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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Babylonia, the Gulf Region and the Indus

    Archaeological and Textual Evidence for Contact in the Third and Early Second Millennia BC

    by Steffen Laursen and Piotr Steinkeller
    Eisenbrauns, 2017 
    List Price: $59.50

    Description

    During the third millennium BC, the huge geographical area stretching between the Mediterranean in the west and the Indus Valley in the east witnessed the rise of a commercial network of unmatched proportions and intensity, within which the Persian Gulf for long periods functioned as a central node. In this book, Laursen and Steinkeller examine the nature of cultural and commercial contacts between Babylonia, the Gulf region, and Indus Civilization. Focusing on the third and early second millennia BC, and using both archaeological data and the evidence of ancient written sources, their study offers an up-to-date synthetic picture of the history of interactions across this vast region. In addition to giving detailed characterizations and evaluations of contacts in various periods, the book also treats a number of important related issues, such as the presence of Amorites in the Gulf (in particular, their role in the rise of the Tilmun center on Bahrain Island); the alleged existence of Meluhhan commercial outposts in Babylonia; and the role that the seaport of Gu’abba played in Babylonia’s interactions with the Gulf region and southeastern Iran.

    Product Details

    Publisher: Eisenbrauns
    Publication date: 2017
    Bibliographic info: Pp. x + 141
    Language(s): English
       
    Cover: Cloth
    Trim Size: 7 x 10 inches
    ISBN: 1-57506-756-0
    ISBN13: 978-1-57506-756-8

    Write-up about the book

    This is a very important book by two scholars who have spent years studying ancient Mesopotamian cultures (Steinkeller, Harvard University) or leading explorations of more recently discovered Gulf Arab cultures (Laursen, Moesgaard Museum Denmark). The authors summarize and integrate previously-known textual data, primarily from ancient Mesopotamia, with “the dramatic increase of archaeological data, in particular on Tilmun and Makkan [ancient civilizations contemporaneous with the ancient Indus in the Arabian Gulf], in recent decades.” In their words, “following many e-mail exchanges about various points related to the archaeology and history of the Persian Gulf region during the third millennium BC, we concluded that, because of the great accumulation of new data and persistence of many misconceptions, there was a pressing need to produce an up-to-date synthetic evaluation of this subject” (p. 1, ix).

    Laursen and Steinkeller rigorously review textual and archeological data. One comes away with a sense of how delicate the ebb and flow of trade between Oman [Makkan], Bahrain [Dilmun], Marhasi [southeastern Iran], the Indus civilization [Meluha], and Mesopotamia was in the 3rd millennium. Intense periods of contact and exchange were followed by fallow ones. One can infer that trade relationships were dependent on political, religious, tribal, or navigational ties that were fragile and subject to disruption. For example, Laursen points out that “sometime in the late ED III or early Sargonic period (ca. 2350 BCE), the trading post on Umm an-Nar island was abandoned, possibly after a fire had destroyed the ‘warehouse’ for the second time.” (p. 28).

    Connections between Makkan [Oman] and Marhasi [southeastern Iran] seem to have been stronger than between the latter and Dilmun [Bahrain] despite their greater proximity. With such small populations on all sides of the Gulf, connections between places would have been transformative as well as tenuous. There is no doubt about how important trade was to these early civilizations; the authors show that the goal of the Sargonic kings of Babylonia was not so much annexation and conquest as “the control of critical nodal points . . . [and] to set the terms of trade and to provide protection for Babylonian traders, who lived in extra territorial commercial settlements in the periphery or simply conducted business there . . .. The main function of the empire’s political and military apparatus was to ensure that the entire commercial network worked smoothly, with the merchandise flowing from one end of the system to the other without any disturbances or interruption” (pp. 31-32). Across such large areas, this kind of integration was a big step in human history.

    Indus civilization may have had similar trading objectives though the homogeneity across its territory seems to have been greater.

    If we know what Meluha exported to Mesopotamia, we know little about what was sent in return. Nothing definitive from the region has turned up in graves (of which there are precious few Indus ones), where Bronze Age civilizations tended to hoard goods from other cultures.

    Most archaeologists assume goods exported to the Indus valley were perishable. The items listed in Appendix I as exports from Babylonia to the Gulf region based on textual records would bear this out if the same goods were also exported to Meluha. These most often consisted of oils (including sesame and perfumed oils), wool and textile garments, leather objects and barley. Interestingly, while we think textiles were important economic products of Indus civilization, the book reminds us that this was also the case in ancient Mesopotamia, with many pages on the major textile production center and port of Gu’abba. Did the two civilizations exchange distinctive textile products? The fact that Mesopotamian ruling clans liked to be buried with Indus goods like carnelian and lapis suggests that foreign goods were important prestige objects.

    Nowhere do cultural linkages appear as clearly as in the Indus contributions sketched both here (and in other papers by Laursen) to the rise of civilization in the area centered on what is now Bahrain island. “Approximately halfway through the 21st century BC,” write the authors, “Tilmun society suddenly underwent a series of major reorganizations that are concordantly suggestive of an explosion in both social complexity and economic prosperity. . . . The temporary segregation from the Meluha trade, which Tilmun had been subjected to, comes to a conspicuous end. Most important in this respect is the introduction in Tilmun of major urban innovations associated with the organization and administration of trade, each of which clearly are inspired by the mercantile protocol of the Indus Valley civilization.”

    “The first Indus-inspired circular stamp seals of “Gulf-type” appear in the layers at Qala’at al-Bahrain concurrent with the construction of the city wall ca. 2050 BC. The synchronous introduction of Indus “writing” is suggested by the occasional presence in the Gulf seals of short inscriptions written in the characters of the Indus script. The distribution of this class of inscribed ‘Gulf Type’ seals ranges as far as Babylonia in the west to Sindh and Gujarat (Dholavira) in the east. By all appearances, this first series of stamp seals native to the Gulf is connected with a league of Tilmun-associated merchants that was now actively involved in the Meluha trade.”

    “The introduction of sealing technology was accompanied by the introduction of a formal weight system, as evidenced in the cubical and spherical stone weights that correspond perfectly to the standard weight units of the Harappans. In Babylonia, Tilmun’s newly adopted Meluhan weight system became known as the Tilmun norm (na Tilmun) (UET 5 796)” (p. 50).

    It may be worth noting that this flowering of Indus cultural influence was followed by the decline of Indus civilization in both in the homeland and in the Gulf. Could its blossoming in Dilmun have been associated with some population of Meluhans trying to get away and establish a new presence in another place?

    There are hints of Meluha participating in external conflicts – the authors note that “the conflict with Marhasi continued into the reign of Sargon’s son Rimus, who successfully fought a major Marhasian coalition, one of whose members was, very revealingly, Meluha” (p. 35). There are tantalizing references to the ancient land of “Kupin,” which may have been present-day Balochistan and the Makran coast, between Meluha and Marhasi, and could  be related to the so-called Kulli culture that preceded the Indus civilization.

    However inconclusive the evidence is, there is much to be learned about the ancient Indus civilization outside of the region directly, in its relationships with other civilizations. There are many Mesopotamian texts in archives that still remain to be read that may have clues to, for example, Meluhan rulers, as all the areas around them seemed to have rulers, and why should Meluha be an exception? This book is an excellent and critical marker on the long journey of discovery ahead.


    Indus Seals (2600-1900 Bce) Beyond Geometry: A New Approach to Break an Old Code by [Talpur, Parveen]

    Indus Seals (2600-1900 Bce) Beyond Geometry: A New Approach to Break an Old Code Kindle Edition


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    This is a tribute to Paul Bernard, Remy Audouin, Osmund Bopearacchi who have contributed to the identification of worship of Kr̥ṣṇa Vāsudeva कृष्ण-वासुदेव, Sankarṣaṇa Balarāma सङ्कर्षण बलराम, by Greek kings of 2nd century BCE on ancient coins from Al Khanoum, Afghanistan. 

    Image result for ai khanoum
    Kr̥ṣṇa Vāsudeva कृष्ण-वासुदेव, Sankarṣaṇa Balarāma सङ्कर्षण बलराम are artisans with expertise in metalwork and farmwork and signifiers of creation of wealth of the nation. Ancient Arthaśāstra (Economic history) in  Bhāratīya Itihāsa from 4th millennium BCE, from the time Indus Script signifiers documented wealth-creation has to be retold to explain why Ancient India accounted for 32% of the world GDP (pace Angus Maddison).



    The coins dug up by Paul Bernard and the French archaeological team (embedded summary report) signify Indus Script hypertexts in the context of cataloguing wealth production in mints and metallurgical competence of metalworkers of the Bronze Age. This validates the claim made elsewhere that almost all punch-marked coin symbols are Indus Script hypertexts to signify such wealth accounting ledgers.

    The roles of Kr̥ṣṇa Vāsudeva कृष्ण-वासुदेव, Sankarṣaṇa Balarāma सङ्कर्षण बलराम in Bhāratīya Itihāsa are documented in the ancient text narratives of Mahābhārata. In 200+ ślokas of śalyaparvan, the pariyātrā of Sankarṣaṇa Balarāma is detailed. During this pilgrimage journey for 42 days from Prabhasa (Somnath) to Plakṣapraśravaṇa (Himalayan glacier source of Vedic River Sarasvati near Har-ki-dun), he meets with his youngr brother Kr̥ṣṇa Vāsudeva कृष्ण-वासुदेव. Together they watch the gadāyuddha, between Duryodhana and Bhīma. Sankarṣaṇa Balarāma सङ्कर्षण बलराम informs Kr̥ṣṇa Vāsudeva कृष्ण-वासुदेव that he would not participate in the ongoing war and returns to Dwārakā (Bet Dwāraka) in Gujarat Rann of Kutch. The witnesses to the gadāyuddha are enshrined in a sculptural monument of Angkor Wat. (The monument taken to USA was returned in 2016).
    Image result for angkor wat bhima duryodhana gadayuddha sculpture

    The reality of Vedic River Sarasvati has been established and Veda roots of the seafaring merchants and artisans have been validated with the discovery.of Binjor yajnakuṇḍa with an aṣṭāśri Yūpa and inscribed Indus Script seals documenting wealth-creating metalwork catalogues.
    Image result for anupgarh binjor seal



     Binjor Yūpa, Binjor seal
    Related image



    The hypertexts identified from Al Khanoum coins are: 1. phaḍa'cobra hood'; 2. kaṇī 'pupil of eye',kaṇa°ṇā ʻeye of seed'; 3. hala'ploughshare'. 

    These are also read as Rajane in Brahmi as on another Agathocles coin:
    File:AgathoklesCoinage.jpgCoin of Agathokles, king of Bactria (ca. 200–145 BC). British Museum.
    Inscriptions in Greek. Upper left and down: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ (VASILEOS AGATHOKLEOUS)

    Rev Lakshmi, a Goddess of abundance and fortune for Hindus & Buddhists, with Brahmi legend Rajane Agathukleyasasa "King Agathocles".
    An six-arched hill symbolsurmounted by a star.Kharoṣṭhī legend Akathukreyasa "Agathocles". Tree-in-railing, Kharoṣṭhīlegend Hirañasame (Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, Bopearachchi, p.176) The symbols used together with Kharoṣṭhī legends are Indus script hypertexts: dang 'hill range' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' med 'polar star' rebus: med 'iron'; khaṇḍa 'divisions' rebus: kaṇḍa 'equipment', kolom 'three' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus; kolimi 'smithy. Thus, the hypertexts signify the metallurgical competence of the mint with smithy/forge working in iron and metal implements. Hence, the message 'hiranasame' which means 'wealth like gold' (of the mintwork and products from the mint).
    File:Bilingual Coin of Agathocles of Bactria.jpgCoin of Agathocles of Bactria.Obv: Arched hills surmounted by a star (Read as Indus Script hypertexts:dang 'hill range' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' med 'polar star' rebus: med 'iron') . Rev: Trisula symbol, Kharoshthi legend HITAJASAME "Good-fame-possessing" (lit. meaning of "Agathocles").Source: From "Coins of the Indo-Greeks", Whitehead, 1914 edition, Public Domain. The mint of Al Khanoum proclaims its wealth-producing metallurgical repertoire on the Indus Script messageon the coin.
    Brahmi r.svg'ra'Brahmi jh.svg 'ja'Brahmi n.svg'na' (Brāhmī syllabic symbols)

    Coin of Agathocles
    'Obv Balarama-Samkarshana with Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ.( VASILEOS AGATHOKLEOUS)
    Rev Vasudeva-Krishna with Brahmi legend Rajane Agathukleyasasa "King Agathocles". https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Agathocles_of_Bactria

    While accepting 'rajane' as a valid Brāhmī reading on the coin, I suggest an alternative reading for the Brahmi syllabic sequence of the word  'rajane'. treating the 3 symbols on the right side of the coin as Indus Script hypertexts, because the symbol for 'ja' is not clear as a symbol on the Al Khanoum coin signifying Śri Kr̥ṣṇa, Śri Balarāma..
    The symbol used is more like 'pupil of the eye' (which is NOT a Brahmi syllable)..

    The rebus renderings in Indus Script cipher and meanings are:

     1. phaḍa'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa फड 'manufactory, company, guild',  paṭṭaḍi'metals workshop'.


    2. kaṇī 'pupil of eye', kaṇa°ṇā ʻeye of seed' PLUS vr̥tta'circle' rebus: kampaṭam, kaṇvaṭam, 'mint, coiner, coinage' கண்வட்டம் kaṇ-vaṭṭam , n. < id. +. 1. Range of vision, eye-sweep, full reach of one's observation; கண்பார்வைக்குட்பட்ட இடம். தங்கள் கண்வட்டத்திலே உண்டுடுத்துத்திரிகிற (ஈடு, 3, 5, 2). 2. Mint;நாணயசாலை. கண்வட்டக்கள்ளன் (ஈடு.).  Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinagemintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236)



    The hypertext composed of two combined hieroglyphs (spoked wheel with sharp edges or fish-fin endings on spokes) PLUS pupil of eye are read together. The ligatured spoked wheel is: vaṭṭa PLUS arā, i.e. circle PLUS spokes PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish fin' rebus: kammaṭa,'mint, coiner, coinage'. Thus, together, the unique orthography of the spoked wheel is read as: ayo kammaṭa vaṭṭhara'alloy metal mint, exclusive area of community, enclosed piece of ground earmarked for metal-, mint-work'.  वठार (p. 423) vaṭhāra m C A ward or quarter of a town. वाडगें (p. 433) vāḍagēṃ n (Dim. of वाडी) A small yard or enclosure (esp. around a ruined house or where there is no house). वाडा (p. 433) vāḍā m (वाट or वाटी S) A stately or large edifice, a mansion, a palace. Also in comp. as राज- वाडा A royal edifice; सरकारवाडा Any large and public building. 2 A division of a town, a quarter, a ward. Also in comp. as देऊळवाडा, ब्राह्मण- वाडा, गौळीवाडा, चांभारवाडा, कुंभारवाडा (Marathi) Shown together with the pratimā  of  कृष्ण-वासुदेव , the hypertext is read as: cakrā yudha 'discus weapon' and ayo kammaṭa vaṭṭhara 'alloy mint quarter of town'. For orthographic variants of the spoked-wheel on thousands of punch-marked coins, see: Vajra and Indus Script ivory hypertexts on a seal, ivory artifacts
    https://tinyurl.com/y85goask
    3. hala'ploughshare' Cognate Meluhha phonetic forms: araka a plough with bullocks, etc. complete. Malt. are a plough. (DEDR 198) hal 'plough' (Santali) phāla [mod. Ind. phār] 'ploughshare'. It is possible that a hieroglyph (apart from the orthographic shape of the plough) which signifies the word is: pāla, 'rice seedling' (Kui). I suggest that on the coin, this symbol signifies phāla 'ploughshare' (which is a semantic expansion of araka, hala'plough handle').
     
    The other hieroglyphs on the Al Khanoum coins of Kr̥ṣṇa Vāsudeva, Sankarṣaṇa Balarāma are: musala 'pestle', śankha 'conch', chhatra'parasol', पट्टा (p. 273) paṭṭā m ( H) A kind of sword. It is long, twoedged, and has a hilt protecting the whole fore arm. Applied also to a wooden sword for practice and sports. This signifier is also read as a semantic determinative rebus:  phaḍa फड 'manufactory, company, guild'; paṭṭaḍi 'metals workshop'.

    These hypertexts and their meanings are posited and a framework indicated for Economic narrative of wealth-creation in Bhāratīya Itihāsa from 4th millennium BCE.



    Pāṇini  and Patañjali mention temples which were called prāsāda-s. This word in Pali is pāsāda, pasada as in lohapasada, 'palace of metal'. prāsāda m. ʻ lofty seat or terrace ʼ ŚāṅkhŚr., ʻ lofty mansion ʼ MBh. [√sad?]
    Pa. pāsāda -- m. ʻ lofty platform, terrace, high building ʼ; Pk. pāsāya -- m. ʻ palace ʼ; Si. pahayapāya ʻ mansion, palace ʼ. (CDIAL 8971)
    The right-most glyph on line 2 of the seal impression is a 'plough' circumscribed by four 'splinter' glyphs. The plough is decoded rebus: Glyph: மேழி mēḻi , n. cf. mēdhi. [T. K. M. mēḍi.] 1. Plough; கலப்பை. வினைப்பக டேற்ற மேழி (புறநா. 388). 2. Plough-tail, handle of a plough; கலப்பையின் கைப்பிடி. மேழி பிடிக்குங் கை (திருக்கைவழக்கம், 22).Ta. mēr̤i plough, plough-tail, handle of a plough; mēr̤iyar agriculturalists. Ma. mēr̤i, mēññal ploughtail. Ko. me·y handle of plough. Ka. mēṭi, mēṇi plough-tail. Te. mē̃ḍi, (K.) mēḍi hind part or handle of a plough. Konḍa mēṛi plough handle, plough-tail. Kuwi (F.) mēri plough handle; (Isr.) mēṛi id., plough. (DEDR 5097).Compare with plough used by Sumerians.

    Ta. araka a plough with bullocks, etc. complete. Malt. are a plough. (DEDR 198) Ka. maḍike a kind of harrow or rake. Te. maḍãka plough with bullocks complete. (DEDR 4656) Ta. ñāñcil, nāñcil plough. Ma. ñēṅṅōl, nēññil plough-shaft. Ko. ne·lg plough. Ka. nēgal, nēgil, nēgila id. Koḍ. ne·ŋgi id. Tu. nāyerů id. Kor. (T.) nēveri id. Te. nã̄gali, nã̄gelu, nã̄gēlu id. Kol. na·ŋgli, (Kin.) nāŋeliid. Nk. nāŋgar id. Nk. (Ch.) nāŋgar id. Pa. nã̄gil id. Ga. (Oll.) nāŋgal, (S.) nāngal id. Go. (W.) nāṅgēl, (A. SR.) nāngyal, (G. Mu. M. Ko.) nāŋgel, (Y.) nāŋgal, (Ma.) nāŋgili (pl. nāŋgisku) id. (Voc. 1956); (ASu.) nāynāl, (Koya Su.) nāṅēl, nāyṅēl id. Konḍa nāŋgel id. Pe. nāŋgel id. Manḍ. nēŋgel id. Kui nāngeli id. Kuwi (F.) nangelli ploughshare; (Isr.) nāŋgeli plough. / Cf. Skt. lāṅgala-, Pali naṅgala- plough; Mar. nã̄gar, H. nã̄gal, Beng. nāṅgal id., etc.; Turner, CDIAL, no. 11006.(DEDR 2907)  lāˊṅgala n. ʻ plough ʼ RV. [→ Ir. dial of Lar in South Persia liṅgṓr ʻ plough ʼ Morgenstierne. -- Initial n -- in all Drav. forms (DED 2368); PMWS 127 derives both IA. and Drav. words from Mu. sources] Pa. naṅgala -- n. ʻ plough ʼ, Pk. laṁgala -- , ṇa°ṇaṁgara<-> n. (ṇaṁgala -- n.m. also ʻ beak ʼ); WPah.bhad. nã̄ṅgal n. ʻ wooden sole of plough ʼ; B. lāṅalnā° ʻ plough ʼ, Or. (Sambhalpur) nã̄gar, Bi.mag. lã̄gal; Mth. nã̄gano ʻ handle of plough ʼ; H. nã̄galnāgal°ar m. ʻ plough ʼ, M. nã̄gar°gornāgār°gor m., Si. nan̆gulnagalanagula. -- Gy. eur. nanari ʻ comb ʼ (LM 357) very doubtful.lāṅgalin -- .Addenda: lāṅgala -- : A. lāṅgal ʻ plough ʼ(CDIAL 11006)lāṅgūlá (lāṅgula -- Pañcat., laṅgula -- lex.) n. ʻ tail ʼ ŚāṅkhŚr., adj. ʻ having a tail ʼ MBh., ʻ penis ʼ lex. 2. *lāṅguṭa -- . 3. *lāṅguṭṭa -- . 4. *lāṅguṭṭha -- . 5. *lēṅgula -- . 6. *lēṅguṭṭa -- . [Cf. lañja -- 2. -- Variety of form attests non -- Aryan origin: PMWS 112 (with lakuṭa -- ) ← Mu., J. Przyluski BSL 73, 119 ← Austro<-> as.] 1. Pa. laṅgula -- , na° n. ʻ tail ʼ, Pk. laṁgūla -- , °gōla -- , ṇaṁgūla -- , °gōla -- n.; Paš. laṅgūn n. ʻ penis ʼ; K. laṅgūr m. ʻ the langur monkey Semnopithecus schistaceus ʼ; P. lãgurlag° m. ʻ monkey ʼ; Ku. lãgūr ʻ long -- tailed monkey ʼ; N. laṅgur ʻ monkey ʼ; B. lāṅgul ʻ tail ʼ, Or. laṅgūḷalāṅguḷa; H. lagūl°ūr m. ʻ tail ʼ, laṅgūr m. ʻ longtailed black -- faced monkey ʼ; Marw. lagul ʻ penis ʼ; G. lãgur°ul (l?) m. ʻ tail, monkey ʼ, lãguriyũ n. ʻ tail ʼ; Ko. māṅguli ʻ penis ʼ (m -- from māṅgo ʻ id. ʼ < mātaṅga -- ?); Si. nagula ʻ tail ʼ, Md. nagū.2. Or. lāṅguṛanā° ʻ tail ʼ, nāuṛa ʻ sting of bee or scorpion ʼ (< *nāṅuṛa?); Mth. lã̄gaṛnāgṛi ʻ tail ʼ; M. nã̄goḍānã̄gāḍānã̄gḍānã̄gā m. ʻ scorpion's tail ʼ. 3. Sh.jij. laṅuṭi ʻ tail ʼ, Si. nan̆guṭanag°nakuṭa. -<-> X lamba -- 1: Phal. lamḗṭi, Sh.koh. lamŭṭo m., gur. lamōṭṷ m. 4. Pa. naṅguṭṭha -- n. ʻ tail ʼ. 5. A. negur ʻ tail ʼ, B. leṅguṛ. 6. Aw.lakh. nẽgulā ʻ the only boy amongst the girls fed on 9th day of Āśvin in honour of Devī ʼ. Addenda: lāṅgūlá -- [T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 65, comparing lāṅgula -- ~ Pa. nȧguṭṭha -- with similar aṅgúli -- ~ aṅgúṣṭha -- , derives < IE. *loṅgulo -- (√leṅg ʻ bend, swing ʼ IEW 676)]
    1. Md. nagū (nagulek) ʻ tail ʼ (negili ʻ anchor ʼ?). (CDIAL 11009)

    ala 3 अल । हलम् (for ala 1 and 2 see al 1 and 2), f. a plough. Cf. āla.-böñü -बा&above;ञू&below; । हलदण्डः f. the main beam of a plough (Śiv. 1531), cf. al-böñü (s.v.); (?) a goad; hal 1 हल् । हलम् m. (sg. abl. hala 1 हल), a plough. A plough and a pestle are the weapons of Balarāma, the brother of Kṛṣṇa (K. 99), and also (Śiv. 13, 116) of the elephant-god Gȧnish or Gaṇēśa. (Kashmiri)

    پاله pālaʿh, s.f. (3rd) A kind of plough-share. Pl. يْ ey. See سسپار ; پولک pū-lak, s.m. (2nd) A kind of double wedge for fastening the iron ploughshare to the frame of a plough. Pl. پولکونه pū-lakūnah; هل hal, s.m. (2nd) The handle of a plough, a plough. Pl. هلونه halūnah. See یویه.(Pashto)

    Cp. Balūčī nangār] a plough S i.115; iii.155; A iii.64; Sn 77 (yuga˚ yoke & plough); Sn p. 13; J i.57; Th 2, 441 (=sīra ThA 270); SnA 146; VvA 63, 65; PvA 133 (dun˚ hard to plough); DhA i.223 (aya˚); iii.67 (id.).
       -- īsā the beam of a plough S i.104 (of an elephant's trunk); -- kaṭṭhakaraṇa ploughing S v.146=J ii.59; -- phāla [mod. Ind. phār] ploughshare (to be understood as Dvandva) DhA i.395. (Pali)



    Santali glosses

    The word for 'hoe' in Sumerian: al 'hoe'. "The hoe (al), the implement whose destiny was fixed by father Enlil -- the renowned hoe (al)! Nisaba be praised!"

