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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Connecting Sabarmati river to Ambaji Mandiram. Kudos to NaMo

    Reconnecting Ahmedabad to its river. Kudos to NaMo.

    Night View Riverfront. Gujarati Gaurav Divas, May 11, 2017

    River Promenade, an uninterrupted walkway along the river

    River Promenade, lower level

    View between Swami Vivekanand and Nehru Bridge

    Riverfront park

    Boating on the river, all the year round

    Flower Garden Day view. Flowershow inauguration Jan. 11, 2017

    View from Dadhici Rṣi Bridge
    Gandhi āśram Night view

    Reconnecting Sabarmati river to Ambaji temple

      Shakti Tirth   :  Mata Temple Tirth  

    Top Ahmedabad civic and police officials and authorities of Airports Authority of India supervising trial run of sea plane's possible landing at Sabarmati Riverfront of Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

    Watch: Narendra Modi's plan to start sea plane service in India

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    China may be using a secret tunnel to divert Brahmaputra water into desert 
    Satellite photo of China blocking Brahmaputra river
    China blocks Brahmaputra completely | Vinayak Bhat
    Latest satellite imagery shows the river Brahmaputra disappearing into a 900 m underground tunnel in China.
    In what is perhaps the first evidence of a possible diversion project by China, latest satellite imagery shows a massive new dam on the Brahmaputra river — Yarlong Tsangpo in Tibetan — with an underground tunnel that seems to engulf the entire water flow for almost one kilometre.
    The Brahmaputra is sacred to Indians and Tibetans alike and has its origins in the Angsi Glacier in Purang county of Tibet. It has been in the news for water reportedly turning black on the Indian side and in connection with Chinese plans to divert it to the arid lands of the Taklamakan desert.
    Although the Indian government has said that there is no evidence of any water diversion project, satellite imagery from 26 November 2017, courtesy US commercial vendor of space imagery DigitalGlobe, indicates a new project in an advanced stage. This report – based on latest satellite images — examines only the actual ground position. Measurements are made on very low resolution images and may not be exact.
    The available images show a new 200 m wide dam that seems to have completely blocked the water of the Brahmaputra. The entire river seems to be forced into two inlets of almost 50 m width each towards the west of the river. The water flow comes out after around 900 m downstream in two outlets very similar to the size and shape of the inlets.
    The project – currently under construction – is located 60 km east of Shannan township as the crow flies. The location is also almost 40 km east of Sangri county.
    Source: Vinayak Bhat
    What has raised questions about this project is that another project – Tsangmo or Zangmu Dam — has recently been constructed just 13 km downstream. This run of the river dam was made operational in end-2015 and has a capacity of 510 MW power production. Beijing did not pay any attention to India’s objections to the Tsangmo dam.
    The construction of another dam 13 km upstream of Tsangmo which diverts the entire water inside the mountain suggests that its purpose may not just be hydropower generation. The purpose of this project is possibly for diverting a portion of the Brahmaputra to the parched areas of Taklamakan desert.
    The geography of the area, when studied deeply with the elevation profile, clearly indicates that China may actually be planning to divert the waters of the Brahmaputra approximately 1,100 km northwest of the project site.
    The path indicated on the image below shows the possible route of the underground tunnel which does not touch any water body on its way. The height difference at the project site and the point of Taklamakan desert suggest that a clear downslope will be available for the water to flow naturally without any additional constructions for large storage wells in between.
    Source: Vinayak Bhat
    India being downstream of the Brahmaputra has full rights over its waters and any diversion of water from this river could likely hurt Indian agriculture. During any emergency, a sudden release of water from this project can also cause havoc on the Indian side.
    Satellite imagery shows that polymer resin adhesives are being sprayed by China all around this project area as a dust suppressant system. The resin adhesives are commonly used for large construction projects but are never used for projects near water, according to some water projects construction engineers, since these polymer resin adhesives are said to be harmful to humans and animals.
    The resin sprays have been observed over the last two months. The rough estimate of time for water flow to reach India from this project location is 15 to 20 days. The colour of the Brahmaputra water in Assam acquiring a darker shade, according to reports in the media, could possibly be due to the use of these resin adhesives at this project site.
    Satellite images clearly show stone crushers and cement plants at the site. The products of this facility are obviously used inside these tunnels for construction purposes. The material being quarried from inside these tunnels is being piled along the river up to the road level. Most of the stones have been crushed to different sizes and some of it may be pushed into the river along with the water flow.
    A large number of tippers and other vehicles are seen carrying material to and from this area. An administrative area is also seen east of the project with a large number of red-roofed houses and barracks, possibly living quarters for staff and may also contain administrative buildings.

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    Justification for declaration of Ramasetu as National Monument under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958.

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    BJP president Amit Shah posts series of tweets on Manmohan Singh
  • When it comes to respected Manmohan Singh ji’s honesty, I would not like to say anything. The monumental loot and plunder under his watch speak for him in abundance!
  • We are seeing a very angry Manmohan Singh ji these days. We just want to ask him whether he was so angry when monumental loot & plunder was happening under his watch? The nation missed this anger then!
  • Only after the secret meeting was exposed, respected Manmohan Singh ji said that the discussion was confined to India-Pakistan relations. Why did he not consider it appropriate to apprise GoI about such a meeting with a neighbour like Pakistan. Why did he try to hide it?
  • After strongly denying the meeting, why did respected Manmohan Singh take a sharp U-turn and declare that he attended the meeting.
  • The question that Congress and Manmohan Singh need to answer is, why did Shri Anand Sharma and Shri Randeep Surjewala vehemently deny that the meeting with a top Pakistani leader has ever happened?
  • Where was respected Manmohan Singh ji’s anger when Shri Rahul Gandhi tore an ordinance which his Cabinet had cleared? Where was his concern for the dignity of the Prime Minister’s office?
  • We want to ask respected Manmohan Singh ji why was he not angry & anguished when a CM of his country was called ‘Maut Ka Saudagar.’ Why is he still silent when PM of his country is called ‘Neech’?
  • We want to remind respected Manmohan Singh ji that he has done his best to mislead the people of Gujarat in previous elections but Gujarat has rejected him & Congress everytime.
  • If Congress is nervous after more than 60 rallies by Shri Rahul Gandhi in Gujarat, last day attacks on PM Modi are also not going to help them in Gujarat.
  • Amused to see the Congress party so desperate before the Gujarat elections. Just a day before polling, both Shri Rahul Gandhi and respected Manmohan Singh ji are only maliciously attacking PM .

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    Wednesday, December 13, 2017

    Science Channel on Ram Setu as man-made structure concurs with Historical Rama.

     A video released by Science Channel on Ram Setu shows scientists saying that the submerged structure linking India and Srilanka is man-made. It consists of series or rocks and boulders sitting on a stretch of sand bed.

    The significant information from this video pertains to the dates of the structures. It says that the boulders and rocks found on top of the sand dunes are 7000 years old while the sand dunes are only 4000 years old! The time period of 7000 years BP is the approximate period of Rama at whose behest this structure was built. But the sand dunes that support them being dated at 4000 years BP puts it at post-Krishna period. This could be possible only if the structure was re-built using the same old boulders when the sea level arose.

    Boulders of the Ram Setu seen under water.

    According to the geologist Dr Badrinarayanan, two dates of rise in sea level was found in this part of the sea, one,  between 7,300 to 5,800 years BP and another between  5,400 to 4,000 years BP. As per the video the bounders correspond to the former date while the sand bed underneath them corresponds to the second and last date of sea level increase. But Dr Badrinarayana finds the occurrence of two sets of corals corresponding to these two levels. 

    This raises the possibility that the original layer was much below the current one which corresponded to 7000 years BP. For a brief period of 400 years between 5800 – 5400 years BP the sea level came down, exposing the Setu Bridge above the sea level. But once again the sea level rose submerging the structure after 5400 years BP. That was when a fresh attempt could have been made to re-construct the bridge – which was done by raising the height by laying a sand bed and re-laying the same boulders and rocks on top of it. The sacredness of the structure and connection with Rama could have made the re-builders to have retained the same boulders and also re-lay in the same way done originally by the vanaras. Research is needed to ascertain these ideas, but the fact is that research is woefully nil in India in the case of Ram Setu. 

    What is seen in the picture below as white objects (pic taken from the video released by Science Channel) are in fact the visible regions of the Setu above water – the corresponding regions in Google map is shown below this picture.

    Till the 14th  century the structure was well above the water level. In the next 6 centuries no attempt was made to restore the bridge perhaps due to changing or deteriorating political scenes in the ensuing period. Today, in these times of stable nationhood, we must have by now started rebuilding the structure using the same boulders after the lifting up the foundation. 

    The formation of stable nation with the arrival of Independence did nothing to secure the site back to its glory. In the previous UPA government, the focus was denying the Ram Setu as man-made and historical. It is unfortunate the same trend is continuing even now. Nothing much had happened in India in terms of research in this site. It needs a foreign channel to tell the world that Ram Setu is manmade while it is precisely the same we have known for ages. So what are we going to do now – the Government, the research agencies of India and the people? 

    In the case of people, I wish to clarify two objections or doubts that we often hear on this subject.  They are given below. 

    (1) The time period of Ramayana: Rama belonged to Treta Yuga and the general opinion among the people is that Treta Yuga occurred 17 lakh (1.7 Million) years ago. There also exists a claim by NASA that Setu is 1.75 million years old. However there is no confirmation by NASA that it is man-made. There are many Indians who ascribe to this view as a proof of Rama’s times at 17 lakh years before present. 

    This is not logical as 17 lakh years ago was the time period when man was just beginning to walk upright. The geological conditions of that period also could not be the same as it is now. In this back-drop it is self-defeating to claim historicity of Rama linked to such an early period.  

    This issue can be approached from two angles (1) the veracity of NASA image and (2)understanding the true purport of the time period of Rama.

    Taking up the first, the NASA image is true as there exists a natural shoal between India and Srilanka. This shoal is actually formed by underwater volcanic material. This has been confirmed in the studies by geologists. From the events of Ramayana we know that a hill called Mainaka existed exactly in the region of the shoal which grew up above the water when Hanuman crossed the sea. Such growth can be linked to a volcanic activity or magma bubbling up. 

    Earlier to Rama’s times, the sons of Sagara (Rama’s ancestor) were reduced to ashes while digging at this region. (read my article here). Such a description invariably supports the eruption of magma or heat that led to a calamity to them digging up the shoal here. Studies in this region do support such eventualities as heat flow signatures were found supported by hot water springs while drilling. Thus there can no two opinions on the presence of a natural bed formed of the material of the mantle in this region for ages. What NASA had noted in the satellite picture was the exact region of sea bed where magma got piled up (like a suture) Dating of the bed might give us clues on when such eruptions or volcanism first started. 

    This confirms an opinion that the island of Lanka was an extension of India and not one that got separated by geological activity as held by some. The very name “Ilangai”(Lanka) in Tamil refers to a raised bund in the midst of water or surrounded by water.  Srirangam is an Ilangai by this definition. The ‘Maavilangai’ mentioned in one of Tamil Sangam texts refers not to Lanka as some people think, but to a raised land in the course of a river.

    (Bingala Nikantu, Ch 4:104)

    The natural bund between India and Srilanka served as an extension of habitation in this part for thousands of years. There is even proof of growth of wild rice since Ice Age in this part, signalling presence of habitation here.

    (Fuller et al: 2010)

    In the above picture, the connecting region between India and Srilanka is marked with ‘P’. It refers to growth of wild rice since 20,000 years before present. This can be taken as a proof of habitation in this part of India at that date. One can see that the linkage between the two countries was very wide. In the picture below one can see the light shaded regions around India and Srilanka (yellow-line border done by me). The land was extended till then when the sea level was low. As per the above figure, there is evidence of growth of wild rice in this extended region. 

    With such a naturally present land connection for a wider extent, Srilanka of those times existed as an extension of India much like the Kathiawar peninsula. 

    So there never existed a need to build a bridge in this part. Such a need could arise only when sea water completely inundated this connecting land. The inundation maps produced by Graham Hancock throw better hints on this issue.  A comparison of them for different time periods is given below to pin point the date when the need arose to link the two countries by human efforts. The availability of maps start from 21,300 years BP.

    Until 8900 BP, the land connection was there naturally, helping in the movement of people. But things changed after this period as sea level rose above the connecting land by 7700 BP. The below-maps show this.

    By 7700 BP sea water passed through the connecting land. By 6900 BP the connecting land was completely under sea water.

    So any construction of a bridge could have happened only before 7000 years. The naturally occurring base is already there. What people had to do was to raise structures on the base for a few meters. This was what Rama’s Vanara sena had done!

    This date tallies with the date of boulders (7000 years) mentioned in the Video released by Science Channel. 

    This date also tallies with Pushkar Bhatnagar's date of Rama (5114 BCE).


    Read also :- Rama lived 7000 years ago


    (2) Ramayana is a myth?: There is a group including those from the West claiming that Rama is a myth perpetuated to promote divinity. This arises from a notion that Gods are not born on earth. This notion helps in linking super natural feats with Gods. 

    The fact is that there is nothing super natural about Gods of Hinduism. There is One God, the All-pervading Brahman and every other God is a manifestation of this Brahman in its different stages of existence. Even man (individual atman) is no lowly creature as he can become God – the all-pervading Brahman. It is only because of Karma binding him, man is born a man (or an animal or a plant). And when he crosses over Karma he is one with Brahman or identical with Brahman. This is what the texts say.

    But the easiest way to understand how a man can become a God, the reply by Kalanos toAlexander is an eye-opener. For a question by Alexander on

    How may a man become a god?”

    Kalanos replied

    by doing that which is almost impossible for a man to do”. 

    (Source: works of Plutarch, the Greek historian and biographer of Alexander the Great -here)

    When a person does things that no other man can do or which are beyond normal human limits, then such a person comes to be regarded as a God. There comes a discussion on this topic in the Tamil text Silappadhikaram. 

    From Silappadhikaram

    Two women of this story (a real one) showed extraordinary nature. One was Kannagi who despite undergoing terrible times with her husband going after another woman and then coming back to her empty handed, lost him once for all, for the sake of her anklet which the king mistook as stolen from his queen. With all the sense of loss in her heart, Kannagi nevertheless went to the court of the king to establish that her husband did not steal. The king died on the spot on coming to know of his mistake. The strange part of the story is that his queen also died on the spot immediately after him, being unable to bear the loss of her husband.

    On coming to know of these developments, the Chera king asked his wife who among the two – the queen and Kannagi – was greater. The Cheran queen preferred Kannagi over the other on the basis that Kannagi put up with the suffering at the wake of the death of her husband to prove the world that he was innocent. So she was fit enough to be celebrated in human world whereas the other, the queen would be celebrated in the other world (heavens). This resulted in consecrating Kannagi as a deity in a temple. 

    This narration is in tune with what Kalanos said on doing the impossible. There had never been another Kannagi in history!

    In the same way Rama, a man born in this world did some extraordinary feats and exhibited extraordinary character that he came to be regarded as a God.

    From Ramayana 

    Rama never considered himself as a God. 

    He expressed, “I am a human being” (‘Atmaanam maanusham manye Ramam Dasharathatmajam’ -VR 6-117-11)

    But Brahma replied, “For destruction of Ravana you entered human body here, on this earth (“Vadaartham Raavanasyeh pravishto maanusheem tanum” – VR 6-117-28).

    So it is found within Ramayana that God reincarnates as a human being. Rama was such an incarnation. 

    As a human being, how do we recognise him as a God?

    By the impossible feats that no other man can do. 

    What was that impossible feat?

