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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Tracing back through the mists of time into the periods prior to 8th millennium BCE, it is possible to realize the significance of Tri-dhātu Gaṇeśa venerated from the days of R̥gveda. Veneration of Ganesha dates back to Rigvedic times (See RV 2.23 sukta gaṇānāṃ tvā gaṇapatiṃ havāmahe kaviṃ kavīnām upamaśravastamam -- with translation appended). In the tradition of Bharatam Janam, gana are related to kharva, dwarfs as part of Kubera's nidhi; rebus: karba 'iron'. See: 

    Gaṇeś https://www.academia.edu/s/32bd84b1b4


    Mahāvināyaka, Tri-dhātu Gaṇeśa in Gardez; śabda-sphoṭa 'meaning of pratimā'karba, ib 'iron worker', phaḍa'फड 'manufactory in-charge, guild, public officer, scribe with iron stylus' (ib 'elephant' rebus; ib 'needle, writing stylus', ib 'iron')'.

    Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313) phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c.


    Rebus: 
    फड‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or  (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस

    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 

    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 

    फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 


    गणे*  a[p= 343,2] m. (= °ण-नाथN. of the god of wisdom and of obstacles (son of शिव and पार्वती , or according to one legend of पार्वती alone ; though गणे* causes obstacles he also removes them ; hence he is invoked at the commencement of all undertakings and at the opening of all compositions with the words नमो गणे*शाय विघ्ने*श्वराय ; he is represented as a short fat man with a protuberant belly , frequently riding on a rat or attended by one , and to denote his sagacity has the head of an elephant , which however has only one tusk ; the appellation गणे* , with other similar compounds , alludes to his office as chief of the various classes of subordinate gods , who are regarded as शिव's attendants ; cf. RTL. pp. 48 , 62 , 79 , 392 , 440 ; he is said to have written down the MBh. as dictated by व्यास MBh. i , 74 ff. ; persons possessed , by गणे* are referred to Ya1jn5. i , 270 ff.).

    Hypertexts on the Gardez pratimā of Gaṇeśa and additional hieroglyphs.hypertexts on other images are:

    1. cobra hood
    2. membrum virile
    3. elephant head
    4. mouse
    5. broken rusk
    6. dance step

    Rebus readings of the hypertexts relate their significance to iron-metal work:

    1. फडphaḍa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons' 

    2. lo 'membrum virile' rebus: loh 'copper'
    3. karibha, ibha'elephant' rebus: karba, ib'iron'ib 'needle' (writing stylus) ibbo'merchant' 
    4. मूष mūṣa [p= 827,2] rat, mouse Rebus: मूष mūṣa [p= 827,2] a crucible Ma1rkP. Kull. L.
    5. दन्त danta [p= 468,2] an elephant's tusk , ivory MBh. R. &c Rebus: dhatu'mineral ore'
    6. meḍ 'dance-step' Rebus; mẽṛhẽt, me 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.).med'copper' (Slavic) (cf. Candi-Sukuh Gaṇeśa) 

    Ib 'elephant' rebus: ib 'needle', rebus: ib 'iron' is a rendering in hypertext of the iron stylus used by Gaṇeśa as a scribe of Mahābhārata Epic.

    Candi-Sukuh Gaṇeśa is shown in a dance-step, in the context of smelting, forging of sword by Bhima and by the bellows-blower Arjuna. The building in the background is a smelter/forge.

    The association of Gaṇeśa with iron-working gives him the name tri-dhātu'three minerals' wich are:
    goṭa'laterite, ferrite ore'poḷa'magnetite, ferrite ore'bicha'haemtite, ferrite ore'. These three ferrite ores are signified by the hieroglyphs: goṭa 'round pebble stone' poḷa 'zebu, dewlap, honeycomb'bica'scorpion'.

    Gaṇeśa is signified as part of Marut गण[p= 343,1] troops or classes of inferior deities (especially certain troops of demi-gods considered as शिव's attendants and under the special superintendence of the god गणे* ; cf. देवताMn. Ya1jn5. Lalit. &c;  m. a flock , troop , multitude , number , tribe , series , class (of animate or inanimate beings) , body of followers or attendants RV. AV. &c
    Image result for kailasanatha maruts
    Marut-gaṇa including Gaṇeśa on a sculptural panel.Kailasanatha Temple,Kanchipuram.
    [quote] Hindu Shahi Rule 

    The Shahi dynasties ruled portions of the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (NE Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and NW India), known as Kabul-shahan, with twin capitals at Kapisa and Kabu, from the aftermath of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century CE to the early 9th century.

    The term Shahi was a popular royal title in Afghanistan — used at various times by Achaemenids, Bactrians, Sakas, Kushan rulers and Huns (Hephthalites), as well as by the 6th- to 8th-century Shahi rulers of Kapisa/Kabul.

    Historians divide the Shahi Period of Kabul/Gandhara into two eras: the so-called Buddhist Turk-Shahis (before 870 AD), and the so-called Hindu-Shahis (after 870 AD).

    Despite numerous references to the Shahis as decendents of the Kushans or Western Turks, the Shahi rulers of Kabul/Kapisa almost certainly descended from the warrior caste known as Ashvakas (the word from which, several scholars contend, the term "Afghan" is derived) who for many centuries dwelt in the region known as Kambojas on the northern and southern sides of the Hindu Kush range.


    Hooded snake on sacred thread.
    I suggest that the glyphics on the sacred thread and on the garment worn on the sculpture signify cobra-hoods. Cobra hoods are clearly seen on the following sculpture, on the left shoulder of .Gaṇeśa. These cobra-hoods are also comparable to the glyphics shown on Sanchi sculptural frieze.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood daimabadCobra hoods arching over membrum virile of charioteer. Daimabad.

    फडphaḍa,  'cobra hood' rebus: फडphaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'lo 'membrum virile' rebus: loh'copper'

    Image result for serpent hoods sanchiSouthern pillar, East Torana. Sanchi. Cobra hoods.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood sanchiSanchi. Sculptural frieze. Cobra hoods.
    Image result for serpent hoods sanchi
    A 5th century marble Ganesha found in Gardez, Afghanistan, now at Dargah Pir Rattan Nath, Kabul. The inscription says that this "great and beautiful image of Mahāvināyaka" was consecrated by the Shahi King Singal. For details of inscription cf. Dhavalikar, M. K., "Gaņeśa: Myth and Reality", in: Robert Brown, 1991, Ganesh: Studies of an Asian God, SUNY Press, NY,pp. 55, 63. Dhavalikar ascribes the quick ascension of Ganesha in the Hindu pantheon, and the emergence of the Ganapatyas, to this shift in emphasis from vighnakartā (obstacle-creator) to vighnahartā (obstacle-averter). (Ibid., p. 49)
    For statement that "Fifty-nine manuscripts of the Ādiparvan were consulted for the reconstruction of the critical edition. The story of Gaṇeśa acting as the scribe for writing the Mahābhārata occurs in 37 manuscripts", see: Krishan, Yuvraj (1999), Gaņeśa: Unravelling An Enigma, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p.3, note 4 loc. cit. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganesha
    Omkara: the creation of Ganesha

    NANDITHA KRISHNA

    GANESHA is probably the most loved God of modern Hinduism. He is omniscient and all pervading. His form arouses intense devotion and brings a smile of joy. Ganesha is invoked at the beginning of any endeavour, when one embarks on any task, for he is the fountainhead of knowledge and the remover of obstacles. Accompanied by his vehicle the mouse and with his huge paunch, his rotund figure and his elephantine head, He bestows prosperity, knowledge and progeny, and brings success and salvation.

    Ganesha is invoked before any prayer or ritual. Nothing auspicious can take place without Him. A child begins his education with a prayer to Ganesha’; every marriage ceremony starts with a prayer to Him. Whether one is laying the foundation stone of the building or starting an industry or inaugurating something, Ganesha is invoked to remove all obstacles on one’s path. Many Ganesha images under trees, on lonely roads and mountain paths, are a comfort for travellers who stop and pray to this God. From birth to death, a Hindu invokes Ganesha at every ceremony.

    It is believed that the present Universe was created and the present age Shweta-varaha-kalpa dawned when Ganesha appeared ‘dancing in great abandon, blowing the conch, through which the sound of the Om emanated’ to recreate a new world after the pralaya, the great deluge.
    Ganesha’s popularity cuts across cults, castes, sects and even creeds; in several parts of India it is common to perform a prayer to Ganesha before commencing any business and actively participate in his birth festivities.

    Many artists have painted and sculpted their vision of Ganesha. However, it is not the qualities of the God that have attracted them, but his figure: the voluminous elephant head and pot belly, the small, sharp eyes and short legs, the whole presenting a study in contrast, made rich by embellishment.
    He is addressed in hymns and prayers by many names – sometimes eight, sometimes twelve, sometimes sixteen and sometimes thirty two. Most popularly, he is called Ganapati or Ganesha, lord of the ganas or host of spirits; Gajanana, the one with the face of an elephant; Vakratunda, of the twisted trunk; Ekadanta, having but one tusk; Lambodara, one with a fat belly; Vikata, of the monstrous figure; Vighnaraja and Vighneshwara, the remover of obstacles; Vighnaharta, the destroyer of obstacles; Vinayaka, lord of heroes; and Sumukha, of the auspicious and pleasant visage. The Tamils have their own special name for him – Pillaiyâr, the revered and noble son. Whatever the name by which He is addressed, his devotees depend upon Him for removing obstacles and granting success in all their endeavours.

    The earliest reference to Ganapati as the Lord of the ganas is in the Rig Veda (before 3000 BCE),1 where it is an epithet of Brihaspati2 and Indra,3 who are addressed as the Lord of the ganas. However, there is no indication whether that Ganapati had an elephant head. The Taittiriya Aranyaka (around 1500 BCE) refers to Dantin (the tusker) with the twisted trunk (vaktratunda) who holds a sheaf of corn, sugarcane and a club.4 This is Ganesha as we know him. Ganas are small hardy spirits, like yakshas. Ganesha as the lord of ganas was the lord of the spirit world whom he kept in check as Vigneshwara, who overcomes obstacles. The root gana means to count and Ganapati could be the lord of countless ones, the countless spirits that troubled the ancient world. The name Dantin was probably the original name of Ganesha because in the languages of South India, where he is very popular, he is called Pillaiyâr, which is not unlike the words pallu and pella which mean teeth, while in Pali, pillaka means a young elephant.

    It is believed that Ganesha was the scribe to whom Sage Vyasa dictated the Mahabharata. Ganesha agreed to the request that he should take it down, but on the condition that Vyasa should dictate it without a pause. Vyasa agreed but said Ganesha should understand every word and thought and its implications before writing it down. Whenever Ganesha had completed writing, Vyasa would dictate a verse with very complex meanings so that Ganesha could ponder over it and he would get time to compose the next stanzas. Ganesha wrote the epic, the longest epic in the world, using his broken tusk as a quill or pen.5 
    It is interesting that this legend is the earliest known form of the elephant-headed figure. Excavations carried out in Luristan (western Iran) revealed a plaque containing an elephant-headed figure dressed as a warrior, holding a sword and snake in one hand, a quill in another. The trident is to one side and at his feet is a snake. The figure also appears to be bearded, a sign of great wisdom (as in the rishis of India, the magi of Persia, etc.) The quill too was a symbol of learning and knowledge. This plaque has been dated to between 1200 and 1000 BCE6 (fig.1). The resemblance to Ganesha is remarkable: Ganesha is a scribe; he was born holding a trident, which is also an attribute of his father, Lord Shiva; the snake is tied around his waist or protects him.
    Afghanistan had several Ganesha figures. The earliest is probably one from Sakar Dhar (formerly Shankar Dhar), North of Kabul, where Ganesha wears a yajnopavita(sacred thread) made of a snake (fig.2). The left tusk is broken and his two lower arms rest on two curly haired ganas, not unlike the ayudha purushas of the Gupta temples at Deogarh. Another early Ganesha figure from Afghanistan was a Maha-Vinayaka at Gardez (fig.3). The figure was later removed to the dargah Pir Rattan Nath at Kabul where it was worshipped by local Hindus. There is an inscription saying that, ‘This great and beautiful Maha Vinayaka was consecrated by the renowned Shahi King, the illustrious Shahi Khingala.’7 
    The Mânavgrihyasûtra (500 BCE) describes four folk deities, the Vinayakas. The Yâjnavâlkyasmriti (300 to 500 CE) reduces them to one Vinayaka, son of Ambika (Parvati) who is appointed leader of the ganas and worshipped as Ganesha. Animal-headed figures are found in Indian folk traditions before they were adopted by Vedic Hinduism.
    Ganesha was born when the divine couple Shiva and Parvati contemplated on the pranava mantra (cosmic sound) Aum (Om). That is why Ganesha is called Omkara and worshipped first. His body also lends itself to the figure Om (fig. 4).
    Ganesha as we know him today developed in the Puranic period, with the rise in importance of the Ganapatya cult. In fact, so total was his absorption that by the seventh century CE, Adi Shankara, the great philosopher, included the worship of Ganapati as one of the six systems (shanmata) of Hindu religion.

    The absorption of Ganesha was achieved through legends and stories in the various Puranas, which refer to the miraculous birth of Ganesha, especially the miracles by which he acquired the elephant head.

    A popular one is that he was created by Parvati while going for her bath, out of the dust and oil on her body. She asked him to guard the entrance while she was having her bath. Shiva came to visit Parvati and was refused entry. In anger, Shiva cut off Ganesha’s head. Parvathi was so grief-stricken that Shiva sent his ganas or hordes to bring the head of a being with its head facing the north, as it signified wisdom. The ganas brought the head of an elephant. Shiva fixed it on to Ganesha and thus was born the elephant-headed God.8 
    There are many other legends relating to Ganesha. One narrates how Ganesha was Shiva’s maanasika putra, born out of his mind. He was a beautiful and radiant child. But Parvati was angry that he was born without her intervention, and willed that the head should turn into an elephant. But she fell in love with the boy when she saw him and stated that no enterprise would succeed without a prayer to him.9 In the Nepalese tradition, Ganesha is self-manifested or swayambhu, who became visible in the rays of the sun, hence he is called Surya vinayaka.10
    Another legend tells us how Parvati underwent severe penance to have a child and as a result Ganesha appeared in her chamber. He was so beautiful that she invited the nine planets to greet him. But, when Shani (Saturn) looked at Ganesha, his head got separated from his body. Shani’s jealous wife had laid a curse that anyone he looked at with admiration would be destroyed. Witnessing Parvati’s grief, Vishnu brought the head of an elephant (actually a Gandharva, a celestial being, who thus got released from his earthly life) and attached it to Ganesha.11

    There is the much-loved story of how Ganesha won the coveted fruit of knowledge and immortality from his parents. One day, as Shiva and Parvati were playing with their two sons Ganesha and Kartikeya, they took a divine fruit (some stories call it a ball of sweet) and told the boys that it contained the nectar of supreme knowledge and immortality and, since both of them wanted it, the one who circled the world three times and came back first would get it as a prize. Kartikeya got on to his peacock vehicle and flew away. Ganesha knew that he could never beat Kartikeya in speed. In his wisdom, he recognized that Shiva and Parvati were the Universe itself; he walked around them three times, with great devotion. When his parents asked him why he was not circling the globe, he answered that his parents – Shiva and Parvati – were the whole world. Naturally, he won the fruit. This story illustrates the wisdom of the elephant-headed god.12
    Yet another story is about Ganesha and the moon. The moon laughed at Ganesha as he was riding home on his mouse after feasting heavily on modaka (a sweet he loved). The mouse tripped on a snake and Ganesha fell. His stomach burst open and the sweets spilled out. As Ganesha picked up the snake and tied it around his broken waistline, the moon laughed. He was so angry with the moon that he threw his broken tusk at him and cursed that he would never shine. When appealed to by the gods, he relented saying that the moon would wax and wane instead, every fortnight. Since the moon aroused Ganesha’s ire, it is not considered lucky to see the moon on Ganesh Chaturthi day.13

    The appearance of the river Cauvery is also associated with Ganesha in a local folktale in Karnataka. Sage Agastya came down South after obtaining water in his kamandala (vessel used for holding water for worship). He called out to a boy (Ganesha in disguise) passing by and asked him to hold the vessel while he went to search for a spot from where the river could flow. Ganesha left the vessel in an ideal spot he had chosen. A crow upset it and a river began to flow from that place – the Talakaveri in Coorg.

