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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    • The claims on discovery of new math go counter to this sober analysis of Plimpton 322:

      Https://Www.Maa.Org/Sites/Default/Files/Pdf/News/Monthly105-120.Pdf Read Eleanor Robson's analysis of Plimpton 322 

      • 1. INTRODUCTION. In this paper I shall discuss Plimpton 322, one of the world’s most famous ancient mathematical artefacts [Figure 1]. But I also want to explore the ways in which studying ancient mathematics is, or should be, different from researching modern mathematics. One of the most cited analyses of Plimpton 322, published some twenty years ago, was called “Sherlock Holmes in Babylon” [4]. This enticing title gave out the message that deciphering historical documents was rather like solving a fictional murder mystery: the amateur detective-historian need only pit his razor-sharp intellect against the clues provided by the self-contained story that is the piece of mathematics he is studying. Not only will he solve the puzzle, but he will outwit the well-meaning but incompetent professional history-police every time. In real life, the past isn’t like an old-fashioned whodunnit: historical documents can only be understood in their historical context.

      • Read on... 

      • Https://Www.Maa.Org/Sites/Default/Files/Pdf/News/Monthly105-120.Pdf

      Australian scientists appear to have cracked the code of a 3,700-year old Babylonian clay tablet.Plimpton 322


    • Daniel Mansfield holds the 3700-year-old Babylonian tablet that he and colleagues used to make their case.

    • This ancient Babylonian tablet may contain the first evidence of trigonometry

      Trigonometry, the study of the lengths and angles of triangles, sends most modern high schoolers scurrying to their cellphones to look up angles, sines, and cosines. Now, a fresh look at a 3700-year-old clay tablet suggests that Babylonian mathematicians not only developed the first trig table, beating the Greeks to the punch by more than 1000 years, but that they also figured out an entirely new way to look at the subject. However, other experts on the clay tablet, known as Plimpton 322 (P322), say the new work is speculative at best.
      Consisting of four columns and 15 rows of numbers inscribed in cuneiform, the famous P322 tablet was discovered in the early 1900s in what is now southern Iraq by archaeologist, antiquities dealer, and diplomat Edgar Banks, the inspiration for the fictional character Indiana Jones.
      Now stored at Columbia University, the tablet first garnered attention in the 1940s, when historians recognized that its cuneiform inscriptions contain a series of numbers echoing the Pythagorean theorem, which explains the relationship of the lengths of the sides of a right triangle. (The theorem: The square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the square of the other two sides.) But why ancient scribes generated and sorted these numbers in the first place has been debated for decades.
    • Mathematician Daniel Mansfield of the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney was developing a course for high school math teachers in Australia when he came across an image of P322. Intrigued, he teamed up with UNSW mathematician Norman Wildberger to study it. “It took me 2 years of looking at this [tablet] and saying ‘I’m sure it’s trig, I’m sure it’s trig, but how?’” Mansfield says. The familiar sines, cosines, and angles used by Greek astronomers and modern-day high schoolers were completely missing. Instead, each entry includes information on two sides of a right triangle: the ratio of the short side to the long side and the ratio of the short side to the diagonal, or hypotenuse.
    • The cuneiform inscriptions on Plimpton 322 suggest the Babylonians used a form of trigonometry based on the ratios of the sides of a triangle, rather than the more familiar angles, sines, and cosines.
    • Mansfield realized that the information he needed was in missing pieces of P322 that had been reconstructed by other researchers. “Those two ratios from the reconstruction really made P322 into a clean and easy-to-use trigonometric table,” he says. He and Wildberger concluded that the Babylonians expressed trigonometry in terms of exact ratios of the lengths of the sides of right triangles, rather than by angles, using their base 60 form of mathematics, they report today in Historia Mathematica. “This is a whole different way of looking at trigonometry,” Mansfield says. “We prefer sines and cosines … but we have to really get outside our own culture to see from their perspective to be able to understand it.”
      If the new interpretation is right, P322 would not only contain the earliest evidence of trigonometry, but it would also represent an exact form of the mathematical discipline, rather than the approximations that estimated numerical values for sines and cosines provide, notes Mathieu Ossendrijver, a historian of ancient science at Humboldt University in Berlin. The table, he says, contains exact values of the sides for a range of right triangles. That means that—as for modern trigonometric tables—someone using the known ratio of two sides can use information in the tablet to find the ratios of the two other sides.
      What’s still lacking is proof that the Babylonians did in fact use this table, or others like it, for solving problems in the manner suggested in the new paper, Ossendrijver says. And science historian Jöran Friberg, retired from the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, blasts the idea. The Babylonians “knew NOTHING about ratios of sides!” he wrote in an email to Science. He maintains that P322 is “a table of parameters needed for the composition of school texts and, [only] incidentally, a table of right triangles with whole numbers as sides.” But Mansfield and Wildberger contend that the Babylonians, expert surveyors, could have used their tables to construct palaces, temples, and canals.
      Mathematical historian Christine Proust of the French National Center for Scientific Research in Paris, an expert on the tablet, calls the team’s hypothesis “a very seductive idea.” But she points out that no known Babylonian texts suggest that the tablet was used to solve or understand right triangles. The hypothesis is “mathematically robust, but for the time being, it is highly speculative,” she says. A thorough search of other Babylonian mathematical tablets may yet prove their hypothesis, Ossendrijver says. “But that is really an open question at the moment.”
    • Mysterious ‘Plimpton 322’ Tablet’s Secret Revealed

    • It is, they reckon, the world’s oldest (and most accurate) trigonometric table, and could have been used to help build ancient palaces, temples and canals.
      The new research, our of University of new South Wales, Sydney, indicates that it was the Babylonians, not the Greeks, who first studied trigonometry, a math focused on triangles. Plimpton 322, as the the small tablet is known, was discovered in the early 1900s by the historic fugure on whom the character Indiana Jones was based. Archaeologist Edgar Banks found it in what is now southern Iraq.
      On it are four columns and 15 rows of numbers written using a base 60, or sexagesimal, system. An alternate theory had been that it was a teacher’s aid used to check students’ solutions to quadratic equations.
      Said Daniel Mansfield: “The huge mystery, until now, was its purpose – why the ancient scribes carried out the complex task of generating and sorting the numbers on the tablet. Our research reveals that Plimpton 322 describes the shapes of right-angle triangles using a novel kind of trigonometry based on ratios, not angles and circles. It is a fascinating mathematical work that demonstrates undoubted genius.”
      Mansfield and collaborator Norman Wildberger have published their findings in Historia Mathematica. Prior to this, it was the Greek astronomer Hipparchus (who lived about 120 years BC) that was credited as the father of trigonometry. Hipparchus’ “table of chords” was thought to be the oldest trigonometry table. Said Wildberger: “Plimpton 322 predates Hipparchus by more than 1,000 years. It opens up new possibilities not just for modern mathematics research, but also for mathematics education. With Plimpton 322 we see a simpler, more accurate trigonometry that has clear advantages over our own.”

      Mansfield and Wildberger agreed to study Plimpton 322, Babylonian mathematics generally, after realizing that it had parallels with the rational trigonometry of Wildberger’s book Divine Proportions: Rational Trigonometry to Universal Geometry. The tablet’s rows describe a sequence of 15 right-angle triangles, decreasing in inclination. Though the left edge of the tablet is broken, the researchers believe there were originally 6 columns and that the tablet was meant to be completed with 38 rows. With this, they reckon, scribes using a base 60 numerical arithmetic similar to our time clock, could have generated the numbers on the tablet.

    • https://www.scribd.com/document/357462161/Trigonometry-Plimpton-322 Full text

    • Abstract

      We trace the origins of trigonometry to the Old Babylonian era, between the 19th and 16th centuries B.C.E. This is well over a millennium before Hipparchus is said to have fathered the subject with his ‘table of chords’. The main piece of evidence comes from the most famous of Old Babylonian tablets: Plimpton 322, which we interpret in the context of the Old Babylonian approach to triangles and their preference for numerical accuracy. By examining the evidence with this mindset, and comparing Plimpton 322 with Madhava's table of sines, we demonstrate that Plimpton 322 is a powerful, exact ratio-based trigonometric table.


    Highlights

    Plimpton 322 contains a fragment from a proto-trigonometric table.
    The Babylonians discovered exact sexagesimal trigonometry at least 1500 years before the ancient Greeks discovered trigonometry.
    Babylonian exact sexagesimal trigonometry uses exact ratios and square ratios instead of approximation and angles.

    • Plimpton 322 is Babylonian exact sexagesimal trigonometry

      Original Research Article
    • In Press, Corrected ProofAvailable online 24 August 2017
    • Daniel F. Mansfield, N.J. Wildberger
    • Highlights

      Plimpton 322 contains a fragment from a proto-trigonometric table.
      The Babylonians discovered exact sexagesimal trigonometry at least 1500 years before the ancient Greeks discovered trigonometry.
      Babylonian exact sexagesimal trigonometry uses exact ratios and square ratios instead of approximation and angles.


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    This monograph demonstrates the form and function of Indus Script hypertexts, with unique orthography, using two examples of tablets with inscriptions on two sides: 1. m1405 tablet (with Sign 15 hypertext: rim of jar + water-carrier); 2. m478 tablet (with hypertext: rim of jar + lid).

    Two hypertexts and Meluhha rebus readings are: (Note: Supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. Context: wealth accounting of metalwork cargo by seafaring Meluhha merchants.) Two distinct supercargo functionaries of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization are: Smelter supercargo, Ferry supercargo.

    1. rim of jar + water-carrier kuṭhi kārṇī, 'smelter accountant (supercargo)'
    2. rim of jar + lid ghaṭṭa kārṇī 'ferry accountant (supercargo)'
     kuṭhi karṇī, 'smelter accountant (supercargo)'ghaṭṭa karṇī m. ʻferry accountant (supercargo) at quay, wharfʼ

    Image result for sign variants indus script rim of jarVariants of Sign 342


    A characteristic feature of Indus writing system unravels from this example: what is orthographically constructed as a pictorial motif can also be deployed as a 'sign' on texts of inscriptions. This is achieved by a stylized reconstruction of the pictorial motif as a 'sign' which occurs with notable frequency on Indus Script Corpora -- with orthographic variants (Signs 12, 13, 14).
    Signs 12 to 15. Indus script: 


    Indus inscription on a Mohenjo-daro tablet (m1405) including ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph as component of a ligatured glyph (Sign 15 Mahadevan)This tablet is a clear and unambiguous example of the fundamental orthographic style of Indus Script inscriptions that: both signs and pictorial motifs are integral components of the message conveyed by the inscriptions. Attempts at ‘deciphering’ only what is called a ‘sign’ in Parpola or Mahadevan corpuses will result in an incomplete decoding of the complete message of the inscribed object.

    This inscribed object is decoded as a professional catalogue calling card: a blacksmith-precious-stone-merchant with the professional role of copper-miner-smelter-furnace-scribe-Supercargo.

    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Glyph 15) gestured with the left hand. 


    The Pali expression usu -- kāraṇika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ provides the semantics of the word kāraṇika as relatable to a 'maker' of a product. usu-kāraṇika is an arrow-maker. Thus, kuTi kāraṇika can be explained as a smelter-maker. Supercargo is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. The Marathi word for Supercargo is: kārṇī . Thus, it can be suggested that kuTi kāraṇika was an ovrseer of the cargo (from smelter) on a merchantship. In the historical periods, the Supercargo has specific duties "The duties of a supercargo are defined by admiralty law and include managing the cargo owner's trade, selling the merchandise inports to which the vessel is sailing, and buying and receiving goods to be carried on the return voyage...A new supercargo was always appointed for each journey who also had to keep books, notes and ledgers about everything that happened during the voyage and trade matters abroad. He was to present these immediately to the directors of the Company on the ship's return to its headquarters ." 
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercargo While a captain was in charge of navigation, Supercargo was in charge of trade.

    कारण 1[p= 274,2] a number of scribes or कायस्थW. instrument , means;that on which an opinion or judgment is founded (a sin, mark; a proof; a legal instrument, document), Mn. MBh.


    कारणिक [p= 274,3] mfn. (g. काश्य्-ादि) " investigating , ascertaining the cause " , a judge Pan5cat. a teacher MBh. ii , 167.

