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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Composite animals of Indus Script corpora are hypertexts.

    The cipher of the ancient writing system of Indus Script dated to ca. 3300 BCE is structured to function at two levels: 1. mlecchita vikalpa, 'alternative representation of message by mleccha'copper' workers, 'weapons makers'; and 2.vākyapadīya, 'sentences composed of words to convey meaning'.

    mlecchita vikapa is characterized by indistinct speech and incorrect, ungrammatical pronunciations, i.e. vernacula, parole. This expression is used by Vātsyāyana to refer to a cipher writing system as one of the 64 arts to be learnt by youth. See:

    vākyapadīya is meaning conveyed through a sentence composed of pada, 'sign, token, characteristic, word'. भर्तृहरि Bhartṛhari is author of the work, Vākyapadīya, 'treatise on words and sentences.'"The work is divided into three books, the Brahma-kāṇḍa, (or Āgama-samuccaya "aggregation of traditions"), the Vākya-kāṇḍa, and the Pada-kāṇḍa (or Prakīrṇaka "miscellaneous"). He theorized the act of speech as being made up of three stages:
    1. Conceptualization by the speaker (Paśyantī "idea")
    2. Performance of speaking (Madhyamā "medium")
    3. Comprehension by the interpreter (Vaikharī "complete utterance").
    Bhartṛhari is of the śabda-advaita "speech monistic" school which identifies language and cognition. According to George Cardona, "Vākyapadīya is considered to be the major Indian work of its time on grammar, semantics and philosophy." The work is on Sanskrit grammar and linguistic philosophy, is a foundational text in the Indian grammatical tradition, explaining numerous theories related to vāk, 'speech' and sphoṭa 'sound of language'. He identifies varṇasphoṭapadasphoṭa and vākyasphoṭa 'syllable speech sound', 'word speech sound' and 'sentence speech sound'. Meaning is determined when the full sentence is uttered and heard.
    Good examples of these two components of Indus Script cipher -- mlecchita vikalpa and vākyapadīya are Indus Script hypertexts formed as 'composite animals'. The scribe who created these hypertexts signifies vākyasphoṭa 'sentence speech sound' of Mleccha/Meluhha speech which is cognate with literary Samskrtam or Chandas expressions.
    Image result for composite animal indus scriptA truly fascinating paper by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale on composite Indus creatures and their meaning: Harappa Chimaeras as 'Symbolic Hypertexts'. Some Thoughts on Plato, Chimaera and the Indus Civilization at

    Hypertext includes the following hieroglyphs rendered rebus and read as vākyapadīya, sentence composed of words : The deciphered text is: metal ingots manufactory & trade of magnetite, ferrite ore, metals mint with portable furnace, iron ores, gold, smelters' guild. 

    The Meluhha rebus words and meanings are given below.

    सांगड sāṅgaḍa  f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together. Rebus: sangara'trade'

    1. zebu पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'magnetite, ferrite ore'
    2. human face mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) ; rebus:mũh metal ingot 
    3. penance kamaḍha 'penance' (Prakrit) kamaḍha, kamaṭha, kamaḍhaka, kamaḍhaga, kamaḍhaya = a type of penance (Prakrit) Rebus: kamaṭamu, kammaṭamu = a portable furnace for melting precious metals; kammaṭīḍu = a goldsmith, a silversmith (Telugu) kãpauṭ  jeweller's crucible made of rags and clay (Bi.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Tamil)
    4. elephant karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant' kharva 'a nidhi of nine treasures of Kubera'
    5. markhor miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meho a ram, a sheep (G.) Rebus: me(Ho.); mẽhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)mẽh t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Mu.) Allograph: me‘body ' (Mu.)
    6. young bull  kondh ‘young bull’ rebus: kũdā‘turner, brass-worker, engraver (writer)’ kundana 'fine gold'
    7. tiger kul 'tiger' (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' kole.l 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'temple'
    8. Cobra hood phaḍa'throne, hood of cobra' rebus: फड, phaḍa'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'

    This hieroglyph on Seal m1179 is a determinative that the message conveyed by 'composite animals' is that the locus is kole.l'temple/' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge'.
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 zebu potA zebu bull tied to a post; a bird above. Large painted storage jar discovered in burned rooms at Nausharo, ca. 2600 to 2500 BCE. Cf. Fig. 2.18, J.M. Kenoyer, 1998, Cat. No. 8.. पोळ [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. पोळी [ pōḷī ] dewlap. पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu, bos indicus taurus' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, ferrite ore: Fe3O4' Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼमेढ 'Stake or post' rebus: meD 'iron'. pōlaḍu, 'black drongo' Rebus: pōlaḍu, 'steel'.

    There are many examples of the depiction of 'human face' ligatured to animals:

    Ligatured faces: some close-up images.
    The animal is a quadruped: pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Te.)Rebus: pasra ‘smithy’ (Santali) Allograph: panǰā́r ‘ladder, stairs’(Bshk.)(CDIAL 7760) Thus the composite animal connotes a smithy. Details of the smithy are described orthographically by the glyphic elements of the composition.

    Rebus reading of the 'face' glyph: mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) mũh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.); ingot (Santali)mũh metal ingot (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali)

    A remarkable phrase in Sanskrit indicates the link between mleccha and use of camels as trade caravans. This is explained in the lexicon of Apte for the lexeme: auṣṭrika 'belonging to a camel'. The lexicon entry cited Mahābhārata: औष्ट्रिक a. Coming from a camel (as milk); Mb.8. 44.28; -कः An oil-miller; मानुषाणां मलं म्लेच्छा म्लेच्छाना- मौष्ट्रिका मलम् । औष्ट्रिकाणां मलं षण्ढाः षण्ढानां राजयाजकाः ॥ Mb.8.45.25. From the perspective of a person devoted to śāstra and rigid disciplined life, Baudhāyana thus defines the word म्लेच्छः mlēcchḥ : -- गोमांसखादको यस्तु विरुद्धं बहु भाषते । सर्वाचारविहीनश्च म्लेच्छ इत्यभिधीयते ॥ 'A person who eatrs meat, deviates from traditional practices.'

    The 'face' glyph is thus read rebus: mleccha mũh 'copper ingot'.

    It is significant that Vatsyayana refers to crptography in his lists of 64 arts and calls it mlecchita-vikalpa, lit. 'an alternative representation -- in cryptography or cipher -- of mleccha words.'

    The glyphic of the hieroglyph: tail (serpent), face (human), horns (bos indicus, zebu or ram), trunk (elephant), front paw (tiger),

    xolā = tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDr 2135). Rebus: kol ‘pañcalōha’ (Ta.)கொல் kol, n. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. மின் வெள்ளி பொன் கொல்லெனச் சொல்லும் (தக்கயாகப். 550). 2. Metal; உலோகம். (நாமதீப. 318.) கொல்லன் kollaṉ, n. < T. golla. Custodian of treasure; கஜானாக்காரன். (P. T. L.) கொல்லிச்சி kollicci, n. Fem. of கொல்லன். Woman of the blacksmith caste; கொல்லச் சாதிப் பெண். (யாழ். அக.) The gloss kollicci is notable. It clearly evidences that kol was a blacksmith. kola ‘blacksmith’ (Ka.); Koḍ. kollë blacksmith (DEDR 2133). Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge (DEDR 2133) கொல்² kol Working in iron; கொற்றொழில். Blacksmith; கொல்லன். (Tamil) mũhe ‘face’ (Santali); Rebus: mũh '(copper) ingot' (Santali);mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) கோடு kōṭu : •நடுநிலை நீங்குகை. கோடிறீக் கூற் றம் (நாலடி, 5). 3. [K. kōḍu.] Tusk; யானை பன்றிகளின் தந்தம். மத்த யானையின் கோடும் (தேவா. 39, 1). 4. Horn; விலங்கின் கொம்பு. கோட்டிடை யாடினை கூத்து (திவ். இயற். திருவிருத். 21). Ko. kṛ (obl. kṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kwṛ (obl. kwṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn. Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn (DEDR 2200)Rebus: koḍ = the place where artisans work (G.) kul 'tiger' (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ, °lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā, °lā m. krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu -- m. Pāṇ. [√kruś] Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka -- and kotthu -- , °uka -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. koṭṭhu -- m.; Si. koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42 (CDIAL 3615). कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pañcaloha’ (Ta.) Allograph: kōla = woman (Nahali) [The ligature of a woman to a tiger is a phonetic determinant; the scribe clearly conveys that the gloss represented is kōla] karba 'iron' (Ka.)(DEDR 1278) as in ajirda karba 'iron' (Ka.) kari, karu 'black' (Ma.)(DEDR 1278) karbura 'gold' (Ka.) karbon 'black gold, iron' (Ka.) kabbiṇa 'iron' (Ka.) karum pon 'iron' (Ta.); kabin 'iron' (Ko.)(DEDR 1278) Ib 'iron' (Santali) [cf. Toda gloss below: ib ‘needle’.] Ta. Irumpu iron, instrument, weapon. a. irumpu,irimpu iron. Ko. ibid. To. Ib needle. Koḍ. Irïmbï iron. Te. Inumu id. Kol. (Kin.) inum (pl. inmul)iron, sword. Kui (Friend-Pereira) rumba vaḍi ironstone (for vaḍi, see 5285). (DEDR 486) Allograph: karibha -- m. ʻ Ficus religiosa (?) [Semantics of ficus religiosa may be relatable to homonyms used to denote both the sacred tree and rebus gloss: loa, ficus (Santali); loh ‘metal’ (Skt.)]

    miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120)bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ lex. [← Austro -- as. J. Przyluski BSL xxx 200: perh. Austro -- as. *mēḍra ~ bhēḍra collides with Aryan mḗḍhra -- 1 in mēṇḍhra -- m. ʻ penis ʼ BhP., ʻ ram ʼ lex. -- See also bhēḍa -- 1, mēṣá -- , ēḍa -- . -- The similarity between bhēḍa -- 1, bhēḍra -- , bhēṇḍa -- ʻ ram ʼ and *bhēḍa -- 2 ʻ defective ʼ is paralleled by that between mḗḍhra -- 1, mēṇḍha -- 1 ʻ ram ʼ and *mēṇḍa -- 1, *mēṇḍha -- 2 (s.v. *miḍḍa -- ) ʻ defective ʼ](CDIAL 9606) mēṣá m. ʻ ram ʼ, °ṣīˊ -- f. ʻ ewe ʼ RV. 2. mēha -- 2, miha- m. lex. [mēha -- 2 infl. by mḗhati ʻ emits semen ʼ as poss. mēḍhra -- 2 ʻ ram ʼ (~ mēṇḍha -- 2) by mḗḍhra -- 1 ʻ penis ʼ?]1. Pk. mēsa -- m. ʻ sheep ʼ, Ash. mišalá; Kt. məṣe/l ʻ ram ʼ; Pr. məṣé ʻ ram, oorial ʼ; Kal. meṣ, meṣalák ʻ ram ʼ, H. mes m.; -- X bhēḍra -- q.v.2. K. myã̄ -- pūtu m. ʻ the young of sheep or goats ʼ; WPah.bhal. me\i f. ʻ wild goat ʼ; H. meh m. ʻ ram ʼ.mēṣāsya -- ʻ sheep -- faced ʼ Suśr. [mēṣá -- , āsyà -- ](CDIAL 10334) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)mẽṛh t iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Mu.) Allograph: meḍ ‘body ' (Mu.)

    m1186 Composite animal hieroglyph. Text of inscription (3 lines).
    Scarf is ligatured as a pigtail to a standing, horned person wishin a pot decorated with ficus leaves as a torana. Part of the glyphs included in Seal m1186.
    Scarf shown ligatured as a pigtail to a horned, standing person. Tablet.

    Scarf as a pigtail. A glyphic element ligatured to a horned, kneeling person in front of a horned, standing person (also with scarf as a hieroglyph) within a torana. One side of a tablet.

    er-agu = a bow, an obeisance; er-aguha = bowing, coming down (Ka.lex.) er-agisu = to bow, to be bent; tomake obeisance to; to crouch; to come down; to alight (Ka.lex.) cf. arghas = respectful reception of a guest (by the offering of rice, du_rva grass, flowers or often only of water)(S’Br.14)(Skt.lex.) erugu = to bow, to salute or make obeisance (Te.) Rebus: eraka ‘copper’ (Ka.)erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.) eruvai ‘copper’ (Ta.); ere dark red (Ka.)(DEDR 446). er-r-a = red; (arka-) agasāle, agasāli, agasālavāḍu = a goldsmith (Te.lex.)

    Thus, the horned, scarfed, kneeling person is read rebus: eraka dhatu 'copper mineral'.

    Decoding 'scarf' glyph: dhaṭu m. (also dhaṭhu) m. ‘scarf’ (WPah.) (CDIAL 6707)Rebus: dhatu ‘minerals’ (Santali)

    "Indus inscriptions resemble the Egyptian hieroglyphs..." (John Marshall, 1931, Mohenjo-daro and the Indus civilization, London, Arthur Probsthain, p.424) Yes, indeed, Indus writing was hieroglyphic and was invented ca. 3500 BCE as the artisans gained the expertise in participating in the bronze age innovations and technologies. 

    The bronze age necessitated writing system as an essential complementary innovation to categorise, compile, and creat bills of lading as authenticated records of trade transactions -- by account scribes -- of artifacts produced by guilds (workshops) of artisans, miners, lapidaries, turner-carvers. 

    Hieroglphs on text of inscription read rebus:

    Smithy (temple), Copper (mineral) guild workshop, metal furnace (account) 

    Sign 216 (Mahadevan). ḍato ‘claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs’; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Vikalpa: erā ‘claws’; Rebus: era ‘copper’. Allograph: kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.) kamat.ha = fig leaf, religiosa (Skt.)
    Sign 342. kaṇḍa kanka 'rim of jar' (Santali): karṇaka rim of jar’(Skt.) Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ (Te.); gaṇaka id. (Skt.) (Santali) copper fire-altar scribe (account)(Skt.) Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’ (Santali) Thus, the 'rim of jar' ligatured glyph is read rebus: fire-altar (furnace) scribe (account)
    Sign 229. sannī, sannhī = pincers, smith’s vice (P.) śannī f. ʻ small room in a house to keep sheep in ‘ (WPah.) Bshk. šan, Phal.šān ‘roof’ (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12326). seṇi (f.) [Class. Sk. śreṇi in meaning "guild"; Vedic= row] 1. a guild Vin iv.226; J i.267, 314; iv.43; Dāvs ii.124; their number was eighteen J vi.22, 427; VbhA 466. ˚ -- pamukha the head of a guild J ii.12 (text seni -- ). -- 2. a division of an army J vi.583; ratha -- ˚ J vi.81, 49; seṇimokkha the chief of an army J vi.371 (cp. senā and seniya). (Pali)
    'body' glyph. mēd ‘body’ (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)
    aya 'fish' (Mu.); rebus: aya 'iron' (G.); ayas 'metal' (Skt.)
    sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) *ஆலை³ ālai, n. < šālā.

    Varint of 'room' glyph with embedded rimless pot glyph (Sign 243 - Mahadevan corpus).
    'Room' glyph. Rebus: kole.l = smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.) kolme smithy' (Ka.) kol ‘working in iron, blacksmith (Ta.)(DEDR 2133) The ligature glyphic element within 'room' glyph (Variant Sign 243): baṭi 'broad-mouthed, rimless metal vessel'; rebus: baṭi 'smelting furnace'. Thus, the composite ligatured Sign 243 denotes: furnace smithy.

    Related imagem0301m0302m0303m1177m0299Related imagem0300m1179 Markhor or ram with human face in composite hieroglyph
    Related imagem1180h594 h594. Harappa seal. Composite animal (with elephant trunk and rings (scarves) on shoulder visible).koṭiyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; koṭ = neck (G.) Rebus: koḍ 'workshop'
    m1175 Composite animal with a two-glyph inscription (water-carrier, rebus: kuti 'furnace'; road, bata; rebus: bata 'furnace')

    Mohenjodaro seal (m0302).
    The composite animal glyph is one example to show that rebus method has to be applied to every glyphic element in the writing system. 

    The glyphic elements of the composite animal shown together with the glyphs of fish, fish ligatured with lid, arrow (on Seal m0302) are:
    --ram or sheep (forelegs denote a bovine)
    --neck-band, ring
    --bos indicus (zebu)(the high horns denote a bos indicus)
    --elephant (the elephant's trunk ligatured to human face)
    --tiger (hind legs denote a tiger)
    --serpent (tail denotes a serpent)
    --human face
    All these glyphic elements are decoded rebus:
    meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120); 
    kaḍum ‘neck-band, ring’ Alternative: koṭiyum'ring' rebus: ko'workshop'
    adar ḍangra ‘zebu’
    ibha ‘elephant’ (Skt.); rebus: ib ‘iron’ (Ko.)
    kolo ‘jackal’ (Kon.)
    moṇḍ the tail of a serpent (Santali) Rebus: Md. moḍenī ʻ massages, mixes ʼ. Kal.rumb. moṇḍ -- ʻ to thresh ʼ, urt. maṇḍ -- ʻ to soften ʼ (CDIAL 9890) Thus, the ligature of the serpent as a tail of the composite animal glyph is decoded as: polished metal (artifact). phaḍa 'hood of cobra' rebus: फड, phaḍa 'metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'
    mũhe ‘face’ (Santali); mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali)
    கோடு kōṭu : •நடுநிலை நீங்குகை. கோடிறீக் கூற் றம் (நாலடி, 5). 3. [K. kōḍu.] Tusk; யானை பன்றிகளின் தந்தம். மத்த யானையின் கோடும் (தேவா. 39, 1). 4. Horn; விலங்கின் கொம்பு. கோட்டிடை யாடினை கூத்து (திவ். இயற். திருவிருத். 21). 
    Ta. kōṭu (in cpds. kōṭṭu-) horn, tusk, branch of tree, cluster, bunch, coil of hair, line, diagram, bank of stream or pool; kuvaṭu branch of a tree; kōṭṭāṉ, kōṭṭuvāṉ rock horned-owl (cf. 1657 Ta. kuṭiñai). Ko. kṛ (obl. kṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kwṛ (obl. kwṭ-) horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ horn. Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn (DEDR 2200)
    meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)
    khāḍ ‘trench, firepit’
    aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.) ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.)
    kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pancaloha’ (Ta.)
    mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)
    mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends (Santali)
    koḍ = the place where artisans work (G.) 
    Orthographically, the glytic compositions add on the characteristic short tail as a hieroglyph (on both ligatured signs and on pictorial motifs)
    xolā = tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDr 2135). Rebus: kol ‘pañcalōha’ (Ta.)கொல் kol, n. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. மின் வெள்ளி பொன் கொல்லெனச் சொல்லும் (தக்கயாகப். 550). 2. Metal; உலோகம். (நாமதீப. 318.) கொல்லன் kollaṉ, n. < T. golla. Custodian of treasure; கஜானாக்காரன். (P. T. L.) கொல்லிச்சி kollicci, n. Fem. of கொல்லன். Woman of the blacksmith caste; கொல்லச் சாதிப் பெண். (யாழ். அக.) The gloss kollicci is notable. It clearly evidences that kol was a blacksmith. kola ‘blacksmith’ (Ka.); Koḍ. kollë blacksmith (DEDR 2133). Vikalpa: dumbaदुम्ब or (El.) duma दुम । पशुपुच्छः m. the tail of an animal. (Kashmiri) Rebus: ḍōmba ?Gypsy (CDIAL 5570). 
    Dwaraka Turbinellapyrum seal
    On this seal, the key is only 'combination of animals'. This is an example of metonymy of a special type called synecdoche. Synecdoche, wherein a specific part of something is used to refer to the whole, or the whole to a specific part, usually is understood as a specific kind of metonymy. Three animal heads are ligatured to the body of a 'bull'; the word associated with the animal is the intended message.The ciphertext of this composite animal is to be decrypted by rendering the sounds associated with the animals in the combination: ox, young bull, antelope. The rebus readings are decrypted with metalwork categories: barad 'ox' rebus: bharat 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'; kondh ‘young bull’ rebus: kũdā‘turner, brass-worker, engraver (writer)’ kundana 'fine gold'; ranku 'antelope' rebus: ranku 'tin'.                                                                                                                                                                                     

    Seal. National Museum: 135.

    The rebus readings of the hieroglyphs are: mẽḍha ‘antelope’; rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) aya 'fish'; rebus: aya 'cast metal' (G.). Fig. 96f: Failaka no. 260 

    Double antelope joined at the belly; in the Levant, similar doubling occurs for a lion.

    Tell Abraq. Gold objects recovered.
     pr̥ṣṭhá n. ʻ back, hinder part ʼ Rigveda; puṭṭhā m. ʻ buttock of an animal ʼ (Punjabi)  Rebus: puṭhāpuṭṭhā m. ʻbuttock of an animal, leather cover of account bookʼ (Marathi) tagara 'antelope' Rebus: damgar 'merchant'. This may be an artistic rendering of a 'descendant' of a ancient (metals) merchant. See: Antithetical antelopes of Ancient Near East as hieroglyphs (Kalyanaraman 2012) Hieroglyph: Joined back-to-back: pusht ‘back’; rebus: pusht ‘ancestor’. pus̱ẖt bah pus̱ẖt ‘generation to generation.’

    One-horned heifer ligatured to an octopus. This composite glyph occurs on a seal (Mohenjodaro) and also on a copper plate (tablet)(Harappa). This glyph is decoded as: smithy guild in a citadel (enclosure), with a warehouse (granary), be

    m297a: Seal  h1018a: copper plate

    A lexeme for a Gangetic/Indus river octopus is retained as a cultural memory only in Jatki (language of the Jats) of Punjab-Sindh region. The lexeme is vehā. A homonym closest to this is beā building with a courtyard (WPah.) There are many cognate lexemes in many languages of Bharat constituting a semantic cluster of the linguistic area (as detailed below). The rebus decoding of vehā (octopus); rebus: beā (building with a courtyard) is a reading consistent with (1) the decoding of the rest of the corpus of epigraphs as mleccha smith guild tokens; and (2) the archaeological evidence of buildings/workers’ platforms within an enclosed fortification on many sites of the civilization.

    Many languages of Bharat, that is India, evolved from meluhha (mleccha) which is the lingua franca of the civilization. The language is mleccha vaacas contrasted with arya vaacas in Manusmruti (as spoken tongue contrasted with grammatically correct literary form, arya vaacas). The hypothesis on which decoding of Indus script is premised, is that lexemes of many Indian languages are evidence of the linguistic area of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization; the artefacts with the Indus script (such as metal tools/weapons, Dholavira signboard, copper plates, gold pendant, silver/copper seals/tablets etc.) are mleccha smith guild tokens -- a tradition which continues on mints issuing punch-marked coins from ca. 6th cent. BCE.

    vehā  octopus, said to be found in the Indus (Jaki lexicon of A. Jukes, 1900)

    L. veh, veh m.  fencing; Mth. be  granary; L. ve, vehā enclosure containing many houses; beā building with a courtyard (WPah.) (CDIAL 12130)

    ko  = artisan’s workshop (Kuwi); ko ‘horn’ dama, koiyum ‘heifer’ (G.) rebus: tam(b)ra ‘copper’; ko  ‘workshop’ (G.); ācāri koṭṭya ‘smithy’ (Tu.)

    ṣṭá— ‘enclosure’ lex., °aka- m. ‘fence’, Si. veya ‘enclosure’; — Pa.  vēhaka— ‘surrounding’; S. vehu m. ‘encircling’; L. veh, veh m. ‘fencing, enclosure in jungle with a hedge, (Ju.) blockade’, ve, vehā m. ‘courtyard, (Ju.) enclosure containing many houses’; P. ve, be° m. ‘enclosure, courtyard’; Ku. beo ‘circle or band (of people)’; A. ber‘wall of house, circumference of anything’; B. be ‘fence, enclosure’, beā ‘fence, hedge’; Or. beha ‘fence round young trees’, beā ‘wall of house’; Mth. be ‘hedge, wall’, begranary’; H. beh, be, be, beā m. ‘enclosure, cattle surrounded and carried off by force’; M.veh m. ‘circumference’; beɔ m. ‘palace’, J. beām. ‘id., esp. the female apartments’, kul. beā ‘building with a courtyard’; A. also berā ‘fence, enclosure’ (CDIAL 12130 वाडी [ vāī ] f (वाटी S) An enclosed piece of meaand keepers. dow-field or garden-ground; an enclosure, a close, a paddock, a pingle. 2 A cluster of huts of agriculturists, a hamlet. Hence (as the villages of the Konkan̤ are mostly composed of distinct clusters of houses) a distinct portion of a straggling village. 3 A division of the suburban portion of a city. वाडा [ vāā ] m (वाट or वाटी S) A stately or large edifice, a mansion, a palace. Also in comp. as राजवाडा A royal edifice; सरकारवाडा Any large and public building. 2 A division of a town, a quarter, a ward. Also in comp. as देऊळवाडा,ब्राह्मणवाडागौळीवाडाचांभारवाडाकुंभारवाडा. 3 A division (separate portion) of a मौजा or village. The वाडा, as well as the कोंड, paid revenue formerly, not to the सरकार but to the मौजेखोत. 4 An enclosed space; a yard, a compound. 5 A pen or fold; as गुरांचा वाडागौळवाडा or गवळीवाडाधनगरवाडा. The pen is whether an uncovered enclosure in a field or a hovel sheltering both beasts
    It is certain that the design known as the animal file motif is extremely early in Sumerian and Elamitic glyptic; in fact is among the oldest known glyptic designs.
    A characteristic style in narration is the use of a procession of animals to denote a professional group. The grouping may connote a smithy-shop of a guild --pasāramu
    Mohenjo-daro seal m417 six heads from a core.śrēṇikā -- f. ʻ tent ʼ lex. and mngs. ʻ house ~ ladder ʼ in *śriṣṭa -- 2, *śrīḍhi -- . -- Words for ʻ ladder ʼ see śrití -- . -- √śri]H. sainī, senī f. ʻ ladder ʼ; Si. hiṇi, hiṇa, iṇi ʻ ladder, stairs ʼ (GS 84 < śrēṇi -- ).(CDIAL 12685). Woṭ. Šen ʻ roof ʼ, Bshk. Šan, Phal. Šān(AO xviii 251) Rebus: seṇi (f.) [Class. Sk. Śreṇi in meaning “guild”; Vedic= row] 1. A guild Vin iv.226; J i.267, 314; iv.43; Dāvs ii.124; their number was eighteen J vi.22, 427; VbhA 466. ˚ -- pamukha the head of a guild J ii.12 (text seni -- ). — 2. A division of an army J vi.583; ratha -- ˚ J vi.81, 49; seṇimokkha the chief of an army J vi.371 (cp. Senā and seniya). (Pali)

    This denotes a mason (artisan) guild -- seni -- of 1. brass-workers; 2. blacksmiths; 3. iron-workers; 4. copper-workers; 5. native metal workers; 6. workers in alloys.

    The core is a glyphic ‘chain’ or ‘ladder’. Glyph: kaḍī a chain; a hook; a link (G.); kaḍum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaḍiyaṇa, kaḍiyeṇa a woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (G.)
    The glyphics are:
    1.     Glyph: ‘one-horned young bull’: kondh ‘heifer’. kũdā‘turner, brass-worker’.
    2.     Glyph: ‘bull’: ḍhangra ‘bull’. Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’.
    3.     Glyph: ‘ram’: meḍh ‘ram’. Rebus: meḍ ‘iron
    4.         Glyph: ‘antelope’: mr̤eka ‘goat’. Rebus: milakkhu ‘copper’. Vikalpa 1: meluhha ‘mleccha’ ‘copper worker’. Vikalpa 2: meṛh ‘helper of merchant’.
    5.         Glyph: ‘zebu’: khũ ‘zebu’. Rebus: khũṭ ‘guild, community’ (Semantic determinant of the ‘jointed animals’ glyphic composition). kūṭa joining, connexion, assembly, crowd, fellowship (DEDR 1882)  Pa. gotta ‘clan’; Pk. gotta, gōya id. (CDIAL 4279) Semantics of Pkt. lexeme gōya is concordant with Hebrew ‘goy’ in ha-goy-im (lit. the-nation-s). Pa. gotta -- n. ʻ clan ʼ, Pk. gotta -- , gutta -- , amg. gōya -- n.; Gau.  ʻ house ʼ (in Kaf. and Dard. several other words for ʻ cowpen ʼ > ʻ house ʼ: gōṣṭhá -- , Pr. gūˊṭu ʻ cow ʼ; S. g̠oṭru m. ʻ parentage ʼ, L. got f. ʻ clan ʼ, P. gotargot f.; Ku. N. got ʻ family ʼ; A. got -- nāti ʻ relatives ʼ; B. got ʻ clan ʼ; Or. gota ʻ family, relative ʼ; Bhoj. H. got m. ʻ family, clan ʼ, G. got n.; M. got ʻ clan, relatives ʼ; -- Si. gota ʻ clan, family ʼ ← Pa. (CDIAL 4279). Alternative: adar ḍangra ‘zebu or humped bull’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.); ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.)
    6.     The sixth animal can only be guessed. Perhaps, a tiger (A reasonable inference, because the glyph ’tiger’ appears in a procession on some Indus script inscriptions. Glyph: ‘tiger?’: kol ‘tiger’.Rebus: kol ’worker in iron’. Vikalpa (alternative): perhaps, rhinocerosgaṇḍa ‘rhinoceros’; rebus:khaṇḍ ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’. Thus, the entire glyphic composition of six animals on the Mohenjodaro seal m417 is semantically a representation of a śrḗṇi, ’guild’, a khũ , ‘community’ of smiths and masons.

    This guild, community of smiths and masons evolves into Harosheth Hagoyim, ‘a smithy of nations’.

    This guild, community of smiths and masons evolves into Harosheth Hagoyim, ‘a smithy of nations’.