    According to South Indian tradition, during his war with Gajamukha-sura, the demon with a face of an elephant, Ganesha broke his right tusk, threw it at the demon, and cursed him to change into a rat. Then he got on to the back of the mouse and made it his vehicle, thereby keeping the demon under his control.14 However, the GaneshaPurana has another story which is more plausible: rats were devouring the grains, clothes and books in the hermitage of Sage Parashara, who became desperate. To help the sage, Ganesha caught the rat with his noose and made it his mount.15

    In South Indian tradition, Ganesha is a god who has remained single, for he seeks a consort who can equal his mother Parvati in beauty and perfection. In the North, he has two wives – Siddhi (achievement) and Buddhi (wisdom) or Riddhi (prosperity). They were the daughters of Vishwaroopa. This marriage symbolizes the importance of wisdom and success in removing obstacles. The case of his brother Kartikkeya, the other son of Shiva and Parvati, is the reverse: Kartikkeya has two wives in the South while he is a bachelor in the North. Obviously, the marital status of the two brothers has been confused.
    The Ganesha icon may be a tiny cone made of turmeric powder mixed with water and placed on a betel leaf. Or it may be a natural stone or tree trunk with a vague resemblance to an elephant’s head. Or it may be any object that is covered with sindoor (vermillion) and worshipped as Ganesha. He may be placed beneath a tree or on a wall, or enthroned in a huge temple. There is no Hindu deity as accommodating as Ganapati (fig. 5).
    An enthroned male figure with an elephant’s head on a round silver coin of the Indo-Greek King Hermeus (50 BCE) could be a Ganesha, although there is no inscription to identify the figure. An elephant-eared figure on a coping at Amaravati (200 CE) beneath a long garland held up by ganas, now in the British Museum, London, could be another. At Mihintale in Sri Lanka, he appears as a two-armed figure on a frieze in the Kantaka Cetinga Stupa (1st-2nd century CE.) (fig. 6).
    Early Ganesha figures belonging to the 3rd to 5th centuries are found in North India, before and during the Gupta period, as in Fatehgarh (fig. 7), Mathura (fig. 8), and Deogarh (fig. 9), Uttar Pradesh; Udayagiri, Bhumara and Ramgarh, Madhya Pradesh; Samalaji in Gujarat (fig. 10). Early Ganeshas are generally two-armed and placed at the temple doorway, so that devotees may pay obeisance before entering.
    In the South, Ganesha first appears as a two-armed figure in the 6th century cave temple at Badami (fig. 11), a two-armed figure dipping into a bowl of ladoos (sweets). It is also in the Chalukyan temple at Aihole that Ganesha’s association with the Saptamatrikas first appears (fig. 12), an association that has lasted till today in village shrines all over central and southern India. In fact, the early Chalukyas of Central India probably promoted the worship of Ganesha. The Ganesh image of the Vatapi (modern Badami) temple was much coveted and later carried away by the Pallavas. Vatapi Ganapati is still the subject of several poems and classical Carnatic music compositions in all the southern languages. This is understandable since he was an agricultural god who blessed the sugarcane harvest, and sugarcane has been a major produce of the Deccan plateau.
    In the Chalukyan cave temple at Badami appeared the first dancing Ganesha, carried away by the magnificence of his father Shiva’s tandava (fig. 13). The later Cholas of Thanjavur took the dancing Ganesha to great heights (fig. 14), but it was in Orissa that the Nritta Ganapati reached artistic perfection (fig. 15).
    The worship of Ganesha reached its height in Maharashtra. The Ashta Vinayak (fig. 16) – Mayureshwar, Chintamani, Mahaganapati, Siddhivinayak, Vighneshwar, Girijatmak, Balleshwar and Varadvinayak – are all situated in villages around Pune, the seat of Shivaji, the Peshwas and Maharashtrian culture, which travelled around the Deccan during the Maratha period.

    Ganesha holds a sheaf of corn, sugarcane and club, according to the Taittiriya Aranyaka. Later, the axe and moolaka (a bulbous radish-like root eaten by elephants) were included. As a God of the Deccan farmers, he holds a sugarcane, a modaka (a sweet offering of the harvest) or a sweet ladoo and his broken tusk, which could also have agricultural associations in its resemblance to the plough.
    He also holds an elephant goad (to prod man on the path of righteousness) and a noose (to convey that worldly attachments are a noose). The axe is one of the weapons he wields for destroying demons and vanquishing evil. However, giving the elephant-headed God the goad and the noose is dramatic irony, for these are the tools used to torture, subjugate and tame the elephant.

    The mouse is his vehicle, for Ganesha was a god of harvest and was revered by farmers to protect their fields from rodents. There are several Puranic stories of how the animal came to be Ganesha’s vehicle. But whatever the story, the purpose of making the rat his vehicle was to keep the animal, whose nuisance value is high, under his control.
    The snake is also associated with the icon of Ganesha, either as a sacred thread or wrapped around the stomach as a belt, hung around the neck or held in his hand, coiled at his feet or canopying him from above.
    The earliest elephant-headed figure in Ceylon is the gana carved on the Kantaka Cettinga stupa near Mihintale. Ganesha was sculpted on the Shiva temple at Polonnaruva, the ancient capital. The Tamils are generally Hindus and Shaivites, whose temples have any number of Pillaiyars.

    The happy dancing Ganesha became a violent Tantric figure in Nepal, where the mouse vehicle is replaced by Shakti’s lion as Ganesha’s vehicle. A popular figure in Mahayana Buddhism, Ganesha’s sculptures are found in Tibet and Nepal where, says a local legend, Ashoka’s daughter Charumati built a temple in his honour. Ganapatihridaya is a mantra which, the Nepalese believe, was taught to Ananda by the Buddha at Rajagriha. The earliest Ganeshas in Nepal belong to the eighth century. Vinayaka dances, a rat or lion under each foot, multi-armed, carrying several Tantric symbols including a radish, and is canopied by the snake. This form is also found in Mongolia, where Ganesha was taken by the Tibetan monk P’agspa. In Tibet, Ganesha is placed above the entrance of Buddhist monasteries or painted on the doors. In these countries he often holds the trident and is identified with Shiva. Today, the five-headed Heramba and the snake-hooded form are the most popular forms in Nepal.

    Ganesha was once very popular in Khotan (Chinese Turkestan), painted on wooden panels and bronze tablets at Khaklik, the Endere stupa and rock-cut temples of Bezaklik. Here too the God holds a radish, and is sometimes dressed in a tiger skin, reinforcing his identification with Shiva. Importantly, his head was framed by a halo, establishing his divinity.
    From Khotan, Ganesha reached China fairly early. The earliest Chinese image of Ganesha is found at Kunghsien, a two-armed seated figure holding a lotus and the chintamani (jewel). Dated on the basis of inscriptional evidence to 531 CE, this figure is the earliest dated image of Ganesha who is described as the ‘Spirit King of Elephants’. In a fresco found in the Tunhuang rock-cut caves, Ganesha is painted in the company of the Sun, Moon and the Navagrahas.
    The Chinese and Japanese knew two forms of Ganesha: Vinayaka and Kangiten, the latter being a secret esoteric form of the deity. Derived from Tantric cults of Adi Buddha and Maha Vairochana, it was founded on the union of the Individual with the Universal Spirit. Kangiten consists of two Vinayakas embracing each other. The Chinese emperor Chen Tsung banned the worship of Kangten, but the cult continued in Japan where it was introduced by the Buddhist Kolso Daishi. Another form, Vajra Vinayaka or Kakuzencho, had three heads with three eyes like Trimukha Shiva, holding a sword, radish, sceptre and modaka. The Japanese Vinayaka, known as the King of Elephants, smiled and laughed and often sat on mountains.

    In the Gupta period (circa fourth to sixth centuries), Ganesha travelled East – to Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and Borneo – with Hinduism and Buddhism. Many of the figures are distinctly different, with straight long trunks and three eyes, an attribute transferred from Shiva. In Burma, where several Hindu deities are worshipped in Buddhist pagodas, Ganesha was the Remover of Obstacles, better known as Mahapienne. A remarkable four-armed Ganesha from Pagan holds an axe, rosary and conch, seated Buddha-style in padmasana on a pedestal made up of a crocodile, tortoise and fish. Several figures were found in lower Burma, where Ganesha’s ability to remove obstacles was essential for local seafarers and where the immigrant Indian population revered him.

    In Thailand, the Hindu Mon dynasty built several Ganesha temples. The early Ayuthia Ganeshas are beautiful figures. In the Hindu temple of Bangkok, Ganesha uses his broken tusk as a stylus while his left hand holds a manuscript. His reputation as a scribe had travelled to Thailand with the God and the epic Mahabharata.
    The Hindu Khmer kingdom of Cambodia abounds with figures of Ganesha, with a reference to the God in an inscription of 611 CE. Vinayaka is generally two-armed and wears a snake yajnopavita. Champa (Laos) was a stronghold of Shaivism, resulting in several Ganesha images. Ganesha had three deep-set eyes like his father, and a cranial protrusion or ushnisha like the Buddha.

    Shaivism was the dominant religion of ancient Indonesia. Although there was no separate cult of Ganesha, his skull-bedecked images decorate Shiva temples, the earliest dating to the sixth century. He is the guardian of river crossings in Java. Java and Bali saw a proliferation of Ganesha images. In the Hindu island of Bali, Ganesha became very popular in the 8th-9th centuries. Most Balinese Ganeshas are standing, with a third eye. In Djembaran in South Bali, Ganesha is seated on a throne surrounded by flames, like the Shigon Fudo fire spirits who took care of royalty after their death.

    A Ganesha image of the 5th century was found at a cave at Kombeng in Borneo. Influenced by images of the Buddha, some images have an urna or protuberance between the eyes.


    In the last hundred years, the Indian diaspora has taken this deity all over the world in every conceivable avatar. The variety of Ganeshes is a testimony to the fact that he is one deity who can be moulded to fulfil the imagination of the artist and devotee. He is the most up to date God, playing cricket with the Indian team, sending rockets to the moon or exploding nuclear devices at Pokharan. Or being a good son and brother, removing obstacles from the path of his devotees and conferring hope and wisdom on the upwardly mobile Indian.

    How did Ganesha become the remover of obstacles, his most important quality? The elephant is the remover of obstacles in the forest. He cuts through the dense undergrowth, creating pathways for man and animal alike. Thus he removes obstacles. He digs holes in the ground, in search of water, creating ponds which hold rainwater and are waterholes for the entire animal population. The Deccan plateau is dependent on rainwater harvesting for its water needs. Thus he is a facilitator who provides water. He controls the rodent population, which is the farmer’s greatest enemy. All these attributes of the elephant contributed to making the elephant-headed Ganesha into Vighneshwara, the remover of obstacles.

    The elephant, the world’s largest mammal, huge and powerful yet gentle and herbivorous, is associated with wisdom, memory and longevity. He is the ultimate protector, the preventer of mishaps and is a much loved animal. No wonder he is deified.

    The sugarcane in his hand represents an important agricultural product. With the combination of the respected elephant figure, the festival was one of ancient India’s methods of using religion to conserve the ecology. But Ganesha also has an ecological message. The Deccan has always been dependant on rainfall, which was collected in man-made lakes, artificial tanks and wells. Every year, the lakes and tanks were desilted during the summer months. This had a dual advantage: they were well maintained, while the landless were given employment during the non-agricultural period. The clay left on the tank beds and outside the wells was used to make the Ganeshas, with eyes made of seeds of the Indian coral (Erythrina indica) tree. Traditionally, the clay Ganesha was never baked.


    After the festival, the Ganesha images were immersed in the local lake, river, tank or well. Being unbaked, the clay would soften and dissolve, becoming one with the well, tank or river bed. The whole cycle was renewed the following year.

    The popularity and public celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi – the birthday of Ganesha – was due to the personal effort of Lokamanya Balgangadhar Tilak who, in 1893, utilized the festival to speak out against British rule in India. He brought the deity out of the house and made him the focus of a community celebration and a socio-religious movement that was to shake the foundations of the British Empire, uniting Maharashtrians of all castes and hues. There it stayed till, in recent years, it has become a community festival all over India, with large community Ganeshas that have kindled the imagination of its creators and sponsors.

    In recent times, the community worship of Ganesha has spread all over the country, particularly in the southern states where Ganesha is a popular deity. Today’s Ganeshas are baked, made with plaster of Paris, sometimes even strengthened with cement and RCC. Even an innocuous material like baked clay is eco-unfriendly. When these Ganeshas are immersed in water, they do not dissolve, and we see the ugly and painful sight of Ganeshas hacked to pieces. Worse, toxic paints are used to decorate them. The water is polluted and becomes a toxic hazard. In many places these are the only sources of drinking water. Lokamanya Tilak would not have approved.


    Organizers of Ganesh mandalis must not make a beautiful festival into an ecological hazard. Ganesha is a celebration of agriculture, water conservation and India’s wildlife. We need to remind ourselves of this sacred tradition even while we celebrate the Ganesha festival.


    * Unless stated otherwise, the source for much of this article is the book Ganesha...The Auspicious...The Beginning by Shakunthala Jagannathan and Nanditha Krishna. Vakil & Sons, Mumbai, 1992.


    Endnotes:


    1. The dating is based on recent scientific data proving that the Sarasvati, described as a great river in the Rig Veda, had dried up by 2500 BCE.

    2. Rig Veda, II, 23, 1 ganaanaam tvaa ganapatim havaamahe.

    3. Ibid, X, 112, 9.

    4. Taittiriya Aranyaka, X,1,5; Maitrayani Samhita, II, 9, 1.

    5. Mahabharata, Adiparva, 5-15. This attribute appears in the northern recensions only.

    6. H. Heras, The Problem of Ganapati, frontispiece.

    7. Shakunthala Jagannathan and Nanditha Krishna, Ganesha...The Auspicious... The Beginning, Mumbai, 1992, p. 55.

    8. Siva Purana, 2.4.chapters 13-49.

    9. Skanda Purana.

    10. A. Getty, Ganesa, New Delhi, 1979.

    11. Brahmavaivarta Purana, 3, Ganesha khânda, 12.

    12. Siva Purana, 2.3 & 4; Padma Purana, 1 (Shrishthikhânda), 65.

    13. Brahmavaivarta Purana. Puranic Encyclopaedia, Delhi, 1975.

    14. Kalyana (Ganesa Anka), Gorakhpur, 1974, p. 180.


    Figure 1: Elephant-headed figure from Luristan, western Iran, 1000 BCE. Was this the scribe of the Mahabharata?
    Figure 2: Four armed Ganesha, Shankar Dhar, Afghanistan, 4th century CE.
    Figure 3: Four armed Mahavinayaka, Gardez, Afghanistan, 5th-6th century CE.

    Figure 4: Ganesha as the primordial sound or pranava mantra OM.
    Figure 5: Ganesha under the Pipal tree.
    Figure 6: Ganesha as head of ganas, Mihintale stupa, Sri Lanka, 2nd-3rd century CE.

    Figure 7: Ganesha in bas relief, Fatehgarh, Uttar Pradesh, 3rd century CE.
    Figure 8: Ganesh, Mathura, 5th century CE.

    Figure 9: Ganesha, Deogarh, Madhya Pradesh, 5th century CE.

    Figure 10: Ganesha, Samalaji, Gujarat, 5th century CE.

    Figure 11: Ganesh, Badami, Karnataka, 6th-7th Century CE.

    Figure 12: Ganesha with Saptamatrikas, Aihole, Karnataka, 8th century CE.


    Figure 13: Ganesha with dancing Shiva, Badami, Karnataka, 6th-7th century CE.
    Figure 14: Dancing Ganesha, Gangaikonda-cholapuram, Tamil Nadu, 11th century CE.

    Figure 15: A patachitra painting of dancing Ganesha, Orissa, contemporary painting.


    Figure 16: Ashta Vinayaka, Maharashtra.


    Note on the cobra hoods of Daimabad chariot 


    Four hoods of cobra arch over membrum virile. Hypertext expression reads: lo gaṇḍa phain Rebus plaintext readings : 1. phai lokhaṇḍa, 'tin or lead foil,metalware,metal implements market (pun on the word pai, 'market'); 2.  lokhaṇḍa pae (pai) 'metal implements production,metals quarry'. Thus, the charioteer is described to be a paikkan, 'a metals workers, a master metallurgical artificer'.  Alternative: mēṇḍhra -- m. ʻ penis ʼ(Samskritam)(CDIAL 9606) rebus: मृदु mdu, mht, me 'iron' me 'iron, metal' (Ho.Mu.) Alternative: reinforcement of semantics for upraised penis, for lobhar̥kanu  'rise of penis' (N.)(CDIAL 9365) rebus: bha 'furnace, smelter'  Thus, an alternative plain text is: bhaa  phai lokhaṇḍa 'furnace (for) tin or lead foil, metal implements'.


    Curved stick held in his right hand: मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c.) rebus: मृदु mdu, mẽht, me'iron' me'iron, metal' (Ho.Mu.)


    Ta. paṇṭi cart, waggon, carriage; vaṇṭi id., cartload; vaṇṭil cart, carriage, bandy, wheel; pāṇṭi cart with a top, bullock cart; pāṇṭil two-wheeled cart, horse-drawn chariotMa.vaṇṭi, vaṇṭil wheel, cart, bandy. Ko. vaṇḍy cart. To. poy bullock-cart. Ka. baṇḍi bandy, cart, carriage, wheel. Tu. baṇḍi, bhaṇḍi cart. Te. baṇḍi carriage, cart, any wheeled conveyance. Kol. baṇḍi bullock-cart for freight. Ga. (P. S.&super2;) bani cart. Kuwi (Su. Isr.) baṇḍi id. / Skt. (Hem. U. 608) Or. baṇḍi. Ultimately from Skt. bhāṇḍa- goods, wares, as carrying these; for an IE etymology for bhāṇḍa-,(DEDR 50)

    Hieroglyph: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS pōlau, 'black drongo' rebus: pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian), fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto).पोलाद [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) bulad 'steel, flint and steel for making fire' (Amharic); fUlAd 'steel' (Arabic).