    B. kerā ʻ clerk ʼ (kerāni ʻ id. ʼ < *kīraka -- karaṇika<-> ODBL 540): very doubtful. -- Poss. ← Ar. qāri', pl. qurrā'ʻ reader, esp. of Qur'ān ʼ.(CDIAL 3110) कर्णक kárṇaka, kannā 'legs spread', 'rim of jar', 'pericarp of lotus' karaṇī 'scribe, supercargo', kañi-āra 'helmsman'.  kāraṇika m. ʻ teacher ʼ MBh., ʻ judge ʼ Pañcat. [kā- raṇa -- ] Pa. usu -- kāraṇika -- m. ʻ arrow -- maker ʼ; Pk. kāraṇiya -- m. ʻ teacher of Nyāya ʼ; S. kāriṇī m. ʻ guardian, heir ʼ; N. kārani ʻ abettor in crime ʼ; M. kārṇī m. ʻ prime minister, supercargo of a ship ʼ, kul -- karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ.(CDIAL 3058) kāraṇa n. ʻ cause ʼ KātyŚr. [√kr̥1Pa. kāraṇa -- n. ʻ deed, cause ʼ; Aś. shah. karaṇa -- , kāl. top. kālana -- , gir. kāraṇa -- ʻ purpose ʼ; Pk. kāraṇa -- n. ʻ cause, means ʼ; Wg. (Lumsden) "kurren"ʻ retaliation ʼ, Paš. kāran IIFL iii 3, 97 with (?); S. kāraṇu m. ʻ cause ʼ; L. kārnā m. ʻ quarrel ʼ; P. kāraṇ m. ʻ cause ʼ, N. A. B. kāran, Or. kāraṇa; Mth. kāran ʻ reason ʼ, OAw. kārana, H. kāran m., G. kāraṇ n.; Si. karuṇa ʻ cause, object, thing ʼ; -- postpositions from oblique cases: inst.: S. kāraṇikāṇe°ṇi ʻ on account of ʼ, L. awāṇ. kāṇAddenda: kāraṇa -- : Brj. kāran ʻ on account of ʼ.(CDIAL 3057) kiraka m. ʻ scribe ʼ lex.

    eraka 'raised arm' Rebus: eraka 'metal infusion' (Kannada. Tulu) 


    Sign 15:  kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka ‘smelting furnace account (scribe)’. 


    Thus, the hieroglyph multiplex on m1405 is read rebus from r.: kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka eraka bharata pattar'goldsmith-merchant guild -- helmsman, smelting furnace account (scribe), molten cast metal infusion, alloy of copper, pewter, tin.' 
    m478a tablet

    The hieroglyphs on m478a tablet are read rebus:

    kuṭi 'tree'Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'

    bhaṭa 'worshipper' Rebus: bhaṭa'furnace' baTa 'iron' (Gujarati) This hieroglyph is a phonetic deterinant of the 'rimless pot': baṭa = rimless pot (Kannada) Rebus: baṭa = a kind of iron (Gujarati) bhaṭa 'a furnace'.  Hence, the hieroglyph-multiplex of an adorant with rimless pot signifies: 'iron furnace' bhaTa. 

    bāraṇe' an offering of food to a demon' (Tulu) Rebus: baran, bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi. Bengali) The narrative of a worshipper offering to a tree is thus interpretable as a smelting of three minerals: copper, zinc and tin.

    Numeral four: gaNDa 'four' Rebus: kand 'fire-altar'; Four 'ones': koḍa ‘one’ (Santali) Rebus: koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop'. Thus, the pair of 'four linear strokes PLUS rimless pot' signifies: 'fire-altar (in) artisan's wrkshop'. 

    Circumscript of two linear strokes for 'body' hieroglyph: dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' koḍa ‘one’(Santali) Rebus: koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop'. Thus, the circumscript signifies 'cast metal workshop'. meD 'body' Rebus: meD 'iron'.

    khareo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī turner (Gujarati)
    The hieroglyph may be a variant of a twisted rope.
    dhāu 'rope' rebus: dhāu 'metal' PLUS  मेढा [ mēḍhā ] 'a curl or snarl; twist in thread' rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’. Thus, metallic ore.

    kōlamn. [T. kōlamu, K. kōla, M. kōlam.]  'ornamental figure' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'

    The inscription on m478 thus signifies, reading hieroglyphs from r.: 

    Tree: kuṭhi'smelter'

    Worshipper: bhaṭa'furnace' 


    Four linear strokes + rimless pot: kanda baṭa'fire-altar for iron'


    Circumscript two linear strokes + body: meD koDa 'metal workshop'

    Currycomb:khareo 'currycomb' rebus: kharādī turner’; dhāu 'metal' 

    PLUS mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’; kol 'working in iron'. Together, the two hieroglyphs 

    signify metalworker, ironsmith turner.
    m0478b tablet

     ghaṭṭa karṇī m. ʻaccountant at ferry, quay, wharf ʼ; Accounting at a ferry, wharf: Go. (Tr.) kaṭṭānā to be shut (of door), close or come to grips (of two men fighting)(DEDR 1147) Rebus: Skt. ghaṭṭa- quay, landing-place, bathing place. (CDIAL 4414)

    Wristlets, bangles on arms of the person thwarting two contestants with tree branches: karã̄ n. pl. ʻwristlets, bangles ʼ rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith'.

    Glypg: ‘woman’: kola ‘woman’ (Nahali). Rebus kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)
    Glyph: ‘impeding, hindering’: taṭu (Ta.) Rebus: dhatu ‘mineral’ (Santali) Ta. taṭu (-pp-, -tt) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; taṭuppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; Kur. ṭaṇḍnā to prevent, hinder, impede. Br. taḍ power to resist. (DEDR 3031)

    erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying 
    uprooted trees] thwarted by a person in the middle with outstretched hands

    m0478B tablet erga = act of clearing jungle (Kui) [Note image showing two men carrying uprooted trees].Aaru twig; airi small and thin branch of a tree; aari small branches (Ka.); aaru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67). Aar = splinter (Santali); rebus: aduru = native metal (Ka.) Vikalpa: kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.) Rebus: kuhi = furnace (Santali) hakhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524) Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' (Maithili) era, er-a = eraka = ?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.) •era_ = claws of an animal that can do no harm (G.) •era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali) •Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.)  Hieroglyph: Looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.)

    Aḍaru twig; aḍiri small and thin branch of a tree; aḍari small branches (Ka.); aḍaru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67). Aḍar = splinter (Santali); rebus: aduru = native metal (Ka.) Vikalpa: kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.) Rebus: kuṭhi = furnace (Santali) ḍhaṁkhara — m.n. ʻbranch without leaves or fruitʼ (Prakrit) (CDIAL 5524)

    Hieroglyph: era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; bud.hi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali)
    •Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)  agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.)

    kui 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhi = (smelter) furnace (Santali) 

    heraka = spy (Skt.); eraka, hero = a messenger; a spy (Gujarati); er to look at or for (Pkt.); er uk- to play 'peeping tom' (Ko.) Rebus: erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.) eraka ‘copper’ (Kannada) 

    kōṭu  branch of tree, Rebus: खोट [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. 

    Hieroglyph: Looking back: krammara 'look back' (Telugu) kamar 'smith, artisan' (Santali)

    kola ‘tiger, jackal’ (Kon.); rebus: kol working in iron, blacksmith, ‘alloy of five metals, panchaloha’ (Tamil) kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kolami ‘smithy’ (Telugu) 

    ^  Inverted V, m478 (lid above rim of narrow-necked jar) The rimmed jar next to the tiger with turned head has a lid. Lid ‘aaren’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ karnika 'rim of jar' Rebus: karni 'supercargo' (Marathi) Thus, together, the jar with lid composite hieroglyhph denotes 'native metal supercargo'. karṇaka = handle of a vessel; ka_ṇa_, kanna_ = rim, edge; kaṭu = rim of a vessel; kaṇṭuḍiyo = a small earthen vessel; kaṇḍa kanka = rim of a water-pot; kan:kha, kankha = rim of a vessel
    For an alternative reading of 'lid' hieroglyph, see section below: Indus Script Hypertext: घट्ट ghaṭṭa 'lid' rebus: ghaṭṭa- quay, landing-place, bathing place
    m1405At Pict-97: Person standing at the center points with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand points to the ligatured glyph. Side B: tiger, rhinoceros in procession. kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter', kol 'working in iron', kolle 'blacksmith' gaṇḍá4 m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ lex., °aka -- m. lex. 2. *ga- yaṇḍa -- . [Prob. of same non -- Aryan origin as khaḍgá --1: cf. gaṇōtsāha -- m. lex. as a Sanskritized form ← Mu. PMWS 138]1. Pa. gaṇḍaka -- m., Pk. gaṁḍaya -- m., A. gãr, Or. gaṇḍā. 2. K. gö̃ḍ m., S. geṇḍo m. (lw. with g -- ), P. gaĩḍā m., °ḍī f., N. gaĩṛo, H. gaĩṛā m., G. gẽḍɔ m., °ḍī f., M. gẽḍā m.Addenda: gaṇḍa -- 4. 2. *gayaṇḍa -- : WPah.kṭg. geṇḍɔ mirg m. ʻ rhinoceros ʼ, Md. genḍā ← H. (CDIAL 4000). காண்டாமிருகம் kāṇṭā-mirukam , n. [M. kāṇṭāmṛgam.] Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Gujarati) Rebus: khāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)



    The inscription on the tablet juxtaposes – through the hand gestures of a person - a ‘trough’ gestured with the right hand; a ligatured glyph composed of ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph and ‘water-carrier’ glyph (Sign 15) gestured with the left hand. 

    Note on endless knot

    Dhruva II Inscription Gujarat Rashtrakuta 884 CE (H. Sarkar & BM Pande)
    A new copper plate of Dhruva II of the Gujarat Rashtrakuta branch, datedsaka 806 (AS Altekar, Epigraphia INdica, Vol. XXII, 1933-34, pp. 64-76).Note the signature of the king on line 69 in Kannada while the inscription is in Samskrtam.  After the signature and before the word लिखितं 'likhitam' is engraved an ornamental design. It is an Indus Script hieroglyph: 'endless knot' which occurs on a number of inscriptions which is deciphered in this monograph: .मेढा [mēḍhā] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi). Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic) mẽhẽt, meḍ  'iron' (Munda). Rebus: medha 'yajna'.मेध [p= 832,3] an animal-sacrifice , offering , oblation , any sacrifice (esp. ifc.ib. MBh. &c मेधाa symbolical N. of the letter ध् Up.= धन Naigh. ii , 10. any valued object , (esp.) wealth , riches , (movable) property , money , treasure , gift RV. &c.
    Consistent with Naighantuka, the word medhA also means 'कविधानम्' according to s'abdakalpadruma: I assume that medhA = dhAnam means (in the context of the hieroglyph on Dhruva II inscription): धानम् dhānam नी nī धानम् नी [धा भावे-ल्युट्] 1 A receptacle, seat; as in मसीधानी, राजधानी, यमधानी; रविं दधाने$प्यरविन्दधाने Śi.4.12. -2 Nourishing, nourishment. -नी 1 The site of a habitation.


    मेधास्त्री, (मेधते सङ्गच्छते अस्यामिति  मेध् + “षिद्भिदादिभ्योऽङ् ”     १०४  इत्यङ् । टाप् धारणावती बुद्धिः  इत्यमरः       ॥ धारणाशक्तियुक्ता धीर्मेधा मेधते सङ्गच्छतेऽस्यां सर्व्वं बहुश्रुतं विषयीकरोति इति वा मेधा मेधृ- सङ्गे मेधायां सेमक्तात् सरोरित्यः आपबहु-श्रुतविषयीकरणं धारणा यदुक्तं धारणा बुद्धेर्गुणविशेषः इति  इति भरतः  *  (यथामुण्डकोपनिषदि       । नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो न मेधया  बहुना श्रुतेन । यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्यस्तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूं स्वाम् ”) मेधाकरं औषधं यथा, -- “शङ्खपुष्पी वचा सोमा ब्राह्मीब्रह्मसुवर्च्चला । अभया  गुडूची  अटरूषकवाकुची । एतैरक्षसमैर्भागैर्घृतं प्रस्थं विपाचयेत् ॥ कण्टकार्य्या रस प्रस्थं बृहत्या  समन्वितम् । एतद्ब्राह्मीघृतं नाम स्मृतिमेधाकरं परम् ति गारुडे १९८ अध्यायः  * ॥ मेधाकरगणो यथा  सतताध्ययनम्  तत्त्वज्ञानकथा श्रेष्ठतन्त्रशास्त्रावलोकनम्  सद्द्विजाचार्य्यसेवा   इति पुराणम्  (दक्षप्रजापतिकन्याविशेषः  यथा, -- “कीर्त्तिलक्ष्मी र्धृतिर्मेघा पुष्टिः श्रद्धा क्रिया मतिः ” इति वह्निपुराणे गणभेदनामाध्याये ॥ धनम्  इति निघण्टुः    १०  “मिधृ मेधृ सङ्गमे   चकारात् हिंसामेधयोश्च  मिधिः सङ्गत्यर्थः इति माधवः  घज्  सङ्गच्छतेऽनेन सर्व्वं तद्बता हिंस्यते वा तद्वान् चौरादिभिः घ्नन्ति चैवार्थकारणात् इति महाभारतम् ॥ यद्वामतौ धीयते अर्जयितव्यंरक्षितव्यं दातव्यमिति धनवता बुद्धौ धनं धार्य्यते  तत्र मतिशब्द उपपदे धातोः घञर्थे कविधानम् इति कः  पृषोदरादित्वात् मतिशब्दस्य मेभावः इति तद्भाष्ये देवराजयज्वा )


    The dAna referred in the grant signed by Dhruva II also includes dhana 'property, gift' signified by mēḍhā'twist' rebus: medhA, and hence, the use of the Indus Script hieroglyph. 