    This is expressed in Valmiki Ramayana itself through the words of Madodari, Ravana’s wife. On seeing Ravana fallen dead, Madodari wailed that she knew Rama was not an ordinary mortal and therefore should not be taken to task. Two things she mentioned as proof of this. One was the building of Setu! (The other was vanquishing demons at Janasthana)

     “The day when the terrific monkeys built a bridge on the great ocean, that day itself I believed that Rama was not an ordinary mortal." (VR 6-11- 11)

    Ravana was feeling secure sitting at Lanka as it was cut off from the mainland by the sea. Individuals might cross the sea in boats; but to cross the sea with a huge army to defeat him was impossible, Ravana thought. 

    The impossible feat of laying down a road or a bridge across the sea was unthinkable for any man. That is where Rama scored as super human – a God.

    There are other attributes that made him God – all those are impossible for ordinary mortals. Explaining them here is out of context for this article. 

    What we need to know is that divinity in Hinduism does not make god unreal and unborn.

    Rama was very much real as he lived and walked in this country. By the same reasoning of impossible accomplishments, Skanda, who lived in flesh and blood, came to be regarded as a God. He was perhaps the first man identified as a God in the Vedic civilization of the current era of Vaivasvata Manu. In his mantra for establishing Indra dhvaja, Manu invokes Skanda’s name. 

    By the same reasoning, Vamana, Parasurama, Balarama and Krishna were regarded as Gods. So there is no basis to say that Rama was only a mythical character. Ram Setu is one of the evidences his time period.

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    Gandhi family took all decisions, reduced Manmohan Singh to titular head: BJP

     | Updated: Dec 13, 2017, 19:52 IST
    NEW DELHI: The BJP on Wednesday used a series of email exchanges to accuse the Gandhi family of interfering in the work of the previous UPA government and reducing then-Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to "just a titular head."

    "We have accessed email in which Jayanti Natarajan when UPA minister was even willing to go home to meet personal secretary of Rahul Gandhi. This was how people not a part of government interfered in governance during UPA," said Union minister Piyush Goyal at a press conference.

    "Email exchanges between Rahul Gandhi and Jayanthi Natarajan show that all decisions were directly taken by the family and PM Manmohan Singh was just a titular head," he charged.

    Goyal brandished a series of emails that he said showed how "projects were stalled and environment ministry was used" in the UPA government.

    He said that the emails showed that Rahul had instructed Natarajan to not give environmental clearance to the Nirma project in Gujarat.

    "Rahul Gandhi opposed Nirma and instructed Jayanthi Natarajan to not give environmental clearance. He was willing to kill jobs in Gujarat to undermine, to hurt the developmental agenda of Narendra Modi," he said.

    The BJP also accused him of giving then-environment minister "guidance" and instructions on the Lavasa issue.

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    Are the Ancient Hindu myths of a land bridge connecting India and Sri Lanka true?

    Video source
    Are the ancient Hindu myths of a land bridge connecting India and Sri Lanka true? Scientific analysis suggests they are.

    Are the Ancient Hindu myths of a land bridge connecting India and Sri Lanka true?

    Published on Dec 11, 2017...

    Are the ancient Hindu myths of a land bridge connecting India and Sri Lanka true? Scientific analysis suggests they are.

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    Time to declare Ram Setu as national monument: Kalyanaraman

    Dec 15, 2017, 1:25 am IST
    US science channel has reaffirmed that Ram Setu is man-made, the Centre should brook no further delay and declare it as National Monument”.
    “Declaring Ram Setu as National Monument would prevent future attempts to destroy the monument''.
     “Declaring Ram Setu as National Monument would prevent future attempts to destroy the monument''.
    Chennai: “The American science channel has stated what we have been saying all these years; in fact, it has only reiterated what our scriptures, what Ramayana, had said ages ago. Now that the US science channel has reaffirmed that Ram Setu is man-made, the Centre should brook no further delay and declare it as National Monument”.
    That was Dr S. Kalyanaraman, the president of the Rameswaram Ram Sethu Protection Movement, one of the petitioners before the Supreme Court praying for halt of the Sethusamudram Ship Canal Project (SSCP). The Apex Court had on September 14 in 2007 stayed the project and the stay is still operational.
    “Declaring Ram Setu as National Monument would prevent future attempts to destroy the monument. This is the significance of this Discovery Channel report now”, said Dr Kalyanaraman, whose movement had organized one of the biggest rallies ever, at Rohini Park in New Delhi on 31 December 2007, for a public demand for declaration of Ram Setu as a National Monument and heritage site.
    “Over 15 lakh people from all over India attended it. There were three podiums of huge height. All the Dharma Sansads were present to bless the event. There was only one call given by that mass of humanity: Protect Ram Setu”, Dr Kalyanaraman said.
    He said there had been reluctance on the part of the government to declare Ram Setu as a national monument. “This reluctance is based on the opinion of one ASI official that for declaring something as a national monument under the Ancient Monuments and Archeological Sites and Remains Act 1958, it must be human intervention and it must be a built heritage. This is not really a correct argument because we have two natural monuments declared as national monuments and also as world heritage sites-Brahma Sarovar in Kurukshetra (a large lake) and Majuli Island in the Brahmaputra River in Assam (1457 sq km river island, one of the largest river islands in the world). But now even assuming that it requires human intervention as a built heritage, this Discovery Channel report takes away that ASI excuse”, he said.
    “Eminent geologists Badri Narayanan and K. Gopalakrishnan (he had made the huge minerals map of India, 6ftx6ft map) had proved by doing bathymetric study (studying the depth of sea at different locations) for the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai, way back in 2007 what this Discovery Channel report is now saying”, he said, adding that there were also revenue records in south Tamil Nadu that showed villages existed on the Ram Setu and people used it as a causeway between India and Sri Lanka.
    “All these archeological studies, geological researches and scientific findings are all secondary to the foundational evidence of this being the collective memory of the people, the faith, the Shraddha, of the people and treating a visit to Ram Sethu as pilgrimage”, said Dr Kalyanaraman.

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    Language of the Snakes traces the history of the Prakrit language as a literary phenomenon, starting from its cultivation in courts of the Deccan in the first centuries of the common era. Although little studied today, Prakrit was an important vector of the kāvyamovement and once joined Sanskrit at the apex of classical Indian literary culture. The opposition between Prakrit and Sanskrit was at the center of an enduring “language order” in India, a set of ways of thinking about, naming, classifying, representing, and ultimately using languages. As a language of classical literature that nevertheless retained its associations with more demotic language practices, Prakrit both embodies major cultural tensions—between high and low, transregional and regional, cosmopolitan and vernacular—and provides a unique perspective onto the history of literature and culture in South Asia.
    “Andrew Ollett’s book is one of those scholarly breakthroughs that happen, with luck, once or twice in a generation. It reveals the richness of Prakrit language and literary modes with a precision and depth of insight never seen before.” DAVID SHULMAN, Professor Emeritus, Hebrew University
    “Ollett offers a brilliant, original, and thoroughly engaging investigation of the complex language order of premodern India. Bringing to the fore the less-studied role of the literary Prakrits, his work makes a major contribution to our understanding of the history of language and literature in early India and beyond.” R. P. GOLDMAN, Catherine and William L. Magistretti Distinguished Professor in Sanskrit and India Studies, University of California, Berkeley

    ANDREW OLLETT works on the literary and intellectual traditions of premodern India.

    Language of the Snakes

    Prakrit, Sanskrit, and the Language Order of Premodern India

    Andrew Ollett
    Ollett, A. 2017. Language of the Snakes: Prakrit, Sanskrit, and the Language Order of Premodern India. California: University of California Press. DOI:

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     |  | CHENNAI

    Monday’s Supreme Court order staying the directive issued by Madras High Court to the Tamil Nadu Government to set up Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas has shocked the entire population of the State barring the Dravidian political parties.
    Monday’s Supreme Court order staying the directive issued by Madras High Court to the Tamil Nadu Government to set up Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas has shocked the entire population of the State barring the Dravidian political parties.
    The Madras High Court had ordered that the decision of the Tamil Nadu Government not to allow the opening of JNVs in the State was a violation of the fundamental right of the people. The AIADMK Government led by Chief Minister Edappadi Palaniswamy decided to move the Supreme Court against the Madras High Court directive because it wanted to neutralise the political advantage which would have gone to the DMK and other Tamil chauvinist parties if the Government left the directive without challenging it, according to a political commentator, who himself was surprised over the move.
    On September 11, the Madras High Court had asked the Tamil Nadu Government to immediately take steps to set up JNVs in all districts and provide temporary sites and buildings to accommodate 240 children in each district. Tamil Nadu is the only State in the country which has not allowed the setting up of the centrally funded and sponsored JNV, an education system which offers public school ambience to the rural poor in the country.
    The argument by the Tamil Nadu Government was that the education policy of the State envisages a two-language formula while the JNV follows the three language pattern, viz, English, Hindi and the regional language. The contention of the Tamil Nadu Government was that the Madras High Court order was an encroachment into the State policy.
    “The stance of the Tamil Nadu Government is ridiculous. The Dravidian Governments are denying the fundamental rights of the children to get quality education at no cost. What is wrong in me getting a chance to study Hindi as an additional language?” said M Ravinson, a lawyer and president of Kumari Maha Sabha, the organisation which approached the Madras High Court with a plea to direct the Tamil Nadu Government to set up Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas in the State. “The State Government has failed miserably in making quality education available to the underprivileged sections. The JNVs offer free public school education to the rural population and it should be launched in the State at the earliest. The standard of education offered by the Government schools in Tamil Nadu is poor,” said B N Alexander, an office bearer of KMS.
    Dr S Kalyanaraman, director, Saraswathi Research Centre, Chennai, said the Dravidian parties have an ulterior motive in keeping JNV off the State. “Their children and grand children are all studying Hindi and Sanskrit while the same privilege is denied to the poor children. The Government also argued in the court that Hindi and Sanskrit were not welcome in Tamil Nadu,” said Dr Kalyanaraman.
    Ravinson pointed out that the Tamil Andu Government’s argument that there was no three-language formula in school education in Tamil Nadu was wrong. “The State has many Kendriya Vidyalayas whioch follow three-language formula. The stay by the apex court is a set back for us but we will continue our fight for JNVs in the State,” said Ravinson.

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    A provocative enquiry into the nature of social change. Just as Nay Science has introduced the concept of historicism into studying cultures of texts such as the  Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa, there has been a failure on the part of archaeologists to study the history of languages in the sites they dig into.Michael E Smith rightly focusses on the failures of truncated disciplines such as anthropology or ethnic studies without providing for an inter-disciplinary knowledge system to study a society in a cultural continuum.Such failures are exemplified in the failure of Bhāratīya scholars come up with a history of the formation and evoution of languages in Bhāratam. Sporadic attempts such as the Formation of Marathi Language (Jules Bloch), Formation of Bengali language (SK Chatterjee) are not adequate. A conscious effort is needed to study the evolution of languages as fault-lines in the unity and unified cultural framework of the Hindu Rāṣṭram. Such faultlines are taken advantage of by NayScience pundits like Sheldon Pollock and the recent book by his disciplie titled: Language of the Snakes (2017). In this title, snakes refer to lowly creatures while the book seems to narrate the language history of premodern Bhāratam. This title fails to realise that snakes adorn the neck of Rudra-Rāṣṭra Śiva and that Ananta is a snake that circles the world and adorns Viṣṇu as Anantaśayana. Whoever called the snake a lowly creature?KalyanaramanSunday, May 15, 2011

    Why Anthropology is too Narrow an Intellectual Context for Archaeology*

    In the past few years I have found two new homes for my work as an archaeologist. Institutionally, I am no longer part of a Department of Anthropology, but rather a faculty member in the new “School of Human Evolution and Social Change” at Arizona State University. Intellectually, I was born and raised in anthropological archaeology, but now consider the amorphous field of comparative and historical social science as more congenial to my research. I still teach courses called anthropology, and I participate in anthropology degree programs. Some of my best friends are anthropologists. But intellectually I have found less and less in common with the discipline of anthropology, and more and more in common with other disciplines, as my career has proceeded.

    Most published accounts of the relationship between archaeology and the larger discipline of anthropology (e.g., Earle 2008; Gillespie and Nichols 2003; Gumerman and Phillips 1978; Longacre 2010) consist of either pronouncements (“archaeology must be part of anthropology” or “archaeology should not be part of anthropology”) or else fantasies about ideal conditions (“archaeologists can work together with ethnologists”). If one starts from the perspective that four-field anthropology is something useful, then it is easy to argue that archaeology should be a part of the mix (Gillespie and Nichols 2003). But if one starts by seeking the most productive intellectual context for archaeology, then an affiliation with anthropology is more difficult to argue for.

    I was trained in anthropological archaeology, and I have always considered myself an anthropological archaeologist. I belonged to the Archaeology Division of the AAA from its founding until my recent resignation from the AAA. I was “in the trenches” of four-field anthropology at my prior university, organizing lectures and debates on the topic. But in recent years I have come to believe that Wallerstein’s (2003) critique of the structure of the social science disciplines may apply equally to four-field anthropology. Wallerstein argues that “the social construction of the disciplines as intellectual arenas that was made in the 19th century has outlived its usefulness and is today a major obstacle to serious intellectual work” (Wallerstein 2003:453). One of those commenting on Wallerstein’s paper was sociologist Craig Calhoun, who suggested that, “Surely sociology, political science, and economics are as important for a cultural anthropologist (let alone a social anthropologist) as physical anthropology or archaeology” (Calhoun 2003:462).

    My undergraduate interests in anthropology started with archaeology and urbanism. My initial impression was that sociocultural anthropologists took ancient cities seriously (e.g., Steward 1961). Many articles in the journal Urban Anthropology in the 1970s seemed relevant to ancient cities. When I returned to comparative urbanism after a number of years working on other topics, I was surprised to discover that the discipline of urban anthropology seemed to have disappeared. The journal Urban Anthropology is now called Urban Anthropology and Studies of Cultural Systems and World Economic Development, and the Society for Urban Anthropology is now the “Society for Urban, National, and Transnational/Global Anthropology.” Cities, for sociocultural anthropologists, may be places to do ethnography, but they are not a topic for analysis or comparison. Most research in urban anthropology today consists of studies of “Globalization in this city” and “Globalization in that city.” This retreat from a broadly conceived urban anthropology came at a time when studies of urbanism were exploding in other disciplines, from geography to sustainability science. Ask scholars in these disciplines about the major problems facing humanity today, and cities will be near the top of the list; yet a book called Anthropology and Contemporary Human Problems (Bodley 2007) does not even mention cities! Urban anthropology has really dropped the ball.

    When I moved to Arizona State University in 2005, I was pleasantly surprised to find that transdisciplinary research was emphasized and facilitated. A major reason for the transformation of the Department of Anthropology into the School of Human Evolution and Social Change (also in 2005) was to place anthropology within a broader intellectual context and promote transdisciplinary work. Anthropology remains strong here in terms of degrees, courses, and students, but we now have non-anthropologists as colleagues in our school, and most of us are engaged in research that expands the horizons of anthropology in some way.

    I recently joined a transdisciplinary research project on urban life ( My training in anthropological archaeology had suggested—wrongly—that disciplines like sociology, political science, or planning are irrelevant for archaeologists. I have been delighted to learn that much of the scholarship is in fact relevant to ancient cities, and many researchers in these areas are interested in ancient cities. Geographers, planners, sociologists, and urban historians want to know what the earliest cities were like, and how they compare to modern cities. When I took urban geographers to task for promoting comparative analysis while limiting their scope to the past two centuries (Smith 2009a), they invited me to participate in a symposium on comparative urbanism. When I mentioned the importance of V. Gordon Childe’s (1950) article, “The Urban Revolution,” to the editors of Town Planning Review, they invited me to submit a paper for their centenary volume (Smith 2009b). I still find myself amazed at this outpouring of interest in archaeological research on ancient cities by all kinds of scholars of urbanism (except sociocultural anthropologists).