    Part of yoke of a plough: "Stambha (also spelled as Skambha) - is used to denote pillar or column. In the context of Jain & Hindu mythology, it is believed to be a cosmic column which functions as a bond, which joins the heaven (Svarga) and the earth (Prithvi). A number of Hindu scriptures, including the Atharva Veda, have references to Stambha. In the Atharva Veda, a celestial stambha has been described as an infinite scaffold, which supports the cosmos and material creation." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stambha skambhá1 m. ʻ prop, pillar ʼ RV. 2. ʻ *pit ʼ (semant. cf. kūˊpa -- 1). [√skambh1. Pa. khambha -- m. ʻ prop ʼ; Pk. khaṁbha -- m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ; Pr. iškyöpüšköb ʻ bridge ʼ NTS xv 251; L. (Ju.) khabbā m., mult. khambbā m. ʻ stake forming fulcrum for oar ʼ; P. khambhkhambhākhammhā m. ʻ wooden prop, post ʼ; WPah.bhal. kham m. ʻ a part of the yoke of a plough ʼ, (Joshi) khāmbā m. ʻ beam, pier ʼ; Ku. khāmo ʻ a support ʼ, gng. khām ʻ pillar (of wood or bricks) ʼ; N. khã̄bo ʻ pillar, post ʼ, B. khāmkhāmbā; Or. khamba ʻ post, stake ʼ; Bi. khāmā ʻ post of brick -- crushing machine ʼ, khāmhī ʻ support of betel -- cage roof ʼ, khamhiyā ʻ wooden pillar supporting roof ʼ; Mth. khāmhkhāmhī ʻ pillar, post ʼ, khamhā ʻ rudder -- post ʼ; Bhoj. khambhā ʻ pillar ʼ, khambhiyā ʻ prop ʼ; OAw. khāṁbhe m. pl. ʻ pillars ʼ, lakh. khambhā; H. khām m. ʻ post, pillar, mast ʼ, khambh f. ʻ pillar, pole ʼ; G. khām m. ʻ pillar ʼ, khã̄bhi°bi f. ʻ post ʼ, M. khã̄b m., Ko. khāmbho°bo, Si. kap (< *kab); -- X gambhīra -- , sthāṇú -- , sthūˊṇā -- qq.v.2. K. khambürü f. ʻ hollow left in a heap of grain when some is removed ʼ; Or. khamā ʻ long pit, hole in the earth ʼ, khamiā ʻ small hole ʼ; Marw. khã̄baṛo ʻ hole ʼ; G. khã̄bhũ n. ʻ pit for sweepings and manure ʼ.*skambhaghara -- , *skambhākara -- , *skambhāgāra -- , *skambhadaṇḍa -- ; *dvāraskambha -- .Addenda: skambhá -- 1: Garh. khambu ʻ pillar ʼ.(CDIAL 13639)  *skambhadaṇḍa ʻ pillar pole ʼ. [skambhá -- 1, daṇḍá -- ]Bi. kamhãṛkamhaṛkamhaṇḍā ʻ wooden frame suspended from roof which drives home the thread in a loom ʼ. (CDIAL 13642) Rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinagemintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236)

    Hieorglyph:Pa. palla, pāla seedlings. Ga. (S.2palle rice seedling. Konḍa pala (pl. paleŋ) seedlings for transplantation. Pe. pāṛa seedling. Kui plaha id. Kuwi (Su. Isr.) pāla, (Ṭ.) pala rice seedling. / Cf. Halbi pāla seedling, and Turner, CDIAL, no. 7969, pallava-.


     (DEDR 3996) pallava1 m.n. ʻ sprout, twig, blossom ʼ MBh.
    Pa. pallava -- n. ʻ sprout ʼ, Pk. pallava -- m. ʻ sprout, leaf ʼ; Phal. palāˊ m. ʻ leaf ʼ; S. palī f. ʻ leaves of gram and peas (used as vegetable) ʼ; L. pallī f. ʻ green leaves of gram (similarly used) ʼ, P. pallhī f.; Ku. pālo ʻ vegetation ʼ, paluwā ʻ new shoots of trees (used as fodder) ʼ; N. pāluwā ʻ sprig, shoot ʼ; B. pālā ʻ twig, bundle of twigs ʼ; Or. pa(h) ʻ tiny hut made of leaves ʼ (rather than < pallī -- 1), (Ganjam) ʻ seedling ʼ; Bi. pallā, (SMunger) palaī ʻ leaf of the yoke of a plough ʼ, (N of Ganges) pālo ʻ yoke of a plough ʼ, Mth. pālā (semant. cf. páttra -- in Bi.); OAw. pālava ʻ sprout ʼ; H. pālau°lāpalhā m. ʻ twig, tender leaves, leaves of jujube tree ʼ (whence ālā -- pālā m. ʻ leaves ʼ), palwā m. ʻ sprouts of sugarcane used for planting ʼ, palaī f. ʻ young branch or spray of a tree ʼ; G. pālav°lɔ m. ʻ tuft of foliage ʼ, pālũ n. ʻ temporary shed of leaves ʼ, pāl m. ʻ tender shoots ʼ (?); M. pālav°lā m. ʻ tuft of foliage, sprout ʼ, pālẽ n. ʻ foliage ʼ, pālvā m. ʻ green stick plucked from hedge ʼ, pālvī f. ʻ the sprouting of plants ʼ; Ko. pāllo ʻ sprout, bud ʼ, Si. palla, pl. palu.pallavayati.Addenda: pallava -- 1 [IE. *petlawos: √pet ʻ to spread out ʼ cf. Gk. pe/talon ʻ leaf, metal plate ʼ Burrow Tau vii 458]S.kcch. palī f. ʻ matted foliage of the jujube tree ʼ; WPah.poet. paulo m. ʻ leaf, bud, sprout ʼ, kṭg. paulṭi f. ʻ shoot of a tree ʼ.(CDIAL 7969)

    Poughshare: phāˊla1 m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ RV., ʻ mattock ʼ R. [Cf. phala -- 5 n. ʻ ploughshare ʼ lex.: prob. conn. phálati2. Poss. < *spāla -- ~ Ir. *spāra -- in Pers. supār, Sar. spur (EVP 68). If so, it may have been influenced by Mu. or Drav. to account for early ph -- (cmpds. also show -- ph -- , not -- pph -- ): EWA ii 397 with lit. -- √phal]
    Pa. Pk. phāla -- m.n. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, Wg. pāl, Kt. pōl, Dm. phal, Tir. phāl, Paš.chil. kuṛ. phāl, ar. āl -- päṛīˊ (halá -- ), Shum. phālā̤l -- phäleik, Gaw. phāl, Kho. phal, Bshk. Tor. phāl, Sv. phal, Phal. phōl, Sh.pales. phāl; K. phāl m. ʻ ploughshare, metal blade of mattock &c. ʼ (cf. phal < phala -- 2); S. phāru m. ʻ ploughshare, steel edge of a tool ʼ; L. phālā m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, awāṇ. phāl, P. phālā m., °lī f. ʻ small do. ʼ, WPah.bhal. phāl f., jaun. phāwā, (Joshi) fāḷā m., Ku. phālo, gng. phāw, N. phāli, A. B. phāl, Or. phāḷa, (Bastar) phāra, Bi. phār, Mth. phār°rāphālā, Bhoj. phār, H. phāl°lā m., °lī f., phār°rā m., M. phāḷ m.
    *phālaghara -- ; *ardhaphāla -- , *dārvaphālaka -- , *niṣphālika -- , *baddhaphāla -- , *halaphāla -- .
    Addenda: phāˊla -- 1: †*lōhaphāla -- . (CDIAL 9072)  †*lōhaphāla -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , phāˊla -- 1]
    WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl m. ʻ an agricultural implement ʼ Him.I 197; -- or < †*lōhahala -- .(CDIAL 11160a)


    Point of ploughshare: dhāˊrā2 f. ʻ sharp edge, rim, blade ʼ RV., ʻ edge of mountain ʼ lex.
    Pa. Pk. dhārā -- f. ʻ edge of weapon ʼ; NiDoc. cliuradhara ʻ knife -- blade ʼ; Ash. Wg.  ʻ mountain, pass ʼ, Kt.  (→ Pr.  NTS xv 257); Dm. dâr ʻ hill ʼ, Paš. dhār, Shum. Niṅg. dār, Woṭ. dār m., Gaw. d'ār f. (→ Kho. dahār ʻ ridge of hill ʼ Rep2 49), Sv. dhārē, Sh. (Lor.) dār ʻ ridge of hill ʼ; K. dār f. ʻ edge or point of weapon or tool ʼ, kash. dhār f. ʻ hill ʼ; S. dhāra f. ʻ edge of weapon or tool ʼ; L. dhār f. ʻ edge ʼ; P. dhār f. ʻ edge of weapon, ridge of mountain ʼ, bhaṭ. dhār ʻ hill ʼ; WPah. bhad. bhal. cur. dhār f. ʻ hill ʼ, khaś. (obl.) dhāra; Ku. dhār ʻ edge, ridge, summit of hill ʼ, dhāri ʻ edge, mouth (of mill) ʼ; N. dhār ʻ edge, blade of knife, cliff ʼ (whence dhārilo ʻ sharp ʼ); A. dhār ʻ edge of weapon, blade ʼ (whence dharāiba ʻ to sharpen ʼ), dhāri ʻ line, row ʼ; B. dhār ʻ edge, sharpness of a blade ʼ, dhāri ʻ edge, edge of mud veranda ʼ; Or. dhāra ʻ blade ʼ; Bi. dhār ʻ edge or point of ploughshare ʼ, dhārī ʻ deep furrow ʼ; Mth. dhār ʻ line ʼ; Bhoj. dhār ʻ curved blade of mattock ʼ; OAw. dhārī ʻ line ʼ; H. dhār f. ʻ edge, line, boundary ʼ, dhārī f. ʻ line, groove ʼ; G. M. dhār f. ʻ edge of tool, brink ʼ; Ko. dhāra ʻ sharpness ʼ; Si. daraya ʻ edge, sharpness ʼ. -- Kal.rumb. dar ʻ ridge -- pole ʼ or poss. < dāˊru -- 2.
    *dhārāmr̥ttikā -- ; *ēkkadhāra -- , *caturdhāra -- , tīkṣṇadhāra -- , *tridhāra -- , *dārvadhāraka -- , *dudhāra -- , *pr̥ṣṭhadhāra -- , *māṁsadhārā -- , *sītādhārā -- .
    Addenda: dhāˊrā -- 2: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) dhāˋr f. ʻ edge, mountain ridge ʼ, J. dhā'r f.; -- kṭg. dhàrkɔ ʻ steep, curved ʼ; dhàrṭidhàṭṭi f. ʻ ridge of a hill ʼ; Md. dāra ʻ edge ʼ ← G. M. dhār f. (CDIAL 6793)



    Image result for sumerian ploughThe seed plough was an invention of the Sumerians and is seen prominent in various cylindrical seals. It was called by Sumerians "gis.apin", (seed plough),


    Compare with Greek plough.

    Image result for sumerian ploughImage result for sumerian plough
    Image result for sumerian plough
    Image result for sumerian plough
    2c - Haia, Enlil, unknown god, & Nisaba
    Nisaba, Master Scribe & Goddess of Grains
    Farming - gods then man tilled the fields
    2b - Enlil, spouse Haia, Nisaba, & Ninlil
    7c - gods teach mankind to plowPlough shown on Sumerian cylinder seals.
    http://www.mesopotamiangods.com/the-debate-between-the-hoe-and-the-plow-translation/
    Image result for sumerian ploughIsidore, the farm labourer's plough

    Isidore the Farm Labourer, also known as Isidore the Farmer, (Spanish: San Isidro Labrador), (c. 1070 – 15 May 1130) was a Spanish farmworker known for his piety toward the poor and animals. He is the Catholic patron saint of farmers and of Madrid and of La Ceiba, Honduras. His feast day is celebrated on 15 May. Thi plough was discovered by Subhas Chandra Bose (Netaji).
    http://warehouse-13-artifact-database.wikia.com/wiki/Isidore_the_Laborer%E2%80%99s_Plough
    "William Smith in 1875 decribes the ARATRUM a plow developed in Greece that "was by taking a young tree with two branches proceeding from its trunk in opposite directions, so that whilst in ploughing the trunk was made to serve for the pole, one of the two branches stood upwards and became the tail, and the other penetrated the ground, and, being covered sometimes with bronze or iron, fulfilled the purpose of a share.""



    Compare with plough shown on Balarama image on a coin.

    Sankarsana, the wielder of the plough, with the fan-palm as his emblem. Silver drachm of the Greco-Bactrian king Agathocles (190-180 BCE)found in the excavations at Al-Khanuram in Afghanistan. 



    Modern photo showing an Indian plough.



    Ploughing and sowing. Warli painting (detail) Maharashtra.Source: http://ignca.nic.in/ex025005.htm



    Harappa. h0146 seal.



    m0357


    m0357 Text 1401  The 'fish' on this text and on a tablet (together with crocodile) seem to focus on the fins of fish and hence, signify. khambhaṛā ʻfinʼ rebus: kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint.
    Reading of Text 1401: karaNika 'rim of jar' rebus: karNi 'supercargo' bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' goTa 'round' rebus: khoTa 'ingot' PLUS kolom 'rice plant' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' tutha 'goad' rebus: tutha 'pewter' PLUS kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' khambhaṛā ʻfinʼ rebus: kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'.

    Last three hieroglyphs as a distinct string: tutha 'goad' rebus: tutha 'pewter' PLUS kolom 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' khaNDa 'notch' rebus: khaNDa 'implements' arA 'spoke' rebus: Ara 'brass' eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper'.

    Excavations at Ai-Khanum, Afghanistan, conducted by P. Bernard and a French archeological expedition, dug up six rectangular bronze coins issued by the Indo-Greek ruler Agathocles (180?-?165 BCE).

    Retour au fasciculeTrésor de monnaies indiennes et indo-grecques d'Aï Khanoum (Afghanistan). [II. Les monnaies indo-grecques.] 



    [article]



    II. Les monnaies indo-grecques.

      Année 1974  Volume 6  Numéro 16  pp. 6-4



    Cakra, vajra.


    Bowman shown on Bhaja cave verandah is an Indus Script hypertext to sigify a mint.,kāmaḍum=a chip of bamboo (G.) kāmaṭhiyo bowman; an archer(Skt.)rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'



    %A3%E1%B9%87u_and_%C5%9Aiva_Images_in_India_Numismatic_and_Sculptural_Evidence

    This monograph demonstrates using thousands of punch-marked and early coins of Ancient Bharata that the Harappa Script tradition of data archiving metalwork catalogues continues into the historical periods. Hence, all the symbols used on ancient coins of Bharata are Harappa Script hieroglyphs read rebus in Meluhha to signify metalwork.


    Source: http://vidyaonline.org/dl/cultddk.pdf


    See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/10/vrishni-janapada-coin-with-hieroglyphs.html
    वृष्णि is a term in Rigveda. A Vrishni silver coin from Alexander Cunningham's Coins of Ancient India: From the Earliest Times Down to the Seventh Century (1891) (loc.cit., Lahiri, Bela (1974). Indigenous States of Northern India (Circa 200 B.C.E to 320 C.E.), Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp.242 3). वृष्णि [p= 
    1013,2] वृष्ण्/इ or व्/ऋष्णिmfn. manly , strong , powerful , mighty RV.m. a ram VS. TS. S3Br.m. a bull L.m. a ray of light L.m. N. of शिव MBh.m. of विष्णु-कृष्ण L.m.of इन्द्र L.m. of अग्नि L.m. pl. N. of a tribe or family (from which कृष्ण is descended , = यादव or माधव ; often mentioned together with the अन्धकs) MBh. Hariv. &cn. N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. (Monier-Williams)
    An identical ancient silver coin (perhaps produced from the same ancient mint) of Vrishni janapada ca. 10 CE with kharoṣṭhī, Brahmi inscriptions and Harappa Script hieroglyphs was sold in an auction in Ahmedabad (August 2016) for Rs. 27 lakhs. In fact, the treasure is priceless and defines the heritage of Bhāratam Janam, 'metalcaster folk' dating back to the 7th millennium of Vedic culture. It signifies a spoked wheel which is the centre-piece of Bharat's national flag. 
    सांगड sāṅgaḍa 'joined animal', rebus: sangaDa ‘lathe’ sanghaṭṭana ‘bracelet’ rebus 1: .sanghāṭa ‘raft’ sAngaDa ‘catamaran, double-canoe’rebusčaṇṇāḍam (Tu. ജംഗാല, Port. Jangada). Ferryboat, junction of 2 boats, also rafts. 2  jangaḍia 'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasury' ചങ്ങാതം čaṇṇāδam (Tdbh.; സംഘാതം) 1. Convoy, guard; responsible Nāyar guide through foreign territories. rebus 3: जाकड़ ja:kaṛ जांगड़ jāngāḍ‘entrustment note’ जखडणें tying up (as a beast to a stake) rebus 4: sanghāṭa ‘accumulation, collection’ rebus 5. sangaDa ‘portable furnace, brazier’ rebus 6: sanghAta ‘adamantine glue‘ rebus 7: sangara ‘fortification’ rebus 8: sangara ‘proclamation’ 9: samgraha, samgaha 'arranger, manager'.



    On the VRSNi coin, tiger and elephant are joined to create a composite hyperext. This is Harappa Script orthographic cipher. 

    Hieroglyph: ढाल (p. 204) ḍhāla f (S through H) The grand flag of an army directing its march and encampments: also the standard or banner of a chieftain: also a flag flying on forts &c. v दे. ढाल्या (p. 204) ḍhālyā a ढाल That bears the ढाल or grand flag of an army.

    Rebus/Hieroglyph: ढाल (p. 204) ḍhāla f (S through H) A shield. ढालपट्टा (p. 204) ḍhālapaṭṭā m (Shield and sword.) A soldier's accoutrements comprehensively. ढाल्या (p. 204) ḍhālyā a ढाल Armed with a Shield.ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- .1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f.Addenda: ḍhāla -- . 2. *ḍhāllā -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f.(CDIAL 5583) தளவாய் taḷa-vāy

    n. prob. தளம்³ + வாய். [T. daḷavāyi, K. dalavāy.] Military commander, minister of war; படைத்தலைவன். ஒன்ன லரைவென்று வருகின்ற தளவாய் (திருவேங். சத. 89).
    Rebus:  ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati) ढाळ (p. 204) Cast, mould, form (as of metal vessels, trinkets &c.) 


    This Indus Script cipher signifies that an ox-hide ingot of Ancient Near East was called ḍhāla 'a large metal ingot' -- a parole (speech) word from Indian sprachbund (language union or speech linguistic area) of the Bronze Age.


    kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelter'

    The pellet border is composed of: goṭā 'seed', round pebble, stone' rebus: goṭā ''laterite, ferrite ore''gold braid' खोट [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down). The railing for the pillar is Vedi, sacred fire-altar for Soma samsthā Yāga. There is evidence dated to ca. 2500 BCE for the performance of such a yajna in Binjor (4MSR) on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati. The fire-altar yielded an octagonal pillar, which is detailed in ancient Vedic texts as a proclamation of Soma samsthā Yāga.

    Three hour-glass shaped vajra-s are shown in a cartouche below the yupa on the coin. Normally Vajrapani is shown such a vajra which has octagonal edges. kolom'three' rebus: kolimi, kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'

    It is a record of the performance of a Soma samsthā Yāga. It is Vrishni Janapada coin of ca. 10 CE.Cakra, pavi in Vedic tradition is also
    vajra. Rudra is vajrabāhu 'vajra weapon wielder'; said also of Agni and Indra. 

    वज्र [p=913,1] mn. " the hard or mighty one " , a thunderbolt (esp. that of इन्द्र , said to have been formed out of the bones of the ऋषि दधीच or दधीचि [q.v.] , and shaped like a circular discus , or in later times regarded as having the form of two transverse bolts crossing each other thus x ; sometimes also applied to similar weapons used by various gods or superhuman beings , or to any mythical weapon destructive of spells or charms , also to मन्यु , " wrath "RV. or [with अपाम्] to a jet of water AV. &c ; also applied to a thunderbolt in general or to the lightning evolved from the centrifugal energy of the circular thunderbolt of इन्द्र when launched at a foe ; in Northern Buddhist countries it is shaped like a dumb-bell and called Dorje ; » MWB. 201 ; 322 &c RV. &c; a diamond (thought to be as hard as the thunderbolt or of the same substance with it) , Shad2vBr. Mn. MBh. &c; m. a kind of column or pillar VarBr2S.; m. a kind of hard mortar or cement (कल्कVarBr2S. (cf. -लेप); n. a kind of hard iron or steel L.
    On some sculptural friezes, three tigers or three elephants carry the wheel hypertext to signify iron working in smithy/forge: kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus:karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant' PLUS kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'.

    Art historian and scholar of Bauddham studies, Huntington has identified the following characteristic, common features on the hypertext signified on these coins. I suggest that conclusions indicated by Huntington need to be revised in the context of life-activities of the artisans related to mint-metalwork signified on sculptural hypertexts and Punch-marked coin hypertexts.
    Image result for Magadha janapada, Silver karshapana, c. 4th century BCE

    Magadha janapada, Silver karshapana, c. 4th century BCE
    Weight: 3.45 gm., Dim: 25 x 23 mm.
    Five punches: sun, 6-arm, and three others / Banker's mark
    Ref:  GH 48.


    karibha 'elephant' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' ib 'iron' 
    eraka 'knave of wheel' rebus: erako 'moltencast, copper'; arA 'spokes, rebus: Ara 'brass' khaNDa 'division'
    rebus: kaNDa 'implements' arka 'sun' rebus: arka, eraka 'copper'. Six-spoked hypertext emanating from
    dotted circle is: dhAu 'element, mineral ferrite' PLUS muhA 'furnace quantity, ingot' PLUS kANDa 'arrow'
    rebus: kaNDa 'implements;. Thus, the five PMC hypertexts signify mintwork with iron, molten cast copper,
    iron implements, ingots, furnace work.

    On some sculptural friezes, the 'fish-fin' hypertext is ligatured to the tip of the spokes of the wheel emanating
    from the dotted circle. This signifies: ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'metal' aya 'iron'.
    PLUS  khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.
    Bhaja Chaitya ca. 100 BCE. Hieroglyphs are: fish-fin pair; pine-cone; yupa: kandə ʻpine' rebus: kaṇḍa 'implements, fire-altar' khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' (Lahnda CDIAL 13640) Ta. kampaṭṭam, kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. Yupa: Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛ ʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). Rebus: kāṇḍa,'implements'.

    Ligature to 'mintwork' signifier is also shown on the wheel sculptural friezes of Amaravati -- spokes are ligatured on their tips with 'fish-fins' joined together:ayo kammaTa 'iron mintwork' ayo 'fish' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin'.;

    Amaravati sculpturel friezes: cakra with ligatures.
    Elaborate orthography on sanchi stupa relates the spoked wheel to 'fish-fin' hypertext (mintwork) and also to tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'.



    1. dotted circle
    2. arrow (three)
    3. twist (three) Some examples replace the 'twist' with 'buns-shaped ingots'. Thus, total six hypertexts emanate from dotted circle as spokes.

    Four components of hypertext are read rebus in Meluhha:

    1. Dotted circle is a Harappa Script hieroglyph and signifies a 'strand' of rope. dhāī˜ 'strand' rebus: dhāu'soft red stone, element'(ferrite ore)

    2. Twist is: मेढा mēḍhā A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’(Ho.)med 'copper' (Slavic languages) medha 'yajña, dhanam'. mũh 'face' (Hindi) rebus: mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends;kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali).



    Connection to a rope imagery is seen here: 'strand' of rope. dhāī˜ 'strand' rebus: dhāu 'soft red stone, element'(ferrite ore) PLUS मेढा mēḍhā A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’(Ho.) Thus, the signifiers are: meD dhAtu 'iron element' PLUS ayo khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus:aya kammaTa 'iron mint'. Eight spokes relate to अष्टाश्रि yūpo bhavati 'eight-corneres yupa' of a Soma Samsthā yāga

    Thus, together, the hypertext of dotted circle linked to six spokes as the चषालः caṣāla or cakra signifies a weapon with multiple prongs orthographed by sculptors and mintworkers who punched symbols on punch-marked coins. The arrows and twists thus signify: implements and furnaced ingots of dhatu'(ferrite) minerals'.

    Santali glosses

    Hieroglyph: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773).

    Rebus: Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ(CDIAL 6773)
    British Museum. 2nd cent. Hoshiarpur, Punjab.
    Republic of the Vrishni Peoples (10-40AD), Silver Drachm, MIGIS Type 928 variation, 2.15g. Obv: Standard, topped by a Nandipada finial and an elephant's head and forepart of a leaping lion below it, in an ornamental railing; Brahmi legend (Vŗ)shņi Rajaña Ganasya Tratarasya (वृ)ष्णी राजञ गणस्य त्रतरस्य reading anticlockwise outwards below. Rev: Ornate 14-spoked wheel with scalloped outer rim; Kharoshthi legend from 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock  "The Vrishnis were known to Panini and to Kautilya; the latter describes them as a Sangha. In the Mahabharata they are counted amongst the Vratya brotherhood of Kshatriyas. As one of the Yadava clans they are closely associated with Krishna in myth and lore. It is said that they migrated to Dwaraka from Mathura, after Krishna's capital was besieged by the demon Kalayavana. The reference to 'Yavana' here and the subsequent migration from Mathura may have had some historical basis" The coins of the Vrishnis are by far the rarest of the so-called 'Tribal' coins of India. Only one silver specimen, from the Alexander Cunningham collection, is known to exist in the British Museum and has been published by Mitchiner as Type 928 in MIGIS.  http://classicalnumismaticgallery.com/advancesearch.aspx
    The ring-stones of Al Khanoum palace are comparable to the ring-stones of Dholavira
    Image result for dholavira ringstonesRingstones, Dholavira.

    Hala gets repeated as Indus Script hypertext on cast coins. On the coin on the right, three hieroglyphs are signified, one below the other: snake, pupil of the eye; plough
    Hala shape also occurs on punch-marked coins, together with sun hieroglyph.


    The hala shown on this coin also appears on Vasudeva coin. See the hieroglyph on the Vasudeva coin (right bottom)



    Mirror: https://www.academia.edu/25807197/Emergence_of_Vi%E1%B9%A3%E1%B9%87u_and_%C5%9Aiva_Images_in_India_Numismatic_and_Sculptural_Evidence












    Source: https://www.academia.edu/25807197/Emergence_of_Viṣṇu_and_Śiva_Images_in_India_Numismatic_and_Sculptural_Evidence



    Krishna कृष्ण-वासुदेव as warrior and king. Earliest extant image on coin, from the borderlands, northwest India. Krishna (कृष्ण-वासुदेव) in Bactrian garb on silver coin of Vaishnava King Agathocles (~180 BCE). With शङ्ख, चक्र, छत्र.
    Balarāma in the bronze coin of Emperor Moasa (Maues) with the characteristic हल and मुसल. Takshashila, Northwest India, ~70 BCE.
    The earliest known representation of Balarāma (बलराम), elder brother of Krishna. Silver coin of Agathocles (~180 BCE). Notice हल, मुसल, छत्र

    Pāṇini, 5th century BCE, says images used in shrines. Mahābhāṣya, 2nd Century BCE, mentions temples to Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Śiva, and Viṣṇu.




    Earliest known representation of Rama with bow on a coin. Huvishka (c 150 CE). British Museum.

