunbūr, distributed south and west of Baghdad, and a Khorasan tunbūr....The tanbūra (lyre) is a bowl lyre of the Middle East and East Africa. It takes its name from the Persian tanbur via the Arabic tunbur (طنبور), though this term refers to long-necked lutes...Kazakhstan's dombra (or dombyra 
      or dombira or dombora) looks quite similar to the dutar (i.e., two strings) although it is made of staves...Afghan tanbur (or tambur) is played mainly in the North of Afghanistan, in Mazar Sharif and Kabul. Afghan tanbur used to have a wide, hollow neck and gourd-like body.... It has 3 courses (either single or double) of metal strings...The music can be accompanying singing and dancing, or (more rarely) playing classical ghazals.The Afghan tanbur has sympathetic strings.

      ḍōmba m. ʻ man of low caste living by singing and music ʼ Kathās., ḍōma -- m. lex., ḍōmbinī -- f. [Connected with Mu. words for ʻ drum ʼ PMWS 87, EWA i 464 with lit.] Pk. ḍoṁba -- , ḍuṁba -- , ḍoṁbilaya -- m.; Gy. eur. rom m. ʻ man, husband ʼ, romni f. ʻ woman, wife ʼ, SEeur. i̦om ʻ aGypsy ʼ, pal. dōm ʻ a Nuri Gypsy ʼ, arm. as. (Boša) lom ʻ a Gypsy ʼ, pers. damini ʻ woman ʼ; Ḍ. ḍōm (pl. °ma) ʻ a Ḍom ʼ; Paš. ḍōmb ʻ barber ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) ḍom ʻ musician, bandsman ʼ; Sh. ḍom ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, K. ḍūmbḍūmm., ḍūmbiñ f.; S. ḍ̠ūmu m., ḍūmṛī f. ʻ caste of wandering musicians ʼ, L. ḍūm m., ḍūmṇī f., (Ju.) ḍ̠om m., ḍ̠omṇīḍomṛī f., mult. ḍōm m., ḍōmṇī f., awāṇ. naṭ -- ḍūm ʻ menials ʼ; P. ḍūmḍomrā m., ḍūmṇī f. ʻ strolling musician ʼ, ḍūmṇā m. ʻ a caste of basket -- makers ʼ; WPah. ḍum ʻ a very low -- caste blackskinned fellow ʼ; Ku. ḍūm m., ḍūmaṇ f. ʻ an aboriginal hill tribe ʼ; N. ḍum ʻ a low caste ʼ; A. ḍom m. ʻ fisherman ʼ, ḍumini f.; B. ḍomḍam m. ʻ a Ḍom ʼ, ḍumni f. (OB. ḍombī); Or. ḍoma m., °aṇī f., ḍuma°aṇīḍambaḍama°aṇī ʻ a low caste who weave baskets and sound drums ʼ; Bhoj. ḍōm ʻ a low caste of musicians ʼ, H. ḍombḍomḍomṛāḍumār m., ḍomnī f., OMarw. ḍūma m., ḍūmaṛī f., M. ḍõbḍom m. -- Deriv. Gy. wel. romanō adj. (f. °nī) ʻ Gypsy ʼ romanō rai m. ʻ Gypsy gentleman ʼ, °nī čib f. ʻ Gypsy language ʼ.*ḍōmbakuṭaka -- , *ḍōmbadhāna -- .Addenda: ḍōmba -- : Gy.eur. rom m., romni f. esp. ʻ Gypsy man or woman ʼ; WPah.kṭg. ḍōm m. ʻ member of a low caste of musicians ʼ, ḍv̄m m.; Garh. ḍom ʻ an untouchable ʼ. †*ḍōmbādhāna -- .*ḍōmbakuṭaka ʻ a Ḍom's hut ʼ. [ḍōmba -- , kuṭī -- ]Ku. ḍumauṛo ʻ habitation of the Ḍoms ʼ.5572 *ḍōmbadhāna -- , or *ḍōmbādhāna -- , ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ. [*ḍōmba -- , dhāˊna -- or ādhāˊna -- ]Ku. ḍumāṇo ʻ Ḍom settlement ʼ.ḍōra -- see davara -- .*ḍōlla -- ʻ bucket ʼ see *dōla -- 2.Addenda: *ḍōmbadhāna -- or †*ḍōmbādhāna  .Garh. ḍumāṇu ʻ part of a village where Ḍoms live ʼ.(CDIAL 5570, 5571, 5572)


      Music stele: tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tambra 'copper' (Santali) ḍangar ‘bull’; rebusḍangar‘blacksmith’ (Hindi)
      Bull head, probably affixed to the sound-chest of a lyre. Copper, mother-of-pearl and lapis lazuli, found in Telloh, ancient Girsu. Louvre Museum, Accession number AO 2676, Excavated by Ernest de Sarzec; gift of Sultan Abdul Hamid, 1896

      Second dynasty of Lagash, reign of Gudea, c. 2120 BC
      Tello (ancient Girsu)
      Limestone
      H. 1.20 m; W. 0.63 m; D. 0.25 m
      E. de Sarzec excavations, 1881
      AO 52 

      [quote]The stele of music shows the foundation rites - performed to the sound of the lyre - of the temple built by Prince Gudea (c. 2100 BC) at his capital of Telloh (ancient Girsu), for Ningirsu, god of the state of Lagash in the Land of Sumer. The stele thus accords with the tradition of Neo-Sumerian art, which unlike that of the preceding period that focused on the warlike exploits of the rulers of Akkad, tends to show the king engaged in pious activities. 

      The building of Ningirsu's temple

      In the Neo-Sumerian Period (c. 2100 BC), the rulers Gudea and Ur-Nammu had themselves depicted taking part in the foundation rites of temples, notably on steles, as statues, and as figurines. On the stele of music, Gudea, carrying a peg and cord and followed by figures probably representing his princely heir and two priests, prepares to lay out the plan of Ningirsu's sanctuary. The ceremony is punctuated by music, which accompanies the chanting or singing of liturgical poems. Behind the cantor, a musician plays on a lyre whose sound box is decorated with a bull. The deep tones of the instrument evoked the bellowing of a bull, and by poetic identification, within the temple of Ningirsu "the room of the lyre was a noisily breathing bull." The making of the god's lyre gave its name to the third year of Gudea's reign, called "the year in which was made the lyre [called] Ushumgalkalamma [the dragon of the land of Sumer]."

      Music in temple foundation ceremonies

      The spirit embodied by the lyre played a part in the events leading to the building of the temple, for it appears in the dream in which the god reveals to Gudea the task he is to accomplish (Gudea Cylinders, Louvre, MNB 1512 and MNB 1511): "When, together with Ushumgalkalamma, his well-beloved lyre, that renowned instrument, his counselor, you bring him gifts [...] the heart of Ningirsu will be appeased, he will reveal the plans of his temple."
      When the work was complete, Ushumgalkalamma went before Gudea, leading all the musical instruments, to mark the arrival of the god in his new abode. Ushumgalkalamma is the god's counselor because its song calms the emotions that disturb the spirit, allowing the return of the reason indispensable to good judgement. Among the divine servants of Ningirsu, it is the lyre's duty to charm his master, a god of changeable mood. It is assisted by the spirit of another lyre that brings consolation in times of darkness: "So that the sweet-toned tigi-drum should play, so that the instruments algar and miritum should resound for Ningirsu, [...] his beloved musician Ushumgalkalamma accomplished his duties to the lord Ningirsu. To soothe the heart and calm the liver [the seat of thought], to dry the tears of weeping eyes, to banish grief from the grieving heart, to cast away the sadness in the heart of the god that rises like the waves of the sea, spreads wide like the Euphrates, and drowns like the flood of the storm, his lyre Lugaligihush accomplished his duties to his lord Ningirsu."

      Representations of musicians in Mesopotamia

      Representations of musicians are not uncommon in Near-Eastern iconography. They are found from the early 3rd millennium BC in the banquet scenes that appear on perforated plaques and cylinder seals. Early in the next millennium, they would appear on molded terracotta plaques, such as the example with the harpist in the Louvre (AO 12454). Very few examples of musical instruments have survived until today (among them the lyres from the royal tombs of Ur, c. 2550 BC); these representations are therefore particularly valuable.

      Bibliography

      André-Salvini Béatrice, "Stèle de la musique", in Musiques au Louvre, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1994, pp. 10-11.
      Parrot André, Tello, vingt campagnes de fouilles, 1877-1933, Paris, Albin Michel, 1948, pp. 174-176, pl. 20a.
      Rutten Marguerite-Maggie, "Scènes de musique et de danse", in Revue des arts asiatiques, Paris, École française d'Extrême-Orient, 1935, p. 220, fig. 8.
      Sarzec Édouard de, Découvertes en Chaldée, Paris, Leroux, 1884-1912, pp. 36 et 219-221, pl. 23.
      Sillamy Jean-Claude, La Musique dans l'ancien Orient ou la théorie musicale suméro-babylonienne, Villeneuve d'Ascq, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 1998, p. 160. [unquote]

      Music steletanbūra, tambura 'lyre' Rebus: tambra 'copper' (Santali) ḍangar ‘bull’; rebusḍangar‘blacksmith’ (Hindi)
      OIM A12417, stone plaque, Mesopotamia, IraqBanquet plaque. The top register of this plaque shows a seated man and woman celebrating an unidentified event or ritual by participating in a banquet. Two servants attend them while others bring a jar (probably filled with beer), an animal to be slaughtered, and other edibles carried in bundles on their heads. Musicians and dancers in the bottom register add to the festivities.
      Plaques such as this were part of a door-locking system for important buildings. The plaque was embedded in the doorjamb and a peg, inserted into the central perforation, was used to hold a hook or cord that secured the door and was covered with clay impressed by one or more seals. https://oi.uchicago.edu/collections/highlights/highlights-collection-mesopotamia
      Assyrian / Babylonian musicians playing harp, lyre, chelys, double aulos Babylon.  Assyria. Stock Photo
      Related image
      http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Sumer_Iraq_1.htm

      Image result for ancient near east cylinder seal harp


      A reconstruction of the lyre in Philadelphia Museum had the hieroglyph of a stag.

      The ‘Boat-Shaped’ Lyre Restudy of a Unique Musical Instrument from Ur By: Maude de Schauensee Expedition, Volume 40, Issue 2

      Composition of two horned animals, sitting human playing a four-string musical instrument, a star and a moon.

      Hieroglyph: A. damrā ʻ young bull ʼ, dāmuri ʻ calf ʼ; B. dāmṛā ʻ castrated bullock ʼ; Or. dāmaṛī ʻ heifer ʼ, dāmaṛiā ʻ bullcalf, young castrated bullock ʼ, dāmuṛ°ṛi ʻ young bullock ʼ.Addenda: damya -- : WPah.kṭg. dām m. ʻ young ungelt ox ʼ.damya ʻ tameable ʼ, m. ʻ young bullock to be tamed ʼ Mn. [~ *dāmiya -- . -- √damPa. damma -- ʻ to be tamed (esp. of a young bullock) ʼ; Pk. damma -- ʻ to be tamed ʼ; S. ḍ̠amu ʻ tamed ʼ; -- ext. -- ḍa -- : (CDIAL 6184) Semantic Echo: బుర్రి burri burri. [Tel.] n. A heifer or young cow. (Telugu) 

      tagara 'antelope'. Rebus 1: tagara 'tin' (ore) tagromi 'tin, metal alloy' (Kuwi) dhangar 'bull' Rebus 2: damgar 'merchant'. dhangar 'blacksmith'
      *dab ʻ a noise ʼ. [Onom.]P. dabaṛ -- dabaṛ ʻ with the sound of heavy and noisy steps ʼ; N. dabdab ʻ mud ʼ; H. dabdabā m. ʻ noise ʼ; M. dabdab ʻ noise of a slack drum ʼ.(CDIAL 6170)

      Hieroglyph: harp: tambur

      The rebus reading of hieroglyphs are: తంబుర [tambura] or తంబురా tambura. [Tel. తంతి+బుర్ర.] n. A kind of stringed instrument like the guitar. A tambourine. Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper' tambabica, copper-ore stones; samṛobica, stones containing gold (Mundari.lex.)   

      Thus the seal connotes a merchant of copper.


      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?
      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?
      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?


      SHAHDAD, SHAHR-I SOKHTA, TEPE YAHYA……. MANY SITES FOR A SINGLE HISTORY ?




      "These exchanges would have led to lengthy arguments carried out in various dialects. At best, the deals ended in banquets and at worst, in blood feuds. History abounds with trade arguments leading to wars. A bloody massacre such as that at Tell Brak would have led to the antagonists finding ways to appease tension during negotiations. Urukeans developed one of the most subtle and ancient arts as a possible solution. This is substantiated by the emergence of harps fitted with three or four strings, as depicted on a fourth millennium seal impression from Choga Mish, east of Uruk in Elam, in modern south-west Iran (Fig. 3). The seal depicts a four-string arched harp played by a seated person, while two others beat a drum, a bowl-drum and clappers. (Dubé, L.; Chebat, J.-C.; Morin, S., ‘The effects of background music on consumers desire to affiliate in buyer-seller interactions.’ Psychology and Marketing. Vol. 12/4. Published by Wiley-Blackwell (1995) pp. 305-319.)As early as the fourth millennium, Urukeans would have discovered that harp music could unite people, allowing them to share feelings and emotions that they could otherwise only have experienced individually. This was the primary function of the harp: the music it produced would have facilitated the exchange of goods. From the beginning it promoted equal understanding; in other words, ‘all were in tune’. From then on, owing to the fact that the harp was a remarkable mediator, music would have been included in communication procedures between different communities, changing people’s mindset and developing empathy between them. Being the first to understand that music could have a significantly smoothing effect on those that listened to it, Urukeans found that it could also affect protagonists during negotiations. If music cannot change the product itself, it can unconsciously act favourably on the customer’s mood. The smoothing effect of the harp on bad tempers, and its contribution to emotional reactions, would have meant that the instrument had high status, from dawn to dusk. The harp was found in potters’ and weavers’ workshops, on goods barges, in banquets (Fig. 6) and even during sexual intercourse (Fig. 4-B). The Urukeans’ pride in their invention was so great that they engraved it on cylinder seals; in its silent manifestation, it sounded to the inner ears of those looking at its impression on seals and tablets. On tablets it was denoted by the Sumerian words BAN.TUR, BAN meaning ‘bow’ and TUR meaning ‘small’, hence harp, and the Sumerogram BALAG, voiced as the onomatopoeic ‘dubdub’, a word echoing the sound of the object it depicts. Around 3,300 to 3,000 BCE, the pictogram with which it is associated clearly depicted a harp with three or four strings (Fig. 4) (Dumbrill, R. (1998). Période au cours de laquelle les cités-États sont en guerre.)." https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/

      See:
      Dumbrill, R., ‘Appendix.’ A Queen’s Orchestra at the Court of Mari: New Perspectives on the Archaic Instrumentarium in the Third Millenium. M. Marcetteau. ICONEA Proceedings 2008 (2008) pp. 73-75.
      Dumbrill, R., ‘Harps.’ The Archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East. Trafford Publishing (2005) pp. 179-226.
      Dumbrill, R., Götterzahlen and Scale Structure (1997).
      Dumbrill, R., ‘Music Theorism in Ancient World.’ ICONEA Proceeding 2009-2010 (2010) pp. 107-132.






      [quote]Harps from Uruk and Djemdet Nasr were generally monoxyle or monostructural, meaning that there was no distinction between the soundbox and the part which would become the yoke, or the neck. They would have been made from gourds or calabashes, the natural shape of which were appropriate for this. It is possible that they were domesticated through simple cultivation techniques which made them grow in the shape of musical instruments. 6The dried fruit was hollowed out from an oval opening, which was then covered with a soundboard made from damp sheep, pig or calf raw hide. It was stretched at the back with wet hide strands. The strings were made from fresh twisted gut or vegetal fibres. A sliver of wood was tied at the end of each string, to prevent it slipping out of the soundboard during tuning. The upper ends of the strings were tied to a strip of woven material rolled around the neck, to ensure tuning by friction (Fig. 5-left). At that time, and especially towards the end of the fourth millennium, the size of soundboxes progressively increased while necks became thinner. Gourds and calabashes would still have been used for soundboxes, but necks would now be made of wood into which the Urukeans would later have plugged tuning pegs to ensure the tension of the strings (Fig. 5-right). Fourth millennium harps would have been small, with probably no more than three strings, stretched over a plan of around 110 degrees determined by the angle of the soundbox in relation to the neck. This suggests an anhemitonic disposition with a span of no more than a musical fifth, possibly including a third. These harps were always depicted in rural scenes, surrounded by animals, but with no reference to religious rituals; practical usage was thus implied, as is clearly shown on cylinder seals. However, from the third millennium onwards, harps were always shown in scenes depicting Inanna, the guardian Goddess of Uruk; they even symbolised her. Some texts record Inanna’s animals and her attributes, which included the reed, the palm, the aster Venus, and the harp itself.