    Hieroglyph: कोला (p. 105) kōlā m (Commonly कोल्हा) A jackal. For compounds see under कोल्हे. कोल्हा (p. 105) kōlhā m A jackal, Canis aureus. Linn. कोल्हें (p. 105) kōlhē n A jackal. Without reference to sex. Pr. अडलेंकोल्हेंमंगळगाय Even the yelling jackal can sing pleasantly when he is in distress. कोल्हें Ta. kol working in iron, lacksmith; kolla blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l 
    smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi 
    blacksmith (Gowda) kolla id. Ko. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi 
    (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133)

    Hieroglyph: barad, 'bullock': balivárda (balīv° ŚBr.) m. ʻ ox, bull ʼ TBr., balivanda- m. Kāh., barivarda -- m. lex. [Poss. a cmpd. of balín -- (cf. *balilla -- ) and a non -- Aryan word for ʻ ox ʼ (cf. esp. Nahālī baddī and poss. IA. forms like Sik. ō ʻ bull < *pāḍḍa -- : EWA ii 419 with lit.)]Pa. balivadda -- m. ʻ ox ʼ, Pk. balĭ̄vadda -- , balidda -- , baladda -- m. (cf. balaya -- m. < *balaka -- ?); L. baledā, mult. baled m. ʻ herd of bullocks ʼ ( S. aledo m.); P. bald,baldhbalhd m. ʻ ox ʼ, baledbaledā m. ʻ herd of oxen ʼ, ludh. bahldbalēd m. ʻ ox ʼ; Ku. balad m. ʻ ox ʼ, gng. bald, N. (Tarai) barad, A. balad(h), B. balad, Or. baada, Bi.barad(h), Mth. barad (hyper -- hindiism baad), Bhoj. baradh, Aw.lakh. bardhu, H. baladbarad(h), bardhā m. (whence baladnā ʻ to bull a cow ʼ), G. baad m. balivardin -- .Addenda: balivárda -- [Cf. Ap. valivaṇḍa -- ʻ mighty ʼ, OP. balavaṇḍā]: WPah.kc. bɔḷəd m., kg. bɔḷd m. (LNH 30 bŏd), J. bald m., Garh. bada ʻ bullock ʼ.(CDIAL 9176) Rebus: भरत (p. 353bharata n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.;  भरती (p. 353bharatī a Composed of the metal भरत.; भरताचेंभांडें (p. 353bharatācē mbhāṇḍē n A vessel made of the metal भरत. (Marathi) 


    karukku-pai embossed work (Ma.)(DEDR 1280) Ka. pae ground that is worked, tillage, quarry; paṇṇeya, paya farm, landed estate. Tu. (B-K.) pae quarry. (DEDR 3891) Ta. pa service, work, business, employment, decoration; pai act, action, performance, work, service, decoration; paati workmanship, action, creation, ornament; paiti work, structure, ornament; paikka master-builder, carpenter; paikkam, paikku accuracy of design, elaboration in a work; painar servants; papu action, deed; paṇṇu (paṇṇi-) to make, effect, produce, adorn; paṉṉu (paṉṉi-) to do anything with consideration and skill. Ma. pai work, labour, service, building, exertion; paikkan workman, artificer; paiyuka to build; paiyan a caste of cultivators in hilly districts; game-trackers, living chiefly in Wynad; paṇṇuka, paṇṇikka vb. denoting coitus (obscene). Ko. paynman of a caste  at Gudalur in Wynad; fem. pac; ? pa anvil. To. poy work. Ka. paṇṇu to make ready, prepare, equip, decorate; paṇṇika, paṇṇige, paṇṇuge arranging, making ready, equipping. Ko. pai work. Tu. paipuni to give a shape (e.g. to a vessel). Te. pani work, labour, act, deed, workmanship, art; (inscr.) pai work; pannu to contrive, plan, design, invent; (K. also) be ready, make ready; (K. also) n. suitability. Kol. (SR.) pannī work, labour. Nk. pani work. Pa. panp- (pant-) to make, do. Ga. (Oll.) pan- to be able. Go. (LSI, Kōi) pai, (Grigson) paī, (Ko.) pai work (Voc. 2092); pan- (G.) to build (house), (Mu.) to make, build, repair, (Ma.) to make, construct; (L.) pandānā to make, repair (Voc. 2093). Kona pand- (-it-) to prepare, construct, devise, plan; pai work(DEDR 3884)


    gaṇḍa set of four (Santali); rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar, furnace' (Santali) rebus: ṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi) खंडा [ khaṇḍā ] m A sort of sword. It is straight and twoedged. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended. खांडाईत [khāṇḍāītaa Armed with the sword called खांडा. (Marathi)


    PLUS phain 'cobra hood' rebus: phai 'tin or lead foil'.


    Hieroglyph: lo 'penis' Go<luGguj>(Z) [lUGguy']  {NB} ``male ^genitals, ^penis, ^scrotum''.(Munda etyma) loe 'penis' (Ho.) Rebus: loh 'copper, iron, metal' (Indian sprachbund, Meluhha) लोह [p= 908,3]mfn. (prob. fr. a √ रुह् for a lost √ रुध् , " to be red " ; cf. रोहि , रोहिण &c ) red , reddish , copper-coloured S3rS. MBh.made of copper S3Br. (Sch.)made of iron Kaus3.m. n. red metal , copper VS. &c


    Hieroglyph: ``^penis'':So. laj(R)  ~ lij  ~ la'a'j  ~ laJ/ laj  ~ kaD `penis'.Sa. li'j`penis, esp. of small boys'.

    Sa. lO'j `penis'.Mu. lOe'j  ~ lOGgE'j`penis'.  ! lO'jHo loe `penis'.Ku. la:j`penis'.@(C289) ``^penis'':

    Sa. lOj `penis'.Mu. lOj `penis'.KW lOj@(M084) <lO?Oj>(D),,<AlAj>(L)//<lAj>(DL)  {N} ``^penis''.  #43901.

     <ului>(P),,<uluj>(MP)  {NB} ``^penis, male organ, male^genitals''.  Cf. <kOlOb>(P),<susu>(M) `testicle'; <kuLij>(M), <kuRij>(P) `vulva'.  *Sa., MuN<lO'j>, MuH, Ho<lo'e>,So.<laj-An>, U.Tem.<lo'> ??. %33271.  #33031.So<lO?Oj>(D),,<AlAj>(L)//<lAj>(DL)  {N} ``^penis''.

    <lohosua>(D)  {NI} ``^dance''.  #20141. 


    Hieroglyph: फणि 1 [p= 716,1] m. a serpent (only gen. pl. फण्/ईनाम्Suparn2.; 

    in comp. for फणिन् m. " hooded " , a serpent esp. Coluber नागKa1v. Katha1s. 
    Pur.  phain ʻ hooded (of snake, esp. cobra) ʼ Kathās. [phaá -- 1] Pk. phai -- m. ʻ snake ʼ; P. phaī ʻ flat -- headed (of snake) ʼ; A. phanī ʻ snake ʼ; Or. phaī ʻ hooded ʼ, sb. ʻ snake ʼ; H. phanī ʻ hooded ʼ; G. phaī m. ʻ snake ʼ, Si. paiya.(CDIAL 9046) phaa1 m. ʻ expanded hood of snake (esp. of cobra) ʼ MBh. 2. *phēa -- 2. [Cf. phaa -- , *phēṭṭa -- 2 and *phaati2. -- For mng. ʻshoulder -- blade ʼ&c. cf. association of shape in phaāphalaka -- Bhartr̥. ~ asaphalaká -- ŚBr. and cf. phēna -- n. ʻ cuttlefish bone ʼ Car.] 1. Pa. phaa -- m. ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ, Pk. phaa -- m., °ā -- f.; Wg. pa -- šī ʻ big snake ʼ (+šai ʻ head ʼ? NTS xvii 287); K. phan m. ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ, S. phai f., L.awā. pha, P. pha°u f., ludh. phan m., WPah. (Joshi) fa m., Ku. pha°i, N. phani, A. phanā, B. phan°nā, Or. phaā̆, Mth. phanā, Bhoj. phan, H. phan°nā m., G. phe (< *phai), phaī f., M. pha m., °ī f., Si. paapea. -- S. phai f. ʻshoulderblade ʼ; H. phanī f. ʻ wedge ʼ; G. phaṇɔ m. ʻ fore part of foot ʼ. 2. A. phenā ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ, Or. pheā̆. phain -- , phaakara -- .phaá -- ʻ froth ʼ see phāita -- .Addenda: phaa -- 1: S.kcch. pha f. ʻ snake's hood, front part of foot ʼ, phaī f. ʻ weaver's toothed instrument for pressing and closing the woof ʼ; WPah.kg. phɔ́ m. ʻ cobra's hood ʼ; Garh. pha ʻ snake's hood ʼ. (CDIAL 9042)  phaṇakara m. ʻ cobra ʼ lex. [Cf. phaṇākara -- , phaṇa- dhara -- , phaṇādh° m. lex. -- phaṇa -- 1, kará -- 1]L. phaniar m., P. phanyar m., WPah. (Joshi) fanā'r m. (all with n, not ?).Addenda: phaṇakara -- : WPah.kṭg. phɔ́ṇər m. ʻ cobra ʼ, J. fanā'r m. (kṭg. phɔ́ṇir m. poss. ← P. Him.I 127). (CDIAL 9043)

    Rebus 1: tin or metal foil: फणिन् [p= 716,2] n. (prob.) tin or lead Ka1lac.  panī f. ʻ tinfoil ʼ(Sindhi); P. pannā m. ʻ leaf, page ʼ, pannī f. ʻ gilt leather ʼ; H. pān m. ʻ leaf ʼ, pannā m. ʻ leaf, page ʼ, pannī f. ʻ metal foil, grass for thatching ʼ; G. pānũ n. ʻ blade ʼ(CDIAL 7918) prāmāika ʻ founded on authority ʼ Dāyabh., m. ʻ chief of a trade ʼ W. [pramāa-- ] B. pānīinpāin a surname?  (CDIAL 8949)

    Rebus 2: पणि [p= 580,2] a market L.; N. of a class of envious demons watching over treasures RV. (esp. x , 108AV. S3Br.; m. a bargainer , miser , niggard (esp. one who is sparing of sacrificial oblations) RV. AV.
    Rebus: <loha>(BD)  {NI} ``^iron''.  Syn. <luaG>(D).  *@.  #20131)  laúha -- ʻ made of copper or iron ʼ Gr̥Śr., ʻ red ʼ MBh., n. ʻ iron, metal ʼ Bhaṭṭ. [lōhá -- ] Pk. lōha -- ʻ made of iron ʼ; L. lohā ʻ iron -- coloured, reddish ʼ; P. lohā ʻ reddish -- brown (of cattle) ʼ.lōhá 11158 lōhá ʻ red, copper -- coloured ʼŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ] Pa. lōha -- m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻ iron ʼ, Gy. pal. li°lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻ steel ʼ; Kho.loh ʻcopper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awā. ˋā, P. lohā m. ( K.rām. o. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pā. jaun. lōh, pa. luhā, cur. cam.lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu°hā, A. lo, B. lono, Or. lohāluhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. lohlohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho ʻmetal, ore, iron ʼ; Md.ratu -- lō ʻcopper ʼ.WPah.kg. (kc.) ɔ ʻ iron ʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md.  ʻ metal ʼ. (CDIAL 11172).


    lōhakāra m. ʻiron -- worker ʼ, °rī -- f., °raka -- m. lex., lauhakāra -- m. Hit. [lōhá -- , kāra -- 1]Pa. lōhakāra -- m. ʻcoppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra -- m. ʻblacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awā. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaa, Bi.Bhoj. Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohārluh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻcoppersmith ʼ.WPah.kg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻblacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻhis wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m. (CDIAL 11159).lōhaghaa 11160 *lōhaghaa ʻiron pot ʼ. [lōhá-- , ghaa -- 1]Bi. lohrā°rī ʻsmall iron pan ʼ.*lōhaphāla -- ʻploughshare ʼ. [lōhá-- , phāˊla -- 1]WPah.kg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl m. ʻan agricultural implement ʼ Him.I 197; -- or < *lōhahala -- .(CDIAL 11160) lōhala ʻmade of iron ʼW. [lōhá -- ]G. loharlohariyɔ m. ʻselfwilled and unyielding man ʼ.(CDIAL 11161).*lōhaśālā ʻsmithy ʼ. [lōhá-- , śāˊlā -- ]Bi. lohsārī ʻsmithy ʼ. (CDIAL 11162).lōhahaṭṭika 11163 *lōhahaṭṭika ʻironmonger ʼ. [lōhá-- , haṭṭa -- ] P.ludh. lōhiyā m. ʻironmonger ʼ.*lōhahala -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá-- , halá -- ]WPah.kg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl ʻan agricultural instrument ʼ; rather < *lōhaphāla -- .(CDIAL 11163).


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    https://tinyurl.com/y7a26nhe

    Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or  (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 

    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस

    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 

    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 

    फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 

    Image result for gardez ganeshaCloth worn onGaṇeśa pratimā, Gardez, Afghanistan. Hieroglyph: படம்¹ paṭam , n. < paṭa. 1. Cloth for wear; சீலை. (பிங்.) மாப்பட நூலின் றொகுதிக் காண் டலின் (ஞானா. 14, 21). 2. Painted or printed cloth; சித்திரச்சீலை. (பிங்.) இப்படத்தெழுது ஞான வாவி (காசிக. கலாவ. 2). 3. Coat, jacket; சட்டை. படம்புக்கு (பெரும்பாண். 69). 4. Upper garment, cloak; போர்வை. வனப்பகட்டைப் பட மாக வுரித்தாய் (தேவா. 32, 7). 5. Body; உடல். படங்கொடு நின்றவிப் பல்லுயிர் (திருமந். 2768).

    Hieroglyph: படம் paṭam, n. < pada. Instep; பாதத் தின் முற்பகுதி. படங்குந்திநிற்றல் (சூடா. 9, 53).

    फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Instep venerated. Amaravati sculptural friezes. Skambha with ayo khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metals mint, coiner, coinage'.
    Image result for composite animal bharatkalyan97Image result for composite animal indus scriptA truly fascinating paper by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale on composite Indus creatures and their meaning: Harappa Chimaeras as 'Symbolic Hypertexts'. Some Thoughts on Plato, Chimaera and the Indus Civilization at a.harappa.com/... 

    The classifier is the cobra hood: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    On this seal, the key is only 'combination of animals'. This is an example of metonymy of a special type called synecdoche. Synecdoche, wherein a specific part of something is used to refer to the whole, or the whole to a specific part, usually is understood as a specific kind of metonymy. Three animal heads are ligatured to the body of a 'bull'; the word associated with the animal is the intended message.
    The ciphertext of this composite animal is to be decrypted by rendering the sounds associated with the animals in the combination: ox, young bull, antelope. The rebus readings are decrypted with metalwork categories: barad 'ox' rebus: bharat 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'; kondh ‘young bull’ rebus: kũdā‘turner, brass-worker, engraver (writer)’; ranku 'antelope' rebus: ranku 'tin'.      
    Mohenjo-daro. Sealing.  Surrounded by fishes, lizard and snakes, a horned person sits in 'yoga' on a throne with hoofed legs. One side of a triangular terracotta amulet (Md 013); surface find at Mohenjo-daro in 1936, Dept. of Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. [seated person penance, crocodile?] 

    The classifier is the cobra hood: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Brief memoranda: kamaḍha ‘penance’ Rebus: kammaṭa ‘mint, coiner’; kaṇḍo ‘stool, seat’ Rebus: kāṇḍa  ‘metalware’ kaṇḍa  ‘fire-altar’.

    kāru 'crocodile' Rebus: kāru 'artisan'; khar'blacksmith'
    Hieroglyphs (allographs): 
    kamaḍha 'penance' (Prakriam) 
    kamḍa, khamḍa 'copulation' (Santali)

    kamaṭha crab (Skt.)

    kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.)  kamat.ha = fig leaf, religiosa (Sanskrit) 

    kamaḍha = ficus religiosa (Sanskrit)
    kamāṭhiyo = archer; kāmaṭhum = a bow; kāmaḍ, kāmaḍum = a chip of bamboo (G.) kāmaṭhiyo a bowman; an archer (Sanskrit) 
    Rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Ta.) kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.)  kamaṭa = portable furnace for melting precious metals (Telugu); kampaṭṭam = mint (Tamil)
    eraka 'upraised arm' rebus: eraka 'moltencast copper' arka 'gold'.

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 louvre serpent
    able ornée de serpents et de divinités aux eaux jaillissantes
    XIVe siècle avant J.-C.
    Suse, Tell de l'Acropole
    Bronze
    H. 19.5 cm; W. 15.7 cm; L. 69.5 cm
    Fouilles J. de Morgan, 1898, 1898
    Sb 185
    Near Eastern Antiquities
    Sully wing
    Ground floor
    Iran, Susiana (Middle Elamite period)
    Room 10
    Author(s):Herbin Nancie
    This table, edged with serpents and resting on deities carrying vessels spouting streams of water, was doubtless originally a sacrificial altar. The holes meant the blood would drain away as water flowed from the vessels. Water was an important theme in Mesopotamian mythology, represented particularly by the god Enki and his acolytes. This table also displays the remarkable skills of Elamite metalworkers.
    A sacrificial table
    The table, edged with two serpents, rested on three sides on five figures that were probably female deities. Only the busts and arms of the figures survive. The fourth side of the table had an extension, which must have been used to slot the table into a wall. The five busts are realistic in style. Each of the deities was holding an object, since lost, which was probably a water vessel, cast separately and attached by a tenon joint. Water played a major role in such ceremonies and probably gushed forth from the vessels. Along the sides of the table are sloping surfaces leading down to holes, allowing liquid to drain away. This suggests that the table was used for ritual sacrifices to appease a god. It was believed that men were created by the gods and were responsible for keeping their temples stocked and providing them with food. The sinuous lines of the two serpents along the edge of the table mark off holes where the blood of the animals, sacrificed to assuage the hunger of the gods, would have drained away.
    The importance of water in Mesopotamian mythology
    In Mesopotamia, spirits bearing vessels spouting streams of water were the acolytes of Enki/Ea, the god of the Abyss and of fresh water. The fact that they figure in this work reflects the extent of the influence of Mesopotamian mythology in Susa. Here, they are associated with another Chtonian symbol, the snake, often found in Iranian iconography. The sinuous lines of the serpents resemble the winding course of a stream. It is thought that temples imitated the way streams well up from underground springs by the clever use of underground channels. Water - the precious liquid - was at the heart of Mesopotamian religious practice, being poured out in libations or used in purification rites.
    Objects made for a new religious capital
    Under Untash-Napirisha, the founder of the Igihalkid Dynasty, the Elamite kingdom flourished. He founded a new religious capital, Al-Untash - modern-day Chogha Zanbil - some 40 kilometers southeast of Susa. However, the project was short-lived. His successors soon brought large numbers of religious objects back to Susa, the former capital. This table was certainly among them. Its large size and clever drainage system reflect the remarkable achievements of metalworking at the time.
    Bibliography
    Amiet Pierre, Suse 6000 ans d'histoire, Paris, Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux, 1988, pp.98-99 ; fig. 57.
    Miroschedji Pierre de, "Le dieu élamite au serpent", in : Iranica antiqua, vol.16, 1981, Gand, Ministère de l'Éducation et de la Culture, 1989, pp.16-17, pl. 10, fig.3.
    http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/table-decorated-serpents-and-deities-bearing-vessels-spouting-streams-water

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Hieroglyph: kāṇḍə ‘water’ Wg. káṇṭä ʻ water -- channel ʼ, Woṭ. kaṇṭḗl f., Gaw. khāṇṭ*l, Bshk. kāṇḍə (CDIAL 2680). காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16)
    khaṇḍa ‘implements (metal)’
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Text on obverse of the tablet m453A: Text 1629. m453BC Seated in penance, the person is flanked on either side by a kneeling adorant, offering a pot and a hooded serpent rearing up. 

