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- 09/07/17--20:24: _Mlecchita vikalpa, ...
- 09/08/17--17:37: _Indian theories of ...
- 09/08/17--20:29: _Former State Dept d...
- 09/08/17--22:39: _Hieroglyphs on bone...
- 09/09/17--04:54: _Dear Liberals, Don'...
- 09/09/17--06:42: _The great antiques ...
- 09/09/17--20:02: _Semantics of kunda ...
- 09/09/17--21:57: _Glyphs for syllable...
- 09/09/17--22:28: _Five Nagara temple ...
- 09/10/17--07:12: _Robert Vadra used d...
- 09/10/17--22:17: _Indus Script hypert...
- 09/11/17--03:17: _Mātrkā, Ganeśa, Ind...
- 09/11/17--10:38: _Indus Script Corpor...
- 09/11/17--18:59: _Hayagrīva and Gaṇeś...
- 09/12/17--04:41: _ati rūpam is origin...
- 09/12/17--07:20: _Many forms of Tridh...
- 09/12/17--16:33: _Lothal painted vess...
- 09/12/17--17:02: _Birthplace of Austr...
- 09/12/17--18:51: _A history of Pingal...
- 09/12/17--23:38: _"A wretched scribe,...
- Conceptualization by the speaker (Paśyantī "idea")
- Performance of speaking (Madhyamā "medium")
- Comprehension by the interpreter (Vaikharī "complete utterance").
- 09/08/17--20:29: Former State Dept diplomat on Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar
- Fish on miniature tablets, Harappa
- (a) H-302; (b) 3452; after Vats 1940: II, 452 B. Parpola, 1994, p. 194.
- Fish-shaped tablet (3428), Harappa with incised text; eye is a dotted circle; after Vats 1940: II, pl. 95, no.428; Parpola, 1994, p. 194.
- 09/09/17--06:42: The great antiques heist in Punjab
- According to the Punjab Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1964, “antiquity” means any coin, sculpture, manuscript, epigraph, or other work of art or craftsmanship, any article which has been in existence for not less than 100 years
- The government has the power to direct that any antiquity or any class of antiquities shall not be moved from the original location except with the written permission of the director
- The government has the power to make an order for compulsory purchase of antiques
- Hetvārtha (extension of argument) The purpose achieved by the Corpora is to covey messages about the technical specifications of products (packages or cargo) which are authenticated by the messages
- Padārtha (import of words) The import of words conveyed by the hieroglyphs read rebus is to specify the resources used: e.g. minerals, furnaces or smelters used in creating the product (either an ingot or alloy of minerals or implement or weapon or a cire perdue casting in metal)
- Pradeśa (poetic adumbration) Some inscriptions are composed of narratives as semantic determinants (e.g. a tiger looking backwards connotes kola ‘tiger’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron’ PLUS krammara ‘look backwards’ rebus: kamar ‘artisan, smith’; thus signifying an artisan working in iron).
- Uddheśa (concise statement) Some inscriptions are just composite heads of animals joined to an animal or bovine body. The concise statement intends to signify three minerals which compose the product or package or cargo (e.g. combined animal with bovine body and heads of antelope, one-horned young bull, ox each signifying ranku ‘antelope’ rebus: ranku ‘tin’ PLUS 'konda 'young bull' Rebus: kondar 'turner' PLUS barad, barat ‘ox’ rebus: bharat ‘alloy of pewter, copper, tin’).
- Nirdeśa (amplification) Some inscriptions contain phonetic or semantic orthographic deteminatives to amplify the message conveyed (e.g. body of a person with legs spread out signifies two rebus renderings: meD ‘body’ rebus: meD ‘iron, copper’ karNika ‘legs spread out’ rebus: karNI ‘supercargo, engraver, scribe, account’ A Supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. Thus, the Supercargo is signified as in control of iron/metal merchandise on a seafaring ship.
- Vākyaśeṣa (supply of ellipsis -- the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues.) Some inscriptions signify ‘fish’ as a hieroglyph. In the context of Supercargo’s responsibility, the ‘fish’ hieroglyph may have orthographic accent on ‘fins’ of fish which signify: 'khambhaṛā'‘fish fin’ rebus: kammaṭa ‘portable furnace to melt metals, mint, coiner, coinage’ PLUS ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’.
- Prayojana (purpose) The purpose of the entire Indus Script Corpora is to document the products which are merchandise for exchange with contact areas and provide explanatory messages to the trade representatives such as Meluhha colonies in Ancient Near East or along the Persian Gulf metalwork sites.
- Upadeśa (instruction) An example may be cited to explain how the instruction is achieved on Indus Script Corpora. A statue of a priest of Mohenjo-daro is shown wearing a fillet (dotted circle PLUS string) on the forehead and on right-shoulder. The message signified is: dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelter' with Indus script hieroglyphs signifies पोतृ,'
purifier' of dhāū, dhāv 'red stone minerals'. The compound phrase is broken up into two segments: dhā̆v ‘strand’ rebus: dhā̆v, dhAtu ‘mineral’ PLUS -vaḍ ‘string’ rebus: వటగ 'clever, skilful' i..e. a person skilled in smelting minerals, hence an iron (red ore) smelter.
- Apadeśa (advancement of reason) The choice of hieroglyphs in Indus Script Corpora is to avoid ambiguities in expressions. Thus, hieroglyphs such as elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, buffalo, fish are incorporated in inscriptions to signify: karibha ‘trunk of elephant’ rebus: karba ‘iron’ ibha ‘elephant’ rebus: ib ‘iron’, gaNDa ‘rhinoceros’ rebus: khaNDA ‘implements’, kola ‘tiger’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron’, kolle ‘blacksmith’ kolhe ‘smelter’, ranga ‘buffalo’ rebus: ranga ‘pewter’, ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’. These are further complemented by other hieroglyphs such as standing person with legs spread, rim-of-jar to signify meD ‘body’ rebus: meD ‘iron’ PLUS karNika ‘legs spread out’ rebus: karNIka ‘Supercargo, engraver, scribe, account’; kanka, karNika ‘rim of jar’ rebus: karNI ‘Supercargo’ karNIka ‘engraver, scribe, account’ PLUS kanda ‘pot’ rebus: kanda ‘fire-altar’ khaNDa ‘implements’.
- Atideśa (indication or application) On some inscriptions, an additional orthographic device is used to indicate that a metal implement is the product being managed by a Supercargo. Thus, on a Chanhudaro seal, the double-axe signifies a metal axe.
- Arthāpatti (implication)
- Nirṇaya (decision)
- Ekānta (categorical statement or invariable rule)
- Naikānta / anekānta / anekārtha (comprising statement) Using the pectoral example this tantrayukti can be demonstrated. The message conveyed: kan.d. kan-ka 'rim of jar'(Santali)karn.aka 'ear or rim of jar' (Sanskrit) kan.d. 'pot' (Santali)Rebus: karan.ika 'writer' (Telugu). kan.d.'fire-altar' (Santali).করণিক [karaṇika] n an office-clerk, a clerk. কারণিক [kāraṇika] a pertaining to cause, causal; ex amining, judging. n. an examiner; a judge; a clerk (Bengali). खनक [Monier-Williams lexicon, p= 336,3]m. one who digs , digger , excavator MBh. iii , 640 R.
- 09/09/17--22:28: Five Nagara temple modes -- Vajrayudha
- 09/10/17--07:12: Robert Vadra used driver, bodyguard to make Rs 4.5-cr benami profit
- 09/11/17--18:59: Hayagrīva and Gaṇeśa, akṣara mātṛkāṁ as praṇava -- Partha Desikan
- 09/12/17--07:20: Many forms of Tridhātu Gaṇapati in Bhāratīya Itihāsa
- 09/12/17--16:33: Lothal painted vessel with Indus Script hypertext
Composite animals of Indus Script corpora are hypertexts.
The cipher of the ancient writing system of Indus Script dated to ca. 3300 BCE is structured to function at two levels: 1. mlecchita vikalpa, 'alternative representation of message by mleccha'copper' workers, 'weapons makers'; and 2.vākyapadīya, 'sentences composed of words to convey meaning'.
mlecchita vikapa is characterized by indistinct speech and incorrect, ungrammatical pronunciations, i.e. vernacula, parole. This expression is used by Vātsyāyana to refer to a cipher writing system as one of the 64 arts to be learnt by youth. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mlecchita_vikalpa
vākyapadīya is meaning conveyed through a sentence composed of pada, 'sign, token, characteristic, word'. भर्तृहरि Bhartṛhari is author of the work, Vākyapadīya, 'treatise on words and sentences.'"The work is divided into three books, the Brahma-kāṇḍa, (or Āgama-samuccaya "aggregation of traditions"), the Vākya-kāṇḍa, and the Pada-kāṇḍa (or Prakīrṇaka "miscellaneous"). He theorized the act of speech as being made up of three stages:
A truly fascinating paper by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale on composite Indus creatures and their meaning: Harappa Chimaeras as 'Symbolic Hypertexts'. Some Thoughts on Plato, Chimaera and the Indus Civilization at a.harappa.com/...
Hypertext includes the following hieroglyphs rendered rebus and read as vākyapadīya, sentence composed of words : The deciphered text is: metal ingots manufactory & trade of magnetite, ferrite ore, metals mint with portable furnace, iron ores, gold, smelters' guild.
The Meluhha rebus words and meanings are given below.
1. zebu पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'magnetite, ferrite ore'
2. human face mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) ; rebus:mũh metal ingot
3. penance kamaḍha 'penance' (Prakrit) kamaḍha, kamaṭha, kamaḍhaka, kamaḍhaga, kamaḍhaya = a type of penance (Prakrit) Rebus: kamaṭamu, kammaṭamu = a portable furnace for melting precious metals; kammaṭīḍu = a goldsmith, a silversmith (Telugu) kãpṛauṭ jeweller's crucible made of rags and clay (Bi.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Tamil)
4. elephant karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant' kharva 'a nidhi of nine treasures of Kubera'
5. markhor miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.) Rebus: meḍ(Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)mẽṛh t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Mu.) Allograph: meḍ‘body ' (Mu.)