    I have encountered numerous useful concepts, theories, and ideas about urbanism from these other disciplines, but few from sociocultural anthropology (Smith 2011). My own contributions to comparative urbanism (e.g., Smith 2007, 2010) seem more valued by scholars in these areas. Reading the literature and interacting with urban scholars in non-anthropological disciplines has made me question the intellectual usefulness of my affiliation with sociocultural anthropology. Now, perhaps my situation is unique and other anthropological archaeologists get what they need intellectually from their interactions with sociocultural anthropologists. This can be a tricky topic to analyze, because four-field anthropology today is most commonly invoked in reference to university politics (e.g., protecting anthropology departments). It is not professionally feasible in most North American universities to divide anthropology departments into smaller units, even if people were to agree that it is a good idea intellectually. I am fortunate to teach in a unique program that values both anthropology and transdisciplinary research, and this setting has allowed my research on urbanism to thrive.

    I recently resigned from the American Anthropological Association. Part of my reasons are intellectual—the anthropological retreat from comparative analysis and the predominance of relativist and interpretivist scholarship—and part are professional—the behavior of the AAA leadership on a variety of issues, from science to ethics (Dreger 2011) to outsourcing AAA journals to a commercial publisher. In its place I have joined the Social Science History Association, whose goals and themes are much more closely aligned to my view of archaeology as a comparative and historical social science discipline.

    Rather than toe the four-field anthropological line about the (supposedly) close relationship between archaeology and cultural anthropology, I prefer to take a broader view. Some parts of sociocultural anthropology articulate with archaeology, but then so do parts of other disciplines, including history, economics, geology, linguistics, sociology, botany, planning, semiotics, engineering, political science, soil science, geography, religious studies, agronomy, management studies, ecology, etc. Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips (1958) once claimed that “archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing,” and Lewis Binford (1962) promoted a program of “archaeology as anthropology” [see also \Gillespie, 2003 #9111]. I disagree with these views. Had my research on comparative urbanism remained within the confines of anthropology, it would have remained pedestrian and limited in scope. Based on my personal experience, I suggest that the intellectual horizons of archaeology should not be limited to the rather parochial discipline of anthropology.

    Michael E. Smith
    Arizona State University

    *This is a revised and much expanded version of an article, “Archaeology is Archaeology,” that appeared in Anthropology News, January 2010, page. 35.


    Binford, Lewis R
    1962 Archaeology as Anthropology. American Antiquity 28:217-225.

    Bodley, John H.
    2007 Anthropology and Contemporary Human Problems. 5th ed. AltaMira, Lanham.

    Calhoun, Craig
    2003 Comment on Wallerstein, "Anthropology, Sociology, and Other Dubious Disciplines". Current Anthropology 44:462.

    Childe, V. Gordon
    1950 The Urban Revolution. Town Planning Review 21:3-17.

    Dreger, Alice
    2011 Darkness's Descent on the American Anthropological Association: A Cautionary Tale. Human Nature 22:(published online).

    Earle, Timothy
    2008 Cultural Anthropology and Archaeology: Theoretical Dialogues. In Handbook of Archaeological Theories, edited by R. Alexander Bentley, Herbert D. G. Maschner, and Christopher Chippindale, pp. 187-202. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

    Gillespie, Susan D. and Deborah L. Nichols (editors)
    2003 Archaeology is Anthropology. Archaeological Papers, vol. 13. American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    Gumerman, George J. and David A. Phillips, Jr.
    1978 Archaeology Beyond Anthropology. American Antiquity 43:184-191.

    Longacre, William
    2010 Archaeology as Anthropology Revisited. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 17:81-100.

    Smith, Michael E.
    2007 Form and Meaning in the Earliest Cities: A New Approach to Ancient Urban Planning. Journal of Planning History 6(1):3-47.

    2009a Editorial: Just How Comparative is Comparative Urban Geography?: A Perspective from Archaeology. Urban Geography 30:113-117.

    2009b V. Gordon Childe and the Urban Revolution: An Historical Perspective on a Revolution in Urban Studies. Town Planning Review 80:3-29.

    2010 Sprawl, Squatters, and Sustainable Cities: Can Archaeological Data Shed Light on Modern Urban Issues? Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20:229-253.

    2011 Empirical Urban Theory for Archaeologists. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 18:(in press).

    Steward, Julian H.
    1961 The Urban Focus: Is There a Common Problem and Method in Studies of City Development—A Science of "Urbanology"? Science 134:1354-1356.

    Wallerstein, Immanuel
    2003 Anthropology, Sociology, and Other Dubious Disciplines. Current Anthropology 44:453-465.

    Willey, Gordon R. and Philip Phillips
    1958 Method and Theory in American Archaeology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

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    Sarpa, nāga are artisans, sādhya accomplishing divinities like takṣaka

    सर्प sarpa 'm. (pl.) N. of a partic. tribe of म्लेच्छs (formerly क्षत्रियs and described as wearing beards)' (हरिवंश) सर्पाणाम् अयनम् ,'a partic. annual festival';नाग  Coluber Naga; a नाग or serpent-demon (the race of कद्रु or सु-रसा inhabiting the waters or the city भोग-वती under the earth ; they are supposed to have a human face with serpent-like lower extremities; their kings are शेष , वासुकि , and तक्षक; 7 or 8 of the नागs are particularly mentioned (Mahābhārata) ; with Buddhists they are also represented as ordinary men.); the best or most excellent of any kind (Lexicographers, esp. such as अमरसिंह , हलायुध , हेमचन्द्र , &c.) (cf. ऋषभ , व्याघ्र &c ); tin, lead (भावप्रकाश); साध्य N. of a class of celestial beings (belonging to the गण-देवता, sometimes mentioned in the वेद [see RV. x , 90 , 16]; in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇar. their world is said to be above the sphere of the gods ; according to यास्क [Nirukta, निरुक्त Nir. xii , 41] their locality is the भुवर्लोक or middle region between the earth and sun ; in मनु-स्मृति Manu Smr̥ti i , 22 , the साध्यs are described as created after the gods with natures exquisitely refined , and in iii , 195 , as children of the सोम-सद्s , sons of विराज् ; in the पुराणs they are sons of साध्या , and their number is variously twelve or seventeen; in the later mythology they seem to be superseded by the सिद्धs » सिद्ध ; and theirnames are मनस्मन्तृप्रा*नरपान,विनिर्भयनय,दंशनारायणवृषप्रभुRV. &c;  silver; accomplishment,perfection; साध्या f. N. of a daughter of दक्ष and wife of धर्म or मनु (regarded as the mother of the साध्यs).तक्षक 'a cutter' »
     काष्ठ- , वृक्ष- (पाणिनि 8-2, 29); a carpenter; विश्वकर्मन्; the सूत्र-धार or speaker in the prelude of a drama; of a नाग prince (cf. °क्ष) AV. viii , 10 , 29 ताण्ड्य-ब्राह्मण xxv , 15 शाङ्खायन-गृह्य-सूत्र 2. iv , 18 , 1 कौशिक-सूत्र3. Mahābhārata.

    See the full text of the itihāsa narrative in: Astika Parva in Section LVIII Mahābhārata

    A unique expressive characteristic of Coluber Naga is the snake-hood. This is signified by the Prākr̥tam, Samskr̥tam, vernacular word: फट m. the expanded hood or neck of a serpent; फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c.(Marathi); The word phaḍa signifies public business, complementing the synonym nara 'humanbeing' which is a synonym for sarpa or serpent: फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 2 fig. Scolding vehemently; paying off. v काढ, घे g. of o. 3 Search of or inquiry at the several फड q.v.; taking the accounts of the several फड (as to arrivals of goods, sales, rates &c.) 4 Altercation or dispute of two फड or companies of तमाशेगीर (showmen or sportmen). 5 Freely. Examining or sifting rigorously.  फड phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्या- चाफड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचाफड A nachhouse, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचाफड A singingshop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work,--as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊस, वांग्या, मिरच्या, खरबुजे&c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चाल, पड, घाल, मांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फडपडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फडमारणें- राखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फडमारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्यामापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडासयेणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion.  फडनिशी or सी phaḍaniśī or sī f The office or business of फडनीसफडनीस phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस. phaḍa is cognate with Ta. paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai anvil, smithy, forge. Ka. paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi anvil, workshop. Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop (DEDR 3865).. 

    Thus, a reference to sarpa is a reference to its synonym nāga, public in general and artisans or sādhya in particular. This semantic structure and signifiance of the word, sarpa, explains sarpa sattra conducted by Emperor Janamejaya of the Kuru empire. Janamejaya had to listen to the words of the learned Astika and set Takṣaka free. He also stopped the massacre of the snakes (Nāgas) and ended all the enmity with them. From then onward the snakes (Nāgas) and Kurus lived in peace. After the yajña was stopped Vaiśampāyana who was sitting beside Vedavyāsa, the author of Mahābhārata, started narrating the epic story of Mahābhārata to Janamejaya, where Astika and other Brahmins had also assembled at the venue.

    The veneration of the mint, coinage by artisans finds sculptural expression in Amaravati friezes by signifying the artisans with cobra-

    snake hoods as head-dresses. The throne and the cushion (turban) signified on the sculptural friezes are Indus Script cipher for the rebus (similar-sounding) words फट फडा to signify, throne or cushion. Hence the veneration of the throne with the cushion.

    Academics attempting to explain the formation and evolution of Bhāratīya languages of pre-modern times have to understand the metaphors which the images and words signify. This note has demonstrated that the Prākr̥tam, Samskr̥tam, vernacular languages of pre-modern Prākr̥tam of pre-modern Bhāratam were languages of artisans and nara, 'people'. This cultural feature is exemplified by the word/phrases: 1. sarpa 'm. (pl.) N. of a partic. group of people called म्लेच्छs (formerly क्षत्रियs and described as wearing beards)' (हरिवंश); and 2. सर्पाणाम् अयनम् ,'a partic. annual festival'.

    Elsewhere, the language of म्लेच्छs has been signified by over 8000 Indus Script hypertexts which constitute the wealth accounting ledgers of artisans and seafaring merchants creating and trading in metalwork products during the Bronze Age Tin-Bronze Revolution. See: Epigraphia Indus Script: Hypertexts & Meanings, 3 volumes (2017).

    This is my rejoinder to the recent title titled Language of the Snakes by Andrew Ollett (2017) who has erroneously explained that the reference to 'snakes' is a reference to 'lowly creatures'.. This is an error or judgement and should be rectified by a truthful account of the cultural milieu in which the languages of pre-modern Bhāratam were formed and evolved in a linguistic area (sprachbund, or speech union).

    I suggest that the studies related to formation and evolution of languages of pre-modern Bhāratam should be firmly based on the cultural milieu of the societies as evidenced in ancient texts, music, sculptures and other art forms including Indus Script hypertexts which constitute the primary documentary resources for researchers.

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Centre
    December 19, 2017

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    Snakes and cobra-hoods in Bhāratīya sculptural and Indus Script hypertext tradition DO NOT signify lowly creatures, but are sacred, are hieroglyphs to signify artisans and wealth-accounting ledgers.

    This monograph posits that it is a travesty of language studies to posit Bhāratīya languages of pre-modern  times as language of snakes, lowly creatures. 

    The languages are the Bhāratīya sacred treasure for over ten millennia, starting with the chandas of R̥gveda, sigiifying a quintessential speech union, sprachbund.encompassing all the languages which continue to be in vogue as the lingua franca..

    This is an addendum to the mongraph: 


    Holy Feet of Bhudevi (Mother Earth) 
    Varāha mandiram.Khajuraho. (2.6 m long and 1.7 high) ASI assigns this to circa 900-925.. Varāha mūrti is a hypertext. A sarpa, 'snake' winds between the legs of the sacred boar and entwines around the right leg. Next to the left leg are tha pair of feet of Devi. The hypertext message is: sarpa 'nara, artisan', फडphaḍa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons, wealth-accounting ledger'. In front of the snake and next to the pair of feet is a yajñakuṇḍa, 'fire-altar'. I suggest that the Indus Script hypertext message is wealth accounting ledger of pada 'feet' rebus: फडphaḍa 'wealth-accounting ledger'. The pun on the word caṣāla, 'snout of boar''wheat-chaff carburizing process to infuse carbon into molten metel to harden the alloy' is signified as a knowledge system by the signifer sarasvatī sculptural frieze on the snout. The whole body of the boar is sculpted with 765 signifiers of devatā and ṣi-s of the Veda. Themonumental pratimrā of Varāha is a quintessential Indus Script cipher message in the sacred language of Vāgdevi, the divinity of speech while following the tradition of Varāha as yajña puruṣa, signifier of Veda as knowledge system. In the Vernacular, the spoken word for Varāha is badhi 'boar' rebus: badhi 'worker in wood and iron', vardhaki carpenter',  వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste. An intimation of the semantics of 'chaff' is provided by the word: వడ్లు vaḍlu vaḍḍlu. [from Skt. వృహి. and plu. of వరి.] n. Paddy, rice in the husk, rice grain. 
     vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardhPa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā. *vārdhaka -- .Addenda: vardhaki -- : WPah.kṭg. báḍḍhi m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; kṭg. bəṛhe\ibáṛhi, kc. baṛhe ← H. beside genuine báḍḍhi Him.I 135), J. bāḍhi, Garh. baṛhai, A. also bāṛhai AFD 94; Md. vaḍīnvaḍin pl.†*vardhakikarman -- .†*vardhakikarman -- ʻ carpentry ʼ. [vardhaki -- , kár- man -- ]
    Md. vaḍām ʻ carpentry ʼ.(CDIAL 11375, 11375a). The phonetic variations affirm the formation and evolution of Bhāratīya sprachbund (speechunion or speech area) among all the ancient languages of Bhāratam. 

    Location: Khajuraho, Chhatarpur Dt., Madhya Pradesh, India
    Site: Khajuraho
    Monument/Object: Varaha Mandir, sculpture
    Current Location: same as site location
    Subject: Varaha
    Photo Depicts: front right leg
    Period: Rajput, Candella Dynasty
    Date: 10th - 13th century CE
    Religious Affiliation: Hindu, Vaisnavite
    Material: stone
    Scan Number: 14743
    Photo Date: 1984
    Image Source: Huntington Archive

    Scan No. 14725

    Scan number 14728

    Image result for bharhut cobra

    Nāgaraja, Erapattra worshipping. Bharhut, 100 BCE.

    In a breath-taking splendour of a sculptural relief of Bharhut, Nāgaraja, Erapattra worships in front of the 

    paṭa which is topped by a tree: kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter. 

    The tree is atop a पट n. a thatch or roof (= पटल) L. 

    The Indus Script hypertexts are: paṭa ‘roof’ rebus: फडphaḍa 'metals manufactory, accounting ledger, Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'.

    The hypertext constitutes the kole.l 'smithy, forge' is kole.l 'temple for फडphaḍa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'. That the roof shown on the relief signifies a smelter is reinforced by similar structures shown on Bhuteshwar sculptural fragments discussed in this monograph.

    Nāga scene of middle lintel. Southern gate, Sonkh temple, c. 100 CE. The dāman, 'rope' is rebus: dhamma 'dharma'. rebus: 

    dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelters'
    Three-headed Nāga on block.Southern gate, Sonkh temple, c. 100 CE
    Nāga emerging out of makara. Southern gate, Sonkh temple, c. 100 CE makara 'composite crocodile PLUS ele[phant' rebus; dhmakara, dhamaka ''forge-blower, blacksmith'
    Naga Deities, Kushana period, horizontal beam (Government Museum, Mathura). Nagas are among the earliest deities to be depicted. They are seen in the art of all religious faiths.

    Yaksha from stupa, Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, India. After John Huntington
    Detail, relief carved panel, Bharhut. Devotion at Bodhi Tree - Bharhut © Dr. David Efurd 

    I suggest that the worship is of the 'tree' linked to Skambha of Atharva Veda Skambha sukta, as a fiery pillar of light which topped with caṣāla, godhuma fumes, infuses carbon to harden metal in the fire-altar, furnace, smelter. See: 


    Fig. 3
    Asian civilisations Museum, Singapore. Sculptural fragment, showing the adoration of a fiery pillar. India, 3rd century, limestone. On loan from the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi Early Bauddham art was a continuum of non-sectarian ancient Bharatiya tradition venerating cosmic dimensions of phenomena, and NOT veneration of an aniconic Bodhi tree.