    A cylinder seal showing hieroglyphs of crocodile, elephant and rhinoceros was found in Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. This is an example of Meluhha writing using hieroglyphs to denote the competence of kāru ‘artisan -- kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi) He was also ibbo 'merchant' (Hieroglyph: ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron') and maker of metal artifacts: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’ (kāṇḍā mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil).
    Tell AsmarCylinder seal modern impression [elephant, rhinoceros and gharial (alligator) on the upper register] bibliography and image source: Frankfort, Henri: Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region. Oriental Institute Publications 72. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, no. 642. Museum Number: IM14674 3.4 cm. high. Glazed steatite. ca. 2250 - 2200 BCE. ibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron'. kāṇḍā 'rhinoceros' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  karā 'crocodile' Rebus: khar 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)
    Glazed steatite . Cylinder seal. 3.4cm high; imported from Indus valley. Rhinoceros, elephant, crocodile (lizard? ).Tell Asmar (Eshnunna), Iraq. IM 14674; Frankfort, 1955, No. 642; Collon, 1987, Fig. 610. ibha‘elephant’Rebus: ibbo ‘merchant’, ib ‘iron’காண்டாமிருகம் kāṇṭā-mirukam , n. [M. kāṇṭāmṛgam.] Rhinoceros; கல்யானை. Rebus: kāṇḍā ‘metalware, tools, pots and pans’.kāru ‘crocodile’ Rebus:   kāru  ‘artisan’. Alternative: araṇe ‘lizard’ Rebus: airaṇ ‘anvil’.

    kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Te.) కారు mosale ‘wild crocodile or alligator. S. ghaṛyālu m. ʻ long — snouted porpoise ʼ; N. ghaṛiyāl ʻ crocodile’ (Telugu)ʼ; A. B. ghãṛiyāl ʻ alligator ʼ, Or. Ghaṛiāḷa, H. ghaṛyāl, ghariār m. (CDIAL 4422) கரவு² karavu, n. < கரா. Cf. grāha. Alligator; முதலை. கரவார்தடம் (திவ். திருவாய். 8, 9, 9). கரா karā, n. prob. Grāha. 1. A species of alligator; முதலை. கராவதன் காலினைக்கதுவ (திவ். பெரியதி. 2, 3, 9). 2. Male alligator; ஆண்முதலை. (பிங்.) கராம் karām n. prob. Grāha. 1. A species of alligator ; முதலைவகை. முதலையு மிடங்கருங் கராமும் (குறிஞ்சிப். 257). 2. Male alligator; ஆண் முதலை. (திவா.)

    karuvu n. Melting: what is melted (Te.)कारु [ kāru ] m (S) An artificer or artisan. 2 A common term for the twelve बलुतेदार q. v. Also कारुनारु m pl q. v. in नारुकारु. (Marathi) कारिगर, कारिगार, कारागीर, कारेगार, कारागार [ kārigara, kārigāra, kārāgīra, kārēgāra, kārāgāra ] m ( P) A good workman, a clever artificer or artisan. 2 Affixed as an honorary designation to the names of Barbers, and sometimes of सुतार, गवंडी, & चितारी. 3 Used laxly as adj and in the sense of Effectual, availing, effective of the end. बलुतें [ balutēṃ ] n A share of the corn and garden-produce assigned for the subsistence of the twelve public servants of a village, for whom see below. 2 In some districts. A share of the dues of the hereditary officers of a village, such as पाटील, कुळकरणी &c. बलुतेदार or बलुता [ balutēdāra or balutā ] or त्या m (बलुतें &c.) A public servant of a village entitled to बलुतें. There are twelve distinct from the regular Governmentofficers पाटील, कुळकरणी &c.; viz. सुतार, लोहार, महार, मांग (These four constitute पहिली or थोरली कास or वळ the first division. Of three of them each is entitled to चार पाचुंदे, twenty bundles of Holcus or the thrashed corn, and the महार to आठ पाचुंदे); कुंभार, चाम्हार, परीट, न्हावी constitute दुसरी orमधली कास or वळ, and are entitled, each, to तीन पाचुंदे; भट, मुलाणा, गुरव, कोळी form तिसरी or धाकटी कास or वळ, and have, each, दोन पाचुंदे. Likewise there are twelve अलुते or supernumerary public claimants, viz. तेली, तांबोळी, साळी, माळी, जंगम, कळवांत, डवऱ्या, ठाकर, घडशी, तराळ, सोनार, चौगुला. Of these the allowance of corn is not settled. The learner must be prepared to meet with other enumerations of the बलुतेदार (e. g. पाटील, कुळ- करणी, चौधरी, पोतदार, देशपांड्या, न्हावी, परीट, गुरव, सुतार, कुंभार, वेसकर, जोशी; also सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, कुंभार as constituting the first-class and claiming the largest division of बलुतें; next न्हावी, परीट, कोळी, गुरव as constituting the middle class and claiming a subdivision of बलुतें; lastly, भट, मुलाणा, सोनार, मांग; and, in the Konkan̤, yet another list); and with other accounts of the assignments of corn; for this and many similar matters, originally determined diversely, have undergone the usual influence of time, place, and ignorance. Of the बलुतेदार in the Indápúr pergunnah the list and description stands thus:--First class, सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, महार; Second, परीट, कुंभार, न्हावी, मांग; Third, सोनार, मुलाणा, गुरव, जोशी, कोळी, रामोशी; in all fourteen, but in no one village are the whole fourteen to be found or traced. In the Panḍharpúr districts the order is:--पहिली or थोरली वळ (1st class); महार, सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, दुसरी or मधली वळ(2nd class); परीट, कुंभार, न्हावी, मांग, तिसरी or धाकटी वळ (3rd class); कुळकरणी, जोशी, गुरव, पोतदार; twelve बलुते and of अलुते there are eighteen. According to Grant Duff, the बलतेदार are सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, मांग, कुंभार, न्हावी, परीट, गुरव, जोशी, भाट, मुलाणा; and the अलुते are सोनार, जंगम, शिंपी, कोळी, तराळ or वेसकर, माळी, डवऱ्यागोसावी, घडशी, रामोशी, तेली, तांबोळी, गोंधळी. In many villages of Northern Dakhan̤ the महार receives the बलुतें of the first, second, and third classes; and, consequently, besides the महार, there are but nine बलुतेदार. The following are the only अलुतेदार or नारू now to be found;--सोनार, मांग, शिंपी, भट गोंधळी, कोर- गू, कोतवाल, तराळ, but of the अलुतेदार & बलुते- दार there is much confused intermixture, the अलुतेदार of one district being the बलुतेदार of another, and vice lls. (The word कास used above, in पहिली कास, मध्यम कास, तिसरी कास requires explanation. It means Udder; and, as the बलुतेदार are, in the phraseology of endearment or fondling, termed वासरें (calves), their allotments or divisions are figured by successive bodies of calves drawing at the कास or under of the गांव under the figure of a गाय or cow.) (Marathi)kruciji ‘smith’ (Old Church Slavic) 

    Crocodile hieroglyph in combination with other animal hieroglphs also appears on a Mohenjo-daro seal m0489 in the context of an erotic Meluhha hieroglyph: a tergo copulation hieroglyph
    m0489a,b,c Mohenjo-daro prism tablet

    A standing human couple mating (a tergo); one side of a prism tablet from Mohenjo-daro (m489b). Other motifs on the inscribed object are: two goats eating leaves on a platform; a cock or hen (?) and a three-headed animal (perhaps antelope, one-horned bull and a short-horned bull).  The leaf pictorial connotes on the goat composition connotes loa; hence, the reading is of this pictorial component is: lohar kamar = a blacksmith, worker in iron, superior to the ordinary kamar (Santali.)] 
    kāruvu ‘crocodile’ Rebus:  ‘artisan, blacksmith’.  pasaramu, pasalamu = an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped (Telugu) Thus, the depiction of animals in epigraphs is related to, rebus: pasra = smithy (Santali)
    pisera_ a small deer brown above and black below (H.)(CDIAL 8365).
    ān:gra = wooden trough or manger sufficient to feed one animal (Mundari). iṭan:kārri = a capacity measure (Ma.) Rebus: ḍhan:gar ‘blacksmith’ (Bi.)
    pattar ‘goldsmiths’ (Ta.) patra ‘leaf’ (Skt.) 
    r-an:ku, ran:ku = fornication, adultery (Telugu); rebus: ranku ‘tin’ (Santali)
    Rebus readings of Meluhha hieroglyphs:
    Hieroglhyphs: elephant (ibha), boar/rhinoceros[kāṇḍā mṛga 'rhinoceros' (Tamil)], tiger (kol), tiger face turned (krammara), young bull calf (khōṇḍa) [खोंड m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi)], antelope, ḍangur ʻbullockʼ, melh ‘goat’ (Brahui) 

    Rebus mleccha glosses: Ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'; kāṇḍā, 'tools, pots and pans, metalware'; kol 'worker in iron, smithy'; krammara, kamar 'smith, artisan', kõdā 'lathe-turner' [B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)], khũ ‘guild, community’, ḍāṅro ’blacksmith’ (Nepalese) milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) [Meluhha!]
    Iron (ib), carpenter (badhi), smithy (kol ‘pancaloha’), alloy-smith (kol kamar)
    tam(b)ra copper, milakkhu copper, bali (iron sand ore), native metal (aduru), ḍhangar ‘smith’.
    Smithy with an armourer Seal. Mohenjo-daro. Terracotta sealing from Mohenjo-daro depicting a collection of animals and some script symbols. In the centre is a horned crocodile (gharial) surrounded by other animals including a monkey.

    In these seals of Mohenjo-daro ‘horned crocodile’ hieroglyph is the center-piece surrounded by hieroglyphs of a pair of bullocks, elephant, rhinoceros, tiger looking back and a monkey-like creature. 

    Obverse of m1395 and m0441 had the following images of a multi-headed tiger.

    Ta. kōṭaram monkeyIr. kōḍa (small) monkey;  kūḍag  monkey.  Ko. ko·ṛṇ small monkey. To. kwṛṇ  monkey.  Ka. kōḍaga monkey, ape. Koḍ. ko·ḍë monkey. Tu.  koḍañji, koḍañja, koḍaṅgů baboon. (DEDR 2196). kuṭhāru = a monkey (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhāru ‘armourer or weapons maker’(metal-worker), also an inscriber or writer.

    Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn; Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr horn Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn Ko. kṛ (obl. kṭ-)( (DEDR 2200) Paš. kōṇḍā ‘bald’, Kal. rumb. kōṇḍa ‘hornless’.(CDIAL 3508). Kal. rumb. khōṇḍ a ‘half’ (CDIAL 3792).
    Rebus: koḍ 'workshop' (Gujarati) Thus, a horned crocodile is read rebus: koḍ khar 'blacksmith workshop'. khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri) kāruvu ‘crocodile’ Rebus:  ‘artisan, blacksmith’.
    Hieroglyph: Joined animals (tigers): sangaḍi = joined animals (M.) Rebus: sãgaṛh m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 12845) sang संग् m. a stone  (Kashmiri) sanghāḍo (G.) = cutting stone, gilding; sangatarāśū = stone cutter; sangatarāśi = stone-cutting; sangsāru karan.u = to stone (S.), cankatam = to scrape (Ta.), sankaḍa (Tu.), sankaṭam = to scrape (Skt.) kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Thus, the multi-headed tiger is read rebus: kol sangaḍi 'fortified place for metal (& ore stone) workers'.

    The following glyphics of m1431 prism tablet show the association between the tiger + person on tree glyphic set and crocile + 3 animal glyphic set.

    Mohenjo-daro m1431 four-sided tablet. Row of animals in file (a one-horned bull, an elephant and a rhinoceros from right); a gharial with a fish held in its jaw above the animals; a bird (?) at right. Pict-116: From R.—a person holding a vessel; a woman with a platter (?); a kneeling person with a staff in his hands facing the woman; a goat with its forelegs on a platform under a tree. [Or, two antelopes flanking a tree on a platform, with one antelope looking backwards?]

    One side (m1431B) of a four-sided tablet shows a procession of a tiger, an elephant and a rhinoceros (with fishes (or perhaps, crocodile) on top?).
    koḍe ‘young bull’ (Telugu) खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (B.)कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) कोंडण [kōṇḍaṇa] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Te.)] baṭṭai quail (N.Santali) Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali)
    ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'. kaṇḍa 'arrow' Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. ayaskāṇḍa is a compounde word attested in Panini. The compound or glyphs of fish + arrow may denote metalware tools, pots and pans.kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, alloy of 5 metals - pancaloha'. ibha 'elephant' Rebus ibbo 'merchant'; ib ‘iron'.  Alternative: కరటి [ karaṭi ] karaṭi. [Skt.] n. An elephant. ఏనుగు (Telugu) Rebus: kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati) kāṇḍa  'rhimpceros'   Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.  The text on m0489 tablet: loa 'ficus religiosa' Rebus: loh 'copper'. kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus the display of the metalware catalog includes the technological competence to work with minerals, metals and alloys and produce tools, pots and pans. The persons involved are krammara 'turn back' Rebus: kamar 'smiths, artisans'. kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron, working in pancaloha alloys'. పంచలోహము pancha-lōnamu. n. A mixed metal, composed of five ingredients, viz., copper, zinc, tin, lead, and iron (Telugu). Thus, when five svastika hieroglyphs are depicted, the depiction is of satthiya 'svastika' Rebus: satthiya 'zinc' and the totality of 5 alloying metals of copper, zinc, tin, lead and iron.
    Glyph: Animals in procession: खांडा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹ kaṇṭi  Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.
    m0489A One side of a prism tablet shows: crocodile + fish glyphic on the top register. Glyphs: crocodile + fish Rebus: ayakāra ‘blacksmith’ (Pali)
    Glyph: Animals in procession: खांडा [khāṇḍā] A flock (of sheep or goats) (Marathi) கண்டி¹ kaṇṭi  Flock, herd (Tamil) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’.
    It is possible that the broken portions of set 2 (h1973B and h1974B) showed three animals in procession: tiger looking back and up + rhinoceros + tiger.
    Reverse side glyphs:
    eraka ‘nave of wheel’. Rebus: era ‘copper’. āra 'spokes' Rebus: āra  'brass'.
    Animal glyph: elephant ‘ibha’. Rebus ibbo, ‘merchant’ (Gujarati).
    Composition of glyphics: Woman with six locks of hair + one eye + thwarting + two pouncing tigers (jackals)+ nave with six spokes. Rebus: kola ‘woman’ + kaṇga ‘eye’ (Pego.), bhaṭa ‘six’+ dul‘casting (metal)’ + kũdā kol (tiger jumping) or lo ‘fox’ (WPah.) rebus: lōha ʻmetalʼ (Pali) era āra (nave of wheel, six spokes), ibha (elephant). Rebus: era ‘copper’; kũdār dul kol ‘turner, casting, working in iron’;kan ‘brazier, bell-metal worker’; ibbo ‘merchant’.
    The glyphic composition read rebus: copper, iron merchant with taṭu kanḍ kol bhaṭa ‘iron stone (ore) mineral ‘furnace’.
    lōpāka m. ʻa kind of jackalʼ Suśr., lōpākikā -- f. lex. 1. H. lowā m. ʻfoxʼ.2.  Ash.  ẓōkižōkī  ʻfoxʼ, Kt. ŕwēki, Bashg. wrikī, Kal.rumb. lawák: < *raupākya -- NTS ii 228; -- Dm. rɔ̈̄pak ← Ir.? lōpāśá m. ʻfox, jackalʼ RV., lōpāśikā -- f. lex. [Cf. lōpāka -- . -- *lōpi -- ] Wg. liwášälaúša ʻfoxʼ, Paš.kch. lowóċ, ar. lṓeč ʻjackalʼ (→ Shum.  lṓeč NTS xiii 269), kuṛ. lwāinč; K. lośulōhlohulôhu ʻporcupine, foxʼ.1. Kho.  lōw  ʻfoxʼ, Sh.gil. lótilde;i f., pales. lṓi f., lṓo m., WPah.bhal. lōī f.,  lo m.2. Pr. ẓūwī  ʻfoxʼ.(CDIAL 11140-2).Rebus:lōhá ʻred, copper -- colouredʼ ŚrS., ʻmade of copperʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻcopperʼ VS., ʻironʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ] Pa. lōha -- m. ʻmetal, esp. copper or bronzeʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻironʼ, Gy. pal. li°, lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻsteelʼ; Kho. loh ʻcopperʼ; S. lohu m. ʻironʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu, °hā, A. lo, B. lo, no, Or. lohā, luhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. loh, lohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho,  ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md. ratu -- lō ʻ copper lōhá -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻironʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md.  ʻmetalʼ. (CDIAL 11158).
    Glyph: ‘woman’: kola ‘woman’ (Nahali). Rebus kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)
    Glyph: ‘impeding, hindering’: taṭu (Ta.) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Ta. taṭu (-pp-, -tt) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist. (DEDR 3031)
    Allograph: ‘notch’: Marathi: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).
    Glyph: ‘full stretch of one’s arms’: kāḍ 2 काड् । पौरुषम् m. a man's length, the stature of a man (as a measure of length) (Rām. 632, zangan kaḍun kāḍ, to stretch oneself the whole length of one's body. So K. 119). Rebus: kāḍ ‘stone’. Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ, (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil) stone (DEDR 1298). mayponḍi kanḍ whetstone;  (Ga.)(DEDR 4628). (खडा) Pebbles or small stones: also stones broken up (as for a road), metal. खडा [ khaḍā ] m A small stone, a pebble. 2 A nodule (of lime &c.): a lump or bit (as of gum, assafœtida, catechu, sugar-candy): the gem or stone of a ring or trinket: a lump of hardened fæces or scybala: a nodule or lump gen. CDIAL 3018 kāṭha m. ʻ rock ʼ lex. [Cf. kānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ lex.] Bshk. kōr ʻ large stone ʼ AO xviii 239. கண்டு³ kaṇṭu , n. < gaṇḍa. 1. Clod, lump; கட்டி. (தைலவ. தைல.99.) 2. Wen; கழலைக்கட்டி. 3. Bead or something like a pendant in an ornament for the neck; ஓர் ஆபரணவுரு. புல்லிகைக்கண்ட நாண் ஒன்றிற் கட்டின கண்டு ஒன்றும் (S.I.I. ii, 429). (CDIAL 3023) kāṇḍa cluster, heap ʼ (in tr̥ṇa -- kāṇḍa -- Pāṇ. Kāś.). [Poss. connexion with gaṇḍa -- 2 makes prob. non -- Aryan origin (not with P. Tedesco Language 22, 190 < kr̥ntáti). Pa. kaṇḍa -- m.n. joint of stalk, lump. काठः A rock, stone. kāṭha m. ʻ rock ʼ lex. [Cf. kānta -- 2 m. ʻ stone ʼ lex.]Bshk. kōr ʻ large stone ʼ AO xviii 239.(CDIAL 3018). অয়সঠন [ aẏaskaṭhina ] as hard as iron; extremely hard (Bengali)
    Glyph: ‘one-eyed’: काण a. [कण् निमीलने कर्तरि घञ् Tv.] 1 One-eyed; अक्ष्णा काणः Sk; काणेन चक्षुषा किं वा H. Pr.12; Ms.3.155. -2 Perforated, broken (as a cowrie) <kaNa>(Z)  {ADJ} ``^one-^eyed, ^blind''. Ju<kaNa>(DP),,<kana>(K)  {ADJ} ``^blind, blind in one eye''.   (Munda) Go. (Ma.) kanḍ reppa eyebrow (Voc. 3047(a))(DEDR 5169). Ka. kāṇ (kaṇḍ-) to see; Ko. kaṇ-/ka·ṇ- (kaḍ-) to see; Koḍ. ka·ṇ- (ka·mb-, kaṇḍ-) to see; Ta. kāṇ (kāṇp-, kaṇṭ-) to see; Kol.kanḍt, kanḍakt seen, visible. (DEDR 1443). Ta. kaṇ eye, aperture, orifice, star of a peacock's tail. (DEDR 1159a) Rebus ‘brazier, bell-metal worker’: கன்னான் kaṉṉāṉ , n. < கன்¹. [M. kannān.] Brazier, bell-metal worker, one of the divisions of the Kammāḷa caste; செம்புகொட்டி. (திவா.)  Ta. kaṉ copper work, copper, workmanship;  kaṉṉāṉ brazier. Ma. kannān id.  (DEDR 1402).  கன்¹ kaṉ , n. perh. கன்மம். 1. Workmanship; வேலைப்பாடு. கன்னார் மதில்சூழ் குடந்தை (திவ். திருவாய். 5, 8, 3). 2. Copper work; கன்னார் தொழில். (W.) 3. Copper; செம்பு. (ஈடு, 5, 8, 3.) 4. See கன்னத்தட்டு. (நன். 217, விருத்.) கன்² kaṉ , n. < கல். 1. Stone; கல். (சூடா.) 2. Firmness; உறுதிப்பாடு. (ஈடு, 5, 8, 3.)
    kã̄ḍ 2 काँड् m. a section, part in general; a cluster, bundle, multitude (Śiv. 32). kã̄ḍ 1 काँड् । काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ.
    kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165). -- । कुलालादिकन्दुयथावद्भावः f.inf. a kiln to arise; met. to become like such a kiln (which contains no imperfectly baked articles, but only well-made perfectly baked ones), hence, a collection of good ('pucka') articles or qualities to exist.
    kāru ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: artisan (Marathi) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri) kola ‘tiger’ Rebus: kol ‘working in iron’. Heraka ‘spy’ Rebus: eraka ‘copper’. khōṇḍa ‘leafless tree’ (Marathi). Rebus: kõdār’turner’ (Bengali) 
    Looking back: krammara ‘look back’ Rebus: kamar ‘smith, artisan’.
    One side of a triangular terracotta tablet (Md 013); surface find at Mohenjo-daro in 1936. Dept. of Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 
    Hieroglyph: kamaḍha 'penance' (Prakrit) kamaḍha, kamaṭha, kamaḍhaka, kamaḍhaga, kamaḍhaya = a type of penance (Prakrit)
    Rebus: kamaṭamu, kammaṭamu = a portable furnace for melting precious metals; kammaṭīḍu = a goldsmith, a silversmith (Telugu) kãpauṭ  jeweller's crucible made of rags and clay (Bi.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Tamil)
    kamaṭhāyo = a learned carpenter or mason, working on scientific principles; kamaṭhāṇa [cf. karma, kām, business + sthāna, thāṇam, a place fr. Skt. sthā to stand] arrangement of one’s business; putting into order or managing one’s business (Gujarati)  
    The composition of two hieroglyphs: kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) + kamaḍha 'a person seated in penance' (Prakrit) denote rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi) + kamaṭa 'portable furnace'; kampaṭṭam 'coinage, coin, mint'. Thus, what the tablet conveys is the mint of a blacksmith. A copulating crocodile hieroglyph -- kāru 'crocodile' (Telugu) + kamḍa, khamḍa 'copulation' (Santali) -- conveys the same message: mint of a blacksmith kāru kampaṭṭa 'mint artisan'.
    m1429B and two other tablets showing the typical composite hieroglyph of fish + crocodile. Glyphs: crocodile + fish ayakāra ‘blacksmith’ (Pali) kāru a wild crocodile or alligator (Telugu) aya 'fish' (Munda) The method of ligaturing enables creation of compound messages through Indus writing inscriptions. kārua wild crocodile or alligator (Telugu) Rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri); kāru ‘artisan’ (Marathi).

    Pali: ayakāra ‘iron-smith’. ] Both ayaskāma and ayaskāra are attested in Panini (Pan. viii.3.46; ii.4.10). WPah. bhal. kamīṇ m.f.  labourer (man or woman) ; MB. kāmiṇā  labourer (CDIAL 2902) N. kāmi  blacksmith (CDIAL 2900). 

    Kashmiri glosses:

    khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17).
    khāra-basta khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji or -güjü - लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü -हा&above;जू&below;), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu - लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 - लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu  लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wānवान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.
    Thus, kharvaṭ may refer to an anvil. Meluhha kāru may refer to a crocodile; this rebus reading of the hieroglyph is.consistent with ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali) [fish = aya (G.); crocodile = kāru (Telugu)]

    Lothal seal. L048 ibex
    Hieroglyph: mlekh 'goat' Rebus: milakkhu 'copper' mleccha 'copper'; ayo 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron'; ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)
    Inscription on Nausharo pot
     loa, ficus (Santali); loh ‘metal’ (Samskritam)
    kol 'tiger' Rebus: kolhe 'smelters'; kol 'working in iron'
    eraka 'wing' Rebus: eraka 'copper'
    ayo 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati); ayas 'metal' (Rigveda)

    Indus inscription on a Mohenjo-daro tablet (m1405) including ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph as component of a ligatured glyph (Sign 15 Mahadevan)This tablet is a clear and unambiguous example of the fundamental orthographic style of Indus Script inscriptions that: both signs and pictorial motifs are integral components of the message conveyed by the inscriptions. Attempts at ‘deciphering’ only what is called a ‘sign’ in Parpola or Mahadevan corpuses will result in an incomplete decoding of the complete message of the inscribed object.
    This inscribed object is decoded as a professional calling card: a blacksmith-precious-stone-merchant with the professional role of copper-miner-smelter-furnace-scribe.

    m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center points with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand points to the ligatured glyph. 

    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Glyph 15) gestured with the left hand. 
    Water-carrier glyph kuṭi ‘water-carrier’ (Telugu); Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) kuṛī f. ‘fireplace’ (H.); krvṛi f. ‘granary (WPah.); kuṛī, kuṛo house, building’(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kuṭi ‘hut made of boughs’ (Skt.) guḍi temple (Telugu) [The bull is shown in front of the trough for drinking; hence the semantics of ‘drinking’.]
    The most frequently occurring glyph -- rim of jar -- ligatured to Glyph 12 becomes Glyph 15 and is thus explained as a kanka, karṇaka: ‘furnace scribe’ and is consistent with the readings of glyphs which occur together with this glyph. Kan-ka may denote an artisan working with copper, ka (Ta.) kaṉṉār ‘coppersmiths, blacksmiths’ (Ta.) Thus, the phrase kaṇḍ karṇaka may be decoded rebus as a brassworker, scribe. karṇaka ‘scribe,  accountant’.
    Glyph15 variants (Parpola)
    The inscription of this tablet is composed of four glyphs: bison, trough, shoulder (person), ligatured glyph -- Glyph 15(rim-of-jar glyph ligatured to water-carrier glyph). 
    Each glyph can be read rebus in mleccha (meluhhan).
    ḍangur m. ʻbullockʼ, rebus: ḍāṅro ’blacksmith’ (N.) *ḍagga -- 3 ʻ cattle ʼ. 2. †*ḍhagga -- 2. [Cf. *ḍaṅgara -- 1, *daṅgara -- ]1. WPah.kṭg. ḍɔggɔ m. ʻa head of cattleʼ, ḍɔgge ʻcattleʼ, sat. (LSI ix 4, 667) ḍōgai ʻ cattle ʼ.2. S.kcch. ḍhago m. ʻ ox ʼ, L(Shahpur) ḍhaggā m. ʻsmall weak oxʼ, ḍhaggī f. ʻ cow ʼ, Garh. ḍhã̄gu ʻ old bull ʼ(CDIAL 5524a)  *ḍaṅgara1 ʻcattleʼ. 2. *daṅgara -- . [Same as ḍaṅ- gara -- 2 s.v. *ḍagga -- 2 as a pejorative term for cattle]1. K. ḍangur m. ʻbullockʼ, L. ḍaṅgur, (Ju.) ḍ̠ãgar m. ʻhorned cattleʼ; P. ḍaṅgar m. ʻcattleʼ, Or. ḍaṅgara; Bi. ḍã̄gar ʻold worn -- out beast, dead cattleʼ, dhūr ḍã̄gar ʻcattle in generalʼ; Bhoj. ḍāṅgar ʻcattleʼ; H. ḍã̄gar, ḍã̄grā m. ʻ horned cattle ʼ. 2. H. dã̄gar m. = prec.(CDIAL 5526)Rebus: N. ḍāṅro ʻ term of contempt for a blacksmithʼ (CDIAL 5524) Vikalpa: sal ‘bos gaurus’; rebus sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) <sayEl>(L)  {N} ``^bison, wild ^buffalo''.  #59041.
    pattar ‘trough’ (Ta.), rebus paṭṭar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pattar merchants (Ta.); perh. vartaka  (Skt.) pātharī ʻprecious stoneʼ (OMarw.) (CDIAL 8857)
    meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.); rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.); eṛaka 'upraised arm' (Ta.); rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.)   
    Ligature 1 in composite glyph: kan-ka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali), rebus karṇaka ‘scribe, accountant’ (Pa.); vikalpa: 1. kāraṇika -- m. ʻarrow-maker’ (Pa.) 2. khanaka ‘miner, digger, excavator’ (Skt.). Ligature 2 in composite glyph: kuṭi ‘water-carrier (Telugu), rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)
    The composite message is thus: blacksmith, merchant, copper smelter scribe.
    Vikalpa: pattar ‘trough’; rebus pattar, vartaka ‘merchant’. பத்தல் pattal, n. பத்தர்¹ pattar 1. A wooden bucket; மரத்தாலான நீரிறைக்குங் கருவிதீம்பிழி யெந்திரம் பத்தல் வருந்த (பதிற்றுப். 19, 23). பத்தர்² pattar , n. < T. battuḍu. A caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்றுபட்டடை¹ paṭṭaṭai , n. prob. படு¹- + அடை¹-. 1. [T. paṭṭika, K. paṭṭaḍe.] Anvil;அடைகல். (பிங்.) சீரிடங்காணி னெறிதற்குப் பட்ட டை (குறள், 821). 2. [K. paṭṭaḍi.] Smithy, forge; கொல்லன் களரி பத்தல்pattal , n. 1. A wooden bucket; மரத்தாலான நீரிறைக்குங் கருவிதீம்பிழி யெந்திரம் பத்தல் வருந்த (பதிற்றுப். 19, 23).பத்தர்¹ pattar , n. 1. See பத்தல், 1, 4, 5. 2. Wooden trough for feeding animals; தொட்டிபன்றிக் கூழ்ப்பத்தரில் (நாலடி, 257).
    paṭṭar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pattar merchants; perh. vartaka  (Skt.)
    Patthara [cp. late Sk. prastara. The ord. meaning of Sk. pr. is "stramentum"]   1. stone, rock S i.32. -- 2. stoneware Miln 2. (Pali) Pa. Pk. patthara -- m. ʻ stone ʼ, S. patharu m., L. (Ju.) pathar m., khet. patthar, P. patthar m. (→ forms of Bi. Mth. Bhoj. H. G. below with atth or ath), WPah.jaun. pātthar; Ku. pāthar m. ʻ slates, stones ʼ, gng. pāth*lr ʻ flat stone ʼ; A. B. pāthar ʻ stone ʼ, Or. pathara; Bi. pāthar, patthar, patthal ʻ hailstone ʼ; Mth. pāthar, pathal ʻ stone ʼ, Bhoj. pathal, Aw.lakh. pāthar, H. pāthar, patthar, pathar, patthal m., G. patthar, pathrɔ m.; M. pāthar f. ʻ flat stone ʼ; Ko. phāttaru ʻ stone ʼ; Si. patura ʻ chip, fragment ʼ; -- S. pathirī f. ʻ stone in the bladder ʼ; P. pathrī f. ʻ small stone ʼ; Ku. patharī ʻ stone cup ʼ; B. pāthri ʻ stone in the bladder, tartar on teeth ʼ; Or. pathurī ʻ stoneware ʼ; H. patthrī f. ʻ grit ʼ, G. pathrī f. *prastarapaṭṭa -- , *prastaramr̥ttikā -- , *prastarāsa -- .Addenda: prastará -- : WPah.kṭg. pátthər m. ʻ stone, rock ʼ; pəthreuṇõ ʻ to stone ʼ; J. pāthar m. ʻ stone ʼ; OMarw. pātharī ʻ precious stone ʼ. (CDIAL 8857)
    paṭṭarai ‘workshop’ (Ta.) pattharika [fr. patthara] a merchant Vin ii.135 (kaŋsa˚).(Pali) cf. Pattharati [pa+tharati] to spread, spread out, extend J i.62; iv.212; vi.279; DhA i.26; iii.61 (so read at J vi.549 in cpd ˚pāda with spreading feet, v. l. patthaṭa˚). -- pp. patthaṭa (q. v.).  பத்தர் pattar, n. perh. vartaka. Merchants; வியாபாரிகள். (W.)   battuḍu. n. The caste title of all the five castes of artificers as vaḍla b*, carpenter. 

    Mudhif and three reed banners. A cow and a stable of reeds with sculpted columns in the background. Fragment of another vase of alabaster (era of Djemet-Nasr) from Uruk, Mesopotamia. Limestone 16 X 22.5 cm. AO 8842, Louvre, Departement des Antiquites Orientales, Paris, France. Six circles decorated on the reed post are semantic determinants of Glyph: bhaṭa ‘six’. Rebus: bhaṭa ‘furnace काँड् । काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ. The rebus reading of the pair of reeds in Sumer standard is: khānḍa ‘tools,  pots  and  pans and metal-ware’.

    Quadrupeds exiting the mund (or mudhif) are pasaramu, pasalamu ‘an animal, a beast, a brute, quadruped’ (Telugu) పసరము [ pasaramu ] or పసలము pasaramu. [Tel.] n. A beast, an animal. గోమహిషహాతి.

    Rebus: pasra = a smithy, place where a black-smith works, to work as a blacksmith; kamar pasra = a smithy; pasrao lagao akata se ban:? Has the blacksmith begun to work? pasraedae = the blacksmith is at his work (Santali.lex.) pasra meṛed, pasāra meṛed = syn. of koṭe meṛed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari.lex.) పసారము [ pasāramu ] or పసారు pasārdmu. [Tel.] n. A shop. అంగడి. Allograph: pacar = a wedge driven ino a wooden pin, wedge etc. to tighten it (Santali.lex.) Allograph: pajhar 'eagle'.