    The earlier rebus rendering of the hieroglyph mēḍhā 'twist' is a commodity: med 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) and hence, its occurrence together with svastika hieroglyph which signifies: jasta, sattva, 'zinc' in the context of trade by seafaring merchants of Meluhha.

    The inscription on Mohenjo-daro copper plate m1457 shows two hieroglyphs: 1. svastika; 2. ornamental figure of twisted string. Both hieroglyphs are read rebus in Meluhha:

    satthiya 'svastika glyph' rebus: sattva, jasta 'zinc' PLUS  dām 'rope, string' rebus: dhāu 'ore'; मेढा [mēḍhā] A twist rebus: mẽhẽt, meD 'iron'(Santali.Mu.Ho.). The archaeo-metallurgical interpretation is that this inscription signifies zinc metallic ore, sphalerite.
    Copper plate m1457 The set of hieroglyphs deciphered as: 1. zinc-pewter and 2. bronze:1. jasta, sattva and 2. मेढा 'twist' mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron (metal)’ 

    Indus Script Hypertext: घट्ट ghaṭṭa'lid' rebus: ghaṭṭa- quay, landing-place, bathing place

    Hieroglyph: lid: घट्ट ghaṭṭa a Strong, stout, close, compact, firm--persons, cloth, things. 2 Thick, inspissate, concrete--a liquid substance. 3 Tight, close, fast--a bandage, frame, lid; a seat or hold. घट्ट करणें To impress on the memory by poring and conning over. (Marathi)

    గట్ట (p. 351) gaṭṭa gaṭṭa. [Tel.] n. The wooden stopper of a skin oil bottle. సిద్దెమూతికి వేసి గట్టించే బిరడా. 

    ghaṭā f. ʻ collection, mass ʼ BhP. 2. *ghāṭā -- 2. 3. *ghaṭṭa -- 3.1. Pk. ghaḍā -- f. ʻ collection, mass ʼ, ghaḍī -- , °ḍiā -- f. ʻ assembly ʼ; Gy. pal. gar ʻ testicle ʼ; N. ghari ʻ bunch (of bananas) ʼ; H. ghariyā f. ʻ wasps' nest ʼ; M. ghaḍ m. ʻ bunch, testicles ʼ.2. N. ghār ʻ beehive ʼ, ghāri ʻ thicket, jungle ʼ; M. ghāḍ f. ʻ bundle of rice straw ʼ.3. Pk. ghaṭṭa -- ʻ dense ʼ, m.n. ʻ collection, troop ʼ.A. rah -- gharā ʻ honeycomb ʼ AFD 194 (rah -- < rása -- ).(CDIAL 4411)

    *ghaṭṭapāla ʻ ferryman ʼ. [ghaṭṭa -- 1, pālá -- ]B. ghāṭoāl°ṭāl ʻ man in charge of a ghāṭ ʼ; Or. ghā̆ṭuāḷa ʻ ferryman, toll -- collector ʼ, °ārā ʻ ferryman ʼ; H. ghaṭwāl°ār m. ʻ wharfinger ʼ.(CDIAL 4416) ghaṭṭa1 m. ʻ landing place, quay, ferry ʼ, °ṭī -- f. ʻ small do. ʼ lex. [Basic meaning ʻ passage (through mountains or over river) ʼ and variation in vowel quantity in S. P. support Drav. origin (T. Burrow BSOAS xii 368), but poss. conn. w. group of ghāṭā -- 1]Pk. ghaṭṭa -- m. ʻ landing place ʼ, K. gāṭh, dat. °ṭas m.; S. ghaṭu m. ʻ passage, path ʼ, °ṭīghiṭī f. ʻ street, alley ʼ, ghāṭu m. ʻ pass, landing place ʼ (as in P. < *ghāṭṭa -- ?); P. ghāṭ m. ʻ mountain gorge, landing place ʼ, ghāṭṭām. ʻ mountain pass, passage through a hedge ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ declivity of a mountain ʼ; Ku. ghāṭ ʻ crossing place ʼ; N. ghāṭ ʻ ford, landing place ʼ, °ṭi ʻ mountain pass ʼ; A. ghāṭ ʻ bathing or landing place ʼ; B. ghāṭ ʻ mountain pass, defile, range of mountains, landing place ʼ; Or. ghāṭa ʻ ferry, wharf ʼ, °ṭi ʻ mountain pass ʼ; Bhoj. H. ghāṭ ʻ bathing or landing place ʼ, H. ghāṭā m. ʻ mountain pass, ascent or descent of a mountain ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ defile ʼ; G. M. ghāṭ m. ʻ mountain pass, landing place ʼ, Ko. ghāṭu m.(CDIAL 4414)  Ta. kaṭṭu (kaṭṭi-) to tie, fasten, build, wear, put on, bind by spells, marry, shut up, store, hug, compare with, be equal; n. tie, band, fastening, regulations, custom, building, marriage, bundle, packet, dam, causeway;kaṭṭaṭam building, binding of a book, setting of a jewel; kaṭṭaṇam building; 
    kaṭṭaḷai code, rule, regulations, etc.; kaṭṭai dam. Ma. keṭṭuka to tie, build, clasp, yoke, dress, marry, make into a bundle, stop, restrain, build, become entangled, clot; keṭṭikka to cause to tie, make to wear, give in marriage; keṭṭu tie, bundle, band, connexion (as of marriage), restraint, dam, bank, building; keṭṭakam house; kaṭṭu tie, bundle. Ko. kaṭ- (kac-) to tie, build, manage (house), be equal; kaṭ knot, caste custom, case of which decision has been given; kaṭaṛm (obl. kaṭaṛt-) wall of brick or stone; kaṭaṇ caste custom, individual's habit; kaṭma·nm caste custom, order given. To. koṭ- (koṭy-) to tie, build, kill by witchcraft, obstruct, hug, manage (a house); koṭ knot, bundle, amulet; koṭas̱ noose (in song unit: mïṛ xoṭas̱ [to tie] a noose on the neck); koṭy a tie, in: po·l goṭy (for which see 2698(a)). Ka. kaṭṭu to bind, tie, yoke, build, shut up, stop by magic, bewitch, amass (wealth), obstruct, shut, dam, be bound, stopped; n. binding, tying, checking, restraint, band, tie, bundle, something built, regulation, rule, bewitching; kaṭṭuvike tying, etc.; kaṭṭuka man who ties; kaṭṭaḍa, kaṭṭaṇa, kaṭṇa a building; kaṭṭal state of being bound, tied, surrounded; kaṭṭe structure of earth or stones to sit upon, embankment, dam, causeway; gaṭṭu dam, embankment; gaṭṭe bale, bundle. Koḍ. këṭṭ- (këṭṭi-) to tie, build; këṭṭï knot, bundle; kaṭṭe bund of tank, platform built under tree on village green; (Shanmugam) kaṭṭaḍa a building. Tu. kaṭṭuni to tie, bind, build, amass (wealth); kaṭṭāvuni to cause to bind or tie, have a house built; kaṭṭů band, tie, bundle, regulation, bond; kaṭṭaṇa, kaṭṭalme building; kaṭṭa a dam; kaṭṭaḷe custom, rule; kaṭṭāṇi necklace. Te. kaṭṭu to tie, bind, wear (clothes), build, bewitch, obstruct; n. tie, bond, knot, band, wearing of a garment, restraint, rule or regulation; kaṭṭincu to get built, cause to be bound or tied; kaṭṭa dam, embankment; bundle (or this meaning with 1400 Ta. kaṟṟai); kaṭṭaḍa, kaṭṭaḍi rule, law, fashion, manner; kaṭṭaḍamu building; kaṭṭanamu a tie; gaṭṭu dam, embankment. Kol. kaṭ- (kaṭt-) to tie, build; (SR.) kaṭṭā platform; (Kin.) kaṭṭa bund of field. Nk. kaṭṭ- to tie, build; kaṭṭa bund of field, dam, dike; kaṭṭe necklace. Nk. (Ch.) kaṭ-/kaṭṭ- to bind, tie hair, build, attach bowstring. Pa. kaṭṭ- to tie, build; kaḍk- to tie, fasten, bind; kaṭṭa bund of field. Ga. (Oll.) kaṭ- to tie, build; (S.) kaṭṭ- to bind; gaṭṭu bank. Go. (Tr.) kaṭṭānā to be shut (of door), close or come to grips (of two men fighting); (Ph.) kaṭṭānā to shut, close (door) (Voc. 472); (Ph.) kaṭṭitānā to adhere, be attached to (Voc. 476); (Tr. W. Ph.) kaṭṭā a dam in the river for catching fish; (A.) kaṭṭa bund, embankment (Voc. 473); (Y.) kaṭ bank of river (Voc. 465). Konḍa kaṭa bundle (of hay, etc.); gaṭu (pl.gaṭku) bund, bank (of river, tank, etc.); (BB) kaṭis- to yoke (plough). Pe. kaṭa bank of river. Kui (K.) kāṭ- to fix, fasten, secure; (W.) kāṭa giva to latch or bolt the door (but cf. kāṭa peg, short bar, bolt, hook, ? < IA, cf. H. kāṭh, Or. kāṭha). Kuwi (Su.) gaṭṭu (pl. gaṭka) bund of field; (F.) gāttū (pl. gāttūŋa, gātka) boundary; kādagattu bank of river; (S.) gatti kīnai to tie; (Isr.) gaṭu boundary, beach, shore; end of a table, field, etc.; geṭuback-load; geṭu ki- to carry something on the back. Malt. gaṭa rope, cord. Cf. 1146 Ma. kaṭṭila. / Cf. (with Ka. Te. gaṭṭu, etc.) Turner CDIAL, no. 4414, Skt. ghaṭṭa- quay, landing-place, bathing place.(DEDR 1147)


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    NaMo,

    Key mission objectives:

    Keep all tanks in 6.2 lakh villages desilted. 24x7 water to every farm, every home. Desalinate seawater for people on 8500 kms. coastline.

    Make Bharat Mahaan.

    Namaskaram.

    Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Centre

    Sahyadri contour canal along Konkan Railway track


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    Ajit Jogi writes to the Election Commission to disqualify Chidambaram from Rajya Sabha

    Chidambaram should be disqualified, writes Ajit Jogi

     
    Former Chhattisgarh Chief Minister and Chhattisgarh Janata Congress (CJC) founder Ajit Jogi urged the Election Commission to disqualify former Union Minister P Chidambaram from the Rajya Sabha for committing perjury. In his letter to the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) Achal Kumar Jyoti, Jogi said Chidambaram had intentionally hidden details of his wife Nalini’s shares in Indian Metals and Ferro Alloys Limited (IMFA), a company owned by Biju Janata Dal (BJD) MP Baijayant Panda.
    For the last three election affidavits Chidambaram had hidden this information about his wife’s assets in IMFA, said Jogi, adding that this is a clear case of perjury and violated the rules of the representation of the Peoples Act, 1951.
    “Chidambaram should be disqualified from the Rajya Sabha. After the Member of Parliament from Odisha, Baijayant Panda admitted that Nalini Chidambaram holds shares of his company the ‘Indian Metals & Ferro Alloys Ltd.’, and the same is not declared by Chidambaram in his election affidavits,” said Jogi.
    Jogi alleged that Chidambaram and his son Karti have misused the ‘office of the Union Finance Minister’ to help companies like Ortel Communications owned by Baijayant Panda to get FIPB approvals.
    https://www.pgurus.com/ajit-jogi-writes-election-commission-disqualify-chidambaram-rajya-sabha/

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    We would appreciate receiving your 1-2 page abstract(s) by Sep. 1, also giving brief answers to the 3 points: Originality & context, Approach/Methods, Key results & conclusions. 