    Just below the garlanded Bodhi tree is a pillar of fire. The ear studs worn by the worshippers have the safflower motifs. The pillar of fire emerges out of the roof of the smelter. This smelter-roof is comparable to the smelter shown on Bhuteshwar sculptural friezes.

    The safflower motifs are Indus Script hieroglyphs: करडी [ karaḍī ] f (See करडई) Safflower: also its seed. (Marathi) karaṭa2 m. ʻ Carthamus tinctorius ʼ lex.Pk. karaḍa -- m. ʻ safflower ʼ, °ḍā -- f. ʻ a tree like the karañja ʼ; M. karḍī°ḍaī f. ʻ safflower, Carthamus tinctorius and its seed ʼ.M. karḍel n. ʻ oil from the seed of safflower ʼ(CDIAL 2788, 2789) Rebus: करडा [karaḍā] 'Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c.' (Marathi) kharādī ' turner '

    The pillar is identified by a spathe of date palm: sippī ʻspathe of date palmʼ Rebus: sippi 'artificer, craftsman'.

    Source: .(Dennys Frenez & Massimo Vidale, 2012, South Asian Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, September 2012, p.115.

    The 'cobra hood' as tail of composite animal hypertext means: 

    फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    Cobra hood atop a platform. Tree in the background. Two 'signs'.
    Mohenjo-daro pottery sealing (loc.cit. Hertel). 

    फडphaa 'throne, hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory' 

    clip_image056m0492 (DK 8120, NMI 151. National Museum, Delhi).clip_image057[4]2835 Pict-99: Person throwing a spear at a bison and placing one foot on the head of the bison; a hooded serpent at left.

    Hieroglyph: kolsa = to kick the foot forward, the foot to come into contact with anything when walking or running; kolsa pasirkedan = I kicked it over (Santali.lex.)mēṛsa = v.a. toss, kick with the foot, hit with the tail (Santali) 
     kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pancaloha’ (Ta.) kolhe (iron-smelter; kolhuyo, jackal) kol, kollan-, kollar = blacksmith (Ta.lex.)•kol‘to kill’ (Ta.)•sal ‘bos gaurus’, bison; rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali)me~ṛhe~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron; kolhe m. iron manufactured by the Kolhes (Santali); meṛed (Mun.d.ari); meḍ (Ho.)(Santali.Bodding)

    nAga 'serpent' Rebus: nAga 'lead'
    Hieroglyph: rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ 

    Rebus: Pk. raṅga 'tin' P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼOr. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅgaada -- m. ʻ borax ʼ lex.Kho. (Lor.) ruṅ ʻ saline ground with white efflorescence, salt in earth ʼ  *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.

    paTa 'hood of serpent' Rebus: padanu 'sharpness of weapon' (Telugu)

    Hieroglyph: kunta1 ʻ spear ʼ. 2. *kōnta -- . [Perh. ← Gk. konto/s ʻ spear ʼ EWA i 229]1. Pk. kuṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; S. kundu m. ʻ spike of a top ʼ, °dī f. ʻ spike at the bottom of a stick ʼ, °diṛī°dirī f. ʻ spike of a spear or stick ʼ; Si. kutu ʻ lance ʼ.
    2. Pa. konta -- m. ʻ standard ʼ; Pk. koṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; H. kõt m. (f.?) ʻ spear, dart ʼ; -- Si. kota ʻ spear, spire, standard ʼ perh. ← Pa.(CDIAL 3289)

    Rebus: kuṇha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)'

    Allograph: कुंठणें [ kuṇṭhaṇēṃ ] v i (कुंठ S) To be stopped, detained, obstructed, arrested in progress (Marathi)

    फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    Impression of an Indus-style cylinder seal of unknown Near Eastern origin in the Musee du Louvre, Paris. One of the two anthropomorphic figures carved on this seal wears the horns of water buffalo while sitting on a throne with hoofed legs, surrounded by snakes, fishes and water buffaloes.
     Copyrighted photo by M. Chuzeville for the Departement des antiquites orientales, Musee du Louvre. Impression of an Indus-style cylinder seal of unknown Near Eastern origin. 

    Harappa Script message: Brassworker's guild, smelter metalwork catalogue, pewter, laterite castings, hard alloys, implements, smithy/forge working in iron, lead, metal hard alloys.
    The complete pictorial motif may be read: dul sal 'two bos gaurus'; rebus: cast(ing) workshop.

    Hieroglyph multiplexes of the hypertext of the cylinder seal from a Near Eastern Source can be identified: aquatic bird, rhinoceros, buffalo, buffalo horn, crucible, markhor, antelope, hoofed stool, fish, tree, tree branch, twig, roundish stone, tiger, rice plant.

    Hieroglyph components on the head-gear of the person on cylinder seal impression are: twig, crucible, buffalo horns: kuThI 'badari ziziphus jojoba' twig Rebus: kuThi 'smelter';koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer'; tattAru 'buffalo horn' Rebus: ṭhã̄ṭhāro 'brassworker'. koD 'horns' rebus: koD 'workshop'. Thus, the gypertext message is: a brassworker's workshop with a smelter.

     This hieroglyph multiplex ligatures head of an antelope to a snake: nAga 'snake' Rebus:nAga 'lead' PLUS  Alternative:

    फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    karaḍū or ṅkaraḍēṃ ] n A kid. कराडूं (p. 137) [ karāḍūṃ ] n (Commonly करडूं ) Akid. (Marathi) Rebus: करडा (p. 137) [ karaḍā ]'hard alloy' ranku 'antelope' Rebus:ranku 'tin'.  tuttināgamu is a Prakritam gloss meaning 'pewter, zinc'. A comparable alloy may be indicated by the hieroglyph-multiplex of antelope-snake: rankunAga, perhaps a type of zinc or lead alloy. Cobra-hood is ligatured to the face of a young bull: kunda 'youngbull' rebus: kundana 'fine gold'.

    Two fish hieroglyphs flank the hoofed legs of the stool or platform signify: warehouse of cast metal alloy metal implements: 
    khuṭo ʻleg, footʼ.  khũṭ ‘community, guild’ (Santali) Alternative:

    फडphaa 'throne' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    Ta. kuracu, kuraccai horse's hoof. Ka. gorasu, gorase, gorise, gorusu hoofTe. gorija, gorise, (B. also) gorije, korije id. / Cf. Skt. khura- id.; Turner, CDIAL, no. 3906 (embedded). (DEDR 1770)
    Ta. kurappam currycomb. Ma. kurappam, kurappan id. Ka. korapa, gorapa id. Te. kurapamu, koṟapamu, goṟapamu id. / ? Cf. Turner, CDIAL, no. 3730, kṣurapra- ('scraper'-meanings). (DEDR 1771)

    Hieroglyph: kaṇḍō a stool Rebus: kanda 'implements'
    Hieroglyph: maṇḍā 'raised platform, stool' Rebus: maṇḍā 'warehouse'.

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'
    ayo 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)
    barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: भरत (p. 603) [ bharata ] n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.(Marathi). 

    This mkultiplx is flanked by 1. kolom 'rice plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'; 2. kuTi 'tree' Rebus: kuThi 'smeter'. Thus the message is that the warehouse of cast metal alloy metal implements is complemented by a smelter and a smithy/forge -- part of the metalwork repertoire. khuṭo ʻleg, footʼ.  khũṭ‘community, guild’ (Santali)

    The hieroglyph-multiplex of a woman thwarting two rearing tigers is also signified on other seals and tablets to signify:

    Hieroglyph: kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'
    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS kola 'tiger' Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith'; kolhe 'smelter'; kole.l'smithy, forge'. The kolmo 'rice-plant' Rebus kolimi 'smithy, forge' is a semantic determinant of the cipher: smithy with smelter. taTu 'thwart' rebus: dhatu 'mineral'. Thus, 'mineral smelter'. Together the hieroglyph-multiplex or hypertext of a woman thwarting two tigers signifies: smithy/forge with smelter for dhatu, minerals.

    The bottom register of the cylinder seal impression lists the products: smithy/forge forged iron, alloy castings (laterite PLUS spelter), hard alloy implements.

    goTa 'roundish stone' Rebus: goTa 'laterite, ferrite ore''gold-lace braid'
    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS rã̄go 'buffalo' Rebus: rāṅgā 'zinc alloy, spelter, pewter'. Thus, cast spelter PLUS laterite, ferrite ore.
    markhor PLUS tail
    miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) koṭe meṛed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari) PLUS Kur. xolā tailMalt. qoli id. (DEDR 2135) Rebus: kol 'working in iron' Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. 

    Rhinoceros PLUS aquatic bird [implements and hard alloy (ingots)]

    Hieroglyhph: kāṇṭā 'rhinoceros. gaṇḍá m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ Rebus: kāṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware' (Gujarati)

    karaṛa 'large aquatic bird' (Sindhi) Rebus: karaḍā 'hard alloy of metals' (Marathi) 

    Two water-buffalos flanks a hieroglyph: something round, like a seed. Hieroglyph: rã̄go 'buffalo' Rebus: rāṅgā 'zinc alloy, spelter, pewter'. What does the hieroglyph 'something round' signify? I suggest that it signifies goTa 'laterite (ferrous ore)'.

    Orthographic variants of tails of 'animal' hieroglyphs, particularly those of ram or antelope are deciphered as rebus-metonymy layered Meluhha (Proto-Prakritam) words related to blacksmithy or smelters of iron and other metals including metal infusion and cire perdue lost-wax castings. The 'tail' hieroglyh also gets normalised as a sign on texts to connote kolA 'tail' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'. 

    Some hieroglyph components are: hooded snake or short-tail generally on antelopes.

    meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter'
    The bird hieroglyph: karaḍa 

    करण्ड  m. a sort of duck L. కారండవము (p. 0274) [ kāraṇḍavamu ] kāraṇḍavamu. [Skt.] n. A sort of duck. (Telugu) karaṭa1 m. ʻ crow ʼ BhP., °aka -- m. lex. [Cf. karaṭu -- , karkaṭu -- m. ʻ Numidian crane ʼ, karēṭu -- , °ēṭavya -- , °ēḍuka -- m. lex., karaṇḍa2 -- m. ʻ duck ʼ lex: see kāraṇḍava -- ]Pk. karaḍa -- m. ʻ crow ʼ, °ḍā -- f. ʻ a partic. kind of bird ʼ; S. karaṛa -- ḍhī˜gu m. ʻ a very large aquatic bird ʼ; L. karṛā m., °ṛī f. ʻ the common teal ʼ.(CDIAL 2787)

    Parallels from Harappa Script Corpora:
    meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter' PLUS krammara 'look back' Rebus: kamar 'artisan'

    meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter' PLUS aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

    khura m. ʻ hoof ʼ KātyŚr̥. 2. *khuḍa -- 1 (khuḍaka -- , khula° ʻ ankle -- bone ʼ Suśr.). [← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 376: it belongs to the word -- group ʻ heel <-> ankle -- knee -- wrist ʼ, see *kuṭṭha -- ]1. Pa. khura -- m. ʻ hoof ʼ, Pk. khura -- m. (chura -- after khura -- ~ chura -- < kṣurá -- ); Ash. kū˘r ʻ hoof, foot ʼ, kurkāˊ ʻ heel ʼ; Kt. kyur ʻ foot ʼ, kyurkəté ʻ heel ʼ; Gamb kr ʻ hoof, foot ʼ, Niṅg. xūr, Woṭ.khuru, (Kaţārkalā) khur; Dm. khur ʻ foot ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. khurīˊ f. ʻ hoof, heel ʼ (→ Par. khurīˊ ʻ heel ʼ IIFL i 265), kuṛ. xūr ʻ foot ʼ, dar. kurī ʻ heel ʼ, nir. xurī; Shum. xurem ʻ my foot ʼ, xurigyem ʻ my heel ʼ; Gaw. Kal. khur ʻ foot ʼ; Bshk. khur m. ʻ foot ʼ (khin ʻ heel ʼ, Gaw. khunīk, Sv. khunike X píṇḍa -- or < khuriṇī -- AO xviii 240); Tor. khū ʻ foot ʼ, Mai. khur, ky. khor, Phal. khur m.; Sh. gil. khūrṷ m. ʻ hoof ʼ, khūri̯ f. ʻ heel ʼ, koh. khōrṷ m. ʻ hoof ʼ, jij. khuri ʻ heel ʼ (koh. thŭri, pales. thurī ʻ heel ʼ X *thuḍḍati ʻ kicks ʼ?); K. khor m. ʻ foot (esp. human) ʼ, khōr m. ʻ foot of any living being ʼ, khūru m. ʻ leg of a bed &c. ʼ,khūrü f. ʻ heel ʼ, kash. khōr ʻ foot ʼ, rām. pog. khur; S. khuru m. ʻ hoof ʼ; L. khurā m. ʻ foot track ʼ, °rī f. ʻ heel ʼ, awāṇ. khur ʻ hoof ʼ; P. khur m. ʻ hoof ʼ, °rā m. ʻ hoof -- print ʼ, °rī f. ʻ small hoof, heel of shoe ʼ, °rṛā m. ʻ divided hoof, its print ʼ; WPah. bhal. pāḍ. khur m. ʻ foot ʼ; Ku. N. khur ʻ hoof ʼ; A. khurā ʻ hoof, leg of table or stool ʼ; B. khur ʻ hoof ʼ, °rā ʻ foot of bedstead ʼ; Or. khura ʻ hoof, foot ʼ, °rā ʻ hoof, leg ʼ; Mth. khūr, khurī ʻ hoof ʼ, Bhoj. khur; H. khur m. ʻ hoof ʼ, °rā m. ʻ heel of shoe ʼ, °rī f. ʻ hoof, heel of slipper, hoof -- print ʼ; G. khur f. ʻ heel ʼ, kharī f. ʻ hoof ʼ; M. khū˘r m. ʻ hoof, foot of bed ʼ, khurī f. ʻ forepart of hoof ʼ, °rā m., °rẽ n. ʻ heel of shoe ʼ (khurũdaḷṇẽ ʻ to trample ʼ X *kṣundati?); Ko. khūru m. ʻ hoof ʼ, Si. kuraya.2. Pk. khuluha -- m. ʻ ankle ʼ; Gy. wel. xur̄, xur m. ʻ hoof ʼ; S. khuṛī f. ʻ heel ʼ; WPah. paṅ. khūṛ ʻ foot ʼ.khuriṇī -- ; *khuraghāta -- , *khurapāśa -- , *khuramr̥ttikā -- ; *catuṣkhura -- .Addenda: khura -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) khūˊr m. ʻ hoof ʼ, J. G. khur m. 

    See: ANE cylinder seal in Louvre Museum is Harappa Script metalwork catalogue

    eruvai ‘eagle’ rebus: eruvai ‘copper’ ayo ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal alloy’ rango ‘buffalo’ rebus: rango ‘pewter’ PLUS dula ‘two’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’ goṭa ‘numerative particle, round pebble’ rebus: goṭa ‘laterite, ferrite ore’  miṇḍāl ‘markhor‘ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a merchant; meD ‘iron’ kuThi ‘tree’ rebus: kuThi ‘smelter’ kolmo ‘rice plant’ rebus: kolami ‘smithy, forge’ kola ‘tiger’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron’
    Image result for indus script hooded snake

    Text on obverse of the tablet m453A: Text 1629. m453B Seated in penance, the person is flanked on either side by a kneeling adorant, offering a pot and a hooded serpent rearing up. 