6. young bull kondh ‘young bull’ rebus: kũdār ‘turner, brass-worker, engraver (writer)’ kundana 'fine gold'
7. tiger kul 'tiger' (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'
8. Cobra hood phaḍa'throne, hood of cobra' rebus: फड, phaḍa'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'
This hieroglyph on Seal m1179 is a determinative that the message conveyed by 'composite animals' is that the locus is kole.l'temple/' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge'.
A zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat. No. 8.. पोळ [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. पोळी [ pōḷī ] dewlap. पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu, bos indicus taurus' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] '
m1186 Composite animal hieroglyph. Text of inscription (3 lines).
m0301m0302m0303m1177m0299m0300m1179 Markhor or ram with human face in composite hieroglyph
On this seal, the key is only 'combination of animals'. This is an example of metonymy of a special type called synecdoche. Synecdoche, wherein a specific part of something is used to refer to the whole, or the whole to a specific part, usually is understood as a specific kind of metonymy. Three animal heads are ligatured to the body of a 'bull'; the word associated with the animal is the intended message.The ciphertext of this composite animal is to be decrypted by rendering the sounds associated with the animals in the combination: ox, young bull, antelope. The rebus readings are decrypted with metalwork categories: barad 'ox' rebus: bharat 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'; kondh ‘young bull’ rebus: kũdār ‘turner, brass-worker, engraver (writer)’ kundana 'fine gold'; ranku 'antelope' rebus: ranku 'tin'.
The rebus readings of the hieroglyphs are: mẽḍha ‘antelope’; rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) aya 'fish'; rebus: aya 'cast metal' (G.). Fig. 96f: Failaka no. 260
pr̥ṣṭhá n. ʻ back, hinder part ʼ Rigveda; puṭṭhā m. ʻ buttock of an animal ʼ (Punjabi) Rebus: puṭhā, puṭṭhā m. ʻbuttock of an animal, leather cover of account bookʼ (Marathi) tagara 'antelope' Rebus: damgar 'merchant'. This may be an artistic rendering of a 'descendant' of a ancient (metals) merchant. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2012/05/antithetical-antelopes-of-ancient-near.html Antithetical antelopes of Ancient Near East as hieroglyphs (Kalyanaraman 2012) Hieroglyph: Joined back-to-back: pusht ‘back’; rebus: pusht ‘ancestor’. pus̱ẖt bah pus̱ẖt ‘generation to generation.’
One-horned heifer ligatured to an octopus. This composite glyph occurs on a seal (Mohenjodaro) and also on a copper plate (tablet)(Harappa). This glyph is decoded as: smithy guild in a citadel (enclosure), with a warehouse (granary), beṛhī
m297a: Seal h1018a: copper plate
A lexeme for a Gangetic/Indus river octopus is retained as a cultural memory only in Jatki (language of the Jats) of Punjab-Sindh region. The lexeme is veṛhā. A homonym closest to this is beṛā building with a courtyard (WPah.) There are many cognate lexemes in many languages of Bharat constituting a semantic cluster of the linguistic area (as detailed below). The rebus decoding of veṛhā (octopus); rebus: beṛā (building with a courtyard) is a reading consistent with (1) the decoding of the rest of the corpus of epigraphs as mleccha smith guild tokens; and (2) the archaeological evidence of buildings/workers’ platforms within an enclosed fortification on many sites of the civilization.
Many languages of Bharat, that is India, evolved from meluhha (mleccha) which is the lingua franca of the civilization. The language is mleccha vaacas contrasted with arya vaacas in Manusmruti (as spoken tongue contrasted with grammatically correct literary form, arya vaacas). The hypothesis on which decoding of Indus script is premised, is that lexemes of many Indian languages are evidence of the linguistic area of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization; the artefacts with the Indus script (such as metal tools/weapons, Dholavira signboard, copper plates, gold pendant, silver/copper seals/tablets etc.) are mleccha smith guild tokens -- a tradition which continues on mints issuing punch-marked coins from ca. 6th cent. BCE.
veṛhā octopus, said to be found in the Indus (Jaṭki lexicon of A. Jukes, 1900)
L. veṛh, vehṛ m. fencing; Mth. beṛhī granary; L. veṛhā, vehṛā enclosure containing many houses; beṛā building with a courtyard (WPah.) (CDIAL 12130)
koḍ = artisan’s workshop (Kuwi); koḍ ‘horn’ damṛa, koḍiyum ‘heifer’ (G.) rebus: tam(b)ra ‘copper’; koḍ ‘workshop’ (G.); ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.)
ḍān:gra = wooden trough or manger sufficient to feed one animal (Mundari). iṭan:kārri = a capacity measure (Ma.) Rebus: ḍhan:gar ‘blacksmith’ (Bi.)
One side (m1431B) of a four-sided tablet shows a procession of a tiger, an elephant and a rhinoceros (with fishes (or perhaps, crocodile) on top?).
khāra-basta khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji or -güjü - लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू&below;), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu - लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 - लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wānवान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.
paṭṭar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pattar merchants; perh. vartaka (Skt.)
A composite terracotta feline wearing necklace like a woman. kola 'tiger' kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Nahali (kol ‘woman’) and Santali (kul ‘tiger’; kol ‘smelter’).
http://www.harappa.com/figurines/index.html kola 'tiger' kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan
blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka.kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go.(SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge(DEDR 2133).
= म्लिष्ट Pa1n2. 7-2 , 18 Sch.; n. a foreign tongue L. म्लान n. withered or faded condition , absence of brightness or lustre VarBr2S.; mfn. faded , withered , exhausted , languid , weak , feeble MBh. Ka1v. &c; म्लेच्छ [p= 837,3] any person who does not speak Sanskrit and does not conform to the usual Hindu institutions S3Br. &c (f(ई).) म्लेच्छ--ता f. the condition of barbarian VP. म्लेच्छ--भाषा f. a foreign or barbarous language MBh. म्लेच्छ--वाच् mfn. speaking a barbarous language (i.e. not Sanskrit ; opp. to आर्य-वाच्) Mn. x , 43.
म्लेच्छ--जाति [p= 837,3] m. a man belonging to the म्लेच्छs , a barbarian , savage , mountaineer (as a किरात , शबर or पुलिन्द) MBh. म्लेच्छ--मण्डल n. the country of the म्लेच्छs or barbarian W.
म्लेच्छ a person who lives by agriculture or by making weapons L.; म्लेच्छn. copper
L.; n. vermilion L.; म्लेच्छा* ख्य [p= 838,1] n. " called म्लेच्छ " , copper L.
पद n. (rarely m.) a step , pace , stride; a footstep , trace , vestige , mark , the foot itself , RV. &c (पदेन , on foot ; पदे पदे , at every step , everywhere , on every occasion ; त्रीणि पदानि विष्णोः , the three steps or footprints of विष्णु [i.e. the earth , the air , and the sky ; cf. RV. i , 154 , 5 Vikr. i , 19], also N. of a constellation or according to some " the space between the eyebrows " ; sg. विष्णोः पदम् N. of a locality ; पदं- √दा,पदात् पदं- √गम् or √चल् , to make a step , move on ; पदं- √कृ , with loc. to set foot in or on , to enter ; with मूर्ध्नि , to set the foot upon the head of [gen.] i.e. overcome ; with चित्ते or हृदये , to take possession of any one's heart or mind ; with loc. or प्रति , to have dealings with ; पदं नि- √धा with loc. , to set foot in = to make impression upon ; with पदव्याम् , to set the foot on a person's [gen. or ibc.] track , to emulate or equal ; पदम् नि- √बन्ध् with loc. , to enter or engage in)
पद a word or an inflected word or the stem of a noun in the middle cases and before some तद्धितs Pa1n2. 1-4 , 14 &c = पद-पाठ Pra1t.
पद a sign , token , characteristic MBh. Katha1s. Pur.
पद protection L. [cf. Lat. peda ; op-pidum for op-pedum.]
वाच्[p= 936,1] f. (fr. √ वच्) speech , voice , talk , language (also of animals) , sound (also of inanimate objects as of the stones used for pressing , of a drum &c ) RV. &c (वाचम्- √ऋ , ईर् , or इष् , to raise the voice , utter a sound , cry , call); a word , saying , phrase , sentence , statement , asseveration Mn. MBh. &c (वाचं- √वद् , to speak words ; वाचं व्या- √हृ , to utter words ; वाचं- √दा with dat. , to address words to ; वाचा सत्यं- √कृ , to promise verbally in marriage , plight troth); Speech personified (in various manners or forms e.g. as वाच् आम्भृणी in RV. x , 125 ; as the voice of the middle sphere in Naigh.and Nir. ; in the वेद she is also represented as created by प्रजा-पति and married to him ; in other places she is called the mother of the वेदs and wife of इन्द्र ; in VP. she is the daughter of दक्ष and wife of कश्यप ; but most frequently she is identified with भारती or सरस्वती , the goddess of speech ; वाचः साम and वाचो व्रतम् N. of सामन्s A1rshBr. ; वाचः स्तोमः , a partic. एका*हS3rS. )
वाक्य--पदीय [p= 936,2] n. N. of a celebrated wk. on the science of grammar by भर्तृ-हरि (divided into ब्रह्म-काण्ड or आगम-समुच्चय , वाक्य-काण्ड , पद-काण्ड or प्रकीर्णक);वाक्य b [p= 936,2] a periphrastic mode of expression Pa1n2. Sch. Siddh.; a rule , precept , aphorism MW.; a sentence , period Ra1matUp. Pa1n2. Va1rtt. &c; n. (ifc. f(आ).) speech , saying , assertion , statement , command , words (मम वाक्यात् , in my words , in my name) MBh. &c; a declaration (in law) , legal evidence Mn.;an express declaration or statement (opp. to लिङ्ग , " a hint " or indication) Sarvad.; (in logic) an argument , syllogism or member of a syllogism; (in astron.) the solar process in computations MW.
Ligaturing of glyphs on the Indus script is paralleled by sculpted ligatures of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization
Glyphs on Indus script: Ligatured human body, metal wheelwright
There are many variants of this human body glyph (Sign 1, Mahadevan Indus script corpus). There are many composite glyphs with many ligatures to this human body frame.
meḍ ‘body’ (Santali) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron (metal)’ (Ho.) koṭe meṛed= forged iron (Mu.) (cf. glyph: Ka. kōḍu horn)
Vikalpa: kāṭhī = body, person; kāṭhī the make of the body; the stature of a man (G.) Rebus: khātī ‘wheelwright’ (H.)
eṛaka 'upraised arm' (Ta.); Ka.eṟake wing; rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.); eraka ‘metal infusion’ (Tu.)