    Central India, AE 1/8 karshapana,'fish-holding Vasudhara'
    Weight: 1.01 gm., Diameter: 8x8 mm.
    Standing goddess Vasudhara holding a pair of fish with her outstretched
         right, left hand akimbo; she wears large earrings and pinned up hair (as
         if wearing a vessel on her head); svastika on the top left.
    Lion standing to right
    Reference: Pieper 452 (plate coin)
    ujjain346
    Ujjain, anonymous AE 3/8 karshapana,'Balarama & ass-demon'
    Weight: 3.86 gm., Diameter: 15x14 mm.
    Human figure on left holding stick and kamandalu standing towards a
         horse-like animal which faces him from right; palm tree on right; Ujjain
         symbol on top; a taurine above the animal and taurine and svastika at
         the bottom.
    Ujjain symbol with a svastika in each orb and taurines in the angles.
    Reference: Pieper 346
    In a note to the SACG website Shailendra Bhandare suggested the scene on this coin representing the mythical story of 'Balarama killing the ass demon' and the depiction seems to reflect that story indeed quite well- even if the deity on this coin has no specific Vaishnavite attributes. We are told that there had been a large grove where there were palmyras bearing delicious fruits. But nobody dared to go there because the site was guarded by Dhenuka, a demon in the form of an ass. Finally Balarama, inseparable companion of Krishna, killed the demon by crashing him against one of the palm trees. In his contribution to 'Between the Empires' Bhandare discusses the story of 'Balarama killing the ass-demon' in the context of the coinage of Erikachha where the palm-tree and ass had been characteristic coin devices. Typologically this coin type may thus rather belong to Erikachha than to Ujjain.

    "Shiva and Lakshmi other deities are also depicted on the coins of ancient Ujjain, such as Karttikeya, Shashthi, Vasudhara, Krishna, Brahma and others, according to the well-founded identifications of Devendra Handa."
    http://coinindia.com/galleries-ujjain2.html

    Azes, AE chalkous or quarter unit
    Weight: 2.76 gm. Dimensions: 20 x 15 mm Die axis: 12 o'clock
    Balarama walking left, holding club and plough,
         Greek legend around: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BA / ΣIΛEΩN M / EΓAΛOY AZOY
    Female deity standing right, holding fillet, monogram at right,
         Kharoshthi legend around (on 3 sides only): maharajasa rajatirajasa mahatasa ayasa
    MIG 742, Sen 78.1

    Mitchiner identifies the obverse figure as an unidentified male deity, but Senior has correctly noted the plough, suggesting that the figure is Balarama (Senior calls him Bala-Krishna). The type follows the similar type issued by Maues (Sen 20).

    "The Scythians or Sakas were originally a nomadic people from Central Asia who made their way into Bactria in the second century BCE. It is likely it is they who were responsible for the burning of Ai-Khanoum in what is now northern Afghanistan around 150 BCE.
    Maues was a king of this tribe who appears to have conquered territory in Kashmir and then acquired control of the area around Taxila in the Punjab. At this point, the Scythians were perhaps not as distinct from the Greeks as might be imagined, as considerable inter-marriage was probably taking place. There is a coin telling us that the so-called "Indo-Greek" king Artemidoros was the son of Maues. We also see this inter-mingling in the fact that most of Maues's coin types follow Greek prototypes.
    The date of Maues is still not entirely clear.The traditional dates are c. 90-60 BCE, but Artemidoros is dated to c. 85 BCE, which suggests Maues should be earlier."
    http://coinindia.com/galleries-maues.html

    káṇa m. ʻ a grain of corn ʼ AV., ʻ drop (of water) ʼ Kāv., kaṇikā -- f. ʻ a single grain ʼ MBh.
    Pa. kaṇa -- m. ʻ dust between husk and grain of rice ʼ, kaṇikā -- f. ʻ particle of broken rice ʼ; Pk. kaṇa -- , °aga -- m. ʻ scattered grain, rice, wheat, particle, drop ʼ, kaṇiyā -- f. ʻ fragment of rice or wheat ʼ; Sh. (Lor.) k*lhʻ grain of rice with the husk on ʼ; K. kana m. ʻ granule ʼ, pl. ʻ broken bits of grain from husked rice ʼ; S. kaṇo m. ʻ a grain, a seed ʼ; L. kaṇ m. ʻ outturn of crops ʼ, kaṇī f. ʻ drop, slight rain ʼ, (Salt Range) kaṇ m. ʻ seedling onion ʼ, kaṇī f. ʻ broken rice, drop of rain ʼ, awāṇ. kaṇ ʻ drop ʼ; P. kaṇ m. ʻ outturn of crops, grain borrowed and repayable with interest, particle ʼ, kaṇī f. ʻ particle, bran, halfformed butter in milk ʼ, kiṇī f. ʻ drop of rain ʼ (whence kiṇnā ʻ to rain moderately ʼ); WPah. bhal. kaṇi ʻ a bit of meat ʼ; A. kanā ʻ a minute particle ʼ, kani ʻ egg, testicle, *drop ʼ (whence kaniyāiba ʻ to fall in small drops ʼ); B. kan ʻ eye of corn, particle ʼ, kanā ʻ piece of dust, cummin seed ʼ, kanī ʻ atom, particle ʼ; Or. kaṇa°ṇā ʻ particle of dust, eye of seed, atom ʼ, kaṇi ʻ particle of grain ʼ; OAw. kana ʻ drop (of dew) ʼ; H. kan m., kanī f. ʻ grain, fragment, atom ʼ; G. kaṇkaṇũ n. ʻ single grain of corn ʼ, kaṇī f. ʻ small grain ʼ (whence kaṇiyɔ m. ʻ grain -- dealer ʼ); M. kaṇ m. ʻ grain, atom, corn ʼ, kaṇī f. ʻ hard core of grain, pupil of eye, broken bit ʼ, kaṇẽ n. ʻ very small particle ʼ; Ko. kaṇu m. ʻ a grain ʼ; Si. kaṇa ʻ a drop of water ʼ.(CDIAL 2661)  Ta. kaṇ eye, aperture, orifice, star of a peacock's tail. Ma. kaṇ, kaṇṇu eye, nipple, star in peacock's tail, bud. Ko. kaṇ eye. To. koṇ eye, loop in string. Ka. kaṇ eye, small hole, orifice. Koḍ. kaṇṇï id. Tu. kaṇṇůeye, nipple, star in peacock's feather, rent, tear. Te. kanu, kannu eye, small hole, orifice, mesh of net, eye in peacock's feather. Kol. kan (pl. kanḍl) eye, small hole in ground, cave. Nk. kan (pl. kanḍḷ) eye, spot in peacock's tail. Nk. (Ch.) kan (pl. -l) eye. Pa. (S. only) kan (pl. kanul) eye. Ga. (Oll.) kaṇ (pl. kaṇkul) id.; kaṇul maṭṭa eyebrow; kaṇa (pl. kaṇul) hole; (S.) kanu (pl. kankul) eye. Go. (Tr.) kan (pl. kank) id.; (A.) kaṛ (pl. kaṛk) id. Konḍa kaṇ id. Pe. kaṇga (pl. -ŋ, kaṇku) id. Manḍ. kan (pl. -ke) id. Kui kanu (pl. kan-ga), (K.) kanu (pl. kaṛka) id. Kuwi (F.) kannū (pl. kar&nangle;ka), (S.) kannu (pl. kanka), (Su. P. Isr.) kanu (pl.kaṇka) id. Kur. xann eye, eye of tuber; xannērnā (of newly born babies or animals) to begin to see, have the use of one's eyesight (for ērnā, see 903). Malt. qanu eye. Br. xan id., bud. Cf. 1443 Ta. kāṇ and 1182 Ta. kaṇṇāṭi.(DEDR 1159a)

    0 0

    https://tinyurl.com/yb4y8ks7

    Copper anthropomorphs are tã̄boṭī Indus Script templates for hypertexts, calling cards of  tāmrikā, brazier coppersmiths ताम्रिक [p= 443,3] mfn. coppery Mn. viii , 136 Yajn. i , 364; = °म्र-कार L.; ताम्रिका f. » °म्रक (Monier-Williams).

    The chronological sequencing of copper anthropomorphs is now possible thanks to the painstaking documentation done by savants like Paul Yule (whose contributions are embedded). 

    Paul Yule has demonstrated that copper anthropomorphs have been found at al-Aqir near Bahla’, Sultanate of Oman (ca. 2500 BCE), at R'as al-Jins (ca. 2300 BCE), at Lothal (ca.19th cent. BCE).   
    Image result for ra's al-jins mapLocation of Rasal Jinz in Oman, Persian Gulf
    Image result for ra's al-jinsRas Al Jinz Turtle Reserve Oman
    R'as al-jins is famed for turtle reserves. Mudhif is cognate munda of Todas in Nilgiris.

    Anthropomorph is a figure in ancient art resembling a human being. Indus Script Corpora is embellished with many anthropomorphs, even feline faces are ligatured to a human body, personifying the resulting composite form. There is a word for such composite forms: सांगड (p. 495) sāṅgaḍa 'a body formed of two or more parts of animals,men, fruits)(Marathi). This is a frequently used hypertext in Indus Script to signify rebus: jangad'trade on approval basis'sangara 'trade', jangadiyo'military guard accompanying treasure into the treasure' and sanghāta'adamantine metallic glue like vajra'.

    I suggest that copper anthropomorphs dated from ca. 3rd millennium BCE in ANE and discovered in copper hoards of Ancient India are  intended to be wealth-accounting documentation templates, to function as calling cards of brazier coppersmiths. 

    Evidences are presented to formulate the form and function of these anthropomorph plates as slates (takhtés'writing tablets') or  tã̄boṭī. 'coppr plate blanks' --during historical periods --for writing (inscribing) edicts & land grants with affixed mudrā of rulers. This procedure is attested by याज्ञवल्क्य: पटे वा ताम्रपट्टे वा स्वमुद्रोपरिचिह्नितम् । अभिलेख्यात्मनो वंश्यानात्मानं च महीपतिः ॥ Y.1.319. The scribes aretāmrika ताम्रिक a. (-की  A brazier coppersmith. 

    baḍhia meḍḍha kũdār 'boar, ram, young bull' jangadiyo'military guard, meḍh'seafaring merchant' with kundaṇa 'fine gold' metalwork treasure'

    Manjul, Sanjay, 2015, The Enigmatic Copper Anthropomorph: From Harappa to the HistoricalIllustrated lecture by Dr. Sanjay Manjul, Director, Institute of Archaeology, in: India Archaeology Programme of India International Centre, Delhi, on 28 August 2015. http://www.iicdelhi.nic.in/writereaddata/ProgramAttachments/635736822482342405CR%20I.jpg  baḍhia, 'boar' are recognizable and read rebus: baḍhi 'worker in iron and wood'(Santali) is cognate with: baṛhai (Garhwali); bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) rebus: barea 'merchant' (Santali) PLUS kũdār ‘turner’. कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) kundaṇa 'fine gold' (Kannada) PLUS meḍḍha 'ram' rebus: ayo meḍh 'metal merchant' ayo mēdhā 'metal expert' PLUS karṇika 'spread legs' rebus: karṇika कर्णिक 'steersman'  "A composite copper Anthropomorphic figure along with a copper sword was found by the speaker at the Central Antiquity Section, ASI, Purana Qila in 2005. This composite copper Anthropomorph is a solitary example in the copper hoard depicting a Varāha head. The Anthropomorphic figure, its inscription and animal motif that it bears, illustrate the continuity between the Harappan and Early Historical period."                                                          Presented in September 2014 by Art curator Naman Ahuja. Event: exhibition titled The Body in Indian Art. Held in National Museum, New Delhi, in April 2014 Repeat of Exhibition for Europalia, Brussels. News Report of Sept. 27, 2014 http://www.business-standard.com/article/specials/naman-ahuja-is-mastering-the-art-of-reaching-out-114092501180_1.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I suggest that this calling card of the professional tāmrika, brazier coppersmit is a proclamation of his/her competence in alloy metals, find gold merchandise and as a steersman, a seafaring meḍh, 'merchant' of metals.

    Semantic structure of the words derived from the root: varddhr̥ ʻcutter, knifeʼ is clearly relatable to the work of carpentry and smithy in reference to cutting out copper plates to serve as writing tablets. 

    I suggest that the early phonetic forms -- in lingua franca - of the word to signify baḍhia, 'boar' are recognizable and read rebus: baḍhi 'worker in iron and wood'(Santali) is cognate with: baṛhai (Garhwali); bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) rebus: barea 'merchant' (Santali). 

    Detailed studies of phonetic variations in ancient Bhāratīya languages will establish a framework for the Bhāratīya sprachbund  in linguistic studies.       

    Varāha is hieorglyph: boar: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’; baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali)Rebus: bari 'merchant'. barea 'merchant' (Santali) বরাহ barāha 'boar' Rebus: bāṛaï
    'carpenter' (Bengali)  Cognate terms are a variety of phonetic forms: వడ్రంగి, వడ్లంగి, వడ్లవాడు (p. 1126) vaḍraṅgi, vaḍlaṅgi, vaḍlavāḍu or వడ్లబత్తుడు vaḍrangi. [Tel.] n. A carpenter. వడ్రంగము, వడ్లపని, వడ్రము or వడ్లంగితనము vaḍrangamu. n. The trade of a carpenter. వడ్లవానివృత్తి. వడ్రంగిపని. వడ్రంగిపిట్ట or వడ్లంగిపిట్ట vaḍrangi-piṭṭa. n. A woodpecker. దార్వాఘాటము. వడ్లకంకణము vaḍla-kankaṇamu. n. A curlew. ఉల్లంకులలో భేదము. వడ్లత or వడ్లది vaḍlata. n. A woman of the carpenter caste.  వర్ధకి (p. 1135) vardhaki vardhaki. [Skt.] n. A carpenter. వడ్లవాడు. varddhr̥ 11371 *varddhr̥ ʻ cutter, knife ʼ. [√vardh]*varddhrī -- : N. bāṛ ʻ blade of khukri ʼ; Bi. bāṛh ʻ bookbinder's papercutter ʼ; H. bāṛhbāṛ f. ʻ edge of knife ʼ, G. vāḍh f.; -- P. vāḍhbāḍh f. ʻ cutting edge ʼ poss. < *vārddhrī -- .*vardharī -- , *vardhā̆ra -- : Bi. badhrī°riyā°rābadhārū ʻ knife with a heavy blade for reaping with ʼ; <-> WPah.bhad. bardhāṇū ʻ to shear sheep ʼ < *badhār -- ṇū?VARDH ʻ cut ʼ: *varddhr̥ -- , vardha -- 1, vardhaka -- , vardhaki -- , vardhana -- 1, vardhayati1, vardhāpayati1, *vardhira -- , várdhra -- , *vardhrya -- , *vārdhaka -- , vr̥ddha -- 1. vr̥ddhi -- 1; *avavr̥ddha -- , *vivr̥ddha -- .vardha 11372 vardha1 m. ʻ a cutting ʼ W. [√vardh]S. vaḍhu m. ʻ a cut ʼ; L. vaḍḍh m. ʻ ears of corn remaining in a field after sheaves have been removed ʼ; P. vaḍḍhba° m. ʻ a cut in a piece of wood, chip, stubble of grain (wheat, maize, &c.) ʼ, vaḍḍhāba° m. ʻ cut, mark ʼ; G. vāḍh m. ʻ cut, wound, reaping a field ʼ; Si. vaḍa -- ya ʻ act of cutting off ʼ; -- K. broḍu m. ʻ septum of noseʼ várdha2 m. ʻ giving increase or prosperity ʼ RV. [√vr̥dh] Pa. vaḍḍha -- n. ʻ wealth ʼ, vaḍḍhaka -- ʻ augmenting ʼ; Paš. wāḍ m. ʻ body ʼ IIFL iii 3, 183; S. vādho m. ʻ profit ʼ; P. vāddhābā° m. ʻ increase, profit ʼ; WPah. (Joshi) bādhā m. ʻ increase in taxes ʼ; B. bāṛ(h)ā ʻ increase ʼ, Or. baṛhā, H. bādhā m., M. vāḍh m. *gōvardha -- .(CDIAL 11373)

    vardhaka in cmpd. ʻ cutting ʼ, m. ʻ carpenter ʼ R. [√vardh]Pa. cīvara -- vaḍḍhaka -- m. ʻ tailor ʼ; Kho. bardog°ox ʻ axe ʼ (early → Kal. wadók before v -- > b -- in Kho.); <-> Wg. wāṭ ʻ axe ʼ, Paš.dar. wāˊṭak (?).(CDIAL 11374)i 

    vardhaki m. ʻ carpenter ʼ MBh. [√vardh]Pa. vaḍḍhaki -- m. ʻ carpenter, building mason ʼ; Pk. vaḍḍhaï -- m. ʻ carpenter ʼ, °aïa -- m. ʻ shoemaker ʼ; WPah. jaun. bāḍhōī ʻ carpenter ʼ, (Joshi) bāḍhi m., N. baṛhaïbaṛahi, A. bārai, B. bāṛaï°ṛui, Or. baṛhaï°ṛhāi, (Gaṛjād) bāṛhoi, Bi. baṛa, Bhoj. H. baṛhaī m., M. vāḍhāyā m., Si. vaḍu -- vā. *vārdhaka -- .Addenda: vardhaki -- : WPah.kṭg. báḍḍhi m. ʻ carpenter ʼ; kṭg. bəṛhe\ibáṛhi, kc. baṛhe ← H. beside genuine báḍḍhi Him.I 135), J. bāḍhi, Garh. baṛhai, A. also bāṛhai AFD 94; Md. vaḍīnvaḍin pl. †*vardhakikarman -- . †*vardhakikarman -- ʻ carpentry ʼ. [vardhaki -- , kár- man -- ]Md. vaḍām ʻ carpentry ʼ.(CDIAL 11375, 11375a)

    Framework to determine the chronology and evolution of anthropomorph form and function             


    After Fig. 2 in Yule (2003) 11 type I, Lothal, Dist. Ahmedabad, Guj.

    These are precursors of the vivid semantic orthographic/iconographic expansions which occur on copper anthropomorphs reported by Sanjay Manjul and kept in Museums with citations that they are from copper hoards of Ancient India. The copper anthropomosph in Lucknow Museum is from Sheorajpur and has an inscription of Indus Script hypertext, 'fish'. The copper anthropomorph is from ASI archives ligatured with a varāha head and with raised script iconographic signifier of Indus Script hypertext 'one-horned young bull', which is the signature tune of Sarasvati Civilization occurring with highest freuquency in a corpora of over 8000 inscriptions.

    These evidences prove the continuity of the writing system from ca. 3300 BCE (find of the first potsherd with Indus Script at Harappa by HARP team) and thus the continuity of metallurgical wealth-creating activities beyond 1900 BCE in Ganga-Yamuna doab and other parts of ancient India, evidenced by the so-called copper hoard cultures. I submit that the anthropomosphs cumulatively evidence the need to re-write the Bhāratīya Itihāsa from 1900 BCE to ca. 6th century BCE (so-called Mauryan period or the emergence of punch-marked coins from mints of ANE and Ancient India).
    tāmrapaṭṭa m. ʻ copper plate (for inscribing) ʼ Yājñ. [Cf. tāmrapattra -- . -- tāmrá -- , paṭṭa -- 1]M. tã̄boṭī f. ʻ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick ʼ.(CDIAL 5786)


    tāmrika ताम्रिक a. (-की f.) Made of copper, coppery; Ms.8. 136; Y.I.365. -कः A brazier coppersmith. ताम्रता A coppery red. tāmra ताम्र a. [तम्-रक् दीर्घः Uṇ.2.16.] 1 Made of copper. -2 Of a coppery red colour, red; ततो$नुकुर्याद्विशदस्य तस्यास्ताम्रौष्ठपर्यस्तरुचः स्मितस्य Ku.1.44; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च Subhāṣ. -म्रः A kind of leprosy with red spots. -म्रम् 1 Copper. -2 A dark or coppery red. -3 A coppery receptacle; ताम्रलोहैः परिवृता निधयो ये चतुः- शताः Mb.2.61.29. -म्री A copper pot having a small hole at the botton used in measuring time by placing it in a water-vessel. -Comp. -अक्षः 1 a crow. -2 the (Indian) cuckoo. -अर्धः bell-metal. -अश्मन् m. a kind of jewel (पद्मराग); ताम्राश्मरश्मिच्छुरितैर्नखाग्रैः Śi.3.7. -आभम् red sandal (रक्तचन्दन). -उपजीविन् m. a coppersmith. -ओष्ठः (forming ताम्रोष्ठ or ताम्रौष्ठ) a red or cherry lip; Ku.1.44. -कारः, -कुट्टः a brazier, coppersmith. -कृमिः 1 a kind of red insect (इन्द्रगोप). -2 the lady bird. -3 cochineal. -गर्भम् sulphate of copper. -चूडः a cock; संध्याचूडैर- निबिडतमस्ताम्रचूडैरुडूनि । प्रासूयन्त स्फुटमधिवियद्भाण्डमण्डानि यानि ॥ Rām. Ch.6.96;7.56. -चडकः a particular position of the hand. -त्रपुजम् brass. -द्रुः the red sandalwood. -द्वीपः the island of Ceylon; Divyāvadāna.36. -धातुः 1red chalk. -2 Copper; Rām.3. -पट्टः, -पत्रम् a cop- per-plate on which grants of land were frequently inscribed; पटे वा ताम्रपट्टे वा स्वमुद्रोपरिचिह्नितम् । अभिलेख्यात्मनो वंश्यानात्मानं च महीपतिः ॥ Y.1.319. -पर्णी N. of a river rising in Malaya, celebrated for its pearls; R.4.5. Hence ताम्रपर्णिक (= obtained in the same river); Kau. A.2.11. -पलः Alangium Hexapetalum; दद्यात्ताम्रपलं वापि अभावे सर्वकर्मणः Yuktikalpataru. -पल्लवः the Aśoka tree. -पाकिन् Thespesia Populneoides (Mar. लाखी-पारासा पिंपळ). -पुष्पः Kæmpferia Rotunda (Mar. बाहवा). -ष्पी Bignonia Suaveolens (Mar. धायरी, भुईपाडळ) -फलकम् a copper-plate. -मुख a. copper-faced. (-खः) 1 a Frank or European; -2 the Moghals. -वदनः (see ताम्रमुख); योत्स्यन्ति ताम्रवदनैरनेकैः सैनिका इमे Śiva. B.26.23. -वर्णी the blossom of sesamum. -लिप्तः N. of a country. -प्ताः (pl.) its people or rulers. -वृक्षः a species of sandal. -शिखिन्m. a cook. -सारकः a sort of Khadira. (-कम्) red sandal-wood.(Apte)

    To-date some 21 Copper anthropomorphs of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization have been published. Some of these are found in the Ancient Near East and Persian Gulf sites. Most are found in northern India.

    Two composite anthropomorphic / animal figurines from Harappa. Terracotta. Slide 72 harappa.com In these figurines, the ligatured components are: seated quadruped felines (?) with feminine anthropomorphic faces. 

    Metaphor is exemplified by ligaturing an anthropomorph to an animal (say, bull, fish, eagle) to signify layered rebus-metonymy. Hieroglyph: ḍã̄go ʻmale (of animals)ʼ(Nepali) Rebus: dhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili) Hieroglyph: אַרְיֵה (aryeh) 'lion' (Hebrew) Rebus: āra, āram Brass (Tamil). Composite animal on Indus script is a composite hieroglyph composed of many glyphic elements. All glyphic elements are read rebus to complete the technical details of the bill of lading of artifacts created by artisans.

    72. Two composite anthropomorphic / animal figurines from Harappa
    Slide72. Two composite anthropomorphic / animal figurines from Harappa. Whether or not the attachable water buffalo horns were used in magic or other rituals, unusual and composite animals and anthropomorphic/animal beings were clearly a part of Indus ideology. The ubiquitous "unicorn" (most commonly found on seals, but also represented in figurines), composite animals and animals with multiple heads, and composite anthropomorphic/animal figurines such as the seated quadruped figurines with female faces, headdresses and tails offer tantalizing glimpses into a rich ideology, one that may have been steeped in mythology, magic, and/or ritual transformation. 
    Approximate dimensions (W x H(L) x D) of the larger figurine: 3.5 x 7.1 x 4.8 cm. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow)
    A composite terracotta feline wearing necklace like a woman. kola 'tiger' kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Nahali (kol ‘woman’) and Santali (kul ‘tiger’; kol ‘smelter’).

    http://www.harappa.com/figurines/index.html kola 'tiger' kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan 

    blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka.kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go.(SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge(DEDR 2133).

    A copper anthropomorph tablet was used in historical period to record a land grant

    See: 

     


    One anthropomorph tablet was found in a Keonjhar copper hoard. Keonjhar copper hoard is comparable to the copper hoards found in the Ganeshwar-Jodhpura and Ahar coper hoard cultures of 2nd millennium BCE which is a continuum of the Bronze Age Revolution from 4th to 2nd millennium BCe, recorded on Indus Script Corpora.

    On an anthropomorph copper plate of 2nd millennium BCE from Keonjhar copper hoard, an inscription dated to 1483 CE has been recorded in Keonjhar, Orissa.

    Paul Yule lists the Oriya/Samskrtam land grant of 1483 CE as an axe ingot from out of the hoard discovered in Keonjhar Dist., Orissa in 1985. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/07/anthropomorphs-with-indus-script.html


    J. Beames who has read the inscription on the land grant has NOT commented on the shape of the copper plate used for the inscription.

    I suggest that this was a copper anthropomorph (NOT an axe) of earlier times (perhaps 2nd millennium BCE) which was used to inscribe the land grand by Raja Purushottama Deb.