    A Toda temple in Muthunadu Mund near Ooty, India. For example, on a cylinder seal from Uruk, a professional group of workers in a smithy are shown as a procession of young bull calves and other quadrupeds emerging out of the smithy. 

     Kur. xolā tailMalt. qoli id.(DEDR 2135) The 'tail' atop the reed-structure banner glyph is a phonetic determinant for kole.l 'temple, smithy'. Alternative: pajhaṛ = to sprout from a root (Santali); Rebus:pasra ‘smithy, forge’ (Santali)

    m0702 Text 2206 Glyph 39, a glyph which compares with the Sumerian mudhif or Toda munda structure.  
    [Kannada. kōḍu] Tusk; யானை பன்றிகளின் தந்தம்மத்த யானையின் கோடும் (தேவா. 39, 1). Rebus: खोट [khōṭa] A lump or solid bit (as of phlegm, gore, curds, inspissated milk); any concretion or clot. (Marathi) Rebus: L. khoṭf. ʻ alloy, impurity ʼ, °ṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā ʻ forged ʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻ base, alloy ʼ  M.khoṭā ʻ alloyed ʼ, (CDIAL 3931) 
    kole.l = smithy (Ko.) Rebus: Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. (DEDR 2133).

    Reading 1: kole.l = smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.) Rebus 1: Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer.  Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge. (DEDR 2133). Rebus 2: Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village.To. kwala·l Kota smithy (DEDR 2133).
    Reading 2: goṭ = the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali); goṭh (Brj.)(CDIAL 4336). Goṣṭha (Skt.); cattle-shed (Or.) koḍ = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.) कोठी cattle-shed (Marathi) कोंडी[ kōṇḍī ] A pen or fold for cattle. गोठी [ gōṭhī ] f C (Dim. Of गोठा) A pen or fold for calves. (Marathi) Cattle Byres c.3200-3000 B.C. Late Uruk-Jemdet Nasr period. Magnesite. Cylinder seal. In the lower field of this seal appear three reed cattle byres. Each byre is surmounted by three reed pillars topped by rings, a motif that has been suggested as symbolizing a male god, perhaps Dumuzi. Within the huts calves or vessels appear alternately; from the sides come calves that drink out of a vessel between them. Above each pair of animals another small calf appears. A herd of enormous cattle moves in the upper field. Cattle and cattle byres in Southern Mesopotamia, c. 3500 BCE. Drawing of an impression from a Uruk period cylinder seal. (After Moorey, PRS, 1999, Ancient materials and industries: the archaeological evidence, Eisenbrauns.)

     Text 1330 (appears with zebu glyph). Shown as exiting the kole.l 'smithy' arekol 'blaksmiths' and kũderā 'lathe-workers'.

    The young bulls emerging from the smithy. kõdā  खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus 1: kọ̆nḍu or  konḍu ।  कुण्डम् m. a hole dug in the ground for receiving consecrated fire (Kashmiri)Rebus 2: A. kundār, B. kũdār, °ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ.(CDIAL 3297).

    खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. kole.l = smithy (Ko.) Rebus: Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. (DEDR 2133). 

    ayo 'fish' Rebus: ayas 'metal'.

    kuṭila ‘bent’; rebus: kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. āra-kūṭa, ‘brass’ (Skt.) (CDIAL 3230) kuṭi— in cmpd. ‘curve’ (Skt.)(CDIAL 3231). 

    kanka 'rim of jar' Rebus: karṇika 'accountant'. kul -- karṇī m. ʻvillage accountantʼ (Marathi); karṇikan id. (Tamil) கணக்கு kaṇakku, n. cf. gaṇaka. [M. kaṇakku] 1. Number, account, reckoning, calculation, computation (Tamil) 

    Rebus: ‘to engrave, write; lapidary’: <kana-lekhe>(P)  {??} ``??''.  |.  Cf. <kana->.  %16123.  #16013. <lekhe->(P),,<leke->(KM)  {VTC} ``to ^write''.  Cf. <kana-lekhe>.  *Kh.<likhae>, H.<lIkhAna>, O.<lekhIba>, B.<lekha>; Kh.<likha>(P), Mu.<lika>.  %20701.  #20541. (Munda etyma) Kashmiri:khanun खनुन् । खननम् conj. 1 (1 p.p. khonu for 1, see s.v.; f. khüñü  to dig (K.Pr. 155, 247; L. 459; Śiv. 59, 746, 994, 143, 1197, 1214, 1373, 1754; Rām. 343, 958, 1147, 1724; H. xii, 6); to engrave (Śiv. 414, 671, 176; Rām. 1583). khonu-motu खनुमतु; । खातः perf. part. (f. khüñümüʦü)  dug (e.g. a field, or a well); engraved. mŏhara-khonu म्वहर-खनु; or (Gr.M.) mŏhar-kan । मुद्राखननकारुः m. a seal-engraver, a lapidary (El. mohar-kand). -wöjü । *अङ्गुलिमुद्रा f. a signet-ring.
    DEDR 1170 Ta. kaṇṭam iron style for writing on palmyra leaves. Te. gaṇṭamu id.
    DEDR 1179 Kur. kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. kanḍo stool, seat. గడమంచె gaḍa-manche. n. A wooden frame like a bench to keep things on. గంపలు మొదలగువాటిని ఉంచు మంచె.

    There three reed decorations atop the mudhif (or, Toda mund). kã̄ḍ 1 काँड् । काण्डः m. the stalk or stem of a reed, grass, or the like, straw. In the compound with dan 5 (p. 221a, l. 13) the word is spelt kāḍ. Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans, and metal-ware’. 

    Sumerian mudhif facade, with uncut reed fonds and sheep entering, carved into a gypsum trough from Uruk, c. 3200 BCE. This trough was found at Uruk, the largest city so far known in southern Mesopotamia in the late prehistoric period (3300-3000 BC). The carving on the side shows a procession of sheep (a goat and a ram)

    CARVED GYPSUM TROUGH FROM URUK. Two lambs exit a reed structure. A bundle of reeds (Inanna’s symbol) can be seen projecting from the hut and at the edges of the scene.
     The British Museum. WA 120000, neg. 252077 Part of the right-hand scene is cast from the original fragment now in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin                                                                                    
    The synecdoche style of metonymy is best exemplified by other types of composite animal orthography used in Indus Script Corpora and also presented in round sculptural forms.Indus Valley Figurines: Slide #72

    Two composite anthropomorphic / animal figurines from Harappa. Terracotta. Slide 72 In these figurines, the ligatured components are: seated quadruped felines (?) with feminine anthropomorphic faces. 

    A composite terracotta feline wearing necklace like a woman. kola 'tiger' kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Nahali (kol ‘woman’) and Santali (kul ‘tiger’; kol ‘smelter’). kola 'tiger' kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan 

    blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka.kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.; U.P.U.) konimi blacksmith; (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go.(SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge(DEDR 2133).

    Composite animal on Indus script is a composite hieroglyph composed of many glyphic elements. All glyphic elements are read rebus to complete the technical details of the bill of lading of artifacts created by artisans.

    Examples of compositions of composite animals with human face; many component parts of 'animal' body types used in the orthography are: body of a ram, horns of a bison, trunk of elephant, hindlegs of a tiger and an upraised serpent-like tail
    The composite animal (bovid) is re-configured by Huntington. Components of the composite hieroglyph on seal M-299. A ligaturing element is a human face which is a hieroglyph read rebus in mleccha (meluhha): mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) ; rebus:mũh metal ingot (Santali). Using such readings, it has been demonstrated that the entire corpora of Indus writing which now counts for over 5000 inscriptions + comparable hieroglyphs in contact areas of Dilmun where seals are deployed using the characeristic hieroglyphs of four dotted circles and three linear strokes.  

    Rebus readings: gaṇḍ 'four'. kaṇḍ 'bit'. Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar'. kolmo 'three'. Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. 

    म्लेच्छा* स्य = mleccha-mukha n. " foreigner-face " , copper (so named because the complexion of the Greek and Muhammedan invaders of India was supposed to be copper-coloured) L.म्लेच्छितक n. the speaking in a foreign jargon (unintelligible to others) Cat.; म्लेच्छन [p= 838,1] n. the act of speaking confusedly or barbarously Dha1tup.; म्लिष्ट [p= 837,3] mfn. spoken indistinctly or barbarously Pa1n2. 7-2 , 18; withered , faded , faint (= म्लानL.; n. indistinct speech , a foreign language L. म्लेच्छित [p= 838,1] mfn. 
    = म्लिष्ट Pa1n2. 7-2 , 18 Sch.; n. a foreign tongue L. म्लान n. withered or faded condition , absence of brightness or lustre VarBr2S.; mfn. faded , withered , exhausted , languid , weak , feeble MBh. Ka1v. &c; म्लेच्छ [p= 837,3] any person who does not speak Sanskrit and does not conform to the usual Hindu institutions S3Br. &c (f(). म्लेच्छ--ता f. the condition of barbarian VP.  म्लेच्छ--भाषा f. a foreign or barbarous language MBh. म्लेच्छ--वाच् mfn. speaking a barbarous language (i.e. not Sanskrit ; opp. to आर्य-वाच्Mn. x , 43.

    म्लेच्छ--जाति [p= 837,3] m. a man belonging to the म्लेच्छs , a barbarian , savage , mountaineer (as a किरात , शबर or पुलिन्दMBh. म्लेच्छ--मण्डल n. the country of the म्लेच्छs or barbarian W.

    म्लेच्छ  a person who lives by agriculture or by making weapons L.;  म्लेच्छn. copper
    L.; n. vermilion L.; म्लेच्छा* ख्य [p= 838,1] n. " called म्लेच्छ " , copper L.

    पद n. (rarely m.) a step , pace , stride; a footstep , trace , vestige , mark , the foot itself , RV. &c (पदेन , on foot ; पदे पदे , at every step , everywhere , on every occasion ; त्रीणि पदानि विष्णोः , the three steps or footprints of विष्णु [i.e. the earth , the air , and the sky ; cf. RV. i , 154 , 5 Vikr. i , 19], also N. of a constellation or according to some " the space between the eyebrows " ; sg. विष्णोः पदम् N. of a locality ; पदं- √दा,पदात् पदं- √गम् or √चल् , to make a step , move on ; पदं- √कृ , with loc. to set foot in or on , to enter ; with मूर्ध्नि , to set the foot upon the head of [gen.i.e. overcome ; with चित्ते or हृदये , to take possession of any one's heart or mind ; with loc. or प्रति , to have dealings with ; पदं नि- √धा with loc. , to set foot in = to make impression upon ; with पदव्याम् , to set the foot on a person's [gen. or ibc.] track , to emulate or equal ; पदम् नि- √बन्ध् with loc. , to enter or engage in)

    पद a word or an inflected word or the stem of a noun in the middle cases and before some तद्धितPa1n2. 1-4 , 14 &c = पद-पाठ Pra1t.

    पद a sign , token , characteristic MBh. Katha1s. Pur.

    पद protection L. [cf. Lat. peda ; op-pidum for op-pedum.]

    वाच्[p= 936,1] f. (fr. √ वच्) speech , voice , talk , language (also of animals) , sound (also of inanimate objects as of the stones used for pressing , of a drum &c RV. &c (वाचम्- √ , ईर् , or इष् , to raise the voice , utter a sound , cry , call); a word , saying , phrase , sentence , statement , asseveration Mn. MBh. &c (वाचं- √वद् , to speak words ; वाचं व्या- √हृ , to utter words ; वाचं- √दा with dat. , to address words to ; वाचा सत्यं- √कृ , to promise verbally in marriage , plight troth); Speech personified (in various manners or forms e.g. as वाच् आम्भृणी in RV. x , 125 ; as the voice of the middle sphere in Naigh.and Nir. ; in the वेद she is also represented as created by प्रजा-पति and married to him ; in other places she is called the mother of the वेदs and wife of इन्द्र ; in VP. she is the daughter of दक्ष and wife of कश्यप ; but most frequently she is identified with भारती or सरस्वती , the goddess of speech ; वाचः साम and वाचो व्रतम् N. of सामन्A1rshBr. वाचः स्तोमः , a partic. एका*S3rS. )

    वाक्य--पदीय [p= 936,2] n. N. of a celebrated wk. on the science of grammar by भर्तृ-हरि (divided into ब्रह्म-काण्ड or आगम-समुच्चय , वाक्य-काण्ड , पद-काण्ड or प्रकीर्णक);वाक्य b [p= 936,2] a periphrastic mode of expression Pa1n2. Sch. Siddh.; a rule , precept , aphorism MW.; a sentence , period Ra1matUp. Pa1n2. Va1rtt. &c; n. (ifc. f().) speech , saying , assertion , statement , command , words (मम वाक्यात् , in my words , in my name) MBh. &c; a declaration (in law) , legal evidence Mn.;an express declaration or statement (opp. to लिङ्ग , " a hint " or indication) Sarvad.; (in logic) an argument , syllogism or member of a syllogism; (in astron.) the solar process in computations MW.

    Ligaturing of glyphs on the Indus script is paralleled by sculpted ligatures of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization

    Glyphs on Indus script: Ligatured human body, metal wheelwright

    There are many variants of this human body glyph (Sign 1, Mahadevan Indus script corpus). There are many composite glyphs with many ligatures to this human body frame.

    me ‘body’ (Santali) Rebus: me ‘iron (metal)’ (Ho.) koe meed= forged iron (Mu.) (cf. glyph: Ka. kōu horn)

    Vikalpa: kāhī = body, person; kāhī the make of the body; the stature of a man (G.) Rebus: khātī  ‘wheelwright’ (H.)

    eaka 'upraised arm' (Ta.); Ka.eake wing; rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.); eraka ‘metal infusion’ (Tu.)

    Characteristic ligatures are:  scarf on hair-pigtail, armlets on arms, raised arm, seated (hidden, spy?) on a tree, ligatured to buttocks (back) of a bovine, horned (often with a twig betwixt horns).

    All these orthographic glyptic elements can be explained rebus as mleccha smith guild token glyphs, all in the context of a smithy/forge/smithy guild. This decoding is consistent with rebus readings of other glyphs such as ligatured tiger + eagle, tiger+ wings, tiger+ human body.

    Some of these ligaturing elements and glyphs can be decoded, read rebus in mleccha lexemes. 

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    I suggest that mlecchita vikalpa is Indus Script cipher. As a writing system, mlecchita vikalpa 'writing system' complements two other arts and sciences taught to the youth: akṣaramuṣṭika kathanam, 'messaging by wrist-finger gestures', deśa bhāṣā jñānam'knowledge of dialects', according to Vidyāsamuddeśa, objective of education detailed in a list of 64 arts by Vātsyāyana.

    Kunjunni Raja provides a significant explanation for the word vikalpa in the context of a detailed narrative of ancient Indian theories of meaning or शाब्द--बोध m. "verbal knowledge" , apprehension of the meaning of words , perception of the verbal or literal sense (of a sentence &c.). "Even the Buddhists accept the relation between the śabda and the vikalpa of the mentral construct of the image, and recognize the relationship between the two." The word śabda means 'sound of word and meaning' (K. Kunjuni Raja, 1969, Indian Theories of Meaning, Adyar Library and Research Centre, p.37).

    sphoṭa as a linguistic meaning-bearer is an imaging process in mental faculties resulting in vāc, 'speech'. The invention of a writing system as a linguistic device creates an image of a word by the object the sound of the word signified. Thus, a kunda'young bull' is written down (inscribed, say, on a seal or tablet) to signify the vikalpa,'mental construct of the imaged'  śabda of word- kunda. Thus, kunda 'young bull' image is the mental construct of the śabda the sound with meaning 'young bull' A homonym of this word then yields the cognate word with the meaning kunda, 'fine gold'.

    पश्यत् [p= 611,2]mf(अन्ती)n. seeing , beholding &c पश्यन्ती f. N. of a partic. sound L. (Monier-Williams) I suggest that the sound of a word is 'seen' as a mental contruct of an image whicgh evokes the word for communication or expression, in vāc, 'speech'.  Hence, the use of this expression पश्यन्ती in ancient Indian theories of meaning.

    When a young bull is signified on an Indus Script inscription, the vikalpa'mental construct of the image' is recognized (paśyant
    ī) both by the speaker and the hearer as kundar. In the mental construct of the word image of kundar evokes the sound and meaning associated with two homonyms, kundar'young bull' and kunda'fine gold'. Thus, mlecchita vikalpa of kundar as a young bull a a signifiant, results in the sphoṭa, 'bursting forth' of kunda as 'fine gold' as the signifie 'signified'. This is the same rebus princple of representing signifier-and signified by cognate words, as used in Egyptian hieroglyphs.

    Tolkāppiyan refers to all words as semantic indicatore: ellāccollum poruḷ kur̥ittanave This statement is comparable to the Mīmāmsaka-s who consider Vr̥tti (function of a word in relation to the sense) as a separate power category, padārtha,'meaning of word or thing'. This Vr̥tti evolves into the stage of vaikharī, 'the uttered expression' or 'the śabda as it is expressed as speech or noise from the throat, tongue, lips and teeth.'

    "The Indian conception of the relation between śabda and artha (word and sense) is quite analogous to de Saussure's definition of a linguistic sign as a relation between the signifiant and the signifie. He says: Le signe linguistique unit non une chose et un nom, mais un concept et une image acoustique."(opcit., p.25). The hypertexts of Indus Script provide both the signifiant and the signifie when the speaker and hearer recognize the śabda with two padārtha-s, 'two meanings of word or thing'. The young bull is the thing, the rebus word is the meaning of the śabda -- kunda 'fine gold' as the mlecchavaikharī with the underlying meaning-bearer sphoṭa: ‘The sphoṭa is simply the  linguistic sign in its aspect of meaning-bearer (Bedeutungstrager).’(J. Brough, ‘Theories of General Linguistics in the Sanskit grammarians’, Transaction of the Philological Society, London, 1951, p..33f.). 

    Hypertexts of Indus Script are vākyasphoṭa, or 'texts as meaining-bearers'.

    Thus, the simple key to Indus Script Cipher is the key provided by śabda of vaikharī stage yielding two homonyms: one the signifier (hypertext) and the other the signified (accounting ledger of wealth metalwork).
    kod. 'one horn'; kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.)kamarasa_la = waist-zone, waist-band, belt (Te.)kot.iyum [kot., kot.i_ neck] a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal (G.) [cf. the orthography of rings on the neck of one-horned young bull]. ko_d.iya, ko_d.e = young bull; ko_d.elu = plump young bull; ko_d.e = a. male as in: ko_d.e du_d.a = bull calf; young, youthful (Te.lex.) ko_d.iya, ko_d.e young bull; adj. male (e.g., ko_d.e du_d.a bull calf), young, youthful; ko_d.eka~_d.u a young man (Te.); ko_d.e_ bull (Kol.); khor.e male calf (Nk.); ko_d.i cow; ko_r.e young bullock (Kond.a); ko_d.i cow (Pe.); ku_d.i id. (Mand.); ko_d.i id., ox (Kui); ko_di cow (Kuwi); kajja ko_d.i bull; ko_d.i cow (Kuwi)(DEDR 2199). kor.a a boy, a young man (Santali) go_nde bull, ox (Ka.); go_da ox (Te.); konda_ bull (Kol.); ko_nda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.); ko_nde cow (Ga.); ko_nde_ bullock (Ga.); ko_nda_, ko_nda bullock, ox (Go.)(DEDR 2216). Rebus: kot. 'artisan's workshop'.(Kuwi)kod. = place where artisans work (G.lex.)kō̃da कोँद । कुलालादिकन्दुः f. a kiln; a potter's kiln (Rām. 1446; H. xi, 11); a brick-kiln (Śiv. 133); a lime-kiln. -bal -बल् । कुलालादिकन्दुस्थानम् m. the place where a kiln is erected, a brick or potter's kiln (Gr.Gr. 165)(Kashmiri)

    ko_nda bullock (Kol.Nk.); bison (Pa.)(DEDR 2216). Rebus: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) Grierson takes the word कन्दुः (Skt.) to be a cognate of kaNDa 'pot' rebus: kaNDa 'fire altar' (Santali)


    Sarasvati Research Center
    September 8, 2017

    Indian Theories of Meaning - K Kunjunni Raja by granthabhandar on Scribd

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    Former State Dept Diplomat on Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar: 'I Don't Accept the Narrative'

    A retired senior State Department official who previously served in Myanmar is taking issue with the prevailing international media narrative concerning Myanmar. She does not agree with the coverage of the ongoing crisis between the country's security forces and reportedly tens of thousands of Rohingya Muslims, who are fleeing from the volatile Rakhine province to Bangladesh:
    Much of the international criticism has been directed at Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar's foreign minister and state counsellor -- as well as the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize winner for her peaceful resistance campaign against the country's longtime military junta rulers. She is now accused of indifference to the Rohingyas' plight, with some calling for her Nobel Prize to be revoked:
    But Priscilla Clapp -- a 30-year State Department diplomat who served as U.S. chief of mission in Myanmar from 1999-2002, and now is a senior adviser at the U.S. Institute for Peace -- is pushing back on the claims of the media and human rights groups.
    In a Thursday appearance on France 24, Clapp said that Kyi had been working with a United Nations commission led by former Secretary General Kofi Annan on peace efforts in the region. According to Clapp, the recent large-scale attacks by foreign-funded Islamic terrorist groups targeting Myanmar's security forces, which sparked the current crisis, were purposefully timed to derail those efforts.
    Clapp was preceeded by a France 24 correspondent pushing the accepted international media version of events -- that Kyi's security forces are entirely to blame -- to which Clapp replied:
    I simply don’t accept the narrative that we just heard.
    The transcript:
    F24: You were chief of mission in Burma from 1999 to 2002, it was a time that Aung San Suu Kyi was an icon, a beacon of peaceful resistance. She was put under house arrest while you were there. Has your perception of her changed in the past two weeks?
    Clapp: No. I simply don’t accept the narrative that we just heard.
    There was indeed a terrorist attack in Rakhine. It came from outside, it was perpetrated by people in the Rohingya diaspora living in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia coming in through Bangladesh. And they have killed a lot of security forces.
    This started in October and the latest attack was timed to follow the recommendations, the presentation of the recommendations of the Kofi Annan international commission on Rakhine, which Aung Sun Suu Kyi has accepted and agreed to implement. These recommendations call for a long-term solution there. She was already working on it when it was disrupted by this latest terrorist attack. Their tactics are terrorism. There’s no question about it.
    [Kyi is] not calling the entire Rohingya population terrorists, she is referring to a group of people who are going around with guns, machetes, and IEDs and killing their own people in addition to Buddhists, Hindus, and others that get in their way.
    They have killed a lot of security forces, and they are wreaking havoc in the region. The people who are running and fleeing out to Bangladesh are not only fleeing the response of the security forces, they are fleeing their own radical groups because they’ve been attacking Rohingya, and in particular the leadership who were trying to work with the government on the citizenship process and other humanitarian efforts that were underway there.
    This has all been thrown into a [inaudible] right now with the confusion that has been sown by this latest attack. And I think that the international community has to sort out the facts before making accusations.
    The terror attacks that Clapp referenced were committed by the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) -- the group launched attacks on 30 northern border outposts on August 25, killing 71 security personnel.
    ARSA launched attacks last October that kicked off most of the recent waves of violence:
    There are numerous reports that Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh have provided weapons and other assistance to ARSA, as Asia Times reported last month before the August 25 attacks:
    The Rohingya organization that has claimed responsibility for recent violence -- the Harakat al Yaqin (HaY), now rebranded the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) -- is understood to have a leadership council based in Saudi Arabia and local leaders with backgrounds in Pakistan. It’s a support network that will almost certainly translate into donations from established businessmen in both countries.
    One senior regional intelligence official noted to Asia Times that a group of senior Rohingya clerics based in Saudi Arabia has already played an important role in fundraising and facilitating money transfers. According to the same source, Malaysia has emerged as both a major clearing house for ARSA funding, and, given its Muslim-friendly visa regime, as a transit point for the movement of militants.
    Photographs taken on a mobile phone and seen recently by Asia Timesshowed a crate of new Kalashnikov-series assault rifles -- apparently Chinese manufactured Type 56 7.62mm rifles -- and a group of youths in sarongs and tee-shirts being trained in the use of the weapons by older instructors.
    In view of the tight security lockdown imposed by the Myanmar security forces across Rakhine state since last October, it is far more likely that the weapons reached ARSA through southern Bangladesh than from inside Myanmar.
    TIME magazine reported last December that ARSA's leadership council is based in Mecca, with its top leaders having deep ties to Saudi Arabia and Pakistan:
    This new armed group is overseen by a committee of Rohingya émigrés based in Mecca. The public face of its operations in northern Arakan, also called Rakhine, is Ata Ullah (known by several aliases), who is the main speaker in several videos released by the group. He was born in Karachi to a Rohingya father and grew up in Mecca.
    He is part of a group of 20 Rohingya who have international experience in modern guerrilla warfare and are leading operations on the ground in northern Arakan. Also with them is a senior Islamic scholar, Ziabur Rahman, a Saudi-educated Rohingya mufti with the authority to issue fatwas.
    The recent video below shows jihadist volunteers of the hardcore Indonesian Islamist group, Front Pembela Islam (FPI), headed towards Myanmar:
    With the decline of fortunes of Sunni jihadists in Syria, some of the support for those groups may be shifted into Myanmar and the Philippines, where ISIS has been waging an active terror campaign in Mindanao in recent months.
    Needless to say, exposure of foreign support for ARSA terrorism will make the case for international military intervention on behalf of the Rohingya more difficult.

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    Indus Script hypertexts are composed of hieroglyphs which describe goods such as minerals, metals, alloys.

    A parallel writing system of Egyptian hieroglyphs evidenced on bone and ivory tags of Abydos seem to describe goods and localities. This evidence reinforces the form and function of Indus Script hypertexts which were meant to be accounting ledgers of wealth-creating activities of artisans using Bronze age minerals, metals, alloys and metal castings.

    On the following examples from Harappa, fish hieroglyph signifies ayo'fish' rebus: aya 'iron'ayas'alloy metal' (Rgveda) and rimless pot hieroglyph signifies bhaṭa'rimless pot' rebus:  bhaṭa'furnace',  baṭa 'iron'. The four numeral strokes signify gaṇḍa'four' rebus: kaṇḍa'implements'. The earlierst writing at Harappa is dated to ca.3300 BCE by Harvard Archaeology Project (HARP) which pre-dates the Abydos bone, ivory tags with Egyptian hieroglyphs -- with form and function comparable to the form and function of Indus Script hypertexts..

    Image result for miniature tablets harappa
    Fish on miniature tablets, Harappa
    (a) H-302; (b) 3452; after Vats 1940: II, 452 B. Parpola, 1994, p. 194.
    Fish-shaped tablet (3428), Harappa with incised text; eye is a dotted circle; after Vats 1940: II, pl. 95, no.428; Parpola, 1994, p. 194.

    A comparable set of hieroglyphs occur on Narmer's palette which have been deciphered as N'r M'r 'cuttle-fish PLUS awl' to signify the name of the Emperor Nar-Mer, a clear example of rebus method of writing using logographs.
    Related image
    State Formation and Unification 
    Figure 5.5 Narmer Palette, reverse. Jurgen Liepe
    State Formation and Unification
    Figure 5.6 Tags from Tomb U-j, Abydos. German Archeological Institute Cairo

    [quote] Tombs excavated by Gunther Dreyer at Abydos in Cemeteries U and B may be those of some of the rulers preceding the 1s* Dynasty. Cemetery U contained mainly unlined
    Graves of Naqada II-III in the eastern section. Although robbed, one large tomb (U-j) in this cemetery still had much of its subterranean mud-brick structure, as well as wooden beams, matting, and mud-bricks from its roof. The tomb pit was divided into 12 chambers, including a burial chamber with evidence of a wooden shrine and an ivory scepter. Several hundred ceramic jars were excavated in this tomb, with the residue of (imported?) wine still in some of them.

    Almost 200 small labels in Tomb U-j, originally attached to goods, were inscribed with the earliest known evidence in Egypt of writing (see Figure 5.6). Dreyer has hypothesized that some of these signs refer to royal estates, administrative districts, and towns, such as Buto and Bubastis in the Delta. The labels may have been attached to goods and materials coming from royal estates or other places associated with a ruler named Scorpion, who was probably buried in this tomb. Tomb U-j did not belong to the well known King Scorpion, whose decorated macehead was found at Hierakonpolis, and the tomb is at least 100 years earlier in date than those of the Dynasty 0 kings buried in Cemetery B at Abydos. Cemetery B, to the south of Cemetery U, is where Werner Kaiser identified the tomb complex of Aha, the first king of the 1s* Dynasty, as well as double-chambered pit tombs of three kings of Dynasty 0: Iri-Hor, Ka, and Narmer. Kaiser’s identifications were confirmed by seal impressions and inscribed artifacts associated with these tombs. [unquote]

     Labels from the late predynastic king's tomb U-j in Abydos. These labels made of cattle ribs were attached to grave goods and described their origin. 

    Ivory tags from tomb U-j.

    Tomb U-j at Abydos. The Burial chamber is the broad room at the rear (southwest end) of the tomb.
    Bone and ivory tags, pottery vessels, and clay seal impressions bearing hieroglyphs unearthed at AbydosOffsite Link, one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, 300 miles south of Cairo, have been dated between 3320 and 3150 BCE, making them the oldest known examples of Egyptian writing.
    The tags, each measuring 2 by 1 1/2 centimeters and containing between one and four glyphs, were discovered in the late 20th century in Tomb U-j of Umm el Qu'abOffsite Link, the necropolis of the Predynastic and Early Dynastic kings by excavators from the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo led by Günter DreyerOffsite Link. Tomb U-j may hold the remains of predynastic ruler Scorpion IOffsite Link (Serket I). The discoveries in Tomb U-j were first published by Dreyer, Ulrich Hartung, and Frauke Pupenmeier in Umm el-Qaab. Volume 1: Das prädynastische Königsgrab U-j und seine frühen Schriftzeugnisse (1998).
    "Tomb U-j is best known for three distinctive forms of administrative record keeping in the form of ink-inscribed vessels, sealings, and tags. The size of the tomb, its contents, and the amount of labor its construction and assemblage would have required has led many scholars to propose that this tomb belonged to a proto-ruler who reigned over a sizable territory by the Naqada IIIOffsite Linkperiod. . . .
    "The written evidence from Tomb U-j, in particular the tags, probably denotes quantities of good, and localities in Egypt and beyond. The Egyptian writing system had already undergone a number of important developments by the time of Tomb U-j, which have not yet been recovered, or have not survived to modern times. Linguistic terminology makes it psosible to identify the various units of language that helped to transform communication in early Egypt from merely pictorial expression to speech writing, which is important in identifying the nature of early graphic material:
    "1) Logograms: symbols representing specific words
    "2) Phonograms: symbols representing specific sounds
    "3) Determinatives: symbols used for classifying words
    "Moreover, writing on the tags shows that the Egyptian writing system had adopted the rebus principle, which broadened the meaning of symbols to include their homophones—words with the same sound but different definitions. . . ." (Elise V. Macarthur, "The Concept and Development of the Egyptian Writing System" IN: Woods (ed), Visible Language. Inventions of Writing in the Middle East and Beyond [2010] 120; the book illustrates many of the objects from Tomb U-j; see also 138-143).
    "Prior to the proper scientific excavation of Tomb U-j and its publication in 1998, the earliest clear instances of Egyptian writing dated back to the late Dynasty o (ca. 3200-3100 BC), a few centuries later than in southern Mesopotamia. It had long been known that later fourth-millenium Egypt witnessed sustained cultural contract with southern Mesopotamia and Susiana, tokens of which are found in elements of foeign iconography on Egyptian prestige objects, the adoption of the cylinder seal, and niched brick architecture. This led to the —always controversial— hypothesis that Egyptian writing may have originated as a result of cultural infleunce from Mesopotamia, whether through general awareness that writing was present elsewhere, or possibly through some actual knowledge of the workings of the Mesopotamian system. The distinctively indigenous nature of the Egyptian repertoire of signs was interpreted as a case of cultural adaptation of a foreign technology to local purposes. The hypothesis of a Mesopotamian influence on the emergence of Egyptian writing was at times embedded into a broader frame arguing that the original invention of writing, conceived of as a dramatic cultural achievement, would have occurred only once in human history, subsequently to spread elsewhere.
    "As to the latter issue, the decipherment of Mayan glyphs and other New World scripts, and the realization that these represent actual writing rather than pictography, now proves otherwise. Simultaneously, a more refined understanding of the working of early writing in general demonstrates that writing may develop gradually, rather than dramatically, a good case in point being, pr-ecisely, the stage witnessed by Tomb U-j" (Andréas Stauder, "The Earliest Egyptian Writing" IN: Woods (ed) Visible Language. Inventions of Writing in the Ancient Middle East and Beyond [2010] 142).