    Mohenjo-daro tablet (Drawing). Hooded snakes. 
    Glyph: kaṇḍo ‘stool’. Rebus; kaṇḍ ‘furnace’. Vikalpa: kaṇḍ ‘stone (ore) metal’.  Rebus: kamaḍha ‘penance’. Rebus 1: kaṇḍ ‘stone ore’. Rebus 2: kampaṭṭa ‘mint’. Glyph: ‘serpent hood’: paṭa. Rebus: pata ‘sharpness (of knife), tempered (metal). padm ‘tempered iron’ (Ko.) Glyph: rimless pot: baṭa. Rebus: bhaṭa ‘smelter, furnace’. It appears that the message of the glyphics is about a mint  or metal workshop which produces sharpened, tempered iron (stone ore) using a furnace.

    फडphaa 'throne, hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    Rebus readings of glyphs on text of inscription:

    koṇḍa bend (Ko.); Tu. Kōḍi  corner; kōṇṭu angle, corner, crook. Nk. Kōnṭa corner (DEDR 2054b)  G. khū̃ṭṛī  f. ʻangleʼRebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’(B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi) koḍ  = place where artisans work (G.) ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or.kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. Kū̃d ’ lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)  

    aṭar ‘a splinter’ (Ma.) aṭaruka ‘to burst, crack, sli off,fly open; aṭarcca ’ splitting, a crack’; aṭarttuka ‘to split, tear off, open (an oyster) (Ma.); aḍaruni ‘to crack’ (Tu.) (DEDR 66) Rebus: aduru ‘native, unsmelted metal’ (Kannada) 

    ã= scales of fish (Santali); rebusaya ‘metal, iron’ (Gujarati.) cf. cognate to amśu 'soma' in Rigveda: ancu 'iron' (Tocharian)

    G.karã̄ n. pl. ‘wristlets, bangles’; S. karāī f. ’wrist’ (CDIAL 2779).  Rebus: khār खार् ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)

    dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’

    Glyph of ‘rim of jar’: kárṇaka m. ʻ projection on the side of a vessel, handle ʼ ŚBr. [kárṇa -- ]Pa. kaṇṇaka -- ʻ having ears or corners ʼ; (CDIAL 2831) kaṇḍa kanka; Rebus: furnace account (scribe). kaṇḍ = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil) khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus: karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu) káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. karaṇa -- n. ʻdoingʼ; NiDoc. karana,  kaṁraṁna ʻworkʼ; Pk. karaṇa -- n. ʻinstrumentʼ(CDIAL 2790)
    Santali glosses.

    Sa. <i>mE~R~hE~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mE~RhE~d</i>(M).

    Ma. <i>mErhE'd</i> `iron'.

    Mu. <i>mERE'd</i> `iron'.

      ~ <i>mE~R~E~'d</i> `iron'.  ! <i>mENhEd</i>(M).

    Ho <i>meD</i> `iron'.

    Bj. <i>merhd</i>(Hunter) `iron'.

    KW <i>mENhEd</i>


    — Slavic glosses for 'copper'

    Мед [Med]Bulgarian

    Bakar Bosnian

    Медзь [medz']Belarusian

    Měď Czech

    Bakar Croatian


    Бакар [Bakar]Macedonian

    Miedź Polish

    Медь [Med']Russian

    Meď Slovak


    Бакар [Bakar]Serbian

    Мідь [mid'] Ukrainian[unquote]

    Miedź, med' (Northern Slavic, Altaic) 'copper'.  

    One suggestion is that corruptions from the German "Schmied", "Geschmeide" = jewelry. Schmied, a smith (of tin, gold, silver, or other metal)(German) result in med ‘copper’.

    Hieroglyph of a worshipper kneeling: Konḍa (BB) meḍa, meṇḍa id. Pe. menḍa id. 
    Manḍ. menḍe id. Kui menḍa id. Kuwi (F.) menda, (S. Su. P.) menḍa, (Isr.) meṇḍa id.
    Ta. maṇṭi kneeling, kneeling on one knee as an archer. Ma.maṇṭuka to be seated on the heels. Ka. maṇḍi what is bent, the knee. Tu. maṇḍi knee. Te. maṇḍĭ̄ kneeling on one knee. Pa.maḍtel knee; maḍi kuḍtel kneeling position. Go. (L.) meṇḍā, (G. Mu. Ma.)  Cf. 4645 Ta.maṭaṅku (maṇi-forms). / ? Cf. Skt. maṇḍūkī- (DEDR 4677)
    Hieroglyph: 'human face': mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) 

    Rebus: mũh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.); ingot (Santali) mũh metal ingot (Santali) mũhã
    ̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali) 

    The suggested rebus readings indicate that the Indus writing served the purpose of artisans/traders to create metalware, stoneware, mineral catalogs -- products with which they carried on their life-activities in an evolving Bronze Age.Worshippers. Person seated in penance on stool.

    Mohenjo-daro. Sealing.  Surrounded by fishes, lizard and snakes, a horned person sits in 'yoga' on a throne with hoofed legs. One side of a triangular terracotta amulet (Md 013); surface find at Mohenjo-daro in 1936, Dept. of Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. [seated person penance, crocodile?] Brief memoranda: kamaḍha ‘penance’ Rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner’; kaṇḍo ‘stool, seat’ Rebus: kāṇḍa  ‘metalware’ kaṇḍa  ‘fire-altar’.
    kAru 'crocodile' Rebus: kAru 'artisan'.

    फडphaa 'throne' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    Cylindeer seals Mohenjo-daro baTa 'quail' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' barad, balad 'ox' rebus: bharat 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin' kulA 'hood of snake' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron'.

    फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    A person with a vase with overflowing water; sun sign. C. 18th cent. BCE. [E. Porada,1971, Remarks on seals found in the Gulf states, Artibus Asiae, 33, 31-7]. meḍha ‘polar star’ (Marathi). meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.Mu.)

    Chlorite vessel found at Khafajeh: Ht 11.5 cm. 2,600 BCE, Khafajeh, north-east of Baghdad (Photo from pg. 69 of D. Collon's 1995 Ancient Near Eastern Art).

    Ibni-Sharrum cylinder seal shows a kneeling person with six curls of hair.Cylinder seal of Ibni-sharrum, a scribe of Shar-kali-sharri (left) and impression (right), ca. 2183–2159 B.C.; Akkadian, reign of Shar-kali-sharri. 
    The inscription reads “O divine Shar-kali-sharri, Ibni-sharrum the scribe is your servant.” Cylinder seal. Chlorite. AO 22303 H. 3.9 cm. Dia. 2.6 cm.[i]  khaṇṭi ‘buffalo bull’ (Tamil) kaṭā, kaṭamā ‘bison’ (Tamil)(DEDR 1114) (glyph). Rebus: khaṇḍ ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’; kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍa-i-o = (Skt. Sthapati, a mason) a bricklayer, mason (G.)] (B)  {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''.  See `to be left over'.  @B24310.  #20851. Re(B)  {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''.  See `to be left over'. (Munda ) Rebus: loh ‘copper’ (Hindi) Glyph of flowing water in the second register: காண்டம் kāṇṭam , n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர்; kāṇṭam ‘ewer, pot’ கமண்டலம்.  (Tamil) Thus the combined rebus reading: Ku. lokhaṛ  ʻiron tools ʼ; H. lokhaṇḍ  m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ(CDIAL 11171). The kneeling person’s hairstyle has six curls. bhaṭa ‘six’; rebus: bhaṭa ‘furnace’. मेढा mēḍhā A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) Thus, the orthography denotes meḍ bhaṭa ‘iron furnace’. Girdled nude hero attacking water buffalo; bull-man attacking  lion; inscription. Kafaje, Akkadian.c. 2300 BCE, Iraq Museum, Baghdad. From a cylinder seal, in wo narrative frames flanking a star metonymy (Afer Fig. 1d in

    Six curls on hair: baTa 'six' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'

    मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ]A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)

    मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] The polar star मेढेमत (p. 665) [ mēḍhēmata ] n (मेढ Polar star, मत Dogma or sect.) A persuasion or an order or a set of tenets and notions amongst the Shúdra-people. Founded upon certain astrological calculations proceeding upon the North star. Hence मेढेजोशी or डौरीजोशी.(Marathi). Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)

    The narrative of metalwork is explained as metonymy. A horned person ligatured to the hindpart of a bull: ḍhaṅgaru, ḍhiṅgaru m. ʻlean emaciated beastʼ(Sindhi) Rebus: dhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili) 

    His life-activity is in wrestling with lion (hieroglyph): אַרְיֵה (aryeh) 'lion' (Hebrew)Rebus: āra, āramBrass (Tamil) आरः रम् [आ-ऋ-घञ्] 1 Brass; ताम्रारकोष्ठां परिखादुरा- सदाम् Bhāg.1.41.2. Oxide of iron.( The metonymy is thus a rebus rendering of alloy metal)(Samskritam).

    Hieroglyph: rã̄go 'buffalo': raṅku m. ʻ a species of deer ʼ Vās., °uka -- m. Śrīkaṇṭh.Ku. N. rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ? (CDIAL 10559) Rebus:  rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ (Punjabi)rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ (Oriya)

    Table decorated with serpents and deities bearing vessels spouting streams of water. Musee du Louvre.
    • Table ornée de serpents et de divinités aux eaux jaillissantes
      XIVe siècle avant J.-C.
      Suse, Tell de l'Acropole
    • Bronze
      H. 19.5 cm; W. 15.7 cm; L. 69.5 cm
    • Fouilles J. de Morgan, 1898 , 1898
    • [quote] This table, edged with serpents and resting on deities carrying vessels spouting streams of water, was doubtless originally a sacrificial altar. The holes meant the blood would drain away as water flowed from the vessels. Water was an important theme in Mesopotamian mythology, represented particularly by the god Enki and his acolytes. This table also displays the remarkable skills of Elamite metalworkers. A sacrificial table The table, edged with two serpents, rested on three sides on five figures that were probably female deities. Only the busts and arms of the figures survive. The fourth side of the table had an extension, which must have been used to slot the table into a wall. The five busts are realistic in style. Each of the deities was holding an object, since lost, which was probably a water vessel, cast separately and attached by a tenon joint. Water played a major role in such ceremonies and probably gushed forth from the vessels. Along the sides of the table are sloping surfaces leading down to holes, allowing liquid to drain away. This suggests that the table was used for ritual sacrifices to appease a god. It was believed that men were created by the gods and were responsible for keeping their temples stocked and providing them with food. The sinuous lines of the two serpents along the edge of the table mark off holes where the blood of the animals, sacrificed to assuage the hunger of the gods, would have drained away. The importance of water in Mesopotamian mythology In Mesopotamia, spirits bearing vessels spouting streams of water were the acolytes of Enki/Ea, the god of the Abyss and of fresh water. The fact that they figure in this work reflects the extent of the influence of Mesopotamian mythology in Susa. Here, they are associated with another Chtonian symbol, the snake, often found in Iranian iconography. The sinuous lines of the serpents resemble the winding course of a stream. It is thought that temples imitated the way streams well up from underground springs by the clever use of underground channels. Water - the precious liquid - was at the heart of Mesopotamian religious practice, being poured out in libations or used in purification rites. Objects made for a new religious capital Under Untash-Napirisha, the founder of the Igihalkid Dynasty, the Elamite kingdom flourished. He founded a new religious capital, Al-Untash - modern-day Chogha Zanbil - some 40 kilometers southeast of Susa. However, the project was short-lived. His successors soon brought large numbers of religious objects back to Susa, the former capital. This table was certainly among them. Its large size and clever drainage system reflect the remarkable achievements of metalworking at the time. 
    • Amiet Pierre, Suse 6000 ans d'histoire, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1988, pp.98-99 ; fig. 57.
      Miroschedji Pierre de, "Le dieu élamite au serpent", in : Iranica antiqua, vol.16, 1981, Gand, Ministère de l'Éducation et de la Culture, 1989, pp.16-17, pl. 10, fig.3.B
    •  [unquote]
    • Herbin Nancie
    • फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

      Orthographic variants of tails of 'animal' hieroglyphs, particularly those of ram or antelope are deciphered as rebus-metonymy layered Meluhha (Proto-Prakritam) words related to blacksmithy or smelters of iron and other metals including metal infusion and cire perdue lost-wax castings. The 'tail' hieroglyh also gets normalised as a sign on texts to connote kolA 'tail' Rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'. 

      Some hieroglyph components are: hooded snake or short-tail generally on antelopes.

      meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter'

      meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter' PLUS krammara 'look back' Rebus: kamar 'artisan'

      meḍho-kolhe 'iron smelter' PLUS aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

       This hieroglyph appears on Jasper Akkadian cylinder seal.  kulā hood of snake Rebus: kolle'blacksmith'

      One Proto-Prakritam word signifies both 'tail' and 'hood of serpent'. The word is: xolā 'tail' of antelope and kulā hooded snake as tail. A similar sounding word signifies a blacksmith or smelter: kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelter'. These can be cited as 'signature' tunes of the writing system, to convey the semantics of a metalworker -- a smith or a smelter. Alternative: 

      फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

      The hieroglyph component in hieroglyph-multiplex pictorial motifs also gets normalised as a 'sign' on texts of inscriptions. See Sign 169 (Mahadevan Concordance).

      Variants of Sign 169 (Mahadevan concordance) Comparable hieroglyph components constitute the 'tail' of antelopes on Indus Script Corpora. This is an example of a 'sign' becoming a component of a 'pictorial motif' thus creating a hieroglyph-multiplex (hypertext).

      Hieroglyph: hood of a snake: kulā ʻhood of a snake' (Assamese)kulya n. ʻ receptacle for burnt bones of a corpse ʼ MBh., ʻ winnowing basket ʼ lex. [Prob. ← Drav.: see kulāˊya -- ]Pa. kulla -- m. ʻ raft of basket work, winnowing basket ʼ, °aka -- m. ʻ crate ʼ; Pk. kullaḍa -- n. ʻ packet ʼ; A. kulā ʻ winnowing fan; B. kul°lā ʻ winnowing basket or fan ʼ; Or. kulā ʻ winnowing fan ʼ, °lāi ʻ small do. ʼ; Si. kulla, st. kulu -- ʻ winnowing basket or fan ʼ.(CDIAL 3350)
      phaḍa फड 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa फड 'accounting ledger of metalwork guild'.
      clip_image056m0492Ct clip_image057[4]2835 Pict-99: Person throwing a spear at a bison and placing one foot on the head of the bison; a hooded serpent at left.

      Mohenjodaro seal (m0302).

      The composite animal glyph is one example to show that rebus method has to be applied to every glyphic element in the writing system. 

      This image is also interpreted in corpora (e.g. Mahadevan's Corpus of Indus script) as: body of a ram, horns of a bison, trunk of elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised serpent-like tail.
      m1177 Mohenjo-daro seal.
      m1186, m301, m302, m300
      Mohenjodaro seals shows a 'composite animal' hieroglyph-muliplex, hypertext composition.
      Ligatured faces: some close-up images.

      The animal is a quadruped: pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Te.)Rebus: pasra ‘smithy’ (Santali) Allograph: panǰā́r ‘ladder, stairs’(Bshk.)(CDIAL 7760) Thus the composite animal connotes a smithy. Details of the smithy are described orthographically by the glyphic elements of the composition.

      Rebus reading of the 'face' glyph: mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) mũh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.); ingot (Santali)mũh metal ingot (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali.lex.) kaula mengro ‘blacksmith’ (Gypsy) mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) The Sanskrit loss mleccha-mukha should literally mean: copper-ingot absorbing the Santali gloss, mũh, as a suffix.