    Dist. Keonjhar, Or. – Around 1985 three type III axeingots and a small stand (nos. 1195-1197), evidently part of the same hoard, to judge from the surface texture and patina, were acquired as a group for the Orissa State Museum from this district. Detailed information exists neither for their provenance, nor the circumstances of discovery63 . 1195. Axe-ingot, type III. 14.7x12.3x1.3 cm, 972 gm, sharp lead edge (Fig. 19, 1195). – Orissa State Museum (0.52.1). – Unpub. 1196. Axe-ingot, type III. 17x13.2x1.4cm, rev. surface very rough (Fig. 19, 1196). – Orissa State Museum (0.52.2). – Unpub. 1197. Miniature stand. 24.6 x 13. 2 x 8. 5 cm, thick light green patina, rough surface similar to other metallic artefacts from eastern Chota Nagpur, heavy corrosion on the legs, legs recently bent inward (Fig. 19, 1197). – Orissa State Museum (0.52.3). – Unpub. 
    File:Oriya land grant.jpg
    A facsimile of an inscription on a copper plate recording a land grant made by Rāja Purushottam Deb, king of Orissa, in the fifth year of his reign (1483). J. Beames The Indian Antiquary, December 6, 1872, p. 355.
    Land grants made by royal decree were protected by law, with deeds often being recorded on metal plates.
    An anthropomorph figure on a cylinder seal


    Impression of an Indus-style cylinder seal of unknown Near Eastern origin in the Musee du Louvre, Paris. One of the two anthropomorphic figures carved on this seal wears the horns of water buffalo while sitting on a throne with hoofed legs, surrounded by snakes, fishes and water buffaloes.
     Copyrighted photo by M. Chuzeville for the Departement des antiquites orientales, Musee du Louvre.

    http://www.aakkl.helsinki.fi/melammu/pdf/vidale2004.pdfSee: 

     




    Anthropomorphic figure. Sheorajpur, Kanpur Dist. Inscribed with fish hieroglyph. ca. 2nd millennium BCE. 4 kg; 47.7 X 39 X 2.1 cm. State Museum,   Lucknow (O.37)  Title / Object:anthropomorphic sheorajpurFund context:Saipai, Dist. KanpurTime of admission:1981Pool:SAI South Asian ArchaeologyImage ID:213 101Copyright:Dr Paul Yule, HeidelbergPhoto credit:Yule, Metalwork of the Bronze in India, Pl 23 348 (dwg) Decipherment: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/08/anthropomorph-sheorajpur-indus-script.html  Anthropomorph with Indus Script ayo 'fish' mẽḍhā 'curved horn' meḍḍha 'ram' rebus: ayo meḍh 'metal merchant' ayo mēdhā 'metal expert' karṇika 'spread legs' rebus: karṇika कर्णिक 'steersman' Typical find of Gangetic Copper Hoards. miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) meḍ iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayo, ayas ‘metal. Thus, together read rebus: ayo meḍh ‘iron stone ore, metal merchant.’  miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) meḍ iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) ayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayo, ayas ‘metal. Thus, together read rebus: ayo meḍh ‘iron stone ore, metal merchant.’                                                                                                                                                              Yule, Paul, 2003, Beyond the Pale of Near Eastern Archaeology: Anthropomorphic Figures from al-Aqir near Bahla’, Sultanate of Oman, In: Stöllner, T. (Hrsg.): Mensch und Bergbau Studies in Honour of Gerd Weisgerber on Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Bochum 2003, pp. 537-542 Mirror: http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeumdok/109/1/Yule_2003.pdf https://www.scribd.com/document/363007548/Beyond-the-Pale-of-Near-Eastern-Archaeology-Anthropomorphic-Figures-from-al-Aqir-near-Bahla-Sultanate-of-Oman-Paul-Yule-2003                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yule, Pul, 2014,  A New Prehistoric Anthropomorphic Figure from the Sharqiyah, Oman, in:‘My Life is like the Summer Rose’ Maurizio Tosi e l’Archeologia come modo de vivere, Papers in Honour of Maurizio Tosi on his 70th Birthday, BAR Intern. Series 2690, Oxford, 2014, 759–60, ISBN 978 1 4073 1326 9 Mirror: https://tinyurl.com/y8nwmov3  https://www.scribd.com/document/363007677/A-New-Prehistoric-Anthropomorphic-Figure-from-the-Sharqiyah-Oman-Paul-Yule-2014                                      Copper anthropomorphs constitute calling cards of the brazier coppersmith professional who is also a scribe.     Contrasted, confounded with: miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda) Hieorglyph of one-horned bull inscribed on chest: khoṇḍ, kõda 'young bull-calf' Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) kundaṇa 'fine gold' (Kannada)


    I have presented over 1000r of monographs at https://independent.academia.edu/SriniKalyanaraman For ready reference, I list below a list with particular reference to discussion of anthropomorph evidences:

    Data mining explains Indus script hieroglyphs evolving as śiva, gaṇeśa metaphors of pilgrims' progress from Being to Becoming                                                                                   Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/znnpzqg 

    Mlecchita vikalpa Indus Script Hieroglyphs signify चषालः caāla in pyrolysis to carburize hard alloys 

    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/hat9n3a This includes an excursus on Gudimallam Śivalinga with  the face of the anthropomorph, hunter, standing person is mũh 'face' a reinforcement of mũhe 'ingot' shown as ornaments on the person.


    Inscriptions on metal implements validate decipherment of Indus Script Corpora as metalwork catalogues 






    Anthropomorphs four types on Indus Script signify metal-, mint-worker, seafaring merchant, karṇika 'supercargo, helmsman', koṭiya 'dhow'



    Composite copper alloy anthropomorphic Meluhha hieroglyphs of Haryana and Sheorajpur: fish, markhor, crocodile, one-horned young bull


    Mirror: https://www.academia.edu/12200059/Composite_copper_alloy_anthropomorphic_Meluhha_hieroglyphs_of_Haryana_and_Sheorajpur_fish_markhor_crocodile_one-horned_young_bull                                                                                                                                         

    Beyond the Pale of Near Eastern Archaeology: Anthropomorphic Figures from al-Aqir near Bahla’, Sultanate of... by Srini Kalyanaraman on Scribd



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    Sources of tin from Ancient Far East, the largest tin belt of the globe created the Tin-Bronze revolution

    Lloyd R. Weeks presents a detailed and cogently argued thesis that tin bronzes of the third and second millennia in the early metallurgy of Persian Gulf points to sources of tin from the East. He posits possible sources from north and east in Afghanistan or Central Asia. However, he fails to resolve the archaeological fact that not many tin-bronzes have been found in Central Asia where there is predominant presence of tin-bronzes in sites such as Tell Abraq (Persian Gulf). (Weeks, Lloyd R., 2003, Early metallurgy of the Persian Gulf, Boston, Brill Academic Publishers Embedded for ready reference.) 

    https://www.scribd.com/document/363093182/Early-Metallurgy-of-the-Persian-Gulf-Lloyd-R-Weeks-2003

    I agree with the analysis of TE Potts (Potts, TF, 1994, Mesopotamia and the East. An archaeological and historical stuydy of foreign relations ca. 3400-2000 BCE, Oxford Committee for Archaeology Monograph 37, Oxford) that the tin for the tin-bronzes of ANE was sourced from the East. I further venture to posit that the tin came from the largest tin belt of the globe, through seafaring merchants of Ancient Far East (the Himalayan river basins of Mekong, Irrawaddy and Salween) mediated by Ancient India trade guilds of 4th to 2nd millennia BCE. See. Maritime Meluhha Tin Road links Far East and Near East -- from Hanoi to Haifa creating the Bronze Age revolution https://tinyurl.com/y9sfw4f8 This hypothesis is a work in process.

    Here is a small argument about the high tin-bronze of mirrors found in Barbar temple and in Sarasvati civilization areas mediated by the brilliant metalwmithy work of artisans from Mehi of Kulli Culture.


    A bronze mirror is among the aṣṭamangala-अष्ट-मङ्गलम् [अष्ट- गुणितं मङ्गलं शा. क. त.] a collection of eight auspicious things; according to some they are:-- मृगराजो वृषो नागः कलशो व्यञ्जनं तथा । वैजयन्ती तथा भेरी दीप इत्यष्टमङ्गलम् ॥ according to others लोके$स्मिन्मङ्गलान्यष्टौ ब्राह्मणो गौर्हुताशनः । हिरण्यं सर्पि- रादित्य आपो राजा तथाष्टमः ॥ 

    Aranmuḷa metalwork by artisans are exemplified in high tin-bronze mirrors produced by Vishwakarma

     വിശ്വകർമ്മജർ Using the cire perdue or lost-wax casting technique, a Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization tradition continues in a village of Kerala, Aranmula, by Visvakarma sthapatis who make high-tin bronze mirrors which are patented as Geographical Indicators and called āṟanmuḷakkaṇṇāṭi.


    A tribute to the inventive genius of the Baluchistan metal-smiths of the period

    Piggott, 1961, Prehistoric India, Harmondsworth, p. 112. Female figure with breasts, with arms akimbo. Compares with the handle of bronze mirror found in Barbar temple whish shows a male figure with arms joined on the chest in a worshipful pose.


    Bronze mirror handle from Barbar Temple, Bahrain (After illustration by Glob, PV, 1954, Temples at Barbar, Kuml 4:142- 53, fig. 6) Another remarkable figure in bronze is a bird (After fig. 7 ibid.)

    Kuml: Journal of the Jutland Archaeological Society

    Nagaraja Rao notes that this handle resembles a mirror from the Kulli site of Mehi in Baluchistan.


    (Stein, A., 1931, An archaeological tour in Gedrosia,Memoirs of ASI 43,: pi.32. Mehi II, 1.2.a; Possehl 1986: 48, Mehi II.1.2.a). These objects are similar to the head of the figure handle in the Mehi example is actually the face of the mirror itself. (Julian Reade, 2013, Indian Ocean in Antiquity, Routledge, p.26). These comments of Julian Reade have to be seen in the context of the artifacts with Indus Script hypertexts discovered in Kulli culture (Mehi). Kulli culture provides indication of working with magnetite, ferrite ore and with alloys of copper with high tin content resulting in the bronze mirrors. At Mehi were found several decorated chlorite vessels, imported from Tepe Yahya and attesting trade contacts with the Eastern Iran.[5]Copper and bronze was known. These are indications that Kulli culture artisans were trade partners with Sarasvati Civilization.

    A Kulli plate very similar to ancient Indus plates with two tigers facing each other and motifs similar to those of the Nal culture of Balochistan. arka'sun' rebus: arka'gold'eraka'moltencast, copper'kola'tiger' rebus: kol'working in iron'kolhe'smelter'kolle'blacksmith'dula'pair' rebus: dul metal casting'.
    Pot with zebu, bos indicus tied to a post. Indus Script hieroglyph.
    Zebu and leaves. In front of the standard device and the stylized tree of 9 leaves, are the black buck antelopes. Black paint on red ware of Kulli style. Mehi. Second-half of 3rd millennium BCE. [After G.L. Possehl, 1986, Kulli: an exploration of an
    ancient civilization in South Asia, Centers of Civilization, I, Durham, NC:
    46, fig. 18 (Mehi II.4.5), based on Stein 1931: pl. 30. 
     
    A synonym for 'bull', bos indicus, is: poḷa 'zebu' which is a definitive Indus Script hieroglyph. 

    pōḷā 'zebu, bos indicus'  Rebus signifier of poḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'-- a metalwork for wealth creation by artisans of Sarasvati_Sindhu Civilization. This Indus Script hieroglyph which signifies 'zebu' or poḷa is seen on early inscriptions of Indus Script as on the paintings of Nausharo pots. The bird perched on the shoulder of the zebu painting is black drongo: pōlaḍu, 'black drongo',rebus: pōlaḍ, 'steel', The zebu is tied to a post with a rope to signify:  meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 10317) rebus: mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each end;  mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)

    I suggest that the bird is a black drongo which is often shown on Nausharo pots atop a zebu, Bos indicus bull. This hypertext has been deciphered: 

    “Mirrors in the shape of circular metal discs, originally polished on one side and plain or with a design or decoration on the other, have been found in a limited number at many sites. The earliest reported examples are from Mehi (Stein, Aurel, 1931, Archaeological town in Gedrosia, Mem. ASI, 43, pp. 157-8) in Baluchistan where two copper mirrors have been found in the cemetery. One of them has been described as a thin copper disc probably used as a mirror; the other, 1.27 cm in diameter, has an elegant handle ‘representing a stylized female figure…with breasts and conventionalized arms akimbo, but with the head provided only by the reflection of of the user of the mirror.’ (Piggott, 1961, Prehistoric India, Harmondsworth, pp. 112-113). The stylized female figure has been done in the ‘manner of the clay figurines’ from sites of the Kulli culture indicating thereby that it is a local product. In Piggott’s view the idea of the head of the user of the mirror serving as the head of the figure in the handle and ‘the sophistication of the metal-work make the Mehi mirror stand out among the toilet accessories of the whole Ancient East – there is nothing like it in theotherwise more advanced Harappan culture, and the use of a human figure as a mirror handle, though familiar in Egypt in the XVIII Dynasty (from about 1570 BCE), is unknown in Western Asia. The close resemblance between the Mehimirror-handle and the clay figurines of women from the same site, and from other sites of the Kulli culture, increases our confidence in claiing it as a local product, and as a very considerable tribute to the inventive genius of the Baluchistan metal-smiths of the period.’ (ibid.). However a handled copper mirror of the Mehi type has also been found at Sapalli-Tepe near Temex on the Oxus in s. Uzbekistan (Gupta, 1979, 2, pp. 203-4). Eight Harappa mirrors are reported, three each from Mohenjo-daro and Harappa and one each from Kalibangan and Lothal. Of those from Mohenjodaro (Mackay,1938, pp. 477-8), all of Bronze, slightly oval in shape with recessed face and the edge slightly raised, one is comparatively small in diameter and was ‘possibly made for a child’ (ibid.). The other two have respectively a rectangular and long flat handle, each having a hole at the end of the handle. The mirrors from Harappa are of copper, One of them, 1.80 c in diameter is oval in shape with a long tang (Vats, 1940, p.391), while another, which is similar, is of a smaller size (ASI-AR 1936-7, p.40). The third specimen, round in shape with a plain flat handle, was ‘found in the water-jar’ placed along with other pottery in Burial 2 from Cemetery R 37 (Wheeler, 1947, pp.87, 125-6). The copper or bronze mirror from Kalibangan also has been found in a grave near the head of a human skeleton (IAR 1963-4, p.38). The Lothal bronze mirror is ovoid in shape having a slightly concave surface. In this context reference may also be made to the bronze/copper mirrors found at a number of contemporary sites like Mundigak and Dashli-Tepe, respectively in s. and n. Afghanistan, Altin-Depe in s.Turkmenia, Bronze Age sites of the Andronovo culture and Tulkhar Depe in s. Tadjikistan (Gupta, 1979, 2, pp. 116 160-1, 190, 193, 195 and 201). ”(Amalananda Ghosh,1990,  An encyclopaediaof Indian Archaeology, BRILL p.347).

    This is a tribute to Sharada Srinivasan and Ian Gloverwho have reported the process of bronze mirror making using 32.6% tin in Aranmula, Kerala.This finding shows the significant role played by Ancient Indian artisans in the development of tin-bronzes and perfecting the metallurgical techniques resulting in exquisite bronze mirrors with high tin content in the bronze alloy, during the Brone Age. This fact may provide leads to determining the sources of tin for the Tin-Bronze revolution of Eurasia. I have suggested that the source for tin were the river basins of Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween Himalayan rivers which have ground down granite to create the largest tin belt of the globe. (Srinivasan, Sharada and Ian Glover, 2007, Skilled mirror craft of intermetallic delta high-tin bronze (Cu31Sn8, 32.6% tin) from Aranmula, Kerala, in Current Science, Vol. 93,No. 1, 10 July 2007, pp. 35-40)



    Aranmula mirrors were made of — a binary copper-tin alloy with 32-34 per cent tin.

    The largest known Aranmula mirror is at the British Museum with a height of 18 inches, and is said to be worth a few lakhs, as this size mirrors are no longer made now a daysHigh tin-bronze Aranmula mirror, British Museum, 18 inches
    Aranmula Kannadi

    "Polished bronze or copper mirrors were made by the Egyptians from 2900 BCE onwards." (Z. Y. Saad: The Excavations at Helwan. Art and Civilization in the First and Second Egyptian Dynasties, University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma 1969, p.54)



    "In China,bronze mirrors were manufactured from around 2000 BC, some of the earliest bronze and copper examples being produced by the Qijia culture. Mirrors made of other metal mixtures (alloys) such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India." 

    Ancient history is all around us. The celebration of Bali Yatra on Karthik Purnima day in Bharatam coastline is a remembrance of the ancesors, seafaring people among Bharatam Janam who created the Hinduised States of the Far East (pace George Coedes' work in French with the title).


    Another remarkable evidence comes from Aranmula where two ancient traditions are celebrated annually: 1. the high tin-bronze mirror in remembrance of the archaeometallurgical traditions of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization; and 2. annual boat race in remembrance of the seafaring merchants who had interactions across Persian Gulf upto Haifa, Israel in the Fertile Crescent where a shipwreck revealed three pure tin ingots with Indus Script inscriptions.2. Aranmula snake boat race palliyodam is held annually, on ‘’Uthrittathi’’ day, the birthday of Sri Krishna, Ashtamarohini day.

    images of Aranmula Kannadi making process  http://aranmulakannadi.org/tag/aranmula-mirror/
    Clay mould
    • Aranmula is a little village in the district of Pathanamthitta, which is well known for its ancient temple dedicated to Lord Sree Krishna as Parthasarathy,the colorful snake boat Regatta and the Aranmula Kannadi.
    • The British Museum in London has a 45 centimeter tall Aranmula metal mirror in its collection
    "Bronze mirrors preceded the glass mirrors of today. This type of mirror has been found by archaeologists among elite assemblages from various cultures, from Etruscan Italy to China...In the Indus valley civilization, manufacture of bronze mirrors goes back to the time between 2800 and 2500 BCE.(Richard Corson: Fashions in Makeup: From Ancient to Modern Times, 1972)." Sourced from World Heritage Encyclopedia. http://self.gutenberg.org/Article.aspx?Title=bronze_mirrors

    https://www.scribd.com/document/363077011/Temples-at-Barbar-PV-Glob-1954

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    Mirror from Agade List

    From Ralph Haussler <ralph.haussler@...>

    From the 8th to the 10th May 2018, we are organising a three-day multi-disciplinary and international conference at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Lampeter entitled:

    "Re-Thinking Globalisation in the Ancient World"

    The aim is to explore approaches to the theme of ‘globalisation’ across the ancient world, c.500 BCE to 700 CE, from a methodological, cultural, and economic perspective. Methodological issues relating to the theme of ‘globalisation’ will be analysed in different contexts, notably the application of this concept in different regions and
    different periods of the ancient world. For example, one can scrutinise such a concept in the multi-ethnic Seleukid Empire, study concepts of local identities in the ‘global world’ of the Roman Empire or ancient China, consider concepts like ‘Mediterranisation’ and ‘Oikoumenisation’, or explore interaction and cultural exchange between the Roman world, Africa, Southern Asia and China.

    We are inviting papers that will broadly fit one or more of the following themes for any region across the ancient world and from any disciplinary perspective. We will also consider significant methodological papers from other periods.

    Proposed sessions so far:

    1) Globalisation in Antiquity – a valid approach?

    2) Empires and the concept of Globalisation

    3) Migration and diaspora

    4) Shaping local identities in a ‘global world’

    5) Individual and regional responses to globalisation across the ancient world

    6) The Indian Ocean and the movement of goods, ideas and peoples

    7) How connected was the Afro-Eurasian world?

    Deadline for proposals: 1st January 2018. Please send a short abstract of no more than 400 words for your paper, plus a short CV, to the session organisers. If you wish to propose a session, please send us
    an abstract and a list of potential speakers by the end of November. The time allocated for each paper will be approximately 20 minutes, plus 10 minutes for discussion. And of course we intend to publish the papers in an edited volume.

    Conference fee to cover tea, coffee, reception and lunch: £45 (£30 for students and speakers; free for UWTSD students)

    We have applied for funding to reimburse speakers’ expenses (e.g., accommodation and travel expenses), but we cannot promise you any reimbursement at the moment; we will keep you posted.

    Organisers and contact details:

    - Dr Matthew Cobb - m.cobb@...

    - Assoc.-Prof. Ralph Haeussler - r.haeussler@...

    Place: Lampeter campus, Academy of Cultural Heritage, University of Wales Trinity Saint David (UWTSD), Lampeter, SA48 7ED, Wales, U.K.

    Further details will be circulated in due course.

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    https://tinyurl.com/ybwvm85q
    Zoilus II Soter (Greek: Ζωΐλος Β΄ ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour") was an Indo-Greek king who ruled from Sagala in eastern Punjab. Bopearachchi dates his reign to c. 55–35 BCE, a date approximately supported by R. C. Senior. The name is often Latinized as Zoilus. It is possible that some of his coins were issued by a separate king, Zoilos III.
    Monolingual coin of Zoilos II Soter with "boxy" mint-mark. Obv Standing Apollo with bead and reel border. Rev Diadem with Kharoshthi legend "Maharajasa tratarasa Jhahilasa" (Saviour King Zoilos).

    Zoilus II, Gold unit
    Weight: 0.71 gm. Dimensions: 7 x 7 mm. Die axis: 12h
    ZOIΛOY monogram, surrounded by Greek legend around: BAΣIΛEΩΣ (king)
    Diadem, surrounded by Kharoshthi legend: jhahilasa
    Reference: Bopearachchi 1999
    This remarkable coin, apparently from the second Mir Zakah hoard, was published by Bopearachchi in a 1999 paper and appeared in a CNG auction. (photo, courtesy CNG) http://coinindia.com/galleries-zoilus2.html

    There are two Indus Script hypertexts:


    1. DivisionsPLUS two rice-plants: khaṇḍa'division' rebus: kaṇḍa'equipment'kolmo'rce plant' rebus; kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS dula'pair' rebus: dul'metal asting' Thus, metalcasting smithy, metal equipment



    2. Dotted circle PLUS two chains:dhāu 'strand (dotted circle)' rebus: dhatu 'mineral ore' PLUS chain, link: śã̄gal, śã̄gaʻchainʼ (WPah.) śr̥khala m.n. ʻ chain ʼ MārkP., °lā -- f. VarBr̥S., śr̥khalaka -- m. ʻ chain ʼ MW., ʻ chained camel ʼ Pā. [Similar ending in mḗkhalā -- ]Pa. sakhalā -- , °likā -- f. ʻ chain ʼ; Pk. sakala -- m.n., °lā -- , °lī -- , °liā -- , sakhalā -- , sikh°sikalā -- f. ʻ chain ʼ Rebus: Vajra Sanghāta 'binding together': Mixture of 8 lead, 2 bell-metal, 1 iron rust constitute adamantine glue. (Allograph) Hieroglyph: sãghāɔ 'lathe'.(Gujarati) dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.

    A comparable hypertext appears on kuntala janapada coins

    Kuntala Janapada 6th century BCE, Silver, 6.24 g, pulley type with a big pulley-type symbol in the center and a clock-wise Triskeli in two of its orbs(Uniface)

    Clearly, Indian engravers familiar with the Indian art tradition had designed the hypertexts on coins of Agathocles.
    On this coin of Agathocles, Zeus is seen wielding vajra, 'thunderbolt' weapon of Rudra and Indra in Veda tradition.
    BACTRIA, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Agathokles Dikaios. Circa 185-175 BC. AR Tetradrachm (31mm, 16.44 g, 12h). Commemorative issue struck for Antiochos III of Syria. ANTIOXOY down right, NIKATOPOΣ down left, diademed head of Euthydemos right / Zeus Bremetes, seen from behind, advancing left, aegis draped over outstretched left arm, and brandishing thunderbolt in right hand; in inner left field, wreath above eagle standing left; monogram to inner right. Bopearachchi 13A; HGC 12, 84; Triton XII, lot 402 (same obv. die).The attribution of the individual on this tetradrachm, one of the series of pedigree issues struck by Agathokles, has been the subject of much discussion. Based on his own coinage, the portrait here is that of Euthydemos I. The legend – ANTIOXOY NIKATOPOΣ – suggests one of the early Seleukid kings of that name, and attempts have been made to associate the Antiochos on this tetradrachm with Antiochos II, who is named on the issues of Diodotos I.

    Euthydemos II - c.190-171 BC - Nickel didrachm
    24mm diameter, 7g.
    Apollo bust / tripod
    monogram to left
    " Of King Euthydemos"
    Agathocles - c.171-160 BC - Nickel drachm
    19mm diameter, 3.3g.
    Dionysos bust / Panther touching vine
    monogram behind
    " Of King Agathokles"
    "Three rulers in the early second century BCE issued coins in nickel (a first in the world). On the left we see a Euthydemos II coin which collectors have named didrachm or dichalkous. Later, Agathocles and his brother Pantaleon issued Dionysos/panther nickel coins in two denominations of which we show the smaller: the drachm or chalkon. We really do not know the correct name of these coins or their relationship to the copper or silver issues of the same rulers. It is probably safe to consider the nickel coins a minor denomination since the style and workmanship more closely matches the copper coins than it does the silver.The alloy is about 25% nickel 75% copper (same as modern U.S. 5 cent pieces). Much discussion has been given to the source of the metal used in these coins. It is known that the Chinese worked nickel alloys at this time and speculation suggests that these coins were a result of trade with China. Nickel retrieved from meteorites has also been mentioned." 