    Please send them to the 2018WAVES@gmail.com address given above.  The links to the Call for Papers and the conference are below: 


    Abstract of paper: Sarasvati Civilization, script and Veda culture of Tin-Bronze Revolution

    1. Originality & context: Veda culture and Indus Script, Bronze Age
    2. Approach/Methods: Cracking the code of Indus Script cipher by calling it Sarasvati Script and using tantra yukti तंत्र युक्ति research methodology of Ancient Bhāratam 
    3. Key results & conclusions: Saravati Script is a hypertext writing system which was invented ca. 3300 BCE evidenced by a potsherd with script discovered by Harvard Archaeology Project (HARP) team. The hypertexts of over 8000 inscriptions are  Vākyapadīya (Sentence-Word) formations related to the metal-/mint-work of artisan guilds, seafaring merchants. Over 80% (i.e. over 2000) of the 2600 archaeological sites of the Sarasvati civilization are on the river basin of Vedic River Sarasvati. The present-day  Bhāratīya are Sarasvati's children and constituted a  Bhāratīya sprachbund (speech union) of what are today over 25+  Bhāratīya languages. The spoken language (lingua franca, parole) was called Meluhha (mleccha) and constitutes the language base for inscriptions of the Sarasvati Script detailing the technological competence achieved to catalyse the Tin-Bronze Revolution from 5th millennium BCE. The Sarasvati civilization people constituted the key link between Ancient Far East (AFE) and Ancient Near East (ANE). Evidences of Sarasvati Script have been found in AFE (e.g., over 200 Dong Son Bronze drums with script hieroglyphs such as frog, peacock, elephant, markhor, fish) and based on the Tin (cassiterite) resources of the Mekong, Irrawaddy, Salween Himalayan river deltas which created the largest tin belt of the globe. The discovery of tin to create Tin-Bronze alloys was a brilliant discovery which overcame the shortage of naturally occurring Arsenical Bronzes all over Eurasia. Evidences of Sarasvati Script have been found in ANE (e.g. cylinder and circular seals of Persian Gulf, Mesopotamia, Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex, Fertile Crescent -- evidence of 3 pure tin ingots found in a shipwreck of Haifa and Nahal Mishmar bronze artefacts), all evidencing use of Sarasvati Script.
    Discovery of the ancient channels of Vedic River Sarasvati. Now, the people who nurtured the civilization and the language they spoke have been discovered.

    ​Example of hypertext from a seal with Sarasvati Script

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    NOTE: The Naga hood of the buddha image is the key link to amaravati. 

    Image result for amaravati skambha bharatkalyan97The nagahood is an indus script hieroglyph:

    फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'

    khambhaṛā'fish-fin' rebus: kammaṭa'mint'
    meḍ 'step' rebus:mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.).


    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center

    PUBLISHED
    AUG 28, 2017, 5:00 AM SGT

    She is part of 4-man archaeology team that unearths 800-year-old Buddha statues in Cambodia
    It is a site that international teams from France, Japan and America have been working on for years.
    But one of the biggest discoveries in more than a decade at the Unesco World Heritage Site of Angkor in Cambodia was made by four students from Asia.
    From a small excavation pit at the ancient Tonle Snguot hospital complex, the archaeology students (some doing a master's or PhD), including Singaporean Natalie Khoo, 22, dug up three 800-year- old, 1m-tall Buddha statues over two days.
    One of them was especially rare - a Bhaisajyaguru or the Buddha of healing and medicine in Mahayana Buddhism. The sandstone statue, found about 30cm in the ground, with its palms up, was cradling a medicine ball.

    But until now, none had been found within hospital grounds.Ancient edicts and inscriptions state that a Bhaisajyaguru statue had been placed at each of the 102 hospitals erected by 12th-century King Jayavarman VII.


    The artefacts unearthed included a sculpture, with palms clasped, holding an offering. PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO

    Speaking to The Straits Times, archaeologist Lim Chen Sian from the ISEAS - Yusof Ishak Institute's Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre (NSC), who helped guide the students, said: "People always ask if the king had really constructed hospitals or rest houses for hospitality.
    "The presence of the medicine Buddha makes it clear that he had built actual medical facilities."
    Ms Khoo, a Cambridge University archaeology undergraduate, said the experience of pulling out something so rare and so major was "very exciting and unexpected".
    She said: "A few nights before, we watched a presentation on the Bhaisajyaguru and were told that none had been found in situ (where they originally stood) in Cambodia.
    "It was amazing that we found one at this hospital site just a few days later."
    Locating and extracting statues that are intact from Angkor is extremely rare. The site had been cleared and looted of most of its Buddhist figurines. In the early days, they were thrown out when the kingdom adopted Hinduism and Theravada Buddhism. Over the past 50 years, most of what remained had been stolen and sold to private collectors.


    The discoveries included (from left) a medicine Buddha statue, in two fragments; a Buddha statue in a meditative pose; and a Buddha statue with a naga (or snake-like) hood. The excavation was part of an archaeological field school organised by the ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute’s Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre. PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO 

    Said Mr Lim: "The fact that these artefacts can be found, 800 years later, is super rare."
    He added somewhat wryly: "I have been working for 20 years as an archaeologist, then these students come by and they have the luck of Midas to find something so significant almost instantly."
    The archaeological field school - a short-term academic programme - and excavation organised by NSC was sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) for about $70,000.
    The field school had earlier made international headlines for a discovery it had helped to make on the second day of a test excavation at the same site.
    The team was part of a group that had unearthed an approximately 2m-tall, late 12th-century sandstone statue sculpted in the image of a guardian. It was unearthed 8m from where the trio of Buddhas were later found.
    The Tonle Snguot site had been selected by the NSC as well as researchers from the Apsara Authority - the Cambodian state agency charged with managing the site. The aim was to investigate ancient hospital activities, habitation and structures.


    Ms Khoo working in an excavation pit. PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO

    A total of 14 field school participants, four of them from Singapore, excavated for seven days in total. They comprised a mix of students and young professionals. The three-week programme, held in both Cambodia and Singapore, ended on Aug 16.
    On their most recent discovery, Ms Khoo said she and her teammates - Ms Shaashi Ahlawat from India, Indonesian Amir Husni and Filipina Anne Marie Valera - had been digging on a sloping mound.
    Cambodian archaeologist Khieu Chan, who is the site manager, and Singaporean archaeologist Michael Ng had first spotted a thin sliver of ceramic with some inscriptions poking out of a mound.
    Seeing this, they decided to dig there. The students then started digging into the ground 10cm at a time. When the statues started appearing, the trench was widened.
    The statues, as well as about 500kg of other artefacts, including Khmer and Chinese ceramic fragments, are now housed in a Cambodian museum and will be studied by the local authorities.
    The field school also serves as a training ground for Singapore's future archaeologists. The ISEAS - Yusof Ishak Institute's NSC Archaeology Unit is relatively young and was established only in 2010.


    A close-up of the Buddha statue with a naga hood. PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO 

    Ms Khoo said she learnt conservation techniques from the Cambodians and how to care for artefacts in a tropical environment.
    Dr Ea Darith, the field school's director and a Cambodian archaeologist, said the programme was "very successful".
    He said: "We are very happy that Singapore chose Cambodia as a platform for the field school.
    "Cambodia is rich in cultural, architectural and religious features. Students from the region could identify with some shared aspects of history, such as the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism."
    The field school programme is designed to create a community of scholars from East Asia Summit countries.
    MFA said it hopes that its contributions to the work of the NSC will foster a "greater interest in our region's common history and awareness of the civilisational links in the region".

    http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/spore-student-makes-rare-find






    Singaporean Natalie Khoo (second from right) and her teammates (from left) Indonesian Amir Husni, Filipina Anne Marie Valera and Indian Shaashi Ahlawat had been digging on a sloping mound when the statues started appearing.PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO

    The artefacts unearthed included a sculpture, with palms clasped, holding an offering.PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO

    The discoveries included (from left) a medicine Buddha statue, in two fragments; a Buddha statue in a meditative pose; and a Buddha statue with a naga (or snake-like) hood. The excavation was part of an archaeological field school organised by the ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute’s Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre.PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO

    Ms Khoo working in an excavation pit.PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO

    A close-up of the Buddha statue with a naga hood.PHOTO: COURTESY OF NATALIE KHOO

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    Bauer, Andrew M., 2015, Iron Age Settlement and Land Use in Southern India: Recent Survey Evidence from Koppal District, Karnataka in: Vincent Lefevre, Aurore Didier and Benjamin Mutin, eds.,, 2015, South Asian Archaeology and Art 2012, Vol. 1, Man and environmnt in Prehistoric and protohistoric South Asia: New Perspectives, INDICOPLEUSTOI, Archaeologies of the Indian Ocean 12, Turnhout, Belgium, Brepols Publisshers n.v., pp.35-49.


    https://www.academia.edu/11794926/Iron_Age_Settlement_and_Land_Use_in_Southern_India_Recent_Survey_Evidence_from_Koppal_District_Karnataka



    https://www.scribd.com/document/357850459/Iron-Age-Settlement-and-Land-Use-in-Southern-India-Recent-Survey-Evidence-from-Koppal-District-Karnataka-Andrew-M-Bauer-2015

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    Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves."They have a number of finely and ornately carved caves. It is believed that most of these caves were carved out as residential blocks for Jain monks during the reign of King Kharavela. Udayagiri means "Sunrise Hill" and has 18 caves while Khandagiri has 15 caves.
    The caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, called lena or leṇa in the inscriptions, were dug out mostly during the reign of Kharavela for the abode of Jaina ascetics. The most important of this group is Ranigumpha in Udayagiri which is a double storeyed monastery."


    I suggest that the Indus Script hypertexts which occur together with Brahmi inscriptions and sculptural friezes are metalwork signifiers of the occupants of the caves. The names are spelt out in Brahmi while their functions/professions are signified by Indus Script hypertexts.

    Svastika PLUS fish-fin (srivatsa) hypertexts of the Tiger cave signify jasta kammaṭa, ''zinc PLUS mint'.which signify the professional competence of Bhūti, the city judge.
    L.1- नगर अखंदस L.2- स भूतिनो लेणं Translation :- The cave of Bhūti, the city judge (Brahmi inscription)

    Udayagiri - Sargapuri- Manchapuri Gumpha - Jaina Symbol. Decorated with fish-fin hypertext. khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus:  kammaṭa, kambāra in smithy, mint. coiner, coinage'arka'sun's rays' rebus: arka, eraka'moltencast, copper, gold'' cf. agasāle'goldsmith's workshop'
    Hatigumpha - Udayagiri- Bhubaneswar. Decorated with fish-fin hypertext. khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus:  kammaṭa, kambāra in smithy, mint. coiner, coinage' sattva 'svastika glyph' rebus: sattu (Tamil), satta, sattva (Kannada) jasth जसथ् ।रपु m. (sg. dat. jastas ज्तस), zinc, spelter; pewter; zasath ् ज़स््थ् ्or zasuth ज़सुथ ्। रप m. (sg. dat. zastas ु ज़्तस),् zinc, spelter, pewter (cf. Hindī jast). jastuvu; । रपू्भवः adj. (f. jastüvü), made of zinc or pewter.(Kashmiri). 
    Udayagiri. Jaina. Tree in railing.
    Image result for jaina ananta gumpha treeKhandagiri caves (2nd cent. BCE) Cave 3 (Jaina Ananta gumpha). Sacred tree in railing.
    karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'.
    Bharhut Stupa. Tree in railing.

    Khandagiri caves (2nd cent. BCE) Cave 3 (Jaina Ananta gumpha). Fire-altar?, śrivatsa, svastika
    (hieroglyphs) (King Kharavela, a Jaina who ruled Kalinga has an inscription dated 161 BCE) contemporaneous with Bharhut and Sanchi and early Bodhgaya.




    his is cave of town-judge Sabhuti.