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    I have a name lest you forgot.Also,use labels properly. I dont have a wing as many PR editors.I am a young, rural woman with a conscience

    Dear Liberals, Don't Push Your Agenda Over Gauri Lankesh's Dead Body

    Gauri Lankesh's killing has provoked outrage and anguish across the country, with thousands protesting what they see as an effort to silence critics of India's ruling Hindu nationalist party.

    Updated:September 8, 2017, 5:14 PM IST

    Gauri Lankesh was gunned down in Bengaluru on Wednesday. Twitter, Facebook and TV erupted within minutes over the brutal, inhuman, murder. Lankesh’s politics was well-known, no surprise then that it didn’t take Lutyens’ Delhi’s news anchors and ‘which caste-art-thou’ liberals much time to blame the BJP and RSS. Their presumptive conclusions and quick closure of Lankesh’s murder was based on troll handles — some of which might not even represent any citizen of this nation!
    For a moment, let us forget the glorious legacy of Lankesh — the daughter of a revolutionary poet, a fierce advocate of her own brand of politics, an erstwhile Naxal sympathiser who had helped mainstream more than a dozen Maoists et al. Let us forget that she warned of infighting among her own ideologues. Let us forget her articles against her own ideological kin. 

    Let us also forget that she was writing against the state government of Karnataka and was in the process of exposing industry-politics nexus in her state through her writings. Let us forget that she was being threatened. Let us forget the tweet she put out the day she was murdered. Let us forget all this because among other things she was also a hardline Hindutva critic. Let us hijack this last identity within her many identities and heat up our political bakery!
    Yes, of course, Gauri Lankesh and I stand at opposite ends of the ideological spectrum. So do the Sangh functionaries in Karnataka. But are we rejoicing at her murder? No. Are we supporting trolls who have been rejoicing at her death? No. Soon after news broke of her murder, I called up an RSS functionary in Karnataka and this is what he told me: “Gauriji was never supportive of the Sangh. But she helped society in her own way. We respected that. And we will continue to respect that. Despite her or anyone’s ideological affiliation, we are open to ideas that strengthen the nation, at large, and in the long run.”
    So who are the vultures that are hovering around her corpse? Do they belong to just one colour of the ideological spectrum? Who are asking the right questions? And who are raising rhetorical flourish just to shield the real culprits? We need to name and shame one and all.
    There are shameless violent handles on Twitter who are justifying Gauri’s death as if it is all part of an ideological war. That she had met a Frankenstein-like fate. I cringe at the thoughts of some of these self-appointed contractors of Hindu faith! I cringe at the mention of the eye-begets-eye narrative. Why is it that we cannot stand up and say united: murders are unacceptable. Period. As a Hindu woman who believes in the ideology that Gauri detested, let me categorically say it: Extremism is extremism. Murder is murder. Whatever the shade. Whatever the intent.
    However, does this take away the merit of criticizing the selective outrage surrounding Gauri’s death? You may call it “whataboutery”, but I can’t help ask. Did the ‘what-caste-art-thou’ celeb anchors outrage even once on the death of Rajdeo Ranjan, who was killed by goons of Lalu Yadav’s partyman Mohammed Shahabuddin? Or Jagendra Singh, who was doing a story on the then UP Minority Affairs minister, Rammoorti Verma? Or Rajesh Verma, who was covering the Muzaffarnagar riots? Or M.V.N. Shankar, who was trying to expose the oil mafia? Or Tarun Kumar, a stringer in Odisha? Or Sai Reddy, who was killed by unidentified armed men, possibly Naxals in Bijapur? Or Ramchandra Chhatrapati in Sirsa? Or more than 40 journalists in the Northeast? And why did they not? Can we ask these questions please now?
    Is it because none of these journalists wrote in English but in regional or Hindi language? Is it because none of them were as vocal against the Sangh Parivar as Gauri Lankesh was? Is it because they were less glamorous because they did not write for new propaganda foreign groups/citizens’ funded mushroom network of news-views websites? Why has there not been a swell of an uprising so far by the same select coterie? Why is some blood always a tad bit more darker for them?
    How did these ‘journalists’ assume that ‘Hindu Terror groups’, as they are being referred to, killed Lankesh? What is the ulterior back channel arrangement or conversation that coaxes them to conceal that Lankesh was under threat from Naxals? Should we be hasty just as they have been and say that Gauri’s death is a carefully orchestrated mystery that surrounds the political reality of elections due in Karnataka in a few months from now? Should we say that the ruling dispensation in Karnataka and these journalists have a collusion that need expose as well?

    Let us address sane straight concerns. Law and order is a state subject. Why have signature petitions not been started yet demanding Karnataka CM’s resignation? What stops them from collectively demanding accountability from the state government?
    Let us ask questions. Let us demand answers. But let us do that in a tone, which is, sharp yet civil, sarcastic, if you may like, but parliamentary.
    (The author is with India Foundation, views are personal)

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    The great antiques heist in Punjab

    Unchecked all the time, unnoticed at times, history is being stolen systematically

    Vishav Bharti Posted at: Sep 9, 2017, 2:41 AM; last updated: Sep 9, 2017, 10:50 AM (IST)
    The great antiques heist in Punjab
    The sculpture found in Sangrur that was stolen.
    Tribune News Service
    Chandigarh, September 8

    While digging a mound, a 10-year-old girl discovered a stone sculpture at Mard Khera village in Sangrur in 1980. Villagers placed it in a specially-built room and it soon became the centre of activities. Weddings, Hindu or Sikh, would not be solemnised without the couple bowing before the idol. It started figuring on the first leaf of wedding albums. A series of newspaper articles called it a rare 11th century idol of God Surya.
    In the 1990s, it caught the attention of archaeologists. A team from the Archaeological Survey of India also carried out excavation at the site. A few months after the “exploration”, the idol went missing one night in 2003.
    Rameshwar Dutt, a Sunam-based freelance archaeologist, remembers every detail. He had visited the village on the day the idol was found. Though Dutt doubts that the theft had anything to do with ASI’s visit, the villagers are sceptical.
    With slight variances in the names of places and time of discovery of theft, this story is repeated in almost every town that had some ancient or medieval link. The deep-rooted nexus between antiques smugglers and the state Archaeology Department officials is once again in the spotlight after the former Director, Archaeology, Navjot Pal Singh Randhawa, confessed before the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence that he helped a smuggler buy Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanerette furniture. 
    “It went on for decades,” says former Punjab Museums’ Archaeological Officer-cum-curator KK Rishi.
    For all these years, when antiques were being smuggled out of state museums, there was no detailed understanding of what was left and what had gone. The scale of “loss” first came to notice in 2009 when ASI, under the National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities, started keeping a register of artefacts in Punjab’s museums.
    An ASI official associated with the project tells on condition of anonymity that in museum after museum they were shocked to see that only replicas were housed. “This was true for all kinds of items, whether paintings or weapons... And there was no account of coins. We noticed precious stones missing from walls and floors of preserved archaeological sites,” he says. Like the many paintings at Qila Mubarak and Sheesh Mahal museums at Patiala.
    Sadly, the ASI neither brought anything on record, nor did it prepare any report about their authenticity. “We had documented just four aspects: size, colour, condition and features. 
    So, we didn’t make any mention of originality in the report,” explains a senior functionary from the state Archaeology Department who was associated with the project.
    At the end, a total of 51,289 antiquities were documented in Punjab’s museums and sites. “Now we are not sure how many are original,” he says. Navjot Singh Sidhu, Punjab’s Tourism and Cultural Affairs Minister, agrees. He says thefts that have taken place in Punjab’s museums have been brought to his knowledge. He cites examples of daggers and miniature paintings which were taken away in the past and replaced with replicas. “But we will bring the thieves of heritage to book,” he assures.
    What has been bothering archaeologists like Rishi is that when everybody knew that the thefts were taking place, why did it take five decades to make an inventory? “Officials who headed the department from time to time owe an answer. The department was established half a century back, why did it take 50 years to prepare an inventory?”
    Another official, who retired recently, supports Rishi’s claim that the idea of documentation was discussed several times, but was often dismissed at the top level. “When we don’t know what we have, heist becomes easy,” says Rishi. He adds that there is a hue and cry over thefts of just items displayed in museums. What goes missing from the stores in museums goes unnoticed.
    Prof Devendra Handa, former head of the Department of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology at Panjab University, agrees that nobody has checked what is lying in the stores of the museums. “Generally, it is thefts of antiquities lying in museums or at protected monuments that make news. We hardly come to know about the thefts at unprotected monuments and antiquities being taken away from private individuals by smugglers,” he says.
    Official-smuggler nexus
    Rishi shares the story of an official, in charge of an Amritsar museum, who would replace original paintings with duplicate ones. “He would get handmade paper from Rajasthan and get copies painted from expert painters. Those experts are still around and who knows, might be in action even after the officer’s retirement,” he says.
    “It was a common phenomenon in 1980s and 1990s that officials responsible for registering antiquities lying with individuals or organisations would do private deals and gift the antiquities to their seniors from IAS and PCS cadres just to get excellent ACR reports,” says Rishi.
    Prof Handa, known for his work on tribal coins, says there is evidence that the smuggling of antiquities from Punjab started during the British era.
    During field trips to places around Chandigarh, he noticed several ancient sculptures in villages in Kharar and at a dera at Khanpur village. “A few years later, they went missing,” he says. He too had tried convincing his seniors to get the artefacts to the department, but failed.
    Meanwhile, the theft of antiques continues unabated. Last year, a person was caught with a collection of around 600 coins at Wagah border. The customs and excise officials were clueless and sent the entire collection to ASI. “The ASI called me and I was shocked to see that many of these belonged to 2nd century BC,” says Prof Handa.
    Major heists
    1996: A miniature painting of Guru Gobind Singh was stolen at Qila Mubarak
    2004: Three miniature paintings of Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh went missing from Qila Mubarak
    February 2003: 12th century idol of Sun God was stolen from Mard Khera village in Sangrur
    2003: A pistol belonging to Feroz Shah went missing from Anglo-Sikh War Memorial, Ferozepur. Original pistol has been replaced with a replica
    1990: From Bhagat Singh Museum at Khatkar Kalan, the shoes of Sukhdev, trousers of martyr’s uncle Ajit Singh were stolen by a mentally deranged person.
    What the law says
    • According to the Punjab Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1964, “antiquity” means any coin, sculpture, manuscript, epigraph, or other work of art or craftsmanship, any article which has been in existence for not less than 100 years
    • The government has the power to direct that any antiquity or any class of antiquities shall not be moved from the original location except with the written permission of the director
    • The government has the power to make an order for compulsory purchase of antiques

    Penalty for removing antiques
    Whosoever destroys or misuses or removes from a protected monument any sculpture, carving, image, bas-relief, inscription or other like objects shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to Rs 5,000, or with both.

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    Indian theories of meaning (vākyapadārtha, 'meanings of sentences') and tantra yukti method of deriving intended meanings are aids to unravel the Indus Script cipher. See: 

    In the context of use of Indus Script inscriptions to seal packages of goods, it is manifest that the meanings have to be derived from hypertexts. An example of an identical inscription from Kish and Mohenjo-daro is presented. 

    Image result for seal impression umma and mohenjo daro

    Seal impression and seal with identical texts from (a) Kish (IM 1822); cf. Mackay 1925 and (b) Mohenjodaro (M-228)

    The hieroglyphs which constitute these texts are NOT to be read 'literally' but as rebus renderings of homonymous words associated with the hieroglyphs and consistent with the 40 principles of tantra yukti elaborated in this note, to explain the ancient Indian theories of intended meanings, selected in context, from alternative meanings suggested by the sphoṭa of śābdārtha, 'semantics'. 

    In this framework, a writing system becomes a metaphor of spoken expressions. This can also constitute metonymy, 'the substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the turf for horse racing.' This is comparable to this:

    Artist René Magritte
    Year 1928–29
    Medium Oil on canvas
    Dimensions 63.5 cm × 93.98 cm (25 in × 37 in)
    Location Los Angeles County Museum of ArtLos Angeles, California
    Aha, this is only an image, a representation of a pipe, this is an example of treachery of images  La trahison des images.

    Thus, on the following example of a seal impression from Kish identical to a seal from Mohenjo-daro, the meanings intended are discussed in tantra yukti method which enunciates a principle called Vākyaśea (supply of ellipsis -- the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues.) Some inscriptions signify ‘fish’ as a hieroglyph. In the context of Supercargo’s responsibility, the ‘fish’ hieroglyph may have orthographic accent on ‘fins’ of fish which signify:  khambhaā ‘fish fin’ rebus: kamaa ‘portable furnace to melt metals',kamnaa  ‘mint, coiner, coinage’ PLUS ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’.

    Thus, on the example of a seal impression from Kish identical to a seal from Mohenjo-daro, the meanings intended are discussed in tantra yukti method which enunciates a principle called Vākyaśeṣa (supply of ellipsis -- the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues.) Some inscriptions signify ‘fish’ as a hieroglyph. In the context of Supercargo’s responsibility, the ‘fish’ hieroglyph may have orthographic accent on ‘fins’ of fish which signify:  khambhaṛā ‘fish fin’ rebus: kamaṭa ‘portable furnace to melt metals', kamnaa  ‘mint, coiner, coinage’ PLUS ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’. 

    kunda 'young bull' is NOT what is packaged but kunda 'fine gold' (metaphor for wealth'.  ayo 'fish' is NOT what is packaged but aya 'iron, alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā rebus: kammaṭa'mint', i.e. the packaged goods include alloy metal from mint. kole.l 'temple' is NOT what is packaged but kole.l'smithy, forge' product of sal 'splinter' rebus: sal 'workshop'. karṇika'rim of jar' is NOT what is packaged but rebus rendering karṇika‘accounting ledger of wealth’.  kunda kamaṭamu'lathe, portable furnace' are NOT what are included in the package, but products --kunda kammaṭa'wealth (from) mint'.

    Tantra can be termed as that which discusses and details subjects and concepts; yukti is  “… that which removes blemishes like impropriety, contradiction, etc., from the intended meaning and thoroughly joins the meanings together.”. (Note: the terminology and citations are from M. Jayaraman, The doctrine of tantrayukti  ) स्फुटता न पदैरपाकृता  न च न स्वीकृत मर्थगौरवम् ‘Crispness (of an expression) is not obliterated by verbosity, nor is the depth of meaning that is intended to be conveyed is compromised (to attain crispness).

    The 'standard device' shown in front of the young bull has two hieroglyph components:

    1. కమటము (p. 246) kamaṭamu kamaṭamu. [Tel.] n. A portable furnace for melting the precious metals. అగసాలెవాని కుంపటి. "చ కమటము కట్లెసంచియొరగల్లును గత్తెర సుత్తె చీర్ణముల్ ధమనియుస్రావణంబు మొలత్రాసును బట్టెడ నీరుకారు సా నము పటుకారు మూస బలునాణె పరీక్షల మచ్చులాదిగా నమరగభద్రకారక సమాహ్వయు డొక్కరుడుండు నప్పురిన్"హంస. ii. Rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236)

    2. lathe, gimlet sphoṭanī, synonym: kunda 'a turner's lathe' Rebus: kunda 'one of Kubera's nine treasures' kundana 'fine gold'.

    A portable furnace is the bottom hieroglyph while the top hieroglyph is the स्फोटनी f. an instrument for splitting or cleaving , a gimlet , auger L. 

    The lathe-gimlet shown in front of one-horned young bull on many Indus Script inscriptions is a reminder that the meanings of the written-down hypertexts can be recognized in the context of the lapidary's work, working with a portable furnace (added as a hieroglyph to the gimlet which is the top portion of the hypertext).

    sphuṭayati ʻmakes clearʼ Kull. 2. sphuṭyatē ʻ is clear ʼ Sarvad. [Denom. fr. sphuṭa -- ]1. Pr. -- špurə -- ʻ to show ʼ NTS xv 301.2. Pk. phuṭṭai ʻ is manifest ʼ.(CDIAL 13843a)स्फुटी--करण n. the act of making clear or evident , manifestation Ka1d. S3am2k. making true or correct , correction (सूर्यसिद्धान्त) स्फुटा* र्थ m. clear sense or meaning S3ak. Sch.; mfn. having clear sense , perspicuous , intelligible ( -ता f. ) S3is3. स्फुट--ता [p= 1270,2] f. manifestness , distinctness (acc. with √ गम् , " to become manifest or evident ") Bhat2t2. Kir.; reality , truth , correctness (in अ-स्फ्°Gol.

    Tantrayukti devices derive meanings of Indus Script hypertexts

    1.      Adhikaraṇa (subject matter) The subject matter of Indus Script Corpora relates to metalwork in the Bronze Age across Eurasia, from Hanoi, Vietnam to Haifa, Israel

    2.      Yoga (arrangement) The Corpora is arranged in about 7000 inscriptions presented on seals, tablets, copper plates, metal implements, ivory rods, potsherds or as writing on pendants or sculptures in the round (e.g. gold pendant with inscription painted and statue of ‘priest’ with Indus script hieroglyphs of dotted circle and uttarIyam)

    1. Hetvārtha (extension of argument) The purpose achieved by the Corpora is to covey messages about the technical specifications of products (packages or cargo) which are authenticated by the messages

    2. Padārtha (import of words) The import of words conveyed by the hieroglyphs read rebus is to specify the resources used: e.g. minerals, furnaces or smelters used in creating the product (either an ingot or alloy of minerals or implement or weapon or a cire perdue casting in metal)

    3. Pradeśa (poetic adumbration) Some inscriptions are composed of narratives as semantic determinants (e.g. a tiger looking backwards connotes kola ‘tiger’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron’ PLUS krammara ‘look backwards’ rebus: kamar ‘artisan, smith’; thus signifying an artisan working in iron).

    4. Uddheśa (concise statement) Some inscriptions are just composite heads of animals joined to an animal or bovine body. The concise statement intends to signify three minerals which compose the product or package or cargo (e.g. combined animal with bovine body and heads of antelope, one-horned young bull, ox each signifying ranku ‘antelope’ rebus: ranku ‘tin’ PLUS 'konda 'young bull' Rebus: kondar 'turner' PLUS barad, barat ‘ox’ rebus: bharat ‘alloy of pewter, copper, tin’).

    5. Nirdeśa (amplification) Some inscriptions contain phonetic or semantic orthographic deteminatives to amplify the message conveyed (e.g. body of a person with legs spread out signifies two rebus renderings: meD ‘body’ rebus: meD ‘iron, copper’ karNika ‘legs spread out’ rebus: karNI ‘supercargo, engraver, scribe, account’ A Supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. Thus, the Supercargo is signified as in control of iron/metal merchandise on a seafaring ship.

    6. Vākyaśeṣa (supply of ellipsis -- the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues.) Some inscriptions signify ‘fish’ as a hieroglyph. In the context of Supercargo’s responsibility, the ‘fish’ hieroglyph may have orthographic accent on ‘fins’ of fish which signify:  'khambhaṛā'‘fish fin’ rebus: kammaṭa ‘portable furnace to melt metals, mint, coiner, coinage’ PLUS ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’.

    7. Prayojana (purpose) The purpose of the entire Indus Script Corpora is to document the products which are merchandise for exchange with contact areas and provide explanatory messages to the trade representatives such as Meluhha colonies in Ancient Near East or along the Persian Gulf metalwork sites.

    8. Upadeśa (instruction) An example may be cited to explain how the instruction is achieved on Indus Script Corpora. A statue of a priest of Mohenjo-daro is shown wearing a fillet (dotted circle PLUS string) on the forehead and on right-shoulder. The message signified is: dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelter' with Indus script hieroglyphs signifies पोतृ,'purifier' of dhāū, dhāv 'red stone minerals'. The compound phrase is broken up into two segments: dhā̆v ‘strand’ rebus: dhā̆v, dhAtu ‘mineral’ PLUS  -vaḍ ‘string’ rebus: వటగ 'clever, skilful' i..e. a person skilled in smelting minerals, hence an iron (red ore) smelter.

    9. Apadeśa (advancement of reason) The choice of hieroglyphs in Indus Script Corpora is to avoid ambiguities in expressions. Thus, hieroglyphs such as elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, buffalo, fish are incorporated in inscriptions to signify: karibha ‘trunk of elephant’ rebus: karba ‘iron’ ibha ‘elephant’ rebus: ib ‘iron’, gaNDa ‘rhinoceros’ rebus: khaNDA ‘implements’, kola ‘tiger’ rebus: kol ‘working in iron’, kolle ‘blacksmith’ kolhe ‘smelter’, ranga ‘buffalo’ rebus: ranga ‘pewter’, ayo, aya ‘fish’ rebus: aya ‘iron’ ayas ‘metal’. These are further complemented by other hieroglyphs such as standing person with legs spread, rim-of-jar to signify meD ‘body’ rebus: meD ‘iron’ PLUS karNika ‘legs spread out’ rebus: karNIka ‘Supercargo, engraver, scribe, account’; kanka, karNika ‘rim of jar’ rebus: karNI ‘Supercargo’ karNIka ‘engraver, scribe, account’ PLUS kanda ‘pot’ rebus: kanda ‘fire-altar’ khaNDa ‘implements’.

    10. Atideśa (indication or application) On some inscriptions, an additional orthographic device is used to indicate that a metal implement is the product being managed by a Supercargo. Thus, on a Chanhudaro seal, the double-axe signifies a metal axe. 

    Double-axe found in a Mesopotamian site. Comparable to the double-axe shown on Chanhudaro seal C-23.  Pictorial motif of a double-axe is a Sarasvati hieroglyph (Pict-133). 

    1. Arthāpatti (implication)

       The fact that these hieroglyph compositions occur on bronze artifacts imply that the bronze metalwork is signified.

    2. Nirṇaya (decision) 
      A simple seal of Daimabad which merely shows the ‘rim of jar’ hieroglyph is a decisive signifier of the rebus message: kanka ‘rim of jar’ rebus: karNika ‘Supercargo’.

    15.  Prasaṅga (restatement) A remarkable device in orthography on Indus Script Corpora is duplication.For example, a markhor is reduplicated back-to-back on a gold artifact. 
     Fig. 96f: Failaka no. 260  Double antelope at the belly in the Levant similar doubling occurs for a lion   

    1. Ekānta (categorical statement or invariable rule) 
      On this pectoral, the categorical emphasis is on the overflowing pot (in addition to other hieroglyphs such as standard device and one-horned young bull). The categorical message relates to lo ‘overflowing’ kaNDa ‘pot’ rebus: lokhanda ‘metal implements’. The invariable rule of Indus Script Corpora is that inscriptions are metalwork catalogues, metalwork proclamations.

    2. Naikānta / anekānta / anekārtha (comprising statement) Using the pectoral example this tantrayukti can be demonstrated. The message conveyed: kan.d. kan-ka 'rim of jar'(Santali)karn.aka 'ear or rim of jar' (Sanskrit) kan.d. 'pot' (Santali)Rebus: karan.ika 'writer' (Telugu). kan.d.'fire-altar' (Santali).করণিক [karaṇika] n an office-clerk, a clerk. কারণিক [kāraṇika] a pertaining to cause, causal; ex amining, judging. n. an examiner; a judge; a clerk (Bengali). खनक [Monier-Williams lexicon, p= 336,3]m. one who digs , digger , excavator MBh. iii , 640 R.

    18.  Apavarga / apavarja (exception or restriction of a pervasive rule) While many seals and tablets are incised, the writing also occurs in paint (perhaps ferrous oxide on metal) on a gold pendant. 
     This 2.5 inch long gold pendant has a 0.3 inch nib; its ending is shaped like a sewing or netting needle. It bears an inscription painted in Indus Script. This inscription is deciphered as a proclamation of metalwork competence.

    19.  Viparyaya (opposite) I would not to elaborate on the objections raised by over 150 decipherment claims. My submission is that the orthography is NOT intended to signify syllables but full words, hence the script is logographic. Second point is that it is an error to exclude pictorial motifs from the decipherments and focus only on ‘signs’. Both signs and pictorial motifs have to signify TOGETHER a message of the Bronze Age. Most decipherments prejudge that names or titles should be signified by ‘signs’. This prejudgement leads to erroneous results. The possibility that all hieroglyphs (both signs and pictorial motifs) signify metalwork catalogues should NOT be ruled out because of the imperative created by the Bronze Age revolution which resulted in surplus goods which were bartered by seafaring merchants.

    20.  Pūrvapakṣa (objection) The previous arguments also relate to this device of tantra yukti. There are, in Indus Script Corpora words which signify functionaries like Supercargo and also minerals such magnetite (poLa ‘zebu’ rebus:poLa ‘magnetite ferrous ore’).

    21.  Vidhāna (right interpretation) The right interpretation should relate to the Bronze Age economic imperative. Wealth was created by metalwork and mintwork and artifacts were created like the Nahal Mishmar cire perdue artifacts which were proclaimed in processions (as evidenced by Jasper cylinder seal). 

    22.  Anumata (concession or agreement) There is general consensus that Indus Script Corpora is related to trade since many seals also had exact replicas as seal impressions. So, the logical extension is to review the Corpora as metalwork catalogues for trade transactions.

    23.  Vyākhyāna (explanation) The explanation is provided in the decipherment of almost all 7000 inscriptions in 16 volumes which also include explanations of some pictorial motifs as Indus Script hieroglyphs on Ancient Near East and Persian Gulf (Dilmun) seals.

    24.  Samśaya (doubt) There are linguistic arguments which raise doubts about the Meluhha (Mleccha) language. It is possible that this was the spoken version of Prakrtam which co-existed with the chandas which is the literary version of Samskrtam or Vedic diction. There is general consensus that Ancient India was a sprachbund (language union or linguistic area) wince many features of languages of ancient Bharatam Janam ‘metalcaster folk’ as self-identification by Visvamitra in Rigveda (3.53.12) are common, such as the feature of reduplication to convey semantics, e.g. kandAnmuNDAn ‘bits and pieces’.

    25.  Atītāpekṣaṇa / atītavekṣaṇa (retrospective reference; atikrAntAveksana ‘reference to a past statement’) The occurrence of Indus Script hieroglyphs on Dong Son bronze drums is also explained by the occurrence of Yupa inscriptions in East Borneo and occurrence of S’ivalingas in the Ancient Far East. This suggests the possibility of a Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi to Haifa because the largest tin belt of the globe is in the Far East, along the Mekong delta.

    26.  Anāgatāvekṣaṇa (prospective reference) The continued use of Indus Script hieroglyphs on early punch-marked coins from Takshasila to Karur to Anuradhapura are indicative of an Age of Symbols coterminous with the Bronze Age. The hieroglyphs signify metalwork catalogues and in many cases together with Brahmi or Kharoshthi inscriptions which signify names or titles using the syllabic scripts which are distinct from the logographic Indus Script hieroglyphs.

    27.  Svasaṁjñā (technical nomenclature) The entire Indus Script Corpora of about 7000 inscriptions provide many examples of technical nomenclature such as poLa (zebu) ‘magnetite ore’, maraka (peacock) ‘a type of steel’, rango (buffalo) ‘pewter, an alloy of copper, zinc and tin’, sattva ‘svastika hieroglyph’ rebus: sattva, jasta ‘zinc’.

    28.  Ūhya (deduction or what is understood) When a string of, say, five hieroglyphs signify minerals and operations in a furnace, the inference is that the signified is the metalworker or artisan working with such minerals and furnaces (in a workshop or mint).

    29.  Samuccaya (specification or combination, collection of ideas) A typical example of collection of related messages occurs in hieroglyph-multiplexes or hypertexts, say, of a composite animal. 
    Orthographic components explained by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale.

    30.  Nidarśana (illustration) The illustration of the devices of tantra yukti used occurs on a cylinder seal from Ancient Near East, the seal of Sharkali-Sharri. 

    Cylinder Seal of Ibni-Sharrum Agade period, reign of Sharkali-Sharri (c. 2217-2193 BCE)Mesopotamia Serpentine H. 3.9 cm; Diam. 2.6 cm Formerly in the De Clercq collection; gift of H. de Boisgelin, 1967 AO 22303 The signifiers: rango ‘buffalo’ rebus: rango ‘pewter’ lo ‘overflow’ kanda ‘pot’ rebus: lokhanda ‘metal implements’ baTa ‘six’ rebus: bhaTa ‘furnace’ meD ‘curl’ rebus: meD ‘iron’. Thus, Sharkali-Sharri is a smelter working with pewter and metal implements.

    31.  Nirvacana (definition or derivation or etymology of terms) An Indian Lexicon provides etyma which include most of the 25+ ancient languages of Indian sprachbund. Many metalwork terms used in Indus Script Corpora are traceable to one or more of the etyma of the sprachbund.

    32.  Niyoga / sanniyoga (injunction) The occurrence of Indus Script hieroglyphs on 21 stoneware ceramic bangles is a pointer to the 21 types of functions identified during the Bronze Age for metalwork.

    33.  Vikalpana (option) It is possible to indicate alternative rebus readings for some select inscriptions. Thus, a standing person may signify meD ‘body’ rebus: meD ‘iron’ and also ‘legs spread out’: karNika rebus: ‘Supercargo’ or karNaka ‘scribe, engraver’

    34.  Pratyutsāra / pratyucāra (rebuttal) The decipherment of Indus Script Corpora as metalwork catalogues is a rebuttal of arguments spuriously made that the people who created the writing system were ‘illiterates’ and hence, suggesting that the hieroglyphs are indicative of some rituals. The stronger argument is that the writing system was necessitated by the Bronze Age revolution which resulted in the production of surplus metal artifacts for exchange or barter transactions.

    35.  Uddhāra (reaffirmation) Inscription after inscription continue to refer to technical terms of metalwork, furnace/smelter work, mint work. This rebus rendering occurs for over 500 hieroglyphs (called signs) and over 100 hieroglyphs (called pictorial motifs)

    36.  Sambhava (possibility) The Indus Script Cipher as rebus reading of ancient Prakritam words points to the possibility that the Vedic Sarasvati River Basin was the epicenter of trade and production activity along the Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi to Haifa which predated the Silk Road by over 2 millennia.

    37.  Paripraśna (question and answer) A paripras’na is: why would even wild animals be shown in front of feeding troughs, unless both the animal and the trough are hieroglyphs? Why was the water-carrier shown in parenthesis together with star hieroglyphs on a circular Gadd seal? 
    Seal impression, Ur (Upenn; U.16747); dia. 2.6, ht. 0.9 cm.; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp. 11-12, pl. II, no. 12; Porada 1971: pl.9, fig.5; Parpola, 1994, p. 183; water carrier with a skin (or pot?) hung on each end of the yoke across his shoulders and another one below the crook of his left arm; the vessel on the right end of his yoke is over a receptacle for the water; a star on either side of the head (denoting supernatural?). The whole object is enclosed by 'parenthesis' marks. The parenthesis is perhaps a way of splitting of the ellipse (Hunter, G.R., JRAS, 1932, 476). An unmistakable example of an 'hieroglyphic' seal.

    38.  Vyākaraṇa (grammar) Since the writing system is logographic and composed of lists of 0 to 5 terms (glosses), there is no need for grammatical expressions in the writing system on Indus Script Corpora or on devices used on early punch-marked and cast coins.