    Bactria: Agathocles, Cupro-nickel dichalkon or double unit, c. 185-170 BCE
    Weight: 7.44 gm., Diam: 23 mm., Die axis: 12 h
    Laureate head of Dionysos facing right /
    Panther standing right with raised paw, grape vine before
         Greek legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΓAΘOKΛEOYΣ
          monogram in exergue panja'felinepaw' rebus: panja'kiln, furnace, melter' kola 'tiger' rebus: kol'working in iron'kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi'smelter'
    Bactria: Agathocles, AE double karshapana, c. 185-170 BCE
    Weight: 14.45 gm., Dim: 22 x 27 mm., Die axis: 12 h
    Female deity moving left, holding flower
         Brahmi legend: Rajane Agathukleyasasa /
    Lion standing right,
         Greek legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΓAΘOKΛEOYΣ 
    This coin parallels the similar issue of Pantaleon, and so has a claim to being the first Greek coin aimed at an Indian audience (since we are not sure whose coins were issued earlier, Agathocles's or Pantaleon's. But we have an Indian style deity (thought by some to represent Lakshmi) holding a lotus blossom), a square flan (recall that Mauryan coins were typically square), a legend in Brahmi, and a weight-standard that seems to be associated with an Indian standard. http://coinindia.com/galleries-agathocles.html



    Bactria, Agathocles. Circa 185-170 BC. AR Drachm. Bilingual series. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ (VASILEOS AGATHOKLEOUS) the Indian god Balarama-Samkarshana standing facing, in ornate headdress, earrings, & sheathed sword, brandishing gada in his right hand, holding plow-symbol in left / “Rajane Agathuklayasa” in  Brāhmī , the Indian god Vasudeva-Krishna standing facing, in ornate headdress, earrings, & sheathed sword, holding śankha in his right hand.
    For detailed reading of Indus Script hypertexts, see: 

     https://tinyurl.com/y979p38z

    File:Hinduist Coin of Agathocles of Bactria.jpgCoin of Agathocles of Bactria. Obv: (missing) Dancing girl, or Lakshmi, holding a flower. Brahmilegend: RAJANE AGATHUKLAYASHA "King Agathocles".
    Rev: Lion, Greek legend BASILEOS AGATOKLEOU "King Agathocles".(From "Coins of the Indo-Greeks", Whitehead, 1914 edition). On his coins, Agathocles calls himself, ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ (DIKAIOU 'The Just').Pedigree coin of Agathocles with Alexander the Great. Obverse – Greek inscription reads, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ i. e. of Alexander son of Philip. Reverse – Greek inscription reads, iI) Pedigree coin of Agathocles with Diodotus the Saviour. Obverse – Greek inscription reads, ΔΙΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ i. e. of Diodotus the Saviour.
    File:AgathoklesCoinage.jpgCoin of Agathokles, king of Bactria (ca. 200–145 BC). British Museum.
    Inscriptions in Greek. Upper left and down: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ (VASILEOS AGATHOKLEOUS)

    Rev Lakshmi, a Goddess of abundance and fortune for Hindus & Buddhists, with Brahmi legend Rajane Agathukleyasasa "King Agathocles".
    File:Bilingual Coin of Agathocles of Bactria.jpgCoin of Agathocles of Bactria.Obv: Arched hills surmounted by a star (Read as Indus Script hypertexts:dang 'hill range' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' med 'polar star' rebus: med 'iron') . Rev: Trisula symbol, Kharoshthi legend HITAJASAME "Good-fame-possessing" (lit. meaning of "Agathocles").Source: From "Coins of the Indo-Greeks", Whitehead, 1914 edition, Public Domain. The mint of Al Khanoum proclaims its wealth-producing metallurgical repertoire on the Indus Script messageon the coin.
    Bactria: Agathocles, AE dichalkon, c. 185-170 BCE
    Weight: 4.90 gm., Dim: 20 x 14 mm., Die axis: 12 h
    Railed tree, Kharoshthi legend below: hiranasme (golden hermitage) /
    Six-arched hill, Kharoshthi legend below: akathukreyasa
         Greek legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΓAΘOKΛEOYΣ 
    Agathocles issued this enigmatic coin, thought to have been minted in Taxila. The significance of this type is still not properly understood. 
    http://coinindia.com/galleries-agathocles.html


    An six-arched hill symbolsurmounted by a star.Kharoṣṭhī legend Akathukreyasa "Agathocles". Tree-in-railing, Kharoṣṭhīlegend Hirañasame (Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, Bopearachchi, p.176) The symbols used together with Kharoṣṭhī legends are Indus script hypertexts: dang 'hill range' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' med 'polar star' rebus: med 'iron'; khaṇḍa 'divisions' rebus: kaṇḍa 'equipment', kolom 'three' kolmo 'rice plant' rebus; kolimi 'smithy. Thus, the hypertexts signify the metallurgical competence of the mint with smithy/forge working in iron and metal implements. Hence, the message 'hiranasame' which means 'wealth like gold' (of the mintwork and products from the mint).

    Apollodotus coin. Indus Script hypertexts: karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'; hill range, dang'hill range' rebus  dhangar'blacksmith' baṭa = rimless pot (Kannada) Rebus: baṭa = a kind of iron ḍabu'an iron spoon' (Santali) Rebus: ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo'lump (ingot?) kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'sattva 'svastika symbol' rebus: jasta'zinc'  गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'round pebbles, stones' rebus: गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'A lump of silver' kuṭhāru 'crucible' rebus:kuṭhāru 'armourer' 
    Osmund Bopearachchi - Detail of coin, from Apollodotus I coin photograph in Osmund Bopearachchi, Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, Pl. 11. The detail is a non-creative 2-dimensional work of art dating to the 1st century BCE, Mathura, India. The 3D frame (coin edge) was cut out in conformity with PD-Art guidelines.



     पोळ pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus taurus, bull set at liberty' rebus: पोळ pōḷa 'magnetite (a ferrite ore)' 

    https://en.unesco.org/silkroad/sites/silkroad/files/knowledge-bank-article/recent_discoveries_of_coin_hoards_from_central_asia_and_pakistan.pdf

    On the signifiance of six-armed wheel (and link with vajra, 'thunderbolt weapon') atop the elephant, see: Vajra and Punchmarked coins with Indus Script hypertexts https://tinyurl.com/y85goask  Sun symbol, the six edges of six spokes are arrowheads and 'nandipada' symbols which are read as Indus Script hypertexts: 

    arka 'sun' rebus: erako 'moltencast' arka 'copper, gold'      
    dhAu 'strand' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral ore' PLUS Hieroglyph: vaṭa A loop of coir rope, used for climbing palm-trees Rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelter.

    kāˊṇḍa'arrow'-- [< IE. *kondo -- , Gk. kondu/los ʻ knuckle ʼ, ko/ndos ʻ ankle ʼ T. Burrow BSOAS xxxviii 55]S.kcch. kāṇḍī f. ʻ lucifer match ʼ? (CDIAL 3023) *kāṇḍakara ʻ worker with reeds or arrows ʼ. [kāˊṇḍa -- , kará -- 1]L. kanērā m. ʻ mat -- maker ʼ; H. kãḍerā m. ʻ a caste of bow -- and arrow -- makers ʼ.(CDIAL 3024) Rebus: लोखंडकाम (p. 723) [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith.लोहोलोखंड (p. 723) [ lōhōlōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह & लोखंड) Iron tools, vessels, or articles in general. khāṇḍa 'tools, metalware'.
    goṭi, ‘silver, laterite’ are signified by goṭa, ‘seed’ hieroglyph. PLUS koṭhārī f. ʻcrucible' PLUS khōṭa 'alloy ingot', kuṭi  in cmpd.‘curve' Rebus:kuṭhi'smelter' Rebus: koṭhārī ʻ treasurer '.


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    Image result for pilgrim's progressPhoto published for Why the Western philosophical canon is xenophobic and racist – Bryan W Van Norden | Aeon EssaysAcademic philosophy in ‘the West’ ignores and disdains the thought traditions of China, India and Africa. This must change







    Mainstream philosophy in the so-called West is narrow-minded, unimaginative, and even xenophobic. I know I am levelling a serious charge. But how else can we explain the fact that the rich philosophical traditions of China, India, Africa, and the Indigenous peoples of the Americas are completely ignored by almost all philosophy departments in both Europe and the English-speaking world?
    Western philosophy used to be more open-minded and cosmopolitan. The first major translation into a European language of the Analects, the saying of Confucius (551-479 BCE), was done by Jesuits, who had extensive exposure to the Aristotelian tradition as part of their rigorous training. They titled their translation Confucius Sinarum Philosophus, or Confucius, the Chinese Philosopher (1687).
    One of the major Western philosophers who read with fascination Jesuit accounts of Chinese philosophy was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). He was stunned by the apparent correspondence between binary arithmetic (which he invented, and which became the mathematical basis for all computers) and the I Ching, or Book of Changes, the Chinese classic that symbolically represents the structure of the Universe via sets of broken and unbroken lines, essentially 0s and 1s. (In the 20th century, the psychoanalyst Carl Jung was so impressed with the I Ching that he wrote a philosophical foreword to a translation of it.) Leibniz also said that, while the West has the advantage of having received Christian revelation, and is superior to China in the natural sciences, ‘certainly they surpass us (though it is almost shameful to confess this) in practical philosophy, that is, in the precepts of ethics and politics adapted to the present life and the use of mortals’.
    The German philosopher Christian Wolff echoed Leibniz in the title of his public lecture Oratio de Sinarum Philosophia Practica, or Discourse on the Practical Philosophy of the Chinese(1721). Wolff argued that Confucius showed that it was possible to have a system of morality without basing it on either divine revelation or natural religion. Because it proposed that ethics can be completely separated from belief in God, the lecture caused a scandal among conservative Christians, who had Wolff relieved of his duties and exiled from Prussia. However, his lecture made him a hero of the German Enlightenment, and he immediately obtained a prestigious position elsewhere. In 1730, he delivered a second public lecture, De Rege Philosophante et Philosopho Regnante, or On the Philosopher King and the Ruling Philosopher, which praised the Chinese for consulting ‘philosophers’ such as Confucius and his later follower Mengzi (fourth century BCE) about important matters of state.
    Chinese philosophy was also taken very seriously in France. One of the leading reformers at the court of Louis XV was François Quesnay (1694-1774). He praised Chinese governmental institutions and philosophy so lavishly in his work Despotisme de la China (1767) that he became known as ‘the Confucius of Europe’. Quesnay was one of the originators of the concept of laissez-faire economics, and he saw a model for this in the sage-king Shun, who was known for governing by wúwéi (non-interference in natural processes). The connection between the ideology of laissez-faire economics and wúwéi continues to the present day. In his State of the Union address in 1988, the US president Ronald Reagan quoted a line describing wúwéi from the Daodejing, which he interpreted as a warning against government regulation of business. (Well, I didn’t say that every Chinese philosophical idea was a good idea.)
    Leibniz, Wolff and Quesnay are illustrations of what was once a common view in European philosophy. In fact, as Peter K J Park notes in Africa, Asia, and the History of Philosophy: Racism in the Formation of the Philosophical Canon (2014), the only options taken seriously by most scholars in the 18th century were that philosophy began in India, that philosophy began in Africa, or that both India and Africa gave philosophy to Greece. 
    So why did things change? As Park convincingly argues, Africa and Asia were excluded from the philosophical canon by the confluence of two interrelated factors. On the one hand, defenders of the philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) consciously rewrote the history of philosophy to make it appear that his critical idealism was the culmination toward which all earlier philosophy was groping, more or less successfully.
    On the other hand, European intellectuals increasingly accepted and systematised views of white racial superiority that entailed that no non-Caucasian group could develop philosophy. (Even St Augustine, who was born in northern Africa, is typically depicted in European art as a pasty white guy.) So the exclusion of non-European philosophy from the canon was a decision, not something that people have always believed, and it was a decision based not on a reasoned argument, but rather on polemical considerations involving the pro-Kantian faction in European philosophy, as well as views about race that are both scientifically unsound and morally heinous.
    Kant himself was notoriously racist. He treated race as a scientific category (which it is not), correlated it with the ability for abstract thought, and – theorising on the destiny of races in lectures to students – arranged them in a hierarchical order:
    1. ‘The race of the whites contains all talents and motives in itself.’
    2. ‘The Hindus … have a strong degree of calm, and all look like philosophers. That notwithstanding, they are much inclined to anger and love. They thus are educable in the highest degree, but only to the arts and not to the sciences. They will never achieve abstract concepts. [Kant ranks the Chinese with East Indians, and claims that they are] static … for their history books show that they do not know more now than they have long known.’
    3. ‘The race of Negroes … [is] full of affect and passion, very lively, chatty and vain. It can be educated, but only to the education of servants, ie, they can be trained.’
    4. ‘The [Indigenous] American people are uneducable; for they lack affect and passion. They are not amorous, and so are not fertile. They speak hardly at all, … care for nothing and are lazy.’
    Those of us who are specialists on Chinese philosophy are particularly aware of Kant’s disdain for Confucius: ‘Philosophy is not to be found in the whole Orient. … Their teacher Confucius teaches in his writings nothing outside a moral doctrine designed for the princes … and offers examples of former Chinese princes. … But a concept of virtue and morality never entered the heads of the Chinese.’
    Kant is easily one of the four or five most influential philosophers in the Western tradition. He asserted that the Chinese, Indians, Africans and the Indigenous peoples of the Americas are congenitally incapable of philosophy. And contemporary Western philosophers take it for granted that there is no Chinese, Indian, African or Native American philosophy. If this is a coincidence, it is a stunning one.
    If philosophy starts with Plato’s Republic, then I guess the inventor of the Socratic method was not a philosopher
    One might argue that, while Kant’s racist premises are indefensible, his conclusion is correct, because the essence of philosophy is to be a part of one specific Western intellectual lineage. This is the position defended by D Kyle Peone in the conservative journal The Weekly Standard. Peone, a postgraduate in philosophy at Emory University in Georgia, argued that, because ‘philosophy’ is a word of Greek origin, it refers only to the tradition that grows out of the ancient Greek thinkers. A similar line of argument was given here in Aeon by Nicholas Tampio, who pronouncedthat ‘Philosophy originates in Plato’s Republic.’
    These are transparently bad arguments (as both Jay Garfield and Amy Olberding have pointed out). For one thing, if the etymology of a term determines which culture ‘owns’ that subject, then there is no algebra in Europe, since we got that term from Arabic. In addition, if philosophy starts with Plato’s Republic, then I guess the inventor of the Socratic method was not a philosopher. My colleagues who teach and write books on pre-Socratic ‘philosophers’ such as Heraclitus and Parmenides are also out of jobs.
    Peone and Tampio are part of a long line of thinkers who have tried to simply define non-European philosophy out of existence. In What is Philosophy (1956), Martin Heidegger claimed that:
    The often-heard expression ‘Western-European philosophy’ is, in truth, a tautology. Why? Because philosophy is Greek in its nature; … the nature of philosophy is of such a kind that it first appropriated the Greek world, and only it, in order to unfold.
    Similarly, on a visit to China in 2001, Jacques Derrida stunned his hosts (who teach in Chinese philosophy departments) by announcing that ‘China does not have any philosophy, only thought.’ In response to the obvious shock of his audience, Derrida insisted that ‘Philosophy is related to some sort of particular history, some languages, and some ancient Greek invention. … It is something of European form.’
    The statements of Derrida and Heidegger might have the appearance of complimenting non-Western philosophy for avoiding the entanglements of Western metaphysics. In actuality, their comments are as condescending as talk of ‘noble savages’, who are untainted by the corrupting influences of the West, but are for that very reason barred from participation in higher culture.
    It is not only philosophers in the so-called Continental tradition who are dismissive of philosophy outside the Anglo-European canon. The British philosopher G E Moore (1873-1958) was one of the founders of analytic philosophy, the tradition that has become dominant in the English-speaking world. When the Indian philosopher Surendra Nath Dasgupta read a paper on the epistemology of Vedanta to a session of the Aristotelian Society in London, Moore’s only comment was: ‘I have nothing to offer myself. But I am sure that whatever Dasgupta says is absolutely false.’ The audience of British philosophers in attendance roared with laughter at the devastating ‘argument’ Moore had levelled against this Indian philosophical system.
    It might be tempting to dismiss this as just a joke between colleagues, but we have to keep in mind that Indian philosophy was already marginalised in Moore’s era. His joke would have had an exclusionary effect similar to sexist jokes made in professional contexts today.
    The case of Eugene Sun Park illustrates how Moore’s intellectual descendants are equally narrow-minded. When Sun Park was a student in a mainstream philosophy department in the US Midwest, he tried to encourage a more diverse approach to philosophy by advocating the hiring of faculty who specialise in Chinese philosophy or one other of the less commonly taught philosophies. He reportsthat he found himself ‘repeatedly confounded by ignorance and, at times, thinly veiled racism’. One member of the faculty basically told him: ‘This is the intellectual tradition we work in. Take it or leave it.’ When Sun Park tried to at least refer to non-Western philosophy in his own dissertation, he was advised to ‘transfer to the Religious Studies Department or some other department where “ethnic studies” would be more welcome’.
    Sun Park eventually dropped out of his doctoral programme, and is now a filmmaker. How many other students – particularly students who might have brought greater diversity to the profession – have been turned off from the beginning, or have dropped out along the way, because philosophy seems like nothing but a temple to the achievement of white males?
    Those who say that Chinese philosophy is irrational do not bother to read it, and simply dismiss it in ignorance
    Some philosophers will grant (grudgingly) that there might be philosophy in China or India, for example, but then assume that it somehow isn’t as good as European philosophy. Most contemporary Western intellectuals gingerly dance around this issue. The late Justice Antonin Scalia was an exception, saying in print what many people actually think, or whisper to like-minded colleagues over drinks at the club. He referred to the thought of Confucius as ‘the mystical aphorisms of the fortune cookie’.
    To anyone who asserts that there is no philosophy outside the Anglo-European tradition, or who admits that there is philosophy outside the West but thinks that it simply isn’t any good, I ask the following. Why does he think that the Mohist state-of-nature argument to justify government authority is not philosophy? What does he make of Mengzi’s reductio ad absurdum against the claim that human nature is reducible to desires for food and sex? Why does he dismiss Zhuangzi’s version of the infinite regress argument for skepticism? What is his opinion of Han Feizi’s argument that political institutions must be designed so that they do not depend upon the virtue of political agents? What does he think of Zongmi’s argument that reality mustfundamentally be mental, because it is inexplicable how consciousness could arise from matter that is non-conscious? Why does he regard the Platonic dialogues as philosophical, yet dismiss Fazang’s dialogue in which he argues for, and responds to, objections against the claim that individuals are defined by their relationships to others? What is his opinion of Wang Yangming’s arguments for the claim that it is impossible to know what is good yet fail to do what is good? Does he find convincing Dai Zhen’s effort to produce a naturalistic foundation for ethics in the universalisability of our natural motivations? What does he make of Mou Zongsan’s critique of Kant, or Liu Shaoqi’s argument that Marxism is incoherent unless supplemented with a theory of individual ethical transformation? Does he prefer the formulation of the argument for the equality of women given in the Vimalakirti Sutra, or the one given by the Neo-Confucian Li Zhi, or the one given by the Marxist Li Dazhao? Of course, the answer to each question is that those who suggest that Chinese philosophy is irrational have never heard of any of these arguments because they do not bother to read Chinese philosophy and simply dismiss it in ignorance.
    The sad reality is that comments such as those by Kant, Heidegger, Derrida, Moore, Scalia and the professors that Sun Park encountered are manifestations of what Edward W Said labelled ‘Orientalism’ in his eponymous book of 1979: the view that everything from Egypt to Japan is essentially the same, and is the polar opposite of the West: ‘The Oriental is irrational, depraved (fallen), childlike, “different”; thus the European is rational, virtuous, mature, “normal”.’ Those under the influence of Orientalism do not need to really read Chinese (or other non-European) texts or take their arguments seriously, because they come pre-interpreted: ‘“Orientals” for all practical purposes were a Platonic essence, which any Orientalist (or ruler of Orientals) might examine, understand, and expose.’ And this essence guarantees that what Chinese, Indian, Middle Eastern or other non-European thinkers have to say is, at best, quaint, at worst – fatuous.
    Readers of this essay might be disappointed that my examples (both positive and negative) have focused on Chinese philosophy. This is simply because Chinese philosophy is the area in non-Western philosophy that I know best. To advocate that we teach more philosophy outside the Anglo-European mainstream is not to suggest the unrealistic goal that each of us should be equally adept at lecturing on all of them. However, we should not forget that Chinese philosophy is only one of a substantial number of less commonly taught philosophies (LCTP) that are largely ignored by US philosophy departments, including African, Indian, and Indigenous philosophies. Although I am far from an expert in any of these traditions, I do know enough about them to recognise that they have much to offer as philosophy.
    Just read An Essay on African Philosophical Thought: The Akan Conceptual Scheme (1987) by Kwame Gyekye, or Philosophy and an African Culture (1980) by Kwasi Wiredu, or Philosophy in Classical India (2001) by Jonardon Ganeri, or Buddhism as Philosophy (2007) by Mark Siderits, or Aztec Philosophy (2014) by James Maffie, or the writings of Kyle Powys Whyte at Michigan State University on Indigenous environmentalism. Many forms of philosophy that are deeply influenced by the Greco-Roman tradition (and hence particularly easy to incorporate into the curriculum) are also ignored in mainstream departments, including African-American, Christian, feminist, Islamic, Jewish, Latin American, and LGBTQ philosophies. Adding coverage of any of them to the curriculum would be a positive step toward greater diversity.
    I am not saying that mainstream Anglo-European philosophy is bad and all other philosophy is good. There are people who succumb to this sort of cultural Manicheanism, but I am not one of them. My goal is to broaden philosophy by tearing down barriers, not to narrow it by building new ones. To do this is to be more faithful to the ideals that motivate the best philosophy in every culture. When the ancient philosopher Diogenes was asked what city he came from, he replied: ‘I am a citizen of the world.’ Contemporary philosophy in the West has lost this perspective. In order to grow intellectually, to attract an increasingly diverse student body, and to remain culturally relevant, philosophy must recover its original cosmopolitan ideal.
    This article is an edited excerpt from Bryan W Van Norden’s ‘Taking Back Philosophy: A Multicultural Manifesto’ (2017), with a foreword by Jay L Garfield, published by Columbia University Press.
    Bryan W Van Norden
    is Kwan Im Thong Hood Cho Temple professor at Yale-NUS College in Singapore, professor of philosophy at Vassar College in New York, and chair professor at Wuhan University in China. His latest book is Taking Back Philosophy: A Multicultural Manifesto (2017), with a foreword by Jay L Garfield. 

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    https://tinyurl.com/y9c928bk

    khaṇḍērāva Śiva, Bhāratīya Arthaśāstra Itihāsa, Indus Script hypertext akṣarasamāmnāya, 'recitation of phonemes' is compiled from ancient lexemes of over 25 Bhāratīya languages constituting Meluhha lexis of metalwork consistent with Indus Script cipher.

    -- on ancient coins and sculptures, context wealth-creation of poḷaḍa'crucible steel'

    The monograph demonstrates that Indus Script hypertexts are abiding symbols in mints of ancient India and constitute a documentation of metalwork, armouries built in ancient mints. Ancient mints also produce metal weapon workshops. The hypertexts are enshrined in many many metal artifacts and in sculptural friezes all over India constituting the framework to narrate Bhāratīya Arthaśāstra Itihāsa of the Bronze Age which fused into the Iron Age ca. 19th century BCE (evidenced by iron smelters found in Ganga River Basin. Rakesh Tewari, 2003, The origins of Iron-working in India, cf. http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/iron-ore
    mapexcavation Damaged circular clay furnace, comprising iron slag and tuyeres and other waste materials stuck with its body, exposed at lohsanwa mound, Period II, Malhar, Dist. Chandauli.

    -- Tāṇḍava Nr̥tyam in ādibhautika level is a metaphor for the wealth-creation of a nation, signified on metalwork accounting ledgers of Indus Script hypertexts.

    -- Mahākāla Śiva, Ujjain (on Ujjain coins) & tāṇḍava Nr̥tyam, Gaṇeśa, (on Bādāmi sulptures) are Indus Script hypertexts khaṇḍērāva is a name of Śiva. खंडेराव (p. 110) khaṇḍērāva m (खंड Sword, and राव) An incarnation of Shiva. Popularly खंडेराव is but dimly distinguished from भैरव. खंडा (p. 110) khaṇḍā m A sort of sword. It is straight and twoedged. See खांडा. खांडा (p. 116) khāṇḍā m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended. 2 A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon. लोखंड (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍa n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously.  81) लोखंडकाम (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍakāma n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. 82) लोखंडी (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍī a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. 2 fig. Hardy or hard--a constitution or a frame of body, one's हाड or natal bone or parental stock. 3 Close and hard;--used of kinds of wood. 4 Ardent and unyielding--a fever. 5 लोखंडी, in the sense Hard and coarse or in the sense Strong or enduring, is freely applied as a term of distinction or designation.

    -- Indus Script hypertexts are a form of Akṣarasamāmnāya, "recitation of phonemes," organized as vākyapadīya, 'meanings of word messages' in Bhāratīya sprachbund, 'language union of ancient Bhāratsm,' embodied in, which live on in the lingua franca of 25+ ancient languages of Bhāratam.

    -- The metaphor of caṣāla, 'godhuma, wheatchaff' shape of a heap of chaff is comparable to the hour-glass or vajra-shape of ḍamaru drum held on a right hand of Naṭarāja of Bādāmi Cave 1. The sounds of the ḍamaru drum yield Śivasūtrāṇi or Māheśvarāni sūtrāṇi which contains all sounds of the Samskr̥tam language. The fourteen verses of Śivasūtrāṇiorganize the phonemes of Sanskrit as referred to in the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini.
    lōhakāri f. blacksmith: 
    https://i.pinimg.com/originals/bc/3e/4c/bc3e4c4ae1bb41fcdd2f2ec6c7f32268.jplōhakāra m. ʻ iron -- worker ʼ, °rī -- f., °raka -- m. lex., lauhakāra -- m. Hit. [lōhá -- , kāra -- 1Pa. lōhakāra -- m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷa, Bi.Bhoj. Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohārluh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻ coppersmith ʼ. Addenda: lōhakāra -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m.(CDIAL 11159)
    Image result for wootz steel swordClose-up of an 18th-century Iranian crucible-forged Damascus steel sword. The sword was made of wootz steel, a process said to have started in 300 BCE. [K. Kris Hirst Damascus Steel. Nanotechnology and SwordMaking. Archaeology.about.com (2010-06-10)] 

    Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring igneous and metamorphic rocks with black or brownish-black with a metallic luster. 

    These magnetite ore stones could have been identified as pola iron by Meluhha speakers.

    The context of wealth-creation of poḷaḍa 'crucible steel' is exemplified by a painting which adorns the institute of Steel Authority of India, Ranchi. The painting shows (Porus) Purushottama gifting a poḷaḍa paṭṭā  .'crucible steel sword' पट्टा (p. 273) paṭṭā m ( H) A kind of sword. It is long, two-edged, and has a hilt protecting the whole fore arm (Marathi) பட்டா¹ paṭṭā , n. < K. paṭṭā. Sword; வாள். पट्टिश [p= 579,3] m. a spear with a sharp edge or some other weapon with three points MBh. R. &c (written also पट्टिस , पटिस and पट्टीस (Monier-Williams)




    IAST
    International Alphabet
    of Sanskrit
    transliteration
    Devanāgarī Script
    1. a i u ṇ

    2. ṛ ḷ k

    3. e o ṅ

    4. ai au c

    5. ha ya va ra ṭ

    6. la ṇ

    7. ña ma ṅa ṇa na m

    8. jha bha ñ

    9. gha ḍha dha ṣ

    10. ja ba ga ḍa da ś

    11. kha pha cha ṭha tha ca ṭa ta v

    12. ka pa y

    13. śa ṣa sa r

    14. ha l
    १. अ इ उ ण्।

    २. ऋ ऌ क्।

    ३. ए ओ ङ्।

    ४. ऐ औ च्।

    ५. ह य व र ट्।

    ६. ल ण्।
    ७. ञ म ङ ण न म्।
    ८. झ भ ञ्।

    ९. घ ढ ध ष्।

    १०. ज ब ग ड द श्।

    ११. ख फ छ ठ थ च ट त व्।
    १२. क प य्।
    १३. श ष स र्।

    १४. ह ल्।

    Image result for frits staal vedic soundsCourtesy: Frits Staal's lecture. See:  Scripts of India. 
    https://www.academia.edu/10256908/Scripts_of_India

    Mahākāla Śiva, Ujjain, mendicant carrying a daṇḍa, 'staff', with matted hair, signify 

    1. a Yūpa and 
    2. a caṣāla (wheat chaff to infuse carbon into the molten metal) atop aṣṭāśr yūpa 

    These metaphors of ādibhautika level evolve into ādhyātmikā (turīya) level as Naarāja's tāṇḍava Nr̥tyam, 'cosmic dance' at the 6th century Bādāmi cave temples, accompanied by tridhātu Gaṇeśa. 