    Glyph: kaṇḍo ‘stool’. Rebus; kaṇḍ ‘furnace’. Vikalpa: kaṇḍ ‘stone (ore) metal’.  Rebus: kamaḍha ‘penance’. Rebus 1: kaṇḍ ‘stone ore’. Rebus 2: kampaṭṭa ‘mint’. Glyph: ‘serpent hood’: paṭa. Rebus: pata ‘sharpness (of knife), tempered (metal). padm ‘tempered iron’ (Ko.) Glyph: rimless pot: baṭa. Rebus: bhaṭa ‘smelter, furnace’. It appears that the message of the glyphics is about a mint  or metal workshop which produces sharpened, tempered iron (stone ore) using a furnace.

    Rebus readings of glyphs on text of inscription:

    koṇḍa bend (Ko.); Tu. Kōḍi  corner; kōṇṭu angle, corner, crook. Nk. Kōnṭa corner (DEDR 2054b)  G. khū̃ṭṛī  f. ʻangleʼRebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’(B.) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi) koḍ  = place where artisans work (G.) ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or.kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. Kū̃d ’ lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)  

    aṭar ‘a splinter’ (Ma.) aṭaruka ‘to burst, crack, sli off,fly open; aṭarcca ’ splitting, a crack’; aṭarttuka ‘to split, tear off, open (an oyster) (Ma.); aḍaruni ‘to crack’ (Tu.) (DEDR 66) Rebus: aduru ‘native, unsmelted metal’ (Kannada) 

    ã= scales of fish (Santali); rebusaya ‘metal, iron’ (Gujarati.) cf. cognate to amśu 'soma' in Rigveda: ancu 'iron' (Tocharian)
    G.karã̄ n. pl. ‘wristlets, bangles’; S. karāī f. ’wrist’ (CDIAL 2779).  Rebus: khār खार् ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri)

    dula ‘pair’; rebus dul ‘cast (metal)’

    Glyph of ‘rim of jar’: kárṇaka m. ʻ projection on the side of a vessel, handle ʼ ŚBr. [kárṇa -- ]Pa. kaṇṇaka -- ʻ having ears or corners ʼ; (CDIAL 2831) kaṇḍa kanka; Rebus: furnace account (scribe). kaṇḍ = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil) khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus: karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu) káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. karaṇa -- n. ʻdoingʼ; NiDoc. karana,  kaṁraṁna ʻworkʼ; Pk. karaṇa -- n. ʻinstrumentʼ(CDIAL 2790)

    The suggested rebus readings indicate that the Indus writing served the purpose of artisans/traders to create metalware, stoneware, mineral catalogs -- products with which they carried on their life-activities in an evolving Bronze Age.
    Jasper Akkadian cylinder seal
    Red jasper H. 1 1/8 in. (2.8 cm), Diam. 5/8 in. (1.6 cm) cylinder Seal with four hieroglyphs and four kneeling persons (with six curls on their hair) holding flagposts, c. 2220-2159 B.C.E., Akkadian (Metropolitan Museum of Art) Cylinder Seal (with modern impression). The four hieroglyphs are: from l. to r. 1. crucible PLUS storage pot of ingots, 2. sun, 3. narrow-necked pot with overflowing water, 4. fish A hooded snake is on the edge of the composition. (The dark red color of jasper reinforces the semantics: eruvai 'dark red, copper' Hieroglyph: eruvai 'reed'; see four reedposts held. 

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'

    If the hieroglyph on the leftmost is moon, a possible rebus reading: قمر ḳamar
    قمر ḳamar, s.m. (9th) The moon. Sing. and Pl. See سپوږمي or سپوګمي (Pashto) Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'.

    kulā hooded snake Rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelters'

    koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treasurer, warehouse'


    kamar 'moon' Rebus: kamar 'blacksmith'

    arka 'sun' Rebus: arka, eraka 'copper, gold, moltencast, metal infusion'

    lokANDa 'overflowing pot' Rebus: lokhaNDa 'metal implements, excellent 

    implements'

    aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

    baTa 'six' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' PLUS meDh 'curl' Rebus: meD 'iron'

    clip_image056m0492Ct clip_image057[4]2835 Pict-99: Person throwing a spear at a bison and placing one foot on the head of the bison; a hooded serpent at left.

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Hieroglyph: kolsa = to kick the foot forward, the foot to come into contact with anything when walking or running; kolsa pasirkedan = I kicked it over (Santali.lex.)mēṛsa = v.a. toss, kick with the foot, hit with the tail (Santali) 
     kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pancaloha’ (Ta.) kolhe (iron-smelter; kolhuyo, jackal) kol, kollan-, kollar = blacksmith (Ta.lex.)•kol‘to kill’ (Ta.)•sal ‘bos gaurus’, bison; rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali)me~ṛhe~t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron; kolhe m. iron manufactured by the Kolhes (Santali); meṛed (Mun.d.ari); meḍ (Ho.)(Santali.Bodding)
    nAga 'serpent' Rebus: nAga 'lead'
    Hieroglyph: rã̄go ʻ buffalo bull ʼ 

    Rebus: Pk. raṅga 'tin' P. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ pewter, tin ʼ Ku. rāṅ ʻ tin, solder ʼOr. rāṅga ʻ tin ʼ, rāṅgā ʻ solder, spelter ʼ, Bi. Mth. rã̄gā, OAw. rāṁga; H. rã̄g f., rã̄gā m. ʻ tin, pewter ʼraṅgaada -- m. ʻ borax ʼ lex.Kho. (Lor.) ruṅ ʻ saline ground with white efflorescence, salt in earth ʼ  *raṅgapattra ʻ tinfoil ʼ. [raṅga -- 3, páttra -- ]B. rāṅ(g)tā ʻ tinsel, copper -- foil ʼ.

    paTa 'hood of serpent' Rebus: padanu 'sharpness of weapon' (Telugu)

    Hieroglyph: kunta1 ʻ spear ʼ. 2. *kōnta -- . [Perh. ← Gk. konto/s ʻ spear ʼ EWA i 229]1. Pk. kuṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; S. kundu m. ʻ spike of a top ʼ, °dī f. ʻ spike at the bottom of a stick ʼ, °diṛī°dirī f. ʻ spike of a spear or stick ʼ; Si. kutu ʻ lance ʼ.
    2. Pa. konta -- m. ʻ standard ʼ; Pk. koṁta -- m. ʻ spear ʼ; H. kõt m. (f.?) ʻ spear, dart ʼ; -- Si. kota ʻ spear, spire, standard ʼ perh. ← Pa.(CDIAL 3289)

    Rebus: kuṇha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)'

    Allograph: कुंठणें [ kuṇṭhaṇēṃ ] v i (कुंठ S) To be stopped, detained, obstructed, arrested in progress (Marathi)
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent hood
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    C-49 a,b,c
    + hieroglyph in the middle with covering lines around/dots in corners poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite'; dhAv 'strand' rebus: dhAv 'smelter'; kulA 'hooded snake' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'; kolmo 'three' koD 'horn' rebus: kolimi 'smithy' koD 'workshop'. tri-dhAtu 'three strands, threefold' rebus: tri-dhAv 'three mineral ores'.

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent tabernae montana
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.
    Cylinder seal with a zebu, scorpion, man, snake and tree. Enstatite.H. 2.6 cm (1 in.); diam. 1.55 cm (5/8 in.). Mesopotamia, Ur, U. 16220. Late 3rd millennium BCE. British Museum. BM 122947

    Gadd seal 6. (cut down into Ur III mausolea from Larsa level; U. 16220), enstatite; Legrain, 1951, No. 632; Collon, 1987, Fig. 611 Cylinder seal; BM 122947;humped bull stands before a palm-tree, a thorny stone(?), tabernae montana (five-petalled fragrant flower); snake; person with long legs; behind the bull a scorpion ... Deciphered Indus writing: pola 'zebu, bos indicus'; pola ‘magnetite ore’ (Munda. Asuri); bichi 'scorpion'; 'hematite ore'; tagaraka 'tabernae montana'; tagara 'tin'; ranga 'thorny'; Rebus: pewter, alloy of tin and antimony;  kankar., kankur. = very tall and thin, large hands and feet; kankar dare = a high tree with few branches (Santali) Rebus: kanka, kanaka = gold (Samskritam); kan = copper (Tamil) nAga 'snake' nAga 'lead' (Samskritam).

    Jiroft artifacts with Meluhha hieroglhyphs referencing dhokra kamar working with metals.

    Dark grey steatite bowl carved in relief. Zebu or brahmani bull is shown with its hump back; a male figure with long hair and wearing akilt grasps two sinuous objects, representing running water, which flows in a continuous stream. Around the bowl, another similar male figure stands between two lionesses with their head turned back towards him; he grasps a serpent in each hand. A further scene (not shown) represents a prostrate bull which is being attacked by a vulture and a lion. 
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent tabernae montana
    The zebu is reminiscent of Sarasvati Sindhu seals. The stone used, steatite, is familiar in Baluchistan and a number of vessels at the Royal Cemetery at Ur were made out of this material. 


    The bowl dates from c. 2700-2500 B.C. and the motif shown on it resembles that on a fragment of a green stone vase from one of the Sin Temples at Tell Asmar of almost the same date. 


    Khafajeh bowl; a man sitting, with his legs bent underneath, upon two zebu bulls. This evokes the proto-Elamite bull-man; the man holds in his hands streams of water and issurrounded by ears of corn. He has a crescent beside his head. On the other side of the bowl, a man is standing upon two lionesses and grasping two serpents.



    Figure 11: a. mountains landscape and waers; (upper part) a man under an arch with sun and crescent moon symbols; (lower part) man seated on his heels holding zebus; b. man holding a snake; c. two men (drinking) and zebus, on a small cylindrical vessel; d. Head of woman protruding from  jar, and snakes; 3. man falling from a tree to the trunk of which a zebu is tied; f. man with clas and bull-man playing with cheetahs, and a scorpion in the center (on a cylindrical vessel). http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/jiroft-iv-iconography-of-chlorite-artifacts.

    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    bica 'scorpion' rebus; bicha'haematite, ferrite ore'

    पोळा [ pōḷā ] rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, Fe3O4' 
    Hieroglyph: kāṇḍə ‘water’ Wg. káṇṭä ʻ water -- channel ʼ, Woṭ. kaṇṭḗl f., Gaw. khāṇṭ*l, Bshk. kāṇḍə (CDIAL 2680). காண்டம்² kāṇṭam, n. < kāṇḍa. 1. Water; sacred water; நீர். துருத்திவா யதுக்கிய குங்குமக் காண் டமும் (கல்லா. 49, 16)
    khaṇḍa ‘implements (metal)’

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 serpent
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    -- Location: capital Dhānyakaṭaka Amarāvati, the place of immortals
    Early Satavahanas (220 B. C. E. to Second half of first century B. C. E.)
    Thesis of this monograph is that Nāga-s signified by the Indus Script hieroglyph-hypertext फडpha'cobra hood' were artisans in-charge of manufactories to produce wealth of the nation in paṭṭaḍa ‘smithy’ of the Bronze Age. 
    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फड- निशी & फडनीस. फडनिशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniśī or sī f The office or business of फडनीस. फडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस. फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. 
    [quote] As province after province fell out of the empire of Ashoka and formed itself into a separate kingdom under some chief, a branch of the Satiyaputras who are mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka took advantage of this opportunity and founded a kingdom in what was known as Maharashtra [Bakhle, 45.]. In the light of the information supplied by the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharevela and that at Nane Ghat, we get 220 B. C. E. as the approximate year in which Simuka founded the dynasty of the Satavahanas [Bakhle, 48; Sir R. Bhandarkar and D. R. Bhandarkar, however, advocate 75 B. C. E. as the date of the rise of their dynasty.]. The independent State of Satiputra
    army was situated along the western ghats and the konkan coast below [Sir R. Bhandarkar c/f Bakhle, 51.]. Their territory extended from sea to sea [Chitgupi, 28.].
    Satakarni was probably contemporary with Pushyamitra and the performance of the Ashvamedha sacrifice recorded in the Nane Ghat inscription can be explained by supposing that he was the actual conqueror of Ujjain [Bakhle, 53.]. The sacrifices and fees paid to the Brahmans testify eloquently to the wealth of his realm and his Ashvamedha sacrifice bespeaks his sarvabhaumatva. But after Kuntala, the Satavahanas were forced to take refuge in Southern Maharashtra.

    In this work of conquests, the Satavahanas were helped by the Rathikas and Bhojas who were duly rewarded with offices, titles and matrimonial alliances [Nilkanta Sastri, History of South India, 88.] [unquote]



    The sculptural friezes of Amaravati are replete with a recurrent theme of adoration of 
    Nāga-s.


    Nāga-s worshipped the Atharva Veda fiery pillar of light (AV X.7), worshipped in kole.l 'smithy,forge' calling it kole.l 'temple. Nāga-s venerated Dhamma as exemplified by Indus Script hypertexts. 


    See:   https://tinyurl.com/y8k6egn8


    Bronze Age metalwork to create the wealth of the nation
    Sculptural Frieze 1, Amaravati


    Sculptural Frieze 2, Amaravati
    The two sculptural friezes 1 and 2 show artisans carrying a threaded-rope and the entire scene emerges out of the snout of a makara. On frieze 1, the purnakumbha signifying wealth is kept on top of a base signified by the 'srivatsa' hypertext which reads: khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metalcasting' PLUS aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'. Thus, the hypertext message is: dul aya kammaṭa 'cast metal mint'. The threaded-rope is a hypertext which signifies: 1. dāmanī दामनी A foot-rope. dāmā दामा A string, cord. धामन् dhāman A fetter. dāˊman1 ʻropeʼ 
    R̥gveda rebus: dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ). 2. mēḍhā 'twist' rebus med 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic)  mēḍhā 'yajña, dhanam, nidhi'. makara 'composite animal of crocodile PLUS elephant': karabha,ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' PLUS karā 'crocodile' rebus: khār 'blacksmith'.PLUS dhmakara, dhamaka 'forge-blower, blacksmith'. 

    The message of the two friezes is thus an itihāsa narrative of wealth-production by metal smelters and artisans of Amaravati and related heritage sites during the Bronze Age.

    कटक [p= 243,3] m. (Comm. on Un2. ii , 32 and v , 35) a twist of straw , a straw mat Comm. on Ka1tyS3r.
    कटक is also the name of the capital of Orissa. The two friezes affirm the name of Amaravati as Dhānyakaṭaka by showing artisans carrying a threaded rope of straw the source of dhanam, wealth and hence, the name Dhānyakaṭaka, 'wealth from the twist of straw' which is a metaphor for dul aya kammaṭa, 'cast metal mint' work producing wealth.

    Nāga-s were a फडphaa, metalwork artisan-architect guild. That they were a फडphais signified by the Indus Script hypertext:फडphaa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फडphaa 'guild in charge of manufactory 

    (a plant where something is manufactured),arsenal (collection of weapons and military equipment)'. That Nāga-s were working in a metal casting mint is signified by the hypertext of 'Śrivatsa' and other Indus Script hieroglyphs. This identification of the manufactory of Dhānyakaṭaka, the capital city of the region, is elaborated in this monograph, in the context of Bhāratīya Itihāsa of Nāga-s.
    .
                         
    The hypertexts are:

    ayo kamma
    a dvāra, 'entrance mint workshop'  
    paṭṭaḍi 'metal anvil workshop'.

    Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313) phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c  स्फट [p= 1269,3] m. a snake's expanded hood L. phaṭa n. ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ MBh. 2. *phēṭṭa -- 2. [Cf. phuṭa -- m., °ṭā -- f., sphuṭa -- m. lex., °ṭā -- f. Pañcat. (Pk. phuḍā -- f.), sphaṭa -- m., °ṭā -- f., sphōṭā -- f. lex. andphaṇa -- 1. Conn. words in Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 386] 1. Pk. phaḍa -- m.n. ʻ snake's hood ʼ, °ḍā -- f., M. phaḍā m., °ḍī f. 2. A. pheṭphẽṭ. (CDIAL 9040) పటము (p. 695) paṭamu paṭamu. [Skt.] n. A cloth, వస్త్రము. A picture. గెరిపటము a paper kite, పతంగి.  The hood of a serpent, (See hoods of cobra adorning the worshipping naga-s). 

    Ta. patam cobra'shood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45. (DEDR 47)

    Rebus: Factory, guild: फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्या- चा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singingshop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work,--as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain).  फडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस.(Marathi) பட்டரை¹ paṭṭarai , n. See பட்டறை¹. (C. G. 95.) பட்டறை¹ paṭṭaṟai , n. < பட்டடை¹. 1. See பட்டடை, 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 12, 14. 2. Machine; யந்திரம். 3. Rice-hulling machine; நெல்லுக் குத்தும் யந்திரம். Mod. 4. Factory; தொழிற்சாலை. Mod. 5. Beam of a house; வீட்டின் உத்திரம். 6. Wall of the required height from the flooring of a house; வீட்டின் தளத்திலிருந்து எழுப்ப வேண்டும் அளவில் எழுப்பிய சுவர். வீடுகளுக்குப் பட்டறை மட்டம் ஒன்பதடி உயரத்துக்குக் குறை யாமல் (சர்வா. சிற். 48). பட்டறை² paṭṭaṟai , n. < K. paṭṭale. 1. Community; சனக்கூட்டம். 2. Guild, as of workmen; தொழிலாளர் சமுதாயம். (Tamil)

    పట్టడ (p. 696) paṭṭaḍa paṭṭaḍu. [Tel.] n. A smithy, a shop. కుమ్మరి వడ్లంగి మొదలగువారు పనిచేయు చోటు. 

    పటసాల (p. 695) paṭasāla paṭa-sāla. [Tel.] n. A hall or courtyard. பட்டகசாலை paṭṭaka-cālai n. < T. paṭa- šāla. [K. paṭṭasāle.] 1. Central or principal hall in a house; கூடம்Loc.