      Having described the harp in its original context, it is very clear that its design rests on the fundamental principle of hearing. Mankind’s perception of sound is an outstanding phenomenon. Sounds are simple periodical variations in air pressure which travel as a wavefront, at a speed of three hundred metres per second. When the waves reach our ear they are channelled into its canal and reach a thin membrane, the eardrum, which separates the middle ear from the outer ear. The vibrations of the eardrum, which result from variations in acoustic pressure, are transmitted to a chain of four small bones located in the stony part of the temporal bone: the hammer, the anvil, the lenticular bone and the stirrup. These ossicles articulate with each other. They are connected by ligaments, and transmit vibrations from the air environment of the middle ear to the aqueous medium of the inner ear, without any loss of energy. The inner ear is a complex structure in the temporal bones, consisting of a labyrinth and several liquid-filled cavities. This system is made up of canals, cavities and a spiralling structure called the cochlea. It is home to two very distinct sensory organs: the vestibular system, which detects and adapts to spatial body position, and the cochlea, which is the auditory receptor organ.
      The cochlea, from the Latin meaning ‘snail’, is a small spiralling structure measuring 1.2 mm in diameter by 35 mm in length. It begins at the anterior part of the vestibule and rotates two and three quarter times around a bony pillar, the modiolus. At its lower end are the oval and round windows, which separate the middle ear from the inner ear. The cochlea is divided lengthwise into three chambers. On each side are the scala tympani and the vestibuli, both of which are filled with a liquid called perilymph. A cochlear duct is located between the two scalae; its lower part ends in the basiliar membrane, its upper part in Reissner’s membrane. The cochlear canal contains the organ of Corti, which is a complex system lying on the basilar membrane and extending right along the cochlea. This organ transforms vibrational energy into electric signals which the brain can interpret (Fig. 8). There are up to 15,000 outer hair cells spread over three or four rows, and 3,500 inner hair cells in one row (Fig. 9).  The cellular bodies of the hair cells float in perilymph liquid, while hair bundles stand in the endolymph-filled cochlear canal. The ionic sealing of the cochlear canal is ensured both at its base by the reticular lamina, resulting from the tightly joined apical surfaces of hair cells and the supporting cells of the organ of Corti, and at its apex by Reissner’s membrane, which forms the ‘roof’ of the cochlear canal. When the stirrup moves under eardrum vibration pressure, it initiates motion of the incompressible scala vestibuli liquid. This motion reaches the top of the cochlea, reverses at the helicotrema, and finally runs down the scala tympani where it activates the round window placed at the other end of the system. The liquid movements initiate undulation of the basilar membrane, each part of which vibrates to a given frequency (Fig. 8-D). In turn these vibrations initiate displacements of the outer hair cells, which are rooted between the basilar membrane (by their basal pole, via Deiters cells), and the tectorial membrane (via their hair bundle) (Fig. 10). A relative alternating movement of the outer hair cells facing the tectorial membrane follows, provoking stereocilia deflection. Thus, the mechanical opening of the ionic channels results from a cellular depolarisation which leads to a rapid contraction of the outer hair cells, or electromotility, which then increases the amplitude of the basilar membrane vibrations. Consequently, this non-linear amplification phenomenon increases the weaker stimuli, which might not otherwise be perceived without interfering with high-intensity stimuli which would damage the inner hair cells, as a result of amplification. Because of this amplification, the stereocilia of the inner hair cells – which are the genuine sensory receptors of the auditory organ – are dragged in by the tectorial membrane and are also deflected. It follows that inner hair cell depolarisation releases neurotransmitter glutamate at its basal pole. This generates a spike train, sent to the brain by the auditory nerve.[unquote] https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/

      "An initial comparison can now be made between the neck of the harp and the basilar membrane (BM). The tuning pegs, around which the strings are wound and then driven into the neck, are comparable to the basilar membrane where Deiters cells are attached, and to which one of the ends of the outer hair cells (OHCs) is affixed. The neck is an essential part, because all the components of a harp rest on it, directly or indirectly. The functional importance of the basilar membrane is equally critical, because the various elements constituting the organ of Corti, again directly or indirectly, are attached to it. The harpist plucks the strings with greater or lesser intensity, his fingers complementing the work of the neck which the musician holds against his chest with his palm. Similarly, the sound vibrations transmitted by the perilymph generate upward and downward movements of the basilar membrane, at a precise location, resulting in the outer hair cells vibrating more or less intensely. As with the neck, the basilar membrane remains motionless right along the organ of Corti (Fig. 11-left)." https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/analogy-between-the-urukean-harp-and-the-auditory-system/



      The Sensory Theory Coding and Treatment of Sensory Information by the Brain

      About the book (blurb translated from French) AN ARCHEOLOGY OF SENSORY  PERCEPTION

      Six thousand years ago, in southern Mesopotamia, the Urukeans invent seven remarkable instruments: the plow, the standard brick mold, the writing, the accounting, the harp, the vertical loom and the image of cones. Now, it turns out that all these inventions reproduce biological mechanisms that allow sensory organs to perceive the external environment and to transmit information to the brain. How was man able to develop such instruments at a time when the functioning of the sense organs was inaccessible to his perception and understanding? To answer this question, the authors of the Sensory Theory establish a logical link between these seven inventions and sensory organs by linking knowledge previously fragmented and compartmentalized into various disciplines.

      La théorie Sensorielle



      chapitre 1Chapitre 1
      Origines: Levant, Mésopotamie



      ANALOGY BETWEEN THE URUKEAN HARP AND THE AUDITORY SYSTEM

      le 8 janvier 2014 | par Philippe Roi et Tristan Girard

      By Philippe Roi(1)Tristan Girard(2)Richard Dumbrill(3)Michel Leibovici(4)
      With the participation of Paul Avan(5)

      Abstract: During the fourth millennium BCE, in southern Mesopotamia, the Urukeans invented seven remarkable tools –the ard, the normalised brick mould, writing, accounting, the harp, the vertical weaving loom and the cone image– which the foundations of our civilisation still rely upon today. These inventions, among which was the primitive harp, have been found to mirror biological mechanisms which enable our sensory organs to perceive the world in which we live, and to codify it in order to transmit its representation to the brain. With regard to the primitive harp, its inspiration came from the organ of Corti, the sensory-nervous structure of the cochlea. A question remains as to how man could have created such an instrument at a time when the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear was impossible to perceive and comprehend. In order to answer this question, Philippe Roi and Tristan Girard have combined knowledge that was fragmented and separated into various fields, such as archaeomusicology, cell biology and neuroscience. This is how they discovered that there was a logical link between the Urukean harp and the organ of Corti.

      Anahata Nada Brahman Unstruck sound as Brahman, this OM = Praṇava, which is also the Setu which joins svarga and pr̥thivī

      अन्-ाहत  mfn. unbeaten , unwounded , intact; produced otherwise than by beating; n. the fourth of the mystical चक्रस् , or circles of the body.


      सेतु m. The sacred syllable om; मन्त्राणां प्रणवः सेतुस्तत्सेतुः प्रणवः स्मृतः । स्रवत्यनोङ्कृतं पूर्वं परस्ताच्च विदीर्यते ॥ 

      कालिका-पुराण   the सेतु or sacred syllable of the शूद्रs , Ka1lika1P. ?? ([ T. ]) औम् ind. the sacred syllable of the शूद्रs (» 3.  in RV. ix , 20 , 12, the शूद्र is said to have been born from the feet of पुरुष q.v. ; in Mn. i , 87 he is fabled to have sprung from the same part of the body of ब्रह्मा , and he is regarded as of higher rank than the present low and mixed castes so numerous throughout India ; केवल-श्° , a pure शूद्रRV. &c   kēvala केवल  -आत्मन् a. one whose essence is absolute unity; नमस्त्रिमूर्तये तुभ्यं प्राक्सृष्टेः केवलात्मने Ku.2.4.केवला* त्मन् mfn. one whose nature is absolute unity Kum. ii , 4.

      Atharva Veda ( X - 7,8) --- Skambha Suktam provides some hints while the origins of the worship of the Shiva-Linga as a Fiery Pillar of Light and Flames, are unknown. 

      Shiva-Linga has one complete purana which is dedicated to its form and origin. It may be a symbolic representation of self (Atma Linga) or of everything. Some associate it with the physical form of Pranava (Om). Oval form represents even the shape of the Universe including the existing space. The beginning of the oval form is A in OM and prolonged part is U in OM and M is the ending part of the linga. It is single shape of Trimurti. Praying Shiva Linga is considered as praying the Thrimurti in absolute form. Linga represents absolute and Single power of this universe. Some associate them with the famous hymn in the Atharva-Veda Samhitâ sung in praise of the Yupa-Stambha, the sacrificial post. In that hymn a description is found of the beginningless and endless Stambha or Skambha and it is shown that the said Skambha is put in place of the eternal Brahman. As afterwards the Yajna (sacrificial) fire, its smoke, ashes and flames, the Soma plant and the ox that used to carry on its back the wood for the Vedic sacrifice gave place to the conceptions of the brightness of Shiva's body, his tawny matted-hair, his blue throat and the riding on the bull of the Shiva. The Yupa-Skambha gave place in time to the Shiva-Linga. In the Linga Purâna the same hymn is expanded in the shape of stories, meant to establish the glory of the great Stambha and the superiority of Mahâdeva.

      In the context of Hindu mythology, stambha, also spelt as Skambha, is believed to a cosmic column. It is believed that the stambha functions as a bond, which joins the heaven (Svarga) and the earth (prithvi). A number of Hindu scriptures, including the Atharva Veda, have references to stambha. In the Atharva Veda, a celestial stambha has been mentioned, and that has been described as a scaffold, which supports the cosmos and material creation. http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2014/12/skambha-sukta-atharva-veda-x-7-pair-of.html

      औम
       
      mf()n. (fr. उमा) , made of flax , flaxen Pa1n2. 4-3 , 158.; mfn. relating to the goddess उमा , Para1s3.(Monier-Williams).
      ओं--कार m. (ओं-क्°) the sacred and mystical syllable ओम् , the exclamation ओम् , pronouncing the syllable ओम् Mn. ii , 75 ; 81 Katha1s. Bhag. &c , (cf.विजयोंकार , कृतोंकार); a beginning , prosperous or auspicious beginning of (e.g. a science) Ba1lar.
      ओम् ind. ( √अव् Un2. i , 141 ; originally ओं = आं , which may be derived from  BRD. ), a word of solemn affirmation and respectful assent , sometimes translated by " yes , verily , so be it " (and in this sense compared with Amen ; it is placed at the commencement of most Hindu works , and as a sacred exclamation may be uttered [but not so as to be heard by ears profane] at the beginning and end of a reading of the वेदs or previously to any prayer ; it is also regarded as a particle of auspicious salutation [Hail!] ; ओम् appears first in the उपनिषद्s as a mystic monosyllable , and is there set forth as the object of profound religious meditation , the highest spiritual efficacy being attributed not only to the whole word but also to the three sounds  ,  , म् , of which it consists ; in later times ओम् is the mystic name for the Hindu triad , and represents the union of the three gods , viz. a (विष्णु) ,  (शिव) , म् (ब्रह्मा) ; it may also be typical of the three वेदs ; ओम् is usually called प्रणव , more rarely अक्षर , or एकाक्षर , and only in later times ओंकारVS. S3Br. ChUp. &c

      Carved stone tablets with the inscription Om syllables from Om Mani Padme Hum mantra - Everest region, Nepal, HimalayasCarved stone tablets with the inscription Om syllables from Om Mani Padme Hum mantra - Everest region, Nepal, Himalayas
      OM is a direct path: Remembering the sound vibration of AUM (or OM), along with a deep feeling for the meaning of what it represents (1.28), brings both the realization of the individual Self and the removal of obstacles that normally block that realization (1.29). In a sense, this practice is like a short cut, in that it goes directly to the heart of the process. Systematically piercing the levels: This practice takes one on a direct route inward, systematically piercing the levels of consciousness. It is done with sincerity and dedication (1.23) towards the untainted creative source or pure consciousness (1.24), which AUM represents (1.27). That consciousness contains the seed of omniscience (1.25), which is the source of the teachings of all the ancient sages (1.26).Remember the meaning: For it to have its effect, the sound of AUM is remembered with deep feeling for the meaning of what it represents. (1.28)


      Yoga Sutras 1.23-1.29:
      Contemplation on AUM (or OM)

      1.23 From a special process of devotion and letting go into the creative source from which we emerged (ishvara pranidhana), the coming of samadhi is imminent.
      1.23 (ishvara pranidhana va) 

      • ishvara = creative source, pure consciousness, purusha, God, supreme Guru or teacher

      • pranidhana = practicing the presence, sincerity, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice

      • va = or

      Through the sincere, dedicated, and devoted practice towards the pure consciousness known by words such as purusha, God, or Guru, which is symbolized by AUM, the results of samadhi come more quickly. In other words, the practice of following AUM through the levels of reality and consciousness is a short cut of sorts, meaning direct route to the center of consciousness. This can be better understood by a close reading of these articles:
      OM and the 7 Levels of Consciousness
      OM and 7 Methods of Practice 

      Meaning of Ishvara: In the Upanishads, the word Īśvara is used to denote a state of collective consciousness. Thus, God is not a being that sits on a high pedestal beyond the sun, moon, and stars; God is actually the state of Ultimate Reality. But due to the lack of direct experience, God has been personified and given various names and forms by religions throughout the ages. When one expands one's individual consciousness to the Universal Consciousness, it is called Self-realization, for the individual self has realized the unity of diversity, the very underlying principle, or Universal Self, beneath all forms and names. The great sages of the Upanishads avoid the confusions related to conceptions of God and encourage students to be honest and sincere in their quests for Self-realization. Upanishadic philosophy provides various methods for unfolding higher levels of truth and helps students to be able to unravel the mysteries of the individual and the universe. (from Swami Rama in the section What God Is from Enlightenment Without God)

      1.24 That creative source (ishvara) is a particular consciousness (purusha) that is unaffected by colorings (kleshas), actions (karmas), or results of those actions that happen when latent impressions stir and cause those actions.
      1.24 (klesha karma vipaka ashayaih aparamristah purusha-vishesha ishvara

      • klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause trouble

      • karma = actions, 

      • vipaka = fruits of, maturing, ripening

      • ashayaih = by the vehicles, resting place, storage of traces, propensities, accumulations

      • aparamristah = untouched, unsmeared

      • purusha-vishesha = a consciousness, a special or distinct purusha (purusha = a consciousness; vishesha = special, distinct)

      • ishvara = creative source, God, supreme Guru or teacher1.26 From that consciousness (ishvara) the ancient-most teachers were taught, since it is not limited by the constraint of time.
        (purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat) 

      • purvesham = of the first, former, earlier, ancient

      • api = too, also

      • guruh = teacher

      • kalena = by time

      • anavachchhedat = not limited by (time), no break or division, continuous

      This pure consciousness, being eternal in nature, is the direct teacher of all of the ancient, earlier, or even the first of the teachers within humanity. In other words, some of the original teachers of humanity have learned directly from this pure consciousness, not from a human lineage of teacher-student, etc., whereby there is just a passing of information. This direct learning from the source continues to be available at all times and places, though the help of human teachers is surely a useful, if not essential aid. 

      1.25 In that pure consciousness (ishvara) the seed of omniscience has reached its highest development and cannot be exceeded.
      1.25 (tatra niratishayam sarvajna bijam)

      • tatra = there, in that (in that special purusha)

      • niratishayam = unsurpassed, not exceeded by any others, limitless

      • sarvajna = all knowing (sarva = all; jna = knowing)

      • bijam = seed

      The pure consciousness identified by AUM is also the seed of pure knowledge or omniscience. That level of knowing is sought in the practice of OM.

      1.26 From that consciousness (ishvara) the ancient-most teachers were taught, since it is not limited by the constraint of time.
      1.26 (purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat) 

      • purvesham = of the first, former, earlier, ancient

      • api = too, also

      • guruh = teacher

      • kalena = by time

      • anavachchhedat = not limited by (time), no break or division, continuous

      This pure consciousness, being eternal in nature, is the direct teacher of all of the ancient, earlier, or even the first of the teachers within humanity. In other words, some of the original teachers of humanity have learned directly from this pure consciousness, not from a human lineage of teacher-student, etc., whereby there is just a passing of information. This direct learning from the source continues to be available at all times and places, though the help of human teachers is surely a useful, if not essential aid. 

      1.27 The sacred word designating this creative source is the sound OM, called pranava.
      1.27 (tasya vachakah pranavah)

      • tasya = of that

      • vachakah = designator, signifier, indicator, term

      • pranavah = the mantra AUM or OM

      AUM has a vibrational quality along with other meanings, one of which is as a designator or term to denote the pure consciousness referred to in the sutras above. The word pranavah literally translates as "humming."