Characteristic ligatures are: scarf on hair-pigtail, armlets on arms, raised arm, seated (hidden, spy?) on a tree, ligatured to buttocks (back) of a bovine, horned (often with a twig betwixt horns).
All these orthographic glyptic elements can be explained rebus as mleccha smith guild token glyphs, all in the context of a smithy/forge/smithy guild. This decoding is consistent with rebus readings of other glyphs such as ligatured tiger + eagle, tiger+ wings, tiger+ human body.
Some of these ligaturing elements and glyphs can be decoded, read rebus in mleccha lexemes.
I suggest that mlecchita vikalpa is Indus Script cipher. As a writing system, mlecchita vikalpa 'writing system' complements two other arts and sciences taught to the youth: akṣaramuṣṭika kathanam, 'messaging by wrist-finger gestures', deśa bhāṣā jñānam'knowledge of dialects', according to Vidyāsamuddeśa, objective of education detailed in a list of 64 arts by Vātsyāyana.
Kunjunni Raja provides a significant explanation for the word vikalpa in the context of a detailed narrative of ancient Indian theories of meaning or शाब्द--बोध m. "verbal knowledge" , apprehension of the meaning of words , perception of the verbal or literal sense (of a sentence &c.). "Even the Buddhists accept the relation between the śabda and the vikalpa of the mentral construct of the image, and recognize the relationship between the two." The word śabda means 'sound of word and meaning' (K. Kunjuni Raja, 1969, Indian Theories of Meaning, Adyar Library and Research Centre, p.37).
sphoṭa as a linguistic meaning-bearer is an imaging process in mental faculties resulting in vāc, 'speech'. The invention of a writing system as a linguistic device creates an image of a word by the object the sound of the word signified. Thus, a kunda'young bull' is written down (inscribed, say, on a seal or tablet) to signify the vikalpa,'mental construct of the imaged' śabda of word- kunda. Thus, kunda 'young bull' image is the mental construct of the śabda the sound with meaning 'young bull' A homonym of this word then yields the cognate word with the meaning kunda, 'fine gold'.
पश्यत् [p= 611,2]mf(अन्ती)n. seeing , beholding &c पश्यन्ती f. N. of a partic. sound L. (Monier-Williams) I suggest that the sound of a word is 'seen' as a mental contruct of an image whicgh evokes the word for communication or expression, in vāc, 'speech'. Hence, the use of this expression पश्यन्ती in ancient Indian theories of meaning.
When a young bull is signified on an Indus Script inscription, the vikalpa'mental construct of the image' is recognized (paśyantī) both by the speaker and the hearer as kundar. In the mental construct of the word image of kundar evokes the sound and meaning associated with two homonyms, kundar'young bull' and kunda'fine gold'. Thus, mlecchita vikalpa of kundar as a young bull a a signifiant, results in the sphoṭa, 'bursting forth' of kunda as 'fine gold' as the signifie 'signified'. This is the same rebus princple of representing signifier-and signified by cognate words, as used in Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Tolkāppiyan refers to all words as semantic indicatore: ellāccollum poruḷ kur̥ittanave This statement is comparable to the Mīmāmsaka-s who consider Vr̥tti (function of a word in relation to the sense) as a separate power category, padārtha,'meaning of word or thing'. This Vr̥tti evolves into the stage of vaikharī, 'the uttered expression' or 'the śabda as it is expressed as speech or noise from the throat, tongue, lips and teeth.'
"The Indian conception of the relation between śabda and artha (word and sense) is quite analogous to de Saussure's definition of a linguistic sign as a relation between the signifiant and the signifie. He says: Le signe linguistique unit non une chose et un nom, mais un concept et une image acoustique."(opcit., p.25). The hypertexts of Indus Script provide both the signifiant and the signifie when the speaker and hearer recognize the śabda with two padārtha-s, 'two meanings of word or thing'. The young bull is the thing, the rebus word is the meaning of the śabda -- kunda 'fine gold' as the mlecchavaikharī with the underlying meaning-bearer sphoṭa: ‘The sphoṭa is simply the linguistic sign in its aspect of meaning-bearer (Bedeutungstrager).’(J. Brough, ‘Theories of General Linguistics in the Sanskit grammarians’, Transaction of the Philological Society, London, 1951, p..33f.).
Hypertexts of Indus Script are vākyasphoṭa, or 'texts as meaining-bearers'.
Thus, the simple key to Indus Script Cipher is the key provided by śabda of vaikharī stage yielding two homonyms: one the signifier (hypertext) and the other the signified (accounting ledger of wealth metalwork).
kod. 'one horn'; kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.)kamarasa_la = waist-zone, waist-band, belt (Te.)kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.) [cf. the orthography of rings on the neck of one-horned young bull]. ko_d.iya, ko_d.e = young bull; ko_d.elu = plump young bull; ko_d.e = a. male as in: ko_d.e du_d.a = bull calf; young, youthful (Te.lex.) ko_d.iya, ko_d.e young bull; adj. male (e.g., ko_d.e du_d.a bull calf), young, youthful; ko_d.eka~_d.u a young man (Te.); ko_d.e_ bull (Kol.); khor.e male calf (Nk.); ko_d.i cow; ko_r.e young bullock (Kond.a); ko_d.i cow (Pe.); ku_d.i id. (Mand.); ko_d.i id., ox (Kui); ko_di cow (Kuwi); kajja ko_d.i bull; ko_d.i cow (Kuwi)(DEDR 2199). kor.a a boy, a young man (Santali) go_nde bull, ox (Ka.); go_da ox (Te.); konda_ bull (Kol.); ko_nda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.); ko_nde cow (Ga.); ko_nde_ bullock (Ga.); ko_nda_, ko_nda bullock, ox (Go.)(DEDR 2216). Rebus: kot. 'artisan's workshop'.(Kuwi)kod. = place where artisans work (G.lex.)kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165)(Kashmiri)
ko_nda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.)(DEDR 2216). Rebus: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) Grierson takes the word कन्दुः (Skt.) to be a cognate of kaNDa 'pot' rebus: kaNDa 'fire altar' (Santali)
Sarasvati Research Center
September 8, 2017
Indian Theories of Meaning - K Kunjunni Raja by granthabhandar on Scribd
Indus Script hypertexts are composed of hieroglyphs which describe goods such as minerals, metals, alloys.
A parallel writing system of Egyptian hieroglyphs evidenced on bone and ivory tags of Abydos seem to describe goods and localities. This evidence reinforces the form and function of Indus Script hypertexts which were meant to be accounting ledgers of wealth-creating activities of artisans using Bronze age minerals, metals, alloys and metal castings.
On the following examples from Harappa, fish hieroglyph signifies ayo'fish' rebus: aya 'iron'ayas'alloy metal' (Rgveda) and rimless pot hieroglyph signifies bhaṭa'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa'furnace', baṭa 'iron'. The four numeral strokes signify gaṇḍa'four' rebus: kaṇḍa'implements'. The earlierst writing at Harappa is dated to ca.3300 BCE by Harvard Archaeology Project (HARP) which pre-dates the Abydos bone, ivory tags with Egyptian hieroglyphs -- with form and function comparable to the form and function of Indus Script hypertexts..
A comparable set of hieroglyphs occur on Narmer's palette which have been deciphered as N'r M'r 'cuttle-fish PLUS awl' to signify the name of the Emperor Nar-Mer, a clear example of rebus method of writing using logographs.
Figure 5.6 Tags from Tomb U-j, Abydos. German Archeological Institute Cairo
[quote] Tombs excavated by Gunther Dreyer at Abydos in Cemeteries U and B may be those of some of the rulers preceding the 1s* Dynasty. Cemetery U contained mainly unlined
Labels from the late predynastic king's tomb U-j in Abydos. These labels made of cattle ribs were attached to grave goods and described their origin.
Ivory tags from tomb U-j.
Dear Liberals, Don't Push Your Agenda Over Gauri Lankesh's Dead Body
Gauri Lankesh's killing has provoked outrage and anguish across the country, with thousands protesting what they see as an effort to silence critics of India's ruling Hindu nationalist party.
The great antiques heist in PunjabUnchecked all the time, unnoticed at times, history is being stolen systematically
In the 1990s, it caught the attention of archaeologists. A team from the Archaeological Survey of India also carried out excavation at the site. A few months after the “exploration”, the idol went missing one night in 2003.
Rameshwar Dutt, a Sunam-based freelance archaeologist, remembers every detail. He had visited the village on the day the idol was found. Though Dutt doubts that the theft had anything to do with ASI’s visit, the villagers are sceptical.
With slight variances in the names of places and time of discovery of theft, this story is repeated in almost every town that had some ancient or medieval link. The deep-rooted nexus between antiques smugglers and the state Archaeology Department officials is once again in the spotlight after the former Director, Archaeology, Navjot Pal Singh Randhawa, confessed before the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence that he helped a smuggler buy Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanerette furniture.
“It went on for decades,” says former Punjab Museums’ Archaeological Officer-cum-curator KK Rishi.
For all these years, when antiques were being smuggled out of state museums, there was no detailed understanding of what was left and what had gone. The scale of “loss” first came to notice in 2009 when ASI, under the National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities, started keeping a register of artefacts in Punjab’s museums.
An ASI official associated with the project tells on condition of anonymity that in museum after museum they were shocked to see that only replicas were housed. “This was true for all kinds of items, whether paintings or weapons... And there was no account of coins. We noticed precious stones missing from walls and floors of preserved archaeological sites,” he says. Like the many paintings at Qila Mubarak and Sheesh Mahal museums at Patiala.
Sadly, the ASI neither brought anything on record, nor did it prepare any report about their authenticity. “We had documented just four aspects: size, colour, condition and features.
So, we didn’t make any mention of originality in the report,” explains a senior functionary from the state Archaeology Department who was associated with the project.
At the end, a total of 51,289 antiquities were documented in Punjab’s museums and sites. “Now we are not sure how many are original,” he says. Navjot Singh Sidhu, Punjab’s Tourism and Cultural Affairs Minister, agrees. He says thefts that have taken place in Punjab’s museums have been brought to his knowledge. He cites examples of daggers and miniature paintings which were taken away in the past and replaced with replicas. “But we will bring the thieves of heritage to book,” he assures.