    See: 

    Indus Script hypertexts ayo kammaṭa dvāra, 'entrance mint workshop' (Mahāvamsa); paṭṭaḍi 'metal anvil workshop' 

    https://tinyurl.com/y94jt7ah


    Cholas & Nāga-s. Nāga-s created the Dhānyakaaka, Amarāvati monument, the place for immortals                                       

    "Historically, relations between the early Chola dynasty and the Naga dynastyof Tamilakam became well established. Royals by the name Chora-Naga, Ila Naga, Cula Naga and Kunjja Naga ruled the island of Eelam (Ceylon) between 62 BCE - 196 CE. During this period, Tondai Nadu, the homeland of the Pallavas was inhabited by the Kurumbar or Aruvar/Aruvalar people (Tamil: Aruval = people with bill-hook/ Telugu name for Tamil people), one of several Tamil Naga tribes that the Kaliththokai describes as having migrated to mainland Tamilakam during the Sangam periodPtolemy mentions the coasts of the Cholas (Soringoi) of Chola Nadu and the Aruvar (Arouarnoi) of Aruva Nadu, writing that "Orthoura" was a royal city of Soretai ruled by Sornagos, and Malanga ruled by Basaranagos of the latter. Historians have conjectured that Orthoura refers to the early Chola capital of Uraiyur while Malanga refers to Mavilanka, near Kanchipuram. "Orthoura" may refer to the northeastern Jaffna Tamil port town Uduthurai, where an early copper coin discovered carries the name Naka bumi in Tamil Brahmi, referring to the Naka Dynasty of Naka Nadu. Manimekhalai of the Sangam literature corpus describes the liaison of Princess Pilli Valai of Nāka Nadu with King Killivalavan of Chola Nadu at Nainativu; out of which union was born Prince Tondai Ilandiraiyan(Thiraiyar/sea farer of Eelam), corroborating tradition that the Pallavas were an off-shoot or branch of the Cholas and that their formation began from an ancient Chola-Nāka alliance. The Velurpalaiyam plates, dated to 852 CE credits the Naga liaison episode, and creation of the Pallava line, to a king named Virakurcha, son of Chutapallava, while preserving its legitimizing significance:[Michael D Rabe. (1997). The Māmallapuram Praśasti: A Panegyric in Figures, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 57, No. 3/4 (1997), pp. 189-241.]

    ..from him (Aśvatthāman) in order (came) Pallava, the lord of the whole earth, whose fame was bewildering. Thence, came into existence the race of Pallavas... [including the son of Chūtapallava] Vīrakūrcha, of celebrated name, who simultaneously with (the hand of) the daughter of the chief of serpents grasped also the complete insignia of royalty and became famous.


    The earliest Tamil literature which throws light on a region associated with the Pallavas is the Akananuru, which locates the elder Tiriyan in Gudur, Nellore district, with a kingdom extending to Tirupati or Thiruvengadam. This Tiriayan is called the elder in order to distinguish him from the younger Tiraiyan whose capital was Kanchipuram.Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai 29-30, 454] The Sangam work, Perumbanarruppatai, traces the line of the younger Tiriyan (aka Ilam Tiriyan) to the Solar dynasty of Ikshvakus, while the later Tamil commentators identify him as the illegitimate child of a Chola king and a Naga princess.[KR Subramanian. (1989). Buddhist remains in Āndhra and the history of Āndhra between 224 & 610 A.D, p.72].


    Historically, early relations between the Nagas and Pallavas became well established.[KR Subramanian. (1989). Buddhist remains in Āndhra and the history of Āndhra between 224 & 610 A.D, p.71]."

    Amaravati Drum Slabs: Nagas

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    The central decoration of these drum slabs is a multi-headed serpent.
    Drum Slab folio 18
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.8in. by 2ft.8in.[WD1061, folio 18]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: H.H. September 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 20
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.5in. by 3ft.0.9in. [WD1061, folio 20]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:Tope slab. 25th Sept'r 1816. M.BLocation of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 23
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft.5in. by 2ft.9in. [WD1061, folio 23].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:H.H. 15th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 32
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.6in. by 3ft.2in. [WD1061, folio 32]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Inner Circle S.W. No.7. 27th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 35
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.9in. by 3ft. [WD1061, folio 35]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: Inner circle S.W. side. No.8. 15th Nov'r. 1816. T.A. & M.B.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 46
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4.5ft. by 3ft. [WD1061, folio 46]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Sculpture at Amrawutty. Resembles No. 7. March 5th 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 74; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 93; BM81.
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    Horse and Naga King
    Drawing of a rectangular slab with two scenes showing four standing figures with a horse above and Naga king with four Naga women below. [WD1061, folio 31]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft. by 3ft.l0in. Loose stone lying on the south side. H.H. 25th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number 102; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 72; BM53.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/twoframe.html


    These two sculptural friezes demonstrate the venerate of Skambha of Atharva Veda 

    Spoked-wheel of Dharma. Amaravati. Around the circumference, the embellishments are 'srivatsa' hieroglyphs which signify, āra ayo kammaṭa 'brass metal mint'.


    Hieroglyphs of 'Śrivatsa' hypertext: fish-fin, tied together, spathe, lotus
    The classifier is the cobra hood hieroglyph/hypertext: फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    Related image
    śrivatsa symbol [with its hundreds of stylized variants, depicted on Pl. 29 to 32] occurs in Bogazkoi (Central Anatolia) dated ca. 6th to 14th cent. BCE on inscriptions Pl. 33, Nandipāda-Triratna at: Bhimbetka, Sanchi, Sarnath and Mathura] Pl. 27, Svastika symbol: distribution in cultural periods] The association of śrivatsa with ‘fish’ is reinforced by the symbols binding fish in Jaina āyāgapaṭas (snake-hood?) of Mathura (late 1st cent. BCE).  śrivatsa  symbol seems to have evolved from a stylied glyph showing ‘two fishes’. In the Sanchi stupa, the fish-tails of two fishes are combined to flank the ‘śrivatsa’ glyph. In a Jaina āyāgapaṭa, a fish is ligatured within the śrivatsa  glyph,  emphasizing the association of the ‘fish’ glyph with śrivatsa glyph.

    (After Plates in: Savita Sharma, 1990, Early Indian symbols, numismatic evidence, Delhi, Agama Kala Prakashan; cf. Shah, UP., 1975, Aspects of Jain Art and Architecture, p.77). 

    Bharhut gateway, Gateway model in ivory of Begram, Sanchi gateway (all three adorned with 
    ayo kammaṭa )
    Stupa-1 North Torana, East pillar showing Triratna motif. Sanchi, Dist Raisen, Madhya Pradesh India
    Sailendra Nath Sen derives the name Satavahana from name from the Munda words Sadam ("horse") and Harpan ("son"), implying "son of the performer of a horse sacrifice".(Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization,. New Age International,pp.172-176) "An inscription found at Naneghat was issued by Nayanika (or Naganika), the widow of Satakarni I; another inscription found at Naneghat has been dated to the same period on paleographic basis. A slightly later inscription dated to the reign of Satakarni II has been found at Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh, located to the north of Maharashtra.Satakarni  is a name derived from Munda sada 'horse' and kon 'son'. "A stupa in Kanaganahalli village of Karnataka, dated between first century BCE and first century CE, features limestone panels depicting portraits of Chimuka (Simuka), Satakani (Satakarni) and other Satavahana rulers."(Akira Shimada (9 November 2012). Early Buddhist Architecture in Context. BRILL., p.45). 
    Coin-based evidence suggests that Simuka's reign ended sometime before 120 BCE.
    ayo khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: ayo kammaṭa 'alloy metals mint, coiner, coinage'.





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    https://tinyurl.com/yar94t7p

    See:

    https://tinyurl.com/yb72o7za

    ahar12Harappa seal h166A, h166B. Vats, 1940, Excavations in Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta: Pl. XCI. 255   

    फडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. patam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    dhanga'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'

    Ta. eruvai a kind of kite whose head is white and whose body is brown; eagle. Ma. eruva eagle, kite.(DEDR 818). Rebus: eruvai ‘copper’ (Tamil).

    eṟaka ‘wing’ (Telugu) Rebus: erako ‘molten cast’ (Tulu) loa ‘ficus’; rebus: loh ‘copper’. Pajhar ‘eagle’; rebus: pasra ‘smithy’.

          
    kanda.’fire-altar’.khamba ‘wing’ rebus: kammaTa ‘mint’. gaṇḍa ‘four’ Rebus: khaṇḍa ‘metal implements.  Together with cognate ancu ‘iron’ the message is: native metal implements mint.

    श्येन [p= 1095,2] m. a hawk , falcon , eagle , any bird of prey (esp. the eagle that brings down सोम to man) RV. &c; firewood laid in the shape of an eagle Śulbas. (Monier-Williams) śyēná m. ʻ hawk, falcon, eagle ʼ RV. Pa. sēna -- , °aka -- m. ʻ hawk ʼ, Pk. sēṇa -- m.; WPah.bhad. śeṇ ʻ kite ʼ; A. xen ʻ falcon, hawk ʼ, Or. seṇā, H. sensẽ m., M. śen m., śenī f. (< MIA. *senna -- ); Si. sen ʻ falcon, eagle, kite ʼ.(CDIAL 12674) Rebus: sena 'thunderbolt' (Sinhala): 

    aśáni f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ RV., °nī -- f. ŚBr. [Cf. áśan -- m. ʻ sling -- stone ʼ RV.] Pa. asanī -- f. ʻ thunderbolt, lightning ʼ, asana -- n. ʻ stone ʼ; Pk. asaṇi -- m.f. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ; Ash. ašĩˊ ʻ hail ʼ, Wg. ašē˜ˊ, Pr. īšĩ, Bashg. "azhir", Dm. ašin, Paš. ášen, Shum. äˊšin, Gaw. išín, Bshk. ašun, Savi išin, Phal. ã̄šun, L. (Jukes) ahin, awāṇ. &circmacrepsilon;n (both with n, not ), P. āhiṇ, f., āhaṇaihaṇ m.f., WPah. bhad. ã̄ṇhiṇi f., N. asino, pl. °nā; Si. senaheṇa ʻ thunderbolt ʼ Geiger GS 34, but the expected form would be *ā̤n; -- Sh. aĩyĕˊr f. ʻ hail ʼ (X ?). -- For ʻ stone ʼ > ʻ hailstone ʼ cf. upala -- and A. xil s.v.śilāˊ -- . (CDIAL 910) vajrāśani m. ʻ Indra's thunderbolt ʼ R. [vájra -- , aśáni -- ]Aw. bajāsani m. ʻ thunderbolt ʼ prob. ← Sk.(CDIAL 11207)


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    https://tinyurl.com/y8me6tze

    All cognates: phaṭā फटा (Samskrtam), phaḍā फडा (Marathi), paam (Tamil. Malayalam), paḍaga (Telugu) have the same meaning: cobra hood. Rebus words/expressions which signify 'manufactory, metals workshop' are: bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnaceʼ, paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai 'anvil, smithy, forge', paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi 'workshop'.

    This concordance suggested by the use of Indus Script Cipher evidenced in many inscriptions (See links cited below) indicates the essential semantic unity of Bhāratīya languages and the evolution of manufactories/workshops for metalwork all over Bhāratam during the Bronze Age.

    The semantic unity is matched by the cultural significance of the pratimā of Gaṇeśa of Gardez, with the Indus Script hypertexts of cobra hood and elephant-face ligature to a human body attesting to the significance of Gaṇeśa as the leader of the hosts performing ironwork (karibha, ibha'elephant' rebus: karba, ib'iron'); phaḍā फडा 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍā फडा 'metals manufactory'; mūṣa'mouse' rebus: mūṣa 'crucible'; me 'stepdance step' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, me 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic)

    Based on this example of word-sets of Bhāratīya languages suggesting phonetic variants of phaḍā, paam meaning 'cobra hood', I suggest that phaḍā 'metals manufactory' in Marathi is cognate with and explains, semantically, the derivatives with cognate meanings: paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi'workshop' (Kannada) and paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai 'anvil, smithy, forge.'(Tamil). It is also possible to suggest a cognate bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnaceʼ (Punjabi). Semantics of forge, smithy are seen in the following lexemes signifying 'furnace work': bhráṣṭra n. ʻ frying pan, gridiron ʼ MaitrS. [√bhrajjPk. bhaṭṭha -- m.n. ʻ gridiron ʼ; K. büṭhü f. ʻ level surface by kitchen fireplace on which vessels are put when taken off fire ʼ; S. baṭhu m. ʻ large pot in which grain is parched, large cooking fire ʼ, baṭhī f. ʻ distilling furnace ʼ; L. bhaṭṭh m. ʻ grain -- parcher's oven ʼ, bhaṭṭhī f. ʻ kiln, distillery ʼ, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭh m., °ṭhī f. ʻ furnace ʼ, bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ; N. bhāṭi ʻ oven or vessel in which clothes are steamed for washing ʼ; A. bhaṭā ʻ brick -- or lime -- kiln ʼ; B. bhāṭi ʻ kiln ʼ; Or. bhāṭi ʻ brick -- kiln, distilling pot ʼ; Mth. bhaṭhībhaṭṭī ʻ brick -- kiln, furnace, still ʼ; Aw.lakh. bhāṭhā ʻ kiln ʼ; H. bhaṭṭhā m. ʻ kiln ʼ,bhaṭ f. ʻ kiln, oven, fireplace ʼ; M. bhaṭṭā m. ʻ pot of fire ʼ, bhaṭṭī f. ʻ forge ʼ. -- X bhástrā -- q.v. bhrāṣṭra -- ; *bhraṣṭrapūra -- , *bhraṣṭrāgāra -- .Addenda: bhráṣṭra -- : S.kcch. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ʻ distil (spirits) ʼ.(CDIAL 9656)

    Hieroglyph: फडा (p. 313phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c. Ta. paam cobra's hood. Ma. paṭam id. Ka. peḍe id. Te. paḍaga id. Go. (S.) paṛge, (Mu.) baṛak, (Ma.) baṛki, (F-H.) biṛki hood of serpent (Voc. 2154). / Turner, CDIAL, no. 9040, Skt. (s)phaṭa-, sphaṭā- a serpent's expanded hood, Pkt. phaḍā- id. For IE etymology, see Burrow, The Problem of Shwa in Sanskrit, p. 45.(DEDR 47) Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers. A cognate expression for  workshop, smithy, forge are the following expressions: Ta. paṭṭaṭai, paṭṭaṟai anvil, smithy, forge. Ka. paṭṭaḍe, paṭṭaḍi anvil, workshop. Te. paṭṭika, paṭṭeḍa anvil; paṭṭaḍa workshop. Cf. 86 Ta. aṭai. (DEDR 3865) Ta. aṭai prop. slight support; aṭai-kal anvil. Ma. aṭa-kkallu anvil of goldsmiths. Ko. aṛ gal small anvil. Ka. aḍe, aḍa, aḍi the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to operate upon, a support; aḍegal, aḍagallu, aḍigallu anvil. Tu. aṭṭè a support, stand. Te. ḍā-kali, ḍā-kallu, dā-kali, dā-gali, dāyi anvil.(DEDR 86) adhikaraṇīˊ f. ʻ *anvil ʼ, adhikaraṇa -- n. ʻ receptacle, support ʼ TUp. [√kr̥1]
    Pa. adhikaraṇī -- f. ʻ smith's anvil ʼ; Pk. ahigaraṇī -- f. ʻ a piece of apparatus for a smith ʼ; K. yīran, dat. yṳ̄rüñ f. ʻ anvil ʼ, S. aharaṇiaraṇi f., L. (Jukes) ariṇ f., awāṇ. &circmacrepsilon;ruṇ, P. aihranairaṇā̆hraṇ f., WPah. bhal. arhini; roh. erṇe ʻ smithy ʼ, N. āran; H. aheranā̆hran m. ʻ anvil ʼ; -- H. Smith BSL 101, 115.Addenda: adhikaraṇīˊ -- : S.kcch. eṇ f. ʻ anvil ʼ; WPah.kṭg. n/arəṇ, n/arṇi f. ʻ furnace, smithy ʼ; āˊrəṇ m. prob. ← P. Him.I 4; jaun. āraṇairaṇ; G. eraṇi f. ʻ anvil ʼ, M. aheraṇahiraṇairaṇairṇīharaṇ f.(CDIAL 252)


    A number of expressions are presented below which relate to the semantics of 'public office', for e.g. paṭṭaśāle, 'reading hall' (Kannada).

    பட்டகசாலை paṭṭaka-cālai, n. < T. paṭa- šāla. [K. paṭṭasāle.] 1. Central or principal hall in a house; கூடம். Loc. 2. Dining hall adjoining a house; மனையில் உண்ணுமிடம். Nāṭ. cheṭṭi.

    பட்டடை¹ paṭṭaṭai n. prob. படு¹- + அடை¹-. 1. [T. paṭṭika, K. paṭṭaḍe.] Anvil; அடைகல். (பிங்.) சீரிடங்காணி னெறிதற்குப் பட்ட டை (குறள், 821). 2. [K. paṭṭaḍi.] Smithy, forge; கொல்லன் களரி. 3. Stock, heap, pile, as of straw, firewood or timber; குவியல். (W.) 4. Corn-rick, enclosure of straw for grain, wattle and daub, granary; தானியவுறை. (W.) 5. Layer or bed of olas for grain; தானியமிடுற்கு ஓலைகளாலமைத்த படுக்கை. (W.) 6. Anything held against another, as a support in driving a nail; prop to keep a thing from falling or moving; ஆணி முதலியன செல்லுதற்கு அடியிலிருந்து தாங்குங் கருவி. (W.) கொல்லன்பட்டடை kollaṉ-paṭṭaṭai n. < கொல்லன் +. Anvil; அடைகல். (C. G.)
    கொல்லன்பட்டரை kollaṉ-paṭṭarai n. < id. +. Blacksmith's workshop, smithy; கொல்லன் உலைக்கூடம்.