    The 'cosmic dance' is replicated at the ādibhautika level in the metallurgical processes in a phaḍa, 'metals manufactory' led by tridhātu Gaṇeśa with his kharva, 'dwarf' gaṇa, śreṇi, 'guilds' and mūṣa '[mouse' rebus: mūṣa 'crucible' for producing crucible steel -- poḷaḍa 'steel'.

    This narrative of Bhāratīya Arthaśāstra Itihāsa with particular reference to wealth created with the technological excellence of the world-renowned poḷaḍa '(crucible) steel' is enshrined in ancient coins and sculptures
    See: 

     http://tinyurl.com/nsfgedh bolad 'steel' (Russian) folad 'steel' (Old Persian). It is possible that the word bolad (Russian) was cognate with पोळ (p. 305) pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. पोळा (p. 305pōḷā m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle, the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship rebus: पोळ pōḷa 'magnetite (a ferrite ore)'. 

    dāntā 'tooth, tusk' rebus: dhāˊtu 'ore of red colour' (ferrite ores, copper ores).Volker Rybatzki cites the following cognate words:
    "Turco-Mongolian bulat 'steel'...The earliest sources showing bulat 'steel' are Sino-Uigur and Sino-Mongolian from about the 14th century. Caucasus: Udian pholad; Cocenian buolat; Ingiloi folad, pholad; Budux polot; Georgian foladi, pholadi; Mingrelian fulandi, foladi; Svanetian polad, blat, OssT bolat. NArm. polpat, CArm. polovat, polopat (10th century) 'steel'; Psh. fulAd, pUlAd; Yid. pUlAd, pUlOd, fulad; Wakhi pUlOd 'steel'; Shug.Bal.Baj.Shd.Rsh.Yaz. pulod; Kal. pol'at; MP pOlAwas; pOlAvatOn 'made of steel'< pOlAvat 'steel'; KurdS pola, polad; Pers. pUlAd 'the finest Damascus steel, with that of QUm, is esteemed the best in the East; steel generally, a sword; name of a demon and a famous warrior; a club'; pUlAdi hind 'an Indian sword; fUlAd 'steel'; Dari folAd; Brahui folAt, pOlAt 'steel'; Tib. p'o-lad 'steel'; UigS bolut; TurkiKh pulat; KtBl. bolat '(of) steel'; Kum. bolat 'steel'; Khak. molat; Krg. bolat; Oir. bolod 'steel, sword'; Evk. bolot 'Stahl'. The word bulat in Turkic and Mongolian is a loanword from Early New Persian. Possibly the word was spread as a result of the Mongolian conquests in the 13th century...The origin of the word is unknown...pUlAd is foreign in Persian, Abaev also was unsure of its origin, but he refers to FE Kors, who considered pUlAd to be of Indian origin. There are reasons why this last hypothesis seems acceptable. In earliest times Persian pUlAd denoted damescene steel. The ingots from which damescene steel was produced, were, at least since Islamic era, imported from South-Central India. But Alexander the Great had already received 100 talents of Indian steel as a tribute. After +115, when Parthians were importing steel from Margiana, Romans called this imported steel ferrum sericum. Here seres may refer to China, but an identification with Southern India is also not impossible. Later sources stress the quality of the Indian ingots.After the 17th century, when the English became acquainted with these ingots, they were called wootz, a term of Dravidian origin. Secondly, pUlAd is not the oldest Iranian name for steel, this being haosafna, attested in the Young Avesta. In modern East Iranian languages the meaning of haosafna has changed to 'iron'. In a book dealing with Indian arms and armours, a special kind of sword, originating in the early 17th century, is called pulowar. This word cannot be connected with any Indo-Aryan language. Strangely enough, the word resembles the Middle Persian form of pUlAd."(Rybatzki, Volker, 1999, Turkic names for 'steel' and 'cast iron', pp.60-63). 

    https://www.academia.edu/1843816/Rybatzki-1999-Turkic_names_for_steel_and_cast_iron_

    ujjain135


    Maurya,  punchmarked AR karshapana,  'standing Shiva type'
    Weight:  3.57 gm., Dimensions: 16 x13mm.
    Standing Shiva with crested hair holding danda and kamandalu; sun; six-armed symbol;
         three-arched hill with crescent on top; 'bale-mark'.
    'Bale-mark'
    Reference:  Pieper 135 (plate coin)/ GH 566

    Typologically this Mauryan karshapana type will become an important prototype on the way towards the 'Shiva type' of the local Ujjain coin series.
    Indus Script hypertexts on this Ujjain punch-marked coin: arka 'sun' rebus: arka 'gold', eraka 'moltencast, copper' daürā 'rope' Rebus dhāvḍā 'smelter' dang 'hill range' rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'. For the significance of six-armed, six-spoked wheel see:

    Vajra षट्--कोण 'six-angled' hypertext of Punch-marked coins khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint' http://tinyurl.com/huwkos4 For the reading of 

    Jaṭāmaṇḍalam of the mendicant on Ujjain coins signifying Śiva see: Jaṭāmaṇḍalam & Rudrabhāga of Śivalinga pratimā signify yūpa and caṣāla (vajra) of R̥gveda, Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa  

    https://tinyurl.com/yaouqqm5



    Ujjain region, punchmarked AE,  'standing Shiva type'
    Weight:  2.21 gm., Dimensions: 12x11 mm.
    Standing Shiva; sun; six-armed symbol; three-arched hill with crescent on top;
         'bale-mark'.
    'Bale-mark'.
    Reference:  Pieper 166 (plate coin)

    These coins are still close copies of the silver karshapana type listed above but they are no longer issued in silver. They still maintain the 'bale-mark' reverse symbol of their prototype.

    Ujjain, punchmarked AE,  'standing Shiva type'
    Weight:  3.88 gm., Dimensions: 14 mm.
    Standing Shiva holding danda and kamandalu; sun; six-aarmed symbol; tree.
    'Bale-mark' and Ujjain symbol.
    Reference:  Pieper 164 (plate coin)

    Typologically this type departs further from the Mauryan prototype towards the  typical local Ujjain 'Shiva type'. On that type Shiva will henceforth occupy the dominant position to which the associated symbols are subordinated. As can be seen below these associated symbols are frequently still the same as on the Mauryan prototype, particularly sun and six-armed symbol. This coin is still punchmarked in contrast to the subsequent types which are all die-struck, but the symbol arrangement on the coin flan is already more a composition than a randomly done application of punches. On the reverse the 'bale-mark' is still maintained but now it is accompanied by the Ujjain symbol. In the further development the 'bale-mark' will disappear and the Ujjain symbol alone will become the reverse emblem of the whole series.
    ujjain265
    Ujjain, anonymous, AE 1/2 karshapana,  'standing Shiva type'
    Weight:  4.94 gm., Dimensions: 16 mm.
    Standing Shiva holding danda in right and kamandalu in left; sun above railed tree
         on left and 6-armed symbol above taurines on right.
    Double-orbed Ujjain symbol.
    Reference:  Pieper 265 (plate coin)/ BMC pl.XXXVIII, nos.5-6

    Devendra Handa in 'Divinities on Ujjain Coins', ICS-NL 51, p.5: "The commonest figure is that of a male bearing matted locks or a top-knot and holding a staff and water vessel in his two hands corresponding almost exactly to the description of Rudra-Shiva in the Skanda Purana." The importance of the Shiva cult at Ujjain and the combined depiction of the same figure with a bull, the vahana of Shiva, support its identification as Shiva.

    Ujjain symbol of four arms ending with dotted circles is Indus Script hypertext: dhāu (Prakrtam) 'a strand' rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'mineral ore' PLUS gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar'.
    ujjain268
    Ujjain, anonymous AE 3/4 karshapana, 'standing Shiva type'
    Weight:  7.22 gm., Dimensions: 17 mm.
    Standing Shiva holding danda in right and kamandalu in left; sun above railed tree
         on left and 6-armed symbol on right; taurine and svastika on top.
    Double-orbed Ujjain symbol
    Reference: Pieper 268 (plate coin)

    ujjain276
    Ujjain, anonymous AE  1/4karshapana, 'poly-cephalous Shiva type'
    Weight:  2.65 gm., Dimensions: 12 mm.
    Multi-headed Shiva holding danda and kamandalu; tree on left; (cakra above
         fish-tank on right)
    Double orbed Ujjain symbol surrounded by river with fish.
    Reference: Pieper 276 (plate coin) / BMC, pl. XXXVIII, no.19

    ujjain289
    Ujjain, anonymous AE 3/8 karshapana, 'standing Shiva type'
    Weight:  3.16 gm., Dimensions: 18x14 mm.
    Standing Shiva holding danda and kamandalu; cakra above svastika and standard
         on left; fish-tank above railed tree on right; river at the bottom.
    Ujjain symbol with a svastika in each orb.
    Reference: Pieper 289 (plate coin) / BMC, pl.XXXVII, nos.19-20


    Ujjain symbol of four arms ending with dotted circles is Indus Script hypertext: dhāu (Prakrtam) 'a strand' rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'mineral ore' PLUS gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar' PLUS sattva 'svastika symbol' rebus: jasta 'zinc'.
    ujjain319
    Ujjain, anonymous AE 3/8 karshapana, 'standing Shiva + nandi type'
    Weight:  3.18 gm., Dimensions: 18x16 mm.
    Standing Shiva holding danda and kamandalu, nandi facing from left towards the
         deity; cakra and standard on top left.
    Double-orbed Ujjain symbol.
    Reference: Pieper 319 (plate coin)

    ujjain318
    Ujjain, anonymous AE 1/2 karshapana, 'standing Shiva + nandi type'
    Weight:  5.03 gm., Dimensions: 17x15 mm.
    Standing Shiva holding danda and kamandalu, nandi on the left facing towards the
         viewer; cakra and Indradhvaja on top; parts of tree on right.
    Ujjain symbol with a svastika in each orb.
    Reference: Pieper 318 (plate coin)

    ujjain322
    Ujjain, anonymous AE 2 karshapana, 'standing Shiva + nandi type'
    Weight:  15.53 gm., Dimensions: 26x21 mm.
    Standing Shiva on right with nandi on left facing towards the deity; railed tree in
         center between Shiva and bull; taurines on top and a svastika on right bottom;
         river with diverse aquatic creatures at the bottom.
    Double-orbed Ujjain symbol with an extra arm topped by a taurine in each angle.
    Reference: Pieper 322 (plate coin) 

    An unusual heavy weight standard for the series. The heaviest recorded specimen offered at a public auction weighed 25.8 gm thus roughly representing a triple copper karshapana.

    Ujjain symbol of four arms ending with dotted circles PLUS extra arms topped by a taurine in each angle, is Indus Script hypertext: dhāu (Prakrtam) 'a strand' rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'mineral ore' PLUS gaṇḍa 'four' rebus: kaṇḍa 'fire-altar' PLUS N. goṭo ʻ piece ʼ, goṭi ʻ chess piece ʼ; A. goṭ 'stone' rebus: goṭi 'silver' PLUS  kuhara 'crucible' rebus: kuṭhAru 'armourer' . 

    Umā-Maheśvara with boy Skanda with spear between them from NW India (3rd century BCE) with akṣamālā, kamaṇḍal and triśūla.
    AE tetradrachm or unit, c. first quarter of 2nd. Century
    Weight: 16.18 gm., Diam: 28 mm., Die axis: 12 o'clock
    King standing facing, sacrificing at fire altar at left, club, tamgha and axehead-shafted trident in fields,
       Greek legend around: BACIΛEYC BACIΛEWN CWTHP MEΓAC OOHMO KAΔΦICHC/
    Siva standing facing, holding trident and deerskin, bull Nandi right behind,
       bead and reel border around
    Göbl 760, MAC 3006
    This coin introduces a powerful new image of the king: a full height representation exuding power, sacrificing at a fire altar, and surrounded by evocative symbols. This early bronze coinage was issued in two denominations: a tetradrachm (or unit) and a drachm (or quarter unit). The early, very rare coinage, like this and the next coin, featured a bead and reel border on the reverse ... this was later replaced by a Kharoshthi legend. The fact that the gold coins always feature a Kharoshthi legend suggests that these mono-lingual bronze coins were issued first and the gold coins were issued some years later, when Vima's power (and wealth) had grown.Gold dinar, c. first quarter of 2nd. Century

    Weight: 7.95 gm., Diam: 21 mm., Die axis: 12 o'clock
    Crowned, diademed torso of king left, holding club and elephant goad,
       Greek legend around: BACIΛEYC OOH .. MO KAΔΦICHC (King Vima Kadphises) /
    Ithyphallic Siva standing facing, with head turned to left, holding trident and deerskin
       Kharoshti legend: maharajasa rajadirajasa sarvaloga isvarasa mahisvarasa
          Vima Kathphishasa tratara

    Göbl 19, MAC 3004
    AE tetradrachm or unit, c. first quarter of 2nd. Century
    Weight: 17.01 gm., Diam: 27 mm., Die axis: 12 o'clock
    King standing facing, sacrificing at fire altar at left, club, tamgha and axehead-shafted trident in fields,
       Greek legend around: BACIΛEYC BACIΛEWN CWTHP MEΓAC OOHMO KAΔΦICHC/
    Siva standing facing, holding trident and deerskin, bull Nandi right behind,
       Kharoshti legend: maharajasa rajadirajasa sarvaloga isvarasa mahisvarasa
          Vima Kathphishasa tratara

    Göbl 762, MAC 3008
    A nice example of the bi-lingual tetradrachm with Kharoshthi legend on the reverse. The bi-lingual bronze coinage was issued in three denominations: a tetradrachm (or unit), a didrachm (or half unit) and a drachm (or quarter unit).

    Image result for AMARAVATI fiery pillarAmaravati sculptural frieze. For 

     as Indus Script hypertext See:

     https://tinyurl.com/yaljqnhb
    'srivatsa' atop a circle (vaṭṭa 'round, circle' rebus: vaṭhara, phaḍa, paṭṭaḍi, vāḍii
     'enclosed area for mintwork workshop') as a phonetic determinant that the  aya PLUS kambha is in fact to be pronounced, aya khambhaṛā (Lahnda) rebus: aya 'iron' PLUS kammaTa 'mint' (Kannada)== 'fish PLUS fin' rebus: ayas kammaTa 'metal mint'. meḍ 'foot' rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.)


    Śiva (see triśūla, paraśu, cakra, vajra, kamaṇḍalu) on the coin of Śaivite Emperor Vima Kadphises (1-2 century CE), father of Kaniṣka कणिष्क

    2nd century CE Kushan coins with one side showing a deity with a bull. Some scholars consider the deity as Shiva because he holds a trident, is in ithyphallic state and next to Nandi bull his mount, as in  Śaivism. Others suggest him to be Zoroastrian Oesho, Vayu, not Shiva.( Loeschner, Hans (2012) The Stūpa of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the GreatSino-Platonic Papers, No. 227 (July 2012), p.11; Bopearachchi, O. (2007). Some observations on the chronology of the early Kushans. Res Orientales, 17, 41-53; Perkins, J. (2007). Three-headed Śiva on the Reverse of Vima Kadphises's Copper Coinage. South Asian Studies, 23(1), 31-37). 
    Note on Oisho. This is cognate with īśa a synonym of Śiva. ईश [p= 171,1] one who is completely master of anything, powerful, supreme, a ruler , master , lord Mn. S3Br. MBh. Kum. &c; m. a रुद्र; m. the number " eleven " (as there are eleven रुद्रs). (Monier-Williams) Association with Rudra and Maruts leads to the link with the storms, vāyu, 'winds'. īśá m. ʻ master, lord ʼ ŚBr. [√īśadhīśa -- ; araṇyēśa -- , narēśa -- , *prāṇīśa -- . īˊśāna -- , °ná -- ʻ ruling ʼ RV. [√īś]mahēśāna -- . īśvará ʻ capable of ʼ, m. ʻ master ʼ AV., ʻ god ʼ Mn. [√īś]Pa. issara -- m. ʻ lord ʼ; KharI. iśparaka -- nom. prop.; Pk. issara -- , īsa° m. ʻ lord, god ʼ; P. īssar m. ʻ God, Providence ʼ, Ku. H. īsar m.; Si. isurā ʻ lord, ruler ʼ. áiśvarya -- ; narēśvara -- , *lakṣēśvara -- . ĪṢ ʻ move ʼ: údīṣatē. Addenda: īśvará -- : WPah.J. iśar m. ʻ God ʼ.(CDIAL 1617 to 1619)
    Oesho or Śiva 
    Oesho or Śiva with bull 

    Gold dinar, c. 195 CE
    Weight: 8.07 gm., Diam: 21 mm., Die axis: 12 o'clock
    Crowned, diademed king standing facing, nimbate, holding trident and sacrificing at altar at left,
       Bactrian legend around: þAONANOþAO BA ... ZOΔηO KOþANO
       (King of Kings Bazodeo Kushan) /
    Two-armed Shiva standing facing, holding trident and diadem, Bull Nandi left behind,
       Bactrian legend left: OηþO, tamgha at right
    Göbl 504

    An example of the early Vasudeva issues in which there is nothing above the fire altar, and featuring Oesho on the reverse. After this time, Vasudeva did not feature any deity other than Oesho on his coins.

    Copper unit (tetradrachm?), c. 200-225 CE
    Weight: 8.93 gm., Diam: 22 mm., Die axis: 1 o'clock
    Crowned, diademed king standing facing, nimbate, holding trident and sacrificing at altar at left,
       second trident above altar, Bactrian legend around: þAONANOþAO BA ... ZOΔηO KOþANO
       (King of Kings Bazodeo Kushan)nandipada in right field /
    Two-armed Shiva standing facing, holding trident and diadem, Bull Nandi left behind,
       Bactrian legend left: OηþO, tamgha at right
    Göbl 1004, MAC 3491

    This variety features the nandipada in the right obverse field.

    A tulvar with lion's head-shaped pommel, India 19th century.
    A tulvar with a hare and a lion's head-shaped pommel, India 19th century. 
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/330592428869514310/ Indus Script hypertexts: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'; kharā 'hare' (Oriya): *kharabhaka ʻ hare ʼ. [ʻ longeared like a donkey ʼ: khara -- 1?]N. kharāyo ʻ hare ʼ, Or. kharā°riākherihā, Mth. kharehā, H. kharahā m(CDIAL 3823) ``^rabbit'' Sa. kulai `rabbit'.Mu. kulai`rabbit'. KW kulai 
    @(M063)  खरगोस (p. 113) kharagōsa m ( P) A hare.  (Marathi) Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)
    Swords belonged to Emperor Akbar the Great pic
    Swords of Akbar. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/ATKITSSlrtro1q8EAk7yPlF2pmedmOnlRvWODR6xWvkOwLFZ3rKBm7s/
    Various Indian swords.Various swords. Ancient India. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368078200571/
    P.Holstein, "Contribution A L’Etude des Armes Orientales", 1931. Vol. II, plate XX, the author shows both pesh kabz and karud daggers. From left to right:P.Holstein, "Contribution A L’Etude des Armes Orientales", 1931. Vol. II, plate XX, the author shows both pesh kabz and karud daggers. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368081954663/
    Halberd Head with Nagas and Blades on a Tortoise, Copper alloy, Indonesia (Java)
    Period:
    Eastern Javanese period, Singasari kingdom
    Date:
    ca. second half of the 13th century
    Culture:
    Indonesia (Java)
    Medium:
    Copper alloy
    Dimensions:
    L. 18 3/4 in. (47.7 cm)
    Classification:
    Metalwork
    Credit Line:
    Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Perry J. Lewis, 1986
    Accession Number:

    1986.504.2
    https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/39348 Indus Script hypertexts: makara 'composite animal' rebus: dhmakara, dhamaka 'forge blower, blacksmith' 
    కమఠము kamaṭhamu. [Skt.] n. A tortoise. कमठ [ kamaṭha ] m S A tortoise Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint' (Kannada).


    Indian sword hilt, extensive carvings of flowers and leaves, the raised surfaces applied with gold, the guard is in the form of a tiger rearing up with the pommel in the shape of an elephant whose trunk is wrapped around the attacking tiger below.Indian sword hilt, extensive carvings of flowers and leaves, the raised surfaces applied with gold, the guard is in the form of a tiger rearing up with the pommel in the shape of an elephant whose trunk is wrapped around the attacking tiger below. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368070845060/ Indus Script hypertexts: karibha, ibha, 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron'kola'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' ibbo 'merchant' kolle 'smelter'.
    Silver-Inlaid Katar & Hilt Srirangam, Tanjore, India circa 1650
    Silver-Inlaid Katar & Hilt Srirangam, Tanjore, India circa 1650 
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/817755244810309756/ Indus Script hypertext: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' ibbo 'merchant' kolle 'smelter'.
    Indian (Mughal) tabar (axe) in the form of an ibex and tiger,18th century, the steel crescent shaped blade emanating from a tiger and terminating in an ibex head with fine damascened decoration, the gilt handle with pierced and incised floral design 66cm. length. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368075895247/ Tiger and ibex on this tabar, 'axe' are Indus Script hypertexts: kola 'tiger' rebus; kol 'working in iron' Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) tabar = a broad axe (Punjabi). Rebus: tam(b)ra 'copper' See chanhudaro axe, double-axe on Chanhudaro seal.
    Indian tabar-zin (saddle axe), Lucknow, 18th century, chiselled steel head, ebony shaft covered with chased silver.
    Indian tabar-zin (saddle axe), Lucknow, 18th century, chiselled steel head, ebony shaft covered with chased silver. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/817755244810787324/ Indus Script hypertext: kanku'crane, egret, heron' rebus: kangar 'portable furnace'.
    Image result for chanhudaro 23 seal double-axe bharatkalyan97Chanhudaro seal 23 See decipherment at 

     http://tinyurl.com/zq4dlq3


    Scene pin imageIndian talwar 1935, made for the silver jubilee of Osman Ali Khan, Asf Jah, the seventh Nizam of Hyderabad (at the time the richest man in the world. Polished steel blade (probably seventeenth-century), with gold inscription on both sides towards the forte, gold hilt with twirling-leaf design set with finely-cut diamonds throughout,, yellow velvet scabbard bound with yellow velvet scabbard with diamond-set chape.
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/541346817698867248/
    Ottoman (Anatolian or Balkan) yatagan / yataghan, A.H. 1238/A.D. 1822, steel, silver, gold, coral, Length, 29 1/4 in. (74.3 cm) Length of blade, 22 1/8 in. (56.2 cm), Met Museum, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935. Inscribed with the date 1238 (A.D. 1822), the name of the maker ("Made by Abdullah"), six Turkish verses of good will towards the owner, and the names of two owners (Ismael Gazi and Abdul Kadar).Ottoman (Anatolian or Balkan) yatagan / yataghan, A.H. 1238/A.D. 1822, steel, silver, gold, coral, Length, 29 1/4 in. (74.3 cm) Length of blade, 22 1/8 in. (56.2 cm), Met Museum, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935. Inscribed with the date 1238 (A.D. 1822), the name of the maker ("Made by Abdullah"), six Turkish verses of good will towards the owner, and the names of two owners (Ismael Gazi and Abdul Kadar).https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368073648142/
    Indian khanda, ca 1800. The khanda (from Sanskrit खड्ग khaḍga) is a South Asian double-edge straight sword. The blade is usually broad and quite heavy & broadens from the hilt to the tip. The blade transforms into tip rather abruptly. The hilt has a small metal spike. The khanda & related straight swords are generally used in Indian theater & art to represent the weapons of the ancient period of Indian history. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/162692605262936236/