    L.1- नगर अखंदस
    L.2- स भूतिनो लेणं

    Translation :- The cave of Bhūti, the city judge.
    No. 12. Tiger Cave, Udayagiri, from a drawing by Capt. Kittoe.
    “The expanded jaws, armed with a row of most formidable teeth, form the verandah, while the entrance to the cell is placed where the gullet in a living animal would be. There is a short inscription at the side of the doorway, which according to Prinsep reads ‘Excavated by Ugra Aveda’ (the antivedist), which looks as if its author was a convert from the Brahmanical to the Buddhist religion. Before the first letter of this inscription there is a well known Buddhist symbol, which is sometimes like a capital Y standing on a cube or box, and after the last letter is swastika.(JASB, vol. vi, p.1073) These two symbols are placed at the beginning and end of the great Aira (Kharavela) inscription in the Hathi Gumpha, though there their position is reversed, the swastika being at the beginning, the other symbol at the end. The meaning or the name of this last has not yet been ascertained, but it occurs in conjunction with the swastika very frequently on the earliest Buddhist coins. (JASB, and Thomas’s Prinsep, vol. i. Plates XIX and XX) The probability, therefore, is that these two inscriptions cannot be far apart in date, and as the jambs of doorway leading into the cell of the Tiger cave slope considerably towards, there seems no reason for doubting that this cave may not be only slightly more modern than the Aira (Kharavela) inscription in the Hthi cave here, and contemporary with the Ashoka caves in the Barabar hills. ”(Fergusson, James and James Burgess, ‘Bagh and Sarpa, or Tiger and Serpent caves and smaller cells’ in The Cave Temples of India, 68-70, London: WH Allen & Co., et al, 1880.)

    Bagh Gumpha, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, Khordha District [Odisha-INDIA]


    Bagh -- Vyāghra-- Gumpat (Cave 12) Udayagiri caves (Bhubaneswar)
    Udayagiri - General View

    Udayagiri. Jaina. Tree in railing.
    Image result for jaina ananta gumpha treeKhandagiri caves (2nd cent. BCE) Cave 3 (Jaina Ananta gumpha). Sacred tree in railing.
    karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'.


    The Hathigumpha Inscription ("Elephant Cave" inscription), from Udayagiri, near Bhubaneswar in Odisha, was inscribed by Kharavela, the then Emperor of Kalinga in India, during 2nd century BCE.

    Prinsep's reading along with the facsimile prepared by Kittoe was Published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, VI (1837),
    Excerpt:
    "And in the second year (he), disregarding Satakamini, dispatches to the western regions an army strong in cavalry, elephants, infantry (nara) and chariots (ratha) and by that army having reached the Kanha-bemna, he throws the city of the Musikas into consternation." Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XX
    "Then in the eighth year, (Kharavela) with a large army having sacked Goradhagiri causes pressure on Rajagaha (Rajagriha). On account of the loud report of this act of valour, the Yavana (Greek) King Dimi[ta] retreated to Mathura having extricated his demoralized army."
    — Hathigumpha inscription, lines 7-8, probably in the 1st century BCE. Original text is in Brahmi script


    The Hathigumpha cave ("Elephant Cave") has the Hathigumpha inscription, written by Raja Kharavela, the king of Kalinga in India, during the 2nd century BCE. The Hathigumpha inscription consists of seventeen lines incised in deep cut Brahmi letters on the overhanging brow of a natural cavern Hathigumpha in the south side of the Udayagiri hill. It faces the rock edicts of Asoka at Dhauli, situated about six miles away.

    Other minor inscriptions

    Besides Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela, there are some other minor Brahmiinscriptions in the twin hillocks of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, which were deciphered earlier by Prof RD Banergy during 1915-16 (Epigraphic Indica-XIII) and BM Baraua (Indian Historical Quarterly-XIV). Sadananda Agrawal has given further clarifications about them and are produced as under:

    I- Mancapuri cave inscription (Upper storey)

    This inscription is engraved on the raised space between the second and third doorways of the cave. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

    L.1- अरहंतपसादायकलिंगानंसमनानंलेनंकारितंराजिनोललाकस

    L.2- हथिसिहसपपोतसधुतुनाकलिंगचकवतिनोसिरिखारवेलस

    L.3- अगमहिसिनाकारितं

    Translation - By the blessings of Arhats, the chief queen of Kharavela, the Cakravarti monarch of Kalinga, the great granddaughter of Hathisiha (Hasti Simha) and the daughter of Lalāka or Lalārka caused to be excavated the cave for the sramanas of Kalinga.

    II- Mancapuri cave inscription (Upper storey)-A

    This inscription is incised on a raised bend between the 3rd and 4th doorways from the left and contains single line. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

    ऐरसमहाराजसकलिंगाधिपतिनामहामेघवाहनसकुदेपसिरिनोलेणं

    Translation - This is the cave of Aira Mahameghavahana Maharaja Kudepasiri, the overlord of Kalinga.

    Note:- Kudepasiri seems to be the immediate successor of Kharavela.

    III-Manchapuri cave inscription 'B' (Lower storey)

    This inscription has been engraved on the right wall of Veranda, to the right of the entrance to the right-hand side chamber of the main wing, consisting of one line. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

    कुमारोवडुखसलेणं

    Translation - [This is] the cave of Prince Vaḍukha.

    Note:- On palaeographic ground Prof Banergy considers this inscription to be a little earlier than the inscription of King Kudepasiri. According to Sadananda Agrawal, Prince Badukha stands an obscure figure in history, but Badukha seems to be the son or brother of Kudepasiri.

    IV- Inscriptions in the Sarpagumpha (Over the door way)

    This inscription consisting of one line, is incised over the doorway of the Sarpagumpha. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

    चूलकमसकोठाजेया

    Translation - The chamber and veranda/or side chamber of cūlakama. Note:- However Dr. Sahu interpreted Ajeya being united by a Sandhi qualifying Koṭha there by denoting invincible. But he ignored the conjunction ca (Devanagari: ) which follows Koṭha(Devanagari:कोठा) and Jeya (Devanagari:जेया).

    V- Inscription in the Sarpagumpha ( to the left of the doorway) The text in Devanagariscript is as under:

    L.1- कंमसहलखि

    L.2- णयपसादो

    Translation :- [The pavilion is the] gift of Kamma and Halakhina.

    Note:- Most probably Halakhiṇa was the wife of Kamma. Chūlakamma - found in the inscription No.IV and Kamma of this record indicate official designations rather than the proper names. Kamma may be taken as minister of works (Karma saciva) and Cūlakamma appears to be a junior cadre of minister in the Department of works.

    VI- Haridas cave inscription

    This inscription contains one line has been incised over one of the three entrances to the main chamber of the cave from the veranda. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

    चूलकमसपसातोकोठाजेया

    Translation :- The chamber and veranda (or side chamber) are the gift of cūlakama.

    VII- Vyāghragumphā inscription

    The record is incised on the outer wall of the inner chamber. The text in Devanagariscript is as under:

    L.1- नगरअखंदस

    L.2- भूतिनोलेणं

    Translation :- The cave of Bhūti, the city judge.

    VIII- Jambesavara cave inscription

    This inscription has been engraved over the entrances to the inner chamber of the cave. The text in Devanagari script is as under:

    महादसबरयायनकियसलेनं

    Translation :- The cave of Mahamāda Nākiya and Bāriyā.

    X- Tatowāgumphā inscription (Cave No -1)

    The record of this inscription is incised over one of the entrances to the inner chamber. The Text reads in Sanskrit as

    पादमुलिकसकुसुमसलेणं x []

    Translation: The cave of Kusuma, the padamulika.

    Notes:- There is a syllable after the word lenam, which may be read as ni or phi,. padamulika literally means, one who serves at the feet [of king].

    According to Kishori Lal Faujdar, Here Kusuma seems to be related with Kaswan clan of Jats. He refers an article ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Devanagari as under:[2]

    कुसवानाम्क्षत्रियानांसहाय्यतावतांप्राप्तमसिकनगरम्

    Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ.

    Translation:- This translates that the city of 'Masikanagara ' was obtained with the help of 'KuswanKshatriyas.

    Note:- Sadananda Agrawal has interpreted Masikanagara as Asikanagara and identified with the city Adam (Nagpur district). In view of the evidence of a highly prosperous city unearthed at Adam, Prof AM Shastri is of the opinion that Adam itself represents the Asikanagara of Hathigumpha inscription. It is worth noting in the present context that a terracotta sealing having a legend, has been discovered from Adam,[3] situated on the right bank of the river Wainganga, which reads Asakajanapadasa (Devanagari: असकजनपदस).

    XI- Ananta Gumpha inscription (A)

    The record is incised on the architrave between the left ante and the fifth pillar. The text in Oriya script is: Template:Lang-or (Devanagari: दोहदसमणनंलेणं

    Translation :- The cave of the Dohada Śramaṇas.

    List of Caves at Udayagiri

    1.   Ranigumpha

    2.   Bajagharagumpha

    3.   Chota Hathigumpha

    4.   Alkapurigumpha

    5.   Jaya-vijayagumpha

    6.   Panasagumpha

    7.   Thakuranigumpha

    8.   Patalapurigumpha

    9.   Mancapurigumpha

    10.Ganesagumpha

    11.Jambesvaragumpha

    12.Vyaghragumpha

    13.Sarpagumpha

    14.Hathigumpha

    15.Dhanagharagumpha

    16.Haridasagumpha

    17.Jagammathgumpha

    18.Rosaigumpha

    List of Caves at Khandagiri

    1.   Tatowa gumpha No.-1

    2.   Tatowa gumpha No.-2

    3.   Ananta gumpha

    4.   Tentuli gumpha

    5.   Khandagiri gumpha

    6.   Dhyana gumpha

    7.   Navamuni gumpha

    8.   Barabhuji gumpha

    9.   Trusula gumpha

    10.Ambika gumpha

    11.Lalatendukesari gumpha

    12.Unnamed

    13.Unnamed

    14.Ekadasi gumpha

    15.Unnamed

    The above nomenclature has no historical significance but is accepted at present for the convenience of scholars and general readers. The art of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, being almost contemporaneous with that of Sanchi, has a striking resemblance to it but at the same time retains its own individuality and advanced technique.

    http://research.omicsgroup.org/index.php/Udayagiri_and_Khandagiri_Caves#cite_ref-1