    फडपूस (p. 313) phaḍapūsa f (फड & पुसणें) Public or open inquiry. फडफरमाश or  (p. 313) phaḍapharamāśa or sa f ( H & P) Fruit, vegetables &c. furnished on occasions to Rajas and public officers, on the authority of their order upon the villages; any petty article or trifling work exacted from the Ryots by Government or a public officer. 
    फडनिविशी or सी (p. 313) phaḍaniviśī or sī & फडनिवीस Commonly फडनिशी & फडनीसफडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस
    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain). 
    फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business. 
    फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्याचा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nach house, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singing shop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work, as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊसवांग्यामिरच्याखरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चालपडघालमांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) 7 The stand of a great gun. फड पडणें g. of s. To be in full and active operation. 2 To come under brisk discussion. फड मारणेंराखणें-संभाळणें To save appearances, फड मारणें or संपादणें To cut a dash; to make a display (upon an occasion). फडाच्या मापानें With full tale; in flowing measure. फडास येणें To come before the public; to come under general discussion. 
    Image result for gardez ganeshaCloth worn onGaṇeśa pratimā, Gardez, Afghanistan. Hieroglyph: படம்¹ paṭam , n. < paṭa. 1. Cloth for wear; சீலை. (பிங்.) மாப்பட நூலின் றொகுதிக் காண் டலின் (ஞானா. 14, 21). 2. Painted or printed cloth; சித்திரச்சீலை. (பிங்.) இப்படத்தெழுது ஞான வாவி (காசிக. கலாவ. 2). 3. Coat, jacket; சட்டை. படம்புக்கு (பெரும்பாண். 69). 4. Upper garment, cloak; போர்வை. வனப்பகட்டைப் பட மாக வுரித்தாய் (தேவா. 32, 7). 5. Body; உடல். படங்கொடு நின்றவிப் பல்லுயிர் (திருமந். 2768).
    Hieroglyph: படம் paṭam, n. < pada. Instep; பாதத் தின் முற்பகுதி. படங்குந்திநிற்றல் (சூடா. 9, 53). Ta. aṭi foot, footprint, base, bottom, source, origin; aṭimai slavery, servitude, slave, servant, devotee; aṭitti, aṭicci maidservant; aṭiyavaṉ, aṭiyāṉ, aṭiyōṉ slave, devotee. Ma. aṭi sole of foot, footstep, measure of foot, bottom, base; aṭima slavery, slave, feudal dependency; aṭiyān slave, servant; fem. aṭiyātti. Ko. aṛy foot (measure); ac place below; acgaṛ place beneath an object, position after the first in a row; ac mog younger son. To. oṛy foot. Ka. aḍi foot, measure of foot, step, pace, base, bottom, under; aḍime slavery; aḍiya slave. Koḍ. aḍi place below, down. Tu. aḍi bottom, base; kār aḍi footsole, footstep; aḍi kai palm of the hand. Te. aḍugu foot, footstep, footprint, step, pace, measure of a foot, bottom, basis; aḍime slavery, slave, bondman; aḍiyãḍu slave, servant; aḍi-gaṟṟa sandal, wooden shoe.Ga. (S.2aḍugu footstep (< Te.). Go. (G.) aḍi beneath; (Mu.) aḍit below; aḍita lower; aṛke below; (Ma.) aḍita, aḍna lower; (M.) aḍ(ḍ)i below, low; (L.) aḍī down; (Ko.) aṛgi underneath; aṛgita lower (Voc. 33). Konḍa aḍgi below, underneath; aḍgiR(i) that which is underneath; aḍgiRaṇḍ from below, from the bottom. (DEDR 72)

    फडा phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága Rebus: phaḍa फड ‘manufactory, company, guild, public office’, keeper of all accounts, registers.

    See:
    https://tinyurl.com/y7a26nhe  

    https://tinyurl.com/yar94t7p Harappa seal signifies फडा phaḍā 'metals manufactory' sēṇa 'eagle' rebus sena 'thunderbolt' 


    https://tinyurl.com/yb72o7za  Homa bird, श्येन śyena, sēṇa brings down Soma. Sellers of Mujavata Soma. Indus Script evidences बहुसुवर्णक, bahusuvarṇaka Soma Samsthā yāga.



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    EAGLE Storytelling Application (ESA) for WordPress
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    The EAGLE Storytelling Application (ESA) is a tool designed by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. It allows users to create multimedia narratives on epigraphic content. It was created in the context of the EAGLE project, a European project which started in 2013 and aimed to connect and collect data sources and projects related to the topic of digital epigraphy, ancient history or archeology.
    Being a Plug-In for WordPress the ESA allows you to embed multimedia content from a wide variety of data sources in your posts in a form of nicely drawn boxes ESA-Items. For example, you can paste a Wikipedia-URL to your text and it is rendered as a preview Box to the Wikipedia page. But It does not only extend the built-in embed (and oEmbed) functions that are well knows and beloved for working with services like Youtube, Flickr much more.
    The ESA-Items are neither iframes nor are they generated with ajax or any other way that would result in API calls to the corresponding web service every time the containing post is displayed. Instead, the embedded content is stored in cache table and refreshed automatically after two weeks. That makes the items also usable for searching, drawing a map of used ESA-Items in the database and so on.
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    THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 2017

    SIGNS OF LIFE: Welcome to the The EAGLE Virtual Exhibition!

    SIGNS OF LIFE: Welcome to the The EAGLE Virtual Exhibition! 
    This is a dedicated Epigraphy Virtual Exhibition to bring highlights of the EAGLE collections to the attention of a wider audience.

    You shall find in it a good overview of what are Ancient Greek and Roman Epigraphy and what they deal with.

    There are two views of the EAGLE Virtual Exhibition Signs of Life. If you like reading, start browsing the website version. If you like walking (and jumping), the Virtual Museum is what you are looking for, but be careful not to break any object! Children must be supervised at all times.

    Signs of Life - Website version Signs of Life - Virtual Museum

    If you change your mind you can always go back and forth from the two, they are fully synced! Click on the 3D button (HD000604) anywhere in the website version and you will enter the Virtual Museum.
    http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.in/2017/09/signs-of-life-welcome-to-the-eagle.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed:+Awol-TheAncientWorldOnline+(AWOL+-+The+Ancient+World+Online) 

    Eagle Storytelling

    Description
    The EAGLE Storytelling Application (ESA) is a tool designed by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. It allows users to create multimedia narratives on epigraphic content. It was created in the context of the EAGLE project, a European project which started in 2013 and aimed to connect and collect data sources and projects related to the topic of digital epigraphy, ancient history or archeology.
    Being a Plug-In for WordPress the ESA allows you to embed multimedia content from a wide variety of data sources in your posts in a form of nicely drawn boxes ESA-Items. For example, you can paste a Wikipedia-URL to your text and it is rendered as a preview Box to the Wikipedia page. But It does not only extend the built-in embed (and oEmbed) functions that are well knows and beloved for working with services like Youtube, Flickr much more.
    The ESA-Items are neither iframes nor are they generated with ajax or any other way that would result in API calls to the corresponding web service every time the containing post is displayed. Instead, the embedded content is stored in cache table and refreshed automatically after two weeks. That makes the items also usable for searching, drawing a map of used ESA-Items in the database and so on.
    You can not only embed content as ESA-Items by posting URLs from known data sources but also search the data sources directly from the WordPress text editor.
    In this way you can integrate Maps, Wikipedia Articles, Images from Wikimedia Commons and a lot of specialized data sources for epigraphy. The ESA has has a modular sub-plugin architecture which makes it quite easy for developers to add some other data sources via their Web-APIs. Thus it might be no only of interest for those who work in epigraphy or the ancient world but also for those who want to show the content of any Web-API in their blog.
    Currently available Sub-Plugins are:
    The Plugin was developed by Philipp Franck at the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut in 2015 and 2016.

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    Rare 6th century stone sculpture of Shiva found at Harwan

     

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    “Mūrti,मूर्ति (image) is obverse of Dharma (Cosmic Order) as embodiment of Paramātmā.” Cosmic order is signified by the cosmic dance of Śiva as Naarāja; the obverse temporal order is signified by hypertexts phaa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaa 'metals manufactory'.associated with Gaeśa Mūrti. Artisans are children, sparks from the anvil of Paramātmā.kole.l which is a smithy, forge is the obverse of kole.l 'temple' to venerate manifestations of Paramātmā. 
    A tiger ligatured with cobra hoods signified on the broad strap worn by Gardez Gaṇeśa Mūrti. kola'tiger' rebus: kol'working in iron' PLUS phaḍa'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa'metals manufactory' PLUS paṭṭaḷe 'broad strap around the waist' rebus: 
    rebus: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' paṭṭaḍe'metals workshop'.
     I submit that this is hypertext of Indus Script Cipher to signify dhamma samjñā 'responsibility indicator' or functions assigned to Gaṇeśa as the Superintendent of metalwork artisans. 

    Śiva as Naṭarāja with ten arms. Śiva holds a snake above his head and on the neck. Naṭarāja is accompanied by Gaṇeśa and Pārvati and seven Mātkā (Divine Mothers).

    Evidences of sculptures from rock-cut caves of Aihole (as seen above), Ellora, Elephanta, Udayagiri (Sanchi) reinforce the hypertext Gaṇeśa Mūrti messages of Gardez and Sakar Dhar of Afghanistan as metals manufactory, wealth-creating activities of artisans of the Bronze Age who are गण gaṇa, 'a company , any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims Mn. Ya1jn5. Hit.'(Monier-Williams).

    Ravana Phadi cave, Aihole, Karnataka. ca. 550 CE. The name Phadi for the cave is significant. The word signifies phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa 'Superintendent of metals manufactory'.

    Gaṇeśa Mūrti of the cave in Aihole is associated with the cobra hood. I suggest that this is the earliest signifier hieroglyph of phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa 'Superintendent of metals manufactory' cognate paṭṭaḍe 'smithy, forge, workshop'. The association of Gaṇeśa with serpent is pronounced in the two Mūrti-s from Gadez and Sakar Dhar discussed in detail by MK Dhavalikar (whose journal article is embedded) and identified with gaṇa'hosts'. Association of Śivalinga with gaṇa 'hosts' and smelting work is seen on Bhuteśvar sculptural friezes of Mathura Museum, dated to ca. 2nd century BCE. Eamukha Śivalinga is shown atop a smelter roof and with a tree in the background: kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'.


    A Note on Two Gaṇeśa Statues from Afghanistan

    M. K. Dhavalikar
    East and West
    Vol. 21, No. 3/4 (September-December 1971), pp. 331-336
    http://www.jstor.org/stable/29755703















    Stone carved Panels at Elephanta caves Gharapuri Mumbai Maharashtra India Asia : Stock Photo
    Stone carved Lord Ganesha at Elephanta Caves Gharapuri Mumbai Maharshtra India Asia : Stock PhotoGaṇeśa. elephant caves Gharapuri, Mumbai
    Ganesha of Elephanta Caves : Stock Photo

    Gaṇeśa of Elephanta Caves

    Standing Gaṇeśa sculpture in side Elephanta caves near Mumbai. Elephanta Caves is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of India. This rock cut architecture has been created in 5th to 8th century CE.
    Stone sculptures at Ellora Caves : Stock Photo
    Gaṇeśa. Ellora caves.

    Gaṇeśa, being the oldest datable Gaṇesha in India, to the left of the entrance to cave 6. Udayagiri. Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh.
    Udayagiri, Madhya Pradesh Cave 6, detail showing Dvārapāla, Viṣṇu and Gaṇeśa
    Cave 6 is directly beside Cave 5 and consists of rock-cut cella entered through an elaborate T-shaped door. The original image inside is missing but it was probably a Śiva liṅga. Outside the cave is a panel with an inscription recording the creation of the 'meritorious gift' (deyadharma), probably the cave and the adjacent images, in Gupta year 82 (401 CE).In the ceiling of the cave is an undated pilgrim record of somebody named Śivāditya.The door guardians flanking the entrance are regarded by art historians as among the most powerful works of early Gupta sculpture. Beside them, on either side, are figures of Viṣṇu and of Śiva Gaṅgādhāra, the latter much worn from the falling of water over the image. (Cunningham, ASIR 10 (1874-77): 50, plate xix, number 3; GAR (VS 1988/AD 1931-32): number 5; Dvivedī (VS 2004): number 714.)Of special note is Durgā slaying the Buffalo Demon, one of the earliest representations of the theme in India. Of special note also is the figure of seated Gaṇeśa, to the left of the cave entrance, and the rectangular niche with seated goddesses, located to the right. Aside from this being the oldest datable Gaṇeśa in India, the arrangement, with a guarded sanctum in the centre, Gaṇeśa on one side and the mother goddesses on the other, presages the arrangement of temple space in subsequent centuries.

    Cave 4 : Dedicated to Śiva in the form of a liṅga

    "Cave 4 has a rectangular cella with a rock-cut plinth in which is set a spectacular Śiva linga. The hair is tied up into a topknot with long locks cascading down each side. The arrangement of the hair recalls the story of how Śiva broke the fall of the River Gaṅgā as the waters came down from heaven. There is a water channel in the plinth and in the floor of the chamber leading to a hole that pierces in the cave wall. The cave is entered through an entrance of exquisite proportions with delicately carved floral scrolls. The lintel of the door extends beyond the jambs to create a T-shape, a common characteristic of early temple architecture. Unlike most doors, however, the frame consists only of square moulding, identical on the top and sides. The base of the jambs and the sill are modern replacements. Externally, the cave is flanked by rock-cut pilasters and two guardians (dvārapāla) now damaged and weather-worn." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udayagiri_Caves


    Veerapuram Dist, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh. Terracotta. 7cm. 50 BCE to 300 CE. On this Gaṇeśa Mūrti the phaḍa 'cobra hood' merges with the elephant trunk on the following mūrti: phaḍawhich means manufactory in Marathi, is a variant of Kannada word paṭṭaḍi which means ' metal workshop'. Gaṇeśa is a superintendent of the śilpaśāle. Like  phaḍanavis,phaḍnis CM of Maharashtra:)- No wonder, he is Gaṇeśa, a Sarasvati script hypertext.



    The Origins of Gaṇeśa

    Y. Krishan
    Artibus Asiae
    Vol. 43, No. 4 (1981 - 1982), pp. 285-301
    DOI: 10.2307/3249845

































































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    https://tinyurl.com/y8dyvjv8

    Thanks to the photograph provided by Archaeological Survey of India, it is possible to identify the hieroglyhs depicted on the broad strap of cloth worn as antarīya, 'lower garment' on  Gardez Gaṇeśa Mūrti. The set of hieroglyphs constitute a hypertext defining the role of Gaṇeśa in civilizational activities of the Bronze Age. The key expressions signified are: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' paṭṭaḍe 'metals workshop' and kol'working in iron'kolhe 'smelter'kolle 'blacksmith. panja'claw of beast' rebus: panja'kiln' The dhamma samjñā 'responsibility indicator' -- the form and function of Indus Sarasvati Script cipher -- is a proclamation of metalwork wealth created by the Bronze Age civilization. 

    I suggest that the paw of a feline is signified below the feline's face; the word is panja 'claw, paw' rebus: panja 'kiln' of metals manufactory: *pañjāpāka ʻ kiln for a heap ʼ. [*pañja -- , āpāka -- ]P. pañjāvāpãj° m. ʻ brick kiln ʼ; B. pã̄jā ʻ kiln ʼ, G. pajāvɔ m (CDIAL 7686) panzĕ पन्ज़्य m. the wound made by an animal's claw (cf. panja) (K. 678). panja पंज । पञ्चसंख्यात्मकः, अङ्गुलिपञ्चकसंघः m. an aggregate of five; a five (in cards, on dice, or the like); the hand with the five fingers extended (cf. atha-po, p. 61b, l. 2) (Gr.M.); the paw or claw of beast or bird (Gr.M.; Rām. 41, 61, 697-8, 73; H. xii, 16-17). -- dyunu ; । पञ्चकाघातः m.inf. 'to give the five', i.e. to strike with the five fingers, to scratch with the five finger-nails or (of a wild beast) to tear with the claws. -ʦoṭu ; । छिन्नपञ्चशाखः adj. (f. -ʦüṭü ), one whose fingers, toes, or claws have all been cut off (of man, beast, or bird). panjī पंजी f. a bird's talon (El.); the five fingers (El. panjih, cf. panja; W. 114, panji).(Kashmiri) *pañja -- ʻ heap ʼ *pahuñca ʻ forearm, wrist ʼ. L. pôcā m. ʻ paw ʼ, (Shahpur) paucā m. ʻ paw, claw ʼ; P. pahũcā m. ʻ wrist, paw ʼ; N. paũjā ʻ paw ʼ; OAw. pahuṁcihi obl. sg. f. ʻ wrist ʼ; H. pahũcā m. ʻ forearm, wrist ʼ; G. pɔ̃hɔ̃cɔ m. ʻ wrist ʼ, M. pohãcī f. PĀ1 ʻ drink ʼ: pa -- 1, pāˊtra -- , pāˊna -- , pānīˊya -- , pāyáyati, *pipāsaka -- , pipāsāˊ -- , pipāsitá -- , píbati, pītá -- 1, pīyátē, pēya -- ; āpāna -- 1, nipāna -- , prapāˊ -- . PĀ2 ʻ protect ʼ: pa -- 2, pā -- ; *āpāna -- 2. pā -- in cmpds. ʻ protecting ʼ: adhipāˊ -- , tanūpāˊ -- , paśupāˊ -- ; -- pa -- 2. Addenda: *pahuñca -- : S.kcch. paũco m. ʻ wrist ʼ, WPah.kṭg. pɔ́̄nj̈ɔ m.(CDIAL 8018)

    The photograph is reproduced below from Dhavalikar's article), A Note on Two Gaṇeśa Statues from Afghanistan M. K. Dhavalikar East and West Vol. 21, No. 3/4 (September-December 1971), pp. 331-336Published by: Istituto Italiano per l'frica e l'Oriente (IsIAO) http://www.jstor.org/stable/29755703

    A tiger ligatured with cobra hoods signified on the broad strap worn by Gardez Gaṇeśa Mūrti. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron'kolhe'smelter'kolle'blacksmith' PLUS phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' PLUS paṭṭaḷe'broad strap around the waist' rebus: rebus: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' paṭṭaḍe 'metals workshop'.
     I submit that this is hypertext of Indus Script Cipher to signify dhamma samjñā 'responsibility indicator' or functions assigned to Gaṇeśa as the Superintendent of metalwork artisans. Sakar Dhar Gaṇeśa Mūrti is signified with two kharva'dwarfs' rebus: karba,'iron' PLUS dula'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.
    Image result for shankar dhar ganeshaTwo kharva 'dwarfs' flanking Sakar (Śankara)Dhar Gaṇeśa Mūrti

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    September 25, 2017


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    https://tinyurl.com/yblvkxk8
    I suggest that 
     kīrtimukha on Gardez Gaṇeśa Mūrti is an edifice, palace, temple. It is also called kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l'smithy,forge'.

    kīrtimukha as the face of a tiger, semantically reinforced by the paws of a feline is an Indus Script cipher. It signifies kole.l'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge'. kola hieroglyph signifies a tiger, read rebus:kolhe'smelter'kol 'working in iron'kolle'blacksmith'. Why is the face of a tiger shown on a divinity personified as anthropomorph with an elephant face and trunk? karibha, ibha'elephant' rebus; karba, ib'iron' ibbo 'merchant'. This is a rebus representation of working with iron ores, tri-dhātu, a synonym of Gaṇeśa. The three mineral, ferrite ores are: magnetite, haematite, laterite. These three minerals are also signified on Indus Script corpora: poḷa, 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: poḷa 'magnetite'; bicha'scorpion' rebus; bica 'haematite'; goṭa'round pebble, stone' rebus: goṭa'laterite'. A tiger ligatured with cobra hoods signified on the broad strap worn by Gardez Gaṇeśa Mūrti. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' PLUS phaa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaa 'metals manufactory' PLUS paṭṭae 'broad strap around the waist' rebus: rebus: phaa 'metals manufactory' paṭṭae 'metals workshop'.