    39.  Vyutkrāntabhidāna (transgression) The presence of trefoils on the base of a s’ivalinga is a transgression of the adhyatmika connotations of the divine iconography of linga as a fiery pillar of light and fire. The base with trefoil may signify tri-dhAtu ‘three strands’ rebus: ‘three minerals’ which were subjected to smelting operations. The presence of a mukha ‘human face’ or Bhuteswar s’ivalinga atop a smelter is indicative of rebus: muha ‘quantity produced from a furnace, ingot’

    40.  Hetu (purpose) The tantrayukti devices have demonstrated the purpose of the Indus Script Corpora. They are metalwork catalogues as proclamations to promote trade. Such proclamations also occur on procession tablets or on a monolithic signboard of Dholavira.

    Ten hieroglyphs on Dholavira signboard

     m0490At m0490B Mohenjodaro Tablet showing Meluhha combined standard of three standards carried in a procession, comparable to Tablet m0491. m0491 Tablet. Line drawing (right). This tablet showing three hieroglyphs may be called the Meluhha standard.Combined reading for the joined or ligatured glyphs.

    Rebus reading is: dhatu kõdā sangaḍa  ‘mineral, turner, stone-smithy guild’.

    Dawn of the bronze age is best exemplified by this Mohenjo-daro tablet which shows a procession of three hieroglyphs carried on the shoulders of three persons. The hieroglyphs are: 1. Scarf carried on a pole (dhatu Rebus: mineral ore); 2. A young bull carried on a stand kõdā Rebus: turner; 3. Portable standard device (Top part: lathe-gimlet; Bottom part: portable furnace sã̄gāḍ Rebus: stone-cutter sangatarāśū ). sanghāḍo (Gujarati) cutting stone, gilding (Gujarati); sangsāru karaṇu = to stone (Sindhi) sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati)

    The procession is a celebration of the graduation of a stone-cutter as a metal-turner in a smithy/forge. A sangatarāśū ‘stone-cutter’ or lapidary of neolithic/chalolithic age had graduated into a metal turner’s workshop (koḍ), working with metallic minerals (dhatu) of the bronze age.

    Three professions are described by the three hieroglyphs: scarf, young bull, standard device dhatu kõdāsã̄gāḍī  Rebus words denote: ‘ mineral worker; metals turner-joiner (forge); worker on a lathe’ – associates (guild).

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    The evolution of the orthographic uniqueness of Brāhmī is an unresolved issue. Some claim that the syllabic structure is derived from the aramaic alphabet. Some claim that script orthography is traceable to Indus Script symbols. The debate goes on with my suggestion that I find four syllables of Brāhmī use glyphs comparable with Indus Script hieroglyphs. 

    Indus Script is logographic and NOT syllabic. 

    Thus,it is possible to derive only the first syllable of a word and trace the roots of orthography for the first syllable signified in Brāhmī syllabic writing system.
    Image result
    Brāhmī syllabic glyphs ka-, ma-, tha- have parallels in Indus Script hieroglyphs.
    Image result for young bull chain bharatkalyan97m0296. There are two chain links emanating from the standard device. I suggest that these signify vaṭa ʻ string ʼ. The first syllable in this word becomes the syllabic orthography for syllable 'va' in Brāhmī.

    dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelters'. There is a place-name in Karnataka called dhā̆rvā̆ close to Sahyadri ranges with iron ore belts.

    The suffix  -vā̆ḍ in the place-name is also explained in the context of ‘rope’ hieroglyph: vaṭa2 ʻ string ʼ lex. [Prob. ← Drav. Tam. vaṭam, Kan. vaṭi, vaṭara, &c. DED 4268]  vaṭa- string, rope, tie; vaṭāraka-, vaṭākara-, varāṭaka- cord, string(DEDR 5220). 

    Continuity of Indus Script symbols in Kharoṣṭhī and Brāhmī scripts: views of Subhash Kak and BV Subbarayappa

    Evolution of Brahmi script syllable ka- possibly from Indus Script hieroglyph kaṇḍa, 'arrow' rebus: 'implements/sword'

    Evolution of Brahmi script syllable ma- possibly from meḍ 'iron, copper, metal' in the context of smelting, metalwork tradition of Ancient Near East. Proving svastika signifies zinc metal

    Evolution of Brahmi script syllables ḍha-, dha- from Indus Script. Ur cylinder seal, Harappa tablet with 5 svastika deciphered.



    Indus Script hieroglyphs have VIRTUALLY NO influence on Kharoṣṭhī and Brāhmī syllabic scripts despite KP Jayaswal's arguments in Antiquary (1933)

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    A thread giving some basic information about the various types/modes of construction of Nagara temple architecture.
    1)Latina - Latina mode of construction dominated early medieval temples of north India for eg Sun temple at Markhera MP
    In Kalinga it remained preferred mode of temple archi. till date (known as Rekha deul) as seen in mighty temples of Jagannath & Lingaraj.
    2)Shekhari - Latina mode gradually evolved into more elaborate Shekhari types of temples such as Kandariya Mahadev temple, Khajuraho
    Shekhari remained preferred mode of construction in Maru Gurjara temples of Western India. for eg Somnath temple & Jain temple of Taranga
    3)Bhumija - Under Paramara rule, Malwa developed its own distinct style of Nagara archi. known as Bhumija. For eg Udayeshwar temple, MP
    Bhumija style eventually spread to neighbouring areas, too For eg Gondeshwar temple at Sinnar - a Hemadpanthi temple built in Bhumija style.
    4)Valabhi - Valabhi temples are distinguished by their typical barrel vaulted roof. the most famous eg is 9th CE Teli ka Mandir at Gwalior.
    5)Phamsana - Identified by its typical pent/ pyramidal roof. For eg Triple Shrines on Hemkuta Hill, Karnataka.
    Phamsana mode is mainly seen in construction of Mandapa/hall infront of Nagara Shrine. For eg this mighty Jagmohan of Konarka temple

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    Robert Vadra used driver, bodyguard to make Rs 4.5-cr benami profit

    By YATISH YADAV  |  Express News Service  |   Published: 10th September 2017 08:59 AM  |  
    Last Updated: 10th September 2017 08:59 AM  |   
    Congress President Sonia Gandhi's son-in-law Robert Vadra (File | PTI)
    BIKANER: After registering an FIR to probe Robert Vadra’s alleged tainted land deals in Rajasthan, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is now focusing on the use of proxies — such as his former bodyguard and his driver — to purchase and sell four chunks of land spread over 275 bighas, in Kolayat tehsil of Rajasthan’s Bikaner district, at a profit of about `4.5 crore. Mahesh Nagar, former bodyguard of the Congress president’s son-in-law, was with the Delhi Police. Vadra’s driver, Ashok Kumar, is on the run.
    The most crucial papers on Vadra’s shady land deals, according to CBI officials, reveal startling facts on alleged forgery of documents, land passing through multiple hands, and the use of proxies to extract maximum profit.
    The first deal under the scanner is of two pieces of land, one 75 bigha and the other 50 bigha, in Gajner, Bikaner. These were first registered in revenue records on Sept 14, 1992 as government-owned land and later allotted to Natharam, son of Kishnaram Jat, and Hari Ram, son of Lunaram — both residents of Jagatsinghpura village — in connivance with the district revenue officials, who forged the documents to sell the land. The registration number, 75, was put on official records on October 16, 2007.
    Natharam was allocated 50 bigha, while Hari Ram got 75 bigha, and the Khasra Number 710/499 was entered in the district revenue records. The mediator in this forged deal was shown as a person named ‘Guganagar’, of Rajasthan’s Churu district. A month later, on November 19, 2007, the land was sold to Rajendra Kumar, of Khajuwala village, for `2 lakh. The registration number for this is shown as ‘No. 120’ in the land records.
    On January 4, 2010, Sky Light Hospitality Pvt Ltd, owned by Vadra, bought the land for `30 lakh. The money for the purchase was transferred to the bank accounts of Ashok Kumar, who was given the power of attorney by Vadra. In the land records, this property was registered as ‘No. 238’.
    Kumar, 54, of Bhuapur Village, Faridabad, had signed the deal. Two years later, on February 21, 2012, the land was sold to Allegeny Finlease Pvt Ltd for `2.34 crore. In the land records, the registration has been shown as ‘No. 387/21.02.12’ and the company was registered at R-67, Basement, Greater Kailash-I, New Delhi.
    Similarly, 150 bigha of land in Goyalari Village, Bikaner, was registered on September 16, 1992. The government land was transferred to Bhaira Ram, a resident of Rampura village, and Jora Ram, of Jagatsinghpura village, allegedly on the basis of forged documents. Bhaira Ram was allotted 65 bigha while Jora Ram got 85 bigha. The same mysterious Guganagar of Churu district acted as a mediator in the land deal that was registered as No. 319/237 in the land records on February 1, 2007. Two months later, on March 21, 2007, it was sold to Yogesh Agarwal, a resident of Saadulganj, Bikaner, for `6.5 lakh. On August 20, 2007, the land was sold to five persons—Satish Kumar Goyal, of Bikaner; Baburam Goyal, of Guhana, Haryana; Ghanshyam Bansal, of Panipat, Haryana; Rajendra Prasad, of Panipat; and Kailash Agarwal, of Rohini, New Delhi. Government records 118/20.08.2007 show that the land was sold for `8.25 lakh.
    Sky Light Hospitality Pvt Ltd bought both pieces of land through its proxy Mahesh Nagar, a Delhi Police constable who worked as Vadra’s bodyguard but later resigned from the service. Government officials said Nagar continued to work for Vadra after resigning. Government record number 188 shows the land was purchased for `42 lakh on January 4, 2010 and sold to Allegeny Finlease Pvt Ltd for `2.81 crore on February 27, 2012. Allegeny, while signing the deal with Sky Light Hospitality, had issued power of attorney in the name of Rishal Khan, a resident of Palwal, Haryana. This has been registered in the land record as No. 249/27/02/12.
    What is perplexing investigators is Vadra’s use of proxy Ashok Kumar, who is a driver of his bodyguard Mahesh Nagar, to ink the questionable land deals. CBI sources said Kumar’s bank accounts were under the scanner as they were used to funnel the money to purchase land on behalf of Vadra. CBI officials said though the Rajasthan Police had sent a team to serve a notice to Congress President Sonia Gandhi’s son-in-law at one of his Delhi offices, they were unable to question him. “We will grill him (Vadra) at an appropriate time after collecting all the evidence,” CBI sources said. Heads of Rajasthan bureaucrats are likely to roll once the CBI probe gathers steam as investigators say connivance with Vadra and his team was very evident.
    The CBI is going through the Rajasthan Police case files to build its investigation and find whether the suspected bureaucrat - Vadra’s connivance had the blessings of the top brass of the previous Congress government in the State.
    Investigators are hunting for driver Kumar, who went underground in February. He was questioned once by local police officers of Bikaner. Son of Kalwa, a resident of Bhuapur, Faridabad, Kumar had admitted during the questioning that money was wired through his account to purchase the land under the scanner.
    “He went underground after the first round of questioning but gave us a crucial piece of information that Vadra’s bodyguard Nagar was the front man for all such deals,” an investigator revealed.
    Nagar, 48, son of Bharat Singh, resident of 453, Sector 17, Faridabad, was recently confronted by the local police but refused to divulge any details about the land deals. Investigators confirmed that Nagar was working as Vadra’s full-time employee.
    ‘Saheb aap jaan se bhi maar doge toh bhi Vadra saheb ke baare mein kuchh nahin bolunga. Unke khandan ne hamare liye bahut kuchh kiya hai (Sir, I won’t speak about Robert Vadra, even if you kill me. His family has done a lot for us,” the investigators quoted Nagar as saying during the interrogation.
    Ashok and Nagar, local police authorities said, were involved in spreading propaganda about government planning to establish the industries in these villages where Vadra had purchased these lands.
    “There was so much disinformation campaign that people were forced to believe that these villages will turn into industrial hub soon. Some local officials were also part of the propaganda campaign to make it authentic. Vadra’s men also built some roads to make the arid land look like a profitable deal. This was done with a view to jacking up the land prices which he had bought at throwaway price,” they further added.
    Babus conspired with land mafia, claim CBI
    The CBI claim that the land mafia conspired with the government servants and formed a league to forge and fabricate documents. Two FIRs were filed at Kolayat Police Station and sixteen at Gajner Police station in Bikaner, Rajasthan, on August 28, 2014, by Gajendra Singh, Revenue Tehsildar of Kolayat. Singh has told the investigators that the government officials in league with land mafia, with a motive to grab the government property, prepared forged documents and then illegally acquired and sold large tracts of land, causing huge loss to the government exchequer.
    The ED, which is probing the money-laundering angle in the entire scam, said funds derived out of the shady land deals may have been diverted for other purposes and the same may have been projected as untainted money.  “All the persons, who directly or indirectly indulged in the commission of offence have caused wrongful loss to the government and their act comes within the definition of offence of money laundering and there is sufficient evidence on record to prove them guilty of the offence of money laundering,” the ED note said.

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    I suggest that the expression ayas in R̥gveda is a reference to 'alloy metal' rich in iron and relates to early Bronze Age, consistent with the date of R̥gveda of a period earlier than 4th millennium BCE. 

    This word ayas, is comparable to another lexeme med which means 'copper' in Slavic languages, but meḍ refers to iron in Indian languages (Mu.Ho.Santali). In this context, the lexical entries are significant attesting to the early meanings of ayas as 'iron or metal':

    There is an expression in Mahavamsa, XXV, 28,ayo-kammata-dvara, interpreted as: "iron studded gate ". This could also mean 'entrance (of) iron mint' consistent with the rebus reading of Indus Script hypertexts: ayo'fish' rebus: ayas'alloy metal' PLUS khambhaṛā'fish'fin' rebus: kammaṭa'mint'.

    I refer to Chapter 6 'Early Iron Age in South Asia' in Vincent C. Pigott, 1999, The Archaeometallurgy of the Asian World, UPenn Museum of Archaeology (pp.153 to 176) in which Gregory Possehl and Praveena Gullapalli provide evidences of archaeologically attested iron artifacts from 3rd millennium BCE. This documentation evidences the working in iron during the Early Bronze Age. 

    A particular reference has to be made to the contributions made by B. Prakash: B. Prakash, 1991, Metallurgy of iron and steel making and blacksmithy in ancient India, IJHS, 26(4), 1991,pp. 351 to 371

    Hundreds of inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora attest the hieroglyph: ayo 'fish'. This word has many cognate phonetic variants.

    Image result for zebu fish arrowMohenjo-daro Seal m1118 and Kalibangan Seal 032, glyphs used are: Zebu (bos taurus indicus), fish, four-strokes (allograph: arrow).ayo ‘fish’ (Mu.) + kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) ayaskāṇḍa ‘a quantity of iron, excellent  iron’ (Pāṇ.gaṇ) aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.) gaṆḌa, ‘four’ (Santali); Rebus: kaṇḍ ‘fire-altar’, ‘furnace’), arrow read rebus in mleccha (Meluhhan) as a reference to a guild of artisans working with ayaskāṇḍa ‘excellent quantity of iron’ (Pāṇini) is consistent with the primacy of economic activities which resulted in the invention of a writing system, now referred to as Indus Writing.
    poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'

    Allographs काण्डः kāṇḍḥ ण्डम्ṇḍam The portion of a plant from one knot to another. काण्डात्काण्ड- त्प्ररोहन्ती Mahānār.4.3. A stem, stock, branch; लीलोत्खातमृणालकाण्डकवलच्छेदे U.3.16; Amaru.95; Ms. 1.46,48, Māl.3.34. 

    కాండము [ kāṇḍamu ] kānḍamu. [Skt.] n. Water. నీళ్లు (Telugu) kaṇṭhá -- : (b) ʻ water -- channel ʼ: Paš. kaṭāˊ ʻ irrigation channel ʼ, Shum. xãṭṭä. (CDIAL 14349).

    lokhãḍ ‘overflowing pot’ Rebus:  ʻtools, iron, ironwareʼ (Gujarati)

    काण्ड an arrow MBh. xiii , 265 Hit. (Monier-Williams, p. 269) Rebus: काण्ड abundance; a multitude , heap , quantity (ifc.) Pa1n2. 4-2 , 51 Ka1s3.

    Munda etyma related to ayo, ayu:
    bea hako (ayo) ‘fish’ (Santali); bea ‘either of the sides of a hearth’ (G.) Munda: So. ayo `fish'. Go. ayu `fish'. Go <ayu> (Z), <ayu?u> (Z),, <ayu?> (A) {N} ``^fish''. Kh. kaDOG `fish'. Sa. Hako `fish'. Mu. hai (H) ~ haku(N) ~ haikO(M) `fish'. Ho haku `fish'. Bj. hai `fish'. Bh.haku `fish'. KW haiku ~ hakO |Analyzed hai-kO, ha-kO (RDM). Ku. Kaku`fish'.@(V064,M106) Mu. ha-i, haku `fish' (HJP). @(V341) ayu>(Z), <ayu?u> (Z)  <ayu?>(A) {N} ``^fish''. #1370. <yO>\\<AyO>(L) {N} ``^fish''. #3612. <kukkulEyO>,,<kukkuli-yO>(LMD) {N} ``prawn''. !Serango dialect. #32612. <sArjAjyO>,,<sArjAj>(D) {N} ``prawn''. #32622. <magur-yO>(ZL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish''. *Or.<>. #32632. <ur+GOl-Da-yO>(LL) {N} ``a kind of ^fish''. #32642.<bal.bal-yO>(DL) {N} ``smoked fish''. #15163.

    Image result for fin bharatkalyan97

    अयस् [p= 85,1] n. iron , metal RV. &c; an iron weapon (as an axe , &c RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10; gold Naigh.; steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ.Eisen.]) कृष्णा* यस [p= 308,1] n. id. ChUp. MBh. Sus3r. (cf. काला*य्° and कार्ष्णा*य्°.) n. black or crude iron , iron VarBr2S. Sus3r. ChUp. vi , 1 , 6 Sch. कार्ष्णा* यस
     [p= 277,1]mf()n. (fr. कृष्णा*यस्) , made of black iron ChUp. vi , 1 , 6 Mn. xi , 133 MBh. &c; iron (Monier-Williams)

    Āyasa (adj.) [Sk. āyasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S ii. 182; A iii.58; Dh 345; J iv.416; v.81; Vv 845 (an˚? cp. the rather strange expln. at VvA 335).(Pali)

    அயம்&sup6; ayam n. < ayas. 1. Iron; இரும்பு. (பிங்.) 2. Iron filings; அரப்பொடி. (தைலவ. தைல. 6.); அயசு ayacun. < ayas. Iron; இரும்பு. (சி. சி.. 4, 8, சிவாக்.)(Tamil)
    అయస్కాంతము (p. 76) ayaskāntamu ayas-kāntamu. [Skt.] n. The load-stone, a magnet. సూదంటురాయి అయస్కారుడు ayaskāruḍu. n. A black smith, one who works in iron. కమ్మరి. అయస్సు ayassu. n. Iron. ఇనుము. (Telugu)

    ayaścūrṇa n. ʻ powder prepared from iron as a vermifuge ʼ Suśr. [áyas -- , cūrṇa -- ]Si. yahuṇu ʻ iron filings ʼ; -- perh. rather a Si. cmpd.áyas n. ʻ metal, iron ʼ RV.Pa. ayō nom. sg. n. and m., aya -- n. ʻ iron ʼ, Pk. aya -- n., Si. ya.ayaścūrṇa -- , ayaskāṇḍa -- , *ayaskūṭa -- .Addenda: áyas -- : Md. da ʻ iron ʼ, dafat ʻ piece of iron ʼ. ayaskāṇḍa m.n. ʻ a quantity of iron, excellent iron ʼ Pāṇ. gaṇ. [áyas -- , kāˊṇḍa -- ]Si. yakaḍa ʻ iron ʼ.*ayaskūṭa ʻ iron hammer ʼ. [áyas -- , kūˊṭa -- 1](CDIAL 589 to 592)

    अयोगूः ayōgūḥ A blacksmith; Vāj.3.5. अयस् ayas a. [इ-गतौ-असुन्] Going, moving; nimble. n. (-यः) 1 Iron (एति चलति अयस्कान्तसंनिकर्षं इति तथात्वम्; नायसोल्लिख्यते रत्नम् Śukra 4.169. अभितप्तमयो$पि मार्दवं भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु R.8.43. -2 Steel. -3 Gold. -4 A metal in general. -5 Aloe wood. -6 An iron instrument; यदयोनिधनं याति सो$स्य धर्मः सनातनः Mb.6.17.11. -7 Going. m. Fire. [cf. L. aes, aeris; Goth. ais, eisarn; Ger. eisin]. -Comp. -अग्रम्, -अग्रकम् a hammer, a mace or club tipped with iron; a pestle for cleaning grain. -अपाष्टि a. Ved. furnished with iron claws or heels. -कंसः, -सम् an iron goblet. -कणपम् A kind of weapon, which throws out iron-balls; अयःकणपचक्राश्म- भुशुण्डयुक्तबाहवः Mb.1.227.25. -काण्डः 1 an iron-arrow. -2 excellent iron. -3 a large quantity of iron. -कान्तः (अयस्कान्तः) 1 'beloved of iron', a magnet, load-stone; शम्भोर्यतध्वमाक्रष्टुमयस्कान्तेन लोहवत् Ku.2.59; स चकर्ष परस्मा- त्तदयस्कान्त इवायसम् R.17.63; U.4.21. अयस्कान्तमयः संक्रामति M. Bh. on P.III.1.7. -2 a precious stone; ˚मणिः a loadstone; अयस्कान्तमणिशलाकेव लोहधातुमन्तः- करणमाकृष्टवती Māl.1. -कारः 1 an iron-smith, blacksmith. -2 the upper part of the thigh. -किट्टम्, -कीजम् rust of iron. -कुम्भः an iron vessel, boiler &c.; so ˚पात्रम्. -कुशा a rope partly consisting of iron. -कृतिः f.a preparation of iron; one of the ways of curing leprosy (महाकुष्ठचिकि- त्साभेदः). -गः an iron hammer. -गुडः 1 a pill; one made of some preparation of iron. -2 an iron ball; दीप्तशूलष्टर्ययोगुडान् Ms.3.133. -3 A kind of weapon con- sisting of iron balls; लगुडायोगुडाश्मानः Mb.7.3.16. -घनः [अयो हन्यते अनेन इति P.III.3.82] an iron hammer, forge hammer; गदापरिघनिस्त्रिंशपट्टिशायोघनोपलैः Mb. 7.25.58. अयोघनेनाय इवाभितप्तम्R.14.33. -चूर्णम् iron filings. -जाल a. having iron nets; of impenetrable guiles. (-लम्) an iron net-work; अयोजालानि निर्मथ्य भित्त्वा रत्नगृहं वरम् Rām.3.35.35. -ताप a. making iron red-hot. -दत्, -दंष्ट्र a. Ved. iron-toothed, having iron rims (as chariots); having iron weapons; पश्यन् हिरण्यचक्रान- योदंष्ट्रान् विधोवतो वराहून् Rv.1.88.5. -दती a. proper name; (स्त्रियां संज्ञायाम् P.V.4.143). -दण्डः an iron club, K.76. -धातुः iron metal; अयोधातुं यद्वत्परिलघुरयस्कान्त- शकलः U.4.21. -पानम् (अयःपानम्) N. of a hell (where redhot iron is forced down the throats of those who are condemned to it). -पिण्डः A canon-ball. -प्रतिमा (अयःप्रतिमा) an iron image. -बाहुः Name of a son of Dhṛitarāṣṭra. -मलम्rust of iron; so ˚रजः, ˚रसः. -मुख a. (-खी f.) 1 having an iron mouth, face, or beak. -2 tipped or pointed with iron; भूमिं भूमिशयांश्चैव हन्ति काष्ठमयोमुखम् Ms.1.84. (-खः) an arrow (iron- pointed); भेत्स्यत्यजः कुम्भमयोमुखेन R.5.55. -शङ्कुः 1 an iron spear; -2 an iron nail, pointed iron spike, अयःशङ्कुचितां रक्षः शतघ्नीमथ शत्रवे R.12.95. -शय a. lying in, made of iron, (said of fire). -शूलम् 1 an iron lance. -2 a forcible means, a violent proceeding (तीक्ष्णः उपायः Sk.); (cf. आयःशूलिक; also K. P.1; अयःशूलेन अन्विच्छतीत्यायःशूलिकः). -स्थूण a. 1 (अय˚ or यः˚) having iron pillars or stakes. हिरण्यरूपमुषसो व्युष्टावयः- स्थूणमुदिता सूर्यस्य Rv.5.62.8. -2 Name of a Ṛiṣi Śat. Br. -हतa. Ved. embossed in iron-work, made by a priest who wears a golden ring on his finger (B. and R.); रक्षोहा विश्वचर्षणिरभि योनिमयोहतम् Rv.9.1.2. -हृदय a. iron-hearted, stern, cruel, unrelenting; सुहृदयोहृदयः प्रतिगर्जताम् R.9.9.अयस्मय ayasmaya (अयोमय ayōmaya)अयस्मय (अयोमय) a. (-यी f.) Ved. Made of iron or of any metal. -यी N. of one of the three habita- tions of Asuras.अयोच्छिष्टम् Rust of iron.
    अयस ayasa (At the end of comp.) See कार्ष्णायस, काला- यस &c. (Apte)
    Vishal Agarwal questions Wilhelm Rau's observation about 'muteness' of Vedic archaeology. (Vishal Agarwal, 2001, What is the Aryan Migration Theory? "The scarcity of material culture of the Vedic tribes is evident, though Vedic archaeology is still 'not impossible'. But to make this phantom acquire a real shape, it is necessary to know where one has to look for its 'flesh', and what it might be like.Rau stresses that the Vedic archaeology should not have any hopes to find Vedic dwellings made of stone or of bricks and that the graves and altars found in a certain chronological layer can be identified as Vedic only a happy exception. Dwellings of Vedic Aryans were kind of huts made of wood (First of all bamboo), thatch, skins of beasts, that is of materials of very short duration. Carriages that were playing such a prominent part in the life of Vedic Aryans were also made of wood, and only war chariots had metallic ornaments and rims of the wheels. But metallic things (at least those made of gold, silver and copper) were usually smelted anew. Vedic graves are not known as a rule, if not to take into consideration some rare and ambiguous cases. Therefore, archaeologists have to limit the Vedic heritage with rather a few things: pits of bearing posts and pits for baking of pots, cavities for smelting of copper and forms for moulding, clay crocks and imprints of tracts of cattle on clay in places where it was kept in enclosures; small things made of stone, baked clay, and partly also of metal could remain in principle as well. "

    The main problem with Wilhelm Rau's observation is that he assumes that Vedic culture is a chronological sequence which follows the Indus (Sarasvati_Sindhu) Civilization. It is possible that Veda culture pre-dates the civilization by at least two millennia since the date of the early Veda ca. 5th millennium BCE based on archaeo-astronomical analyses.

    In another context of refuting the observation of Witzel that Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa belongs to the full-blown Iron Age, Vishal Agarwal questions the assumptions of Wilhelm Rau relied upon by Witzel. (A Reply to Michael Witzel’s ‘Ein Fremdling im Rgveda’ 1 (Journal of Indo-European Studies, Vol. 31, No.1-2: pp.107-185, 2003) by Vishal Agarwal 11 August 2003 Vishal Agarwal refutes the underlying assumptions of Wilhelm Rau and Witzel that since ayas meant 'iron', the Veda texts should be iron-age texts, i.e. ca. 2nd millennium. I cite the relevant excerpts with citations provided by Vishal Agarwal:


    Archaeometallurgy and Vedic texts: One of the arguments made by Kazanas to suggest that Vedic texts could date to 3000 BC or earlier is that the astronomical data in these texts in indicates stellar positions from that period. In ancient times, it was almost impossible to backcalculate the positions of various constellations etc. over a period of 1000 years, and therefore, the astronomical data in these texts represents actual astronomical observations by the composers of the Vedic texts. Witzel counters this by arguing that Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa belongs to a 'full-blown Iron age’ (page 174), i.e., to a period slightly before 500 BC. This seems to be incorrect. Referring the Vaidik Padanukramakosha (Vedic Word Concordance) of Pandit Vishvabandhu, the following occurrences of words syaamam, syaamaayas etc., can be noted in the Satapatha Brahmana ñ Satapatha Brahmana;;;;;;; Let us examine the occurrences of these words in the Satapatha Brahmana ñ Here, the word syaama does not refer to any metal. Rather, it refers to the color 17 victims for Prajapati, which have to have a color that is a combination of white and black, i.e., dark grey (Eggelingís translation), or a mixture of black and white (as Sayana explains). This passage actually explains that syaama is a combination of light color and black. Here, syaama is the color of the bull, that is the fee for a ritual. Here again, the word is used as a epithet for a bull. This text states that ëlohaayasaí or red metal (=copper?) is neither gold nor syaamam. This text merely contrasts the red metal with a bright, and a dark metal. Again, no clear evidence that iron is meant. The contrast could very well have been with bronze and gold. Here, the word syaama is an adjective for a goat meant for sacrifice to Prajapati. The text clearly says (Eggelingís translation) ñ ìIt is a dark grey one; for the grey has two kinds of hair, the white and the black...î This, and other occurrences in the vicinity also deal with characteristics of sacrificial animals. Again, no connection with any metal. Assuming that Vishvabandhu missed 1 or 2 genuine occurrences of 'black metal' in his concordance, we still have at the most 3 occurrences (and just one in the locations pointed above by the Concordance) in this large text. Just three! And none compels us to accept the meaning of the word as 'iron'.. So Witzel's claim that the Satapatha Brahmana is an iron-age text through and through is a pure bluff, and his entire argument for dismissing the archaeoastronomical evidence collapses. Witzel alleges that Kazanasí interpretation of syaamaayasa as bronze or something different from iron is based on some discussions in Internet lists (page 175, fn. 112). Kazanas does not have to do so. The Vedic Index (Volume II, page 398) says that syaamaayasa in the Atharvaveda Samhita denotes iron ëin all probabilityí, which clearly indicates that it was a conjecture made by the authors of the Index14. In a study on gold in Vedic texts, even Jan GONDA [GONDA, Jan. 1991. The Functions and Significance of Gold in the Veda. Leiden/New York: E. J. Brill] treats the equation ësyaamasa = ironí with reservation, and in fact, suggests that the word could mean bronze. Finally, Witzel's pet-hate K. D. Sethna [SETHNA, K. D. 1992. The Problem of Aryan Origins. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan, pp.235-236] has already discussed the question in detail and has argued that there is no compelling reason to believe that syaamaayasa has to mean iron. Kazanas is well aware of this book. Witzelís frequent appeal to the authority of Wilhelm RAU [RAU, Willhelm. 1974. Metalle und Metallgeraete im vedischen Indien. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Mainz, Abhandlungen der Geistes-u. sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 1973, No. 8. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, pages 649-682 ] is of no avail ñ there is simply no evidence to prove the assumption firmly that syaamaayasa or syaamam denotes iron. Witzel does not stop at this. He bluffs (pages 174-175, fn. 112) that iron that is occasionally found in India and surroundings before 1200/100 BCE is meteoric iron. In reality, there are no available chemical analysis results showing that this is indeed the case.15 In fact, POSSEHL [POSSEHL, Gregory. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Walnut Creek (California): Alta Mira Press, p. 93] notes very clearly that the iron artifacts predating 1000 BCE from various sites in South Asia have not been analyzed to ascertain whether it is meteoric iron or not. While Witzel derives all his knowledge of metallurgy from the works of Rau, he forgets to see the aforementioned reference, which mentions in the next page [POSSEHL, Gregory. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Walnut Creek (California): Alta Mira Press ,p.94] that iron can be produced as a by-product during the smelting of copper, and that this is, in all likelihood, the source of Harappan artifacts made from iron. What this means then, is that unless Witzel can show a very widespread use of iron from Samhitas and Brahmanas, none of these texts can be dated to the ëiron-ageí. In any case, even if the Satapatha Brahmana mentions iron, the text has no information on whether it was meteoric or terrestrial, a fact that is accepted even by Edwin Bryant in his own comment to Kazanasí article in JIES 2002. (Vishal Agarwal, 2003, opcit., pp.10-11.) loc.cit. KAZANAS, N. 2002. Indigenous Indo-Aryans and the Rigveda. Pages 275-334 in JIES, vol. 30, Nos. 3&4  2002a. Rgvedic Town and Ocean, Witzel Vs. Frawley. Available online at 2003. Final Reply. Pages 187-240 in JIES, vol. 31, No.1&2.
    Rau, Wilhelm. 1974. Metalle und Metallgeräte im vedischen Indien. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literature. Abhandlungen der Geisten- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse, no. 8. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