      A remarkable phrase in Sanskrit indicates the link between mleccha and use of camels as trade caravans. This is explained in the lexicon of Apte for the lexeme: auṣṭrika 'belonging to a camel'. The lexicon entry cited Mahābhārata: औष्ट्रिक a. Coming from a camel (as milk); Mb.8. 44.28; -कः An oil-miller; मानुषाणां मलं म्लेच्छा म्लेच्छाना- मौष्ट्रिका मलम् । औष्ट्रिकाणां मलं षण्ढाः षण्ढानां राजयाजकाः ॥ Mb.8.45.25. From the perspective of a person devoted to śāstra and rigid disciplined life, Baudhāyana thus defines the word म्लेच्छः mlēcchḥ : -- गोमांसखादको यस्तु विरुद्धं बहु भाषते । सर्वाचारविहीनश्च म्लेच्छ इत्यभिधीयते ॥ 'A person who eatrs meat, deviates from traditional practices.'

      The 'face' glyph is thus read rebus: mleccha mũh 'copper ingot'.

      It is significant that Vatsyayana refers to crptography in his lists of 64 arts and calls it mlecchita-vikalpa, lit. 'an alternative representation -- in cryptography or cipher -- of mleccha words.'

      The glyphic of the hieroglyph: tail (serpent), face (human), horns (bos indicus, zebu or ram), trunk (elephant), front paw (tiger): 

      poLa 'bos indicus, zebu' Rebus: poLa 'magnetite'

      karibha 'trunk of elephant' (Pali) ibha 'elephant' (Samskritam) Rebus: karba 'iron' (Ka.)(DEDR 1278) as in ajirda karba 'iron' (Ka.) kari, karu 'black' (Ma.)(DEDR 1278) karbura 'gold' (Ka.) karbon 'black gold, iron' (Ka.) kabbiṇa 'iron' (Ka.) karum pon 'iron' (Ta.); kabin 'iron' (Ko.)(DEDR 1278) Ib 'iron' (Santali) [cf. Toda gloss below: ib ‘needle’.] Ta. Irumpu iron, instrument, weapon. a. irumpu,irimpu iron. Ko. ibid. To. Ib needle. Koḍ. Irïmbï iron. Te. Inumu id. Kol. (Kin.) inum (pl. inmul)iron, sword. Kui (Friend-Pereira) rumba vaḍi ironstone (for vaḍi, see 5285). (DEDR 486) Allograph: karibha -- m. ʻ Ficus religiosa (?) [Semantics of ficus religiosa may be relatable to homonyms used to denote both the sacred tree and rebus gloss: loa, ficus (Santali); loh ‘metal’ (Skt.)] 

      miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120)bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ lex. [← Austro -- as. J. Przyluski BSL xxx 200: perh. Austro -- as. *mēḍra ~ bhēḍra collides with Aryan mḗḍhra -- 1 in mēṇḍhra -- m. ʻ penis ʼ BhP., ʻ ram ʼ lex. -- See also bhēḍa -- 1, mēṣá -- , ēḍa -- . -- The similarity between bhēḍa -- 1, bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- ʻ ram ʼ and *bhēḍa -- 2 ʻ defective ʼ is paralleled by that between mḗḍhra -- 1, mēṇḍha -- 1 ʻ ram ʼ and *mēṇḍa -- 1, *mēṇḍha -- 2 (s.v. *miḍḍa -- ) ʻ defective ʼ](CDIAL 9606) mēṣá m. ʻ ram ʼ, °ṣīˊ -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ RV. 2. mēha -- 2, miha- m. lex. [mēha -- 2 infl. by mḗhati ʻ emits semen ʼ as poss. mēḍhra -- 2 ʻ ram ʼ (~ mēṇḍha -- 2) by mḗḍhra -- 1 ʻ penis ʼ?]1. Pk. mēsa -- m. ʻ sheep ʼ, Ash. mišalá; Kt. məṣe/l ʻ ram ʼ; Pr. məṣé ʻ ram, oorial ʼ; Kal. meṣ, meṣalák ʻ ram ʼ, H. mes m.; -- X bhēḍra -- q.v.2. K. myã̄ -- pūtu m. ʻ the young of sheep or goats ʼ; WPah.bhal. me\i f. ʻ wild goat ʼ; H. meh m. ʻ ram ʼ.mēṣāsya -- ʻ sheep -- faced ʼ Suśr. [mēṣá -- , āsyà -- ](CDIAL 10334) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)mẽṛh t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Mu.) Allograph: meḍ ‘body ' (Mu.)

      The glyphic elements of the composite animal shown together with the glyphs of fish, fish ligatured with lid, arrow (on Seal m0302) are:

      --ram or sheep (forelegs denote a bovine)
      --neck-band, ring
      --bos indicus (zebu)(the high horns denote a bos indicus)
      --elephant (the elephant's trunk ligatured to human face)
      --tiger (hind legs denote a tiger)
      --serpent (tail denotes a serpent)
      --human face

      All these glyphic elements are decoded rebus:

      meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120); 
      kaḍum ‘neck-band, ring’ 
      adar ḍangra ‘zebu’
      ibha ‘elephant’ (Skt.); rebus: ib ‘iron’ (Ko.)
      kolo ‘jackal’ (Kon.)

      mũhe ‘face’ (Santali); mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali)

      கோடு kōṭu : •நடுநிலை நீங்குகை. கோடிறீக் கூற் றம் (நாலடி, 5). 3. [K. kōḍu.] Tusk; யானை பன்றிகளின் தந்தம். மத்த யானையின் கோடும் (தேவா. 39, 1). 4. Horn; விலங்கின் கொம்பு. கோட்டிடை யாடினை கூத்து (திவ். இயற். திருவிருத். 21). Ta. kōṭu (in cpds. kōṭṭu-) horn, tusk, branch of tree, cluster, bunch, coil of hair, line, diagram, bank of stream or pool; kuvaṭu branch of a tree; kōṭṭāṉ, kōṭṭuvāṉ rock horned-owl (cf. 1657 Ta. kuṭiñai). Ko. kṛ (obl. kṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kwṛ (obl. kwṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn. Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn (DEDR 2200)

      meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)
      khāḍ ‘trench, firepit’
      aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.) ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.)
      kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pancaloha’ (Ta.)
      mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)
      mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali)
      koḍ = the place where artisans work (G.) 

      Orthographically, the glytic compositions add on the characteristic short tail as a hieroglyph (on both ligatured signs and on pictorial motifs)

      xolā = tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDr 2135). Rebus: kol ‘pañcalōha’ (Ta.)கொல் kol, n. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. மின் வெள்ளி பொன் கொல்லெனச் சொல்லும் (தக்கயாகப். 550). 2. Metal; உலோகம். (நாமதீப. 318.) கொல்லன் kollaṉ, n. < T. golla. Custodian of treasure; கஜானாக்காரன். (P. T. L.) கொல்லிச்சி kollicci, n. Fem. of கொல்லன். Woman of the blacksmith caste; கொல்லச் சாதிப் பெண். (யாழ். அக.) The gloss kollicci is notable. It clearly evidences that kol was a blacksmith. kola ‘blacksmith’ (Ka.); Koḍ. kollë blacksmith (DEDR 2133). फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

      A remarkable evidence is provided by a lexeme in Kota. The lexeme is: kole.l ‘smithy, temple’ (Kota) kwala·l Kota smithy (Toda)kol ‘working in iron, blacksmith (Tamil)(DEDR 2133)Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge. (DEDR 2133).

      On the following seal-imprssion, a hooded snake is shown with the face of a goat (kid) with horns.
      Impression of an Indus-style cylinder seal of unknown Near Eastern origin (After Fig. 6"One of the two anthropomorphic figures carved on this seal wears the horns of water buffalo while sitting on a throne with hoofed legs, surrounded by snakes, fishes and water buffaloes. Copyrighted photo by M. Chuzeville for the Departement des antiquites orientales, Musee du Louvre." (Parpola, 2001) फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    • Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm) cylinder Seal with four hieroglyphs and four kneeling persons (with six curls on their hair) holding flagposts, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression). The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. crucible PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing water, 4. fish A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held. 

      koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'

      If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: قمر ḳamar
      قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See سپوږمي or سپوګمي (Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'.

      kulā hooded snake Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelters'

      koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'

      kamar 'moon' Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'

      arka 'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka 'copper, gold, moltencast, metal infusion'

      lokANDa 'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhaNDa 'metal implements, excellent 


      aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

      baTa 'six' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS meDh 'curl' Rebus: meD 'iron'
    • फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    • Image result for indus script snakeJasper Akkadian cylinder seal                                                                                                                                          
    • Four standard-bearers with six curls of hair. Storage pot of ingots: mūhā mẽṛhẽt 'iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends.'  Head of bull between two storage jars filled with ingots. Warka vase hieroglyph-multiplex.
    • If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: قمر ḳamar
      قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See سپوږمي or سپوګمي (Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'.

      kulā hooded snake Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelters'

      koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'

      kamar 'moon' Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'

      arka 'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka 'copper, gold, moltencast, metal infusion'

      lokANDa 'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhaNDa 'metal implements, excellent 


      aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

      baTa 'six' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS meDh 'curl' Rebus: meD 'iron'

    • āra ‘serpent’ Rebus; āra ‘brass’. kara'double-drum' Rebus: kara'hard alloy'. (Note the double-drum hieroglyph component affixed atop the flagstaff) Alternatives: kula 'hooded snake' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'; kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelter' PLUS nāga 'serpent' Rebus: nāga 'lead (alloy)'
    • Hieroglyph: मेढा [ mēḍhā ] 'a curl or snarl; twist in thread' (Marathi)  Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Thus, the four Akkadian standard bearers are meḍ bhaṭa iron-furnace metal- workers producing alloy implements, moltencast metalcastings, crucible ingots. The hooded snake reinforces the semantic determinative: kulA 'hooded serpent' Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron'.

    • The proclamation (sangara) is that four types of furnaces are announced: for aya 'fish' rebus: ayas 'metal'; lokhANDa 'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhANDa 'metal implements'; arka 'sun' Rebus: eraka 'moltencast copper'; koThAri 'crucible' ebus: Or. koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ; Bhoj. koṭhārī ʻ storekeeper ʼ, H. kuṭhiyārī m. kōṣṭhāgārika -- : G. koṭhārī m. ʻ storekeeper ʼ.(CDIAL 3551)kulA 'hood of serpent' Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith'. Rebus representation is indicated by a determinative: a conical jar containing ingots. Thus, the reference to the 'crucible' may be a message related to ingots of alloys produced from the crucible, the way the traditions evolved to produce crucible steel.
      Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm) cylinder Seal with four hieroglyphs and four kneeling persons (with six curls on their hair) holding flagposts, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression). 
    • The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. crucible PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing water, 4. fish A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held).

      कारंडा [ kāraṇḍā ]करंडा [ karaṇḍā ]  m A chump or block. the stock or fixed portion of the staff of the large leaf-covered summerhead or umbrella. A clump, chump, or block of wood. करांडा [ karāṇḍā ] m C A cylindrical piece as sawn or chopped off the trunk or a bough of a tree; a clump, chump, or block. करोळा [ karōḷā ] m The half-burnt grass of a Potter's kiln: also a single stalk of it. Kalanda [cp. Sk. karaṇḍa piece of wood?] heap, stack (like a heap of wood? cp. kalingara) Miln 292 (sīsa˚) (Pali) करण्ड [L=44277] n. a piece of wood , block Bhpr.

      Rebus: करडा [ karaḍā ]Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) 
    • Four flag-posts(reeds) with rings on top held by the kneeling persons define the four components of the iron smithy/forge.  This is an announcement of four shops, पेढी (Gujarati. Marathi). पेंढें 'rings' Rebus: पेढी 'shop'.āra 'serpent' Rebus; āra 'brass'. karaḍa 'double-drum' Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy'.
      Specific materials offered for sale/exchange in the shop are: hard alloy brass metal (ayo, fish); lokhaṇḍ (overflowing pot) 'metal tools, pots and pans, metalware'; arka/erka   'copper'; kammaṭa (a portable furnace for melting precious metals) 'coiner, mint'  Thus, the four shops are: 1. brass alloys, 2. metalware, 3. copper and 4. mint (services).
      erãguḍu bowing, salutation (Telugu) iṟai (-v-, -nt-) to bow before (as in salutation), worship (Tamil)(DEDR 516). Rebus: eraka, eṟaka any metal infusion (Kannada.Tulu) eruvai 'copper' (Tamil); ere dark red (Kannada)(DEDR 446).
      puṭa Anything folded or doubled so as to form a cup or concavity; crucible. Alternative: ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati)
      Allograph: ढाल [ ḍhāla ] f (S through H) The grand flag of an army directing its march and encampments: also the standard or banner of a chieftain: also a flag flying on forts &c. ढालकाठी [ ḍhālakāṭhī ] f ढालखांब m A flagstaff; esp.the pole for a grand flag or standard. 2 fig. The leading and sustaining member of a household or other commonwealth. 5583 ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- . 1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f. WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f. (CDIAL 5583).
      They are four Glyphs: paṭākā 'flag' Rebus: pāṭaka, four quarters of the village.
      kã̄ḍ reed Rebus: kāṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. 
      1. Pk. kamaḍha -- , °aya -- m. ʻ bamboo ʼ; Bhoj. kōro ʻ bamboo poles ʼ. 2. N. kāmro ʻ bamboo, lath, piece of wood ʼ, OAw.  kāṁvari ʻ bamboo pole with slings at each end for carrying things ʼ, H. kã̄waṛ°arkāwaṛ°ar f., G. kāvaṛf., M. kāvaḍ f.; -- deriv. Pk. kāvaḍia -- , kavvāḍia -- m. ʻ one who carries a yoke ʼ, H. kã̄waṛī°ṛiyā m., G. kāvaṛiyɔ m. 3. S. kāvāṭhī f. ʻ carrying pole ʼ, kāvāṭhyo m. ʻ the man who carries it ʼ. 4. Or. kāmaṛā°muṛā ʻ rafters of a thatched house ʼ; G. kāmṛũ n., °ṛī f. ʻ chip of bamboo ʼ, kāmaṛ -- koṭiyũ n. ʻ bamboo hut ʼ. 5. B. kāmṭhā ʻ bow ʼ, G. kāmṭhũ n., °ṭhī f. ʻ bow ʼ; M. kamṭhā°ṭā m. ʻ bow of bamboo or horn ʼ; -- deriv. G. kāmṭhiyɔ m. ʻ archer ʼ. 6. A. kabāri ʻ flat piece of bamboo used in smoothing an earthen image ʼ. 7. kã̄bīṭ°baṭ°bṭī,  kāmīṭ°maṭ°mṭī,  kāmṭhīkāmāṭhī f. ʻ split piece of bamboo &c., lath ʼ.(CDIAL 2760). kambi f. ʻ branch or shoot of bamboo ʼ lex. Pk. kaṁbi -- , °bī -- , °bā -- f. ʻ stick, twig ʼ, OG. kāṁba; M. kã̄b f. ʻ longitudinal division of a bamboo &c., bar of iron or other metal ʼ. (CDIAL 2774). कंबडी [ kambaḍī ] f A slip or split piece (of a bamboo &c.)(Marathi)
      The rings atop the reed standard: पेंढें [ pēṇḍhēṃ ] पेंडकें [ pēṇḍakēṃ ] n Weaver's term. A cord-loop or metal ring (as attached to the गुलडा of the बैली and to certain other fixtures). पेंडें [ pēṇḍēṃ ] n (पेड) A necklace composed of strings of pearls. 2 A loop or ring. Rebus: पेढी (Gujaráthí word.) A shop (Marathi) Alternative: koṭiyum [koṭ, koṭī  neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (Gujarati) Rebus: ācāri koṭṭya = forge, kammārasāle (Tulu)
      The four hieroglyphs define the four quarters of the village smithy/forge: alloy, metalware, turner's lathe-work, cruble (or, ingot).
      ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayo 'metal, alloy'
      కాండము [ kāṇḍamu ] kānḍamu. [Skt.] n. Water. నీళ్లు (Telugu) kaṇṭhá -- : (b) ʻ water -- channel ʼ: Paš. kaṭāˊ ʻ irrigation channel ʼ, Shum. xãṭṭä. (CDIAL 14349).
      lokhãḍ 'overflowing pot' Rebus:  ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ (Gujarati)
      arká1 m. ʻ flash, ray, sun ʼ RV. [√arc] Pa. Pk. akka -- m. ʻ sun ʼ, Mth. āk; Si. aka ʻ lightning ʼ, inscr. vid -- äki ʻ lightning flash ʼ.(CDIAL 624) அருக்கன் arukkaṉ, n. < arka. Sun; சூரி யன். அருக்க னணிநிறமுங் கண்டேன் (திவ். இயற். 3, 1).(Tamil) agasāle 'goldsmithy' (Kannada) అగసాలి [ agasāli ] or అగసాలెవాడు agasāli. n. A goldsmith. కంసాలివాడు. (Telugu) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) cf. eruvai = copper (Tamil) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tulu) Rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.) eruvai = copper (Ta.); ere - a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a = syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Kannada) akka, aka (Tadbhava of arka) metal; akka metal (Te.) arka = copper (Skt.) erako molten cast (Tulu) 
      Alternative: kunda 'jasmine flower' Rebus: kunda ʻa turner's latheʼ. kundaṇa pure gold. 
      The image could denote a crucible or a portable furnace: kammaṭa 'coiner, mint, a portable furnace for melting precious metals (Telugu) On some cylinder seals, this image is shown held aloft on a stick, comparable to the bottom register of the 'standard device' normally shown in front of a one-horned young bull. Alternatives: puṭa Anything folded or doubled so as to form a cup or concavity; crucible. Ta. kuvai, kukai crucible.  Ma. kuva id.  Ka. kōve  id. Tu. kōvè id., mould. (DEDR 1816). Alternative: Shape of ingot: దళము [daḷamu] daḷamu. [Skt.] n. A leaf. ఆకు. A petal. A part, భాగము.  dala n. ʻ leaf, petal ʼ MBh. Pa. Pk. dala -- n. ʻ leaf, petal ʼ, G. M. daḷ n.(CDIAL 6214). <DaLO>(MP)  {N} ``^branch, ^twig''.  *Kh.<DaoRa>(D) `dry leaves when fallen', ~<daura>, ~<dauRa> `twig', Sa.<DAr>, Mu.<Dar>, ~<Dara> `big branch of a tree', ~<DauRa> `a twig or small branch with fresh leaves on it', So.<kOn-da:ra:-n> `branch', H.<DalA>, B.<DalO>, O.<DaLO>, Pk.<DAlA>.  %7811.  #7741.(Munda etyma) Rebus: ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati).Hieroglyph: arká1 m. ʻ flash, ray, sun ʼ RV. [√arcPa. Pk. akka -- m. ʻ sun ʼ, Mth. āk; Si. aka ʻ lightning ʼ, inscr. vid -- äki ʻ lightning flash ʼ.(CDIAL 624)