    This kīrtimukha architecturl tradition to build and signify a temple is an abiding dhamma samjñā 'responsibility indicator' which continues in Bhāratīya Itihāsa.


    kīrtimukha on Gardez tri-dhātu Gaṇeśa Mūrti is also embellished with cobra hood signifiers:

     phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' paṭṭaḍe 'metals workshop'. This signifies Gaṇeśa as the leader of the Gaṇa of artisans engaged in metals manufactory work. 

    Hieroglyph: cloth, an article of dress. పంచె (p. 687) pañce or పంచియ panche. [Tel.] n. A man's lower garment: पंचा (p. 273) pañcā m (Tshá.) An article of dress,--a piece about one cubit in breadth and six in length, worn like the धोतर around the middle of the body. v नेस. 2 R (Properly पंजा) The hand as expanded or opened out: also a claw. (Marathi)
    Hieroglyph: claw of a cat. 

    पंजा (p. 273) pañjā  A claw (of a tiger, cat &c.); the hand of a monkey; the iron hand of Muhammadans, representing their five holy personages (Both já & dzá.) The hand as spread abroad or opened out पंचा (p. 273) pañcā m (Tshá.) R (Properly पंजा) The hand as expanded or opened out: also a claw. 

    پنجه panjaʿh, s.f. (3rd) A hand with the five fingers, a claw, the clutch, the grasp, a paw. Pl. يْ ey. (Pashto)




    பஞ்சா pañcā , n. < U. pañjā. 1. Clutch, grasp of the hand; கைப்பிடி. 2. Hand with the five fingers extended; நீட்டிய விரற்கை. 3. Figure of the hand carried as an emblem by Shiah Muslims in Moharrum festivals; மொகரம் பண்டிகையில் ஷியாமுகமதியர் எடுத்துச்செல்லும் கைக் குறிவிருது.

    Rebus: pasra 'smithy' (Santali)

    punja 'heap, quantity, multitude' (Samskrtam) Pa. pañja -- m. ʻ heap ʼ; Kho. (Lor.) p*lnǰi ʻ heap of stones as a memorial cairn ʼ; N. pã̄jo ʻ row of cut corn laid out to dry ʼ; B. pã̄jā ʻ wisp, bundle, stack, brickkiln ʼ; M. pã̄jī f. ʻ offering of food to a ghost ʼ.(CDIAL 8251) पुंजा (p. 296) puñjā m (पुंज)  m N. D. A little heap (as of dung, dirt, ashes, sweepings, rubbish): also a mass or quantity of chaffy, worm-eaten, or rotting (grain, wood, cloth, or other material). The word, although from पुंज S Heap generally, is applied restrictedly. (Marathi)Pañja [is it to be puñja?] heap, pile A ii.75 (meaning different?); Cp. i.1016. Opuñjeti or ˚ati [o + puñjeti Denom. of puñja, heap] to heap up, make a heap, cover over with (Morris, J.P.T.S. 1887, 153 trsls. "cleanse") Vin ii.176 (opuñjati bhattaŋ); J iv.377 (opuñchetvā T., but v. l. opuñjetvā; gloss upalimpitvā); DhA iii.296 (opuñchitvā, gloss sammajjitvā). <-> Caus. opuñjāpeti in same meaning "to smear" Vin iii.16 (opuñjāpetvā; v. l. opuñchāpetvā).(Pali) புங்கம்² puṅkam, n. < puṅga. Heap, collection; குவியல். (யாழ். அக.) पूग [p= 641,1] m. (ifc. f(). ; cf. पुञ्ज) any assemblage or combination or body of persons , a multitude , number , mass , quantity (in one place n.S3a1n3khBr. Mn. MBh. &c

    پجه   *pañjāpāka ʻkiln for a heap ʼ. [*pañja -- , āpāka -- ] P. pañjāvāpãj° m. ʻ brick kiln ʼ; B. pã̄jā ʻ kiln ʼ, G. pajāvɔ m. -- ND 372 a 42 )wrongly.(CDIAL 7686)



    See: 














    https://tinyurl.com/y8dyvjv8 An early example of kīrtimukha is seen on the scupture of Gardez Gardez Gaṇeśa Mūrti

     












     

    Yalli & Mukha

     Ziba

    Ziba (or, Zeeba, Zipak) origins are recorded in the Skandha Purana.  Once Lord Shiva created a demon called Jalandhara from the blaze of his third eye.  The demon soon coveted the attentions of Parvati, the Great God's consort . He persuaded Rahu to approach her for him.
    When Shiva found out, he again caused his 3rd eye to blaze thus creating Ziba, whose role was to devour Rahu.
    When Rahu begged Shiva for mercy, the God called off Ziba.  But Ziba, now with no prey to feed upon, began to devour his own body until only his head and hands were left.  (We can see his hands pointing to his "non-body.")  He was then appointed Shiva's door-keeper.
    The face and hands of Ziba remind us of the consequences of  desire and hunger, but now he is also the guardian of practitioners.

    Yalli

    Ziba is a form of Yalli (corruption of Skt. vyala, fierce monster).  These are architectural or decorative animal-mask motifs.  They feature mainly as stone carvings like the ones at the famous Hindu temples of Madurai in Tamil Nadu, South India.  
    They usually have the stylized body of a lion and the head of some other beast, most often an elephant (gaja-vyala.)  Other common examples are: the lion-headed (simha-vyala,) horse- (ashva-vyala,) human- (nir-vyala) and the dog-headed (shvana-vyala) ones.  They are related to the hippogryphs and sphinxes of Egypt and Mesopotamia, and symbolize the world-emperor (Skt. chakravartin,)  whose strength derives from divine power.
    Another monstrous creature is the Shabara, a hybrid of a lion, horse and ram.)
    Their counterparts in European design are some of the fantastic animals used as mediaeval heraldic devices, eg. the griffon.

    Mukha

    Mukha means face or mask or even maw.  A mukha is an architectural or decorative motif that is placed above openings as a form of protection.  It is also known as makara vakstra, and is often the central feature in the elaborate cloth door hanging known as a toran.   A particular type is known as the Face of Glory or Kirtimukha.   It is a demonic mask of great ferocity with protruding eyeballs, stout horns, and a gaping maw with prominent fangs or canine teeth.  Kirtimukhas often appear above gates, dormer windows,  archways and so on. They often have garlands or festoons issuing from the mouth.  
    It is also referred to as Simha-mukha (lion-mask) in literature, and the stylized lion's face can be traced to the Persian lion-faces which appear for the first time in India on Mauryan (eg. Ashoka) pillar capitals. It is referred to as Grasamukha in western India, Rahumukha in eastern India, and as Kala in the Southeast Asian countries.  
    It may be related to the Mask of Medusa as it was used in Greek and Roman architecture. Gorgon heads with their terrific faces were carved on gates and walls of forts, palaces, and temples to ward off enemies and other dangers.  Similar decorative devices were also used by the Scythians, the Chinese, and appear all over the world.  In Britain, for example, there is the Green Man mask hiding in corners of Gothic cathedrals.

    The Kirtimukha is generally considered symbolic of the destructive power of Shiva Mahabhairav  (very wrathful) -- destroyer of demons.  It is seen by Hindus as symbolic of the glory of divine power which generates creation but is also the source of destruction.  For Buddhists it is a symbol of Impermanence --  the face of the demon grasping the Wheel of Samsara.  However, alone, it is an auspicious mark of the activity of Dharma Protection.

    Some see in the Kirtimukha, the eclipse demon Rahu who had no body according to Indian mythology.  Eclipses are almost never considered good omens and often are interpreted as portents of disaster.  Considering the ancient homeopathic principle that we can treat "like with like" then we can understand why Kirtimukhas are believed to ward off evil, especially such forces of destruction as fire and earthquake.  
    V. S. Agrawala says that kirti denotes an excavated chamber, and so Kirtimukha signifies its façade. ~ Rajaram Hegde on-line. Not available, Feb. 2005.  
    Kirtimukha often appears as a subtle motif in the embroideries, and traditional Tibetan Buddhist hangings and banners that decorate shrine rooms and temples.  For some, they still serve in a magical capacity to ward off evil, for others they are only an auspicious motif.  Most people do not even realize the mask is there. 


    See: http://www.pittsburghts.org/downloads/winter2006.pdf The predator turning back on itself. Andrew Nesky At the center of creation lies a hunger – a predator intent on its next meal. Some have called it Ouroboros others have called it Kirtimukha (Face of Glory) - its significance is that in its last act of perfect hunger it begins to eat itself. What is this beast and what does it mean for us? Join Theosophical Society President Andrew Nesky for a Socratic investigation into… the hunger.


    Kirtimukha at Kasivisvesvara Temple at LakkundiGadag districtKarnataka, India

    Kirtimukha above a Hindu temple entrance in Kathmandu, Nepal
    Kirtimukha (Sanskrit kīrtimukha, mistakenlyalso kīrttimukha, a bahuvrihi compound translating to "glorious face") is the name of a swallowing fierce monster face with huge fangs, and gaping mouth, quite common in the iconography of Indian and Southeast Asiantemple architecture. In Southeast Asia it is often referred to as Kala and in China it is known as T'ao t'ieh (Monster of Greed).

    Origin and characteristics

    The word mukha in Sanskrit refers to the face while kīrti means "fame, glory". Kirtimukha has its origin in a legend from the Skanda Puranawhen Jalandhara, an all-devouring monster created from Shiva's third eye willingly ate his body starting by its tail as per Lord Shiva's order, who pleased with the result gave it the name face of glory. Some authors have compared the Kirtimukha myth with the Greek myth of Ouroboros.
    The Kirtimukha is often used as a decorative motif surmounting the pinnacle of a temple or the image of a deity, especially in South Indianarchitecture. This face is sometimes assimilated to, or confused with, another sculptural element, the lion face (Simhamukha). However, in order to be a Kirtimukha it has to be engaged in swallowing, for the Kirtimukha is the figure of the "all consuming"This monstrous face with bulging eyes sits also as an embellishment over the lintel of the gate to the inner sanctum in many Hindu temples signifying the reabsorption that marks the entry into the temple.[6] Mostly it is only a face, although in some places its arms are portrayed as well.
    The Kirtimukha as a decorative motif can be compared to the angels depicted on church lintels, representing the angel guarding the Garden of Eden as mentioned in Genesis 3:24.

    Kirtimukha at Amruteshvara temple in AnnigeriDharwad district, Karnataka state, India
    Kirtimukha at Amruteshwara temple in AmruthapuraChikkamagaluru districtKarnataka state, India
    Kirtimukha at Kasi Visveshvara temple in Lakkundi, Gadag district, Karnataka state, India
    Kala-Makara, a Kirtimukha of 9th century Javanese SailendraBorobudur portal, Indonesia
    Kirtimukha at Prasat Kok Po AAngkorSiemreapCambodia. 9th century
    Khmer Kirtimukha lintel at Vat Kralanh, Cambodia, Baphuon, Angkor style, 11th century
    Kirtimukha at Siddhesvara temple in Haveri, Karnataka state, India
    Thai Kirtimukha at 'Wat Baan Ping' in Chiang MaiThailand
    Kirtimukha at Mukteshvara Temple in BhubaneshwarOdisha (India)
    Kirtimukha at Parashurameshvara Temple in BhubaneshwarOdisha (India)

    कीर्ति [p= 285,1]f. ( Pa1n2. 3-3 , 97 ; fr. √2. कृ) mention , making mention of , speech , report RV. x , 54 , 1 AV. S3Br. &c; good report , fame , renown , glory AV. S3Br. TUp. Mn. &c; Fame (personified as daughter of दक्ष and wifeof धर्म) MBh. Hariv. VP.; lustre L.; = प्रसाद (favour) or प्रासाद (a palace) L.; an edifice, palace, temple, Inscr.; N. of one of the मातृकाs (or personified divine energies of कृष्ण) L.

    September 25, 2017


    Location: Ellora, Aurangabad District, Maharashtra State, India
    Site: Ellora
    Monument/Object: Ellora Caves complex, Cave 16 ("Kailasanatha Temple"), column, relief sculpture
    Current Location: same as site location
    Subject: narrative scenes and kirtimukha
    Locator Information: interior, mandapa, south wall, back, right wall
    Period: Rastrakuta
    Date: ca. 3rd quarter of 8th century CE
    Religious Affiliation: Hindu
    Material: stone
    Scan Number: 7916
    Photo Date: 1970
    Copyright: Huntington, John C. and Susan L.
    Image Source: Huntington Archive
    Location: Faridpur District, Dhaka Division, Bangladesh
    Site: Faridpur District
    Monument/Object: stele, sculpture
    Current Location: Bangladesh National Museum (formerly Dhaka Museum), Dhaka City, Bangladesh
    Subject: Marici, kirtimukha
    Photo Depicts: bottom section, center, kirtimukha
    Period: Pala (Bangladesh)
    Date: ca. 8th - 12th century CE
    Material: stone, black
    Scan Number: 13184
    Photo Date: 1984
    Image Source: Huntington Archive

    Location: Dhaka District, Dhaka Division, Bangladesh
    Site: Dhaka District
    Monument/Object: stele, sculpture
    Current Location: Bangladesh National Museum (formerly Dhaka Museum), Dhaka City, Bangladesh
    Subject: Surya, kirtimukha
    Photo Depicts: top section, kirtimukha
    Period: Pala (Bangladesh)
    Date: ca. 8th - 12th century CE
    Material: stone, black
    Scan Number: 13267
    Photo Date: 1984
    Image Source: Huntington Archive

    Location: Maladevi Temple, Gyaraspur, Vidisha Dt., Madhya Pradesh, India
    Site: Maladevi Temple
    Subject: kirtimukha
    Locator Information: lower right of goddess
    Period: Rajput Dynasties, north India (dynasty unknown)
    Scan Number: 14091
    Photo Date: 1984
    Image Source: Huntington Archive

    Location: Maladevi Temple, Gyaraspur, Vidisha Dt., Madhya Pradesh, India
    Site: Maladevi Temple
    Subject: kirtimukha
    Locator Information: lower right of goddess
    Period: Rajput Dynasties, north India (dynasty unknown)
    Scan Number: 14092
    Photo Date: 1984
    Image Source: Huntington Archive

    Location: Jawa Timur, Java, Indonesia
    Site: Jawa Timur
    Monument/Object: Candi Singasari
    Current Location: same as site location
    Subject: Kirtimukha
    Locator Information: exterior, west face, above lower door
    ate: 770 - 870 CE
    Religious Affiliation: Hindu
    Scan Number: 52204
    Copyright: Huntington, John C. and Susan L.
    Image Source: Huntington Archive

     
    Gaṇeśa Mūrti at Khajuraho India
    Image result for gunung kawi ganesa
    Related imageIndonesia, Bali, Ubud, Ganesha, hindu god with an elephant head
    Image result for gunung kawi ganesa Gaṇeśa Mūrti.  Pura Gunung Kawi Sebatu Temple, Tegallelang

    Gunung Kawi

    Gunung Kawi is an 11th-century temple and funerary complex in Tampaksiring.  north east of Ubud in BaliIndonesia.,that is spread across either side of the Pakerisan river. It comprises 10 rock-cut candi (shrines) that are carved into some 7-metre-high (23 ft) sheltered niches of the sheer cliff face. These funeral monuments are thought to be dedicated to King Anak Wungsu of the Udayana dynasty and his favourite queens. On the east side there are five temples that are dedicated, according to one theory, to King Udayana, his queen Mahendradatta, and their sons Airlanga, Anak Wungsu, and Marakata. The temples on the west side are dedicated, according to the same theory, to the king's minor queens or concubines.
    Inscription: on the north shrine (east side) a legible inscription reads: "Haji Lumahing Jalu," meaning "the king made a temple here."



    Tampaksiring

    With its extraordinary, pre-Hindu candi temple complex Gunung Kawi and the holy springs of Tirta Empul, Tampaksiring still breathes the atmosphere of ancient legends and long lost tales of forgotten Balinese kings who lived in an obscure but important period of Balinese history.