What has been bothering archaeologists like Rishi is that when everybody knew that the thefts were taking place, why did it take five decades to make an inventory? “Officials who headed the department from time to time owe an answer. The department was established half a century back, why did it take 50 years to prepare an inventory?”
Another official, who retired recently, supports Rishi’s claim that the idea of documentation was discussed several times, but was often dismissed at the top level. “When we don’t know what we have, heist becomes easy,” says Rishi. He adds that there is a hue and cry over thefts of just items displayed in museums. What goes missing from the stores in museums goes unnoticed.
Prof Devendra Handa, former head of the Department of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology at Panjab University, agrees that nobody has checked what is lying in the stores of the museums. “Generally, it is thefts of antiquities lying in museums or at protected monuments that make news. We hardly come to know about the thefts at unprotected monuments and antiquities being taken away from private individuals by smugglers,” he says.
“It was a common phenomenon in 1980s and 1990s that officials responsible for registering antiquities lying with individuals or organisations would do private deals and gift the antiquities to their seniors from IAS and PCS cadres just to get excellent ACR reports,” says Rishi.
Prof Handa, known for his work on tribal coins, says there is evidence that the smuggling of antiquities from Punjab started during the British era.
During field trips to places around Chandigarh, he noticed several ancient sculptures in villages in Kharar and at a dera at Khanpur village. “A few years later, they went missing,” he says. He too had tried convincing his seniors to get the artefacts to the department, but failed.
Meanwhile, the theft of antiques continues unabated. Last year, a person was caught with a collection of around 600 coins at Wagah border. The customs and excise officials were clueless and sent the entire collection to ASI. “The ASI called me and I was shocked to see that many of these belonged to 2nd century BC,” says Prof Handa.
2004: Three miniature paintings of Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh went missing from Qila Mubarak
February 2003: 12th century idol of Sun God was stolen from Mard Khera village in Sangrur
2003: A pistol belonging to Feroz Shah went missing from Anglo-Sikh War Memorial, Ferozepur. Original pistol has been replaced with a replica
1990: From Bhagat Singh Museum at Khatkar Kalan, the shoes of Sukhdev, trousers of martyr’s uncle Ajit Singh were stolen by a mentally deranged person.
What the law says
Penalty for removing antiques
Whosoever destroys or misuses or removes from a protected monument any sculpture, carving, image, bas-relief, inscription or other like objects shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to Rs 5,000, or with both.
Indian theories of meaning (vākyapadārtha, 'meanings of sentences') and tantra yukti method of deriving intended meanings are aids to unravel the Indus Script cipher. See:
In the context of use of Indus Script inscriptions to seal packages of goods, it is manifest that the meanings have to be derived from hypertexts. An example of an identical inscription from Kish and Mohenjo-daro is presented.
Seal impression and seal with identical texts from (a) Kish (IM 1822); cf. Mackay 1925 and (b) Mohenjodaro (M-228)
The hieroglyphs which constitute these texts are NOT to be read 'literally' but as rebus renderings of homonymous words associated with the hieroglyphs and consistent with the 40 principles of tantra yukti elaborated in this note, to explain the ancient Indian theories of intended meanings, selected in context, from alternative meanings suggested by the sphoṭa of śābdārtha, 'semantics'.
In this framework, a writing system becomes a metaphor of spoken expressions. This can also constitute metonymy, 'the substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the turf for horse racing.' This is comparable to this:
|Medium||Oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||63.5 cm × 93.98 cm (25 in × 37 in)|
|Location||Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California|
Thus, on the following example of a seal impression from Kish identical to a seal from Mohenjo-daro, the meanings intended are discussed in tantra yukti method which enunciates a principle called Vākyaśeṣa (supply of ellipsis -- the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues.) Some inscriptions signify ‘fish’ as a hieroglyph. In the context of Supercargo’s responsibility, the ‘fish’ hieroglyph may have orthographic accent on ‘fins’ of fish which signify: khambhaṛā ‘fish fin’ rebus: kamaṭa ‘portable furnace to melt metals',kamnaṭa ‘mint, coiner, coinage’ PLUS ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’.
Thus, on the example of a seal impression from Kish identical to a seal from Mohenjo-daro, the meanings intended are discussed in tantra yukti method which enunciates a principle called Vākyaśeṣa (supply of ellipsis -- the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues.) Some inscriptions signify ‘fish’ as a hieroglyph. In the context of Supercargo’s responsibility, the ‘fish’ hieroglyph may have orthographic accent on ‘fins’ of fish which signify: khambhaṛā ‘fish fin’ rebus: kamaṭa ‘portable furnace to melt metals', kamnaṭa ‘mint, coiner, coinage’ PLUS ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’.
kunda 'young bull' is NOT what is packaged but kunda 'fine gold' (metaphor for wealth'. ayo 'fish' is NOT what is packaged but aya 'iron, alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā rebus: kammaṭa'mint', i.e. the packaged goods include alloy metal from mint. kole.l 'temple' is NOT what is packaged but kole.l'smithy, forge' product of sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'. karṇika'rim of jar' is NOT what is packaged but rebus rendering karṇika‘accounting ledger of wealth’. kunda kamaṭamu'lathe, portable furnace' are NOT what are included in the package, but products --kunda kammaṭa'wealth (from) mint'.
Tantra can be termed as that which discusses and details subjects and concepts; yukti is “… that which removes blemishes like impropriety, contradiction, etc., from the intended meaning and thoroughly joins the meanings together.”. (Note: the terminology and citations are from M. Jayaraman, The doctrine of tantrayukti https://www.academia.edu/12132105/Tantrayukti ) स्फुटता न पदैरपाकृता न च न स्वीकृत मर्थगौरवम् ‘Crispness (of an expression) is not obliterated by verbosity, nor is the depth of meaning that is intended to be conveyed is compromised (to attain crispness).
The lathe-gimlet shown in front of one-horned young bull on many Indus Script inscriptions is a reminder that the meanings of the written-down hypertexts can be recognized in the context of the lapidary's work, working with a portable furnace (added as a hieroglyph to the gimlet which is the top portion of the hypertext).
sphuṭayati ʻmakes clearʼ Kull. 2. sphuṭyatē ʻ is clear ʼ Sarvad. [Denom. fr.
Tantrayukti devices derive meanings of Indus Script hypertexts
Dawn of the bronze age is best exemplified by this Mohenjo-daro tablet which shows a procession of three hieroglyphs carried on the shoulders of three persons. The hieroglyphs are: 1. Scarf carried on a pole (dhatu Rebus: mineral ore); 2. A young bull carried on a stand kõdā Rebus: turner; 3. Portable standard device (Top part: lathe-gimlet; Bottom part: portable furnace sã̄gāḍ Rebus: stone-cutter sangatarāśū ). sanghāḍo (Gujarati) cutting stone, gilding (Gujarati); sangsāru karaṇu = to stone (Sindhi) sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati)
The evolution of the orthographic uniqueness of Brāhmī is an unresolved issue. Some claim that the syllabic structure is derived from the aramaic alphabet. Some claim that script orthography is traceable to Indus Script symbols. The debate goes on with my suggestion that I find four syllables of Brāhmī use glyphs comparable with Indus Script hieroglyphs.
Indus Script is logographic and NOT syllabic.
Thus,it is possible to derive only the first syllable of a word and trace the roots of orthography for the first syllable signified in Brāhmī syllabic writing system.
Brāhmī syllabic glyphs ka-, ma-, tha- have parallels in Indus Script hieroglyphs.
m0296. There are two chain links emanating from the standard device. I suggest that these signify vaṭa ʻ string ʼ. The first syllable in this word becomes the syllabic orthography for syllable 'va' in Brāhmī.
Evolution of Brahmi script syllable ka- possibly from Indus Script hieroglyph kaṇḍa, 'arrow' rebus: 'implements/sword'
Evolution of Brahmi script syllable ma- possibly from meḍ 'iron, copper, metal' in the context of smelting, metalwork tradition of Ancient Near East. Proving svastika signifies zinc metal http://tinyurl.com/pswoccx
Evolution of Brahmi script syllables ḍha-, dha- from Indus Script. Ur cylinder seal, Harappa tablet with 5 svastika deciphered. http://tinyurl.com/nlakhuw
Indus Script hieroglyphs have VIRTUALLY NO influence on Kharoṣṭhī and Brāhmī syllabic scripts despite KP Jayaswal's arguments in Antiquary (1933)
I suggest that the expression ayas in R̥gveda is a reference to 'alloy metal' rich in iron and relates to early Bronze Age, consistent with the date of R̥gveda of a period earlier than 4th millennium BCE.
This word ayas, is comparable to another lexeme med which means 'copper' in Slavic languages, but meḍ refers to iron in Indian languages (Mu.Ho.Santali). In this context, the lexical entries are significant attesting to the early meanings of ayas as 'iron or metal':
There is an expression in Mahavamsa, XXV, 28,ayo-kammata-dvara, interpreted as: "iron studded gate ". This could also mean 'entrance (of) iron mint' consistent with the rebus reading of Indus Script hypertexts: ayo'fish' rebus: ayas'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā'fish'fin' rebus: kammaṭa'mint'.