    Hathigumpha inscription of King Khāravela at Udayagiri Hills as first drawn in "Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Volume I: Inscriptions of Asoka by Alexander Cunningham", 1827
    L.1 - •नमो अरहंतानं [।।] णमो सवसिधानं [।।] ऐरेण महाराजेन महामेघवाहनेन चेतराज वस वधनेन पसथ सुभलखलेन चतुरंतलुठन गुणउपेनेत कलिंगाधिपतिना सिरि खारवेलेन
    L.2 - पंदरस वसानि सिरि कड़ार सरीरवता कीड़िता कुमार कीड़िका [।।] ततो लेख रूप गणना ववहार विधि विसारदेन सवविजावदातेन नव वसानि योवराजं पसासितं [।।] संपुणं चतुविसति वसो तदानी वधमान सेसयो वेनाभि विजयो ततिये
    Line 3 - कलिंग राजवसे पुरिस युगे महाराजभिसेचनं पापुनाति [।।] अभिसित मतो च पधमेवसे वात विहत गोपुर पाकार निवेसनं पटिसंखारयति कलिंगनगरि खिवीर सितल तड़ाग पाड़ियो च वंधापयति संवुयान पटि संटपनं च
    L.4 - कारयति पनतिसाहि सतसहसेहि पकतियो च रंजयति [।।] दुतिये च वसे अचितयिता सातकनिं पछिमदिसं हय गज नर रध बहुलं दंडं पठापयति [।।] कन्हवेंणां गताय च सेनाय वितासिति असिक नगरं [।।] ततिये पुन वसे
    L.5 - गंधव वेद बुधो दप नत गीत वादित संदसनाहि उसव समाज कारापनाहि च कीड़ापयति नगरिं [।।] तथा चवुथे वसे विजाधराधिवासं अहत पुवं कलिंग पुवराज निवेसितं ..... वितध मकुट स .... निखित छत
    L.6 - भिंगारे हित रतन सापतेये सव रठिक भोजके पादे वंदा पयति [।।]पंचमे च दानी वसे नंदराज तिवस सत ओघाटितं तनसुलिय वाटा पनाडि नगरि पवेस [य] ति ... [।।] अभिसितो च [छठे] वसे राजसेयं संदंसयं तो सवकरण
    Line.7 - अनुगह अनेकानि सतसहसानि विसजति पोरं जानपदं [।।] सतमं च वसे पसासतो वजिरघरवति ... स मतुक पद [पुनां] स [कुमार] ...[।।] अठमे च वसे महति सेनाय महत गोरधगिरिं
    L.8 - घाता पयिता राजगहं उपपिड़ापयति [।।] एतिनं च कंम पदान संनादेन सबत सेन वाहने विपमुचितुं मधुरं अपायातो यवनराध ... म... यछति पलव भार
    L.9 - कपरूखे हय गज रध सह यति सवधरावास परिवेसने ... सव गहणं च कारयितुं बम्हणानं जय परिहार ददाति [।।] अरंहत [पसादाय] नवमे च वसे
    L.10 - [नगरिय कलिंग] राजनिवासं महाविजय पासादं कारयति अठतिसाय सतसहसेहि [।।] दसमे च वसे दंड संधि साम [मयो] भरधवस पठानं मही जयनं ... कारापयति [।।] एकादसमे च वसे [सतुनं] पायातानं च मणि रतनानि उपलभते [।।]
    L.11 - कलिंग पुवराज निवेसितं पिथुडं गधवनंगलेन कासयति [।।] जनपद भावनं च तेरसवस सत कतं भिदति तमिर देह संघातं [।।] बारसमे च वसे ..... वितासयति उतरापध राजनो [ततो]
    L.12 - मागधानं च विपुल भयं जनेतो हथसं गंगाय पाययति [।।] मागधं च राजान बहसतिमितं पादे वंदापयति [।।] नंदराज नीतं कालिंगजिन संनिवेसं [कलिंग] [राज] गह रतन परिहारे हि अंग मगध वसुं च नयति [।।]
    L.13 - ...तुं जठर लखिल गोपुरानि सिहरानि निवेसयति सत विसिकनं परिहारे हि [।।] अभुत मछरियं च हथीनाव तं परिहर [उपलभते] हय हथी रतन मानिकं [।।] पंडराजा एदानि अनेकानि मुत मनिरतनानि आहारापयति इध सतस [हसानि]
    Line 14 - [दखिणापथ] वासिनो वसीकरोति [।।] तेरसमे च वसे सुपवत कुमारी पवते अरहते (हि) पखिन संसितहि कायनिसीदियाय (...) राजभितिनं चिनवतानं वासासितानं पूजानुरत उवासग (खा) रवेल सिरिना जीवदेह सायिका परिखाता [।।]
    L.15 - सकत समण सुविहितानं च सवदिसानं यतिनं तपस इसिनं संघायनं अरहत निसीदिया समीपे पभारे वराकर समुथापिताहि अनेक योजनाहि ताहि पनतिसाहि सतसहसेहि सिलाहि [[ Simhapatha|सिहपथ]] रानि स [भिलासेहि]
    L.16 - पटलिक चतरे च वेड्डरिय गभे थंभे पटिथापयति पानतरिय सतसहसेहि [।।] मुरियकाल वोछिनं च चोयठि अंग संतिकं तुरियं उपादयति [।।] खेमराजा स वधराजा स भिखुराजा स धमराजा पसं तो सुनं तो अनुभवंतो कलणानि
    L.17 -... गुण विसेस कुसलो सव पासंड पूजको सवदेवायतन संकार कारको अपतिहत चक वाहन बलो चकधरो गुतचको पवत चको राजसि वसुकुल विनिसितो महाविजयो राजा खारवेल सिरि
    ne 1-2 - Salutation to Arhats, salutation to all Siddhas. Ārya Mahāmeghavāhana Mahārājā Śrī Khāravela, the overlord of Kalinga, who heightens the glory of the dynasty of Cetaraja , who possesses many auspicious sign, and is gifted with qualities spreading over four quarters, and who has handsome brown complexion, played the childhood games for fifteen years.
    Line 2-3 - Thereafter, being proficient in writing (लेख) coinage (रूप), arithmetic (गणना) law (Vyavahāra ) and procedure (विधि) and skilled in all arts, he ruled as the crown prince for nine years. After completion his twenty-fourth year and with the ripening of the age of minority, (he) as glorious as Vainya was crowned king in the third generation of the royal dynasty of Kalinga1*.
    Line 3-4 - In the very first year of his coronation ( His Majesty) caused to be repaired the gate, rampart and structures of the fort of Kalinga Nagari, which had been damaged by storm, and caused to be built flight of steps for the cool tanks and laid all gardens at the cost of thirty five hundred thousand (coins) and thus pleased all his subjects.
    Line 4-5 - In the second year, without caring for Sātakarnī [His Majesty] sent to the west a large army consisting of horse, elephant, infantry and chariot, and struck terror to Asikanagara with that troop that marched upto the river Kanhavemnā*2.
    Thereafter, in the third year, well versed in the Gāndharva Veda, (His Majesty) made Kalinga Nagri play, as it were by arranging festivals and convivial gatherings, and organising performances of acrobatics, dance, as well as vocal and instrumental music.
    Line 5-6 - Then in the fourth year, (His Majesty] .... the Vidyadhara tract, that had been established by the former kings of Kalinga and had never been crossed before3.
    The Rathika and Bhojaka chiefs with their crown cast off, their umbrella and royal insignia thrown aside, and their Jewellery and wealth confiscated, were, made to pay obeisance at the feet [ of His Majesty].
    Line 6-7 - And in the fifth year, [His Majesty] caused the aqueducts that had been excavated by king Nandathree hundred years before , to flow into Kalinga Nagri through Tanasuli.
    Further, in the sixth year of his coronation (his Majesty) in order to display the regal wealth, remitted all taxes, cesses and benevolences for the urban and rural population, to the extent of many hundred thousands (of coins).
    Line 7-8 - And in the seventh year of his reign [the Queen] of Vajiraghara, blessed with a son attained motherhood.
    Then in the eighth year, having destroyed the strong (fort) of Gorathagiri, with a mighty army [ His Majesty] oppressed Rājagrha.
    Line 8-9 - Getting the tidings of all these achievements, the Yavanaraja4 who retreated to Mathura for the rescue of his army encamped there [Surrendered]
    The sage Kharavela, with the Kalpa tree burdened with foliage and with the horses, elephants and chariots......... distributed (gifts) to all houses and inns and with a view to making gifts universal gave away the spoils of victory to the Brahmanas.
    Line 9-10 - And in the ninth year [His Majesty] caused to be built [in Kalinga Nagari] the Great Victory palace the royal residence at the cost of thirty eight hundred thousand (coins). Then in the tenth year, [His Majesty] the embodiment of politics, diplomacy and peace, caused [ the army] to march through Bharatavarsa5 for conquest.
    Line 10-11 - And in the eleventh year [His majesty] secured jewels and precious stones from the retreating [enemies] [His Majesty] caused to be cultivated pithunda, founded by former kings of Kalinga, with ploughs drawn by asses. Also [His Majesty] shattered the territorial confederacy of the Tamil states having populous villages, that was existing since thirteen hundred years.
    Line 11-12 - And in the twelfth year, [ His Majesty] terrorised the king of Uttarapatha by an army of hundred thousand, after that [His Majesty] generated great fear among the people of Magadha while making the elephants and horses drink in the Ganges, [ His Majesty] made Bahasatimita, the King of Magadha, obeisance at his feet. [ His Majesty] then brought back the image of Kalinga Jina with its thrown and endowment that had been taken away by king Nanda and the jewels plundered by him (King Nanda) from the Kalinga royal palace, along with the treasures of Anga and Magadha.
    Line 13 - [His Majesty] caused to erect towers with strong and beautiful gateways at the cost of two thousand coins. [His Majesty] obtained horses, elephants and jewels losing strange and wonderful elephants and ships. The King of Pandya caused to be brought here ( capital Kalinga Nagri) various pearls, jewels and precious stones hundred thousand in number.
    Line 14 - [His Majesty] brought to submission the people of ... And in the thirteenth year upasaka Sri Kharavelaa devoted worshipper of those, who used to cloth themselves in fine cloth, enjoy royal endowment and take to rainy season, retreat, excavated in the Kumari hill, where the wheel of victory had been well turned6, dwelling cells for resting of the bodies of the .... Arhats who had renounced their sustenance.

    Line 15-16 - [As desired by] the Queen of Simhapatha, [His Majesty] built an edifice in front of and close to the dwellings of the Arhats with thirty five hundred thousand stone slabs, raised from the best quarries and brought form a distance of many yojanas for the convenience of the honoured Sramanas and for the yatisTapasa, Rsis and Samghiyanas, who hailed from all directions and also set up on the pink coloured floor, pillars bedecked with emerald at a cost of one hundred and five thousand (coins)
    [His Majesty] revived the Tauryatrika7 included in sixty four branches of art that had been suspended during the time of the Mauryas.
    Line 16-17 - [ Thus reigns] the king of bliss, the King of prosperity the Bhiksu King and King of Dhamma, [ His Majesty] the mighty conqueror Rajarsi Sri Kharavela, the descendant of Vasu 8, the embodiment of specific qualities, the worshipper of all religious order, the repairer of all shrines of gods, he possessor of invincible armies, the upholder of law , the protector of law, and the executor of law, having seen heard and felt all that is good.

    (Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000).
    Picture gallery

    http://ignca.nic.in/asp/showbig.asp?projid=orkhr1870001

    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Entrance

    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Pillared Varanda

    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Relief Panel
    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Relief Panel of Chaitya Worship


    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Salabhanjika

    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Elephant in Rope
    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Elephant in Royalty

    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Pillared Capital Decoration
    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Winged Animal
    Udayagiri - Alakapuri Gumpha - Winged Animal


    Udayagiri - Chota Hatigumpha - The Elephants
    Udayagiri - Ganesa Gumpha - General View

    Udayagiri - Ganesa Gumpha - Doorjamb. Decorated with fish-fin hypertext. khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus:  kammaṭa, kambāra in smithy, mint. coiner, coinage'
    Udayagiri - Ganesa Gumpha - Inscription
    Udayagiri - Ganesa Gumpha - Relief Panel
    Udayagiri - Ganesa Gumpha - Scene of Abduction
    Udayagiri - Ganesa Gumpha - Ganesa
    Hatigumpha - Udayagiri- Bhubaneswar
    Udayagiri - Panasa Gumpha - Winged Animal Capital
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - General View

    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - Arch Decoration
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - Aswamedha
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - Aswamedha Horse
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - Gandharva
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - Human onTree. Tiger looks back. This evokes the Indus Script hypertext of a spy on a tree with a tiger looking back.
    Udayagiri - Thakurani Gumpha - Winged Animal. Eagle face. Elephant body. kambha 'wing'. rebus: kammaṭa 'mint' karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' eraka 'eagle' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper'.


    B19 copper plate epigraph: hunter-blacksmith: कौटिलिकः kauṭilikḥ कौटिलिकः 1 A hunter.-2 A blacksmith. कौटिलिक [p= 315,2] m. (fr. कुटिलिका Pa1n2. 4-4 , 18) " deceiving the hunter [or the deer Sch.] by particular movements " , a deer [" a hunter " Sch.Ka1s3. f. ( Pa1n2. 4-4 , 18कुटिलिका crouching , coming stealthily (like a hunter on his prey ; a particular movement on the stage) Vikr. कुटिलिक " using the tool called कुटिलिका " , a blacksmith ib. कुटिलक [p= 288,2] f. a tool used by a blacksmith Pa1n2. 4-4 , 18 Ka1s3.mfn. bent , curved , crisped Pan5cat.
    kamaṭh a crab (Skt.) kamāṭhiyo=archer;kāmaṭhum =a bow; kāmaḍī ,kāmaḍum=a chip of bamboo (G.) kāmaṭhiyo bowman; an archer(Skt.lex.) kamaṛkom= fig leaf (Santali.lex.)kamarmaṛā(Has.), kamaṛkom(Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.)kamaṭha= fig leaf, religiosa(Skt.) dula‘tw' Rebus: dul 'cast metal ’Thus, cast loh ‘copper casting’ infurnace:baṭa= wide-mouthed pot; baṭa= kiln (Te.) kammaṭa=portable furnace(Te.) kampaṭṭam 'coiner,mint' (Tamil) kammaṭa (Malayalam)
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - Kalasa Procession
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha - Monkey Episode
    Udayagiri - Rani Gumpha -Dancers
    Udayagiri - Sargapuri- Manchapuri Gumpha - Inscription

    Udayagiri - Sargapuri- Manchapuri Gumpha - Jina worship by King & Queen
    Udayagiri - Sarpa Gumpha I- Closeup. फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood' rebus: फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'.