    Indian "sissors" katar, 18th to 19th century, L. 19 1/4 in. (48.9 cm); W. 3 3/16 in. (8.1 cm); Wt. 30.5 oz. (864.7 g), Met Museum,  Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935.Indian "sissors" katar, 18th to 19th century, L. 19 1/4 in. (48.9 cm); W. 3 3/16 in. (8.1 cm); Wt. 30.5 oz. (864.7 g), Met Museum, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935.https://www.pinterest.se/pin/354799276867834800/  kartari f. ʻ scissors, knife ʼ Suśr., °rī -- f. lex., °rikā -- f. Hit. [< karttrī -- ? -- √kr̥t1]
    Pa. kattarĭ̄ -- , °rikā -- f. ʻ scissors, shears, knife ʼ; Pk. kattarī -- f. ʻ scissors, shears ʼ; Shum. kātar ʻ knife ʼ; S. katari°ra f. ʻ scissors, shears ʼ; L. kātar f. ʻ shears ʼ (← G.?); Or. kaṭri ʻ knife ʼ, kaṭari ʻ billhook ʼ (katurī,katariā ʻ shears ʼ ← W); G. kātar f. ʻ scissors ʼ, M. kātar°trī f., Ko. kātrī f.; Si. katura ʻ scissors, shears ʼ. <-> Deriv. verb: Pk. kattaria -- ʻ cut ʼ; K. katarun ʻ to cut into slices ʼ; S. katiraṇu ʻ to shear, clip ʼ; L. (Jukes) katraṇ ʻ to cut, clip with scissors ʼ; P. katarnā ʻ to clip, shear ʼ, N. katranu; Or. katuribā ʻ to trim ʼ; H. katarnā ʻ to clip ʼ, G. kātarvũ, M. kātarṇẽ; Si. kätiri -- ʻ torn, cut (of clothes) ʼ; -- S. katara f. ʻ strip of cloth ʼ; L. katraʻ a little ʼ (→ Psht. katra ʻ piece of meat ʼ), katr m. ʻ cutting of a rib ʼ; P. kattar m. ʻ strip of cloth ʼ (→ H. katar f. ʻ a cutting ʼ, N. kattar ʻ cut, slit ʼ); Or. katurā ʻ a cutting ʼ; G. kātrī f. ʻ thin slice ʼ, kātrɔ m. ʻ an insect which cuts off shoots of corn ʼ; M. kātrā m. ʻ clippings ʼ; -- P. katarnī f. ʻ scissors ʼ, Ku. katarṇī, N. katarni, Or. kataruṇi, H. katarnī f., G. kā̆tarṇī.Addenda: kartari -- : S.kcch. katar f. ʻ scissors ʼ, Md. katuru.(CDIAL 2858)
    Indian weapons. Katar (push dagger), 17th century. Steel, damascened and inlaid with gold.  Zaghnal (war hammer / pick) 18th century. Steel, damascened and inlaid with gold.  The Museum of Oriental Art, Moscow.Indian weapons. Katar (push dagger), 17th century. Steel, damascened and inlaid with gold. Zaghnal (war hammer / pick) 18th century. Steel, damascened and inlaid with gold. The Museum of Oriental Art, Moscow. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/395261304767312043/
    Indian (Deccan, Bijapur or Golconda) dagger, 16th c, cast copper hilt, chased, gilded, inlaid with rubies. Portraits of Sultan 'Ali 'Adil Shah of Bijapur 1558–80 show him wearing similar zoomorphic hilt daggers. In the ruby-studded hilt, a dragon whose tail wraps around the grip attacks a lion, which is attacking a deer, symbolic of the deity Garuda. Before the deer is a bird with a snake in its beak. Lower down is a mythical lionlike Yali, with floral scrolls issuing from its mouth. Met Museum
    Indian (Deccan, Bijapur or Golconda) dagger, 16th c, cast copper hilt, chased, gilded, inlaid with rubies. Portraits of Sultan 'Ali 'Adil Shah of Bijapur 1558–80 show him wearing similar zoomorphic hilt daggers. In the ruby-studded hilt, a dragon whose tail wraps around the grip attacks a lion, which is attacking a deer, symbolic of the deity Garuda. Before the deer is a bird with a snake in its beak. Lower down is a mythical lionlike Yali, with floral scrolls issuing from its mouth. Met Museum https://www.pinterest.se/pin/365565694727134785/ Indus Script hypertexts: goat, tiger, peacock, feline paw:  meḷh 'goat' (Br.) Rebus: meḍho 'one who helps a merchant' vi.138 'vaṇiksahāyah' (deśi. Hemachandra).Rebus: Rebus: milakkhu 'copper'. mleccha,mlecchamukha 'copper' (Skt.); panja 'feline paw' rebus: panja 'kiln, furnace' kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' maraka 'peacock' Rebus: marakaka loha'copper alloy, calcining metal'. फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: फड, phaḍa  'metals manufactory'
    late 18th century Indian Cobra Head Blade Serrated Khanda Sword  Khanda hilted sword with serrated edged and of Cobra form. This formidable example is 98cms long from end to end. The blade is 82cms long, 4cms wide with a weighted tip 9cms wide.
    Late 18th century Indian Cobra Head Blade Serrated Khanda Sword Khanda hilted sword with serrated edged and of Cobra form. This formidable example is 98cms long from end to end. The blade is 82cms long, 4cms wide with a weighted tip 9cms wide.https://www.pinterest.se/pin/382102349615319452/ Indus Script hypertext: फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: फड, phaḍa  'metals manufactory'
    AN INDIAN TULWAR TAKEN FROM A MAHRATTA SOLDIER AT THE BATTLE OF MAHARAJPOOR IN 1843 19TH CENTURY

    An indian tulwar taken from a mahratta soldier at the battle of maharajpoor in 1843 19th century 
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/374361787755080186/
    Image result for wootz steel sword
    AN IVORY HILTED SAFAVID SHAMSHIR, PERSIA, 17TH CENTURY the slender curved and tapering finely watered-steel blade, two inlaid inscriptions in lobed and foliate cartouches, dragon head quillons, the ivory hilt with gold overlaid floral motifs and ensuite suspension mounts, leather-covered wood scabbard stamped with stylised animal and foliate motifs


    AN IVORY HILTED SAFAVID SHAMSHIR, PERSIA, 17TH CENTURY the slender curved and tapering finely watered-steel blade, two inlaid inscriptions in lobed and foliate cartouches, dragon head quillons, the ivory hilt with gold overlaid floral motifs and ensuite suspension mounts, leather-covered wood scabbard stamped with stylised animal and foliate motifs.
    Ottoman shamshir, 19th Century, Iranian wootz steel blade, scabbard set with gold, diamonds, emeralds and pearls, jade handle, a ceremonial sword, used for an investiture ceremony, a perfect symbol of the luxury, extravagance and workmanship in the Ottoman Empire, said to have been made in 1876 for the investiture of the Ottoman sultan Murad V (reigned May 30–August 31, 1876). He suffered a nervous breakdown before the ceremony and was deposed and imprisioned until his death in 1904.
    Ottoman shamshir, 19th Century, Iranian wootz steel blade, scabbard set with gold, diamonds, emeralds and pearls, jade handle, a ceremonial sword, used for an investiture ceremony, a perfect symbol of the luxury, extravagance and workmanship in the Ottoman Empire, said to have been made in 1876 for the investiture of the Ottoman sultan Murad V (reigned May 30–August 31, 1876). He suffered a nervous breakdown before the ceremony and was deposed and imprisioned until his death in 1904.https://www.pinterest.se/pin/517562182151583060/
    Indian sossun patta sword with serrated blade. Early to middle 19th Century All steel hilt Blade length 27 5/8 inches Overall length 32 inches.
    A JEWELLED SWORD TALWAR, RAJASTHAN, INDIA,The slightly curved steel blade with raised edge and fullers struck at forte with three talismanic dots on either side, the gilded-silver hilt with characteristic broad pommel and hemispherical quillon terminals, wholly embellished in green and blue enamel and set with thirty-three gems including rubies and white sapphires, devanagari inscription to flat edge of blade at forte, velvet-covered wood scabbard with later addition of gilt braid
    A JEWELLED SWORD TALWAR, RAJASTHAN, INDIA,The slightly curved steel blade with raised edge and fullers struck at forte with three talismanic dots on either side, the gilded-silver hilt with characteristic broad pommel and hemispherical quillon terminals, wholly embellished in green and blue enamel and set with thirty-three gems including rubies and white sapphires, devanagari inscription to flat edge of blade at forte, velvet-covered wood scabbard with later addition of gilt braid
    Portrait of a Baloch tribesman 1870, full length standing, he wears a white turban over his long curling hair, a cloth wrapped around his shoulders, knee-length baggy pajamas, he carries a traditional sword talwar and a lacquered round dhal shield decorated with four bosses.
    Portrait of a Balochi warrior 1870, full length standing, he wears a white turban over his long curling hair, a cloth wrapped around his shoulders, knee-length baggy pajamas, he carries a traditional sword talwar and a lacquered round dhal shield decorated with four bosses.
    Indian Khanda Sword.
    Indian khanda sword.
    Indian swords
    Figure: खद्गाः. Indian swords  [Image source: Egerton, Wilbraham Egerton, Earl <1832-1909>: A description of Indian and Oriental armor: illustrated from the collection formerly in the India Office, now Exhibited at South Kensington, and the author's private collection, with a map , twenty-three full-page plates (two colored), and Numerous woodcuts, with an introductory sketch of the military history of India / by the Right Hon Lord Egerton of Tatton. - New edition - London: Allen, 1896.
    खड्ग [p= 335,3] n. iron L.; m. (fr. √खड् for खण्ड्?) a sword , scymitar MBh. R. &c (ifc. f(आ). Katha1s. ) Hieroglyph: खड्ग a rhinoceros MaitrS. iii , 14 , 21 = VS. xxiv , 40 (खङ्ग्/अ) S3a1n3khS3r. Mn. MBh. &c (Moniker-Williams). Indian swords [Image source: Egerton, Wilbraham Egerton, Earl <1832-1909>: A description of Indian and Oriental armor: illustrated from the collection formerly in the India Office, now Exhibited at South Kensington, and the author's private collection, with a map , twenty-three full-page plates (two colored), and Numerous woodcuts, with an introductory sketch of the military history of India / by the Right Hon Lord Egerton of Tatton. - New edition - London: Allen, 1896.
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368071261409/
    Indian or Nepalese kukri, 19th century, steel, silver, wood, leather, Knife (a); H. with sheath 18 1/16 in. (45.9 cm); H. without sheath 16 13/16 in. (42.7 cm); W. 1 11/16 in. (4.3 cm); Wt. 16.6 oz. (470.6 g); sheath (b); Wt. 9.5 oz. (269.3 g); small knife (c); H. 4 9/16 in. (11.6 cm); W. 7/8 in. (2.2 cm); Wt. 0.8 oz. (22.7 cm); small knife (d); H. 4 1/2 in. (11.4 cm); W. 15/16 in. (2.4 cm); Wt. 1.2 oz. (34 g), Met Museum, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935.
    Indian or Nepalese kukri, 19th century, steel, silver, wood, leather, Knife (a); H. with sheath 18 1/16 in. (45.9 cm); H. without sheath 16 13/16 in. (42.7 cm); W. 1 11/16 in. (4.3 cm); Wt. 16.6 oz. (470.6 g); sheath (b); Wt. 9.5 oz. (269.3 g); small knife (c); H. 4 9/16 in. (11.6 cm); W. 7/8 in. (2.2 cm); Wt. 0.8 oz. (22.7 cm); small knife (d); H. 4 1/2 in. (11.4 cm); W. 15/16 in. (2.4 cm); Wt. 1.2 oz. (34 g), Met Museum, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935.
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368073636376/
    Indian tegha back sword, 18th century. 26 1/2" blade, 2 7/8" width at the widest, thick "armor piercing" point. Overlaid in brass scenes of Krishna flanked by gopis. Four oval panels above. Three with copper and brass detailed deities and the lower with calligraphy. Additional panels with flower heads and foliage. Large iron hilt with delicately pierced langets, chiseled overall with flower buds. Showing the perfunctory craftsmanship characteristic for these.
    Indian tegha back sword, 18th century. 26 1/2" blade, 2 7/8" width at the widest, thick "armor piercing" point. Overlaid in brass scenes of Krishna flanked by gopis. Four oval panels above. Three with copper and brass detailed deities and the lower with calligraphy. Additional panels with flower heads and foliage. Large iron hilt with delicately pierced langets, chiseled overall with flower buds. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/558727897500732894/
    Tegha/pala style short sword from India. Probably mid 19 C. Deeply curved.
    Tegha/pala style short sword from India. Probably mid 19 C. Deeply curved.https://www.pinterest.se/pin/439663982357165656/
    Various Indo-Persian swords showing the difference in size, blade shape and curvature. (yatagan, firangi, shamshir, shashka, tulwar, pulwar, kilij)
    Various Indo-Persian swords showing the difference in size, blade shape and curvature. (yatagan, firangi, shamshir, shashka, tulwar, pulwar, kilij)
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368076368115/
    Ottoman kilij (saber), 19th century. The blade is signed by its maker, Acem Oglu. The Arabic inscriptions decorating it include: "Oh from the gentle God whose gentleness is without end, You are the Powerful, we will love You in Your palace on the day of judgement." The foliate ornament on the guard and scabbard mounts shows the strong influence of European design in Turkish art of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    https://i.pinimg.com/originals/08/20/d5/0820d54ae8fa7236a17a798822ce22ab.jpg
    Tulwar SwordTulwar Sword | early19th, North Indian, Wootz steel, silver North Indian Tulwar sword of Sirohi type. The steel hilt is complete with a knuckle guard of thick construction, decorated with silver Koftgari in foliate design. The disc pommel exhibits a sun burst decoration and a faceted large spike. This Sirohi type blade is forged from Wootz Crucible Steel and features an even watered pattern that runs along the entire length of the blade including the edge.
    https://www.pinterest.se/pin/297167275392996162/
    Indian tulwar, European blade dated 1673, 19th c hilt, steel, silver, diamonds, enamel, leather, length, 31 1/2 in. (80.01 cm), Met Museum, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935. Inscribed in Arabic and Persian with the name of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1717) and the 16th year of his reign (1673). Marked with a parasol, an ancient symbol of the dome of heaven and a symbol of royal authority in the Middle East and India, impling that the weapon belonged to Emperor Aurangzeb.Indian tulwar, European blade dated 1673, 19th c hilt, steel, silver, diamonds, enamel, leather, length, 31 1/2 in. (80.01 cm), Met Museum, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935. Inscribed in Arabic and Persian with the name of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (reigned 1658–1717) and the 16th year of his reign (1673). Marked with a parasol, an ancient symbol of the dome of heaven and a symbol of royal authority in the Middle East and India, impling that the weapon belonged to Emperor Aurangzeb. https://www.pinterest.se/pin/7881368073769813/
    The Hero of Islam, Saladin’s Damascus Blade
    Damascus blade sword of Saladin.

    Eighteen armed Naṭarāja, with Gaṇeśa. Bādāmi. Cave 1. Dance-step of Gaṇeśa on Bādāmi sculpture compares with the dance-step of Mahāvināyaka of Gardez, Afghanistan.

    The metaphor of caṣāla, 'godhuma, wheatchaff' shape of a heap of chaff is comparable to the hour-glass or vajra-shape of ḍamaru drum held on a right hand of Naṭarāja of Bādāmi Cave 1.

    Mahākāla Śiva evolves into the cosmic metaphor of dancing Śiva Naarāja tāṇḍava Nr̥tyam, 'cosmic dance'at the 6th century Bādāmi cave temples with dance-step of Gaṇeśa. Dance-step and  Gaṇeśa.are Indus Script hypertext to signify the cosmic dance, tāṇḍava Nr̥tyam, in metallurgical processes creating wealth of a nation. Naarāja is deification of caṣāla (wheat chaff to infuse carbon into the molten metal) atop aṣṭāśrī yūpa; Gaṇeśa tridhātu karibha, ibha'elephant', rebus: karba, ib 'iron' PLUS phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa'metals manufactory'' PLUS mūṣa '[mouse' rebus: mūṣa'crucible' for producing crucible steel -- poḷaḍa 'steel', from tridh dhātu: poḷa, 'magnetite, ferrite ore', bica'haematite, ferrite ore', goṭa'laterite, ferrite ore'. (Rebus hieroglyphs are  poḷa, 'zebu, bos indicus':, bica'scorpion', goṭa, 'round stone, pebble'). The meḍ, 'dance step' is: me'iron'.

    The metaphor of aṣṭāśrī yūpa is matched by the association of aṣṭalakṣmi,'eight personifications of wealth' aṣṭamātr̥kā as deified aṣṭāśrī seen with Gaṇeśa in Ellora and Udayagiri caves.



    Ellora caves 14, 16, 21 22 depict Gaṇeśa. 
    Devi Purāṇa describes Māṭrpaňcaka (the five mothers). Gaṇeśa sculpture together with a group of Mātr̥kā divinities who help Gaṇeśa to annihilate evil. In Devi Mahatmya, Chamunda emerged as Chandika Jayasundara from an eyebrow of goddess Kaushiki, a goddess created from "sheath" of Durga and was assigned the task of eliminating the demons Chanda and Munda,  Chamunda is shown with her feet on Andhaka whose body lies on the floor (Narrative from Matsya Purāṇa).
    Udayagiri, Madhya Pradesh Cave 6, detail showing Dvārapāla, Viṣṇu and Gaṇeśa

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    ASI approves excavation at site of Mahabharata’s ‘house of lac'

    TNN | Updated: Nov 2, 2017, 11:09 IS The site is located in Barnawa area of Baghpat district.  Barnawa is the twisted name of Varnavrat, one of the five villages that the Pandavas had demanded from the Kauravas. According to ASI officials, the excavation will begin in the first week of December and will continue for three months. 
    A circuitous tunnel inside the ancient site, in UP's Baghpat district which is said to be used by the Pandavas... Read More
    MEERUT: After years of requests by archaeologists and local historians, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has finally approved the excavation of what locals believe is the site of the 'Lakshagriha', the house of lac which features in an important incident in the Mahabharata.

    The site is located in Barnawa area of Baghpat district.

    Retired ASI superintending archaeologist, (excavation) KK Sharma said, "Lakshagriha plays a significant part in the Mahabharata. The Kauravas had built the palace out of lac and planned to burn the Pandavas alive, but the brothers escaped through a tunnelThe structure was located in what is now 

    Baghpat, at the site called Barnawa. In fact, Barnawa is the twisted name of Varnavrat, one of the five villages that the Pandavas had demanded from the Kauravas to settle in after their exile."

    Speaking to TOI, director (excavation) of ASI Jitender Nath said, "After a thorough study of the proposal we have given licence to two ASI authorities, Institute of Archaeology in Red Fort, Delhi, and our excavation branch, to jointly conduct the excavation."

    According to ASI officials, the excavation will begin in the first week of December and will continue for three months. Students of the Institute of Archaeology will also participate in it.

    Asked about the religious significance of the site, Dr SK Manjul, director, Institute of Archaeology, said, "It will not be appropriate to say anything on the religious aspect of this site as of now. We chose this site primarily because of its proximity to other important sites like Chandayan and Sinauli. In Sinauli, excavations had revealed an important Harappan-period burial site. We had recovered skeletons and pottery in large quantities in 2005. Similarly, a copper crown along with carnelian beads was found in Chandayan village in 2014."

    TOP COMMENT

    ð ð Great work by Government..... Pidi-tards (Congis), Aaptards, Commis and Libtards have buried Indian historical sites over the past 7 decades !Saimenon

    The crown was found by local archaeologist Amit Rai Jain and the find had been reported by TOI. Though not much remains at the site, its most significant part is the tunnel inside the mound, which the Pandavas may have used to make their escape.

    Krishan Kant Sharma, associate professor, department of history, Multani Mal PG College Modinagar and secretary of Culture & History Association, "No one has ever ventured too deep into the tunnel as it has several turns. But maybe now this excavation will map its length."

    https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/asi-approves-excavation-at-site-of-mahabharatas-house-of-lac/articleshow/61428457.cms

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    Cricket historian's googly against Commies and Congress, uses a meaningless term, 'jingoism' against BJP.Normally a googly is a type of deceptive delivery by a right-arm leg spin bowler. In this case, a pseudo-googly is delivered: a pseudo-leftist takes on the Commies, a pseudo-secular takes on the withered Congress.I think Guha should stay with cricket and not enter into pontificating on the polity.
    Kalyan
    Posted at: Nov 2, 2017, 11:50 AM; last updated: Nov 2, 2017, 11:50 AM (IST)

    Left hypocrisy, Cong corruption behind BJP’s jingoism: Guha

    Aditi Tandon
    Tribune News Service
    New Delhi, November 2

    In these times of constant tensions between patriotism and jingoism, acclaimed historian Ramachandra Guha has held “financial, moral and intellectual corruption of the Congress and hypocrisy of the Left” responsible for the rise of paranoid nationalism under the ruling BJP.
    Delivering the 23rd Justice Sunanda Bhandare Lecture here on Wednesday evening on the controversial subject of ‘Patriotism versus Jingoism’, Guha said hypocrisy of the Indian Left, corruptions of the Congress Party and the global rise of hyper nationalism were the three key factors that explain why patriotism is receding and jingoism is ascending.
    Arguing that the form of nationalism the BJP is practising under Prime Minister Narendra Modi was essentially the model of nationalism born in Europe in the 19th century, Guha said, “As a historian I’ve also thought about why jingoism is resurgent and constitutional patriotism is receding. I’ve concluded that hypocrisy of the Left is a huge factor. The Indian Left has always loved another country more than India. In their party conferences they’ve always had four portraits hanging in the backdrop. None of these are of Indian leaders. Two portraits are of dead German scholars and the other two are of Lenin and Stalin, the biggest mass murderers of the 20th century. They (the Left) can at least have one of Bhagat Singh.”
    Elaborating further, Guha, who earlier described PM Modi as authoritarian and fallible, went on to blame the Congress for ceding space to jingoists.
    “The second reason is the corruption of the Congress Party and how a great movement has now been reduced to one family. It’s shocking how Indira Gandhi, Congress and Sonia Gandhi named everything after their family. They even ceded a man like Lal Bahadur Shastri to the jingoists. When Rahul Gandhi campaigned in last UP elections, was Shastri mentioned?” asked Guha as he mercilessly dissected the emergence of what he called “BJP’s hyper-nationalism”.
    Guha’s European attribution to the form of nationalism practised by the BJP was rooted in three points—both forms of nationalism privilege one language, one religion and one common enemy.
    For the BJP, Hindutva is the one religion that must bind the nation, Hindi is the shared language and Pakistan is the common enemy every nationalist must concentrate their energies against.
    An interesting point Guha made was that Pakistan in the early 20th century adopted the European model of nationalism by adopting the Urdu language, the Islam and by being bound by a shared hatred for India, a model of nationalism rampant in 19th century Europe where the British hated the French and vice versa.
    “The European form of nationalism that was born in Pakistan long time back has reborn in India now. This nationalism is opposed to the constitutional patriotism which Mahatma Gandhi spoke of and promoted and in which there was no requirement for a patriot to owe allegiance to one language or religion or to even hate the British. Gandhi’s nationalism promoted diversity, ability to learn from other nations and courage to question the wrongs of the state,” Guha argued.
    To drive home his point he remembered to mention that Gandhi’s best friend, Charles Andrews, was an Englishman.
    Bhandare Award to Zakia Somen, Shayda Bano
    The 23th Justice Sunanda Bhandare Award was presented to Zakia Somen and Shayda Bano who fought to ultimately get a Supreme Court ruling against instant triple talaq. Present at the event were Justice Madan B Likud, Judge of the SC, and Justice Gita Mittal, Acting Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court.

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    See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/07/rama-personifiedf-dharma-evidences-for.html 



    Hanuman meets Sita. Parambanan. Indonesia.

    Here is the cover page of the book in French, together with a review in Italian. Th cover page contains a scene from the Sundara Kāṇḍa of  Rāmāyaṇa. In the study of the text Rāmāyaṇa. as itihāsa, is it necessary to date the event shown on the cover page while the contents of this particular French book contains articles about the use of colour in texts and contains anecdotes about archaeological stealth of museum materials. History unfolds while dealing with narratives handed down in history. Rāmāyaṇa is an ākhyāna as important as the other ākhyānas of dāśarājñá war (Battle of Ten Kings) described in the R̥gveda. Is it essential to argue about the historicism of the R̥gveda.as a text and argue further about the 'dating' of the events of this Battle of Ten Kings? What resources exist to arrive at a consensus on the 'dating' (which is a word with sexist connotations)?

    In this particular book, the historians seek to present the types of jewellery worn and an inquiry into the source materials used to produce exquisite colours of the illustrations. Is this a history book or not? Is this a fit subject matter for archaeological studies or not?


    I suppose an enquiry, veda, can take a variety of forms and still constitute itihāsa. In Bhāratīya tradition, both Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata are considered itihāsa. In a historical quest, is it necessary to arrive at a consensus on the dates of the events described in this itihāsa? I supose the polemical question is between historicism and darśana. These two textRāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata are itihāsa texts to protect dharma and hence, mandatory reading material for children of all ages, of all times and climes.


    See a related blogpost http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2017/11/western-philosophy-is-racist-bryan-w.html 

     


    S. Kalyanaraman

    Sarasvati Research Center

    Voir et concevoir la couleur en Asie

    Actes du colloque international des 11 et 12 janvier 2013, organisé par l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, la Société asiatique et l’INALCO.
    MM. Pierre-Sylvain Filliozat et Michel Zink éd.
    344 pages.100 illustrations.Parution : février 2016
    Prix : 35 € Reflecting on color requires the use of all the human and social sciences, not to mention the sciences of matter or nature. Reflecting on Asia, its languages, its literatures, its arts, its societies, its nations, its cultural universes does not fail to put the researcher before the shimmering colors, the proliferation of visions and the concepts that they proliferate. In front of the color one is receptive and creative. From a material reality, from a retinal sensation, civilizations make a work of art, a national symbol, a badge of social belonging, a language. The study of colors, their mutual influences, their names, their classifications, their destinations in use, is a powerful tool for characterizing entities of all kinds, a poet, an artist, an individual, a family, a people. It's always a revealer of originality... 
    http://www.aibl.fr/publications/actes-de-colloque/colloques-journees-d-etude/article/voir-et-concevoir-la-couleur-en-1782?lang=fr

    Read the book review by Maurizio Buora, Società friulana di archeologia (published: 2017-10-06)

    Bacqué-Grammont, Jean-Louis - Filliozat, Pierre-Sylvain - Zink, Michel : Voir et concevoir la couleur en Asie (Actes de colloques, 12). 16 x 24 cm, 324 p., ISBN : 978-2-87754-336-1, 35 €
    (Editions de Boccard, Paris 2016)
    Excerpts translated from Italian into Engligh (Google translate)


    The most interesting part, we believe, of the work is the seventy pages that form the Chapter IV, dedicated to the analysis of materials (pp. 99-172). A large space is dedicated to spoons (pp. 134-151), which in the number of 14 constitute almost half of the pieces considered. Of them only one (published here with No. 32) has an unmistakable Christian symbol.            Thanks to the very beautiful figures (183, of which very large, full-page) very clear with 6 tables, the part devoted in particular to the iconography is a reference text for many aspects of early Christian and late antique art in general. The analysis in some points extremely timely must in fact refer to what we know of the late-world. A name often used as a manufacturing center is Ravenna (eg, pp. 108-109) next to "Rome, or other Italic Institutional Center" (p. 122). Based on numerous studies, the A. excludes the Constantinopolitan manufacture of some pieces, such as the famous Meleagro dish, for which it proposes a Western origin "between Italy and Africa"​​during the VI secool (p. 121).
    ...
    The vast array of morphological, technical and iconographic comparisons makes this volume a sort of late-genre ornamentation encyclopaedia, very useful, even indispensable for anyone wishing to study the subject. The volume, therefore, must always be at the hands of those who deal with these issues.

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    It is possible that the orichalcum artifacts of Cyprus were from Meluhha artisans. The 'brass' ingots look similar to the ingots found in ancient India Bronze Age. Archaeometallurgical researchers are called for to hypothesise the provenience of the artifacts. (Brass is an alloy of coper PLUS zinc). Bhāratīya Zinc metallurgy of Bronze Age is renowned.

    I submit that while discussing orichalcum, the contributions of ancient India to zinc smelting through remarkably designed retorts should not be ignored. Zinc is an essential element in brass (orichalcum) called āra आर 1 [p= 149,2] n. brass BhP. x , 41 , 20 (Monier-Williams).
    Image result for history of zinc hindu chemistry pc rayZinc, fragment and sublimed 99.995%
    Image result for brass history of hindu chemistry pc ray
    Image result for zawar zinc smelters
    Image result for ancient brass hindu chemistry pc rayZinc smelters. Zawar mines. https://www.ancient-asia-journal.com/articles/10.5334/aa.06112/
    Image result for ancient brass hindu chemistry pc ray

    http://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/39-1/Yule.pdf Yule, Paul, 1997, Copper hoards of northern India, Expedition, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 22-32  "After Fig. 4. Metal hoard implements from Haryana, including harpoons, so-called bars, and flat axes. Chemical analyses prove these implements are made of copper, not bronze. Recent discoveries at sites in the doab are shedding light on the people who made these objects and aspects of their culture. See: 

     http://tinyurl.com/okw7xly

    See:

     http://tinyurl.com/p5nwea4

    39 ingots of mythical orichalcum found on shipwreck off the coast of SicilyGela shipwreck finds.