      Rebus: arka 'copper (metal)'; araka 'sublimation, sublimate' (Kannada) అగసాలి (p. 0023) [ agasāli ] or అగసాలెవాడు agasāli. [Tel.] n. A goldsmith. కంసాలివాడుஅருக்கம்¹ arukkam, n. < arka. (நாநார்த்த.) 1. Copper; செம்பு.  Ka. Ka. eṟe cast (as metal); eṟaka, eraka any metal infusion; molten state, fusion. Tu. eraka molten, cast (as metal) (DEDR 866)

      Hieroglyph: kāṇḍam காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16). Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘metal tools, pots and pans’ (Marathi) 

      Hieroglyhph: <lo->(B)  {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''.  See <lo-> `to be left over'.  @B24310.  #20851. <lo->(B)  {V} ``to be ^left over, to be ^saved''.  Caus. <o-lo->.  @B24300.  #20861.(Munda etyma)

      Rebus: loh ‘copper’ (Hindi) 

      The hieroglyph multiplex clearly refers to the metal tools, pots and pans of copper.  लोहोलोखंड [ lōhōlōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह & लोखंड) Iron tools, vessels, or articles in general.रुपेशाई लोखंड [ rupēśāī lōkhaṇḍa ] n A kind of iron. It is of inferior quality to शिक्केशाईलोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously. लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. 2 fig. Hardy or hard--a constitution or a frame of body, one's हाड or natal bone or parental stock. 3 Close and hard;--used of kinds of wood. 4 Ardent and unyielding--a fever. 5 लोखंडी, in the sense Hard and coarse or in the sense Strong or enduring, is freely applied as a term of distinction or designation. Examples follow. लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] f (लोखंड) An iron boiler or other vessel. लोखंडी जर [ lōkhaṇḍī jara ] m (लोखंड & जर) False brocade or lace; lace &c. made of iron.लोखंडी रस्ता [ lōkhaṇḍī rastā ] m लोखंडी सडक f (Iron-road.) A railroad. 

    • फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    • Related image
    • Jasper cylinder seal, Mesopotamia, Uruk Period, 4100 BC–3000 BC. This early seal depicts lion-headed eagles and two Serpopards (mythical long-necked lion beasts). Serpopards also appear on the Narmer Palette
    • Image result for indus script snake

      फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    • Image result for indus script snake
    • Gadd seal 6.  (cut down into Ur III mausolea from Larsa level; U. 16220), enstatite; Legrain, 1951, No. 632; Collon, 1987, Fig. 611 Cylinder seal; BM 122947;humped bull stands before a palm-tree, a thorny stone(?), tabernae montana (five-petalled fragrant flower); snake; person with long legs; behind the bull a scorpion ... Deciphered Indus writing: pola 'zebu, bos indicus'; pola ‘magnetite ore’ (Munda. Asuri); bichi 'scorpion'; 'hematite ore'; tagaraka 'tabernae montana'; tagara 'tin'; ranga 'thorny'; Rebus: pewter, alloy of tin and antimony;  kankar., kankur. = very tall and thin, large hands and feet; kankar dare = a high tree with few branches (Santali) Rebus: kanka, kanaka = gold (Samskritam); kan = copper (Tamil) nAga 'snake' nAga 'lead' (Samskritam).

    • Four cobra-hoods PLUS pudendum muliebre as Indus Script hypertext on Daimabad charioteer

    • Four hoods of cobra arch over membrum virile. Hypertext expression reads: lo gaṇḍa phaṇin Rebus plaintext readings : 1. phaṇi lokhaṇḍa, 'tin or lead foil,metalware,metal implements market (pun on the word paṇi, 'market'); 2.  lokhaṇḍa paṇe (pai) 'metal implements production,metals quarry'. Thus, the charioteer is described to be a paṇikkan, 'a metals workers, a master metallurgical artificer'.  Alternative: mēṇḍhra -- m. ʻ penis ʼ(Samskritam)(CDIAL 9606) rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho.Mu.) Alternative: reinforcement of semantics for upraised penis, for lobhar̥kanu  'rise of penis' (N.)(CDIAL 9365) rebus: bhaṭa  'furnace, smelter'  Thus, an alternative plain text is: bhaṭa  phaṇi lokhaṇḍ'furnace (for) tin or lead foil, metal implements'.

      Curved stick held in his right hand: मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c.) rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho.Mu.)

      Ta. paṇṭi cart, waggon, carriage; vaṇṭi id., cartload; vaṇṭil cart, carriage, bandy, wheel; pāṇṭi cart with a top, bullock cart; pāṇṭil two-wheeled cart, horse-drawn chariot. Ma.vaṇṭi, vaṇṭil wheel, cart, bandy. Ko. vaṇḍy cart. To. poḍy bullock-cart. Ka. baṇḍi bandy, cart, carriage, wheel. Tu. baṇḍi, bhaṇḍi cart. Te. baṇḍi carriage, cart, any wheeled conveyance. Kol. baṇḍi bullock-cart for freight. Ga. (P. S.&super2;) banḍi cart. Kuwi (Su. Isr.) baṇḍi id. / Skt. (Hem. Uṇ. 608) Or. baṇḍi. Ultimately from Skt. bhāṇḍa- goods, wares, as carrying these; for an IE etymology for bhāṇḍa-,(DEDR 50)

      Hieroglyph: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS pōlaḍu, 'black drongo' rebus: pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian), fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto).पोलाद [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) bulad 'steel, flint and steel for making fire' (Amharic); fUlAd 'steel' (Arabic).

      Hieroglyph: कोला (p. 105) kōlā m (Commonly कोल्हा) A jackal. For compounds see under कोल्हे. कोल्हा (p. 105) kōlhā m A jackal, Canis aureus. Linn. कोल्हें (p. 105) kōlhēṃ n A jackal. Without reference to sex. Pr. अडलें कोल्हें मंगळ गाय Even the yelling jackal can sing pleasantly when he is in distress. कोल्हें  Ta. kol working in iron, lacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l 
      smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi 
      blacksmith (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi 
      (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133)

      Hieroglyph: barad, 'bullock': balivárda (balīv° ŚBr.) m. ʻ ox, bull ʼ TBr., balivanda- m. Kāṭh., barivarda -- m. lex. [Poss. a cmpd. of balín -- (cf. *balilla -- ) and a non -- Aryan word for ʻ ox ʼ (cf. esp. Nahālī baddī and poss. IA. forms like Sik. pāḍō ʻ bull < *pāḍḍa -- : EWA ii 419 with lit.)]
      Pa. balivadda -- m. ʻ ox ʼ, Pk. balĭ̄vadda -- , balidda -- , baladda -- m. (cf. balaya -- m. < *balaka -- ?); L. baledā, mult. baled m. ʻ herd of bullocks ʼ (→ S. ḇaledo m.); P. bald,baldhbalhd m. ʻ ox ʼ, baledbaledā m. ʻ herd of oxen ʼ, ludh. bahldbalēd m. ʻ ox ʼ; Ku. balad m. ʻ ox ʼ, gng. bald, N. (Tarai) barad, A. balad(h), B. balad, Or. baḷada, Bi.barad(h), Mth. barad (hyper -- hindiism baṛad), Bhoj. baradh, Aw.lakh. bardhu, H. baladbarad(h), bardhā m. (whence baladnā ʻ to bull a cow ʼ), G. baḷad m. balivardin -- .Addenda: balivárda -- [Cf. Ap. valivaṇḍa -- ʻ mighty ʼ, OP. balavaṇḍā]: WPah.kc. bɔḷəd m., kṭg. bɔḷd m. (LNH 30 bŏḷd), J. bald m., Garh. baḷda ʻ bullock ʼ.(CDIAL 9176) Rebus: भरत (p. 353bharata n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.;  भरती (p. 353bharatī a Composed of the metal भरत.; भरताचें भांडें (p. 353bharatācē mbhāṇḍēṃ n A vessel made of the metal भरत. (Marathi) 

      karukku-paṇi embossed work (Ma.)(DEDR 1280) Ka. paṇe ground that is worked, tillage, quarry; paṇṇeya, paṇya farm, landed estate. Tu. (B-K.) paṇe quarry. (DEDR 3891) Ta. paṇ service, work, business, employment, decoration; paṇi act, action, performance, work, service, decoration; paṇati workmanship, action, creation, ornament; paṇiti work, structure, ornament; paṇikkaṉ master-builder, carpenter; paṇikkam, paṇikku accuracy of design, elaboration in a work; paṇinar servants; paṇpu action, deed; paṇṇu (paṇṇi-) to make, effect, produce, adorn; paṉṉu (paṉṉi-) to do anything with consideration and skill. Ma. paṇi work, labour, service, building, exertion; paṇikkan workman, artificer; paṇiyuka to build; paṇiyan a caste of cultivators in hilly districts; game-trackers, living chiefly in Wynad; paṇṇuka, paṇṇikka vb. denoting coitus (obscene). Ko. paṇynman of a caste  at Gudalur in Wynad; fem. paṇc; ? paṇ anvil. To. poṇy work. Ka. paṇṇu to make ready, prepare, equip, decorate; paṇṇika, paṇṇige, paṇṇuge arranging, making ready, equipping. Koḍ. paṇi work. Tu. paṇipuni to give a shape (e.g. to a vessel). Te. pani work, labour, act, deed, workmanship, art; (inscr.) paṇi work; pannu to contrive, plan, design, invent; (K. also) be ready, make ready; (K. also) n. suitability. Kol. (SR.) pannī work, labour. Nk. pani work. Pa. panḍp- (panḍt-) to make, do. Ga. (Oll.) panḍ- to be able. Go. (LSI, Kōi) paṇi, (Grigson) paṛī, (Ko.) paṛi work (Voc. 2092); panḍ- (G.) to build (house), (Mu.) to make, build, repair, (Ma.) to make, construct; (L.) pandānā to make, repair (Voc. 2093). Konḍa pand- (-it-) to prepare, construct, devise, plan; paṇi work(DEDR 3884)

      gaṇḍa set of four (Santali); rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar, furnace' (Santali) rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi) खंडा [ khaṇḍā ] m A sort of sword. It is straight and twoedged. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended. खांडाईत [khāṇḍāītaa Armed with the sword called खांडा. (Marathi)

      PLUS phaṇin 'cobra hood' rebus: phaṇi 'tin or lead foil'. 

      फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

      Hieroglyph: lo 'penis' Go<luGguj>(Z) [lUGguy']  {NB} ``male ^genitals, ^penis, ^scrotum''.(Munda etyma) loe 'penis' (Ho.) Rebus: loh 'copper, iron, metal' (Indian sprachbund, Meluhha) लोह [p= 908,3]mfn. (prob. fr. a √ रुह् for a lost √ रुध् , " to be red " ; cf. रोहि , रोहिण &c ) red , reddish , copper-coloured S3rS. MBh.made of copper S3Br. (Sch.)made of iron Kaus3.m. n. red metal , copper VS. &c

      Hieroglyph: ``^penis'':So. laj(R)  ~ lij  ~ la'a'j  ~ laJ/ laj  ~ kaD `penis'.Sa. li'j `penis, esp. of small boys'.
      Sa. lO'j `penis'.Mu. lOe'j  ~ lOGgE'j `penis'.  ! lO'jHo loe `penis'.Ku. la:j `penis'.@(C289) ``^penis'':
      Sa. lOj `penis'.Mu. lOj `penis'.KW lOj@(M084) <lO?Oj>(D),,<AlAj>(L)//<lAj>(DL)  {N} ``^penis''.  #43901.
      <ului>(P),,<uluj>(MP)  {NB} ``^penis, male organ, male^genitals''.  Cf. <kOlOb>(P),<susu>(M) `testicle'; <kuLij>(M), <kuRij>(P) `vulva'.  *Sa., MuN<lO'j>, MuH, Ho<lo'e>,So.<laj-An>, U.Tem.<lo'> ??. %33271.  #33031.So<lO?Oj>(D),,<AlAj>(L)//<lAj>(DL)  {N} ``^penis''.
      <lohosua>(D)  {NI} ``^dance''.  #20141. lo-khaṇḍa, penis + gaṇḍa, 4 balls; Rebus:lokhaṇḍa iron, metalware.