    Continuum of Indus Script hypertext cipher

    Cobra hood is a hypertext signified on a Bharhut frieze.

    चतुर्श्रि, अष्टाश्रि quadrangular, octagonal yupa skambha or pillars are attested ca. 2500 BCE, archaeologically in Kalibangan and Binjor respectively, both on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati. Hieroglyphs skambha, stambha signify tã̄bā 'copper', and hieroglyph garland signifies dhāu 'red ore'. (perhaps hematite, ferrite ore). 
    A frieze from Bharhut with garlands on tree PLUS kulA 'hood of serpent' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelters'. Five hoods may signify páñcadhAtu 'five minerals'.  *pañcakula ʻ consisting of five families ʼ. [páñca, kúla -- ]Pk. paṁcaüla -- n. ʻ panchayet ʼ; -- deriv.: Pk. paṁcaüliya -- m. ʻ one who deliberates in a panchayet ʼ; H. pacaurpacaulī m. ʻ village headman ʼ.(CDIAL 7657)
    Pasenadi pillar of Bharhut with garlanded tree signifies: kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' PLUS dāma 'garland' rebus: dhāu 'red ore'.

    The ekamukha linga signified on such pillars atop a kiln or smelter on Bhuteswar sculptural friezes refer to mũh 'face' rebus: mũhe 'ingot', mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes, 'smelters'. (Santali) A garland is arried by a dwarf, to signify dāmā m. ʻ id., garland ʼ rebusPk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (Red ochre is Fe
    2O3, takes its reddish color from the mineral hematite, which is an anhydrous iron oxide.)

    Kushana period, 1st century C.E.From Mathura Red Sandstone 89x92cm

    Ayagapatta, Kankali Tila, Mathura.








    Vishnu Sandstone Relief From Meerut India Indian Civilization 10th Century Dharma chakra. Srivatsa. Gada.

    Rebus: dhamma 'dharma' (Pali) Hieroglyphs: dām 'garland, rope':
    Hieroglyphs: hangi 'mollusc' + dām 'rope, garland' dã̄u m. ʻtyingʼ; puci 'tail' Rebus: puja 'worship'

    Rebus: ariya sanghika dhamma puja 'veneration of arya sangha dharma'

    Hieroglyph: Four hieroglyphs are depicted. Fish-tails pair are tied together. The rebus readings are as above: ayira (ariya) dhamma puja 'veneration of arya dharma'.


    ayira 'fish' Rebus:ayira, ariya, 'person of noble character'. युगल yugala 'twin' Rebus: जुळणें (p. 323) [ juḷaṇēṃ ] v c & i (युगल S through जुंवळTo put together in harmonious connection or orderly disposition (Marathi). Thus an arya with orderly disposition.

    sathiya 'svastika glyph' Rebus: Sacca (adj.) [cp. Sk. satya] real, true D i.182; M ii.169; iii.207; Dh 408; nt. saccaŋ truly, verily, certainly Miln 120; saccaŋ kira is it really true? D i.113; Vin i.45, 60; J (Pali)

    सांगाडा [ sāṅgāḍā ] m The skeleton, box, or frame (of a building, boat, the body &c.), the hull, shell, compages. 2 Applied, as Hulk is, to any animal or thing huge and unwieldy.
    सांगाडी [ sāṅgāḍī ] f The machine within which a turner confines and steadies the piece he has to turn. Rebus: सांगाती [ sāṅgātī ] a (Better संगती) A companion, associate, fellow.Buddha-pada (feet of Buddha), carved on a rectangular slab. The margin of the slab was carved with scroll of acanthus and rosettes.  The foot-print shows important symbols like triratna, svastika, srivatsa,ankusa and elliptical objects, meticulously carved in low-relief. From Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh, being assignable on paleographical grounds to circa 1st century B.C --2nd century CE,

    An ayagapata or Jain homage tablet, with small figure of a tirthankara in the centre, from Mathura
     The piece is now in the Lucknow Museum. 

    An ayagapata or Jain homage tablet, with small figure of a tirthankara in the centre and inscription below, from Mathura
    An ayagapata or Jain homage tablet, with small figure of a tirthankara in the centre and inscription below, from Mathura. "Photograph taken by Edmund William Smith in 1880s-90s of a Jain homage tablet. The tablet was set up by the wife of Bhadranadi, and it was found in December 1890 near the centre of the mound of the Jain stupa at Kankali Tila. Mathura has extensive archaeological remains as it was a large and important city from the middle of the first millennium onwards. It rose to particular prominence under the Kushans as the town was their southern capital. The Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain faiths all thrived at Mathura, and we find deities and motifs from all three and others represented in sculpture. In reference to this photograph in the list of photographic negatives, Bloch wrote that, "The technical name of such a panel was ayagapata [homage panel]." The figure in the centre is described as a Tirthamkara, a Jain prophet. The piece is now in the Lucknow Museum." http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/apac/photocoll/a/largeimage58907.html
    View of the Jaina stupa excavated at Kankali Tila, Mathura.
    Manoharpura. Svastika. Top of āyāgapaṭa. Red Sandstone. Lucknow State Museum. (Scan no.0053009, 0053011, 0053012 ) See: https://www.academia.edu/11522244/A_temple_at_Sanchi_for_Dhamma_by_a_k%C4%81ra%E1%B9%87ik%C4%81_sanghin_guild_of_scribes_in_Indus_writing_cipher_continuum


    Ayagapata (After Huntington)

    Jain votive tablet from Mathurå. From Czuma 1985, catalogue number 3. Fish-tail is the hieroglyph together with svastika hieroglyph, fish-pair hieroglyph, safflower hieroglyph, cord (tying together molluscs and arrow?)hieroglyph multiplex, lathe multiplex (the standard device shown generally in front of a one-horned young bull on Indus Script corpora), flower bud (lotus) ligatured to the fish-tail.  All these are venerating hieroglyphs surrounding the Tirthankara in the central medallion.


    [quote]Cunningham, later the first director of the Archaeological Survey of India, makes the claim in: The Bhilsa Topes (1854). Cunningham, surveyed the great stupa complex at Sanchi in 1851, where he famously found caskets of relics labelled 'Sāriputta' and 'Mahā Mogallāna'. [1] The Bhilsa Topes records the features, contents, artwork and inscriptions found in and around these stupas. All of the inscriptions he records are in Brāhmī script. What he says, in a note on p.18, is: "The swasti of Sanskrit is the suti of Pali; the mystic cross, or swastika is only a monogrammatic symbol formed by the combination of the two syllables, su + ti = suti." There are two problems with this. While there is a word suti in Pali it is equivalent to Sanskrit śruti'hearing'. The Pali equivalent ofsvasti is sotthi; and svastika is either sotthiya or sotthika. Cunningham is simply mistaken about this. The two letters su + ti in Brāhmī script are not much like thesvastika. This can easily been seen in the accompanying image on the right, where I have written the word in the Brāhmī script. I've included the Sanskrit and Pali words for comparison. Cunningham's imagination has run away with him. Below are two examples of donation inscriptions from the south gate of the Sanchi stupa complex taken from Cunningham's book (plate XLX, p.449). 

    "Note that both begin with a lucky svastika. The top line reads 卐 vīrasu bhikhuno dānaṃ - i.e. "the donation of Bhikkhu Vīrasu." The lower inscription also ends with dānaṃ, and the name in this case is perhaps pānajāla (I'm unsure about jā). Professor Greg Schopen has noted that these inscriptions recording donations from bhikkhus and bhikkhunis seem to contradict the traditional narratives of monks and nuns not owning property or handling money. The last symbol on line 2 apparently represents the three jewels, and frequently accompanies such inscriptions...Müller [in Schliemann(2), p.346-7] notes that svasti occurs throughout 'the Veda' [sic; presumably he means the Ṛgveda where it appears a few dozen times]. It occurs both as a noun meaning 'happiness', and an adverb meaning 'well' or 'hail'. Müller suggests it would correspond to Greek εὐστική (eustikē) from εὐστώ (eustō), however neither form occurs in my Greek Dictionaries. Though svasti occurs in the Ṛgveda, svastika does not. Müller traces the earliest occurrence of svastika to Pāṇini's grammar, the Aṣṭādhyāyī, in the context of ear markers for cows to show who their owner was. Pāṇini discusses a point of grammar when making a compound using svastika and karṇa, the word for ear. I've seen no earlier reference to the word svastika, though the symbol itself was in use in the Indus Valley civilisation.[unquote]

    1. Cunningham, Alexander. (1854) The Bhilsa topes, or, Buddhist monuments of central India : comprising a brief historical sketch of the rise, progress, and decline of Buddhism; with an account of the opening and examination of the various groups of topes around Bhilsa. London : Smith, Elder. [possibly the earliest recorded use of the word swastika in English].

    2. Schliemann, Henry. (1880). Ilios : the city and country of the Trojans : the results of researches and discoveries on the site of Troy and through the Troad in the years 1871-72-73-78-79. London : John Murray.

    Like the flag that will be raised in honour of Indra during the month of ashvin on a full-moon day, but thrown onto earth along with its flagstaff after the festival, Vali with depleted energy and dissipated vitality slowly fell onto ground, and with tears blocking throat he moaned piteously. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa 4-16-37]
    the identification of 'standard device' as a 'filter' is rejected. To view/interpret the pictorial signifiers as a filtering process is an erroneous reconstruction.The pictorial signifiers point to a drilling, circular motion with smoke emanating from surface of a bowl.

     Two  Ṛcas are signifiers of Indra standards, perhaps Indra dhvaja held aloft: RV 1.10.1 and RV 4. 24.10.

    RV 1.010.01 The chanters (of the Soma) hymn you, S'atakratu; the reciters of the R.k praise you, who are worthy of praise; the Bra-hman.as raise you aloft, like a bamboo pole. [ga_yatrin.ah = lit. those who use ga_yatri_ metre: udga_ta_, chanter of Sa_ma hymns; arkin.ah = reciters of the r.ca_: hota_; bra_man.ah = brahma_ of a sacrifice, a priest so denominated and other bra_hman.as (or, utterers of prayer. tva_ va"m.s'am iva udyemire, they have raised you like a bamboo (vam.s'o vanas'ayo bhavati vanana_cchru_yata iti va_ (Nirukta. 5.5); they have elevated Indra, as tumblers raise a bamboo pole, on the summit of which they balance themselves; vam.s'a = family (i.e. as ambitious persons raise their family to consequence)].

    RV 1.10.1 THE chanters hymn thee, they who say the word of praise magnify thee.

    The priests have raised thee up on high, O Satakratu, like a pole.

    Griffith: 4.24.10 Who for ten milchkine- purchaseth from me this Indra who is mine?
    When he hath slain the Vrtras let the buyer give him back to me.



    Image result for ancient mace indusAncient Luristan Bronze Mace 1000 BCE.


    Vāmana Purāṇa compares Indra-dhavaja with a parigham, 'mace' tied around, 'paṭṭobaddham' with drapery. This suggests the possibility that the Indra-dhavaja was shaped with a curved-head at the top. This is consistent with the shape of sangaḍa, a standard device hypertext shown often in fron of a one-horned young bull on hundreds of Sarasvati Script inscriptions.
    Parts of the 'standard device' which is a hypertext composed of two main parts: top part is a gimlet; the bottom bowl is sã̄gāḍ, 'a portable furnace] sanghāḍo, śagaḍī = lathe (Gujaratisā̃gāḍo, sãgaḍa (lathe/portable furnaceసంగడి sangaḍi The numbered parts are interpreted NOT as a filter but a lathe ligatured to a portable furnace: Hence, the parts 1 to 12 are explained: 1. Top hook (handle); 2. gimlet; 3. wavy lines signify turning lathe; 4. slanted lines signify circular motion of the gimlet; 5. the sharp drill-point of the gimlet; 6. bead or other objects being drilled by lathe-action; 7. smoke emanating from the portable furnace bowl; 8. bottom bow of rhe furnace; 9. Perforations as dotted circles are two signifiers: a. perforated beads; b.strands of fiber or rope. dhāī 'strands or fibers (of rope)' rebus: dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ*CDUA6773); 10.  Small circles signifying globules of burning charcoal; 11. stafff or flagpost; 12. base for the two hieroglyph-structure atop the flagpost. After Figure 38,3 in Mahadevan, The sacred filter standard facing the unicorn,in:Asko Parpola, ed., 1993, South Asian Archaeology, Vol. 2, Helsinki, pp. 435-445 http://45.113.136.87/wp-content/uploads/19-The-Sacred-filter-standard-facing-the-unicorn.-more-evidence.-In-South-Asian-Archaeology-1993..pdf
    Reconstruction of a drill based on analogical comparisons with the drills used nowadays at Nagara, Gujarat, India: Upper pivot in copper is centered with the drill-head and inserted into a coconut shell. Wooden haft is used with a bow-string to churn. The phtanite drill-head is secured in the haft-hole with a thin coiling thread. The tip of the drill's working end shows the characteristic feature of the shallow hemispherical depression: a 'dotted circle'. (After Vidale, M., 1987. Some aspects of lapidary craft at Moenjodaro in the light of the surface record of Moneer South east Area. In M. Jansen and G. Urban (eds.), Interim Reports, Vol. 2, 113-150. Aachen).
    Piperno, Marcello, Micro-drilling at Shahr-i Sokhta; the making and use of the lithic drill-heads, in: Hammond, Norman Ed., South Asian Archaeology, 1973, Pl. 9.2 and 9.3  "granite drill heads used to perforate beads, prepare stone seals... use of the "bow drill" or the "pump drill" which revolved the point of the drill in an alternating rotary motion...the level of technical performance reached in this micro-drilling work was peculiar to a class of highly-specialized craftsmen who must have enjoyed a considerable social and economic position in the life of Shahr-i Sokhta." (p.128) [ca. 2700-2300 BCE.]