      1.28 This sound is remembered with deep feeling for the meaning of what it represents.
      1.28 (tat japah tat artha bhavanam)

      • tat = its

      • japah = repeated remembrance

      • tat = its

      • artha = meaning

      • bhavanam = understanding with feeling, absorbing, dwelling upon

      It is important to remember not only the vibration (japa), but also the deep meaning of the mantra, rather than to perform merely parrot-like repetition in the mind.

      1.29 From that remembering comes the realization of the individual Self and the removal of obstacles.
      1.29 (tatah pratyak chetana adhigamah api antaraya abhavash cha)

      • tatah = thence

      • pratyak = individual

      • chetana = consciousness

      • adhigamah = understanding, realization, attainment

      • api = also

      • antaraya = of obstacles or impediments

      • abhavash = absence, disappearance, removal

      • cha = and, also

      Two direct benefits come from the proper practice of the OM mantra:

      1.     Obstacles will be removed (1.30-1.32).

      2.     It is a direct route to Self-realization.



      If one is able to sincerely, devotedly, intensely practice the AUM mantra in the depth of its meaning, it is a complete practice unto itself.



      http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras-12329.htm

       ROM accession number 994.233.17, is made of serpentine and is 3.5 x 2.2 cm. It dates to the Akkadian period in Mesopotamia (about 2200 BCE). Royal Ontario Museum.The seal depicts a typical contest scene: a nude bearded hero fights a bull while a lion fights a bearded bull-man. The inscription identifies the seal's owner as "Shu-ili-su, the beer-maker". 

      Shu-ilishu is also the name of the Akkadian interpreter of Meluhha on another seal.
      The rollout of Shu-ilishu's Cylinder seal. Courtesy of the Department des Antiquites Orientales, Musee du Louvre, Paris.
      A Mesopotamian cylinder seal referring to the personal translator of the ancient Indus or Meluhan language, Shu-ilishu, who lived around 2020 BCE during the late Akkadian period. http://a.harappa.com/content/shu-ilishus-cylinder-seal..
      Akkadian cylinder-seal impression of a bull-man and hero. Each is holding a bull by the horns, and in the centre is a stylised mountain with a sacred tree on top.
      Cylinder seal: Ht. 3.6 cm. 2,220 - 2,159 BCE, Mesopotamia (Photo from pg. 216 of J. Aruz and R. Wallenfels (eds.) 2003  Art of the First Cities)  Nude Bearded Hero and Water Buffalo; Bull-Man Fighting Lion Serpentine It is remarkable that this seal also shows, in the centre of the pictorial scene, a 'twig' a typical indus script pictorial motif (or what I call, Indus script hieroglyph). 

      Reading of the pictorial motif of leaf on summit:  
      loha dhatu dangra kūṭa,  'copper mineral smith forge guild (workshop)'. 
      Hieroglyphs are read rebus.  Glyphs of the writing system by smiths who invented alloying: 
      loha 'ficus leaf'; 
      dhatu 'leaf petioles'; 
      dangra 'bull'; 
      Pk. ḍhaṁkhara -- m.n. ʻ branch without leaves or fruit ʼ (CDIAL 5524)
      kūṭa 'summit'. (cf. kot.e meD 'forged iron'; meD 'antelope' (Mu.)
      The 'bull men' glyphs denote dhangar 'smiths'; dul dhangar 'two smiths'; rebus: cast (metal)
      smiths.  (Thus, this pictorial motif of leaf on summit is a phonetic determinant of the two glyptic motifs on either side).
      kūṭamu = summit of a mountain (Telugu) 
      Rebus: kūṭakamu =mixture (Te.lex.) kūṭam = workshop (Ta.) The Sign 230 thus connotes an alloyed metal, kūṭa [e.g. copper + dhātu ‘mineral (ore)’ as in: ārakūṭa = brass
      (Skt.)] 
      Vikalpa 

      ṭākuro = hill top (N.); ṭāngī  = hill, stony country (Or.);  ṭān:gara = rocky hilly land (Or.); ḍān:gā = hill, dry upland (B.); ḍā~g = mountain-ridge (H.)(CDIAL 5476). 

      डगर [ ḍagara ] f A slope or ascent (as of a river's bank, of a small hill). 2 unc An eminence, a mount, a little hill (Marathi).  Rebus: ḍān:ro = a term of contempt for a blacksmith (N.)(CDIAL 5524).   ṭhākur = blacksmith (Mth.) (CDIAL 5488).
      daṭhi, daṭi the petioles and mid-ribs of a compound leaf after the leaflets have been plucked
      off, stalks of certain plants, as Indian corn, after the grain has been taken off (Santali) 
      Rebus: dhātu ‘mineral’ (Vedic); a mineral, metal (Santali); dhāta id. (G.)
      loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali.lex.) 

      Homophone 
      Hierolyph: lo = nine (Santali); no = nine (B.)  on-patu = nine (Ta.) Rebus: lo ‘iron’
      (Assamese, Bengali); loa ‘iron’ (Gypsy)   lauha = made of copper or iron (Gr.S'r.); metal, iron (Skt.); lōhakāra = coppersmith, ironsmith (Pali); lōhāra = blacksmith (Pt.); lohal.a (Or.); lōha = metal, esp. copper or bronze (Pali); copper (VS.); loho, lō = metal, ore, iron (Si.)  lōhá ʻ red, copper -- coloured ʼ ŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh.[*rudh -- ]  Pa. lōha -- m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻ iron ʼ,
      Gy. pal. li°lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻ steel ʼ; Kho. loh ʻ copper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ.lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām.  lohā),WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. l&ogravetilde; n.,pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā,
      Ku. luwā, N. lohu°hā, A. lo,B. lono, Or. lohāluhā,Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh.lōh, . lohlohā m.,G. M. loh n.; Si. loho ʻmetal, ore, iron ʼ; Md. ratu -- lō ʻ copper ʼ. *lōhala -- , *lōhila --, *lōhiṣṭha -- , lōhī -- , laúha -- ; lōhakāra -- , *lōhaghaṭa -- , *lōhaśālā-- , *lōhahaṭṭika -- , *lōhōpaskara -- ; vartalōha -- . Addenda: lōhá --: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻ iron ʼ, J. lohā m.,
      Garh. loho; Md.  ʻ metal ʼ.†*lōhaphāla -- or†*lōhahala -- . (CDIAL 11158)
      lōhakāra m. ʻ iron -- worker ʼ, °rī -- f., °raka -- m. lex., lauhakāra -- m. Hit. [lōhá -- ,
      kāra -- 1]  Pa. lōhakāra --m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra -- m. ʻ blacksmithʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f.,awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m.,Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷa, Bi.Bhoj.Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohārluh° m.,G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻcoppersmith ʼ. Addenda: lōhakāra-- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f.ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m. (CDIAL 11159)

      Cylinder seal and modern impression: nude bearded hero wrestling with a water buffalo; bull-man wrestling with lion

      Period: Akkadian
      Date: ca. 2250–2150 B.C.
      Geography: Mesopotamia
      Culture: Akkadian
      Medium: Serpentine, black
      Dimensions: 1.42 in. (3.61 cm)
      Classification: Stone-Cylinder Seals-Inscribed
      Credit Line: Bequest of W. Gedney Beatty, 1941
      Accession Number: 41.160.281
      http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/323869

      ao22303.jpg
      Sumerian cylinder seal line markings written in Akkadian (approx. 2250 BC, Louvre, Paris)


      Gilgamesh and Enkidu struggle of the celestial bull and the lion (cylinder seal-print Approx. 2,400 BC, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore)
      The narrative is  set of hieroglyphs read rebus. Rebus readings connote that the cylinder seal impressions on the proto-cuneiform tablet relate to the smelting furnace for metalware: 
      pasara 'quadrupeds' Rebus: pasra 'smithy' (Santali)
      1.
      a tiger, a fox on leashes held by a man kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloys' 
      lo ‘fox’ (WPah.) Rebus: lōha ʻmetalʼ (Pali) 
      2.
      a procession of boars (rhinoceros?) and tiger in two rows 
      kāṇṭā 'rhinoceros.  Rebus: āṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Gujarati)

      3. a stalk/twig, sprout (or tree branch) kūdī,kūṭī bunch of twigs (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelting furnace‘(Santali)

      Bull men contesting with lions. Cylinder seal and impression. Akkadian period. ca. 2334-2154 BCE. Marble. 28X26 mm. Seal No. 167 Morgan Library and Museum. A variant narrative adds hieroglyphs of an aquatic bird in flight. Hieroglyph: aquatic bird: karaṭa1 m. ʻ crow ʼ BhP., °aka -- m. lex. [Cf. karaṭu -- , karkaṭu -- m. ʻ Numidian crane ʼ, karēṭu -- , °ēṭavya -- , °ēḍuka -- m. lex., karaṇḍa2 -- m. ʻ duck ʼ lex: seekāraṇḍava -- ]Pk. karaḍa -- m. ʻ crow ʼ, °ḍā -- f. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ; S. karaṛa -- ḍhī˜gu m. ʻ a very large aquatic bird ʼ; L. karṛā m., °ṛī f. ʻ the common teal ʼ.(CDIAL 2787). Allograph: karaṭa m. ʻ Carthamus tinctorius ʼ lex.Pk. karaḍa -- m. ʻ safflower ʼ, °ḍā -- f. ʻ a tree like the karañja ʼ; M. karḍī°ḍaī f. ʻ safflower, Carthamus tinctorius and its seed ʼ.(CDIAL 2788). Rebus:  karaḍā 'hardalloy of metals' (Marathi
      lugal_zps16457a74.jpgCylinder seal impression.

      Lugalanda, the dethroned monarch Lagas Seal (but Sarzec collection, Paris, Louvre)
      "Great Lyre" from Ur: Ht 33 cm. 2550 - 2400 BCE, royal tomb at Ur (cf. pg. 106 of J. Aruz and R. Wallenfels (eds.) 2003  Art of the First Cities).

      Cylinder Seal of bull-men flanking deity above sacred tree: mid 8th-7th Century BC – Metropolitan Museum of Art.
      British Museum.org Lapis lazuli cylinder seal; contest scene - bull-man (full-face) in conflict with a lion. Antithetical group consisting of two bearded heroes (full-face) in the centre, who are naked except for a triple belt and who are protecting or are in conflict with, respectively, a human-headed bull (full-face) and a bull. 
      Cylinder seal: bull-man combating lion; nude hero combating water buffalo; inscription. Akkadian ca. 2250-2150 BCE. Mesopotamia. Albite stone. H. 3.4 cm dia. 2.3 cm. Met Museum. http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/327600
      Sumerian (Late Uruk/Jemdet Nasr Period) Black Stetatite Cylinder Seal  http://art.thewalters.org/viewwoa.aspx?id=33263 In the two scenes on this cylinder seal, a heroic figure with heavy beard and long curls holds off two roaring lions, and another hero struggles with a water buffalo. The inscription in the panel identifies the owner of this seal as "Ur-Inanna, the farmer.

      Girdled nude hero attacking water buffalo; bullman attacking lion; inscription. Kafaje, 
      Akkadian (ca. 2300 -2200 BC)  Frankfort, Henri: Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region. Oriental Institute Publications 72. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, no. 396.

      Cylinder seal impression; scene representing mythological beings, bulls and lions in conflict (British Museum No. 89538)

      H
      ypertext: blacksmith working with solder, pewter, brass

      Girdled nude hero attacking water buffalo; bull-man attacking  lion; inscription. Kafaje, Akkadian.c. 2300 BCE, Iraq Museum, Baghdad. From a cylinder seal, in wo narrative frames flanking a star metonymy (Afer Fig. 1d in http://www.destiner.com/destiner_titles_dark_sect01_me.html)

      Six curls on hair: baTa 'six' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'

      मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ]A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)

      मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] The polar star मेढेमत (p. 665) [ mēḍhēmata ] n (मेढ Polar star, मत Dogma or sect.) A persuasion or an order or a set of tenets and notions amongst the Shúdra-people. Founded upon certain astrological calculations proceeding upon the North star. Hence मेढेजोशी or डौरीजोशी.(Marathi). Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)

      The narrative of metalwork is explained as metonymy. A horned person ligatured to the hindpart of a bull: ḍhaṅgaru, ḍhiṅgaru m. ʻlean emaciated beastʼ(Sindhi) Rebus: dhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili) 

      His life-activity is in wrestling with lion (hieroglyph): אַרְיֵה (aryeh) 'lion' (Hebrew)Rebus: āra, āramBrass (Tamil) आरः रम् [आ-ऋ-घञ्] 1 Brass; ताम्रारकोष्ठां परिखादुरा- सदाम् Bhāg.1.41.2. Oxide of iron.( The metonymy is thus a rebus rendering of alloy metal)(Samskritam).

      Hieroglyph: rã̄go 'buffalo': raṅku m. ʻ a species of deer ʼ Vās., °uka -- m. Śrīkaṇṭh.Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ? (CDIAL 10559) Rebus:  rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (Punjabi)rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ (Oriya)

      Mohenjo-daro seal (2500-2000 BCE) showing a seated yogi with horns of a buffalo showing a twig (pipal branch?) growing out from between them. http://www.harappa.com/indus/33.html
      clip_image032
      m305clip_image033[4] A person with a plaited pigtail, bangles/armlets on both hands from wrist to shoulder, seated in penance, with three faces, two stars on either side of the curved buffalo-horn and twig.taTTHAr 'buffalo horn' Rebus: taTTAr 'brass worker' 

      m305 A person with a plaited pigtail, bangles/armlets on both hands from wrist to shoulder, seated in penance, with three faces, two stars on either side of the curved buffalo-horn and twig. "The seal depicting seven (or six) robed figures with pig-tails and stylized twigs on their heads, for instance, is routinely interpreted as the seven (or six) presiding deities of Pleiades. K provides an additional, possible reading of the seal as pertaining to the goldsmith’s portable furnace + native metal (p. 197-199, 430)...An Indus seal showing a horned male person seated in yoga like posture figures in many text books assigned to courses on Indian religions, history, and civilization. A three-leaved branch of the Pipal tree appears on his crown with a star on either side. Two stars adorn the curved buffalo horns of the seated person who wears a scarf on pigtail. Seven bangles are depicted on the left arm and six on the right, with the hands resting on the knees. The heels are pressed together under the groin and the feet project beyond the edge of the throne. In the considered opinion of the scholarly community, the person in the seal represents (a) a yogi or an ascetic practicing meditation or engaged in austerities or penance; (b) a proto-Rudra/Shiva or (c) Agni, the god of fire...Without disputing this line of interpretation, K suggests that the seal may have additional information to communicate in the field of metallurgy. The word in Prakrit for penance is kamandha, which is homonymous with the Tamil ord kampattam meaning ‘mint. The word for large horns with sweeping upward curve as applied to buffalos is dabe in Santali. The words dab, dhimba, dhombo meaning a lump (clot) are homonyms for dabe. The word for twig in the Atharvaveda (5:19.12) is kudi. A Santali word kuthi meaning ‘smelting furnace’ would be a homonym for kudi. Another Santali
      word kote meaning ‘forged’ [metal] is also relevant here. After analyzing other glyptic elements on the seal, K concludes that the person on the seal is a lapidary scribe working in a mint (p. 188 and personal communication from K)." From: Solving the Indus script puzzle: A review of Indus Script Cipher by Dr S. Kalyanraman By Shrinivas Tilak* (Sept. 9,

      Molded tablets from Trench 11 sometimes have impressions on one, two, three or four sides. This group of molded tablets shows the complete set of motifs. One side is comprised entirely of script and has six characters, the first of which (on the very top) appears to be some sort of animal. A second side shows a human figure grappling with a short horned bull. A small plant with at least six branches is discernible behind the individual. The third panel portrays a figure seated on a charpoy or throne in a yogic position, with arms resting on the knees. Both arms are covered with bangles, and traces of a horned headdress and long hair are visible on some of the impressions. A second individual, also with long hair and wearing bangles, is seated on a short stool to the proper left of the individual on the "throne." The fourth panel shows a deity standing with both feet on the ground and wearing a horned headdress. A branch with three pipal leaves projects from the center of the headdress. Bangles on seen on both arms
      Mohenjo-daro. Square seal depicting a nude male deity with three faces, seated in yogic position on a throne, wearing bangles on both arms and an elaborate headdress. Five symbols of the Indus script appear on either side of the headdress which is made of two outward projecting buffalo style curved horns, with two upward projecting points. A single branch with three pipal leaves rises from the middle of the headdress. 