I refer to Chapter 6 'Early Iron Age in South Asia' in Vincent C. Pigott, 1999, The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian World, UPenn Museum of Archaeology (pp.153 to 176) in which Gregory Possehl and Praveena Gullapalli provide evidences of archaeologically attested iron artifacts from 3rd millennium BCE. This documentation evidences the working in iron during the Early Bronze Age.
http://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/IJHS/Vol44_1_4_BPrakash.pdf B. Prakash, 2008, Religious traditions of ancient iron and steel craftsmen of India and Japan, IJHS, 44.1 (2009, pp. 47 to 71)
http://sandhi.hss.iitb.ac.in/Sandhi/Articles/Indian%20Technology/Metallurgy/Iron%20&%20Steel/Prakash%20B/Iron%20making%20in%20Bastar%20District%20-%20Prakash%20(1984).pdf B. Prakash, and K. Igaki, 1984, Ancient iron making in Bastar District, IJHS, 19(2), pp. 172 to 185
[p= 277,1]mf(ई)n. (fr. कृष्णा*यस्) , made of black iron ChUp. vi , 1 , 6 Mn. xi , 133 MBh. &c; iron (Monier-Williams)
Āyasa (adj.) [Sk. āyasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S
அயம்&sup6; ayam , n. < ayas. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. (பிங்.) 2. Iron filings; அரப்பொடி. (தைலவ. தைல. 6.); அயசு ayacu, n. < ayas. Iron; இரும்பு. (சி. சி.. 4, 8, சிவாக்.)(Tamil)
Vishal Agarwal questions Wilhelm Rau's observation about 'muteness' of Vedic archaeology. (Vishal Agarwal, 2001, What is the Aryan Migration Theory? http://vishalagarwal.bharatvani.org/articles/indhistory/whatisamt/index.htm) "The scarcity of material culture of the Vedic tribes is evident, though Vedic archaeology is still 'not impossible'. But to make this phantom acquire a real shape, it is necessary to know where one has to look for its 'flesh', and what it might be like.Rau stresses that the Vedic archaeology should not have any hopes to find Vedic dwellings made of stone or of bricks and that the graves and altars found in a certain chronological layer can be identified as Vedic only a happy exception. Dwellings of Vedic Aryans were kind of huts made of wood (First of all bamboo), thatch, skins of beasts, that is of materials of very short duration. Carriages that were playing such a prominent part in the life of Vedic Aryans were also made of wood, and only war chariots had metallic ornaments and rims of the wheels. But metallic things (at least those made of gold, silver and copper) were usually smelted anew. Vedic graves are not known as a rule, if not to take into consideration some rare and ambiguous cases. Therefore, archaeologists have to limit the Vedic heritage with rather a few things: pits of bearing posts and pits for baking of pots, cavities for smelting of copper and forms for moulding, clay crocks and imprints of tracts of cattle on clay in places where it was kept in enclosures; small things made of stone, baked clay, and partly also of metal could remain in principle as well. "
The main problem with Wilhelm Rau's observation is that he assumes that Vedic culture is a chronological sequence which follows the Indus (Sarasvati_Sindhu) Civilization. It is possible that Veda culture pre-dates the civilization by at least two millennia since the date of the early Veda texts.is ca. 5th millennium BCE based on archaeo-astronomical analyses.
In another context of refuting the observation of Witzel that Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa belongs to the full-blown Iron Age, Vishal Agarwal questions the assumptions of Wilhelm Rau relied upon by Witzel. (A Reply to Michael Witzel’s ‘Ein Fremdling im Rgveda’ 1 (Journal of Indo-European Studies, Vol. 31, No.1-2: pp.107-185, 2003) by Vishal Agarwal 11 August 2003 http://www.jies.org/Discussion/MichaelWitzel.pdf). Vishal Agarwal refutes the underlying assumptions of Wilhelm Rau and Witzel that since ayas meant 'iron', the Veda texts should be iron-age texts, i.e. ca. 2nd millennium. I cite the relevant excerpts with citations provided by Vishal Agarwal:
Archaeometallurgy and Vedic texts: One of the arguments made by Kazanas to suggest that Vedic texts could date to 3000 BC or earlier is that the astronomical data in these texts in indicates stellar positions from that period. In ancient times, it was almost impossible to backcalculate the positions of various constellations etc. over a period of 1000 years, and therefore, the astronomical data in these texts represents actual astronomical observations by the composers of the Vedic texts. Witzel counters this by arguing that Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa belongs to a 'full-blown Iron age’ (page 174), i.e., to a period slightly before 500 BC. This seems to be incorrect. Referring the Vaidik Padanukramakosha (Vedic Word Concordance) of Pandit Vishvabandhu, the following occurrences of words syaamam, syaamaayas etc., can be noted in the Satapatha Brahmana ñ Satapatha Brahmana 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199; 188.8.131.52; 184.108.40.206; 220.127.116.11; 18.104.22.168; 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199 Let us examine the occurrences of these words in the Satapatha Brahmana ñ 188.8.131.52: Here, the word syaama does not refer to any metal. Rather, it refers to the color 17 victims for Prajapati, which have to have a color that is a combination of white and black, i.e., dark grey (Eggelingís translation), or a mixture of black and white (as Sayana explains). 184.108.40.206: This passage actually explains that syaama is a combination of light color and black. 220.127.116.11: Here, syaama is the color of the bull, that is the fee for a ritual. 18.104.22.168: Here again, the word is used as a epithet for a bull. 22.214.171.124: This text states that ëlohaayasaí or red metal (=copper?) is neither gold nor syaamam. This text merely contrasts the red metal with a bright, and a dark metal. Again, no clear evidence that iron is meant. The contrast could very well have been with bronze and gold. 126.96.36.199: Here, the word syaama is an adjective for a goat meant for sacrifice to Prajapati. The text clearly says (Eggelingís translation) ñ ìIt is a dark grey one; for the grey has two kinds of hair, the white and the black...î 188.8.131.52: This, and other occurrences in the vicinity also deal with characteristics of sacrificial animals. Again, no connection with any metal. Assuming that Vishvabandhu missed 1 or 2 genuine occurrences of 'black metal' in his concordance, we still have at the most 3 occurrences (and just one in the locations pointed above by the Concordance) in this large text. Just three! And none compels us to accept the meaning of the word as 'iron'.. So Witzel's claim that the Satapatha Brahmana is an iron-age text through and through is a pure bluff, and his entire argument for dismissing the archaeoastronomical evidence collapses. Witzel alleges that Kazanasí interpretation of syaamaayasa as bronze or something different from iron is based on some discussions in Internet lists (page 175, fn. 112). Kazanas does not have to do so. The Vedic Index (Volume II, page 398) says that syaamaayasa in the Atharvaveda Samhita denotes iron ëin all probabilityí, which clearly indicates that it was a conjecture made by the authors of the Index14. In a study on gold in Vedic texts, even Jan GONDA [GONDA, Jan. 1991. The Functions and Significance of Gold in the Veda. Leiden/New York: E. J. Brill] treats the equation ësyaamasa = ironí with reservation, and in fact, suggests that the word could mean bronze. Finally, Witzel's pet-hate K. D. Sethna [SETHNA, K. D. 1992. The Problem of Aryan Origins. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, pp.235-236] has already discussed the question in detail and has argued that there is no compelling reason to believe that syaamaayasa has to mean iron. Kazanas is well aware of this book. Witzelís frequent appeal to the authority of Wilhelm RAU [RAU, Willhelm. 1974. Metalle und Metallgeraete im vedischen Indien. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Mainz, Abhandlungen der Geistes-u. sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 1973, No. 8. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, pages 649-682 ] is of no avail ñ there is simply no evidence to prove the assumption firmly that syaamaayasa or syaamam denotes iron. Witzel does not stop at this. He bluffs (pages 174-175, fn. 112) that iron that is occasionally found in India and surroundings before 1200/100 BCE is meteoric iron. In reality, there are no available chemical analysis results showing that this is indeed the case.15 In fact, POSSEHL [POSSEHL, Gregory. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Walnut Creek (California): Alta Mira Press, p. 93] notes very clearly that the iron artifacts predating 1000 BCE from various sites in South Asia have not been analyzed to ascertain whether it is meteoric iron or not. While Witzel derives all his knowledge of metallurgy from the works of Rau, he forgets to see the aforementioned reference, which mentions in the next page [POSSEHL, Gregory. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Walnut Creek (California): Alta Mira Press ,p.94] that iron can be produced as a by-product during the smelting of copper, and that this is, in all likelihood, the source of Harappan artifacts made from iron. What this means then, is that unless Witzel can show a very widespread use of iron from Samhitas and Brahmanas, none of these texts can be dated to the ëiron-ageí. In any case, even if the Satapatha Brahmana mentions iron, the text has no information on whether it was meteoric or terrestrial, a fact that is accepted even by Edwin Bryant in his own comment to Kazanasí article in JIES 2002. (Vishal Agarwal, 2003, opcit., pp.10-11.) loc.cit. KAZANAS, N. 2002. Indigenous Indo-Aryans and the Rigveda. Pages 275-334 in JIES, vol. 30, Nos. 3&4 2002a. Rgvedic Town and Ocean, Witzel Vs. Frawley. Available online at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/bharatvani/files/pursarasvati.pdf. 2003. Final Reply. Pages 187-240 in JIES, vol. 31, No.1&2.