    In 1870, while tending cattle, two young boys in the village of Ghangaria in central India noticed a long metal object poking out of the ground. Grubbing at the spot revealed many more such pieces, and soon word of the find reached local officials. The discovery of this hoard, with over five hundred copper and silver antiquities weighing some 368 kilograms, added a new and tantalizing chapter to the little-known prehistory of India. Within a few decades the probable great antiquity of these “cherubs,” so called because local inhabitants commonly thought they fell from heaven during thun­derstorms, was confirmed. Since then, some 129 large and small hoards consisting of harpoons, flat axes, ingots, lanceheads, and swords have been reported, part­ly in the Indian Ganges-Yamuna Doab, the land between these two rivers (Figs. 1 and 2). In recent years, large numbers have also come to light a few kilometers to the west and southwest of Delhi. Additional hoards consist­ing of other kinds of metal artifacts have been found in the fringes and the eastern part of the Chota Nagpur uplands and in the northern hills of Orissa, both of which gradually extend into the plains of West Bengal.
    Although these mysterious hoard objects show some general resemblance to more readily dated metal artifacts outside of India from the 2nd millennium ac, unfortunately, none of the 1500 hoard artifacts have come from archaeological excavations that could be dated unequivocally. Over the years more copper weapons and tools have come to light in peasants’ fields, often during agricultural work, or sometimes in local scrap metal markets (Fig. 3). A lack of information on the geomorphology of the findspots hinders a determi­nation of whether these so-called gangaghati were, as their name implies, anciently deposited in the banks of streams or occurred in regular association with other particular features of the landscape.
    The Copper Hoards of Northern India -- Paul Yule 1977

    [quote] In West Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean early copper zinc alloys are now known in small numbers from a number of third millennium BC sites in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia and from 2nd Millennium BC sites in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq and Canaan.[43] However, isolated examples of copper-zinc alloys are known in China from as early as the 5th Millennium BC.[44]
    The compositions of these early "brass" objects are highly variable and most have zinc contents of between 5% and 15% wt which is lower than in brass produced by cementation.[45] These may be "natural alloys" manufactured by smelting zinc rich copper ores in redox conditions. Many have similar tin contents to contemporary bronze artefacts and it is possible that some copper-zinc alloys were accidental and perhaps not even distinguished from copper.[45] However the large number of copper-zinc alloys now known suggests that at least some were deliberately manufactured and many have zinc contents of more than 12% wt which would have resulted in a distinctive golden color.[45][46]
    By the 8th–7th century BC Assyrian cuneiform tablets mention the exploitation of the "copper of the mountains" and this may refer to "natural" brass.[47] "Oreikhalkon" (mountain copper),[48] the Ancient Greek translation of this term, was later adapted to the Latin aurichalcum meaning "golden copper" which became the standard term for brass.[49] In the 4th century BC Plato knew orichalkos as rare and nearly as valuable as gold[50] and Pliny describes how aurichalcum had come from Cypriot ore deposits which had been exhausted by the 1st century AD.[51] X-ray fluorescence analysis of 39 orichalcum ingots recovered from a 2,600-year-old shipwreck off Sicily found them to be an alloy made with 75–80 percent copper, 15–20 percent zinc and small percentages of nickel, lead and iron.[52][53][unquote] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brass See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orichalcum
    Kalyanaraman
    Some of the orichalcum ingots and the two Corinthian helmets found near a 2,600-year-old shipwreck off the coast of Sicily.

    More Orichalcum, the Atlantis Alloy, Turns Up with Helmets at a Sicilian Shipwreck, What Was its Use?


    Researchers have recovered yet more ingots, possibly of the fabled metal orichalcum, from a ship that sank off the coast of Sicily around 2,600 years ago. The find has led some to ponder whether the mythical island of Atlantis, where the legendary alloy was supposed to have been created, was real. The shipwreck, however, dates to about seven millennia later than the legend of Atlantis.
    In 2015, researchers diving near the shipwreck found 39 ingots of a copper, zinc, and charcoal alloy that resembles brass. They believe it may be the ancient metal orichalcum. The new cache of the same metal consists of 47 ingots.
    Some of the orichalcum ingots found near a 2,600-year-old shipwreck off the coast of Sicily.
    Some of the orichalcum ingots found near a 2,600-year-old shipwreck off the coast of Sicily. (Superintendency of the Sea, Sicily)
    While the metal is rare, it is not as precious as researchers expected from reading ancient Greek philosopher Plato’s description of it in the Critias dialogue. Plato said only gold was a more precious substance than orichalcum.
    Plato said only gold was a more precious substance than orichalcum. Here are two of the recently discovered ingots.
    Plato said only gold was a more precious substance than orichalcum. Here are two of the recently discovered ingots. (Sebastiano Tusa/ Superintendency of the Sea, Sicily)
    Several ancient thinkers mention the alloy in writings - as far back as Hesiod in the 8th century BC. Until 2015, the metal had never been found in any appreciable quantities, says an articleabout the find on Seeker.com. Scholars have debated the origin and composition of orichalcum for a long time.
    The shipwreck was found near two others about 1,000 feet (305 meters) off the coast of the Sicilian city of Gela. The wrecks were submerged in about 10 feet (3 meters) of water. Researchers think the ship went down in a storm, while close to the port.
    Underwater archaeologists and some of the other artifacts found at the site.
    Underwater archaeologists and some of the other artifacts found at the site. (Superintendency of the Sea, Sicily)
    "The waters there are a priceless mine of archaeological finds," Adriana Fresina told Seeker.com. She works with archaeologist Sebastiano Tusa, Sicily’s superintendent of the seas.
    Greek myth says Cadmus, a Phoenician and the first king of Thebes, invented orichalcum.
    Cadmus, the Greek mythological figure who is said to have created orichalcum.
    Cadmus, the Greek mythological figure who is said to have created orichalcum. (Public Domain)
    Christos Djonis wrote an article for Ancient Origins in 2015 about the find of the 39 ingots and said of a news reports at that time:
    “… unfortunately, none of the stories exposed anything new on Atlantis, or on the ‘mystical’ ore, as one reporter called it. Essentially, every editorial capitalized on repeating the same familiar story, raising the usual questions, and sadly arriving at the same past conclusions. Nothing new! As for the particular freight, most reporters connected it to Atlantis, as if Atlantis was around during the Bronze Age (thus, misleading everyone not so familiar with the story) and ignoring the fact that according to Plato, the story of Atlantis took place around 9,600 BC.”
    Artist’s representation of Atlantis.
    Artist’s representation of Atlantis. (Source: BigStockPhoto)
    Djonis writes that the orichalcum cargo likely originated on Cyprus, another island in the Mediterranean. Every known alloy containing copper has been produced, including orichalcum, on Cyprus since the 4th millennium BC.
    Plato wrote that orichalcum covered the walls, columns and floors of Poseidon’s temple. He wrote the only metal that surpassed it in value was gold. "The outermost wall was coated with brass, the second with tin, and the third, which was the wall of the citadel, flashed with the red light of orichalcum," Plato wrote. Poseidon’s laws were also inscribed onto a pillar of orichalcum, according to Plato.
    The city of Gela on Sicily was rich and had many workshops that produced fine objects. Researchers believe the orichalcum pieces were en route to those workshops for use in decorations and fashion objects.
    Altogether, the researchers have discovered 47 new ingots of varying sizes and shapes.
    Altogether, the researchers have discovered 47 new ingots of varying sizes and shapes. (Sebastiano Tusa, Soprintendenza del Mare-Regione Sicilia)
    Apart from this metal, the shipwreck also yielded two bronze Corinthian helmets.
    “The presence of helmets and weapons aboard ships is rather common. They were used against pirate incursions,” Tusa told Seeker.com. “Another hypothesis is that they were meant to be an offer to the gods.”
    The Corinthian helmets.
    Tusa and his colleagues are still at work on the shipwreck and expect to recover more cargo.
    Top Image: Some of the orichalcum ingots and the two Corinthian helmets found near a 2,600-year-old shipwreck off the coast of Sicily. Source: Superintendency of the Sea, Sicily
    By Mark Miller
    http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/more-orichalcum-atlantis-alloy-turns-helmets-sicilian-shipwreck-what-was-021254?nopaging=1

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    Current Anthropology Volume 58, Supplement 17, December 2017

    Environments and Cultural Change in the Indian Subcontinent Implications for the Dispersal of Homo sapiens in the Late Pleistocene by James Blinkhorn and Michael D. Petraglia

    The Indian subcontinent lies on a key east-west corridor for hominin expansions across Asia, which has led to it playing a prominent role in debate surrounding the dispersal of modern humans. The current geography and ecology of the region consists of a diverse array of habitats. An examination of changes in monsoonal intensity indicates that geographic reconfiguration of ecological diversity occurred, but at a regional level, South Asia is shown to provide suitable environments for hominin occupations throughout the Late Pleistocene. Unfortunately, the fossil record of South Asia remains poor, preventing decisive resolution of modern human dispersal debates. However, in the past decade new interdisciplinary approaches to the archaeological record have overhauled the framework for understanding behavioral change during the Late Pleistocene. While the nature of the Late Acheulean to Middle Paleolithic transition remains to be resolved, it is now clear that it appears significantly later than in other Old World regions and may coincide with the expansion of modern humans across Asia. Mounting evidence supports a gradual rather than abrupt transition from Middle to Late Paleolithic technologies, which does not easily reconcile with arguments for the introduction of microlithic tool kits by the earliest expansions of modern humans.

    http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/693462

    Human Colonization of Asia in the Late Pleistocene: Wenner-Gren Symposium Supplement 17

    Danilyn Rutherford is President of the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (470 Park Avenue South, 8th Floor, New York, New York 10016, USA [



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    I suggest that the symbols on coins discussed in Numismatic studies cited below as related to 'Vasudhara' can also be interpreted in the Indus Script hypertext tradition of wealth-creation metalwork documentation of wealth accounting ledgers.

    Pair of fish

    dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' (R̥gveda)

    Dotted circle

    dāya 'dotted circle, one on dice' PLUS vr̥tta, vaṭṭa 'circle'  rebus: vaṭa 'string'; thus together rebus: dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelter'

    Elephant

    karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'

    Damaru (shape)

    vajra 'thunderbolt weapon'

    Triangle-headed standard

    sangaḍa 'lathe, portable furnace' rebus: vajra sanghāta 'adamantine metallic glue'

    Pellets

     गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'round pebbles, stones' rebus: गोटी [ gōṭī ] 'A lump of silver' 

    Goddess

    kola 'woman' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelter'

    Thus, I suggest that the symbols on the coins together with the 'goddess with a pair of fish' are Indus Script hypertexts documenting the wealth-creating activities of metalsmiths in mints and guilds.

    See: https://www.academia.edu/11484143/Icon_and_Identity_A_Numismatic_Enquiry_into_Early_Indian_Terracotta_Figurines_the_case_of_Vasudhara_ Shailen Bhandare, Icon and Identity: A Numismatic Enquiry into Early Indian Terracotta Figurines – the case of ‘Vasudhara’ cites:
    Three specimens of this coin from Karur, Tamilnadu (Nagaswamy, 1995, Roman Karur, Brihad Prakashan, Madras: 35-36).


    Kushana gold dinar. British Museum. River god ‘Oaksho’ (Skt. Vakshu – the river Oxus). He holds a fish in his hand.Hisnameiswritten exergue. Shailendra Bhandare sees the fish as an indicator of the fertility of the river and hence the significance of two fishes in the hands of a river goddess while Oaksho holds only one fish.

    Coin of city-state of Tripuri. British Museum. Pair of fish on string. Shailen Bhandare sees this as a counter-marking device.

    Fish-holding Vasudhara.West Malwa (Ujjain) coin.
    Fish-holding goddess. Narmada valley.
    Diestruck Vidarbha coin. Obv. Elephant marches to right with upright arrow on its back. Rev. goddess with a pair of fish on her hand.


    Vidarbha. Copper punch-marked coin. The punches are: ‘fish-holding’ goddess, nandipada, elephant, Ujjain symbol (dotted circle) and a composite symbol consisting of a damaru and a triangle-headed standard. Ca. 2nd to 1st cent. BCE. Goddess holds the ish in her partially outstretched right hand, the left hand resting on her hip.

    Ujjain, anonymous AE 1/8 karshapana, 'fish-holding Vasudhara'
    Weight: 1.00 gm., Diameter: 8x8 mm.
    Standing goddess Vasudhara holding a pair of fish with her outstretched
         right, left hand akimbo.; standard on right.
    Ujjain symbol with extra circle in field.
    Reference: Pieper 295 (plate coin) 
    The fish-holding goddess is known on coins and sculptural objects from Malwa, Vidarbha, Mathura, Kausambi and elsewhere and has been identified as Vasudhara, a goddess of wealth and auspiciousness.  Like Lakshmi she was popular among traders and others who searched protection and promotion for their diverse activities. Handa emphasizes the symbolic importance of the pair of fish "as one of the eight mangalika-chihnas 'auspicious signs' in literature".
    Central India, AE 1/8 karshapana, 'fish-holding Vasudhara'
    Weight: 1.17 gm., Diameter: 11x8 mm.
    Standing goddess Vasudhara holding a pair of fish with her outstretched
         right, left hand akimbo; her hair is pinned up (as if wearing a vessel on
         her head; two crescent-like devices on the left.
    Tree
    Reference: Pieper 453 (plate coin)

    http://coinindia.com/galleries-ujjain2.html Indus Script hypertextkuṭi 'tree' rebus kuṭhi 'smelter' 

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    Mahābhārata is a sacred text of Bhāratīya paramparā; Mahābhārata is not a mere tale of heroic deeds; nor is it a mere chronicle of rājadharma. 

    The sacredness of the text is embellished by the narrative of Gaṇeśa as the scribe who documented the narratives.
    Image result for ganesa scribe
    A young Lord Gaṇeśa writing with his broken tusk at a stone-carver's workshop in Bali.
    Image result for ganesa scribe
    Sculptural frieze.Angkor Wat. Gaṇeśa as the scribe of Kr̥ṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa's narrative. (Vyāsa, dark-skinned kavi, born in an island in Ganga river)

    It is a text which, together with the Veda and Rāmāyaṇa, defines ātmā, of millions of people for millennia. 

    The text constitutes the weltanschauung, enshrining the principles of life and sensations of Bhāratīya culture and Itihāsa.

    The text has narratives, ākhyāna,or nārāśamsa on dharma. The narratives are elucidations provided to every student, every citizen, of a cosmic-consciousness order for 1. abhyudayam, 'general welfare' and 2. nihśreyas, 'moving from being to becoming' in ādhyātmikā and turīya levels of knowledge systems transcending ādibhautika and ādidaivika levels of life experiences.

    The knowledge, results of enquiry, starting with the Veda, as the pramāṇa, is conveyed through -ख्यान [p= 129,2] n. telling , communication Pa1n2. Kap. Katha1s. &c; the communication of a previous event (in a drama) Sa1h.; a tale, story, legend S3Br. Nir. Pa1n2. &c;  नाराशंस [p= 537,2] n. a tale or legend in honour of liberal men L.mf(/)n. (fr. न्/अरा-श्/अंस) relating to the praise of a man or men , laudatory, eulogistic (as a hymn , tale &c TS. Br. Ya1jn5. &c; relating or sacred to अग्नि नरा-श्/अंस (applied to the सोम RV. ; to a ऋच् TBr. &c); पुराण a[p= 635,1] n. a thing or event of the past , an ancient tale or legend , old traditional history. AV. &c; N. of a class of sacred works (supposed to have been compiled by the poet व्यास and to treat of 5 topics [cf. पञ्च-लक्षण] ; the chief पुराणs are 18 , grouped in 3 divisions: viz. 1. राजस exalting ब्रह्मा [e.g. the ब्रह्म , ब्रह्मा*ण्ड , ब्रह्मवैवर्त , मार्कण्डेय , भविष्य , वामन] ; 2. सात्त्विकexalting विष्णु [e.g. the विष्णु , भागवत , नारदीय , गरुड , पद्म , वराह] ; 3. तामस exalting शिव [e.g. the शिव , लिङ्ग , स्कन्द , अग्नि or in place of it the वायुमत्स्य , कूर्म] ; by some the पद्म are divided into 4 , and by others into 6 groups ; cf. IW. 509 &c ); इति-हा* स b [p= 165,2] m. (इति-ह-आस , " so indeed it was "), talk, legend, tradition, history, traditional accounts of former events, heroic history S3Br. MBh. Mn. &c; प्रमाण [p= 685,3] a means of acquiring प्रमा or certain knowledge (6 in the वेदा*न्त , viz. प्रत्यक्ष , perception by the senses ; अनुमान , inference ; उपमान , analogy or comparison ; शब्द or आप्त-वचन , verbal authority , revelation ; अन्-ुपलब्धि or अभाव-प्रत्यक्ष , non-perception or negative proof ; अर्था*पत्ति , inference from circumstances ; the न्याय admits only 4 , excluding the last two ; the सांख्य only 3 , viz. प्रत्यक्ष , अनुमान and शब्द ; other schools increase the number to 9 by adding सम्भव , equivalence ; ऐतिह्य , tradition or fallible testimony ; and चेष्टा , gesture IW. 60 &c &c )(Monier-Williams) 

    'Myth embodies the nearest approach to absolute truth that can be stated in words,' says Ananda Coomaraswamy. This means that leaving aside the polemics of Mahābhārata as a narrative of myths, the truth of events -- as 'falsifiable' statements, hence, valid research hypotheses -- described in the Mahābhārata as a basic resource document of Itihāsa should be realized using the methodologial disciplines available to students and researchers. 

    History is simply one of the many integrating disciplines available to a student of civilization studies -- combining elements to form a connected, logically argued narrative together with raison d'etre of events as they unfolded.

    A few such disciplines beyond history as resources for Itihāsa are: archaeology, archaeometallurgy, anthropology, genetics, geology, hydrology, tectonics, (earth sciences in general), astronomy, art history, ancient inscriptions, ancient coins, ancient texts (or even study of colour in ancient paintings on mss).  

    Such resources should help 'date' and underscore the fact that Mahābhārata events are central to a narrative of progress of Bhāratīya civilization, Bhāratīya Arthaśāstra Itihāsa over millennia

    See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2017/11/form-and-function-of-history-books-voir.html 


    The inter-disciplinary challenge is to relate these sources to narrate Bhāratīya Arthaśāstra Itihāsa, from, say, 4th millennium BCE. Texts themselves are subjected to evaluation of multile manuscripts resulting in the publication of 'critical' editions, for e.g. the Mahābhārata mss. 

    While the Mahābhārata mss. (there exist about 235 Mss. of the ādiparvan, notes Sukthankar) repeatedly cite skymaps in relation to events of the times, there are disagreements among scholars on interpretations of the texts and the reliability of attempts to replicate ancient astronomical observations using modern day tools such as Planetarium Software. Such disagreements have resulted in a number of suggested 'dates' of Mahābhārata events which range from 30-31 January 5560 BCE, 22 November3067 BCE,  to 26 October, 1478 BCE (http://ignca.nic.in/nl002503.htm)

    This situation of disagreements is unsatisfactory from a 6th or 7th grade student's point of view when presented in school textbooks. The disagreements have to be reconciled and a consensus view presented to the school teachers and school students. 

    Assuming that Mahābhārata contains grains of historical 'truth', how to reconcile these widely divergent opinions/analyses based on astronomical excursus? Maybe, the students have to be told that since there is disagreement about the 'dating' of Mahābhārata events, it is reasonable to relate the events to a time period related to the history of Vedic Sarasvati River -- the river basin is the locale for Mahābhārata events--; and that the history of the river can be narrated with the help of inter-disciplinary knowledge systems.

    The disagreements are mainly related to 'meanings' assigned to 'astronomical' indicators contained in specific texts. This means that astronomers and philologists have to get together to discuss the contentious issue further. Ved Vyas' 1986 book Approach to dating the Mahabharata war): a tabulation of date results from about 120 scholars wherein 67 scholars have suggested a date prior to 3000 B.C.E, with 63 of them in the range 3100-3000 B.C.E. 
    Image result for 3037 mahabharata war skymap
    Skymap as interpreted reconstruction of textual narratives by Narahari Achar

    That this date of this (4th millennium BCE) skymap is consistent with about 150 astronomical indicators of the Mahābhārata text is a non-trivial, but profound insight provided by Prof. Narahari Achar who has deployed planetaria software which validate the manual computations of Prof. Srinivasa Raghavan of Vivekananda College. 

    The purport of this note is NOT to review and re-evaluate the reasons for divergences of upto 2 to 4 millennia in suggested dates (this is best left to the astronomers themselves to sort out and arrive at a consensus on the 'meanings' of astronomical indicators in ancient texts).

    The objective is to present perspectives derived from other disciplines to 'date' (sorry for the term which has semantically evolved with sexist connotations in presend-day cultural parlance) -- Mahābhārata events. 

    Are the results of 'digs' more reliable than the results of 'skymaps'? As the saying goes, different folks, different strokes.

    How do we present Bhāratīya Arthaśāstra Itihāsa to 6th or 7th grade students, with particular reference to Mahābhārata as an Itihāsa text? 

    Is the issue related to 'historicism' vs. 'darśana'; a quasi-scientific, philosophical-cultural enquiry as posited in Vishwa Adluri and Joydeep Bagchee in their path-breaking Nay Science thesis? 


    Cover for   The Nay Science

    The Nay Science, A History of German Indology, Vishwa Adluri and Joydeep Bagchee (2014), OUP 
    Or, is the issue related to some acadeemics governed by racism? See: Western philosophy is racist http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2017/11/western-philosophy-is-racist-bryan-w.html Or, governed by orientalism (pace Edward W. Said, 1978)?
    -- Re-writing Copper-hoard culture, plate tectonics, pralaya, 'flood', Mahābhārata events, role of Vedic River Sarasvati in Bhāratīya Arthaśāstra Itihāsa

    An art history, archaeological excursus

    --Copper-hoard culture, bhangar alluvium, Sri Balarāma's 42-day pariyātra, dates of Mahābhārata events relate to plate tectonics, Vedic River Sarasvati in full flow

    Ancient  Itihāsa narratives include Manu's statement  of a great flood that destroyed everything on earth. Is Noah's ark of a similar flood a proto-historical event? [Old Testament (Genesis 6-9)]
     

    Principal Harappan sites. Ganga-Yamuna doab (Source: http://asi.nic.in/pdf_data/HULAS_EXCAVATIONS_REPORT.pdf ) "Recently thermoluminiscent tests on the Ochre-Coloured Ware sherds have provided a long time bracket (c. 2650-1180 BCE) to this culture...The age of the Copper-hoard is difficult to assign." (pp.19-20 of the Hulas Excavation Report).
    A view of the ancient mound at Hulas. In many Copper-hoard sites, the deeper sediments beyong 1200 BCE stratigraphic level signify upto 200 metres of flood-silt deposits (bhangar alluvium, as distinct from khadar, 'new alluvium') indicating the possibility of massive floodings in ancient times. Bhangar is dark coloured, rich in concretions and nodules of impure calcium carbonate known as kankar and is generally above the flood level. Is it possible to reconstruct the chronology of Manu's flood, the pralaya event? pralaya m. ʻ dissolution, destruction of the world ʼ ChUp. [√2Pk. palaya -- m. ʻ destruction ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) pr*lg ʻ silt left in field by irrigation water, water in flooded field ʼ (< *pralayaka -- or + udaká -- ?).(CDIAL 8755) pralayḥ

    प्रलयः 1 Destruction, annihilation, dissolution; स्थानानि किं हिमवतः प्रलयं गतानि Bh.3.7,69; प्रलयं नीत्वा Si.11.66. 'causing to disappear'. -2 The destruction of the whole universe (at the end of a kalpa), universal destruction; Ku.2.8; अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलय- स्तथा Bg.7.6. -3 Any extensive destruction or devastation. (Apte) 
    பிரளயம் piraḷayam n. < pra-laya
    . 1. 
     End of a Kalpa when the destruction of the world occurs; கற்பமுடிவு. (கூர்மபு. பிராகிருத. 1.) 2. Dissolution, destruction, annihilation; அழிவு. 3. Flood, inundation; வெள்ளம். (பிங்.) 
    Image result for copper hoard bahadarabad
    Sites of Copper-hoard culture including Hastināpura.

    Please take a look at the following excerpts taken from an excellent presentation (video of 42 mins.) made in March 2017 by Megh Kalyanasundaram and Manogna Shastry in a conference. 

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJSsEA6fpJE Purva Paka of Pollock's use of Chronology - Megh K & Manogna S


    They claim to have found, in the critical edition of Mahābhārata text, atleast 70+ references to the river Sarasvati, atleast 20+ references (screenshots of 2 examples from their presentation follow later in this post) as evidence about river Sarasvati’s vitality (that is, references that seem to point to the possibility that not only was Sarasvati not-completely-dried, but also of it flowing with "frightening speed"). 

    Image result for river sutlej 90 degree turn
    A reconstruction by ISRO of Ancient Sarasvati River channels. Sri Balarāma's 42-day pariyātra from Prabhaāsa (Somnath) through Kurukṣetra to Plakṣapraśravaṇa (Himalayan glacier source, perhaps near Har-ki-dun,Rupin-Supin glaciers) along the south bank of the flowing river is described in great detail in Mahābhārata. See: https://nileshoak.wordpress.com/2014/02/20/did-balarama-travel-to-dried-sarasvati-at-the-time-of-the-mahabharata-war/ Tirthasthāna-s visited by Sri Balarāma were Sarasvati River ghats. He also visits the sacred Plakṣapraśravaṇa in the hills (Himalayas). Nowhere is there a mention of any dry stretches; all references are to a flowing river excepting for a reference to Vinaśana where the river channel disappears (goes underground) and reappears (an apparent reference to the tectonic upheavals which created many diversions in the palaeo-channels caused by land uplifts/subsidences, due to earthquakes and bheda (forks), as noticed near Anupgarh (where one channel flows southwards to Jaisalmer and another flows westwards to Ganweriwala). There are two references to bheda-s on the river: Camaso bheda, Nagod bheda. The 90-degree diversion of Sutlej (a tributary joining Sarasvati at Ropar) is an indicator of an earthquake of ca. 2500 BCE which caused the migration of Sutlej flows westwards.
    Image result for river sutlej 90 degree turn