      Seven bangles are depicted on the left arm and six on the right, with the hands resting on the knees. The heels are pressed together under the groin and the feet project beyond the edge of the throne. The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals. The seal may not have been fired, but the stone is very hard. A grooved and perforated boss is present on the back of the seal.
      Material: tan steatite Dimensions: 2.65 x 2.7 cm, 0.83 to 0.86 thickness Mohenjo-daro, DK 12050
      Islamabad Museum, NMP 50.296 Mackay 1938: 335, pl. LXXXVII, 222 
      kūdī 'bunch of twigs' (Sanskrit)  Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter furnace' (Santali) कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch (v.l. कूट्/ईAV. v , 19 , 12 Kaus3.ccord. to Kaus3. Sch. = बदरी, "Christ's thorn".(Monier-Williams)
      Hieroglyph: kamaḍha ‘penance’ (Pkt.) Rebus 1: kampaṭṭa  ‘mint’ (Ma.) kamaṭa = portable furnace for melting precious metals (Te.);Rebus 2: kaṇḍa ‘fire-altar' (Santali); kan ‘copper’ (Ta.)  

      Hieroglyph: karã̄ n. pl. ʻwristlets, bangles ʼ (Gujarati); kara 'hand' (Rigveda) Rebus: khAr 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) 
      The bunch of twigs = ku_di_, ku_t.i_ (Skt.lex.) ku_di_ (also written as ku_t.i_ in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kaus’ika Su_tra (Bloomsfield’s ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield, American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk,98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badari_, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).[Note the twig adoring the head-dress of a horned, standing person]
      Note: 
      Not far from Chogha Mish is Chogha Zanbil where a ziggurat has been identified.
      Choghazanbil2.jpg

      Image result for chogha zanbil
      Chogha Zanbil (Persianچغازنبيل‎; Elamite: Dur Untash) is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestanprovince of Iran. It is one of the few existent ziggurats outside Mesopotamia. It lies approximately 30 km (19 mi) south-east of Susa and 80 km (50 mi) north of Ahvaz...The Elamite name of this structure is Ziggurat Dūr Untash, (/ˈzɪɡəræt/ ZIG-ər-at; from the SemiticAkkadian word ziqqurat, based on the D-stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area")

      I suggest that the word zaqāru is cognate sangar 'fortification' سنګر sangarS سنګر sangar, s.m. (2nd) A breastwork of stones, etc., erected to close a pass or road; lines, entrenchments. Pl. سنګرونه sangarūnah. See باره (Pashto). 

      Mohenjo-daro stupa. Ziggurat.


      0 0

      https://tinyurl.com/ycgtthuz

      The most frequently used Indus Script hypertext expression in Indus Script corpora consists of three unique hieroglyph: 1. khār 'backbone'; 2. karṇaka, 'rim-of-jar' 3. kharaḍā, 'currycomb'. 

      This triplet of hieroglyphs in Indus Script hypertext signifies wealth-accounting ledger of blacksmith's metalwork products: 

      1. khār  खार् 'blacksmith', 
      2. karṇī, scribe/supercargo (a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale), [Note: kul-- karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ(Marathi)]
      3. (scribed in) karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger of khār  खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

      खरडा  kharaḍā m (खरडणें) Scrapings (as from a culinary utensil). 2 Bruised or coarsely broken peppercorns &c.: a mass of bruised मेथ्या &c. 3 also खरडें n A scrawl; a memorandum-scrap; a foul, blotted, interlined piece of writing. 4 also खरडें n A rude sketch; a rough draught; a foul copy; a waste-book; a day-book; a note-book. (Marathi) See: karuma sharpness of sword (Tamil)(DEDR 1265) karumā, 'blaksmith' (Tamil); karmāra 'blacksmith' (R̥gveda)

      At the outset, it should be noted that many of these Indus Script expressions are unique to Harappa where tablets (inclduing sealings as tablets) are used to record works in process for subsequent compilation of shipment info. of metalwork catalogues on seals. 

      Decipherment of variants of the most-frequently used expression (shown on venn diagram) relate to yields from three types of furnaces: 1. smithy, 2. cast metal, 3. implements. The outputs from the furnaces are meant for 1. supercargo (consignments to be shipped by seafaring merchants, helmsmen) and 2. for further work by kharādī turners and for entry in daybook of the scribe: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'.
      Seal published by Omananda Saraswati. In Pl. 275: Omananda Saraswati 1975. Ancient Seals of Haryana (in Hindi). Rohtak.
      This pictorial motif gets normalized in Indus writing system as a hieroglyph sign.
      Harappa. Prism tablet. H94-2177/4999-01: Molded faience tablet, Period 3B/3C. Rebus reading:

      Two 'ingot' hieroglyphs: dul ḍ̠aḇ 'cast ingot'

      'Backbone' hieroglyph:karaṁḍa ʻbackboneʼ Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy'

      'crocodile' hieroglyph: kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) Rebus: kāruvu 'artisan' (Telugu) khār 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

      'two' hieroglyph + 'rimless pot' hieroglyph: dula 'two' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' + baTa 'rimless pot' Rebus: baTa 'furnace'. Thus metal-casting furnace.
      Rebus reading of incised Kalibangan potsherd: ayo 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron, metal' PLUS karaṁḍa ʻbackboneʼ Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy' PLUS kanka, karṇaka ‘rim of jar’ Rebus: karṇaka ‘accountscribe’. 
       kārṇī  m. ʻsuper cargo of a ship ʼ(Marathi) 
      Incised potsherd from Kalibangan. The overriding of the signs shows that the direction of writing was from right to left.
      Map showing Khao Sam Kaeo on the east coast and the complex of Phu Khao Thong/Bang Kluai Nok on the west coast [Drawing by the Thai-French archaeological mission].in: "The development of coastal polities in the Upper Thai-Malay Peninsula" by Berenice Bellina et al (2014) in:  Before Siam: Essays in Art and Archaeology. (pp. 69-89). River Books http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1456831/  Mirror: 
       
      Apart from etched beads which echo Sarasvati Civilization lapidary work, there are 1) ornaments found in Khao Sam Kaeo which signify Indus Script hieroglyphs and 2) potsherd with Indus Script epigraph found in Phu Khao Thong. Indus Script hieroglyphs on the Khao Sam Kaeo ornaments are:
      Source: Dr. Berenice Bellina of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France, excavations conducted by the Thai Fine Arts at Phu Khao Thong in Thailand in 2007.

      The Phu Khao Thong potsherd inscription has hieroglyphs which read rebus: karaṇḍa'backbone' rebus: karaḍa'hard alloy' PLUS mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end. Thus the inscription reads: karaḍa mũhe 'hard metal alloy ingot'.
      Slide 33. Early Harappan zebu figurine with incised spots from Harappa.

      Decipherment of the Harappa figurine on Slide 33:
       पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu' Rebus: magnetite, citizen.(See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/08/zebu-archaeometallurgy-legacy-of-india.html )
       mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali)
       खोट (p. 212) [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. (Marathi)
      The figurine signifies ingots of  पोळ [pōḷa], ‘magnetite’. This is a metalwork catalogue message in Indus Script Corpora.

       
      Hieroglyph: sãgaḍ, 'lathe'  Rebus: sãgaṛh , 'fortification' Rebus: jangad 'invoicing on approval basis'
      Hieroglyph: kõdā 'young bull calf' Rebus: kõdā 'turner-joiner' (forge);kundana 'fine gold'
      eraka 'nave of wheel' Rebus: eraka 'molten cast, copper' arā 'spokes' rebus: āra 'brass'
      sal 'splinter' Rebus: sal 'workshop'
      karaṇḍa 'backbone' rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy' 
      aḍar 'harrow' Rebus: aduru 'native metal'
      bhaṭa 'warrior' Rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'
      karṇaka, 'rim of jar' Rebus: karṇī 'supercargo, scribe'.

      This high-frequency of the expression is highlighted by the venn diagram presented by Nisha Yadav using a limited set of 235 Harappa tablets from the Corpora (Mahadevan concordance):

      Yadav, Nisha, 2013, Sensitivity of Indus Script to type of object, SCRIPTA, Vol. 5 (Sept. 2013), pp. 67-103

      From r. to l.:

      1. Hieroglyph: khāra खार 'backbone, spine' rebus: khār  खार् । 'blacksmith'
      2. Hieroglyph: karṇīka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: kaṇḍa kanka 'smelting furnace account (scribe), karṇī, supercargo' 
      3. khareḍo 'a currycomb (Gujarati) Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (Gujarati)

      Thus, the Indus Script hypertext signifies: 1. blacksmith, 2. supercargo (a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.), 3. wealth-accounting ledger 

      Onager shown on Standard of Ur (2600 BCE) is also shown on Indus Script inscriptions. An example is the seal from Mohenjo-daro (m290)(ca. 2500 BCE) which is a documentation of metalwork wealth by smelters' guild.
      bull-head-lyre-panel
      DETAIL FROM THE PANEL ON THE BULL-HEADED LYRE showing an 8-stringed bovine lyre being played. At the top of the lyre, braided material is wrapped around the crossbar under the tuning sticks. The small fox-like animal facing the front of the lyre holds a sistrum, or rattle. UPM 817694. Detail of neg. 735-110

      The Indus Script hypertext message of the narrative on the Ur lyre: pōḷa,'zebu' rebus: pōḷa'magnetite, ferrite ore' PLUS khōṇḍa 'young bull' rebus: kundaṇa'fine gold' PLUS kolhā, 'jackal' rebus: kolhe 'iron smelter' PLUS tambur 'harp' rebus: tambra 'copper' PLUS khara 'onager' rebus:  khār खार् 'blacksmith'. 
      Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'. Thus, the message is: daybook (wealth-accounting ledger) of blacksmith working with iron smelter, copper, gold, magnetite ore.

      Hieroglyph: पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus'  Rebus: पोळ pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrite ore' खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā 'to turn in a lathe' (B.) कोंद kōnda. 'engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems' (Marathi) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. khōṇḍī 'pannier sack'खोंडी (Marathi) Rebus: kunda 'nidhi' kundaṇa 'fine gold' PLUS koḍ 'horn' rebus: koḍ 'workshop'.

      Hieroglyph: jackal: kolhā: krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu -- m. Pāṇ. [√kruś]Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka -- and kotthu -- , °uka -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. koṭṭhu -- m.; Si. koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42; -- Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H. kolhā°lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ°lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā°lā m.(CDIAL 3615) Rebus: kol 'working in iron'; kolle 'blacksmith'; kolhe 'smelter'

      Hieroglyph: tambura 'harp/lyre' rebus: tambra 'copper'

      Hieroglyph: khara1 m. ʻ donkey ʼ KātyŚr., °rī -- f. Pāṇ.NiDoc. Pk. khara -- m., Gy. pal. ḳăr m., kắri f., arm. xari, eur. gr. kherkfer, rum. xerú, Kt. kur, Pr. korūˊ, Dm. khar m., °ri f., Tir. kh*lr, Paš. lauṛ. khar m., khär f., Kal. urt. khār, Phal. khār m., khári f., K. khar m., khürüf., pog. kash. ḍoḍ. khar, S. kharu m., P. G. M. khar m., OM. khari f.; -- ext. Ash. kərəṭék, Shum. xareṭá; <-> L. kharkā m., °kī f. -- Kho. khairánu ʻ donkey's foal ʼ (+?).*kharapāla -- ; -- *kharabhaka -- . Addenda: khara -- 1: Bshk. Kt. kur ʻ donkey ʼ (for loss of aspiration Morgenstierne ID 334).(CDIAL 3818) Rebus: khārखार्  'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

      Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'.

      Thus, the symbolic ensemble is a documentation of metalwork in Indus Script Cipher.

      Image result for mohenjodaro seal onagerm290 Mohenjo-daro seal. Decipherment: kola 'tiger' Rebus; kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'smithy, temple' kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattar 'guild of goldsmiths'. panja 'feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln, furnace'
      ṭāṅka ʻleg, thighʼ (Oriya) rebus:  ṭaṅka 'mint'
      khar 'ass, onager' (Kashmiri) rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' khāra-- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ (Kashmiri)(CDIAL 9424)

      kharkhara  खर््खर । अश्वादिकण्डूयनयन्त्रम् m. a curry-comb (K.Pr. 15). -- karun -- करुन् । अश्वादिकण्डूयनकरणम् m.inf. to use a curry-comb, to curry (a horse), to groom (a horse).(Kashmiri) kharedo = a currycomb (Gujarati) rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati) Rebus: daybook: karaḍā m The arrangement of bars or embossed lines (plain or fretted with little knobs) raised upon a तार of gold by pressing and driving it upon the ... 4 also खरडें n A rude sketch; a rough draught; a foul copy; a waste-book; a day-book; a note-book (Marathi) khār  खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

      Hieroglyph: khāra 2 खार (= ) or khār 4 खार् (L.V. 96, K.Pr. 47, Śiv. 827) । द्वेषः m. (for 1, see khār 1 ), a thorn, prickle, spine (K.Pr. 47; Śiv. 827, 153)(Kashmiri) Pk. karaṁḍa -- m.n. ʻ bone shaped like a bamboo ʼ, karaṁḍuya -- n. ʻ backbone ʼ.*kaṇṭa3 ʻ backbone, podex, penis ʼ. 2. *kaṇḍa -- . 3. *karaṇḍa -- 4. (Cf. *kāṭa -- 2, *ḍākka -- 2: poss. same as káṇṭa -- 1]1. Pa. piṭṭhi -- kaṇṭaka -- m. ʻ bone of the spine ʼ; Gy. eur. kanro m. ʻ penis ʼ (or < káṇṭaka -- ); Tir. mar -- kaṇḍḗ ʻ back (of the body) ʼ; S. kaṇḍo m. ʻ back ʼ, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ʻ backbone ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇḍ°ḍī ʻ back ʼ; P. kaṇḍ f. ʻ back, pubes ʼ; WPah. bhal. kaṇṭ f. ʻ syphilis ʼ; N. kaṇḍo ʻ buttock, rump, anus ʼ, kaṇḍeulo ʻ small of the back ʼ; B. kã̄ṭ ʻ clitoris ʼ; Or. kaṇṭi ʻ handle of a plough ʼ; H. kã̄ṭā m. ʻ spine ʼ, G. kã̄ṭɔ m., M. kã̄ṭā m.; Si. äṭa -- kaṭuva ʻ bone ʼ, piṭa -- k° ʻ backbone ʼ.2. Pk. kaṁḍa -- m. ʻ backbone ʼ.(CDIAL 2670) కరాళము karāḷamu karāḷamu. [Skt.] n. The backbone. వెన్నెముక (Telugu)

      Rebus: khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -bü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy-बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer.; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. , a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl  । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore.; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -wah -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil. (Kashmiri)Rebus: khara 'sharp-edged' Kannada); pure, unalloyed (Kashmiri) khára2 ʻ hard, sharp, pungent ʼ MBh., ʻ solid ʼ Pān., ʻ hot (of wind) ʼ Suśr. [Cf. karkara -- 1, karkaśá -- , kakkhaṭa -- ]Pa. Pk. khara -- ʻ hard, rough, cruel, sharp ʼ; K. khoru ʻ pure, genuine ʼ, S. kharo, L. P. kharā (P. also ʻ good of weather ʼ); WPah. bhad. kharo ʻ good ʼ, paṅ. cur. cam. kharā ʻ good, clean ʼ; Ku. kharo ʻ honest ʼ; N. kharo ʻ real, keen ʼ; A. khar ʻ quick, nimble ʼ, m. ʻ dry weather ʼ, kharā ʻ dry, infertile ʼ, khariba ʻ to become dry ʼ; B. kharā ʻ hot, dry ʼ, vb. ʻ to overparch ʼ; Or. kharā ʻ sunshine ʼ; OAw. khara ʻ sharp, notched ʼ; H. kharā ʻ sharp, pure, good ʼ; G. khar ʻ sharp, hot ʼ, °rũ ʻ real, good, well parched or baked, well learnt ʼ; M. khar ʻ sharp, biting, thick (of consistency) ʼ, °rā ʻ pure, good, firm ʼ; Ko. kharo ʻ true ʼ; Si. kara -- räs ʻ hot -- rayed, i.e. sun ʼ. -- Ext. Pk. kharaḍia -- ʻ rough ʼ; Or. kharaṛā ʻ slightly parched ʼ. <-> X kṣārá -- 1: Or. khārā ʻ very sharp, pure, true ʼ. <-> X paruṣá -- 1: Bshk. khärúṣ ʻ rough, rugged ʼ; Si. karahu ʻ hard ʼ.
      kharapattrā -- , kharayaṣṭikā -- , *kharasrōtas -- .Addenda: khara -- 2: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) khɔ́rɔ ʻ great, good, excessive ʼ; J. kharā ʻ good, well ʼ; OMarw. kharaü ʻ extreme ʼ.(CDIAL 3819)

      Rebus: karaḍā खरडें 'daybook, wealth-accounting ledger'.