    Metals and metal devices in Vedic India. (Academy of Sciences and Literature. Memoirs of humanities and social science class. Born in 1973, no. 8) by Wilhelm Rau (pp. 153-154)

    Review by: Oskar von Hinüber

    "The earliest literary evidence for metals and metallurgy has been collected by Wilhelm Rau (1974) in his important study of metals and metal objects in Vedic India. Unfortunately, although it provides a wealth of information about metal objects and weapons, it tells us little about how metal was extracted from the ground, about the technologies of mining. The sole reference to a mine is in the rather late text, the Maitrāyaṇīya Upaniṣad 6.28 (Rau 1974: 26), which uses the term avaṭa for a mine. 2 In describing the passage of a person along the path to Brahman, the text gives the example “as a miner in search of minerals enters a mine” (avaṭaivāvaṭakd dhātukāmaḥ saṃviśaty evam)...If mining requires digging into the ground, as it generally does, then khani, derived from the verbal root √khan to ‘dig’, would seem to be the obvious choice... The most common term for mine in the classical texts is ākara (from the verb ā √kṝ), meaning something like a place of scattering, or a place where things are scattered or lying around...Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra...Looking at the work of the ākarādhyakṣa, we get a clear picture of what an ākara produced: gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, iron, Vaikr̥nta metal, and finally gems... The definition of khani given at Arthaśāstra 2.6.4 refers to similar products: suvarṇa-rajata-vajra-maṇi-muktā-pravāla-śaṅkha-loha-lavaṇa-bhūmi-prastara-rasa-dhātavaḥ khaniḥ | Gold, silver, diamonds, gems, pearls, coral, conchs, metals, salt, and ores in the earth, rocks, and liquids—(these constitute) khani...We get an interesting insight into the semantic development of khani within the Arthaśāstra in a one-sentence description of the khanyadhyakṣa, the superintendent of khani, at 2.12.27: khanyadhyakṣaḥ śaṅkha-vajra-maṇi-muktā-pravāla-kṣāra-karmāntān kārayet paṇanavyavahāraṃ ca | The superintendent of khani should establish factories for conch shells, diamonds, gems, pearls, corals, and alkali, as well as the trade in them...Another interesting piece of information is provided by a comment at Arthaśāstra 2.28.5–6: śaṅkha-muktā-grāhiṇo nauhāṭakaṃ dadyuḥ svanāvair vā tareyuḥ | adhyakṣaś caiṣāṃ khanyadhyakṣeṇa vyākhyātaḥ | Conch and pearl fishermen should pay the boat-fee or travel in their own boats. What pertains to the superintendent of these, furthermore, has been explained under the superintendent of khani...Pāṇini at 3.1.145, however, gives a useful hint when he provides a rule for the formation of an agent noun in the case of a craftsman (śilpin) by adding the suffix aka: śilpini ṣvun. Patañjali, commenting on this sūtra, lists three kinds of śilpins: actors, miners, and dyers: nr̥tikhanirañjibhyaḥ. Thus we get from khani the term for miner: khanaka. This is the earliest attestation, besides the Arthaśāstra, I have been able to find for khani...Yet, it is certain that khani is the older of the two terms for a mine. A brief look at R. L. Turner’s dictionary shows that derivatives from this term are found in Prakrit and in numerous modern Indian languages: Assamese khani, Hindi khan, Marathi khaṇ (fasc. 3, §3813). No modern Indian formation from ākara is recorded. There is, however, the Pāli equivalent ākara, but only in compounds such as ratnākara and only in some late texts such as the Theragāthā and the Jātakas, which may have been influenced by the Classical Sanskrit usage of the term...Varāhamihira’s Bhatsaṃhitā....srotaḥ khaniḥ prakīrṇakam ity ākarasaṃbhavas trividhaḥ. What [i.e., diamonds] originates from ākaras is threefold: river, mine, and miscellaneous (80.10). So here we have khani as one kind of ākara, which appears now to be extended to mean any source of gems and possibly of other minerals. This passage parallels a statement of the Arthaśāstra (2.11.38): khaniḥ srotaḥ prakīrṇakaṃ ca yonayaḥ 'mine, river, and miscellaneous are the sources (of diamonds)...'The superintendent of mines—who is either proficient in geometry, 11 metallurgy, smelting, and coloring gems or assisted by one so proficient, and who is provided with workers skilled at such tasks along with suitable equipment—should inspect abandoned mines revealed by dross, crucibles, coal, and ashes, or new mines with ore-bearing earth, rocks, or liquids that have a strong color, exceptional weight, and acrid smell and taste.' (Arthaśāstra 2.12.1). Kauṭilya goes on to provide information about the characteristics of liquids, rocks, and earth that contain metal: 'Gold-bearing liquids are those that flow in the interior of hollows, caves, valleys, rock-cuts, or covert excavations on mountains in recognized regions; liquids that have the color of roseapple, mango, palmyra nut, slice of ripe turmeric, jaggery, orpiment, red arsenic, honey, vermilion, white lotus, or feathers of a parrot or peacock; that have water and plants of the same color in the vicinity; and that are viscous, limpid, and heavy. If they spread like oil when thrown in water and soak up mud and dirt, they are capable of infusing copper and silver over a hundredfold.' What is similar to them but with an acrid smell and taste should be identified as bitumen.Ores from earth and rocks that have a yellow, copper, or coppery-yellow color; that contain blue streaks or have the color of Mudga bean, Māṣa bean, or Ksara porridge when they are split; that are speckled as if with drops or globs of curd; that have the color of turmeric, myrobalan, a lotus leaf, moss, liver, spleen, or saffron;14 that contain lines, dots, or svastikas of fine sand when they are split; that have nodules and are lustrous; and that do not split but do produce a lot of foam and smoke when they are heated—they are the ones that are gold ore. When used as an admixture, they are capable of infusing copper and silver. 15 Those that have the color of conch, camphor, crystal, fresh butter, a dove, a pigeon, a Vimalaka gem, or a peacock’s neck; or the color of Sasyaka gem, Gomedaka gem, 16 jaggery, or raw sugar; or the color of the flowers of Kovidāra, lotus, Pāṭalī, Kalāya, flax, or linseed; those that contain lead or antimony; that smell like raw flesh; that are black with a white sheen, white with a black sheen, or all speckled with lines or dots; that are soft and, when smelted, do not split but produce a lot of foam and smoke—they are the ones that are silver ores. In the case of all ores, as their weight increases so does their metal content. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.2–7).Although, without a better grasp of ancient Indian metallurgy, it is difficult to fully understand the above passage, this is probably the most detailed account of metal geology that we have from ancient India. The text goes on to note the characteristics of rocks and earth that contain base metals and gems: When ore from rocks or an area of earth is heavy, oily, and soft—it is copper ore if it is yellow, green, pale red, or blood red; it is lead ore if it is black like a crow, or has the color of a pigeon or yellow bile, or is studded with white lines, and smells like raw flesh; it is tin ore if it is variegated like saline soil or has the color of baked clay; it is iron ore if it is orange, 17 pale red, or the color of Sinduvāra flower; it is Vaikntaka 18 ore if it is colored like a Kākāṇḍa 19 or a birch leaf; it is gem20 ore if it is clear, smooth, gleaming, sonorous, cool, and with a very intense color. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.12–17) Mines and mining were probably state monopolies in ancient India. Yet, the private sector may have had a hand in mining. Kauṭilya advises the king to lease mines that are difficult to work or that require a lot of initial capital: When a mine becomes too onerous because of the expenses or effort required, he should lease it for a share of the proceeds or rent it out; he should operate by himself ones that are easy to manage. (Arthaśāstra 2.12.22)." (Patrick Oliville, opcit., p.23-29) Patrick Olivelle,, 2012, Material Culture and Philology: Semantics of Mining in Ancient India, in:  Journal of the American Oriental Society 132.1 (2012) loc.cit. Shamasastry, R., tr. 1961. Kautilīya’s Arthaśāstra. 7th ed. Mysore: Mysore Print and Publishing House)


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    Sharada Srinivasan and Srinivasa Ranganathan (Orient BlackSwan)
    Metallurgy (Ancient Indians)
    Two thousand years of iron smelting in the Khasi hills, Pawel Prokop and Ireneusz Suliga
    Ancient Gold Mining Activities in India - An Overview, A.K. Grover and M.K. Pandit,
    Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences
    Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India
    Sharada Srinivasan
    Copper in Ancient India, Panchanan Neogi, The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta (1918)
    • Metallurgy of Iron and Steel Making and Blacksmithy in Ancient India,
    B. Prakash, Indian Journal of History of Science, 26(4), 1991.
    B PRAKASH, Indian Journal of History of Science, 46.3 (2011)
    • The Primacy of India in ancient brass and zinc metallurgy, Arun K. Biswas,
    Indian Journal of History of Science, 28(4), 1993.

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    In the context of writing systems, mātrā मात्रा signifies a prosodial instant, for e.g., the upper or horizontal limb of the नागरी characters W.; f. measure (of any kind) , quantity , size , duration , number , degree &c RV. &c (भूयस्या मात्रया , in a higher degree Lalit. ); metrical unit , a mora or prosodial instant i.e. the length of time required to pronounce a short vowel (a long vowel contains 2 मात्राs , and a prolated vowel 3) Pra1t.; musical unit of time (3 in number) Pan5cat.

    I suggest that Mātrkā are signified on many sculptural representations together with Ganeśa because, मात्रा signifies -- in a writing system -- a prosodial instant, say, of time needed to pronounce a short vowel while Ganeśa is the scribe, script writer. The choice of Ganeśa as a scribe is related to some characteristics of orthography: ib'elephant' rebus: ib'needle' (iron stylus used for writing); ib 'iron'ibbo'merchant'; karabha'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' mūṣa'mouse' rebus:  mūṣa 'crucible' andhence, association with Indus Script to record accounting ledgers of metalwork wealth.

    Image result for gana maruts ganesa bharatkalyan97
    A parallel is with R̥kvat gaṇa 'prayer chant', Gaṇeśa iconography, Māheśvara Sūtrāṇi & Indus Script hypertext See:  Dance-step of Gaṇeśa, Emūṣa, Varāha, with Marut-gaṇa. Kailasanath Temple, Kanchipuram. I have suggested that the dance-step of Gaṇeśa is Indus Script hypertext: karabha 'elephant' rebus; karba 'iron' is ligatured to mē̃d, mēd 'body, womb, back'rebus: meḍ 'iron';मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, 'iron' (Samskrtam. Santali.Mu.Ho.) Dance-step: meḍ 'dance-step' signifies meḍ 'iron'med, 'copper' (Slavic)
    Dance-step of Gaṇeśa on Candi Sukuh sculptural frieze signifies 
    Related image
    The Seven Mother Goddesses (Matrikas) Flanked by Shiva Virabhadra and Ganesha Lord of Obstacles LACMA 157
    Related image

    The Seven Mother Goddesses (Matrikas) Flanked by Shiva (left) and Ganesha (right).jpg
    The Seven Mother Goddesses (Matrikas) Flanked by Shiva (left) and Ganesha (right) Madhya Pradesh, 9th century Sculpture Red sandstone Gift of Paul F. Walter (M.80.157) Current location of sculpture: Los Angeles County Museum of Art
    Image result for ellora ashta matrika ganesa
    Seven Sisters on an Indus SealSeven mothers on an Indus Script seal.

    Examples of mātrā signifiers in Brāhmī script are strokes added to indicate different vowels following the consonants /k/ and /l/.indicating short or long duration pronunciations of mātrā of vowels following the consonants.

    The word has other meanings: मात्रा materials , property , goods , household , furniture , money , wealth , substance , livelihood (also pl.Vas. Mn. MBh. &c मात्र n. an element , elementary matter BhP.; n. (ifc.) measure , quantity , sum , size , duration , measure of any kind (whether of height , depth , breadth , length , distance , time or number e.g.अङ्गुल-मात्रम् , a finger's breadth Pan5cat. अर्थ-मात्रम् , a certain sum of money ib. ; क्रोश-मात्रे , at the distance of a Kos Hit. मास-मात्रे , in a month La1t2y. शत-मात्रम् , a hundred in number Katha1s.(Monier-Williams). Mātra signifies beat in music systems. "Mātra in Sanskrit is unit of any measurement. In music, it is the basic unit of time measurement. The actual time duration of a mātra depends on the speed of the rhythm i.e. Tempo."

    Script characters

    Mātrika (Sanskrit mātṛkā) is also a term used to denote features of Indic scripts (also in combination with aksara, matrikaksara), though there is considerable variation in the precise interpretation of the term from one author to another. Sometimes it denotes a single character, the entire collection of characters (an "alphabet"), the alphabetic "matrix" used as a collation tool, vowels in particular (considered erroneous by Georg Bühler), or the sound of the syllable represented by the character.(Bühler, G. (1881). "Palaeographical remarks on the Horiuzi palm leaf MSS.". In Müller, F.M. Anecdota Oxoniensia: Texts, Documents, and Extracts Chiefly from Manuscripts in the Bodleian and the Oxford Libraries. Clarendon Press. p. 67, note 2.)
    Various traditions identify the script matrikas with the personified divine Matrikas.
    According to K.C. Aryan, the number of Matrikas is determined in the structure of the Devanagari alphabet. First is the (A) group which contains the vowels, then the (Ka), (Cha), (Ta), (ta), (Pa), (Ya) and (Ksha) groups. The seven mother goddesses (Saptamatrikas) correspond to the seven consonant groups; when the vocalic (A) group is added to it, the eight mother goddesses (Ashtamatrikas) are obtained.The Shaktas hold that the Mothers preside over impurities (mala) and over sounds of the language. The Mothers were identified with fourteen vowels plus the anusarva and visarga – making their number sixteen.
    In Tantra, the fifty or fifty-one letters including vowels as well as consonants from A to Ksha, of the Devanagari alphabet itself, the Varnamala of bija, have been described as being the Matrikas themselves. It is believed that they are infused with the power of the Divine Mother herself. The Matrikas are considered to be the subtle form of the letters (varna). These letters combined make up syllables (pada) which are combined to make sentences (vakya) and it is of these elements that mantra is composed. It is believed that the power of mantra derives from the fact that the letters of the alphabet are in fact forms of the goddess.The 50 Matrika Kalas are given in the same account as follows: Nivritti, Pratishtha, Vidya, Shanti, Indhika, Dipika, Mochika, Para, Sukshma, Sukshmamrita, Jnanamrita, Apypayani, Vyapini, Vyomarupa, Ananta, Srishti, Riddhi, Smriti, Medha, Kanti, Lakshmi, Dyuti, Sthira, SthitiSiddhi, Jada, Palini, Shanti, Aishvarya, Rati, Kamika, Varada, Ahladini, Pritih, Dirgha, Tikshna, Raudri, Bhaya, Nidra, Tadra, Kshudha, Krodhini, Kriya, Utkari, Mrityurupa, Pita, Shveta, Asita, Ananta.Sometimes, the Matrikas represent a diagram written in the letter, believed to possess magical powers.
    RV 9.102
    Sayana/Wilson translation:
    9.102.01 Performing (sacred rites) the child of the great (waters) sending forth the lustre of the sacrifice (Soma) produces all acceptable (oblations) and (abides) in the two worlds. 
    9.102.02 When the Soma has been taken the secret station of the grinding stones (at the sacrifice) of Trita, then with the seven supports of the sacrifice (the priests praise) the conciliating (Soma). [With the seven supports of the sacrifice: i.e., with the seven metres; or, deriving sapta from. sr.p, they effuse the Soma with the vasati_vari_ water]. 
    9.102.03 (Support, Soma) with your stream Trita's three (oblations); cause the giver of riches (Indra) to come to the sacred songs. The intelligent (praiser) of this (Indra) measures out hymns. [i.e., yojana_ni which may also mean, roads or stages; in RV.1.018.05, yojana_ = a means for inducing the gods to yoke their horses, i.e., a hymn]. 
    9.102.04 The seven mothers instruct the (Soma) the institutor (of the sacrifice) when born for the prosperity (of the worshippers) to that this firm Soma is cognizant of riches. [The seven mothers: i.e., the seven rivers; or, the seven metres; yat = because, tasma_d... dhana_disamr.ddhir bhavati]. 
    9.102.05 The universal gods, devoid of malice, assembled together at his rite, are to be envied if being delighted they take pleasure (in the Soma). 
    9.102.06 The germ which the augmenters of the rite brought forth at the sacrifice lovely to look upon intelligent, most adorable, desired by many. 
    9.102.07 He of his own will approaches the great united parents of the sacrifice (heaven and earth) when (the priests) conducting the ceremony anoint him in due order with the sacred waters. 
    9.102.08 Soma, by your act drive away with your brilliant organs the darkness from the sky, effusing into the sacrifice (your juice) the lustre of the rite. [di_dhitim is deried from dhr., the supporter of the rite].

    Griffith translation: HYMN CIL Soma Pavamana. 102
    1. THE Child, when blended with the streams, speeding the plan of sacrifice,
    Surpasses all things that are dear, yea, from of old.
    2 The place, near the two pressingstones- of Trita, hath he occupied,
    Secret and dear through seven lights of sacrifice.
    3 Urge to three courses, on the heights of Trita, riches in a stream.
    He who is passing wise measures his courses out.
    4 Even at his birth the Mothers Seven taught him, for glory, like a sage,
    So that he, firm and sure, hath set his mind on wealth.
    5 Under his sway, of one accord, are all the guileless Deities:
    Warriors to be envied, they, when they are pleased.
    6 The Babe whom they who strengthen Law have generated fair to see,
    Much longed for at the sacrifice, most liberal Sage,
    7 To him, united, of themselves, come the young Parents of the rite,
    When they adorn him, duly weaving sacrifice.
    8 With wisdom and with radiant eyes unbar to us the stall of heaven,
    Speeding at solemn rite the plan of Holy Law.

    vinAyakas+graha, symbolic skanda grahas, graha-mAtR^is, varAha nAgas, kapila:unique depiction from rAShTRakUTa avanti
    Image result for sculpture avanti vinayaka peacock

    Sculpture of gaṇeśa and peacock on the wall of viṭṭhala temple ; Hampi ; Karnataka

    Mātrkā with Ganeśa. Gwalior.

    Mātrkā with Ganeśa Elephanta caves

    The choice of eight Mātrkā may relate to the octagonal shape of the ketu, the proclamation of a yajña, erecting an aṣṭāśri yupa as evidenced by the yupa found in Binjor yajñ a kuṇḍa and of  caṣāla of wheat chaff atop the yupa as described in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa to carburize molten metal, infuse carbon to make the alloy metal hard. Octagonal shape is also the Viṣṇubhāga of Śivalinga.
    Image result for rudrabhaga sivalingaImage result for rudrabhaga sivalinga

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    This note is a continuum of the monograph, Indus Script hypertexts, archaeometallurgy and the meaning of ayas in R̥gveda as 'alloy metal' including ferrous'iron'

    This note provides evidence for the Veda cultural continuum by linking Indus Script hypertexts with R̥gveda and Yajurveda texts.

    Indus Script Corpora includes a seal which is a metaphor for metalwork fashioned, which is a yajña by कार्मार 'a mechanic, a smith'; the process can be elucidated in archaeometallurgical terms (See embedded article by B. Prakash and K. Igaki). The śabdasphoṭa provided by R̥gveda is कार्मार 
    [p= 276,1] m. = कर्म्/आर , a mechanic , smith RV. ix , 112 , 2; patr. fr. कर्मार g. शिवा*दि.

    Yajurveda provides an extraordinary expression: 'yajñena kalpantām'. This can be translated as: fashioned by yajña, providing a precis of the form and function of a yajña in Veda tradition which continues during the Bronze Age in Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization and is documented in Indus Script Corpora with over 8000 inscriptions.

    kalpanam कल्पनम् [क्लृप्-ल्युट्] 1 Forming, fashioning, arranging. -2 Performing, doing, effecting. -3 Clipping, cutting. -4 Fixing. -5 Anything placed upon another for decoration. -ना 1 Fixing, settlement; अनेकपितृकाणां तु पितृतो भागकल्पना Y.2.12;247; Ms.9.116. -2 Making, performing, doing. -3 Forming, arranging; विषमासु च कल्पनासु Mk.3.14; केश˚ Mk.4. -4 Decorating, ornamenting. -5 Composition. -6 Invention. -7 Imagination, thought; कल्पनापोढः Sk. P.II.1.38 = कल्पनाया अपोढः. -8 An idea, fancy or image (conceived in the mind); Śānti.2.8. -9 Fabrication. -1 Forgery. -11 A contrivance, device. -12 (In Mīm. phil.) = अर्थापत्ति q. v. -13 Decorating an elephant. -Comp. -शक्तिः f. the power of forming ideas; MW. (Apte)

    कल्पन [p= 263,1] n. forming , fashioning , making , performing L.;" forming in the imagination , inventing " , composition of a poem Prab.; cutting , clipping , working with edge-tools VarBr2S.  कल्पना f. making , manufacturing , preparing Sus3r. BhP.; f. fixing , settling , arranging Mn. ix , 116 Ya1jn5.; f. creating in the mind , feigning , assuming anything to be real , fiction KapS. &c; f. a deed , work , act Mr2icch.

    kalpáyati ʻ sets in order ʼ RV., ʻ trims, cuts ʼ VarBr̥S. [Cf. kr̥pāṇa -- m. ʻ knife ʼ Pāṇ.: √kI̊p]Pa. kappēti ʻ causes to fit, prepares, trims ʼ; Pk. kappēi ʻ makes, arranges ʼ; S. kapaṇu ʻ to cut ʼ; L. kappaṇ ʻ to cut, reap ʼ, awāṇ. kappuṇ; P. kappṇā ʻ to cut, kill ʼ; N. kapnu ʻ to carve, chisel ʼ; G. kāpvũ ʻ to cut ʼ; M. kāpṇẽʻ to cut, shave ʼ; Ko. kāppūka ʻ to cut ʼ; Si. kapanavā ʻ to cut, cut off, reap ʼ. Addenda: kalpáyati: S.kcch. kapṇū ʻ to cut ʼ; Md. kafanī ʻ stabs ʼ.(CDIAL 2944) kálpa ʻ capable ʼ ŚBr., m. ʻ rule, practice ʼ RV., ʻ an age ʼ MBh. 2. *karpa -- . [√kI̊p]1. Pa. Pk. kappa -- m. ʻ rule, rite, age ʼ; Paš. kapaya ʻ in the middle of ʼ IIFL iii 3, 95; S. kapu m. ʻ knife ʼ; L. kapp m. ʻ cut, breach ʼ (→ Brah. kap ʻ half ʼ); N. kāp ʻ interstice between fingers ʼ; B. kāp ʻ cutting a nib, pen nib ʼ; Or. kāpa ʻ mask, false appearance ʼ; H. kāp m. ʻ cutting, slice ʼ; G. kāp m. ʻ cut, wound ʼ, kāpɔ m. ʻ cutting, slit, streak, line ʼ, kāplɔ m. ʻ a cutting of cloth ʼ, °lī f. ʻ clippings ʼ; M. kāp m. ʻ slice of fruit ʼ; Si. kapa ʻ an age ʼ.2. K. kraph, dat. °pas m. ʻ chopping, cutting ʼ.(CDIAL 2941) kalpana n. ʻ cutting ʼ VarBr̥S., °nā -- f. ʻ arranging ʼ Mn., ʻ making ʼ Suśr., °nī -- f. ʻ scissors ʼ lex., karpaṇa -- n. ʻ weapon ʼ Daś. [√kI̊p]Pa. kappana -- n. ʻ arranging, preparing ʼ, °nā -- f. ʻ fixing a horse's harness ʼ; Pk. kappaṇa -- n. ʻ cutting ʼ, °ṇā<-> ʻ arranging ʼ, °ṇī f. ʻ shears ʼ; G. kāpṇī f. ʻ reaping a field, goldsmith's clip ʼ; M. kāpaṇ f. ʻ shaving ʼ, kāpṇī f. ʻ reaping ʼ.(CDIAL 2943)

    Indus Script hypertext is a Veda cultural continuum documenting wealth-producing metalwork which is 'yajñena kalpantām'.

    Mohenjo-daro seal m0352 with dotted circles repeated on 5 sides A to E. Mohenjo-daro Seal m0352 shows dotted circles in the four corners of a fire-altar and at the centre of the altar together with four raised 'bun' ingot-type rounded features.

    Rebus readings of m0352 hieroglyphs:

    dhātu 'layer, strand'; dhāv 'strand, string' Rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'ore'

    1. Round dot like a blob -- . Glyph: raised large-sized dot -- (gōṭī ‘round pebble);goTa 'laterite (ferrite ore)

    2. Dotted circle khaṇḍa ‘A piece, bit, fragment, portion’; kandi ‘bead’;

    3. A + shaped structure where the glyphs  1 and 2 are infixed.  The + shaped structure is kaṇḍ  ‘a fire-altar’ (which is associated with glyphs 1 and 2)..

    Rebus readings are: 1. khoṭ m. ʻalloyʼgoTa 'laterite (ferrite ore); 2. khaṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’; 3. kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar, consecrated fire’.

    Four ‘round spot’; glyphs around the ‘dotted circle’ in the center of the composition: gōṭī  ‘round pebble; Rebus 1: goTa 'laterite (ferrite ore); Rebus 2:L. khoṭf ʻalloy, impurityʼ, °ṭā ʻalloyedʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā  ʻforgedʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻbase, alloyʼ  M.khoṭā  ʻalloyedʼ (CDIAL 3931) Rebus 3: kōṭhī ] f (कोष्ट S) A granary, garner, storehouse, warehouse, treasury, factory, bank. khoṭā ʻalloyedʼ metal is produced from kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar’ yielding khaṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’. This word khaṇḍā is denoted by the dotted circles.

    Griffith: trnslation: May my stone and my clay, and my hills and my mountains, and my pebbles and my trees, and my gold and my bronze, and my copper and my iron, and my lead and my tin prosper by sacrifice.

    RV 9.112.2
    Griffith translation: HYMN CXII. Soma Pavamana. 112.2

    2 The smith with ripe and seasoned plants, with feathers of the birds of air,
    With stones, and with enkindled flames, seeks him who hath a store of gold. Flow, Indu, flow for
    Indras' sake.

    Sayana/Wilson translation:

    9.112.01 Various are our acts, (various) are the occupations of men; the carpenter desires timber, the physician disease, the bra_hman.a a worshipper who effuses Soma; flow, Indu for Indra. 
    9.112.02 With dried plants (are arrows made), with the feathers of birds (and) with glistening stones; the smith seeks a man who has gold; flow, Indu, for Indra. 
    9.112.03 I am the singer; papa is the physician, mamma throws the corn upon the grinding stones; having various occupations, desiring riches we remain (in the world) like cattle (in the stall); flow, Indu, for Indra. [The singer...papa...mamma: ka_ruh = maker of praises; 'maker', 'poet'; tatah and na_na_ mean father (dada) and mother; or son and daughter respectively]. 
    9.112.04 The draught horse (desire) a cart easy (to draw); those who invite guests (desire) merriment; the frog desires water; flow, Indu, for Indra. [Easy to draw: auspicious; upamantrin.ah = narmasaciva_h, boon companions].

    Source for the selected texts from Yajurveda and R̥gveda: B. Prakash, 2001, Ferrous Metallurgy in Ancient India, in: NML Jamshedpur 831 007, India; Metallurgy in India: A Retrospective; (ISBN: 81;87053-56-7); Eds: P. Ramachandra Rao and N.G. Goswami, pp. 52-91.

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    Partha Desikan:

    Gaṇeśa is again and again acclaimed as pranavasvaroopa, as is the Hayagreeva form of Bhagavaan Vishnu. Vedanta Desika equates Hayagreeva to pranava in one of his slokas by referring to him as aksharamaatrkaa.When Gaṇeśa the scribe is with the saptamaatrkaas, he represents pranava too, becoming the significant written  maatrkaa, therefore a-kshara maatrkaa that can give life to the other seven by writing them down. 