Metals and metal devices in Vedic India. (Academy of Sciences and Literature. Memoirs of humanities and social science class. Born in 1973, no. 8) by Wilhelm Rau (pp. 153-154)
"The earliest literary evidence for metals and metallurgy has been collected by Wilhelm Rau (1974) in his important study of metals and metal objects in Vedic India. Unfortunately, although it provides a wealth of information about metal objects and weapons, it tells us little about how metal was extracted from the ground, about the technologies of mining. The sole reference to a mine is in the rather late text, the Maitrāyaṇīya Upaniṣad 6.28 (Rau 1974: 26), which uses the term avaṭa for a mine. 2 In describing the passage of a person along the path to Brahman, the text gives the example “as a miner in search of minerals enters a mine” (avaṭaivāvaṭakd dhātukāmaḥ saṃviśaty evam)...If mining requires digging into the ground, as it generally does, then khani, derived from the verbal root √khan to ‘dig’, would seem to be the obvious choice... The most common term for mine in the classical texts is ākara (from the verb ā √kṝ), meaning something like a place of scattering, or a place where things are scattered or lying around...Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra...Looking at the work of the ākarādhyakṣa, we get a clear picture of what an ākara produced: gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, iron, Vaikr̥nta metal, and finally gems... The definition of khani given at Arthaśāstra 2.6.4 refers to similar products: suvarṇa-rajata-vajra-maṇi-muktā-pravāla-śaṅkha-loha-lavaṇa-bhūmi-prastara-rasa-dhātavaḥ khaniḥ | Gold, silver, diamonds, gems, pearls, coral, conchs, metals, salt, and ores in the earth, rocks, and liquids—(these constitute) khani...We get an interesting insight into the semantic development of khani within the Arthaśāstra in a one-sentence description of the khanyadhyakṣa, the superintendent of khani, at 2.12.27: khanyadhyakṣaḥ śaṅkha-vajra-maṇi-muktā-pravāla-kṣāra-karmāntān kārayet paṇanavyavahāraṃ ca | The superintendent of khani should establish factories for conch shells, diamonds, gems, pearls, corals, and alkali, as well as the trade in them...Another interesting piece of information is provided by a comment at Arthaśāstra 2.28.5–6: śaṅkha-muktā-grāhiṇo nauhāṭakaṃ dadyuḥ svanāvair vā tareyuḥ | adhyakṣaś caiṣāṃ khanyadhyakṣeṇa vyākhyātaḥ | Conch and pearl fishermen should pay the boat-fee or travel in their own boats. What pertains to the superintendent of these, furthermore, has been explained under the superintendent of khani...Pāṇini at 3.1.145, however, gives a useful hint when he provides a rule for the formation of an agent noun in the case of a craftsman (śilpin) by adding the suffix aka: śilpini ṣvun. Patañjali, commenting on this sūtra, lists three kinds of śilpins: actors, miners, and dyers: nr̥tikhanirañjibhyaḥ. Thus we get from khani the term for miner: khanaka. This is the earliest attestation, besides the Arthaśāstra, I have been able to find for khani...Yet, it is certain that khani is the older of the two terms for a mine. A brief look at R. L. Turner’s dictionary shows that derivatives from this term are found in Prakrit and in numerous modern Indian languages: Assamese khani, Hindi khan, Marathi khaṇ (fasc. 3, §3813). No modern Indian formation from ākara is recorded. There is, however, the Pāli equivalent ākara, but only in compounds such as ratnākara and only in some late texts such as the Theragāthā and the Jātakas, which may have been influenced by the Classical Sanskrit usage of the term...Varāhamihira’s Bhatsaṃhitā....srotaḥ khaniḥ prakīrṇakam ity ākarasaṃbhavas trividhaḥ. What [i.e., diamonds] originates from ākaras is threefold: river, mine, and miscellaneous (80.10). So here we have khani as one kind of ākara, which appears now to be extended to mean any source of gems and possibly of other minerals. This passage parallels a statement of the Arthaśāstra (2.11.38): khaniḥ srotaḥ prakīrṇakaṃ ca yonayaḥ 'mine, river, and miscellaneous are the sources (of diamonds)...'The superintendent of mines—who is either proficient in geometry, 11 metallurgy, smelting, and coloring gems or assisted by one so proficient, and who is provided with workers skilled at such tasks along with suitable equipment—should inspect abandoned mines revealed by dross, crucibles, coal, and ashes, or new mines with ore-bearing earth, rocks, or liquids that have a strong color, exceptional weight, and acrid smell and taste.' (Arthaśāstra 2.12.1). Kauṭilya goes on to provide information about the characteristics of liquids, rocks, and earth that contain metal: 'Gold-bearing liquids are those that flow in the interior of hollows, caves, valleys, rock-cuts, or covert excavations on mountains in recognized regions; liquids that have the color of roseapple, mango, palmyra nut, slice of ripe turmeric, jaggery, orpiment, red arsenic, honey, vermilion, white lotus, or feathers of a parrot or peacock; that have water and plants of the same color in the vicinity; and that are viscous, limpid, and heavy. If they spread like oil when thrown in water and soak up mud and dirt, they are capable of infusing copper and silver over a hundredfold.' What is similar to them but with an acrid smell and taste should be identified as bitumen.Ores from earth and rocks that have a yellow, copper, or coppery-yellow color; that contain blue streaks or have the color of Mudga bean, Māṣa bean, or Ksara porridge when they are split; that are speckled as if with drops or globs of curd; that have the color of turmeric, myrobalan, a lotus leaf, moss, liver, spleen, or saffron;14 that contain lines, dots, or svastikas of fine sand when they are split; that have nodules and are lustrous; and that do not split but do produce a lot of foam and smoke when they are heated—they are the ones that are gold ore. When used as an admixture, they are capable of infusing copper and silver. 15 Those that have the color of conch, camphor, crystal, fresh butter, a dove, a pigeon, a Vimalaka gem, or a peacock’s neck; or the color of Sasyaka gem, Gomedaka gem, 16 jaggery, or raw sugar; or the color of the flowers of Kovidāra, lotus, Pāṭalī, Kalāya, flax, or linseed; those that contain lead or antimony; that smell like raw flesh; that are black with a white sheen, white with a black sheen, or all speckled with lines or dots; that are soft and, when smelted, do not split but produce a lot of foam and smoke—they are the ones that are silver ores. In the case of all ores, as their weight increases so does their metal content. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.2–7).Although, without a better grasp of ancient Indian metallurgy, it is difficult to fully understand the above passage, this is probably the most detailed account of metal geology that we have from ancient India. The text goes on to note the characteristics of rocks and earth that contain base metals and gems: When ore from rocks or an area of earth is heavy, oily, and soft—it is copper ore if it is yellow, green, pale red, or blood red; it is lead ore if it is black like a crow, or has the color of a pigeon or yellow bile, or is studded with white lines, and smells like raw flesh; it is tin ore if it is variegated like saline soil or has the color of baked clay; it is iron ore if it is orange, 17 pale red, or the color of Sinduvāra flower; it is Vaikntaka 18 ore if it is colored like a Kākāṇḍa 19 or a birch leaf; it is gem20 ore if it is clear, smooth, gleaming, sonorous, cool, and with a very intense color. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.12–17) Mines and mining were probably state monopolies in ancient India. Yet, the private sector may have had a hand in mining. Kauṭilya advises the king to lease mines that are difficult to work or that require a lot of initial capital: When a mine becomes too onerous because of the expenses or effort required, he should lease it for a share of the proceeds or rent it out; he should operate by himself ones that are easy to manage. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.22)." (Patrick Oliville, opcit., p.23-29) http://liberalarts.utexas.edu/_files/olivelle/2012_Material_Culture.pdf Patrick Olivelle,, 2012, Material Culture and Philology: Semantics of Mining in Ancient India, in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 132.1 (2012) loc.cit. Shamasastry, R., tr. 1961. Kautilīya’s Arthaśāstra. 7th ed. Mysore: Mysore Print and Publishing House)
• The Iron Pillar at Delhi, T.R.Anantharaman, Iron and Steel Heritage of India
• Indian Sword Revealed as Master-Crafted, NewHistorian
• Meeting the blacksmiths in bullcok carts of Rajasthan, N.W. India. - A Dying culture
• Lost Nomads (National Geographic). India’s 80 million wanderers are torn—clinging to centuries-old traditions while the modern world strips their identities away.
• Agaria (Social group)
• The Ethnographic Narration of Gadulia Lohar Tribe of Udaipur, Rajasthan: With the Special Reference to the Ethnoarchaeological Perspective and Traditional Iron Tool Technology
•A note on ancient zinc-smelting in India and China, Vijaya Deshpande,
Indian Journal of History of Science.
• Characterization of rust on ancient Indian iron, R.Balasubramaniam et al.
Current Science, Dec. 2003.
• Aspects of Powder Technology in Ancient and Medieval India. By R. K. Dube.
Powder Metallurgy 2013; 33(2), 119-125.
• Ancient metal-mirror making in South India, by S. G. K. Pillai, R. M. Pillai,
A. D. Damodaran.
• History of Metallurgy and Mining in India, Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
• History of metallurgy in South Asia (Wikipedia)
• Ancient Indian Metallurgy (IGNCA)
• The Metallurgical Heritage of India (IISC)
• History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent
• The Rise and Fall of Ancient India’s Iron and Steel Metallurgy
• A Brief History of Materials: 1. Metallurgical Heritage of India
• A Model for Understanding Ancient Indian Iron Metallurgy, K. T. M. Hegde
• The origins of Iron-working in India, Rakesh Tewari
New evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas
• The Lost-Wax Casting of Icons, Utensils, Bells, and Other Items in South India
• Archaeo-metallurgy of Indus civilisation (Book review, The Hindu)
• Mystery behind the Iron Pillar of Qutab Minar
• India’s Magical Ancient Pillar. The Delhi Pillar Is a Genuine Out-of-Place Artifact
• India’s legendary wootz steel—An advanced material of the ancient world
Sharada Srinivasan and Srinivasa Ranganathan (Orient BlackSwan)
• Metallurgy (Ancient Indians)
• Two thousand years of iron smelting in the Khasi hills, Pawel Prokop and Ireneusz Suliga
• Ancient Gold Mining Activities in India - An Overview, A.K. Grover and M.K. Pandit,
Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences http://ijes.mshdiau.ac.ir/article_522929.html
• Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India
• Copper in Ancient India, Panchanan Neogi, The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (1918)
• Metallurgy of Iron and Steel Making and Blacksmithy in Ancient India,
B. Prakash, Indian Journal of History of Science, 26(4), 1991.
• ANCIENT INDIAN IRON AND STEEL : AN ARCHAEOMETALLURGICAL STUDY,
B PRAKASH, Indian Journal of History of Science, 46.3 (2011)
• The Primacy of India in ancient brass and zinc metallurgy, Arun K. Biswas,
Indian Journal of History of Science, 28(4), 1993.
9.102.01 Performing (sacred rites) the child of the great (waters) sending forth the lustre of the sacrifice (Soma) produces all acceptable (oblations) and (abides) in the two worlds.
9.102.02 When the Soma has been taken the secret station of the grinding stones (at the sacrifice) of Trita, then with the seven supports of the sacrifice (the priests praise) the conciliating (Soma). [With the seven supports of the sacrifice: i.e., with the seven metres; or, deriving sapta from. sr.p, they effuse the Soma with the vasati_vari_ water].
9.102.03 (Support, Soma) with your stream Trita's three (oblations); cause the giver of riches (Indra) to come to the sacred songs. The intelligent (praiser) of this (Indra) measures out hymns. [i.e., yojana_ni which may also mean, roads or stages; in RV.1.018.05, yojana_ = a means for inducing the gods to yoke their horses, i.e., a hymn].
9.102.04 The seven mothers instruct the (Soma) the institutor (of the sacrifice) when born for the prosperity (of the worshippers) to that this firm Soma is cognizant of riches. [The seven mothers: i.e., the seven rivers; or, the seven metres; yat = because, tasma_d... dhana_disamr.ddhir bhavati].
9.102.05 The universal gods, devoid of malice, assembled together at his rite, are to be envied if being delighted they take pleasure (in the Soma).