    The candis of Gunung Kawi

    At one of the junctions of the busy main street of Tampaksiring a sign reads, “Objek Wisata Gunung Kawi”. The side street leads to a small parking, a little laid back from the main street of the village. From there a stone paved path leads down into the valley of the sacred river Pakerisan, with stunning rice field views on the way.
    Gunung Kawi Tampaksiring
    Before long one reaches a small stone gateway which gives access to the remarkable, ancient candi temple complex of Tampaksiring, which borders the sacred river Pakerisan. The ten candis of Gunung Kawi represent the largest and the best preserved examples of the 15 candis presently known in Bali. It’s very likely that there are more of these typical candis in Bali, buried by a succession of seismic events and landslides, awaiting discovery.
    The term candi refers to the abode of Candika, Goddess of Death, and consort of Lord Siva. The rock-hewn candis are a wholly Balinese phenomenon, unknown elsewhere in the world.
    However, they take their general form from the free-standing candis of East Java, which show very similar architectural forms and decorations. Also the candi constructions show strong Indic influences, as this type of extremely labor-intensive, rock-hewn construction is fairly common in India.
    The candis of Gunung Kawi are believed to be constructed in the 11th century (1080 AD) by king Anak Wungsu in honor of his father, the great Balinese ruler Udayana. Contrary to what is often believed, the candis are not tombs, for they have never contained human remains or ashes.
    In this respect they are rather considered to be symbolic secular accommodations to house the members of the defied royal family when they are invited down during temple festivals, similar to the rites that are still held today during the temple festivals of ‘modern’ Balinese Hinduism, as shaped by Nirartha in the 16th century.
    The candis at Tampaksiring are divided into three separate sections. Four minor candis of Tampaksiring can be found at one side of the river, five major ones at the other side and, often overlooked by visiors, a tenth candi a little laid back from these major and minor clusters. There is evidence that the candis of Tampaksiring were probably once protected within two massive rock-hewn cloisters. In shape the candis resemble small buildings surmounted by massive three-tiered roofs bearing nine stylized lingam-yoni fertility symbols. Each candi actually looks like a doorway, carved in relief, but going nowhere. Instead, there is a small chamber beneath the candi, accessed by a sloping shaft from the front, in which a stone plaque (peripih) with nine holes containing symbolic offerings of food and metal objects, representing the necessities of earthly existence, was placed.
    Gunung Kawi
    Above each doorway is a panel that bears an inscription, written in the striking quadrate script that briefly characterized East Javanese Kadiri monuments during the 11th Century. Although few decipherable remnants have survived, this provides the clearest evidence of when Gunung Kawi of Tampaksiring was constructed.
    Symmetrically flanking the candis are large spaces, often divided into three sections by pillars. Some exceed eight meters in length by three meters deep, with lofty, vaulted ceilings rising to more than two and a half meters in height. Furthermore there are 34 other rock-hewn structures in the area.
    Also there is evidence that provisions have been made in its construction for water to be directed towards the candis, and from there into sluices and spouts. As in Balinese Hinduism it is believed that when water has flowed over a candi it has become imbued with divine properties through contact with the essence of the resident deity, this accounts for the fact that even today Gunung Kawi of Tampaksiring remains an important source for the holy water that has always been central to Hindu Balinese rites.
    pre-Hindu Gunung Kawi temple
    Apart from the candis themselves, there are room-like structures that all share certain common features. These structures may be classified into three types. The simplest of these chambers comprises a single space. Next come similar spaces, which also have leading from them a second, closed chamber. The third category consists of in total ten chambers that are closed off by a front wall that has both a central doorway and an elongated horizontal window opening. They also have a closed chamber with a deeply incised false window niche that is symmetrically placed to match the real window. Many of the closed side chambers possess remarkably resonant acoustics, perfect for spiritual meditation intended to tune in to specific energy vibrations.
    The candis of Tampaksiring however are still surrounded with mystery in respect with their actual, intentional purpose. It is very tempting to assume that at the time of their construction these structures were designed for pure spiritual purposes, as opposed to the Hindu rituals of today which are generally performed and attended for the sake of the ceremonies themselves, and its rich symbolism generally interpreted literally instead of traced back to its true, spiritual meaning.
    https://www.wonderfulbali.com/tampaksiring-gunung-kawi-temple/

    The Bhusak temple, which was said to have originated from Basuki, the king of serpents used as a rope when Vishnu used to 'milk the sea of milk' to get Amrita, was said to have been built between the 14th and 17th centuries.
    The temple is located 900 m above sea level on the highest Mount Agung (14,142m) in Bali, divided into three main areas.
    Pura Penataran Agung, dedicated to Sang Hyang Widi Wasa, Pura Dangin Kreteg, dedicated to Brahma, Pura Batu, dedicated to Vishnu, Madeg).



    Goa Gajah temple, Gunung Kawi, Bali, Indonesia
    Turning to the left, I can see why I used the term Gunung, which means Mount, and Kawi, which means carving. http://blog.daum.net/u-minam/147

    There is a bathhouse in the center and a small cave at the end of the square. It is a cave temple named Gajah Cave (Goa). The entrance to the cave is Kirtimukha (鬼 面 相), which means 'the face of glory', which acts as a guardian. Once inside the cave there is a son Ganesha with a symbol of Shiva, Linga and an elephant nose.
    Related image

    Close-up of statue of Barong Lion Guard against sunlit jungle on background. Stone image of ancient mythological creature standing in middle of green rainforest. Bali, Indonesia.
    https://d2v9y0dukr6mq2.cloudfront.net/video/thumbnail/NjvB6BIPg/videoblocks-close-up-of-statue-of-barong-lion-guard-against-sunlit-jungle-on-background-stone-image-of-ancient-mythological-creature-standing-in-middle-of-green-rainforest-bali-indonesia-camera-stays-still_b_frnktopx_thumbnail-full01.png
    Image result for gunung kawi ganesa
    https://thumb10.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/1302100/509927113/stock-photo-bali-stone-statue-gunung-kawi-sebatu-island-of-bali-509927113.jpg
    Image result for gunung kawi ganesa
    Gaṇeśa Mūrti  at Goah Gajah
    Related image
    http://dbijapkm3o6fj.cloudfront.net/resources/2084,1004,1,6,4,0,600,450/-4601-/20150325214845/goa-gajah.jpeg

    SRI GANAPATI SANG PENJAGA GERBANG SINGHASARIArca Ganapati. Uknown place.SRI GANAPATI SANG PENJAGA GERBANG SINGHASARIArca Ganapati. Gunung Semeru mountain, Laiden
    "Arca SRI GANAPATI Karangkates is a collection of symbols about spiritual nobility and spiritual behavior, not an idol worshiped by human beings.
    SRI GANAPATI SANG PENJAGA GERBANG SINGHASARI
    Born on April 18, 1983, the author is the original son of Karangkates Village, the son of Mr. H.M Sugiyo and Mrs. Hj. Habibah Winartik. Currently the author who has the long name of April Suprayogik is active as General Kaur in Karangkates village office.
    https://gerbangdharma.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/sri-ganapati-sang-penjaga-gerbang-singhasari/"
    SRI GANAPATI SANG PENJAGA GERBANG SINGHASARI
    SRI GANAPATI SANG PENJAGA GERBANG SINGHASARI
    SRI GANAPATI SANG PENJAGA GERBANG SINGHASARI
    13th cent. Ganapati statue (+3 m. high, Gaṇeśa standing) in Karangkates Malang East Java; lapel decorated with skulls.
    Gaṇeśa in wayang of Śiva Gaṇa
    https://gerbangdharma.wordpress.com/2016/04/18/sri-ganapati-sang-penjaga-gerbang-singhasari/

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    ED attaches assets worth 12 crore in Rajasthan scam linked to Chidambaram's son

     | Updated: Apr 4, 2017, 04:07 IST
    NEW DELHI: The Enforcement Directorate on Monday attached assets worth around Rs 12 crore in connection with the '108 Ambulance Service' scam in Rajasthan in which the CBI registered an FIR against former chief minister Ashok Ghelot in 2015.



    Apart from Gehlot, the other accused in the case are Karti Chidambaram, son of former finance minister P Chidambaram, and Congress member Sachin Pilot. The two were directors in Ziqitza Healthcare Ltd, the firm which was awarded the contract to run the ambulance service.




    Pilot and Karti Chidambaram have since claimed that they resigned as directors from Ziqitza Healthcare in 2010. The ED claimed Ziqitza Healthcare made illegal gains of Rs 23 crore from the contract.

    The ED registered a money laundering case against all the accused mentioned in the CBI FIR of August 2015. Gehlot, the then CM, and Daru Miya, the then state health minister, were accused of criminal conspiracy and cheating along with Pilot, Karti Chidambaram, Krishna and Mangal.

    Ziqitza has been accused of submitting exaggerated invoices, making claims on behalf of non-operated vehicles and fake multiple trips. The company has also been accused of generation of fictitious reports to claim operation of the ambulance service. "Due to these irregularities committed during execution of '108 Ambulance Service' in Rajasthan, Ziqitza Healthcare Ltd made illegal gains to the tune of Rs 23 crore," the ED said in its investigation report. The illegal gains acquired by Ziqitza and its directors were the proceeds of crime, the agency noted. Its investigation further found that funds were laundered through the accounts of the company in acquiring movable and immovable assets.



    The ED's property attachment order has also been served to Karti Chidambaram, mentioned in the order as independent director of Ziqitiza Healthcare headquartered in Dadar (West), Mumbai.

    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ed-attaches-assets-worth-12-crore-in-rajasthan-scam-linked-to-chidambarams-son/articleshow/57999753.cms

    ED attaches Rs 1.16 crore assets of Karti Chidambaram, firm allegedly linked to him

     | Sep 25, 2017, 14:22 IST

    HIGHLIGHTS

    • The ED attached assets worth Rs 1.16 crore of Karti in connection with its probe in the Aircel-Maxis deal.
    • Another Rs 26 lakh deposits in the name of a firm ASCPL has also been attached.
    • This firm is allegedly linked to Karti and the ED said it was "controlled" by him through another person.


    NEW DELHI: The Enforcement Directorate on Monday attached assets worth Rs 1.16 crore of Karti Chidambaram, son of former finance minister P Chidambaram, and a firm allegedly linked to him in connection with its money laundering probe in the Aircel-Maxis deal.

    The agency said it has issued a provisional attachment order under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) attaching assets "of Karti in the form of fixed deposits and balance in saving bank account to the tune of Rs 90 lakh approximately."


    The central probe agency added that another Rs 26 lakh fixed deposits in the name of a firm Advantage Strategic Consulting Private Limited (ASCPL) has also been attached under provisions of the anti-money laundering law.

    This firm is allegedly linked to Karti and the Enforcement Directorate said it was "controlled" by him through another person.
    he ED also alleged that Karti had "disposed" off a property in Gurugram and had "closed certain bank accounts and attempted to close other bank accounts in order to frustrate the process of attachment" under the PMLA.


    The agency is probing the Aircel-Maxis deal after taking cognisance of a CBI FIR in the case.
    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ed-attaches-rs-1-16-crore-assets-of-karti-chidambaram-firm-allegedly-linked-to-him/articleshow/60825735.cms

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    https://tinyurl.com/yazox3rt

    Two distinctive Bhāratīya architectural traditions are 1. vyāḷa, and 2. makara to embellish temple doorways, arches and pillars. 

    This mongraph traces these traditions to two Indus Script hypertexts in two sections. Both hypertexts are related to metalwork creation of wealth by artisans of Sarasvati Civilization.

                 Section 1. vyāḷa > n. < vyāḷa. [Kannada. yāḷi.] 1. A mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks

                 Section 2. makara 'composite animal, crocodile, fish-fin' rebus: dhamaka 'blacksmith'; dhmakara 'forge-blower'

    Section 1. vyāḷa > n. < vyāḷa. [Kannada. yāḷi.] 1. A mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks

    vyāḷa with tiger face and pronounced feline paws is a hypertext signified on Gardez Gaeśa Mūrti. 

    The combination of Gaeśa's elephant trunk and the tiger face with feline paws is the Indus Script hypertext which is the model for the architectural splendour of vyāḷa seen in hundreds of temples in India and Southeast Asia.


    A tiger ligatured with cobra hoods signified on the broad strap worn by Gardez Gaṇeśa Mūrti. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' PLUS phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' PLUS paṭṭaḷe 'broad strap around the waist' rebus: phaḍa 'metals manufactory' paṭṭaḍe 'metals workshop'. panja 'claw of beast' rebus: panja 'kiln'. I submit that this is hypertext of Indus Script Cipher to signify dhamma samjñā 'responsibility indicator' or functions assigned to Gaṇeśa as the Superintendent of metalwork artisans. 

    వ్యాళము (p. 1236) vyāḷamu or వ్యాడము vyāḷamu. [Skt.] n. A snake, సర్పము. A tiger, పులి. Any beast of prey. వ్యాఘ్రాదిదుష్టమృగము. A vicious elephant. దుష్టగజము. వ్యాళగ్రాహి or వ్యాళగ్రాహుడు vyāḷa-grāhi. n. A snake catcher. పాములవాడు. వ్యాళి vyāḷi. A female snake, పెంటిసర్పము. "రాజసేవామనుష్యాణామసిధారావలేహనం పంచాననపరిష్వంగో వ్యాలయీపదనంచుంబనం." 

    ஆளி āḷi (p. 36) , s. a lion, சிங்கம்; 2. governor, ruler, ஆள்பவன்; 3. embankment, கரை; 4. oyster, மட்டி; 5. linseed see ஆழி; 6. appell. aff. mas. & fem. siginfying owner, possessor, manager etc. es, பகையாளி, நோயாளி, பாட் டாளி, படிப்பாளி, etc. யாளி yāḷi (p. 317) , s. the lion, சிங்கம்; 2. a fabulous animal like a lion with an elephant's proboscis; 3. Leo of the Zodiac, சிம்ம ராசி; 4. a small vessel for casting water to wet the sail of a dhoney or for lading outbilgewater, இறை பட்டை. யாளி யூர்தி, Durga as lion-borne. (Fabricius)

    யாளவரி yāḷa-vari n. < vyāḷa 

    yāḷi யாளி yāḷi n. < vyāḷa. [K. yāḷi.] 1. A mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks; யானையின் தந்தமும் துதிக்கையுஞ் சிங்கத்தின் முகமுமுடையதாகக் கருதப் படும் மிருகம். உழுவையும் யாளியு முளியமும் (குறிஞ் சிப். 252). 2. Lion; சிங்கம். (அக. நி.) 3. Leo of the zodiac; சிங்கராசி. (சூடா.) 4. See யாளிப் பட்டை. (யாழ். அக.) 5. Elephant; யானை. (அக. நி.)

    யாளிக்கால் yāḷi-k-kāl n. < யாளி + கால்¹. Leg of stand, etc., shaped like a yāḷi; யாளி வடிவிற்செய்த பாதம். (S. I. I. ii, 5.) 

    யாளிலலாடம் yāḷi-lalāṭam n. < id. + lalāṭa. The capital of a pillar, shaped like a yāḷi; யாளியுருவமைந்த தூணின்நெற்றி.

    Ta. yāḷi, āḷi a lion; a mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks. Ma. yār̤i lion; panther; āḷi a fabulous animal. (DEDR 5158).

    व्याल (p. 456) vyāla m S A serpent. (Marathi)

    Vāḷa1 [cp. late Sk. vyāḍa, see Geiger, P.Gr. § 546] 1. a snake Vism 312 (so read for vaḷa). -- 2. a beast of prey A iii.102 (amanussa); J i.295; iii.345 (˚macchā predaceous fishes); Miln 23 (˚vana forest of wild beasts).   -- miga a beast of prey, predaceous animal, like tiger, leopard, etc. J vi.569; DhA i.171 (˚ṭṭhāna); iii.348 (˚rocanā); Vism 180, 239. Vāla2 (adj.) [cp. Sk. vyāla] malicious, troublesome, difficult Vin ii.299 (adhikaraṇa).(Pali)

    vyāˋla ʻ wicked, mischievous ʼ AV., m. ʻ beast of prey ʼ Gaut., ʻ snake ʼ MBh., ʻ vicious elephant ʼ lex., vyāḍa<-> ʻ malicious ʼ lex., m. ʻ beast of prey ʼ R. 2. *víyāla -- 1. Pa. vāla -- ʻ malicious ʼ, vāḷa -- m. ʻ beast of prey, snake ʼ, vāḷa -- miga -- m. ʻ beast of prey (such as tiger, leopard, &c.) ʼ; Pk. vāla -- m. ʻ noxious wild animal, snake ʼ; M. vāḷʻ ejected from caste ʼ; Si. vaḷa ʻ tiger ʼ.
    2. NiDoc. vyalaviyala ʻ wild, unmanageable (of camels) ʼ Burrow KharDoc 121 (rejected by H. Lüders BSOS viii 647); Pk. viyāla -- ʻ wicked ʼ, m. ʻ thief ʼ; Si. viyala ʻ tiger, panther, snake ʼ (← Sk.?).(CDIAL 12212)


    व्याड [p= 1036,3] mfn. (said to be fr. 3. वि+- √अड् ; cf. व्याल) malicious , mischievous L. (with loc. ,g. शौण्डा*दि); m. a beast of prey MBh. R. Ma1rkP.; m. a snake L.; m. " a rogue " or " a jackal "(= वञ्चकL.; m. N. of इन्द्र L.; व्याल [p= 1038,2] mfn. (prob. connected with व्याड q.v.) mischievous , wicked , vicious AV. Ka1v.Katha1s.; m. (ifc. f().) a vicious elephant , Ka1v.; m. a beast of prey Gaut. MBh. &c; m. a snake MBh. Ka1v. &c; a tiger; a lion; m. a hunting leopard L.; m. the second दृकाण (q.v.) in Cancer , the first in Scorpio , and the third in Pisces VarBr2S.; n. N. of one of the three retrograde stages in the motion of the planet Mars VarBr2S.


    yāḷi யாளி are ligatured sculptures and have the trunk of an elephant, body of a bull, head of a lion, horns of a ram, and the ears of a rhinoceros
    airavatesvara templeYali and Makara guarding the temple entrance. Both are ligatured representations of metalwork and metal casting. Hieroglyphs: barad 'bull' Rebus: bharat 'alloy of copper, tin, pewter' (Marathi). ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron' (Santali) arye 'lion' Rebus: āra 'brass'. kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi)  kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’ (kāṇḍā mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil)miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: meḍh ‘helper of merchant’ (Gujarati) meḍ iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mundaayo ‘fish’ Rebus: ayo, ayas ‘metal. Thus, together read rebus: ayo meḍh  ‘iron stone ore, metal merchant.’

    darasuram airavatesvara temple
    Airāvateśvara temple pillar. Sculpture of yāḷi யாளி

    yāḷi யாளி yāḷi n. < vyāḷa. [K. yāḷi.] pillars in a small open mantapa. Vitthala temple complex in Hampi 16th cent. 

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    yāḷi யாளி yāḷi n. < vyāḷa. [K. yāḷi.]  sri ranganatha temple, Srirangam,Tiruchchirappalli ,Tamil Nadu, India

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    yāḷi யாளி yāḷi n. < vyāḷa. [K. yāḷi.]  Temple pillars, Kailasanatha temple, Kanchipuram.

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    yāḷi யாளி yāḷi n. < vyāḷa. [K. yāḷi.] 

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    yāḷi யாளி yāḷi n. < vyāḷa. [K. yāḷi.] Bhdiśvara temple, Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. 11th cent.

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