    Image result for hayagriva guimetImage result for hayagriva guimetImage result for hayagriva guimetGuimet Museum
    Hayagriva, divinity with horse head, Sambor, Preikuk, Cambodia, 10th century

    Shri Hayagriva stotram is Hymn in thirty two slokas on Hayagriva, the Supreme God of learning in Vaishnava Sampradaya. Hayagriva Stotram was composed by Sri Venkatadesika. In 1267 AD a great saint, poet and logician by the name Sri Venkatanatha was born, who was later to be known as Sri Venkatadesika. Sri Venkatadesika had composed hundreds of stotras and many other philosophical works such as a commentary on Vishishta Advaita, Brahmasutras, many natakas and kavyas of which, two of them viz., ‘Yadavabhudaya’ and ‘Paduka Sahasra’ are very popular and acclaimed works. Sri Venkatadesika went into raptures following this vision and the most popular and powerful hymn known as the “Hayagreeva Stotram” started flowing like nectar in praise of Lord Sri Lakshmi Hayagreeva. The strength of this stotram is to enhance the learning faculty. If well imparted, it will be of immense help to the millions of little children who are burdened with heavy workloads in the schools and a stiff academic competition.
    Hayagreeva (Hayagriva) haya means horse and greeva means neck. The horse faced form of Vishnu, is the God of Vidya or knowledge and prosperity according to scriptures. One who prays Hayagriva shall be blessed with all knowledge and wisdom. Legend has it that during the creation, the demons Madhu and Kaitabha stole the Vedas from Brahma and Vishnu took the Hayagriva form to recover the Vedas from the demons. Another legend has it that during the creation, Vishnu compiled the Vedas in the Hayagriva form and that the Hayagriva Avatara precedes the Matsya Avatara wherein he recovered the stolen Vedas from the demons Madhu and Kaitabha.
    Shri Hayagreeva Stotram

    ॥ श्रीहयग्रीवस्तोत्रम् ॥

    ॥ Shri Hayagreeva Stotram ॥
    श्रीमान् वेङ्कटनाथार्यः कवितार्किककेसरी । 
    वेदान्ताचार्यवर्यो मे सन्निधत्तां सदा हृदि ॥
    ज्ञानानन्द मयं देवं निर्मलस्फटिकाकृतिम् ।

    आधारं सर्व विद्यानां हयग्रीवम् उपास्महे ॥ १ ॥
    Shriman Venkatnarthaye Kavitakirkkesari
    Vedantacharyavaryo me Sannidhatam sada Hradi |
    jñānānanda mayaṁ devaṁ nirmalasphaṭikākṛtim |
    ādhāraṁ sarva vidyānāṁ hayagrīvam upāsmahe || 1 ||
    We meditate upon lord Hayagreeva who is the personification of knowledge and bliss, whose form is like flawless crystal and who is the support of all branches of learning both paravidya and aparavidya (secular and spiritual)
    स्वतस्सिद्धं शुद्धस्फटिकमणि भूभृत्प्रतिभटं
    सुधा सध्रीचीभिर् धुतिभिर् अवदातत्रिभुवनम् ।
    अनन्तैस्त्रय्यन्तैर् अनुविहित हेषा हलहलं
    हताशेषावद्यं हयवदन मीडी महि महः ॥ २ ॥
    svatassiddhaṁ śuddhasphaṭikamaṇi bhūbhṛtpratibhaṭaṁ
    sudhā sadhrīcībhir dhutibhir avadātatribhuvanam |
    anantaistrayyantair anuvihita heṣā halahalaṁ
    hatāśeṣāvadyaṁ hayavadana mīḍī mahi mahaḥ || 2 ||
    Let us eulogize the lustrous Horse-necked Lord who is self-manifest, who throws into insignificance a flawless crystal mountain (in complexion),  who whitens  the three worlds with his nectar-like brilliance, whose tumultuous neighs convey the purport  of  the innumerable Upanishads, and who removes the difficulties of his devotees without leaving  any trace behind.
    समाहारस्साम्नां प्रतिपदमृचां धाम यजुषां
    लयः प्रत्यूहानां लहरि विततिर्बोधजलधेः ।
    कथा दर्पक्षुभ्यत् कथककुल कोलाहलभवं
    हरत्वन्तर्ध्वान्तं हयवदन हेषा हलहलः ॥ ३ ॥
    samāhārassāmnāṁ pratipadamṛcāṁ dhāma yajuṣāṁ
    layaḥ pratyūhānāṁ lahari vitatirbodhajaladheḥ |
    kathā darpakṣubhyat kathakakula kolāhalabhavaṁ
    haratvantardhvāntaṁ hayavadana heṣā halahalaḥ || 3 ||
    The neighing sound of the Horse-necked Lord is indeed the collection of the Sama-chants the word-by –word meaning of the Riks, the storehouse of the Yajur mantras, the annihilator of obstacles and a row of waves of ocean-like wisdom.  May it dispel the inner darkness of ignorance   created by the vain glorious arguments of multitudes of arrogant debaters!
    प्राची सन्ध्या काचिदन्तर् निशायाः
    प्रज्ञादृष्टेरञ्जन श्रीरपूर्वा ।
    वक्त्री वेदान् भातु मे वाजि वक्त्रा
    वागीशाख्या वासुदेवस्य मूर्तिः ॥ ४ ॥
    prācī sandhyā kācidantar niśāyāḥ
    prajñādṛṣṭerañjana śrīrapūrvā |
    vaktrī vedān bhātu me vāji vaktrā
    vāgīśākhyā vāsudevasya mūrtiḥ || 4 ||
    The Horse-headed form of Lord Vasudeva named Vaageesa (the presiding deity of speech) is indeed, the rare Eastern Dawn for the inner darkness of ignorance and a wonder collyrium to the eye of wisdom. It is the form which recites the Vedas to help Brahmaa. May this form manifest itself into me!
    विशुद्ध विज्ञान घन स्वरूपं
    विज्ञान विश्राणन बद्ध दीक्षम् ।
    दयानिधिं देहभृतां शरण्यं
    देवं हयग्रीवम् अहं प्रपद्ये ॥ ५ ॥
    viśuddha vijñāna ghana svarūpaṁ
    vijñāna viśrāṇana baddha dīkṣam |
    dayānidhiṁ dehabhṛtāṁ śaraṇyaṁ
    devaṁ hayagrīvam ahaṁ prapadye || 5 ||
    I take refuge Lord Haygreeva, the embodiment of spotless knowledge, who took a vow to bestow this knowledge on his devotees. He is the repository of compassion and the ultimate resort of all living beings.
    अपौरुषेयैर् अपि वाक्प्रपञ्चैः
    अद्यापि ते भूति मदृष्ट पाराम् ।
    स्तुवन्नहं मुग्ध इति त्वयैव
    कारुण्यतो नाथ कटाक्षणीयः ॥ ६ ॥
    apauruṣeyair api vākprapañcaiḥ
    adyāpi te bhūti madṛṣṭa pārām |
    stuvannahaṁ mugdha iti tvayaiva
    kāruṇyato nātha kaṭākṣaṇīyaḥ || 6 ||
    Oh Lord! Even till date, the further limit of your unyielding glory could not be comprehended by the impersonal body of literature called the Vedas. As such I attempting to praise, you deserve to be looked upon by you just like that of a simple person, and graced by your side-glances.
    दाक्षिण्य रम्या गिरिशस्य मूर्तिः
    देवी सरोजासन धर्मपत्नी ।
    व्यासादयोऽपि व्यपदेश्य वाचः
    स्फुरन्ति सर्वे तव शक्ति लेशैः ॥ ७ ॥
    dākṣiṇya ramyā giriśasya mūrtiḥ
    devī sarojāsana dharmapatnī |
    vyāsādayo'pi vyapadeśya vācaḥ
    sphuranti sarve tava śakti leśaiḥ || 7 ||
    The handsome Dakshinaamoorti form of Siva, goddess Sarasvati, the spouse of Brahma  and authors like Vyasa—all of whom are highly honored, shine because of minute portions of yours.
    मन्दोऽभविष्यन् नियतं विरिञ्चो
    वाचां निधे वञ्चित भाग धेयः ।
    दैत्यापनीतान् दययैव भूयोऽपि
    अध्यापयिष्यो निगमान् न चेत् त्वम् ॥ ८ ॥
    mando'bhaviṣyan niyataṁ viriñco
    vācāṁ nidhe vañcita bhāga dheyaḥ |
    daityāpanītān dayayaiva bhūyo'pi
    adhyāpayiṣyo nigamān na cet tvam || 8 ||
    O storehouse of all worlds of Knowledge! Had you not taught again the Vedas stolen by demons, Brahma, bereft of his fortune would certainly have remained an ignorant person!
    वितर्क डोलां व्यवधूय सत्वे
    बृहस्पतिं वर्तयसे यतस्त्वम् ।
    तेनैव देव त्रिदशेश्वराणाम्
    अस्पृष्ट डोलायित माधिराज्यम् ॥ ९ ॥
    vitarka ḍolāṁ vyavadhūya satve
    bṛhaspatiṁ vartayase yatastvam |
    tenaiva deva tridaśeśvarāṇām
    aspṛṣṭa ḍolāyita mādhirājyam || 9 ||
    Lord! Only because you are keeping Brihaspati, the preceptor of Indras, in the quality of serenity (sattva) by removing all his vacillating doubts, the sovereignty of the succession of Indras is able to remain steady and unshakable.
    अग्नोउ समिद्धार्चिषि सप्ततन्तोः
    आतस्थिवान् मन्त्रमयं शरीरम् ।
    अखण्ड सारैर् हविषां प्रदानैः
    आप्यायनं व्योम सदां विधत्से ॥ १० ॥
    agnou samiddhārciṣi saptatantoḥ
    ātasthivān mantramayaṁ śarīram |
    akhaṇḍa sārair haviṣāṁ pradānaiḥ
    āpyāyanaṁ vyoma sadāṁ vidhatse || 10 ||
    O Hayagreeva!  You assure the form of sacred formula (Mantras) and abide in the well-kindled sacrificial fire of seven tongues. You are pleasing the denizens of heaven by giving away to them the oblations due to them of unbeatable taste.
    यन्मूलमीदृक् प्रतिभाति तत्वं
    या मूलमाम्नाय महाद्रुमाणाम् ।
    तत्वेन जानन्ति विशुद्ध सत्वाः
    त्वाम् अक्षराम् अक्षर मातृकां ते ॥ ११ ॥
    yanmūlamīdṛk pratibhāti tatvaṁ
    yā mūlamāmnāya mahādrumāṇām |
    tatvena jānanti viśuddha satvāḥ
    tvām akṣarām akṣara mātṛkāṁ te || 11 ||
    Only people of pure serenity (sattva) really know you to be the inexhaustible source of all letters as Omkara.  Due to which the Ultimate Truth shines forth in this manner and which is the root of the mighty trees of Vedas.
    अव्याकृताद् व्याकृत वानसि त्वं
    नामानि रूपाणि च यानि पूर्वम् ।
    शंसन्ति तेषां चरमां प्रतिष्टां
    वागीश्वर त्वां त्वदुपज्ञ वाचः ॥ १२ ॥
    avyākṛtād vyākṛta vānasi tvaṁ
    nāmāni rūpāṇi ca yāni pūrvam |
    śaṁsanti teṣāṁ caramāṁ pratiṣṭāṁ
    vāgīśvara tvāṁ tvadupajña vācaḥ || 12 ||
    O  Lord of SpeechLong ago, from the un-manifest primordial matter you brought out the manifest Universe by evolving names and forms. The words promulgated by you for the first time (Vedas) declare that for those very entities you are the ultimate import and content.
    मुग्धेन्दु निष्यन्द विलोभ नीयां
    मूर्तिं तवानन्द सुधा प्रसूतिम् ।
    विपश्चितश्चेतसि भावयन्ते
    वेला मुदारामिव दुग्ध सिन्धोः ॥ १३ ॥
    mugdhendu niṣyanda vilobha nīyāṁ
    mūrtiṁ tavānanda sudhā prasūtim |
    vipaścitaścetasi bhāvayante
    velā mudārāmiva dugdha sindhoḥ || 13 ||
    The wise ones contemplate on your form in their minds, which is as attractive as the very essence of the beautiful young moon and which yields the nectar of bliss, like the vast boundary   of the milky ocean.
    मनोगतं पश्यति यः सदा त्वां
    मनीषिणां मानस राज हंसम् ।
    स्वयं पुरोभाव विवादभाजः
    किंकुर्वते तस्य गिरो यथार्हम् ॥ १४ ॥
    manogataṁ paśyati yaḥ sadā tvāṁ
    manīṣiṇāṁ mānasa rāja haṁsam |
    svayaṁ purobhāva vivādabhājaḥ
    kiṁkurvate tasya giro yathārham || 14 ||
    To him who always visualizes you in his mind, who are the royal swan   sporting in the Maanasa Lake (Mind) of the wise, words vie with one another and render service in a befitting manner.
    अपि क्षणार्धं कलयन्ति ये त्वां
    आप्लावयन्तं विशदैर् मयूखैः ।
    वाचां प्रवाहैर् अनिवारितैस्ते
    मन्दाकिनीं मन्दयितुं क्षमन्ते ॥ १५ ॥
    api kṣaṇārdhaṁ kalayanti ye tvāṁ
    āplāvayantaṁ viśadair mayūkhaiḥ |
    vāchaam pravāhair anivāritaiste
    mandākinīṁ mandayituṁ kṣamante || 15 ||
    Whosoever think of you—be it for a fraction of a second—as inundating everything with brilliant rays, they will be capable of rendering even the Ganges flow, through their un-impended flow of words.
    स्वामिन् भवद्ध्यान सुधाभिषेकात्
    वहन्ति धन्याः पुलकानुबन्धम् ।
    अलक्षिते क्वापि निरूढ मूलं
    अङ्गेष्विवानन्दथुम् अङ्कुरन्तम् ॥ १६ ॥
    svāmin bhavaddhyāna sudhābhiṣekāt
    vahanti dhanyāḥ pulakānubandham |
    alakṣhite kvāpi nirūḍha mūlaṁ
    aṅgeṣvivānandathum aṅkurantam || 16 ||
    O Lord! Bathed in the nectar of contemplation on you, the lucky ones experience horripilation over all parts of the body, which resembles the sprouts of bliss rooted deep in some spot of the body.
    स्वामिन् प्रतीचा हृदयेन धन्याः
    त्वद्ध्यान चन्द्रोदय वर्धमानम् ।
    अमान्त मानन्द पयोधिमन्तः
    पयोभिरक्ष्णां परिवाहयन्ति ॥ १७ ॥
    svāmin pratīcha hṛdayena dhanyāḥ
    tvaddhyāna candrodaya vardhamānam |
    amānta mānanda payodhimantaḥ
    payobhirakṣṇāṁ parivāhayanti || 17 ||
    O lord! The blessed ones have their minds directed inwards and let out through tears of joy dwelling up in their eyes, the immeasurable ocean of bliss surging within, due to the moonrise of your contemplation.
    स्वैरानुभावास् त्वदधीन भावाः
    समृद्ध वीर्यास् त्वदनुग्रहेण ।
    विपश्चितो नाथ तरन्ति मायां
    वैहारिकीं मोहन पिञ्छिकां ते ॥ १८ ॥
    svairānubhāvās tvadadhīna bhāvāḥ
    samṛddha vīryās tvadanugraheṇa |
    vipaścito nātha taranti māyāṁ
    vaihārikīṁ mohana piñchikāṁ te || 18 ||
    Oh master! Devotees of un-impended glory, with their minds subjugated to you and with powers greatly enhanced by your grace will be able to cross Maaya (the association with material nature) which is your sportive bunch of magic wands.
    प्राङ् निर्मितानां तपसां विपाकाः
    प्रत्यग्र निश्श्रेयस संपदो मे ।
    समेधिषीरंस्तव पाद पद्मे
    संकल्प चिन्तामणयः प्रणामाः ॥ १९ ॥
    prāṅ nirmitānāṁ tapasāṁ vipākāḥ
    pratyagra niśśreyasa saṁpado me |
    samedhiṣīraṁstava pāda padme
    saṁkalpa cintāmaṇayaḥ praṇāmāḥ || 19 ||
    Let my prostrations at your lotus feet ever increase! They are, verily, the desire-yielding celestial gems (Chintamani), the fruits of the good deeds done before and the bestowals of spiritual liberation.
    विलुप्त मूर्धन्य लिपिक्र माणां
    सुरेन्द्र चूडापद लालितानाम् ।
    त्वदंघ्रि राजीव रजः कणानां
    भूयान् प्रसादो मयि नाथ भूयात् ॥ २० ॥
    vilupta mūrdhanya lipikra māṇāṁ
    surendra cūḍāpada lālitānām |
    tvadaṁghri rājīva rajaḥ kaṇānāṁ
    bhūyān prasādo mayi nātha bhūyāt || 20 ||
    O Lord! May the pollen of your lotus-feet which can wipe off the writing on my forehead (of fate) and which adorns the crown of Indra and other divines, dower upon me grace in abundance!
    परिस्फुरन् नूपुर चित्रभानु
    प्रकाश निर्धूत तमोनुषङ्गाम् ।
    पदद्वयीं ते परिचिन् महेऽन्तः
    प्रबोध राजीव विभात सन्ध्याम् ॥ २१ ॥
    parisphuran nūpura citrabhānu -
    prakāśa nirdhūta tamonuṣaṅgām |
    padadvayīṁ te paricin mahe'ntaḥ
    prabodha rājīva vibhāta sandhyām || 21 ||
    We contemplate in our mind, the pair of your feet which by the sun-like luster of the anklets, dispels pals of gloom within and like the morning dawn   blooms the lotus of wisdom.
    त्वत् किङ्करा लंकरणो चितानां
    त्वयैव कल्पान्तर पालितानाम् ।
    मञ्जुप्रणादं मणिनूपुरं ते
    मञ्जूषिकां वेद गिरां प्रतीमः ॥ २२ ॥
    tvat kiṅkarā laṁkaraṇo citānāṁ
    tvayaiva kalpāntara pālitānām |
    mañjupraṇādaṁ maṇinūpuraṁ te
    mañjūṣikāṁ veda girāṁ pratīmaḥ || 22 ||
    We believe that your gem-studded anklets producing melodious sounds are treasure-chests of the Vedas, which, protected by you in each and every aeon, are fit to adorn your servants.
    संचिन्तयामि प्रतिभाद शास्थान्
    संधुक्षयन्तं समय प्रदीपान् ।
    विज्ञान कल्पद्रुम पल्लवाभं
    व्याख्यान मुद्रा मधुरं करं ते ॥ २३ ॥
    saṁcintayāmi pratibhāda śāsthān
    saṁdhukṣayantaṁ samaya pradīpān |
    vijñāna kalpadruma pallavābhaṁ
    vyākhyāna mudrā madhuraṁ karaṁ te || 23 ||
    I contemplate on your beautiful hand with the gesture of expounding knowledge which resembles a sprout of the desire-yielding tree of knowledge and which seems to kindle the lamp of philosophical system, on the wick of intelligence.
    चित्ते करोमि स्फुरिताक्षमालं
    सव्येतरं नाथ करं त्वदीयम् ।
    ज्ञानामृतो दञ्चन लम्पटानां
    लीला घटी यन्त्र मिवाश्रितानाम् ॥ २४ ॥
    citte karomi sphuritākṣamālaṁ
    savyetaraṁ nātha karaṁ tvadīyam |
    jñānāmṛto dañcana lampaṭānāṁ
    līlā ghaṭī yantra mivāśritānām || 24 ||
    Oh lord!  I cherish in my mind your right hand with a lustrous rosary which looks like a sportive pulley to bring up the nectar of knowledge for your supplicants.
    प्रबोध सिन्धोररुणैः प्रकाशैः
    प्रवाल सङ्घात मिवोद्वहन्तम् ।
    विभावये देव सपुस्तकं ते
    वामं करं दक्षिणम् आश्रितानाम् ॥ २५ ॥
    prabodha sindhoraruṇaiḥ prakāśaiḥ
    pravāla saṅghāta mivodvahantam |
    vibhāvaye deva sapustakaṁ te
    vāmaṁ karaṁ dakṣiṇam āśritānām || 25 ||
    Oh Lord! I contemplate on your left hand which is    right hand for the seekers for protecting those who seek refuge in you. Holding a book and shining with red hues, it appears to bring up a heap of corals from the ocean of knowledge.
    तमांसि भित्वा विशदैर्मयूखैः
    संप्रीणयन्तं विदुषश्चकोरान् ।
    निशामये त्वां नव पुण्डरीके
    शरद्घने चन्द्रमिव स्फुरन्तम् ॥ २६ ॥
    tamāṁsi bhitvā viśadairmayūkhaiḥ
    saṁprīṇayantaṁ viduṣaścakorān |
    niśāmaye tvāṁ nava puṇḍarīke
    śaradghane candramiva sphurantam || 26 ||
    I meditate upon you who are seated in a fresh white lotus, shining like the moon on an autumn cloud, cleaving darkness of ignorance with lustrous rays and delighting the Chakora birds in the form of learned persons. 
    दिशन्तु मे देव सदा त्वदीयाः
    दया तरङ्गानुचराः कटाक्षाः ।
    श्रोत्रेषु पुंसाम् अमृतं क्षरन्तीं
    सरस्वतीं संश्रित कामधेनुम् ॥ २७ ॥
    dishantu me deva sadā tvadīyāḥ
    dayā taraṅgānucarāḥ kaṭākṣāḥ |
    śrotreṣu puṁsām amṛtaṁ kṣarantīṁ
    sarasvatīṁ saṁśrita kāmadhenum || 27 ||
    Oh Lord! May your side glances accompanied by waves of compassion, confer upon me. Power of speech sprinkling nectar into the ears of people, which will be like the divine cow  Kaamadhenu or those who resort to it!
    विशेष वित्पारिष देषु नाथ
    विदग्ध गोष्ठी समराङ्गणेषु ।
    जिगीषतो मे कवितार्कि केन्द्रान्
    जिह्वाग्र सिंहासनम् अभ्युपेयाः ॥ २८ ॥
    viśeṣa vitpāriṣa deṣu nātha
    vidagdha goṣṭhī samarāṅgaṇeṣu |
    jigīṣato me kavitārki kendrān
    jihvāgra siṁhāsanam abhyupeyāḥ || 28 ||
    Oh Lord!  Kindly come and sit on the throne, namely, the tip of my tongue, for I am desirous of conquering the foremost among poets and logicians in the battlefields of erudite and proud debates, presided over by profoundly wise adjudicators.
    त्वां चिन्तयन् त्वन्मयतां प्रपन्नः
    त्वामुद्गृणन् शब्द मयेन धाम्ना ।
    स्वामिन् समाजेषु समेधिषीय
    स्वच्छन्द वादाहव बद्ध शूरः ॥ २९ ॥
    tvāṁ cintayan tvanmayatāṁ prapannaḥ
    tvāmudgṛṇan śabda mayena dhāmnā |
    svāmin samājeṣu samedhiṣīya
    svacchanda vādāhava baddha śhooraḥ || 29 ||
    Oh Lord! Always contemplating on you, becoming like you as it were and  praising you aloud through brilliant words, let me thrive in scholarly  debate battles like a single-handed victorious hero.
    नाना विधानामगतिः कलानां
    न चापि तीर्थेषु कृतावतारः ।
    ध्रुवं तवानाथ परिग्रहायाः
    नवं नवं पात्रमहं दयायाः ॥ ३० ॥
    nānā vidhānāmagatiḥ kalānāṁ
    na cāpi tīrtheṣu kṛtāvatāraḥ |
    dhruvaṁ tavānātha parigrahāyāḥ
    navaṁ navaṁ pātramahaṁ dayāyāḥ || 30 ||
    I have not learnt any one of the variety of fine arts. I have not been made a beginning to study any science seeking a Guru. As such I certainly deserve to become an entirely fresh recipient of your grace which favors only the helpless.
    अकम्पनीयान् यपनीति भेदैः
    अलंकृषीरन् हृदयं मदीयम् ।
    शङ्का कलङ्का पगमोज्ज्वलानि
    तत्वानि सम्यञ्चि तव प्रसादात् ॥ ३१ ॥
    akampanīyān yapanīti bhedaiḥ
    alaṁkṛṣīran hṛdayaṁ madīyam |
    śaṅkā kalaṅkā pagamojjvalāni
    tatvāni samyañci tava prasādāt || 31 ||
    Due to your grace, let the noble truths of all systems of thought unshakable by illogical arguments and shining resplendently, with all murky doubts removed, adorn my heart.
    व्याख्या मुद्रां करसरसिजैः पुस्तकं शङ्क चक्रे
    बिभ्रद् भिन्नस्फटिक रुचिरे पुण्डरीके निषण्णः ।
    अम्लानश्रीर् अमृत विशदैर् अंशुभिः प्लावयन् मां
    आविर्भूया दनघ महिमा मानसे वाग धीशः ॥ ३२ ॥
    vyākhyā mudrāṁ karasarasijaiḥ pustakaṁ śaṅka chakre
    bibhrad bhinnasphaṭika rucire puṇḍarīke niṣaṇṇaḥ |
    amlānaśrīr amṛta viśadair aṁśubhiḥ plāvayan māṁ
    āvirbhūyā danagha mahimā mānase vāga dheeshaḥ || 32 ||
    May the supreme Lord of Speech Hayagreeva of flawless greatness and unfading splendor showing the gesture of explaining the scripture, a book, conch and discus with lotus-like hands, seated in a lotus which is beautiful like a hewn crystal, engulf me with lustrous nectarine rays and manifest my mind! (Dhyaanasloka) 
    वागर्थ सिद्धिहेतोः
    पठत हयग्रीव संस्तुतिं भक्त्या ।
    कवितार्किक केसरिणा
    वेङ्कट नाथेन विरचिता मेताम् ॥ ३३ ॥
    vāgartha siddhihetoḥ
    paṭhata hayagrīva saṁstutiṁ bhaktyā |
    kavitārkika kesariṇā
    veṅkaṭa nāthena viracitā metām || 33 ||
    Oh devotees! Read this Hayagreeva stotra with loving devotion, composed by Venkatanatha the Lion among Poets and Logicians, to attain perfection in words and their meanings to reach proficiency.
     ॥ इति श्रीहयग्रीवस्तोत्रं समाप्तम् ॥
    ॥ Iti Shri Hayagriva Stotram Smaptam ॥ 
    कवितार्किकसिंहाय कल्याणगुणशालिने । श्रीमते वेङ्कटेशाय वेदान्तगुरवे नमः ॥
    KavitaKirksinghaye Kalyaangunshaline ।  Srimade Venkateshaye Vedantgurve Namah ॥

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    The purport of a yajña in  R̥gveda parlance, chandas, is acquisition, production of wealth.

    Grateful to Subhash Kak for highlighting this R̥ca about ati rūpam, original of all forms. The context is the metaphor of relishing something sweet (in this context, assumed to be Soma.R̥gveda in nuce (in a nutshell) is an allegory about Somaचक्षण [p= 382,1] n. appearing , appearance , aspect RV. AV.; speaking, saying W.; (for जक्ष्°?) eating a relish to promote drinking L. (cf. विश्व्/अ- ; अभि- and प्रति-च्/अक्ष्° ; वि-चक्षण्/अ.). The sūkta is a prayer to many divinities including devabhūmi (lit. land of the diovinities), Br̥haspati, Indra (krameṉa pratipādam) and also āprī divinities, i.e., objects personified and deified such as ratha, dundubhi, dundubhi + Indra (both together) --दुन्दुभि mf. a sort of large kettledrum RV. Br. MBh. Ka1v. &c or name of an asura or yakṣa -- and the gift-giver sārnjaya prastoka

    The prayer includes a metallic metaphor: sharpen my thought as it were a blade of iron: codaya dhiyam ayaso na dhārām (RV 6.47.10). This metaphor frames the context of metalwork as a source of wealth.

    Thus, part of the narrative about many forms of wealth, is memory ākhyāna or itihāsa of. Sr̥njaya's son Prastoka who has given some items of wealth (RV 6.47.22-25):for e.g., the ten bags or chests full of gold, ten chariots with their horses, and a hundred cows. The references to Soma always infer references to acquisiton or production of gold or riches or wealth.

    Great Thought: It Became the Original of All Forms: That Form We See Everywhere. रूपं-रूपं परतिरूपो बभूव तदस्य रूपं परतिचक्षणाय | RV 6.47.18

    Sayana/Wilson translation:

    6.047.01 Savoury indeed is this (Soma); sweet is it, sharp, and full of flavour; no one is able to encounter Indra in battles after he has been quaffing this (Soma). 
    6.047.02 The savoury Soma, drunk on this occasion, has been most exhilarating; by drinking of it Indra has been elevated to the slaying of Vr.tra, and it has destroyed the numerous hosts of S'ambara and the ninetynine cities. [dehyah = dehih; digdhah = smeared or plastered, implying purih, cities, as if thy consisted of stucoed or plastered houses]. 
    6.047.03 This Soma inspires my speech; this develops the desired intelligence; this sagacious (Soma) has created the six vast conditions, from which no creature is distinct. [Six vast conditions: heaven, earth, day, night, water, and plants]. 
    6.047.04 This it is which formed the expanse of the earth, the compactness of the heaven; this Soma has deposited the ambrosia in its three principal (receptacles), and has upheld the spacious firmament. [Three principal receptacles: plant, water and cows; has upheld the spacious: Soma as the moon and Soma as a product; cf. svamima_ os.adhi_h vis'va_stva_mapo ajanayastvam ga_h tvama_ RV 1.091.22]. 
    6.047.05 This makes known the wonderfully beautiful and inspiring (solar) radiance) at the appearance of the dawns, whose dwelling is the firmament; this mighty (Soma) has sustained the heaven with a powerful support, th sender of rain, the leader of the winds. 
    6.047.06 Hero, Indra, who are the slayer of foes in contests for (the acquisition of) treasures, drink boldly from the pitcher; drink copiously at the noonday rite; receptacle of rices, bestow riches upon us. 
    6.047.07 Like one who goes before us, Indra, (on the road), look out, bring before us infinite wealth; be our conductor beyond the bounds (of want), convey us safely over (peril); be our careful guide, our gude to desirable (affluence). [Look out: pra n.ah pura eteva pas'ya, like one who is preceding us, look; look after the travellers under the charge of the ma_rgaraks.aka, the protector of the road, an escort, or perhaps, the leader of a ka_fila_]. 
    6.047.08 Do you, Indra, who are wise, conduct us to the spacious world (of heaven), to a blessed state of happiness, light, and safety; may we recline in the graceful, protecting, and mighty arms of you the ancient one. 
    6.047.09 Place us, possessor of riches, in your ample chariot, (behind) your powerful horses; bring to us from among all viands the most excellent food; let not, Maghavan, any opulent man surpass us in wealth. 
    6.047.10 Make me happy, Indra; be pleased to prolong my life; shapen my intellect like the edge of a metal sword; whatsoever, desirous (of propitiating) you, I may utter, be pleased by it; render me the object of divine protection. 
    6.047.11 I invoke, at repeated sacrifice, Indra, the preserver, the protector, the hero, who is easily propitiated, Indra, the powerful, the invoked of many; may Indra, the lord of affluence, bestow upon us prosperity. 
    6.047.12 May the protecting, opulent Indra be the bestower of felicity by his protections; may he, who is all-knower of felicity by his protections; may he, who is all-knowing, foil our adversaries; may he keep us out of danger, and may we be the possessors of excellent posterity. 
    6.047.13 May we continue in the favour of that adorable (deity) even in his auspicious good-will; may that protecting and opulent Indra drive far from us, into extinction, all those who hate us. 
    6.047.14 To you the praises and prayers of the worshipper hasten like a torrent down a declivity; and you thunderer, aggregate the immense wealth (of sacrificial offerings), copious libations, and milk, and the Soma. [apo ga_h yuvase samindu_n: apo = vasati_vari_ which is said by Ka_tya_yana Su_tra 8.9.7-10 to be portions of water taken from a running stream on the evening previous to the ceremony, and kept in jars in different parts of the sacrificial chamber, to be mixed with the Soma; cf. Taittiri_ya Yajus. , Prapa_t.haka III. Anuva_ka XII). 
    6.047.15 Who may (adequately) praise him? Who may satisfy him? Who offer worthy adoration? Since Maghava is daily conscious of his own terrible (power); by his acts he makes first one and then the other precede and follow, as (a man) throws out his feet (alternately in walking). [Make first one and then: that is, Indra, at his pleasure, makes the first of his worshippers the last, and the last the first]. 
    6.047.16 The hero Indra is renowned; humiliating every formidable (foe), and repeatedly changing the place of one (worshipper) with that of another; Indra, the enemy of the arrogant, the soverign of both (heaven and earth), calls again and again (to encourage) the men who are his worshippers. 
    6.047.17 Indra rejects the friendship of those who are formost (in pious acts), and, depositing them, associates with (their) inferiors; or (again) shaking off those who neglect his worship, Indra abides many years with those who serve him. 
    6.047.18 Indra, the prototype, has assumed various forms, and such is his form as that which (he adopts) for his manifestation; Indra, multiform by his illusion, proceeds (to his many worshippers), for the horses, yoked to his car are a thousand. [Indra has assumed: Indra presents himself as Agni, Vis.n.u, or Rudra, or any other deity who is the actual object of worship, and is really the deity tobe adored; he is identifiable with each; Horses yoked: Indra's chariots and horses are multiplied according to the forms in which he manifests himself; Indra is here identified with Parames'vara, the supreme first cause, identical with creation]. 
    6.047.19 Yoking his horses to his car, Tvas.t.a_ shines in many places here in the three worlds; who (else), sojourning daily among his present worshippers, is their proector against adversaries? [In this,Tvas.t.a_ is an appellative of Indra, the ancient artificer!]. 
    6.047.20 We have wandered, gods, into a desert where there is no track of cattle; the vast extant earth has become the protectress of murderers; direct us, Br.haspati, in our search for cattle; show the path, Indra, to your votary being astray. [Garga, the author of this su_kta, is said to have lost his way in a desert; he repeated this to Br.haspati and Indra, who enabled him to regain his road; no track of cattle: agavyu_ti ks.etram = gosan~cararahitam des'am, a place devoid of the grazing of cattle]. 
    6.047.21 Indra, becoming manifest from his abode (in the firmament), dissipates, day by day, the resembling glooms, (so that he may distinguish) the other portion, (or the day); and the showerer has slain the two wealth-seeking slaves, Varcin and S'ambara, in (the country of) Udavraja. [udavraja, des'a vis'es.ah, a sort of country, one into which the waters flow, udaka_ni vrajantyasmin]. 
    6.047.22 Prastoka has given to your worshipper, Indra, ten purses of gold, and ten horses, and we have accepted this treasure from Divoda_sa, the spoil won by Atithigva from S'ambara. [Ten purses of gold: das'a kos'aih suvarn.a das'akos'a_n, the ten bags or chests full of gold; atithigva: prastoka, divoda_sa and atithigva, are different names of the same person, a ra_ja_, the son of Sr.n~jaya]. 
    6.047.23 I have received ten horses, ten purses, clothes, and ample food and ten lumps of gold from Divoda_sa. 
    6.047.24 As'vattha has given to Pa_yu ten chariots with their horses, and a hundred cows to the priests. [To the priests: atharvabhyah = of the atharvagotra; pa_yu is the brother of Garga; As'vattha = Prastoka]. 
    6.047.25 The son of Sr.n~jaya has reverenced the Bharadva_jas who have accepted such great wealth for the good of all men. 
    6.047.26 (Chariot made of the) forest lord, be strong of fabric; be our friend; be our protector, and be manned by warriors; you are wrapped with cow-hides; keep us steady; and may he who rides in you be victorious over conquered (foes). [Be manned by warriors: suvi_ro bhava = s'u_rabhat.t.aih putra_dibhir va_ yuktah, joined with warriors, or with sons and the rest; you are wrapped with cow-hides: gobhih sannaddhosi = you are bound together by cow; govika_raih, by what are formed from cattle; in the next, gobhira_vr.tam = carmabhih parita aves.t.itam, encompassed round with hides, as if the exterior of the war-chariot especially were so strengthened; or, encompassed with rays of light, or with splendours, gobhih, tejobhih]. 
    6.047.27 Worship with oblations the chariot constructed of the substance of heaven and earth, the extracted essence of the forest lords; the velocity of the waters; the encompassed with the cow-hide; the thunderbolt (of Indra). 
    6.047.28 Do you, divine chariot, who are the thunderbolt of Indra, the precursor of the Maruts, the embryo of Mitra, the navel of Varun.a, propitiated by this our sacrifice, accept the oblation. [The precursor of Maruts: maruta_m ani_kam mitrasya garbho varun.asya na_bhih: ani_kam = agrabhu_tam, being before, out-stripping in speed; or, mukhyam, principal or leader; garbha of Mitra: the car is said to be contained by Mitra, the ruler of the day, as moving by day; na_bhi of Varun.a: it is a fixed point or centre for the deity ruling over the night, when the car of Indra or Su_rya stands still; another interpretation: garbha is from gr., to praise; mitrasya garbha = su_ryen.a stu_yama_na, to be praised by the sun; na_bhi is from na_bh, to injure; hence, the weapon of Varun.a]. 
    6.047.29 War-drum, fill with your sound both heaven and earth; and let all things, fixed or moveable, be aware of it; do you, who are associated with Indra and the gods, drive away our foes to the remotest distance. 
    6.047.30 Sound loud against the (hostile) host; animate our prowess; thunder aloud, terrifying the evil-minded; rapid, drum, those whose delight is to harm us; you are the fist of Indra; inspire us with fierceness. 
    6.047.31 Recover these our cattle, Indra; bring them back; the drum sounds repeatedly as a signal; our leaders, mounted on their steeds, assemble; may our warriors, riding in their cars, Indra, be victorious. [Yajus. 29, 55-57 has this and thr preceding two