9.102.06 The germ which the augmenters of the rite brought forth at the sacrifice lovely to look upon intelligent, most adorable, desired by many.
9.102.07 He of his own will approaches the great united parents of the sacrifice (heaven and earth) when (the priests) conducting the ceremony anoint him in due order with the sacred waters.
9.102.08 Soma, by your act drive away with your brilliant organs the darkness from the sky, effusing into the sacrifice (your juice) the lustre of the rite. [di_dhitim is deried from dhr., the supporter of the rite].
Griffith translation: HYMN CIL Soma Pavamana. 102
1. THE Child, when blended with the streams, speeding the plan of sacrifice,
Surpasses all things that are dear, yea, from of old.
2 The place, near the two pressingstones- of Trita, hath he occupied,
Secret and dear through seven lights of sacrifice.
3 Urge to three courses, on the heights of Trita, riches in a stream.
He who is passing wise measures his courses out.
4 Even at his birth the Mothers Seven taught him, for glory, like a sage,
So that he, firm and sure, hath set his mind on wealth.
5 Under his sway, of one accord, are all the guileless Deities:
Warriors to be envied, they, when they are pleased.
6 The Babe whom they who strengthen Law have generated fair to see,
Much longed for at the sacrifice, most liberal Sage,
7 To him, united, of themselves, come the young Parents of the rite,
When they adorn him, duly weaving sacrifice.
8 With wisdom and with radiant eyes unbar to us the stall of heaven,
Speeding at solemn rite the plan of Holy Law.
Sculpture of gaṇeśa and peacock on the wall of viṭṭhala temple ; Hampi ; Karnataka
Mātrkā with Ganeśa. Gwalior. http://www.awanderingmind.in/2016/08/gwalior-part-4-temples-of-gwalior-fort.html …
Mātrkā with Ganeśa Elephanta caves https://www.sahapedia.org/elephanta-caves-overview …
The choice of eight Mātrkā may relate to the octagonal shape of the ketu, the proclamation of a yajña, erecting an aṣṭāśri yupa as evidenced by the yupa found in Binjor yajñ a kuṇḍa and of caṣāla of wheat chaff atop the yupa as described in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to carburize molten metal, infuse carbon to make the alloy metal hard. Octagonal shape is also the Viṣṇubhāga of Śivalinga.
kalpanam कल्पनम् [क्लृप्-ल्युट्] 1 Forming, fashioning, arranging. -2 Performing, doing, effecting. -3 Clipping, cutting. -4 Fixing. -5 Anything placed upon another for decoration. -ना 1 Fixing, settlement; अनेकपितृकाणां तु पितृतो भागकल्पना Y.2.12;247; Ms.9.116. -2 Making, performing, doing. -3 Forming, arranging; विषमासु च कल्पनासु Mk.3.14; केश˚ Mk.4. -4 Decorating, ornamenting. -5 Composition. -6 Invention. -7 Imagination, thought; कल्पनापोढः Sk. P.II.1.38 = कल्पनाया अपोढः. -8 An idea, fancy or image (conceived in the mind); Śānti.2.8. -9 Fabrication. -1 Forgery. -11 A contrivance, device. -12 (In Mīm. phil.) = अर्थापत्ति q. v. -13 Decorating an elephant. -Comp. -शक्तिः f. the power of forming ideas; MW. (Apte)
2 The smith with ripe and seasoned plants, with feathers of the birds of air,
With stones, and with enkindled flames, seeks him who hath a store of gold. Flow, Indu, flow for
9.112.01 Various are our acts, (various) are the occupations of men; the carpenter desires timber, the physician disease, the bra_hman.a a worshipper who effuses Soma; flow, Indu for Indra.
9.112.02 With dried plants (are arrows made), with the feathers of birds (and) with glistening stones; the smith seeks a man who has gold; flow, Indu, for Indra.
9.112.03 I am the singer; papa is the physician, mamma throws the corn upon the grinding stones; having various occupations, desiring riches we remain (in the world) like cattle (in the stall); flow, Indu, for Indra. [The singer...papa...mamma: ka_ruh = maker of praises; 'maker', 'poet'; tatah and na_na_ mean father (dada) and mother; or son and daughter respectively].
9.112.04 The draught horse (desire) a cart easy (to draw); those who invite guests (desire) merriment; the frog desires water; flow, Indu, for Indra. [Easy to draw: auspicious; upamantrin.ah = narmasaciva_h, boon companions].
Source for the selected texts from Yajurveda and R̥gveda: B. Prakash, 2001, Ferrous Metallurgy in Ancient India, in: NML Jamshedpur 831 007, India; Metallurgy in India: A Retrospective; (ISBN: 81;87053-56-7); Eds: P. Ramachandra Rao and N.G. Goswami, pp. 52-91.
No one may conquer Indra in the battle when he hath drunken of the draught we offer.
2 This sweet juice here had mightiest power to gladden: it boldened Indra when he siaughtered
When he defeated Sambaras' many onslaughts, and battered down his nineand ninety ramparts.
3 This stirreth up my voice when I have drunk it: this hath aroused from sleep my yearning spirit.
This Sage hath measured out the six expanses from which no single creature is excluded.
4 This, even this, is he who hath created the breadth of earth, the lofty height of heaven.
He formed the nectar in three headlong rivers. Soma supports the wide midair- above us.
5 He found the wavy sea of brilliant colours in forefront of the Dawns who dwell in brightness.
This Mighty One, the Steer begirt by Maruts, hath propped the heavens up with a mighty pillar.
6 Drink Soma boldly from the beaker, Indra, in war for treasures, Hero, Vrtraslayer-!
Fill thyself full at the midday- libation, and give us wealth, thou Treasury of riches.
7 Look out for us, O Indra, as our Leader, and guide us on to gain yet goodlier treasure.
Excellent Guardian, bear us well through peril, and lead us on to wealth with careful guidance.
8 Lead us to ample room, O thou who knowest, to happiness, security, and sunlight.
High, Indra, are the arms of thee the Mighty: may we betake. us to their lofty shelter.
9 Set us on widest chariotseat-, O Indra, with two steeds best to draw, O Lord of Hundreds!
Bring us the best among all sorts of viands: let not the foes' wealth, Maghavan, subdue us.
10 Be gracious, Indra, let my days be lengthened: sharpen my thought as it were a blade of iron
Approve whatever words I speak, dependent on thee, and grant me thy divine protection.
11 Indra the Rescuer, Indra the Helper, Hero who listens at each invocation,
Sakra I call, Indra invoked of many. May Indra Maghavan prosper and bless us.
12 May helpful Indra as our good Protector, Lord of all treasures, favour us with succour,
Baffle our foes, and give us rest and safety, and may we be the lords of hero vigour.
13 May we enjoy the grace of him the Holy, yea, may we dwell in his auspicious favour.
May helpful Indra as our good Preserver drive from us, even from afar, our foemen.
14 Like rivers rushing down a slope, O Indra, to thee haste songs and prayers and linked verses.
Thou gatherest, Thunderer! like widespread bounty, kine, water, drops, and manifold libations.
15 Who lauds him, satisfies him, pays him worship? even the rich noble still hath found him mighty.
With power, as when one moves his feet alternate, he makes the last precede, the foremost follow.
16 Famed is the Hero as each strong mans' tamer, ever advancing one and then another.
King of both worlds, hating the high and haughty, Indra protects the men who are his people.
17 He loves no more the men he loved aforetime: he turns and moves away allied with others.
Rejecting those who disregard his worship, Indra victorious lives through many autumns.
18 In every figure he hath been the mode: this is his only form for us to look on.
Indra moves multiform by his illusions; for his Bay Steeds are yoked, ten times a hundred.
19 Here Tvastar, yoking to the car the Bay Steeds, hath extended sway.
Who will for ever stand upon the foemans' side, even when our princes sit at ease?
20 Gods, we have reached a country void of pasture the land, though spacious, was too small to
Brhaspati, provide in war for cattle; find a path, Indra, for this faithful singer.
21 Day after day far from their seat he drove them, alike, from place to place, those darksome
The Hero slew the meanlyhuckstering- Dasas, Varcin and Sambara, where the waters gather.
22 Out of thy bounty, Indra, hath Prastoka bestowed ten coffers and ten mettled horses.
We have received in turn from Divodasa Sambaras' wealth, the gift of Atithigva.
23 Ten horses and ten treasurechests-, ten garments as an added gift,
These and ten lumps of gold have I received from Divodasas' hand.
24 Ten cars with extra steed to each, for the Atharvans hundred cows,
Hath Asvatha to Payu given.
25 Thus SrÑjayas' son honoured the Bharadvajas, recipients of all noble gifts and bounty.
26 Lord of the wood, be firm and strong in body: be, bearing us, a brave victorious hero
Show forth thy strength, compact with straps of leather, and let thy rider win all spoils of
27 Its mighty strength was borrowed from the heaven and earth: its conquering force was brought
from sovrans of the wood.
Honour with holy gifts the Car like Indras' bolt, the Car bound round with straps, the vigour of
28 Thou Bolt of Indra, Vanguard of the Maruts, close knit to Varuna and Child of Mitra,
As such, accepting gifts which here we offer, receive, O Godlike Chariot, these oblations.
29 Send forth thy voice aloud through earth and heaven, and let the world in all its breadth
O Drum, accordant with the Gods and Indra, drive thou afar, yea, very far, our foemen.
30 Thunder out strength and fill us full of vigour: yea, thunder forth and drive away all dangers.
Drive hence, O Wardrum-, drive away misfortune: thou art the Fist of Indra: show thy firmness.
31 Drive hither those, and these again bring hither: the Wardrum- speaks aloud as battles' signal.
Our heroes, winged with horses, come together. Let our carwarriors-, Indra, be triumphant.
Gaṇapati is invoked as kavi in R̥gveda. (See RV 2.23 sūkta -- gaṇānāṃ tvā gaṇapatiṃ havāmahe kaviṃ kavīnām upamaśravastamam -- with translation appended). Gaṇapati is invoked because he is the founder of yajña. See:
Gaṇeśa is 1. kavi; Brahmaṇaspati, Br̥haspati, 2. scribe of Mahābhārata, 3. त्रिधातु, 'aggregate of 3 minerals', 4. R̥bhu founder of yajña, artist, rayi, 'wealth' Gaṇeśa is a Marut, R̥bhukṣa, who wields a thunderbolt. This is a metaphor for his tusk used as a writing instrument. That Gaṇeśa is a member of Marut Gaṇa is signified on a sculptural frieze of Kanchipuram Kailāsanātha temple.