      Rebus: Ta. karaṭu roughness, unevenness, churlish temper; karaṭṭu rugged, uneven, unpolished; karaṇ uneven surface in vegetables and fruits, scar; karu prong, barb, spike; karumai, karil severity, cruelty; karukkuteeth of a saw or sickle, jagged edge of palmyra leaf-stalk, sharpness. Ma. karaṭu what is rough or uneven; kaṟu rough; kaṟuppu roughness; karuma sharpness of sword; karukku teeth of a saw or file, thorns of a palmyra branch, irregular surface; karukarukka to be harsh, sharp, rough, irritating; karikku edge of teeth; kari-muḷ hard thorn; projecting parts of the skin of custard-apples, jack-fruits, etc.; kari-maṭal rind of jack-fruits. Ko. karp keenness or harshness (of wind); ? kako·ṭ hoe with sharp, broad blade (for -ko·ṭ, see 2064). Ka. karaḍu that is rough, uneven, unpolished, hard, or waste, useless, or wicked; kaṟaku, karku, kakku, gaṟaku, garaku, garku, garasu a jag, notch, dent, toothed part of a file or saw, rough part of a millstone, irregular surface, sharpness. Tu. karaḍů, karaḍu rough, coarse, worn out; wastage, loss, wear; kargōṭa hardness, hard-heartedness; hard, hard-hearted; garu rough; garime severity, strictness; gargāsů a saw. Te. kara sharp; karagasamu a saw; karakasa roughness; karusu rough, harsh; harsh words; kaṟaku, kaṟuku harshness, roughness, sharpness; rough, harsh, sharp; gari hardness, stiffness, sharpness; (B.) karaṭi stubborn, brutish, villainous; kakku a notch or dent, toothed part of a saw, file, or sickle, roughness of a millstone. Go. (Ma.) karkara sharp (Voc. 543). Kur. karcnā to be tough, (Hahn) be hardened. ? Cf. 1260 Ka. garasu. / Cf. Skt. karaṭa- a low, unruly, difficult person; karkara- hard, firm; karkaśa- rough, harsh, hard; krakaca-, karapattra-saw; khara- hard, harsh, rough, sharp-edged; kharu- harsh, cruel; Pali kakaca- saw; khara- rough; saw; Pkt. karakaya- saw; Apabhraṃśa (Jasaharacariukaraḍa- hard. Cf. esp. Turner, CDIAL, no. 2819. Cf. also Skt. karavāla- sword (for second element, cf. 5376 Ta. vāḷ).(DEDR 1265)

      See: 

      235 Harappa Indus Script tablets deciphered: भरत 'alloy of pewter, copper, tin' ready as supercargo & for turners, from 1. smithy, 2. cast metal, 3. implements furnaces (workshops) http://tinyurl.com/h45ex2j




      The venn diagram shows the associate expressions of hypertexts:
      baTa 'rimless pot' rebus: baa 'iron' bhaa 'furnace' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'cast metal' Thus, cast metal furnace (Frequency of occurrence: 74)

      baa 'rimless pot' rebus: baa 'iron' bhaa 'furnace'  PLUS kolmo 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy'. Thus smithy furnace (Frequency of occurrence: 111)

      baa 'rimless pot' rebus: baa 'iron' bhaa 'furnace' PLUS gaNDa 'four' rebus: khaNDa 'implements'. Thus implements furnace (Frequency of occurrence: 50)


      Faience tablet (H2001-5082/2920-02) made from two colors of faience was found eroding from the Trench 54 South workshop area. Identical tablets made from two colors of faience were recovered in Area J, at the south end of Mound AB, in the excavations of Vats during the 1930s. gaNDa 'four' rebus: khaNDa 'implements' baa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaa 'furnace' PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'.
      Pict-90 Text 4305
      4305 Pict-90: Standing person with horns and bovine features holding a staff or mace on his shoulder.  
      Hieroglyph: ḍhangar 'bull' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' (Maithili) damgar, tamkāru 'merchant' (Akkadian). 
      bhaa 'warrior' Rebus: bhaa 'furnace' sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop' PLUS karṇīka, kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: kaṇḍa kanka 'smelting furnace account (scribe), karṇī, supercargo' Thus, the three-sided Harappa tablet signifies blacksmith, merchant, supercargo (handling products from) furnace workshop.

      Stone seal. h179. National Museum, India. Carved seal. Scan 27418 Tongues of flame decorate the flaming pillar, further signified by two 'star' hieroglyphs on either side of the bottom of the flaming arch.

      Front

      khā'blacksmith' emerges out of the tree or flaming pillar (skambha) identified by the 'star' hieroglyph'. The wristlets he wears and headdress signify that he is khāworking with kuṭhi 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace'. He is a smith engaged in smelting.

      Hieroglyph:मेढा [ mēḍhā ] 'polar star' Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.) dula'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' Thus, signifying a cast iron smelter.
      Santali glosses.

      Hieroglyph: karã̄ n. pl. wristlets, bangles' rebus: khā'blacksmith'
      Hieroglyph: head-dress:  kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Sanskrit)  kuṭhi 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace' (Santali) (Phonetic determinative of skambha, 'flaming pillar', rebus:kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'). Skambha, flamiung pillar is the enquiry in Atharva veda Skambha Sukta (AV X.7,8)

      Huntington Archive Scan 27419. 

      Location: Mohenjo Daro, Larkana Dt., Sind, Pakistan
      Site: Mohenjo Daro
      Monument/Object: seal, relief sculpture
      Current Location: National Museum, New Delhi, India
      Subject: figure, in ceremonial headdress, in tree or flaming pillar
      Photo Depicts: reverse
      Period: Harappa/Indus Civilization (Pakistan)

      Reverse Text message: 

      Hieroglyphs: backbone + four short strokes  

      Signs 47, 48: Four ribs of backbone: gaṇḍa ‘four’ Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’.  Pk. karaṁḍa -- m.n. ʻbone shaped like a bambooʼ, karaṁḍuya -- n. ʻ backbone ʼ.( (CDIAL 2670) rebus: karaa 'hard alloy'. Alternative: baraḍo = spine; backbone (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) + rebus: bharat kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’, furnace for mixed alloy called bharat(copper, zinc, tin alloy).
      bhāthī m. ʻ warrior ʼ bhaa 'warrior' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace', thus reinforcing the smelting process in the fire-altars. Smelters might have used bhaThi 'bellows'. bhástrā f. ʻ leathern bag ʼ ŚBr., ʻ bellows ʼ Kāv., bhastrikā -- f. ʻ little bag ʼ Daś. [Despite EWA ii 489, not from a √bhas ʻ blow ʼ (existence of which is very doubtful). -- Basic meaning is ʻ skin bag ʼ (cf. bakura<-> ʻ bellows ʼ ~ bākurá -- dŕ̊ti -- ʻ goat's skin ʼ), der. from bastá -- m. ʻ goat ʼ RV. (cf.bastājina -- n. ʻ goat's skin ʼ MaitrS. = bāstaṁ carma Mn.); with bh -- (and unexpl. -- st -- ) in Pa. bhasta -- m. ʻ goat ʼ, bhastacamma -- n. ʻ goat's skin ʼ. Phonet. Pa. and all NIA. (except S. with a) may be < *bhāsta -- , cf. bāsta -- above (J. C. W.)]With unexpl. retention of -- st -- : Pa. bhastā -- f. ʻ bellows ʼ (cf. vāta -- puṇṇa -- bhasta -- camma -- n. ʻ goat's skin full ofwind ʼ), biḷāra -- bhastā -- f. ʻ catskin bag ʼ, bhasta -- n. ʻ leather sack (for flour) ʼ; K. khāra -- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ; -- S. bathī f. ʻ quiver ʼ (< *bhathī); A. Or. bhāti ʻ bellows ʼ, Bi. bhāthī, (S of Ganges) bhã̄thī; OAw. bhāthā̆ ʻ quiver ʼ; H. bhāthā m. ʻ quiver ʼ, bhāthī f. ʻ bellows ʼ; G. bhāthɔ,bhātɔbhāthṛɔ m. ʻ quiver ʼ (whence bhāthī m. ʻ warrior ʼ); M. bhātā m. ʻ leathern bag, bellows, quiver ʼ, bhātaḍ n. ʻ bellows, quiver ʼ; <-> (X bhráṣṭra -- ?) N. bhã̄ṭi ʻ bellows ʼ, H. bhāṭhī f.Addenda: bhástrā -- : OA. bhāthi ʻ bellows ʼ .(CDIAL 9424) bhráṣṭra n. ʻ frying pan, gridiron ʼ MaitrS. [√bhrajj]
      Pk. bhaṭṭha -- m.n. ʻ gridiron ʼ; K. büṭhü f. ʻ level surface by kitchen fireplace on which vessels are put when taken off fire ʼ; S. baṭhu m. ʻ large pot in which grain is parched, large cooking fire ʼ, baṭhī f. ʻ distilling furnace ʼ; L. bhaṭṭh m. ʻ grain -- parcher's oven ʼ, bhaṭṭhī f. ʻ kiln, distillery ʼ, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭhm., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnace ʼ, bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ; N. bhāṭi ʻ oven or vessel in which clothes are steamed for washing ʼ; A. bhaṭā ʻ brick -- or lime -- kiln ʼ; B. bhāṭi ʻ kiln ʼ; Or. bhāṭi ʻ brick -- kiln, distilling pot ʼ; Mth. bhaṭhībhaṭṭī ʻ brick -- kiln, furnace, still ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhāṭhā ʻ kiln ʼ; H. bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ, bhaṭ f. ʻ kiln, oven, fireplace ʼ; M. bhaṭṭā m. ʻ pot of fire ʼ, bhaṭṭī f. ʻ forge ʼ. -- X bhástrā -- q.v.bhrāṣṭra -- ; *bhraṣṭrapūra -- , *bhraṣṭrāgāra -- .Addenda: bhráṣṭra -- : S.kcch. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ʻ distil (spirits) ʼ.*bhraṣṭrāgāra ʻ grain parching house ʼ. [bhráṣṭra -- , agāra -- ]P. bhaṭhiār°ālā m. ʻ grainparcher's shop ʼ.(CDIAL 9656, 9658)
      kanda kanka 'rim of jar' (Santali) Rebus: kanda kanka 'fire-trench account, karṇi supercargo' karṇīka 'helmsman, merchantman, scribe, account'. 
      Image result for raised script metal bharatkalyan97Copper tablet (H2000-4498/9889-01) with raised script found in Trench 43 of Harappa. The raised script has apparently been achieved during casting in a mould. Over 8 such tablets have been found in Harappa from circular platforms (which are clearly meant for artisans working in metal smithy/forge work).

      Harappa tablets showing a pair of 'ingots' flanking 'backbone' hieroglyph
      dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS hieroglyph: oval (lozenge) shape: 
      mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends;kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali). Thus, the message of the Indus Script hypertext with three hieroglyphs is: cast metal ingot of kara'hard alloy'. करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi)  kharādī ' turner, a person who fashions or shapes objects on a lathe' (Gujarati)
      Alternative reading of ingot: ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati).
      Circular, light grey steatite stamp-seal; hole pierced through back; Dilmun type; face shows engraved design of two men, each dressed in a long skirt, walking left and clutching a vase between them; left figure grasps a leaping gazelle or bull by the neckPersian gulf seal. mr̤eka, melh 'goat' rebus: milakkhu, mleccha-mukha 'copper' eraka 'raisedhand' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper'
      karaḍū or ṅkaraḍēṃ ] n A kid. कराडूं (p. 137) [ karāḍūṃ ] n (Commonly करडूं ) A kid. (Marathi) Rebus: करडा (p. 137) [ karaḍā ] 'hard alloy' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus copper metal casters.

      Note the associated hypertext of three dotted circles on h978 tablet. The reading of dotted circle:

      dhāī˜ (Lahnda) signifies a single strand of rope or thread.

      I have suggested that a dotted circle hieroglyph is a cross-section of a strand of rope: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) 
      धवड (p. 436) [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of iron (Marathi).  Hence, the depiction of a single dotted circle, two dotted circles and three dotted circles (called trefoil) on the robe of the Purifier priest of Mohenjo-daro.

      The phoneme dhāī˜ (Lahnda) signifying a single strand may thus signify the hieroglyph: dotted circle. This possibility is reinforced by the glosses in Rigveda, Tamil and other languages of Baratiya sprachbund which are explained by the word dāya 'playing of dice' which is explained by the cognate Tamil word: 
      தாயம் tāyamn. < dāya Number one in the game of dice; கவறுருட்ட விழும் ஒன்று என்னும் எண். 
      The fillet worn on the forehead and on the right-shoulder signifies one strand; while the trefoil on the shawl signifies three strands. A hieroglyph for two strands is also signified.
      Semantics of single strand of rope and three strands of rope are: 1. Sindhi dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, Lahnda dhāī˜ id.; 2. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ (RigVeda). 
       Single strand (one dotted-circle)

      Two strands (pair of dotted-circles)

      Three strands (three dotted-circles as a trefoil)

      These orthographic variants provide semantic elucidations for a single: dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'red stone mineral' or two minerals: dul PLUS dhātu, dhāū, dhāv 'cast minerals' or tri- dhātu,      -dhāū, -dhāv 'three minerals' to create metal alloys'. The artisans producing alloys are dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻa caste of iron -- smeltersʼ, dhāvḍī ʻcomposed of or relating to ironʼ)(CDIAL 6773).. 

      dāu m. ʻ opportunity, throw in dice ʼ (Old Awadhi); akṣa -- dāya -- m. ʻ playing of dice ʼ Naiṣ. (CDIAL 6258)தாயம் tāyamn. < dāya Number one in the game of dice; கவறுருட்ட விழும்ஒன்று என்னும் எண். Colloq. dāˊtu n. ʻ share ʼ RV. [Cf. śatádātu -- , sahásradātu -- ʻ hundredfold, thousandfold ʼ: Pers. dāv ʻ stroke, move in a game ʼ prob. ← IA. -- √] K. dāv m. ʻ turn, opportunity, throw in dice ʼ; S. ḍ̠ã̄u m. ʻ mode ʼ; L.  m. ʻ direction ʼ, (Ju.) ḍ̠āḍ̠ã̄ m. ʻ way, manner ʼ; P. dāu m. ʻ ambush ʼ; Ku. dã̄w ʻ turn, opportunity, bet, throw in dice ʼ, N. dāu; B. dāudã̄u ʻ turn, opportunity ʼ; Or. dāudāũ ʻ opportunity, revenge ʼ; Mth. dāu ʻ trick (in wrestling, &c.) ʼ; OAw. dāu m. ʻ opportunity, throw in dice ʼ; H. dāūdã̄w m. ʻ turn ʼ; G. dāv m. ʻ turn, throw ʼ, ḍāv m. ʻ throw ʼ; M. dāvā m. ʻ revenge ʼ. -- NIA. forms with nasalization (or all NIA. forms) poss. < dāmán -- 2m. ʻ gift ʼ RV., cf. dāya -- m. ʻ gift ʼ MBh., akṣa -- dāya -- m. ʻ playing of dice ʼ Naiṣ.(CDIAL 6258).

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      https://tinyurl.com/ya9g3dpb


      The falsifiable hypothesis is that the Susa Elamite 'spinner' sculptural frieze is rebus rendering of Meluhha  Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union).



      This monograph validates the Meluhha decipherment.


      Hieroglyphs/hypertexts of Sarasvati Script signify metalwork in rebus Meluhha cipher, not only on c. 8000 seals/tablets of Script Corpora, but also on sculptural friezes. An example is provided by a Susa spinner sculptural frieze. 

      This is a conclusive evidence of a visual language rendered in rebus cipher. The apparent message is not that a lady is celebrating a banquet of fish for her dinner. The entire frieze has a number of hieroglyphs constituting a consistent and harmoniously constructed metalwork message of a kātī r'spiner' rebus khātī 'wheelwright‘.

      The Indus Script hypertext message of the sculptural frieze is: copper alloy metal mintwork of Meluhha wheelwright, smelter (kiln, furnace), ironsmith


      Meluhha expressions for each semantic component are listed below for each hieroglyph and rebus reading.
      Image result for susa spinner bitumen
      ig. 141 La Fileuse (Lady spinning) Bitumen compound. H 9.3 cm. W. 13 cm. Neo-Elamite period, ca. 8th -7th century BCE. Susa. Sb 2834 (Louvre Museum) Excavated by Morgan.