      Hieroglyph: फणि 1 [p= 716,1] m. a serpent (only gen. pl. फण्/ईनाम्) Suparn2.; 
      in comp. for फणिन् m. " hooded " , a serpent esp. Coluber नाग) Ka1v. Katha1s. 
      Pur.  phaṇin ʻ hooded (of snake, esp. cobra) ʼ Kathās. [phaṇá -- 1] Pk. phaṇi -- m. ʻ snake ʼ; P. phaṇī ʻ flat -- headed (of snake) ʼ; A. phanī ʻ snake ʼ; Or. phaṇī ʻ hooded ʼ, sb. ʻ snake ʼ; H. phanī ʻ hooded ʼ; G. phaṇī m. ʻ snake ʼ, Si. paṇiya.(CDIAL 9046) phaṇa1 m. ʻ expanded hood of snake (esp. of cobra) ʼ MBh. 2. *phēṇa -- 2. [Cf. phaṭa -- , *phēṭṭa -- 2 and *phaṇati2. -- For mng. ʻ shoulder -- blade ʼ &c. cf. association of shape in phaṇāphalaka -- Bhartr̥. ~ aṁsaphalaká -- ŚBr. and cf. phēna -- n. ʻ cuttlefish bone ʼ Car.] 1. Pa. phaṇa -- m. ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ, Pk. phaṇa -- m., °ṇā -- f.; Wg. paṇ -- šī ʻ big snake ʼ (+šai ʻ head ʼ? NTS xvii 287); K. phan m. ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ, S. phaṇi f., L.awāṇ. phaṇ, P. phaṇ°ṇu f., ludh. phan m., WPah. (Joshi) faṇ m., Ku. phaṇ°ṇi, N. phani, A. phanā, B. phan°nā, Or. phaṇā̆, Mth. phanā, Bhoj. phan, H. phan°nā m., G. phe (< *phaṇi), phaṇī f., M. phaṇ m., °ṇī f., Si. paṇapeṇa. -- S. phaṇi f. ʻ shoulderblade ʼ; H. phanī f. ʻ wedge ʼ; G. phaṇɔ m. ʻ fore part of foot ʼ. 2. A. phenā ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ, Or. pheṇā̆. phaṇin -- , phaṇakara -- .phaṇá -- 2 ʻ froth ʼ see phāṇita -- .Addenda: phaṇa -- 1: S.kcch. phaṇ f. ʻ snake's hood, front part of foot ʼ, phaṇī f. ʻ weaver's toothed instrument for pressing and closing the woof ʼ; WPah.kṭg. phɔ́ṇ m. ʻ cobra's hood ʼ; Garh. phaṇ ʻ snake's hood ʼ. (CDIAL 9042)  phaṇakara m. ʻ cobra ʼ lex. [Cf. phaṇākara -- , phaṇa- dhara -- , phaṇādh° m. lex. -- phaṇa -- 1, kará -- 1]L. phaniar m., P. phanyar m., WPah. (Joshi) fanā'r m. (all with n, not ?).Addenda: phaṇakara -- : WPah.kṭg. phɔ́ṇər m. ʻ cobra ʼ, J. fanā'r m. (kṭg. phɔ́ṇir m. poss. ← P. Him.I 127). (CDIAL 9043)

      Rebus 1: tin or metal foil: फणिन् [p= 716,2] n. (prob.) tin or lead Ka1lac.  panī f. ʻ tinfoil ʼ(Sindhi); P. pannā m. ʻ leaf, page ʼ, pannī f. ʻ gilt leather ʼ; H. pān m. ʻ leaf ʼ, pannā m. ʻ leaf, page ʼ, pannī f. ʻ metal foil, grass for thatching ʼ; G. pānũ n. ʻ blade ʼ(CDIAL 7918) prāmāṇika ʻ founded on authority ʼ Dāyabh., m. ʻ chief of a trade ʼ W. [pramāṇa-- ] B. pānipã̄inpāin a surname?  (CDIAL 8949)

      Rebus 2: पणि [p= 580,2] a market L.; N. of a class of envious demons watching over treasures RV. (esp. x , 108) AV. S3Br.; m. a bargainer , miser , niggard (esp. one who is sparing of sacrificial oblations) RV. AV.

      Rebus: <loha>(BD)  {NI} ``^iron''.  Syn. <luaG>(D).  *@.  #20131)  laúha -- ʻ made of copper or iron ʼ Gr̥Śr., ʻ red ʼ MBh., n. ʻ iron, metal ʼ Bhaṭṭ. [lōhá -- ] Pk. lōha -- ʻ made of iron ʼ; L. lohā ʻ iron -- coloured, reddish ʼ; P. lohā ʻ reddish -- brown (of cattle) ʼ.lōhá 11158 lōhá ʻ red, copper -- coloured ʼ ŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ] Pa. lōha -- m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻ iron ʼ, Gy. pal. li°lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻ steel ʼ; Kho.loh ʻ copper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam.lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu°hā, A. lo, B. lono, Or. lohāluhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. lohlohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md.ratu -- lō ʻ copper ʼ.WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻ iron ʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md.  ʻ metal ʼ. (CDIAL 11172).
      lōhakāra m. ʻ iron -- worker ʼ, °rī -- f., °raka -- m. lex., lauhakāra -- m. Hit. [lōhá -- , kāra -- 1]Pa. lōhakāra -- m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷa, Bi.Bhoj. Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohārluh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻ coppersmith ʼ.WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m. (CDIAL 11159).lōhaghaṭa 11160 *lōhaghaṭa ʻ iron pot ʼ. [lōhá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]Bi. lohrā°rī ʻ small iron pan ʼ.*lōhaphāla -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , phāˊla -- 1]WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl m. ʻ an agricultural implement ʼ Him.I 197; -- or < †*lōhahala -- .(CDIAL 11160) lōhala ʻ made of iron ʼ W. [lōhá -- ]G. loharlohariyɔ m. ʻ selfwilled and unyielding man ʼ.(CDIAL 11161).*lōhaśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [lōhá -- , śāˊlā -- ]Bi. lohsārī ʻ smithy ʼ. (CDIAL 11162).lōhahaṭṭika 11163 *lōhahaṭṭika ʻ ironmonger ʼ. [lōhá -- , haṭṭa -- ] P.ludh. lōhṭiyā m. ʻ ironmonger ʼ.†*lōhahala -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , halá -- ]WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl ʻ an agricultural instrument ʼ; rather < †*lōhaphāla -- .(CDIAL 11163).
    Hooded snake on kudurrus. Indus Script: phaṇi 'cobra hood' rebus: phaṇi 'lead or zinc'; paṇi 'merchant, marketplace'.

    फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    Tree atop a temple on a kudurru. Indus Script:kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge' PLUS kuṭhi a sacred, divine treekuṭi 'temple'; kuṭhi 'smelter' 

    Limestone kudurru reign of Marduk-nadin-ahhe: the boundary-stone consists of a block of black limestone, which has been shaped and rubbed down to take sculptures and inscriptions. Culture/period: Middle Babylonian Date: 11thC BC From: Babylon (Asia, Middle East, Iraq, South Iraq, Babylon) Materials: limestone Technique: carved British Museum number: 90841
    Limestone kudurru reign of Marduk-nadin-ahhe: the boundary-stone consists of a block of black limestone, which has been shaped and rubbed down to take sculptures and inscriptions. Culture/period: Middle Babylonian Date: 11thC BC From: Babylon (Asia, Middle East, Iraq, South Iraq, Babylon) Materials: limestone Technique: carved British Museum number: 90841

    Blog dedicated to the greatest ancient culture - Mesopotamia.


    Journal of the Royal Society of Arts
    Vol. 124, No. 5243 (OCTOBER 1976), pp. 663-683
    Stable URL:

    All cognates: phaṭā फटा (Samskrtam), phaḍā फडा (Marathi), paam (Tamil. Malayalam), paḍaga (Telugu) have the same meaning: cobra hood. Rebus words/expressions which signify 'manufactory, metals workshop' are: bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnaceʼ, paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai 'anvil, smithy, forge', paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi 'workshop'.

    This concordance suggested by the use of Indus Script Cipher evidenced in many inscriptions (See links cited below) indicates the essential semantic unity of Bhāratīya languages and the evolution of manufactories/workshops for metalwork all over Bhāratam during the Bronze Age.

    The semantic unity is matched by the cultural significance of the pratimā of Gaṇeśa of Gardez, with the Indus Script hypertexts of cobra hood and elephant-face ligature to a human body attesting to the significance of Gaṇeśa as the leader of the hosts performing ironwork (karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus:karba, ib 'iron'); phaḍā फडा 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍā फडा 'metals manufactory'; mūṣa 'mouse' rebus: mūṣa 'crucible'; me 'stepdance step' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, me 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic)

    Based on this example of word-sets of Bhāratīya languages suggesting phonetic variants of phaḍā, paammeaning 'cobra hood', I suggest that phaḍā 'metals manufactory' in Marathi is cognate with and explains, semantically, the derivatives with cognate meanings: paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi 'workshop' (Kannada) and paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai 'anvil, smithy, forge.'(Tamil). It is also possible to suggest a cognate bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnaceʼ (Punjabi). Semantics of forge, smithy are seen in the following lexemes signifying 'furnace work': bhráṣṭra n. ʻ frying pan, gridiron ʼ MaitrS. [√bhrajjPk. bhaṭṭha -- m.n. ʻ gridiron ʼ; K. büṭhü f. ʻ level surface by kitchen fireplace on which vessels are put when taken off fire ʼ; S. baṭhu m. ʻ large pot in which grain is parched, large cooking fire ʼ, baṭhī f. ʻ distilling furnace ʼ; L. bhaṭṭh m. ʻ grain -- parcher's oven ʼ, bhaṭṭhī f. ʻ kiln, distillery ʼ, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnace ʼ, bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ; N. bhāṭi ʻ oven or vessel in which clothes are steamed for washing ʼ; A. bhaṭā ʻ brick -- or lime -- kiln ʼ; B. bhāṭi ʻ kiln ʼ; Or. bhāṭi ʻ brick -- kiln, distilling pot ʼ; Mth. bhaṭhībhaṭṭī ʻ brick -- kiln, furnace, still ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhāṭhā ʻ kiln ʼ; H. bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ,bhaṭ f. ʻ kiln, oven, fireplace ʼ; M. bhaṭṭā m. ʻ pot of fire ʼ, bhaṭṭī f. ʻ forge ʼ. -- X bhástrā -- q.v. bhrāṣṭra -- ; *bhraṣṭrapūra -- , *bhraṣṭrāgāra -- .Addenda: bhráṣṭra -- : S.kcch. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ʻ distil (spirits) ʼ.(CDIAL 9656)

    Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. paam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers. A cognate expression for  workshop, smithy, forge are the following expressions: Ta. paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai anvil, smithy, forge. Ka. paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi anvil, workshop. Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop. Cf. 86 Ta. aṭai. (DEDR 3865) Ta. aṭai prop. slight support; aṭai-kal anvil. Ma. aṭa-kkallu anvil of goldsmiths. Ko. aṛ gal small anvil. Ka. aḍe, aḍa, aḍi the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to operate upon, a support; aḍegal, aḍagallu, aḍigallu anvil. Tu. aṭṭè a support, stand. Te. ḍā-kali, ḍā-kallu, dā-kali, dā-gali, dāyi anvil.(DEDR 86) adhikaraṇīˊ f. ʻ *anvil ʼ, adhikaraṇa -- n. ʻ receptacle, support ʼ TUp. [√kr̥1]
    Pa. adhikaraṇī -- f. ʻ smith's anvil ʼ; Pk. ahigaraṇī -- f. ʻ a piece of apparatus for a smith ʼ; K. yīran, dat. yṳ̄rüñ f. ʻ anvil ʼ, S. aharaṇiaraṇi f., L. (Jukes) ariṇ f., awāṇ. &circmacrepsilon;ruṇ, P. aihranairaṇā̆hraṇ f., WPah. bhal. arhini; roh. erṇe ʻ smithy ʼ, N. āran; H. aheranā̆hran m. ʻ anvil ʼ; -- H. Smith BSL 101, 115.Addenda: adhikaraṇīˊ -- : S.kcch. eṇ f. ʻ anvil ʼ; WPah.kṭg. n/arəṇ, n/arṇi f. ʻ furnace, smithy ʼ; āˊrəṇ m. prob. ← P. Him.I 4; jaun. āraṇairaṇ; G. eraṇi f. ʻ anvil ʼ, M. aheraṇahiraṇairaṇairṇīharaṇ f.(CDIAL 252)

    A number of expressions are presented below which relate to the semantics of 'public office', for e.g. paṭṭaśāle, 'reading hall' (Kannada).

    பட்டகசாலை paṭṭaka-cālai, n. < T. paṭa- šāla. [K. paṭṭasāle.] 1. Central or principal hall in a house; கூடம். Loc. 2. Dining hall adjoining a house; மனையில் உண்ணுமிடம். Nāṭ. cheṭṭi.

    பட்டடை¹ paṭṭaṭai n. prob. படு¹- + அடை¹-. 1. [T. paṭṭika, K. paṭṭaḍe.] Anvil; அடைகல். (பிங்.) சீரிடங்காணி னெறிதற்குப் பட்ட டை (குறள், 821). 2. [K. paṭṭaḍi.] Smithy, forge; கொல்லன் களரி. 3. Stock, heap, pile, as of straw, firewood or timber; குவியல். (W.) 4. Corn-rick, enclosure of straw for grain, wattle and daub, granary; தானியவுறை. (W.) 5. Layer or bed of olas for grain; தானியமிடுற்கு ஓலைகளாலமைத்த படுக்கை. (W.) 6. Anything held against another, as a support in driving a nail; prop to keep a thing from falling or moving; ஆணி முதலியன செல்லுதற்கு அடியிலிருந்து தாங்குங் கருவி. (W.) கொல்லன்பட்டடை kollaṉ-paṭṭaṭai n. < கொல்லன் +. Anvil; அடைகல். (C. G.)
    கொல்லன்பட்டரை kollaṉ-paṭṭarai n. < id. +. Blacksmith's workshop, smithy; கொல்லன் உலைக்கூடம்.

    फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or स (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस
    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 
    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 
    फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 
    Image result for gardez ganeshaCloth worn onGaṇeśa pratimā, Gardez, Afghanistan. Hieroglyph: படம்¹ paṭam , n. < paṭa. 1. Cloth for wear; சீலை. (பிங்.) மாப்பட நூலின் றொகுதிக் காண் டலின் (ஞானா. 14, 21). 2. Painted or printed cloth; சித்திரச்சீலை. (பிங்.) இப்படத்தெழுது ஞான வாவி (காசிக. கலாவ. 2). 3. Coat, jacket; சட்டை. படம்புக்கு (பெரும்பாண். 69). 4. Upper garment, cloak; போர்வை. வனப்பகட்டைப் பட மாக வுரித்தாய் (தேவா. 32, 7). 5. Body; உடல். படங்கொடு நின்றவிப் பல்லுயிர் (திருமந். 2768).
    Hieroglyph: படம் paṭam, n. < pada. Instep; பாதத் தின் முற்பகுதி. படங்குந்திநிற்றல் (சூடா. 9, 53). Ta. aṭi foot, footprint, base, bottom, source, origin; aṭimai slavery, servitude, slave, servant, devotee; aṭitti, aṭicci maidservant; aṭiyavaṉ, aṭiyāṉ, aṭiyōṉ slave, devotee. Ma. aṭi sole of foot, footstep, measure of foot, bottom, base; aṭima slavery, slave, feudal dependency; aṭiyān slave, servant; fem. aṭiyātti. Ko. aṛy foot (measure); ac place below; acgaṛ place beneath an object, position after the first in a row; ac mog younger son. To. oṛy foot. Ka. aḍi foot, measure of foot, step, pace, base, bottom, under; aḍime slavery; aḍiya slave. Koḍ. aḍi place below, down. Tu. aḍi bottom, base; kār aḍi footsole, footstep; aḍi kai palm of the hand. Te. aḍugu foot, footstep, footprint, step, pace, measure of a foot, bottom, basis; aḍime slavery, slave, bondman; aḍiyãḍu slave, servant; aḍi-gaṟṟa sandal, wooden shoe.Ga. (S.2aḍugu footstep (< Te.). Go. (G.) aḍi beneath; (Mu.) aḍit below; aḍita lower; aṛke below; (Ma.) aḍita, aḍna lower; (M.) aḍ(ḍ)i below, low; (L.) aḍī down; (Ko.) aṛgi underneath; aṛgita lower (Voc. 33). Konḍa aḍgi below, underneath; aḍgiR(i) that which is underneath; aḍgiRaṇḍ from below, from the bottom. (DEDR 72)

    फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.