See: Bhāratīya ādhyātmikā itihāsa of tridhātu Gaṇeśa, śarva Śiva, Rāma, Kr̥ṣṇa
Gaṇeśa is a scribe, a R̥bhu, 'artist' In the tradition of Indus Script, a scribe is also an artist because the writing system is composed with hypertextss incorporating hieroglyphs -- both pictorial motifs and 'signs or symbols', say, syllabic representations in Brāhmī or 'signs' of the Indus Script Corpora.
Since Mahābhārata is the fifth Veda itihāsa with ākhyāna-s and upākhyāna-s, the scribe of the sacredkāvya, by the kavi, -- is Gaṇeśa who is kavīnām kavi, he is the suprme kavi among kavi-s. The scribal narratiave is an affirmation of divine sanction for the documented narratives.
Hence, Gaṇeśa utters the praṇava, says 'om' accepting the terms stipulated by Vyāsa.
Dance step of Gaṇeśa shown on a sculptural friezed of Candi Sukuh:
1. WE call thee, Lord and Leader of the heavenly hosts, the wise among the wise, the famousest of all, The King supreme of prayers, O Brahmanaspati: hear us with help; sit down in place of sacrifice.
2 Brhaspati, God immortal! verily the Gods have gained from thee, the wise, a share in holy rites. As with great light the Sun brings forth the rays of morn, so thou alone art Father of all sacred prayer.
3 When thou hast chased away revilers and the gloom, thou mountest the refulgent car of sacrifice; The awful car, Brhaspati, that quells the foe, slays demons, cleaves the stall of kine, and finds the light.
4 Thou leadest with good guidance and preservest men; distress overtakes not him who offers gifts to thee. Him who hates prayer thou punishest, Brhaspati, quelling his wrath: herein is thy great mightiness.
5 No sorrow, no distress from any side, no foes, no creatures doubletongued- have overcome the man, Thou drivest all seductive fiends away from him whom, careful guard, thou keepest Brahmanaspati.
6 Thou art our keeper, wise, preparer of our paths: we, for thy service, sing to thee with hymns of praise. Brhaspati, whoever lays a snare for us, him may his evil fate, precipitate, destroy.
7 Him, too, who threatens us without offence of ours, the evilminded, arrogant, rapacious man, Him turn thou from our path away, Brhaspati: give us fair access to this banquet of the Gods. 8 Thee as protector of our bodies we invoke, thee, saviour, as the comforter who loveth us. Strike, O Brhaspati, the Gods revilers down, and let not the unrighteous come to highest bliss.
9 Through thee, kind prosperer, O Brahmanaspati, may we obtain the wealth of Men which all desire: And all our enemies, who near or far away prevail against us, crush, and leave them destitute.
10 With thee as our own rich and liberal ally may we, Brhaspati, gain highest power of life. Let not the guileful wicked man be lord of us: still may we prosper, singing goodly hymns of praise.
11 Strong, never yielding, hastening to the battlecry-, consumer of the foe, victorious in the strife, Thou art sins' true avenger, Brahmanaspati, who tamest even the fierce, the wildly passionate.
12 Whoso with mind ungodly seeks to do us harm, who, deeming him a man of might mid lords, would slay, Let not his deadly blow reach us, Brhaspati; may we humiliate the strong illdoers-' wrath.
13 The mover mid the spoil, the winner of all wealth, to be invoked in fight and reverently adored, Brhaspati hath overthrown like cars of war all wicked enemies who fain would injure us.
14 Burn up the demons with thy fiercest flaming brand, those who have scorned thee in thy manifested might. Show forth that power that shall deserve the hymn of praise: destroy the evil speakers, O Brhaspati.
15 Brhaspati, that which the foe deserves not which shines among the folk effectual, splendid, That, Son of Law I which is with might refulgentthat- treasure wonderful bestow thou on us. 16 Give us not up to those who, foes in ambuscade, are greedy for the wealth of him who sits at ease, Who cherish in their heart abandonment of Gods. Brhaspati, no further rest shall they obtain.
17 For Tvastar, he who knows each sacred song, brought thee to life, preeminent over all the things that be. Guiltscourger-, guiltavenger- is Brhaspati, who slays the spoiler and upholds the mighty Law.
18 The mountain, for thy glory, cleft itself apart when, Angiras! thou openedst the stall of kine. Thou, O Brhaspati, with Indra for ally didst hurl down waterfloods- which gloom had compassed round.
19 O Brahmanaspati, be thou controller of this our hymn and prosper thou our children. All that the Gods regard with love is blessed. Loud may we speak, with heroes, in assembly.
2.023.03 Having repelled revilers and (dispersed) the darkness you stand Br.haspati, on the radiant chariot of sacrifice, (which is) formidable (to foes), the humiliator of enemies, the destroyer of evil spirits, the cleaver of the clouds, the attainer of heaven.
2.023.04 You lead men, Br.haspati, by virtuous instructions; you preserve them (from calamity); sin will never overtake him who presents (offerings) to you; you are the afflicter of him who hates (holy) prayers; you are the punisher of wrath; such is your great mightiness. [Him who hates holy prayers: brahmadvis.ah = those who hate either the bra_hman.as,or the mantras or prayers].
2.023.05 The man whom you, Brahman.aspati, a kind protector, defend, neither sorrow nor sin, nor adversaries nor dissemblers ever harm, for you drive away from him all injurious (things).
2.023.06 You, Br.haspati, are our protector and the guide of (our) path; (you are) the discerner (of all things); we worship with praises for your adoration; may his own precipitate malice involve him (in destruction) who practises deceit against us.
2.023.07 Turn aside from (the true) path, Br.haspati, the arrogant and savage man who advances to injure us, although unoffending and keep us in the right way for (the completion of) this offering to the gods.
2.023.08 Br.haspati, defender (from calamity), we invoke you, the protector of our persons, the speaker of encouraging words and well disposed towards us; do you destroy the revilers of the gods; let not the malevolent attain supreme felicity.
2.023.09 Through you, Brahman.aspati, (our) benefactor, may we obtain desirable wealth from men destroy those (our) unrighteous enemies, whether nigh or far off, who prevail against us.
2.023.10 Through you, Br.haspati, (who are) the fulfiller of our desires; pure, and associated (with us), we possess excellent food; let not the wicked man who wishes to deceive us be our master; but let us, excelling in (pious) praises, attain (prosperity).
2.023.11 You, Brahman.aspati, who have no requiter (of your bounty), who are the showerer (of benefits), the repairer to combat, the consumer of foes, the victor in battles, you are true, the discharger of debts, the humiliator of the fierce and of the exulting.
2.023.12 Let not, Br.haspati, the murderous (weapon) of that man reach us, who, with unrighteous mind, seeks to harm us; who, fierce and arrogant, designs to kill (your) worshippers; may we baffle the wrath of the strong evil-doer].
2.023.13 Br.haspati is to be invoked in battles; he is to be approached with reverence; he who moves amidst combats, the distributor of repeated wealth; the lord Br.haspati has verily overturned all the assailing malignant (hosts), like chariots (overturned in battle).
2.023.14 Consume with your brightest (weapon) the ra_ks.asas, who have held your witnessed prowess in disdain; manifest, Br.haspati, your glorified (vigour), such as it was (of old), and destroy those who speak against you.
2.023.15 Br.haspati, born of truth, grant us that wonderful treasure, wherewith the pious man may worship exceedingly; that (wealth) which shines amongst men; which is endowed with lustre, (is) the means of (performing holy) rites, and invogirates (its possessor) with strength. [dravin.am citram = lit., various or wonderful wealth; in the Bra_hman.as it is interpreted as brahma varcas or tejas, brahmanical virtue or energy (cf. Yajus. 26.3; dravin.am = dhanam (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 4.11)].
2.023.16 Deliver us not to the thieves, the enemies delighting in violence, who seize ever upon the food (of others); those who cherish in their hearts the abandonment (of the gods); (they), Br.haspati, who do not know the extent of (your) power (against evil spirits). [Who do not know the extenf of your power: na parah sa_mno viduh = ye puma_msah sa_mnah sa_maya_t tvattah parah parasta_d anyadukr.s.t.am sa_ma yad raks.oghnam na ja_nanti, those men who do not know anything greater than the faculty of destroying ra_ks.asas, derived from you made up of that faculty; sa_ma vai raks.oha = sa_ma is the killer of ra_ks.asas].
2.023.17 Tvas.t.a_ engendered you (chief) amongst all beings, (whence) you are the reciter of many a holy hymn: Brahman.aspati acknowledges a debt to the performer of a sacred rite; he is the acquitter (of the debt), and the destoyer of the oppressor. [When you are the reciter: sa_mnah sa_mnah kavih, the reicter or another of every sa_ma, sarvasya sa_mnah ucca_rayita_ karta_si; or kavi refers to tvas.t.a_, further explained as the sage who created Brahman.aspati by the efficacy of the sa_ma: sa_mnah sa_ren.a tvam aji_janat; acknowledges a debt: r.n.acit stotr.ka_mam r.n.am iva cinoti, he takes the intention of the praiser as if it was a debt, or obligation; acquitter of the debt: r.n.aya is explained as the discharger or remover of the debt which is of the nature of sin: pa_paru_pasya r.n.asya pr.thak karta_].
2.023.18 When Br.haspati, descendant of An:giras, for your glory, Parvata had concealed the herd o fkine, you did set them free, and with thine associate, Indra, did send down the ocean of water which had been enveloped by darkness.
2.023.19 Brahman.aspati, who are the regulator of this (world), understand (the purport) of (our) hymn, and grant us posterity; for all is prosperous that the gods protect; (and therefore) may we blessed with excellent descendants, glorify you at this sacrifice. [Yajus. 34.58; vadema = may we declare or glorify you; or, let us speak, let what we ask be given to us;let it be enjoyed by us: di_yata_m bhujyata_m ucca_rayema].
The hypertext on this Susa pot (Louvre Museum) are: flowing water, fish, bird tied to a post. kāṇḍa '