      Hieroglyph (cipher-text): Spinner (kātī) lady rebus khātī 'wheelwright‘


      kola 'woman', kola ‘tiger’rebus: kol ‘working in iron’ kolhe ‘smelter’


      Hieroglyph: wristlets of spinner lady: karã̄ n. pl.wristlets, banglesRebus: khãr 'blacksmith, iron worker' (Kashmiri)

      kulya 'fly whisk' rebus: kulya n. ʻ receptacle for burnt bones of a corpse ʼ MBh., A. kulā ʻwinnowingfan, hood of a snake ʼ; B. kul°lā ʻ winnowing basket or fan ʼ; Or.kulā ʻ winnowing fan ʼ, °lāi ʻsmall do. ʼ; Si. kulla, st. kulu -- ʻ winnowing basket or fan ʼ.(CDIAL 3350) Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron, blacksmith'. kolhe ‘smelter’

      Hieroglyph: fish + fins: aya, ayo ‘fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfish-finʼ rebus: kammaṭa 'coiner, coinage, mint (Kannada) Note: कान्त kānta -अयसम् the loadstone ‘magnetite’; कृष्ण-अयसम्,’crude or black iron’; लोहा* यस any metal mixed with copper , (or) copper’ Br. Ka1tyS3r. लोहित lōhita -अयस् n. copper; -कृष्ण a. dark-red. Thus, ayas means ‘iron, metal’.


      baṭa six' Sh.gil. băṭ m. ʻstoneʼ, koh.băṭṭ m., jij. baṭ, pales. baṭ ʻmillstoneʼ; K. waṭh, dat. °ṭas m. ʻround stoneʼ, vüṭü f. ʻsmall do.ʼ; L. vaṭṭā m. ʻstoneʼ, khet. vaṭ ʻrockʼ; P. baṭṭ m. ʻa partic. weightʼ, vaṭṭāba°m. ʻstoneʼ, vaṭṭī f. ʻpebbleʼ; WPah.bhal. baṭṭ m. ʻsmall round stoneʼ; Or. bāṭi ʻstoneʼ; Bi. baṭṭā ʻstone roller for spices, grindstoneʼ. [CDIAL 11348] rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace‘.

      Hieroglyph: stool: Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar' (Santali) khāṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware' (Marathi)

      Hieroglyph: seat:āˊsana1 n. ʻ sitting ʼ AV., °ná -- n. ʻ seat ʼ ŚBr., āsanī -- f. ʻ small seat ʼ Kauś. [√āsPa. āsana -- , °aka -- n. ʻ seat ʼ, Pk. āsaṇa -- n.; Dm. ãsai ʻ chair ʼ (or poss. < āsādá -- ); Paš. ōson ʻ stool ʼ Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 18, Shum. ásan ʻ seat ʼ; Gaw. āsán ʻ stool ʼ; K. āsan m. ʻ buttocks, rump ʼ; S. āsaṇu m. ʻ cloth for sitting on ʼ and P. āsaṇ m. ʻ stool, seat on a horse ʼ (note -- s -- , not -- h -- ); Ku. āsaṇ ʻ small woollen rug ʼ; A. āhon ʻ that part of an elephant's neck on which the driver sits, steersman's seat, natural seat formed by tree -- branches ʼ, āhuniyā ʻ forming a convenient seat (of branches) ʼ; B. āsan ʻ stool, withers of an elephant ʼ, āsni ʻ small stool, stall, shop ʼ; Bi. āsan ʻ driver's seat on an ekka ʼ āsnī ʻ mat of kuśa grass ʼ; H. āsan m. ʻ driver's seat, withers of an elephant, inner part of the thighs ʼ, āsnī f. ʻ a small deerskin ʼ; G. āsaṇ n. ʻ seat ʼ, Si. asunaasna. bāṇāsana -- , śilāsana -- , *śr̥ṅgāsana -- .(CDIAL 1484)

      Rebs: aśáni f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ RV., °nī -- f. ŚBr. [Cf. áśan -- m. ʻ sling -- stone ʼ RV.]Pa. asanī -- f. ʻ thunderbolt, lightning ʼ, asana -- n. ʻ stone ʼ; Pk. asaṇi -- m.f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ; Ash. ašĩˊ ʻ hail ʼ, Wg. ašē˜ˊ, Pr. īšĩ, Bashg. "azhir", Dm. ašin, Paš. ášen, Shum. äˊšin, Gaw. išín, Bshk. ašun, Savi išin, Phal. ã̄šun, L. (Jukes) ahin, awāṇ. &circmacrepsilon;n (both with n, not ), P. āhiṇ, f., āhaṇaihaṇ m.f., WPah. bhad. ã̄ṇ, bhal. ´tildemacrepsilon;hiṇi f., N. asino, pl. °nā; Si. senaheṇa ʻ thunderbolt ʼ Geiger GS 34, but the expected form would be *ā̤n; -- Sh. aĩyĕˊr f. ʻ hail ʼ (X ?). -- For ʻ stone ʼ > ʻ hailstone ʼ cf. upala -- and A. xil s.v. śilāˊ -- .Addenda: aśáni -- : Sh. aĩyĕˊr (Lor. aĩyār → Bur. *lhyer ʻ hail ʼ BurLg iii 17) poss. < *aśari -- from heteroclite n/r stem (cf. áśman -- : aśmará -- ʻ made of stone ʼ).†*aśari -- ʻ stone ʼ see aśáni -- .(CDIAL 910)

      Hieroglyph: Claws of feline: panzĕ पन्ज़्य m. the wound made by an animal's claw (cf. panja) (K. 678). panja पंज । पञ्चसंख्यात्मकः, अङ्गुलिपञ्चकसंघः m. an aggregate of five; a five (in cards, on dice, or the like); the hand with the five fingers extended (cf. atha-po, p. 61b, l. 2) (Gr.M.); the paw or claw of beast or bird (Gr.M.; Rām. 41, 61, 697-8, 73; H. xii, 16-17). -- dyunu ; । पञ्चकाघातः m.inf. 'to give the five', i.e. to strike with the five fingers, to scratch with the five finger-nails or (of a wild beast) to tear with the claws. -ʦoṭu ; । छिन्नपञ्चशाखः adj. (f. -ʦüṭü ), one whose fingers, toes, or claws have all been cut off (of man, beast, or bird). panjī पंजी f. a bird's talon (El.); the five fingers (El. panjih, cf. panja; W. 114, panji).(Kashmiri) *pañja -- ʻ heap ʼ *pahuñca ʻ forearm, wrist ʼ. L. pôcā m. ʻ paw ʼ, (Shahpur) paucā m. ʻ paw, claw ʼ; P. pahũcā m. ʻ wrist, paw ʼ; N. paũjā ʻ paw ʼ; OAw. pahuṁcihi obl. sg. f. ʻ wrist ʼ; H. pahũcā m. ʻ forearm, wrist ʼ; G. pɔ̃hɔ̃cɔ m. ʻ wrist ʼ, M. pohãcī f. PĀ1 ʻ drink ʼ: pa -- 1, pāˊtra -- , pāˊna -- , pānīˊya -- , pāyáyati, *pipāsaka -- , pipāsāˊ -- , pipāsitá -- , píbati, pītá -- 1, pīyátē, pēya -- ; āpāna -- 1, nipāna -- , prapāˊ -- . PĀ2 ʻ protect ʼ: pa -- 2, pā -- ; *āpāna -- 2. pā -- in cmpds. ʻ protecting ʼ: adhipāˊ -- , tanūpāˊ -- , paśupāˊ -- ; -- pa -- 2. Addenda: *pahuñca -- : S.kcch. paũco m. ʻ wrist ʼ, WPah.kṭg. pɔ́̄nj̈ɔ m.(CDIAL 8018)

      Rebus: panja'kiln' of metals manufactory: *pañjāpāka ʻ kiln for a heap ʼ. [*pañja -- , āpāka -- ]P. pañjāvāpãj° m. ʻ brick kiln ʼ; B. pã̄jā ʻ kiln ʼ, G. pajāvɔ m (CDIAL 7686) 

      Hieroglyph: Pk. ṭaṁka -- m., °kā -- f. ʻ leg ʼ, S. ṭaṅga f., L. P. ṭaṅg f., Ku. ṭã̄g, N. ṭāṅ; Or. ṭāṅka ʻ leg, thigh ʼ, °ku ʻ thigh, buttock ʼ. 2. B. ṭāṅṭeṅri ʻ leg, thigh ʼ; Mth. ṭã̄gṭãgri ʻ leg, foot ʼ; Bhoj. ṭāṅṭaṅari ʻ leg ʼ, Aw. lakh. H. ṭã̄g f.; G. ṭã̄g f., °gɔ m. ʻ leg from hip to foot ʼ; M. ṭã̄g f. ʻ leg ʼ(CDIAL 5428).Rebus: A. ṭāṅī ʻ wedge ʼ  ṭaṅkaśālā -- , ṭaṅkakaś° f. ʻ mint ʼ lex. [ṭaṅka -- 1, śāˊlā -- ] N. ṭaksāl°ār, B. ṭāksālṭã̄k°ṭek°, Bhoj. ṭaksār, H. ṭaksāl°ār f., G. ṭãksāḷ f., M. ṭã̄ksālṭāk°ṭãk°ṭak°. -- Deriv. G. ṭaksāḷī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ, M. ṭāksāḷyā m. Brj. ṭaksāḷī, °sārī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ. (CDIAL 5434)

      Empire of Cotton


      "Farmers in the Indus valley were the first to spin and weave cotton. In 1929 archaeologists recovered fragments of cotton tetiles at Mohenjo-Daro, in what is now Pakistan, dating to between 3250 and 2750 BCE. Cottonseeds founds at nearby Mehrgarh have been dated to 5000 BCE. Literary references further point to the ancient nature of the subcontinent's cotton industry. The Vedic scriptures, composed between 1500 and 1200 BCE allude to cotton spinning and weaving . . .." So goes a remarkable new book, Empire of Cotton A Global History by Sven Beckert, which traces the development of the cotton industry in depth. Shown above are the fragments of cotton fibers so identified by Marshall, Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilization, p. 585), and examples of weaves whose imprints have been found since at Harappa. Empire of Cotton goes on to show how the cotton industry, which India dominated in the early 18th century, was taken over by the British, how it spurred the slave trade with the Americas and the industrial revolution, its role a century in the independence movement and Gandhi's spinning wheel, and how it once again returned to Asia in a big way at the end of the 20th century. Though very little in the book has directly to do with the Indus civilization, it is a great example of how a single material and its exploitation can have such great impact on history; it is highly likely that the development of textile crafts were a key component of the Indus civilization's rise as well.
      Captions
      1. Marshall writes (Mohenjo-daro, p. 585): "This fragment of cloth was submitted to Mr. james Turner, Director of the Technological Research Laboratory, Bombay, for examination, who remarks in his preliminary report that 'The fibre was exceedingly tender and broke under very small stresses. However, some preparations were obtained revealing the convoluted structure characteristic of cotton. All the fibres examined were completely penetrated by fungal hyphae. The appearance of once of the convoluted fibres is shown in the accompanying photograph."
      2. Fragment with fabric impression, Harappa. A terracotta fragment with fabric impression from Trench 54 provides clues on the types of weaving carried out by the ancient Harappans.
      3. The earliest evidence of textiles at Harappa goes back to about 3300 BCE, and is another suggestion of how important this product must have been to the later Indus economy.
      4. Textile impressions on a toy bed made during the Harappan Phase (c. 2600-1900 BCE) show finely woven cloth made of uniformly spun threads. This example shows a fairly tightly woven normal weave.

      https://www.harappa.com/blog/empire-cotton

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      How the sound coding schemes (repetition + ordering) have preserved the Veda śabda since millenia avoiding dialectical variants or unrefined sounds in words (mlecchitavai na apabhāṣitavai), i.e. without म्लेच्छनम्  -- the act of speaking confusedly or barbarously (Patanjali: Mahābhāṣya). The error-correction forms used in repetition and ordering are: pada, krama, jaṭa and padapāṭha-s

      https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUG8RJl-WxjAxVMlNq-29ww  (8:11)

      Suresha Paddhati|Krama Jata Ghana Vedic Recitation methods explained| Gayatri Mantra| Part 3/11

      Suresha Paddhati is a form of Vedic Jugalbandhi. It is a method of reciting Samhita and other Vikrutis, like Ghana Patha from more than 1 Veda. In this case Rig Veda and Krishna Yajur Veda are recited immediately and simultaneously, to highlight the difference in svara, pada, the place of its occurrences and the sandhi and grammar rules of the respective Vedas. It also seems that there is a verbal competition between the Vedas that are recited.

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      https://tinyurl.com/y74qzkwc

      Processions signified on Indus Script Corpora are semantic clusters of related life-activities of Tin-Bronze Age Seafaring Mercantile guilds.

      Thus, a procession with a flagstap proclamation in Mari of 'one-horned young bull' held on 'culm of millet' is a semantic cluster related to the proclamation of a metal alloy of gold and iron. Clearly, a pointer to the evolution of alloying using five metals, pañcalohapañca ʻ five ʼ.Pa. pañca, Dhp. paja, NiDoc. Pk. paṁca, Gy. eur. panǰpanč, wel. panš, pal. pŭnǰ°ǰi, as. penč, Ash. ponċpunċ (apoċãdotdot; ʻ four days hence ʼ = Wg. apčín), Wg. pū̃č, Kt. puč, Pr. wuču, Dm. pã̂č, Tir. panz, Paš.lauṛ. pāˊnǰa, uzb. pōnǰ, dar. painǰ, kuṛ. paiñ, chil. paẽ, Niṅg. paṇ, Shum. pōn, Woṭ. panj̈, Gaw. pōnċ, Kal.urt. pañš, rumb. poñ, Kho. ponǰ, Bshk. panž, Tor. pai, Kand. pã̄s, Mai. panz, Sv. pānǰ, Phal. pānž, Sh.gil. poĩ (→ Ḍ.poi), gur. pō̃š, pales. poš, K. pānċ (← H.?), rām. kash. panċ, pog. pã̄ċ, ḍoḍ. pānċ, S. pañja, L. pañj, khet. pāñj, P. pañj, WPah.bhad. bhal. panċ, paṅ. cur. pañj, khaś. pãs, Ku. N. pã̄c, A. pã̄s, B. pã̄c, Or. pāñca, Mth. Aw.lakh. H. Marw. G. pã̄c, M. pã̄ċ, Ko. pã̄ñca, OSi. paca, Si. pasapaha, Md. fas. páñca: S.kcch. panj ʻ 5 ʼ, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) pānj̈ ʻ 5 ʼ, panj̈i ʻ the 5 ʼ; Garh. pã̄c ʻ 5 ʼ, Md. fas (fahek).(CDIAL 7655)

      I present one example of a procession which proclaims an alloying of gold and iron in a Mari artefact so exquisitely documented by Andre Parrot in his report on excavations at Mari, Harari Tell. The entire report is available online.

      The post holding the young bull banner is signified by a culm of plant, esp. of millet. This is karba 'culm of millet' Hieroglyph 1: H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.); M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ. (CDIAL  2653) rebus: karba 'iron' ajirda karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu)

      कोंद kōnda ‘young bull' कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, turner'. Thus, an iron turner (in smithy/forge).

      खोंड khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: कोंदण (p. 102) kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems. 2 Beaten or drawn gold used in the operation.(Marathi) కుందనము kundanamu. [Tel.] n. Solid gold, fine gold. అపరంజి.  कोंदणपट्टी (p. 102) kōndaṇapaṭṭī f The strip of beaten or drawn gold used in setting gems.  कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f. Sculpture, carving, engraving. 

      In front of a soldier, a Sumerian standard bearer holds a banner aloft signifying the one-horned young bull which is the signature glyph of Harappa Script (Indus writing). Detail of a victory parade, from the Ishtar temple, Mari, Syria. 2400 BCE Schist panel inlaid with mother of pearl plaques. Louvre Museum.





      Sign m458 as shown by Andre Parrot (1901-1980) in the Report Mission archéologique de Mari. V. I: Le temple d'Ishtar (1956)Date of digitization 2010

      L’enseigne (M,458) (pl. LVII) est faite d’un petit taureau dresse, passant a gauche, monte sur un socle supporte par l’anneau double du type passe-guides. La hamper est ornementee d’une ligne chevronnee et on retrouve le meme theme en travers de l’anneau double.
      M.458 H. 0.070 m. (totale); h. 0, 026 m. (taureau sur socle); l. 0,018m.

      Translation

      The sign (M, 458) (pl. LVII) is made of a young bull stand, from left, mounted on a base supports the double ring-pass type guides. The hamper is decorated with a line and the same theme is found across the double ring.


      M.458 H. 0.070 m. (Total); h. 0, 026 m. (Bull on base); l. 0,018m.


      Source: http://digital.library.stonybrook.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/amar/id/48366/rec/2 (Parrot, Andre, Mission archéologique de Mari. V. I: Le temple d'Ishtarp.161) viii, 246 p., 72 p. of plates : ill., maps ; 28 cm.



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      A monograph which details a Rosetta stone for Indus Script Cipher is at 'Elamite sculptural frieze kātī 'spinner' rebus khātī 'wheelwright‘ validates Indus Script hypertexts and Meluhha cipher' https://tinyurl.com/ya9g3dpb


      This monograph details a second Rosetta stone for Indus Script Cipher; the object is Warka Vase with Indus Script hypertexts. The Warka vase contains a unique hieroglyph shaped like T which also occurs on a Rahman-dheri seal with Indus Script inscription related to ferrite and tin metalwork products of ingots.