    Griffith translation: HYMN XLVII. Indra, Etc. 47

    1. YEA, this is good to taste and full of. sweetness, verily it is strong and rich in flavour.
    No one may conquer Indra in the battle when he hath drunken of the draught we offer.
    2 This sweet juice here had mightiest power to gladden: it boldened Indra when he siaughtered
    When he defeated Sambaras' many onslaughts, and battered down his nineand ninety ramparts.
    3 This stirreth up my voice when I have drunk it: this hath aroused from sleep my yearning spirit.
    This Sage hath measured out the six expanses from which no single creature is excluded.
    4 This, even this, is he who hath created the breadth of earth, the lofty height of heaven.
    He formed the nectar in three headlong rivers. Soma supports the wide midair- above us.
    5 He found the wavy sea of brilliant colours in forefront of the Dawns who dwell in brightness.
    This Mighty One, the Steer begirt by Maruts, hath propped the heavens up with a mighty pillar.
    6 Drink Soma boldly from the beaker, Indra, in war for treasures, Hero, Vrtraslayer-!
    Fill thyself full at the midday- libation, and give us wealth, thou Treasury of riches.
    7 Look out for us, O Indra, as our Leader, and guide us on to gain yet goodlier treasure.
    Excellent Guardian, bear us well through peril, and lead us on to wealth with careful guidance.
    8 Lead us to ample room, O thou who knowest, to happiness, security, and sunlight.
    High, Indra, are the arms of thee the Mighty: may we betake. us to their lofty shelter.
    9 Set us on widest chariotseat-, O Indra, with two steeds best to draw, O Lord of Hundreds!
    Bring us the best among all sorts of viands: let not the foes' wealth, Maghavan, subdue us.
    10 Be gracious, Indra, let my days be lengthened: sharpen my thought as it were a blade of iron
    Approve whatever words I speak, dependent on thee, and grant me thy divine protection.
    11 Indra the Rescuer, Indra the Helper, Hero who listens at each invocation,
    Sakra I call, Indra invoked of many. May Indra Maghavan prosper and bless us.
    12 May helpful Indra as our good Protector, Lord of all treasures, favour us with succour,
    Baffle our foes, and give us rest and safety, and may we be the lords of hero vigour.
    13 May we enjoy the grace of him the Holy, yea, may we dwell in his auspicious favour.
    May helpful Indra as our good Preserver drive from us, even from afar, our foemen.
    14 Like rivers rushing down a slope, O Indra, to thee haste songs and prayers and linked verses.
    Thou gatherest, Thunderer! like widespread bounty, kine, water, drops, and manifold libations.
    15 Who lauds him, satisfies him, pays him worship? even the rich noble still hath found him mighty.
    With power, as when one moves his feet alternate, he makes the last precede, the foremost follow.
    16 Famed is the Hero as each strong mans' tamer, ever advancing one and then another.
    King of both worlds, hating the high and haughty, Indra protects the men who are his people.
    17 He loves no more the men he loved aforetime: he turns and moves away allied with others.
    Rejecting those who disregard his worship, Indra victorious lives through many autumns.
    18 In every figure he hath been the mode: this is his only form for us to look on.
    Indra moves multiform by his illusions; for his Bay Steeds are yoked, ten times a hundred.
    19 Here Tvastar, yoking to the car the Bay Steeds, hath extended sway.
    Who will for ever stand upon the foemans' side, even when our princes sit at ease?
    20 Gods, we have reached a country void of pasture the land, though spacious, was too small to
    hold us.
    Brhaspati, provide in war for cattle; find a path, Indra, for this faithful singer.
    21 Day after day far from their seat he drove them, alike, from place to place, those darksome
    The Hero slew the meanlyhuckstering- DasasVarcin and Sambara, where the waters gather.
    22 Out of thy bounty, Indra, hath Prastoka bestowed ten coffers and ten mettled horses.
    We have received in turn from Divodasa Sambaras' wealth, the gift of Atithigva.
    23 Ten horses and ten treasurechests-, ten garments as an added gift,
    These and ten lumps of gold have I received from Divodasas' hand.
    24 Ten cars with extra steed to each, for the Atharvans hundred cows,
    Hath Asvatha to Payu given.
    25 Thus SrÑjayas' son honoured the Bharadvajas, recipients of all noble gifts and bounty.
    26 Lord of the wood, be firm and strong in body: be, bearing us, a brave victorious hero
    Show forth thy strength, compact with straps of leather, and let thy rider win all spoils of
    27 Its mighty strength was borrowed from the heaven and earth: its conquering force was brought
    from sovrans of the wood.
    Honour with holy gifts the Car like Indras' bolt, the Car bound round with straps, the vigour of
    the floods.
    28 Thou Bolt of IndraVanguard of the Maruts, close knit to Varuna and Child of Mitra,
    As such, accepting gifts which here we offer, receive, O Godlike Chariot, these oblations.
    29 Send forth thy voice aloud through earth and heaven, and let the world in all its breadth
    regard thee;
    Drum, accordant with the Gods and Indra, drive thou afar, yea, very far, our foemen.
    30 Thunder out strength and fill us full of vigour: yea, thunder forth and drive away all dangers.
    Drive hence, O Wardrum-, drive away misfortune: thou art the Fist of Indra: show thy firmness.
    31 Drive hither those, and these again bring hither: the Wardrum- speaks aloud as battles' signal.
    Our heroes, winged with horses, come together. Let our carwarriors-, Indra, be triumphant.

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    Gaṇapati is invoked as kavi in  R̥gveda. (See RV 2.23 sūkta -- gaṇānāṃ tvā gaṇapatiṃ havāmahe kaviṃ kavīnām upamaśravastamam -- with translation appended). Gaṇapati is invoked because he is the founder of yajña. See:

    Yajurveda provides an extraordinary expression: 'yajñena kalpantām'. This can be translated as: fashioned by yajña, providing a precis of the form and function of a yajña in Veda tradition which continues during the Bronze Age in Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization and is documented in Indus Script Corpora with over 8000 inscriptions. This demonstrates that the form and function of yajñais a metallurgical process to fashion metalwork in fire using dhātu, mud, stone, pebbles, woodwork and metals.

    Gaṇeśa is 1. kavi; Brahmaṇaspati, Br̥haspati, 2. scribe of Mahābhārata, 3. त्रिधातु, 'aggregate of 3 minerals', 4. R̥bhu founder of yajña, artist, rayi, 'wealth' Gaṇeśa is a Marut, R̥bhukṣa, who wields a thunderbolt. This is a metaphor for his tusk used as a writing instrument. That Gaṇeśa is a member of Marut Gaṇa is signified on a sculptural frieze of Kanchipuram Kailāsanātha temple. 

    Image result for gana maruts ganesa bharatkalyan97
    A parallel is with R̥kvat gaṇa 'prayer chant', Gaṇeśa iconography, Māheśvara Sūtrāṇi & Indus Script hypertext See:  Dance-step of Gaṇeśa, Emūṣa, Varāha, with Marut-gaṇa. Kailasanath Temple, Kanchipuram. I have suggested that the dance-step of Gaṇeśa is Indus Script hypertext: karabha 'elephant' rebus; karba 'iron' is ligatured to mē̃d, mēd 'body, womb, back'rebus: meḍ 'iron';मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, 'iron' (Samskrtam. Santali.Mu.Ho.) Dance-step: meḍ 'dance-step' signifies meḍ 'iron'med, 'copper' (Slavic)

    See: Bhāratīya ādhyātmikā itihāsa of tridhātu Gaṇeśa, śarva Śiva, Rāma, Kr̥ṣṇa  

    Tridhātu as Gaṇeśa, Tridhātu on Indus Script metalwork for crucible steel, ādhyātmikā 
    metaphor pr̥thvyaptejorūpadhātu (R̥gveda) 



    Gaṇeśa is 1. Marut, kharva, 'dwarf', dancer, kavi, Brahmaṇaspati, Br̥haspati, 2. त्रिधातु, 'aggregate of 3 minerals', 3.R̥bhu founder of yajña, artist, rayi, 'wealth'.

    Gaṇeśa is a कवि kavi, m. a singer , bard , poet (but in this sense without any technical application in the वेद) RV. VS. TS. AV. S3Br. i , 4 , 2 , 8Kat2hUp. iii , 14 MBh. Bhag. Bha1gP. Mn. vii , 49 R. Ragh. 

    Gaṇeśa is a scribe, a R̥bhu, 'artist' In the tradition of Indus Script, a scribe is also an artist because the writing system is composed with hypertextss incorporating hieroglyphs -- both pictorial motifs and 'signs or symbols', say, syllabic representations in Brāhmī or 'signs' of the Indus Script Corpora. 

    Since Mahābhārata is the fifth Veda itihāsa with ākhyāna-s and upākhyāna-s, the scribe of the sacredkāvya, by the kavi, -- is Gaṇeśa who is kavīnām kavi, he is the suprme kavi among kavi-s. The scribal narratiave is an affirmation of divine sanction for the documented narratives. 

    Hence, Gaṇeśa utters the praṇava, says 'om' accepting the terms stipulated by Vyāsa. 

    Two anient manuscripts of the Great Epic announce Gaṇeśa as scribe, lekhaka, of the epic:

    Arrival of Heramba Gaṇeśa to write Mahābhārata announced in ādiparva:
    सौतिरुवाच ।
    एवमाभाष्य तं ब्रह्मा जगाम स्वं निवेशनम् ।
    भगवान्स जगत्स्रष्टा ऋषिदेवगणैः सह ॥
    ततः सस्मार हेरम्बं व्यासः सत्यवतीसुतः ॥
    स्मृतमात्रो गणेशानो भक्तचिन्तितपूरकः ।
    तत्राजगाम विघ्नेशो वेदव्यासो यतः स्थितः ॥
    पूजितश्चोपविष्टश्च व्यासेनोक्तस्तदानघ ।
    लेखको भारतस्यास्य भव त्वं गणनायक ॥
    मयैव प्रोच्यमानस्य मनसा कल्पितस्य च ॥
    श्रुत्वैतत्प्राह विघ्नेशो यदि मे लेखनी क्षणम् ।
    लिखतो नावतिष्ठेत तदा स्यां लेखको ह्यहम् ॥

    व्यासोऽप्युवाच तं देवमबुद्ध्वा मा लिख क्वचित् ।
    ओमित्युक्त्वा गणेशोपि बभूव किल लेखकः ॥
    ग्रन्थग्रन्थिं तदा चक्रे मुनिर्गूढं कुतूहलात् ।
    यस्मिन्प्रतिज्ञया प्राह मुनिर्द्वैपायनस्त्विदम् ॥
    अष्टौ श्लोकसहस्राणि अष्टौ श्लोकशतानि च ।
    अहं वेद्मि शुको वेत्ति संजयो वेत्ति वा न वा ॥
    तच्छ्लोककूटमद्यापि ग्रथितं सुदृढं मुने ।
    भेत्तुं न शक्यतेऽर्थस्यं गूढत्वात्प्रश्रितस्य च ॥
    सर्वज्ञोपि गणेशो यत्क्षणमास्ते विचारयन् ।
    तावच्चकार व्यासोपि श्लोकानन्यान्बहूनपि ॥
    तस्य वृक्षस्य वक्ष्यामि शाखापुष्पफलोदयम् ।
    स्वादुमेध्यरसोपेतमच्छेद्यममरैरपि ॥
    अनुक्रमणिकाध्यायं वृत्तान्तं सर्वपर्वणाम् ।
    इदं द्वैपायनः पूर्वं पुत्रमध्यापयच्छुकम् ॥
    ततोऽन्येभ्योऽनुरूपेभ्यः शिष्येभ्यः प्रददौ प्रभुषष्टिं शतसहस्राणि चकारान्यां स संहिताम् ।
    त्रिंशच्छतसहस्रं च देवलोके प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥
    पित्र्ये पञ्चदश प्रोक्तं रक्षोयक्षे चतुर्दश ।
    एकं शतसहस्रं तु मानुषेषु प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥

    Elephant, trunk of elephant: kar-ibha, ib; rebus: karba'iron'; ib'iron'. rebus: ib'needle' (stylus for writing)
    Une tête d'éléphant en terre cuite de Nausharo (Pakistan)
    In: Arts asiatiques. Tome 47, 1992. pp. 132-136. Jarrige Catherine

    The elephant head ligatured with a buffalo at Nausharo is a curtain-raiser for the practice of ligaturing in Indian tradition for utsava bera 'idols carried on processions'. The phrase utsava bera denotes that processions of the type shown on Mesopotamian cylinder seals or Mohenjo-daro tablets are trade processions for bera 'bargaining, trade'. Thus, the processions with hieroglyphs may be part of trade-exchange fairs of ancient times. It is significant that the utsava bera of Ganesa is shown together with a rat or mouse -- as vāhanaibha 'elephant' Rebus: ib 'iron'. mūṣa 'rat, mouse' Rebus: mūṣa 'crucible'.  Thus both rat/mouse and elephant face ligatured to a body, are Meluhha hieroglyphs related to metallurgical processes.

    Dance step of Gaṇeśa shown on a sculptural friezed of Candi Sukuh:

    Dansende Ganesha & geboorte van de walvis
    Forge scene stele.  Forging of a keris or kris (the iconic Javanese dagger) and other weapons. The blade of the keris represents the khaṇḍa. Fire is a purifier, so the blade being forged is also symbolic of the purification process central theme of the consecration of gangga sudhi specified in the inscription on the 1.82 m. tall, 5 ft. dia.  lingga hieroglyph, the deity of Candi Sukuh. 
    The scene in bas relief The scene depicted Bhima as the blacksmith in the left forging the metal, Ganesa in the center, and Arjuna in the right operating the tube blower to pump air into the furnace.

    Candi Sukuh temple was consecrated by Bhre Daha in 1440 CE celebrating Bhima, an embodiment of the philosophy of life alternating between death and rebirth in an eternal cycle, a cosmic dance. King Kertanagara’s role in unifying Majapahit Empire, founded on Dharma-Dhamma is recorded in history. Some refer to Candi Sukuh as a temple venerating Tantrik Saivism as ‘Bhima cult’. Bhre Daha belonged to the tradition of royal purohita Bhagawan Ganggasudhi, associated with the royal house of Girindrawardhana. Gangga sudhi is rebus for kanga sudhi ‘purification by brazier, kanga’.

    The dance step of the male torso of Harappa and the dance step of the elephant-headed Ganesa on Candi Sukuh frieze are explained in a remarkable hieroglyph on a Bhirrana potsherd and a Mohenjodaro tablet:
    Dance-step in a cire perdue bronze statue, Mohenjodaro replicated on a Bhirrana potsherd. The red potsherd with the engraving resembling the Dancing Girl bronze figurine of Mohenjodaro, found at Bhirrana.
    m0493Bt Pict-93: Three dancing figures in a row. Text 2843 Glyph: Three dancers. kolom ‘three’; me
     ‘to dance’
    Rebus: kolami‘furnace, smithy’; me

    Inscriptions on Vināyaka, Cambodia

    Among the old inscriptions of the vinAyaka temples in the far-East are the following
    1) The Angkor Borei inscription of 611 AD, which mentions the construction of a shrine to mahāgaapati.

    2) 660 AD the jayavarman II inscription describing a temple built to shrIgaapati.

    3) 817 AD inscription at Po Nagar in Vietnam of harivarman, the Champa King mentioning the temple built to shrI gaapati (vinā

    4) 890 AD inscription of yashovarman I mentioning the building of two tantric Ashramas for the worship of vinAyaka known as chandanādri gaeśa (sandal mountain gaṇeśa).

    The most mysterious inscription is from Prasat Prei Kuk shrine in Cambodia to vinAyaka built by king ishAnavarman I.

    ya kaschid dAnavendra paraviShaya-haro nirjito nyena shaktyA
    The chief of the dAnavas capturing others territory was conquered by the might of another
    baddho vai sR^inkalAbhis chiram iha patito yaM stuva~N chaila-ruddhaH
    bound with chains after having fallen here for a long time shut up in the mountain praises him
    tan dR^iShTvA kinnarAbhish shatagaNasahitas svapnashoShe himAdrer
    Having seen that, with a 100 gaNas and kinnaras, having woken up, from the Himalayan peak,
    AyAto mokShanArthA~N jayati gaNapatis tvad-dhitAyeva so yaM
    comes this gaNapati who for your welfare conquers for the purpose of liberating.

    Source: agnyāyatanaṁ and agnihotrahomaḥ colophon: punarādheyam 

    गणा f. N. of one of the mothers in स्कन्द's retinue MBh. ix , 2645 (cf. अहर्- , मर्/उद्- , व्/ऋष- , स्/अ- , सप्त्/अ- , स्/अर्व- ; देव-,महा- ,andविद-गण्/अ.) गण [p=343,1] m. a flock , troop , multitude , number , tribe , series , class (of animate or inanimate beings) , body of followers or attendants RV. AV.&c troops or classes of inferior deities (especially certain troops of demi-gods considered as शिव's attendants and under the special superintendence of the god गणे*श ; cf. -देवता) Mn. Ya1jn5. Lalit. &c a single attendant of शिव VarBr2S. Katha1s. Ra1jat. iii , 270N. of गणे*श W.a company , any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims Mn. Ya1jn5. Hit.m. a particular group of सामन्s La1t2y. i , 6 , 5 VarYogay. viii , 7

    Griffith translation
    HYMN XXIII. Brahmanaspati. 23
    1. WE call thee, Lord and Leader of the heavenly hosts, the wise among the wise, the famousest of all, The King supreme of prayers, O Brahmanaspati: hear us with help; sit down in place of sacrifice.
    Brhaspati, God immortal! verily the Gods have gained from thee, the wise, a share in holy rites. As with great light the Sun brings forth the rays of morn, so thou alone art Father of all sacred prayer.
    3 When thou hast chased away revilers and the gloom, thou mountest the refulgent car of sacrifice; The awful car, Brhaspati, that quells the foe, slays demons, cleaves the stall of kine, and finds the light.
    4 Thou leadest with good guidance and preservest men; distress overtakes not him who offers gifts to thee. Him who hates prayer thou punishest, Brhaspati, quelling his wrath: herein is thy great mightiness.
    5 No sorrow, no distress from any side, no foes, no creatures doubletongued- have overcome the man, Thou drivest all seductive fiends away from him whom, careful guard, thou keepest Brahmanaspati.
    6 Thou art our keeper, wise, preparer of our paths: we, for thy service, sing to thee with hymns of praise. Brhaspati, whoever lays a snare for us, him may his evil fate, precipitate, destroy.
    7 Him, too, who threatens us without offence of ours, the evilminded, arrogant, rapacious man, Him turn thou from our path away, Brhaspati: give us fair access to this banquet of the Gods. 8 Thee as protector of our bodies we invoke, thee, saviour, as the comforter who loveth us. Strike, O Brhaspati, the Gods revilers down, and let not the unrighteous come to highest bliss.
    9 Through thee, kind prosperer, O Brahmanaspati, may we obtain the wealth of Men which all desire: And all our enemies, who near or far away prevail against us, crush, and leave them destitute.
    10 With thee as our own rich and liberal ally may we, Brhaspati, gain highest power of life. Let not the guileful wicked man be lord of us: still may we prosper, singing goodly hymns of praise.
    11 Strong, never yielding, hastening to the battlecry-, consumer of the foe, victorious in the strife, Thou art sins' true avenger, Brahmanaspati, who tamest even the fierce, the wildly passionate.
    12 Whoso with mind ungodly seeks to do us harm, who, deeming him a man of might mid lords, would slay, Let not his deadly blow reach us, Brhaspati; may we humiliate the strong illdoers-' wrath.
    13 The mover mid the spoil, the winner of all wealth, to be invoked in fight and reverently adored, Brhaspati hath overthrown like cars of war all wicked enemies who fain would injure us.
    14 Burn up the demons with thy fiercest flaming brand, those who have scorned thee in thy manifested might. Show forth that power that shall deserve the hymn of praise: destroy the evil speakers, O Brhaspati.
    15 Brhaspati, that which the foe deserves not which shines among the folk effectual, splendid, That, Son of Law I which is with might refulgentthat- treasure wonderful bestow thou on us. 16 Give us not up to those who, foes in ambuscade, are greedy for the wealth of him who sits at ease, Who cherish in their heart abandonment of Gods. Brhaspati, no further rest shall they obtain.
    17 For Tvastar, he who knows each sacred song, brought thee to life, preeminent over all the things that be. Guiltscourger-, guiltavenger- is Brhaspati, who slays the spoiler and upholds the mighty Law.
    18 The mountain, for thy glory, cleft itself apart when, Angiras! thou openedst the stall of kine. Thou, O Brhaspati, with Indra for ally didst hurl down waterfloods- which gloom had compassed round.
    19 O Brahmanaspati, be thou controller of this our hymn and prosper thou our children. All that the Gods regard with love is blessed. Loud may we speak, with heroes, in assembly.

    Sayana/Wilson translation:

    2.023.01 We invoke the Brahman.aspati, chief leaderof the (heavenly) bands; a sage of sage; abounding beyond measure in (every kind of) food;best lord of prayer; hearing our invocations, come with your protections, and sit down in the chamber of sacrifice. [Brahman.aspati = brahman.o annasya parivr.d.hasya karman.o va_ pa_layita_, the protector or cherisher of food,or of any great or solemn acts of devotion; he has other attributes in the text, as, gan.a_na_m gan.apatih, chief of the (inferior deities); jyes.t.hara_jam brahman.a_m, the best lord of mantras, or prayers: pras'asyam sva_minam mantra_n.a_m].
    2.023.02 Br.haspati, destroyer of the asuras, through you the intelligent gods have obtained the sacrificialportion; in like manner as the adorable sun generates the (solar) rays by his radiance, so are you the generator of all prayers. [Br.haspati = Brahman.aspati; perhaps Br.haspati is of a more martial character; his protection is souhght for against enemies and evil spirits; perhaps, br.hata_m veda_na_m pa_lakah: br.hat = mantra, br.hato mantrasya, sva_min].
    2.023.03 Having repelled revilers and (dispersed) the darkness you stand Br.haspati, on the radiant chariot of sacrifice, (which is) formidable (to foes), the humiliator of enemies, the destroyer of evil spirits, the cleaver of the clouds, the attainer of heaven.
    2.023.04 You lead men, Br.haspati, by virtuous instructions; you preserve them (from calamity); sin will never overtake him who presents (offerings) to you; you are the afflicter of him who hates (holy) prayers; you are the punisher of wrath; such is your great mightiness. [Him who hates holy prayers: brahmadvis.ah = those who hate either the,or the mantras or prayers].
    2.023.05 The man whom you, Brahman.aspati, a kind protector, defend, neither sorrow nor sin, nor adversaries nor dissemblers ever harm, for you drive away from him all injurious (things).
    2.023.06 You, Br.haspati, are our protector and the guide of (our) path; (you are) the discerner (of all things); we worship with praises for your adoration; may his own precipitate malice involve him (in destruction) who practises deceit against us.
    2.023.07 Turn aside from (the true) path, Br.haspati, the arrogant and savage man who advances to injure us, although unoffending and keep us in the right way for (the completion of) this offering to the gods.
    2.023.08 Br.haspati, defender (from calamity), we invoke you, the protector of our persons, the speaker of encouraging words and well disposed towards us; do you destroy the revilers of the gods; let not the malevolent attain supreme felicity.
    2.023.09 Through you, Brahman.aspati, (our) benefactor, may we obtain desirable wealth from men destroy those (our) unrighteous enemies, whether nigh or far off, who prevail against us.
    2.023.10 Through you, Br.haspati, (who are) the fulfiller of our desires; pure, and associated (with us), we possess excellent food; let not the wicked man who wishes to deceive us be our master; but let us, excelling in (pious) praises, attain (prosperity).
    2.023.11 You, Brahman.aspati, who have no requiter (of your bounty), who are the showerer (of benefits), the repairer to combat, the consumer of foes, the victor in battles, you are true, the discharger of debts, the humiliator of the fierce and of the exulting.
    2.023.12 Let not, Br.haspati, the murderous (weapon) of that man reach us, who, with unrighteous mind, seeks to harm us; who, fierce and arrogant, designs to kill (your) worshippers; may we baffle the wrath of the strong evil-doer].
    2.023.13 Br.haspati is to be invoked in battles; he is to be approached with reverence; he who moves amidst combats, the distributor of repeated wealth; the lord Br.haspati has verily overturned all the assailing malignant (hosts), like chariots (overturned in battle).
    2.023.14 Consume with your brightest (weapon) the ra_ks.asas, who have held your witnessed prowess in disdain; manifest, Br.haspati, your glorified (vigour), such as it was (of old), and destroy those who speak against you.
    2.023.15 Br.haspati, born of truth, grant us that wonderful treasure, wherewith the pious man may worship exceedingly; that (wealth) which shines amongst men; which is endowed with lustre, (is) the means of (performing holy) rites, and invogirates (its possessor) with strength. [ citram = lit., various or wonderful wealth; in the it is interpreted as brahma varcas or tejas, brahmanical virtue or energy (cf. Yajus. 26.3; = dhanam (Aitareya Bra_hman.a 4.11)].
    2.023.16 Deliver us not to the thieves, the enemies delighting in violence, who seize ever upon the food (of others); those who cherish in their hearts the abandonment (of the gods); (they), Br.haspati, who do not know the extent of (your) power (against evil spirits). [Who do not know the extenf of your power: na parah sa_mno viduh = ye puma_msah sa_mnah sa_maya_t tvattah parah parasta_d sa_ma yad raks.oghnam na ja_nanti, those men who do not know anything greater than the faculty of destroying ra_ks.asas, derived from you made up of that faculty; sa_ma vai raks.oha = sa_ma is the killer of ra_ks.asas].
    2.023.17 Tvas.t.a_ engendered you (chief) amongst all beings, (whence) you are the reciter of many a holy hymn: Brahman.aspati acknowledges a debt to the performer of a sacred rite; he is the acquitter (of the debt), and the destoyer of the oppressor. [When you are the reciter: sa_mnah sa_mnah kavih, the reicter or another of every sa_ma, sarvasya sa_mnah ucca_rayita_ karta_si; or kavi refers to tvas.t.a_, further explained as the sage who created Brahman.aspati by the efficacy of the sa_ma: sa_mnah sa_ren.a tvam aji_janat; acknowledges a debt: r.n.acit stotr.ka_mam iva cinoti, he takes the intention of the praiser as if it was a debt, or obligation; acquitter of the debt: r.n.aya is explained as the discharger or remover of the debt which is of the nature of sin: pa_paru_pasya r.n.asya pr.thak karta_].
    2.023.18 When Br.haspati, descendant of An:giras, for your glory, Parvata had concealed the herd o fkine, you did set them free, and with thine associate, Indra, did send down the ocean of water which had been enveloped by darkness.
    2.023.19 Brahman.aspati, who are the regulator of this (world), understand (the purport) of (our) hymn, and grant us posterity; for all is prosperous that the gods protect; (and therefore) may we blessed with excellent descendants, glorify you at this sacrifice. [Yajus. 34.58; vadema = may we declare or glorify you; or, let us speak, let what we ask be given to us;let it be enjoyed by us: di_yata_m bhujyata_m ucca_rayema].

     गणानां त्वा गणपतिं हवामहे
    कविं कवीनामुपमश्रवस्तमम् ।
    ज्येष्ठराजं ब्रह्मणाम् ब्रह्मणस्पत
     नः शृण्वन्नूतिभिःसीदसादनम् ॥
     महागणाधिपतये नमः ॥

    When he is referred to as विष्णु[p= 999,2], the meaning is: m. (prob. fr. √ विष् , " All-pervader " or "Worker". As 'worker' Gaṇapati is the divinity of artisans.

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    A painted vessel discovered and commented upon by SR Rao. It is a narrative with Indus Script hieroglyphs: tree, antelope looking backward, a bird with a trough in front. 

    Inline image 2
    On one large vessel, the artist depicts birds with fish in their beaks, resting in a tree, while a fox-like animal stands below. This scene bears resemblance to the story of The Fox and the Crow in the Panchatantra. ( S. R. Rao (1985). LothalArchaeological Survey of India. p. 46.)

    The painting of Indus Script hypertext on this vessel is comparable to the texts on a Susa pot which contained cargo of metal implements.

      The hypertext on this Susa pot (Louvre Museum) are: flowing water, fish, bird tied to a post.  kāṇḍa 'flowing water' Rebus: kāṇḍā 'metalware, tools, pots and pans'; ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal' P. dã̄u, dāvã̄ m. ʻ hobble for a horse ʼ; WPah.bhad. daũ n. ʻ rope totie cattle ʼrebus: dhatu 'mineral ore' mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor' rebus: meḍ 'iron'. mẽṛhet 'iron' (Mu.Ho.Santali)

    The rebus readings of Indus Script hypertext on Lothal Vessel are: kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' krammara 'look back' rebus: kArmAra 'smith, artisan' (Rgveda) PLUS mlekh 'goat' rebus: milakkhu 'copper';  pōlaḍu, 'black drongo',  rebus: pōlaḍu, 'steel' PLUS pattar 'trough' rebus: pattar 'goldsmith guild'.

    Inline image 1

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