      A hieroglyph of 'clump of stalks' occurs on a register of Warka vase. The same hieroglyph occurs on a Uruk cylinder impression. The top of this Uruk cylinder seal has the figure of an ovine, a hieroglyph which signifies work with tin mineral.

      The detail of the top register of Warka vase signify the Indus Script hypertexts of markhor and tiger which are read rebus as documentations of metalwork wealth-creating accounting ledgers by Meluhha artisans and seafaring merchants.

      Hieroglyphs/hypertexts of Sarasvati Script signify metalwork in rebus Meluhha cipher, not only on c. 8000 seals/tablets of Script Corpora, but also on hypetext narratives on objects such as the Warka Vase. 

      See: Haematite, magnetite ferrite ores processing, evidence from 19 Harappa Script Meluhha inscriptions http://tinyurl.com/j37rzkt 


      कुण्ड n. ifc. a clump (e.g. दर्भ-क्° , a clump of दर्भ grass) Pa1n2. 6-2 , 136n. ifc. kuṇḍa3 n. ʻ clump ʼ e.g. darbha -- kuṇḍa -- Pāṇ. [← Drav. (Tam. koṇṭai ʻ tuft of hair ʼ, Kan. goṇḍe ʻ cluster ʼ, &c.) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 374] Pk. kuṁḍa -- n. ʻ heap of crushed sugarcane stalks ʼ; WPah. bhal. kunnū m. ʻ large heap of a mown crop ʼ; N. kunyũ ʻ large heap of grain or straw ʼ, ba -- kũo ʻ cluster of berries ʼ.(CDIAL 3266) *kuṇḍaka ʻ husks, bran ʼ.Pa. kuṇḍaka -- m. ʻ red powder of rice husks ʼ; Pk. kuṁḍaga -- m. ʻ chaff ʼ; N. kũṛo ʻ boiled grain given as fodder to buffaloes ʼ, kunāuro ʻ husk of lentils ʼ (for ending cf. kusāuro ʻ chaff of mustard ʼ); B. kũṛā ʻ rice dust ʼ; Or. kuṇḍā ʻ rice bran ʼ; M. kũḍākõ° m. ʻ bran ʼ; Si. kuḍu ʻ powder of paddy &c. ʼ(CDIAL 3267) Vikalpa: Rebus: कुण्ड  a round hole in the ground (for receiving and preserving water or fire cf. अग्नि-कुण्ड) , pit , well , spring or basin of water (especially consecrated to some holy purpose or person) MBh. R. &c

      The series of processions on a number of registers of the Warka Vase are metalwork proclamations by Meluhha artisans as the metal ingots get ddelivered to the storehouse or smithy/forge: kole.l'smithy, forge' Rebus: kole.l'temple' (Kota).

      Two T symbols shown below the hieroglyphs of markhor and tiger on Warka vase. Ingot type 1: miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meD 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) Ingot type 2: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Thus, 'cast iron ingots'

      The T symbol on the vase also shows possibly fire on the altars superimposed by bun-ingots. I suggest that the T hieroglyph reads: kand ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) 
      This narrative on the vase shows: 1..ram; 2. two storage vessels with ingots; 3. face of one-horned bull. The readings are: 1. meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meD 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.); 2. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS  kuṇḍa'pot' rebus:  kuṇḍa'fire-altar' 3. mũh 'face' rebus: mũh 'ingot'  

      Rahman-dheri seal. Obverse: Two scorpions. Two holes. One T glyph. One frog in the middle. Reverse: two rams.

      1. mūxā ‘frog’. Rebus: mũh ‘(copper) ingot’ (Santali) 
      2. bicha‘scorpion’ (Assamese) Rebus: bica‘stone ore’ (Mu.)

      3. miṇḍāl'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meD 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) Vikalpa: 

      tagaru ‘ram’ (Tulu) Rebus: tagarm ‘tin’ (Kota). damgar ‘merchant’ (Akk.) 
      4. T-glyph may denote a fire altar like the two fire-altars shown on Warrka vase below two animals: antelope and tiger. 
      5. Two holes may denote ingots. dula‘pair’ Rebus: dul‘cast’ (Santali)




       



      Hieroglyphs of two goats on the cylinder seal impression of Uruk: (Oll.) mēge, (S.) mēge goat. Go. (M) mekā, (Ko.) mēka id. ? Kur. mēxnā (mīxyas) to call, call after loudly, hail. Malt. méqe to bleat. [Te. mr̤ēka (so correct) is of unknown meaning. Br. mēḻẖ is without etymology; see MBE 1980a.] / Cf. Skt. (lex.) meka- goat.(DEDR 5087) Rebus: meluhha (mleccha, 'copper'
      Warka (Uruk) Vase, Uruk, Late Uruk period, c. 3500-3000 B.C.E., 105 cm high (National Museum of Iraq) By Dr. Senta German Faculty of Classics Andrew W Mellon Foundation Teaching Curator, Ashmolean Museum University of Oxford Picturing the ruler So many important innovations and
      https://www.theoriesensorielle.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/002.jpg
      Warka (Uruk) Vase, Uruk, Late Uruk period, c. 3500-3000 B.C.E., 105 cm high (National Museum of Iraq) By Dr. Senta German Faculty of Classics Andrew W Mellon Foundation Teaching Curator, Ashmolean Museum University of Oxford Picturing the ruler https://www.pinterest.com/pin/566749934348945882/

      Hieroglyph: meḍho 'ram' rebus: meḍh 'helper of merchant'. मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'metal' (Skt.Santali.Mu.Ho.) meď 'copper' (Slovak)


      Hieroglyph: Stalk of culm of millet: kaḍambákalamba -- 1, m. ʻ end, point, stalk of a pot- herb ʼ lex. [See kadambá -- ]B. kaṛamba ʻ stalk of greens ʼ; Or. kaṛambā°mā stalks and plants among stubble of a reaped field ʼ; H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.); M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ. -- Or. kaḷama ʻ a kind of firm -- stemmed reed from which pens are made ʼ infl. by H. kalam ʻ pen ʼ ← Ar.?(CDIAL 2653) Rebus: karba 'iron'  (Tulu)(DEDR 1278) ajirda karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu) Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron.(DEDR 192) 


      Vikalpa 1: kã̄ḍ काँड् । काण्डः m. ‘the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw’ rebus: khaṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’


      Hieroglyph: eruvai 'European reed' Ta. eruvai European bamboo reed; a species of Cyperus; straight sedge tuber. Ma. eruva a kind of grass.(DEDR 819) rebus; eruvai copper' Ta. eruvai blood, (?) copper (DEDR 817) PLUS datu'scarf' rebus: dhatu'mineral'.PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, the the two reed posts with a scarf as a flag signify: copper metal castings.

      The same rebus readings as on the Warka vase are signified on the following Sumerian seal impression, relatedto the hieroglyphs of: goat, ram, fire-altar, a pair of reed posts with scarves, storage pots and ingots.
      Sumerian Cylinder Seal Depicting Sacrifices
      Sumerian Cylinder Seal Depicting Sacrificial Offerings from about 3000 BC.

      Copper Mace Heads from BeershebaCopper Mace Heads from Beersheba 3000 BC Period.


      0 0

      https://tinyurl.com/y9dssz5z

      A monograph which details a Rosetta stone for Indus Script Cipher is at 'Elamite sculptural frieze kātī 'spinner' rebus khātī 'wheelwright‘ validates Indus Script hypertexts and Meluhha cipher' https://tinyurl.com/ya9g3dpb


      A second Rosetta stone for Indus Script Cipher is at 
      'https://tinyurl.com/ybszak8o
       One of the two ingots reported in 1983 as found from a car workshop of Haifato solder broken radiators.. Four more Rosetta stones were discovered in a shipwreck in Haifa. These were pure tin ingots with Indus Script inscriptions. This monograph details the decipherment of the hypertexts of these inscriptions which read in Meluhha: ranku dhatu mũh 'tin mineral ingot'.


      The addition of tin to copper to create bronze alloy was a revolution. The tin-bronze replaed arsenical bronze (copper + arsenic) which was a natural source and in short supply.

      This Tin-Bronze Revolution is matched by the revolution of a writing system called Indus Script to document ancient India's contributions to metalwork.


      I posit a hypothesis that an Ancient Maritime Tin Route linked Hanoi (Vietnam) and Haifa (Israel) existed to reach te world's largest tin resources of the Himalayan river basins of Ancient Far East and that this principal source catalysed the Tin-Bronze Revolution of Eurasia, an event which pre-dated the Silk Road by about two millennia.


      As yet an unresolved mystery related to the Tin-Bronze Age Revolution is the source of tin.
      "Non Nok Tha and Ban Chiang have shown a flourishing bronzeworking tradition which may predate the mid-fourth millennium B.C. The earliest analysed find from Ban Chiang—a dagger which dates to about 3600 B.C.­contains 2.5% tin (determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy), a figure which indicates a deliberate alloy. By 3000 B.C., ancient metalsmiths in Thailand were producing good bronze with about a 10% tin content and were competently handling casting, coldworking and annealing. The early production of bronze in Thailand may eventually be found to have some relationship with the development of alloying techniques in the Near East.http://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/tin-in-the-ancient-near-east/ Tin in the Ancient Near East Old Questions and New Finds By: Robert Maddin and Tamara Stech Wheeler and James D. Muhly Expedition, Winter 1997.
      I have suggested a hypothesis that 1. the supply of tin was along an Ancient Maritime Tin Route from the Tin Belt of the Globe which is in the Mekong River delta in the Far East with merchants of Ancient India acting as intermediary seafaring merchants reaching tin upto Haifa, Israel and 2. the approximate date for seafaring merchants on this Tin Route is about 2 millennia prior to the famed Silk Route.

      Map showing the location of known tin deposits exploited during ancient times


      The largest tin belt of the globe is Southeast Asia. Tin-bronze revolution of ca. 5th millennium BCE can be explained by postulating a Tin Route which linked Hanoi to Haifa, more magnificent than and rivaling the later-day Silk Road. This Tin Route of yore was traversed by Bharatam Janam.

      Source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1301/report.pdf Stanniferous ores are the key to tin-bronze revolution of 5th millennium BCE, creating the Tin Route more magnificent and stunning than the later-day Silk Road. 

      The task of the historian is to map this Route with Bharatam Janam at work creating the tin-bronze revolution. 

      Discovered in 1966 with bronze grave gifts is Ban Chiang (Thaiแหล่งโบราณคดี บ้านเชียง) an archeological site in Nong Han District,Udon Thani ProvinceThailand. "Bronze making began circa 2000 BCE, as evidenced by crucibles and bronze fragments.Bronze objects include bracelets, rings, anklets, wires and rods, spearheads, axes and adzes, hooks, blades, and little bells."White, J.C. 2008 Dating Early Bronze at Ban Chiang, Thailand. In From Homo erectus to the Living Traditions. Pautreau, J.-P.; Coupey, A.-S.; Zeitoun, V.; Rambault, E., editors. European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, Chiang Mai, pp. 91-104(PDF).

      Linked to this discovery is the discovery of Dong Son bronze drums in areas centered at the Red River Valley of northern Vietnam. This points to the beginnings of bronze castings in the Ancient Far East. Scenes cast on to the tympanum of the drums using cire perdue (lost-wax) casting techniques are of extraordinarily remarkable skill and with some hieroglyphs paralleling the Indus Script hieroglyphs. With drums weighing upto 72 kg the quantity of copper used for each drum would have used up 1 to 7 tons of smelted copper together with the alloying of about 10% or upto .7 tons of tin.

      Left to right: house depicted on a Dongson drum, Toraja houses in Sulawesi, depiction of a Tien house in Yunnan
      Salavo bronze drums. Hieroglyphs: frog, peacock, elephant, palm tree.

      tALa 'palm' rebus: dhALa 'large ingot'.

      maraka 'peacock' (Santali. Mu.) Rebus: मारक loha 'a kind of calcining metal' (Samskritam)

      Skt. mūkaka- id. (DEDR 5023) Rebus: mū̃h ‘ingot’.  Muha. The quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace. (Santali) karibha 'trunk of elaphant' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' ib 'iron'. Hieroglyph: arka 'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka 'copper, gold, moltencast'. miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ 

      (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) 

       Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)


      maṇḍa (Sanskrit) OMarw. ako m. ʻ frog ʼ, ṁḍakī f. ʻ small frog ʼ, 

      G. me_akme°m., me_kīme° f.; M. mẽūk -- mukh n. ʻ frog -- like face ʼ. 1. Pa. maṇḍūka -- m., °kī -- f. ʻ frog ʼ, Pk. maṁḍū˘ka -- , °ūa -- , °uga -- m., (CDIAL 9746) Rebus: mẽht, me ‘iron’ 
      (Mu.Ho.)

      kaṅká m. ʻ heron ʼ VS. [← Drav. T. Burrow TPS 1945, 87; onomat. Mayrhofer EWA i 137. Drav. influence certain in o of M. and Si.: Tam. Kan. Mal. kokku ʻ crane ʼ, Tu. korṅgu, Tel. koṅga, Kuvi koṅgi, Kui kohko] Pa. kaṅka -- m. ʻ heron ʼ, Pk. kaṁka -- m., S. kaṅgu m. ʻ crane, heron ʼ (→ Bal. kang); B. kã̄k ʻ heron ʼ, Or. kāṅka; G. kã̄kṛũ n. ʻ a partic. ravenous bird ʼ; -- with o from Drav.: M. kõkā m. ʻ heron ʼ; Si. kokā, pl. kokku ʻ various kinds of crane or heron ʼ, kekī ʻ female crane ʼ, kēki ʻ a species of crane, the paddy bird ʼ (ē?).(CDIAL 2595) Ta. kokku common crane, Grus cinerea; stork, paddy bird; kuruku heron, stork, crane, bird, gallinaceous fowl, aṉṟil bird. Ma. kokku, kokkan, kocca, kuriyan paddy bird, heron; kuru heron. To.košk heron. 
      Ka. kokku, kokkare crane; kukku heron, crane. Tu. korṅgu crane, stork. Te. koṅga, kokkera, kokkarāyi crane; pegguru, begguru (< peru-kuru) adjutant crane. Kol. (Kin.) koŋga crane.  Pa.kokkal (pl. kokkacil) id. Ga. (S) kokkāle 
      (pl. kokkāsil) heron; (S.2) koŋalin (pl. koŋasil), (S.3) kokalin crane. Go. (L.) koruku id. (Voc. 921); (Mu.) kokoḍal heron, duck (Voc. 870); (Ma. Ko.) koŋga crane (Voc. 874). Kui kohko paddy bird. Kuwi (S.) kongi  (Ṭ.) kokoṛa crane. Br. xāxūr 
      demoiselle crane. / Cf. Skt. kaṅka- heron; Turner, CDIAL, no. 2595.(DEDR 2125) కొంగ (p. 0313) [ koṅga ] konga. [Tel.] n. A bird of the heron or stork kind. బకము (Telugu) Rebus: kang 'brazier' (Kashmiri)

      Mesopotamian EDI cuneiform texts from Ur distinguish between copper (urudu/eru) and tin=bronze (zabar/siparru). ED II/III texts from Fara (Limet 1960) mention metallic tin (AN.NA/annakum). Texts from Palace G at Ebla refer to the mixing of various ratios of 'washed' copper (a-gar(-gar)/abaru) and tin to produce bronze (Waetzoldt and Bachmann 1984; Archi 1993). The recipes are also found in the late 19th century BCE texs from Mari (Muhly 1985:282). Typical copper-tin ratios are from 6:1 to 10:1.

      Two collections of cuneiform texts from Kultepe and from Mari dating to 19th and early 18th centuries BCE have references to tin trade. "These texts document a trade in which tin was moving exclusively from east to west. Arriving in Mesopotamia from the east, metallic tin was transhipped up the Euphrates to Mari, or overland to Assur. From Assur the tin (in addition to Babylonian textiles) was transported via donkey caravan to various Assyrian trading colonies such as Kanesh/Kultepe in Anatolia, where it was traded for silver and gold (Larsen 1976, 1987). From Mari, the tin was traded further west to sides in Syria and Palestine (Dossin 1970; Malamat 1971), and perhaps as far as Crete (Malamat 1971:38; Muhly 1985:282)." (p.179)
      Hypothesis of an eastern source for tin; epic tale of Enmerkar and Lord of Aratta

      "One text from the reign of Gudea of Lagash mentions that, in addition to lapis lazuli and carnelian, tin was  also traded to Mesopotamia from the land of Meluhha. The relevant passage (Cylinder B, column XIV, lines 10-13) states that 'Gudea, the Governor of Lagash, bestowed as gifts copper, tin, blocks of lapis lazuli, [a precious metal] and bright carnelian from Meluhha. (Wilson 1996; see also Muhly 1973: 306-307). This is the only specific cuneiform reference to the trade of tin from Meluhha...'A pre-Sargonic text from Lagash published by B. Foster (1997) and described as 'a Sumerian merchant's account of the Dilmun trade' mentions obtaining from Dilmun 27.5 minas (ca. 14 kg) of an-na zabar. This phrase can be literally translated as 'tin bronze', and Foster suggested the possible reading 'tin (in/for?) bronze'...The fact that the isotopic characteristics of the Aegean tin-bronzes are so similar to those from the Gulf analyzed in this study adds further weight to the hypothesis of an eastern source for these early alloys...The possibility of tin coming from these eastern sources is supported by the occurrence of many tin deposits in modern-day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, although evidence for tin extraction is currently limited to the central Asian sites of Karnab and Mushiston, and goes only as far back as the second millennium BCE...Yener has argued cogently against a 'on-source-for-all' model of the third millennium tin trade, and does not regard the proposed tin mining and processing in the Taurus Mountains as inconsistent with the importation of large amounts of tin into Anatolia. Taurus in production is thought to have co-existed with large-scale exchange of foreign metal in the third millennium, before the eventual 'devastation' of Anatolian tin mining operations by the availability of 'purer, already packaged, readily-available tin' from the Old Assyrian trade (Yener 2000:75)...IN particular, for regions such as Baluchistan, the Indus Valley, and the Gulf, which show significant third millennium tin-bronze use, the exclusive use of tin or tin-bronze from Afghanistan and central Asia seems highly likely. Textual sources are scarce, but highlight the trade through the Gulf linking Mesopotamia with Meluhha, Magan and Dilmun as the most common source of tin in the latter third millennium BCE, after an earlier overland Iranian tin-lapis-carnelian trade hinted at by the epic tale of Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. " (pp.180-181)

      Muhly, JD, 1973, Copper and tin. Transactions, The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 43: 155-535. 
      Muhly, J.D. (1985), "Sources of tin and the beginnings of bronze metallurgy", Journal of American Archaeology, 89 (2), pp. 275–291


      Chrobak, Marzena, 2013, For a tin ingot: the archaeology of oral interpretation in: Przekladaniec. A journal of literary translation, Special Issue (2013): 87-101

      Abstract: This paper, based on research conducted by the pioneers of the history of oral interpreting (A. Hermann, I. Kurz) in the 1950s and on modern archaeological evidence, presents the earliest references to interpreters in the Bronze Age, in the Near East and the Mediterranean area (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Crete, Carthage). It discusses a Sumerian Early Dynastic List, a Sumerian-Eblaic glossary from Ebla, the Shu-ilishu’s Cylinder Seal, the inscriptions and reliefs from the Tombs of the Princes of Elephantine and of Horemheb, the mention of one-third of a mina of tin dispensed at Ugarit to the interpreter of Minoan merchants and the Hanno’s stele, as well as terms used by these early civilisations to denote an interpreter: eme-bal, targumannu, jmy-r(A) aw, and mls.


      shu ilishu s cylinder seal 

      Shu-ilishu cylinder seal of eme-bal, interpreter. Akkadian. Cylinder seal Impression. 

      Inscription records that it belongs to ‘S’u-ilis’u, Meluhha interpreter’, i.e., translator of the Meluhhan language (EME.BAL.ME.LUH.HA.KI) The Meluhhan being introduced carries an goat on his arm. Musee du Louvre. Ao 22 310, Collection De Clercq 3rd millennium BCE. The Meluhhan is accompanied by a lady carrying a kamaṇḍalu. The goat on the trader's hand is a phonetic determinant -- that he is Meluhha. This is decrypted based on the word for the goat: mlekh 'goat' (Brahui); mr..eka 'goat' (Telugu) Rebus: mleccha'copper' (Samskritam); milakkhu 'copper' (Pali) Thus the sea-faring merchant carrying the goat is a copper (and tin) trader from Meluhha. The jar carried by the accompanying person is a liquid measure:ranku 'liquid measure' Rebus: ranku 'tin'. A hieroglyph used to denote ranku may be seen on the two pure tin ingots found in a shipwreck in Haifa.

      That Pali uses the term ‘milakkhu’ is significant (cf. Uttarādhyayana Sūtra 10.16) and reinforces the concordance between ‘mleccha’ and ‘milakkhu’ (a pronunciation variant) and links the language with ‘meluhha’ as a reference to a language in Mesopotamian texts and in the cylinder seal of Shu-ilishu. [Possehl, Gregory, 2006, Shu-ilishu’s cylinder seal, Expedition, Vol.  48, No. 1http://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/48-1/What%20in%20the%20World.pdf] This seal shows a sea-faring Meluhha merchant who needed a translator to translate meluhha speech into Akkadian. The translator’s name was Shu-ilishu as recorded in cuneiform script on the seal. This evidence rules out Akkadian as the Indus or Meluhha language and justifies the search for the proto-Indian speech from the region of the Sarasvati river basin which accounts for 80% (about 2000) archaeological sites of the civilization, including sites which have yielded inscribed objects such as Lothal, Dwaraka, Kanmer, Dholavira, Surkotada, Kalibangan, Farmana, Bhirrana, Kunal, Banawali, Chandigarh, Rupar, Rakhigarhi. The language-speakers in this basin are likely to have retained cultural memories of Indus language which can be gleaned from the semantic clusters of glosses of the ancient versions of their current lingua francaavailable in comparative lexicons and nighanu-s.
      Marzena Chrobak sites payment made to a translator: "From the Cretan thalassocracy in the second millennium BCE, I have come across only one mention of verbal communication: 'one-third a mina of tin to the translator, chief merchant among the Cretans, dispensed at Ugarit' (Sasson 1995: 1501-1521). This passage concerns Minoan merchants on the tin trade route, doing business or perhaps even permanently residing in the Hittite Ugarit, in the early Old Palace period, i.e. around the twentieth century BCE." (Chrobak, Marzena, 2013, For a tin ingot: the archaeology of oral interpretation in: Przekladaniec. A journal of literary translation, Special Issue, pp. 95-96).
      Marzena Chrobak cites my reference to Meluhha as mleccha. (p.90 ibid.) I had mentioned this in my article published in 51CAANE, April 5, 2006: Kalyanaraman, S., 2006, Bronze age trade and writing system of Meluhha (Mleccha) evidenced by tin ingots from the near vicinity of Haifa (From Bronze Age Trade Workshop in 51CAANE, April 5, 206). www.ebookuniverse.net/bronze-age-trade-and-writing-system-meluhha-(mleccha)-pdf-d21820,30.05.2013

      23 Tin ingots in the Museum of Ancient Art of the Municipality of Haifa, Israel (left #8251, right #8252). The ingots each bear two inscribed Cypro-Minoan markings. (Note: I have argued that the inscriptions were Meluhha hieroglyphs (Indus writing) denoting ranku 'tin' dhatu 'ore'. See: The Bronze Age Writing System of Sarasvati Hieroglyphics as Evidenced by Two “Rosetta Stones” By S. Kalyanaraman in: Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies Volume 1: Number 11 (2010), pp. 47-74.)
      ranku 'liquid measure'; ranku 'antelope' Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Santali) dhatu 'cross' Rebus: dhatu 'mineral ore' (Santali).


      ran:ku = tin (Santali)

      •        ran:ku = liquid measure (Santali)

      •        ran:ku a species of deer; ran:kuka (Skt.)(CDIAL 10559).
      •        u = cross (Te.); dhatu = mineral (Santali)

      •        Hindi. dhā ‘to send out, pour out, cast (metal)’ (CDIAL 6771).


      These two hieroglyphs were inscribed on two tin ingots discovered in port of Dor south of Haifa from an ancient shipwreck. They are allographs. Both are read in Meluhha (Mleccha) of Indian sprachbund:  ranku ‘liquid measure’; ranku  ‘antelope’.Rebus: ranku ‘tin’. An allograph to denote tin is: tagara ‘ram’ Rebus: tagara ‘tin’. Rebus: damgar ‘merchant’ (Akkadian)
      tagara ‘ram’ Rebus: tagaram ‘tin’. 

      Ta. takar sheep, ram, goat, male of certain other animals (yāḷi, elephant, shark). பொருநகர் தாக்கற்குப் பேருந் தகைத்து (குறள், 486).Ma. takaran huge, powerful as a man, bear, etc. Ka. tagar, ṭagaru, ṭagara, ṭegaru ram. Tu. tagaru, ṭagarů id. Te. tagaramu, tagaru id. / Cf. Mar. tagar id. (DEDR 3000). Rebus 1: tagromi 'tin, metal alloy' (Kuwi) takaram tin, white lead, metal sheet, coated with tin (Ta.); tin, tinned iron plate (Ma.); tagarm tin (Ko.); tagara, tamara, tavara id. (Ka.) tamaru, tamara, tavara id. (Ta.): tagaramu, tamaramu, tavaramu id. (Te.); ṭagromi tin metal, alloy (Kuwi); tamara id. (Skt.)(DEDR 3001). trapu tin (AV.); tipu (Pali); tau, taua lead (Pkt.); tū̃ tin (P.); ṭau zinc, pewter (Or.); tarūaum lead (OG.); tarv (G.); tumba lead (Si.)(CDIAL 5992). Rebus 2: damgar ‘merchant’.

      tagaraka tabernae montana (Skt.) Rebus: tagara ‘tin’ (Ka.)

      ranku ‘antelope’Rebus: ranku = tin (santali)

      tagara ‘ram’ Rebus: tagaram ‘tin’. 

      ranku ‘liquid measure’. Rebus: ranku ‘tin’ (Cassiterite) (Santali) 

      ranga = tin (Kur.)

      Another tin ingot with comparable Indus writing was reported by Artzy:


      Fig. 4 Inscribed tin ingot with a moulded head, from Haifa (Artzy, 1983: 53). (Michal Artzy, 1983, Arethusa of the Tin Ingot, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, BASOR 250, pp. 51-55) https://www.academia.edu/5476188/Artzy-1983-Tin-Ignot
      Mirror: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1356605 

      The two hieroglyphs incised which compare with the two pure tin ingots discovered from a shipwreck in Haifa, the moulded head can be explained also as a Meluhha hieroglyph without assuming it to be the face of goddess Arethusa in Greek tradition: 

      Hieroglyph:  mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) Rebus: mũh ‘ingot’ (Santali). The three hieroglyphs are: ranku 'antelope' Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Santali) ranku 'liquid measure' Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Santali). u = cross (Te.); dhatu = mineral (Santali) Hindi. dhā ‘to send out, pour out, cast (metal)’ (CDIAL 6771). [The 'cross' or X hieroglyph is incised on both ingots.]

      The author Michal Artzy (opcit., p. 55) who showed these four signs on the four tin ingots to E. Masson who is the author of Cypro-Minoan Syllabary. Masson’s views are recorded in Foot Note 3: “E. Masson, who was shown all four ingots for the first time by the author, has suggested privately that the sign ‘d’ looks Cypro-Minoan, but not the otherthree signs.”

      Thus, it is doubtful if the inscriptions on the four tin ingots found in Haifa shipwreck used Cypro-Minoan syllabary.
      In view of the possibility of ancient maritime trade through the Indian Ocean and watersays of Himalayan rivers, it is possible that the tin ingots were sourced from Ancient Far East (Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween river basins) with inscriptions in Indus Script hypertext tradition.
      All the inscriptions in all four tin ingots are read rebus in Meluhha:


      Hieroglyph: ranku  = liquid measure (Santali)


      Hieroglyph: raṅku m. ʻa species of deerʼ Vās.,  rankuka  id., Śrīkaṇṭh. (Samskrtam)(CDIAL 10559). raṅku m. ʻ a species of deer ʼ Vās., °uka -- m. Śrīkaṇṭh.Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ? -- more prob. < raṅká-<-> s.v. *rakka -- .*raṅkha -- ʻ defective ʼ see *rakka -- .RAṄG ʻ move to and fro ʼ: ráṅgati. -- Cf. √riṅg, √rikh2, √*righ.(CDIAL 10559)

      Rebus: ranku ‘tin’ (Santali) raṅga3 n. ʻ tin ʼ lex. Pk. raṁga -- n. ʻ tin ʼ; P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m.ʻpewter, tinʼ (← H.); Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼ, gng. rã̄k; N. rāṅ, rāṅo ʻ tin, solder ʼ, A. B. rāṅ; Or. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼ; Si. ran̆ga ʻ tin ʼ. (CDIAL 10562) 

      Hieroglyph: dāṭu = cross (Telugu)


      Rebus: dhatu = mineral ore (Santali) Rebus: dhāṭnā ‘to send out, pour out, cast (metal)’ (Hindi)(CDIAL 6771).


      Hieroglyph: mũh 'a face' Rebus: mũh, 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time from the furnace’ (Santali)

      Indus Script hypertexts thus read: Hieroglyphs: ranku 'liquid measure' or raṅku ʻa species of deerʼ PLUS dāṭu = cross  rebus: plain text: ranku 'tin' PLUS dhatu 'cast mineral' Thus, together, the plain text reads: tin mineral casting. The fourth ingot with the hieroglyph of a moulded head reads: mũh 'a face' Rebus: mũh, 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time from the furnace’ (Santali).

      Thus, together, the message on the tin ingots discovered in the Haifa shipwreck is: ranku dhatu mũh 'tin mineral ingot'.


      0 0


      https://tinyurl.com/y75utjsy


      The following three monographs detail the previous six Rosetta Stones:

      1. A monograph which details a Rosetta stone for Indus Script Cipher is at 'Elamite sculptural frieze kātī 'spinner' rebus khātī 'wheelwright‘ validates Indus Script hypertexts and Meluhha cipher' https://tinyurl.com/ya9g3dpb


      2. A second Rosetta stone for Indus Script Cipher is at 'Warka vase kuṇḍa 'clump of stalks' rebus fire-altar validates Indus Script hypertexts and Meluhha cipher' https://tinyurl.com/ybszak8o


      3. Four more Rosetta stones validate Script cipher, four pure tin ingots with Indus Script hypertext ranku dhatu mũh 'tin mineral ingot' https://tinyurl.com/y9dssz5z


      This monograph presents the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth Rosetta Stones which have Indus Script hypertexts including one-horned young bull (unicorn) on 7. a Mari plaque carrying a banner of one-horned young bull (so-called unicon) in a procession of proclamation; 8. Mari cylinder seal ca. 2500 BCE; 9. Abu Habba, Sippar cylinder seal ca. 2700 BCE and 10. a cylinder seal from Elamite Cylinder seal corpus: c. 3500-1000 BCE.

      Since one-horned young bull is a hypertext with the most frequent occurrence on Indus Script Corpora, the concordance with the Indus Script cipher on the four ANE artifacts detailed in thismonograph are emphatic validations of the cipher.


      Processions signified on Indus Script Corpora are proclamtions, semantic clusters of related life-activities of Tin-Bronze Age Seafaring Mercantile guilds.
      I present one example of a procession which proclaims an alloying of gold and iron in a Mari artefact so exquisitely documented by Andre Parrot in his report on excavations at Mari, Harari Tell. The entire report is available online.

      The procession with a flagstap proclamation in Mari of 'one-horned young bull' held on 'culm of millet' is a hieroglyphic semantic cluster related to the proclamation of a metal alloy of gold and iron, as evident from the following decipherment in Meluhha language (Bhāratīya sprachbund, speech union).


      The post holding the young bull banner is signified by a culm of plant, esp. of millet. This is karba 'culm of millet' Hieroglyph 1: H. kaṛbīkarbī f. ʻ tubular stalk or culm of a plant, esp. of millet ʼ (→ P. karb m.); M. kaḍbā m. ʻ the culm of millet ʼ. (CDIAL  2653) rebus: karba 'iron' ajirda karba 'very hard iron' (Tulu)

      कोंद kōnda ‘young bull' कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, turner'. Thus, an iron turner (in smithy/forge).

      खोंड khōṇḍa m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: कोंदण kōndaṇa n (कोंदणें) Setting or infixing of gems. 2 Beaten or drawn gold used in the operation.(Marathi) కుందనము kundanamu. [Tel.] n. Solid gold, fine gold. అపరంజి.  कोंदणपट्टी  kōndaṇapaṭṭī f The strip of beaten or drawn gold used in setting gems.  कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f. Sculpture, carving, engraving. 
      In front of a soldier who carries a spear, a Sumerian standard bearer holds a banner aloft signifying the one-horned young bull which is the signature glyph of Harappa Script (Indus writing). Detail of a victory parade, from the Ishtar temple, Mari, Syria. 2400 BCE Schist panel inlaid with mother of pearl plaques. Louvre Museum.


      The metalware and weapons and a soldier carrying implements are presented in the Mari archaeological report of Andre Parrot: (copies of Plates LV and LXIV):
       







      Sign m458 as shown by Andre Parrot (1901-1980) in the Report Mission archéologique de Mari. V. I: Le temple d'Ishtar (1956)Date of digitization 2010