    Hypertext pictorial motif on Sarasvati Script Corpora. After Figs. 39.1 and 39.2 in Mahadevan opcit.

    Image result for ancient lathe gimletComponents: top register: lathe with pointed gimlet in churning motion; bottom register: portable furnace/crucible with smoke emanating from the surface Carved ivory standard in the middle [From Richard H. Meadow and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Harappa Excavations 1993: the city wall and inscribed materials, in: South Asian Archaeology ; Fig. 40.11, p. 467. Harappa 1990 and 1993: representations of 'standard'; 40.11a: H90-1687/3103-1: faience token; 40.11bH93-2092/5029-1: carved ivory standard fragment (split in half, made on a lathe and was probably cylindrical in shape; note the incisions with a circle motif while a broken spot on the lower portion indicates where the stand shaft would have been (found in the area of the 'Mughal Sarai' located to the south of Mound E across the Old Lahore-Multan Road); 40.11c H93-2051/3808-2:faience token)
    A variant of this hypertext pictorial motif occurs on punch-marked coins:

    Shapes of bowl variants compare with the bottom bowl (portable furnace) of sã̄gāḍ, 'standard device' as variants of Indra-dhavaja on ancient coins, Karur seal and Ujjain glass sealings (After Figurres 39.6 to 39.9 in Mahadevan, opcit.)
    This indra dhvaja ustava , festival of Indra's flagstaff will be undertaken after the sixth lunar month of year, usually after summer in order to appease Indra to cause rains. On full-moon day in Ashvayuja month [October-November] this will be performed and after the ritual the flag / flagstaff will be thrown to ground.
    ध्वज [p= 522,1]  ध्वज्) a banner , flag , standard (ifc. f().RV. &c. Brhat Samhitā calls the dvhaja  Indra-dhvaja sampad,'glory of Indra's flag'(BS 43). MBh 1.57 calls the dhvaja as yaṣṭi (iṣṭapradānam), refers to Indra’s festival as maha (v.23),utsava śakrasya (v.26).


    Nāṭyaśāstra 1.54 to 1.59:

    The Banner festival of Indra and the first production of a play

    1.53-55. On these words, Brahman said, ‘A vey suitble time for the production of a play has come: the Banner Festival of Indra has just begun; make use of the Nāṭyaveda now on this occasion.”


    1.55-58. I then went to that festival in honour of Indra’s victory which took place after the Dānavas and the Asuras (enemies of the gods) were killed. In this festival where jubilant gods assembled in great numbers I performed for their satisfaction the holy Benediction (nāndi) consisting blessings with words in their eightfold aspects (aṣṭānga, lit. of eight limbs). Afterwards I devised an initiation of the situation in which the Daityas were defeated by gods (and), which represented (sometimes) an altercation and tumult and (sometimes) mutual cutting off and piercing (of limbs or bodies).

    1.58-61. Then Brahman as well as other gods were pleased with the performance and gave us all sorts of gifts as a token of joy that filled their mind. First of all the pleased Indra (Sakra) gave his auspicious banner, then Brahman a blacksmith's forge (Kuṭilaka) and Varuṇa a golden pitcher (bhṛngāra), Surya (the sun-god) gave an umbrella, Siva success (siddhi), and Vāyu (the wind-god) a fan. Viṣṇu gave us a lion-seat (simhāsana), Kuvera a crown, and the goddess Sarasvati gave visibility as well as audibility. (NOTE: Does Indra-dhvaja signify  कुटिलिका f. a tool used by a blacksmith Pa1n2. 4-4 , 18 Ka1s3.? Or is it a signifier of a forge?) कुटिल kuṭila, katthīl 'curve' kuṭila 'bent' (CDIAL 3230) Rebus:kuṭila  'bronze' (8 parts copper, 2 parts tin).

    This Indra makha festival occurred on the twelfth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Bhādra. Dhvaja-maha is a Prakrt form of makha ‘yajña’. 

    मख 1 [p= 772,1] m. a feast , festival , any occasion of joy or festivity RV. S3a1n3khGr2.m. a sacrifice , sacrificial oblation S3Br. &c ( Naigh. iii , 17); m. (prob.) N. of a mythical being (esp. in मखस्य शिरः , " मख's head ") RV. VS. S3Br. (cf. also comp.)l mfn. (prob. connected with √1. मह् or √ मंह्) jocund , cheerful , sprightly , vigorous , active , restless (said of the मरुत्s and other gods) RV. Br.


    (The Nāṭyaśāstra, a treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy and Histrionics ascribed to Bharata Muni, tr. By Manomohan Ghosh, 1950, Royal Asiatic Society, Kolkata.)


    Eran-Vidisha: 300 BC, Copper, 6-arm;ujjaini;indra-dhwaja symbols

    http://www.worldofcoins.eu/forum/index.php?topic=34312.0

    Image result for bharatkalyan97 indra dhvaja




    Harappa Script and Bharata traditions वेदिका for kuṭhi a sacred, divine tree, kuṭi 'temple' rebus kuṭhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore' are elaborated in this monograph. These are intimations for the formative stages of the Hindu temple as a sacred precinct for meditation and also for life-activities such as smelting, smithy/forge in artisan guilds (as corporate forms), to produce metalworks of value, which can be traded and reached out to people, thus creating the nation's wealth, thanks to the Bronze Age Revolution in tin-bronzes, cire perdue alloy metal castings and iron/steel castings.
    This monograph demonstrates the documented evidence in ancient inscriptions and sculptural friezes for the formation of weltanschauung in Bharata ādhyatmika āgama traditions of veneration of linga asmukha linga. The word mukha is the key to the cipher: mũhe ‘face’ rebus mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes. In one orthographic metaphorical variant, the face of a person emerges out of a tree trunk, and in another (Bhuteshwar), the face of a person is ligatured to a yupa (synonym: Atharvaveda Skambha of Skambha sukta AV X.7,8). The artists and scribes who inscribed on scores of tablets the tree hieroglyph together with explanatory texts took extraordinary care to signify the sacredness of the 'tree' metaphor. kole.l 'smithy, forge' waskole.l 'temple'; so was kuṭhi 'sacred, divine, tree' rebus, ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore' Harappa, kuṭi'temple'. The sacredness of the tree or yupa (skambha) is reinforced by the  वेदिका railing associated with the orthographic or sculptural frieze renderings. The continuum of the tradition is evidenced by 19 yupa inscriptions; all  19 yupas are octagonal in shape consistent with the ancient texts detailing  aṣṭāśri (octagonal) shapes topped by godhuma caṣāla (wheat, earthsmoke) to carburize by infusing carbon into the smelted ores to render the output of smelted, furnaced metal hard. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/01/wheat-earth-smoke-of-casala-of-yupa.html


    See Fig. 41 in Vats' excavation report plate.
    Thanks to the tweet of @Dauhshanti for the Amaravati stupa sculptural frieze which is a breath-taking narrative of smelting iron from a furnace using Harappa Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts.                                                                                                                                 A face (of an artisan) emrges ou of tree trunk within vedika, sacred railing. A worshipper carries three strands (of a rope): tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'dhAu 'strand'. Rebus:  M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆va m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ)(CDIAL 6773).dhAtu 'strand' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral ore' (Rigveda) tri-dhAtu 'three strands' rebus: tri-dhAtu 'three mineral ores': e.g. haematite, magnetite, laterite three ferrite red coloured ores. A face emergs out of the tree trunk: mũhe ‘face’ rebus mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; kolhe tehen me~ṛhe~t mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron(Santali) Rebus: mūhā 'ingot'; compound formation: mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali)  Another worshipper holds an ingot as an offering in front of the tree-in-railing (vedika).
    Hieroglyph: kuṭa2°ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3°ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ lex., °ṭaka -- m. ʻ a kind of tree ʼ Kauś.Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ, dar. kaṛék ʻ tree, oak ʼ ~ Par. kōṛ ʻ stick ʼ IIFL iii 3, 98.(CDIAL 3228) कुटि a [p= 288,2] m. a tree L., the body कुठि [p= 289,1]mfn. " leafless , bare " or " crooked , wry " (Comm. ; said of a tree) Shad2vBr.m. a tree L., a mountain (Monier-Williams)

    Rebus:kuhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore, to smelt iron’;koe ‘forged (metal)(Santali) kuhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore to smelt iron’; kolheko kuhieda koles smelt iron (Santali) kuhi, kui (Or.; Sad. kohi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kuire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of ēkui has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kuhi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari) kuhi = a factory; lil kuhi = an indigo factory (kohi - Hindi) (Santali.Bodding) kuhi = an earthen furnace for smelting iron; make do., smelt iron; kolheko do kuhi benaokate baliko dhukana, the Kolhes build an earthen furnace and smelt iron-ore, blowing the bellows; tehen:ko kuhi yet kana, they are working (or building) the furnace to-day (H. kohī ) (Santali. Bodding)  kuṭṭhita = hot, sweltering; molten (of tamba, cp. uttatta)(Pali.lex.) uttatta (ut + tapta) = heated, of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure (Pali.lex.) kuṭṭakam, kuṭṭukam  = cauldron (Ma.); kuṭṭuva = big copper pot for heating water (Kod.)(DEDR 1668). gudgā to blaze; gud.va flame (Man.d); gudva, gūdūvwa, guduwa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715). dāntar-kuha = fireplace (Sv.); kōti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kōlhā house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kuhī factory (A.); kohābrick-built house (B.); kuhī bank, granary (B.); koho jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse (G.); kohīlare earthen jar, factory (G.); kuhī granary, factory (M.)(CDIAL 3546). koho = a warehouse; a revenue office, in which dues are paid and collected; kohī a store-room; a factory (Gujarat) ko = the place where artisans work (Gujarati) http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/09/harappa-script-hieroglyph-kuti-tree.html

    An orthographically parallel metaphor for a face emerging out of the trunk of a tree is the signifier of a face ligatured to a Yupa as in Bhuteshwar friezes:
    Relief with Ekamukha linga. Mathura. 1st cent. CE (Fig. 6.2). This is the most emphatic representation of linga as a pillar of fire. The pillar is embedded within a brick-kiln with an angular roof and is ligatured to a tree. Hieroglyph: kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter'. In this composition, the artists is depicting the smelter used for smelting to create mũh 'face' (Hindi) rebus: mũhe 'ingot' (Santali) of mēḍha 'stake' rebus: meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho. Munda)मेड (p. 662) [ mēḍa ] f (Usually मेढ q. v.) मेडका m A stake, esp. as bifurcated. मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] f A forked stake. Used as a post. Hence a short post generally whether forked or not. मेढा (p. 665) [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. 2 A dense arrangement of stakes, a palisade, a paling. मेढी (p. 665) [ mēḍhī ] f (Dim. of मेढ) A small bifurcated stake: also a small stake, with or without furcation, used as a post to support a cross piece. मेढ्या (p. 665) [ mēḍhyā ] a (मेढ Stake or post.) A term for a person considered as the pillar, prop, or support (of a household, army, or other body), the staff or stay. मेढेजोशी (p. 665) [ mēḍhējōśī ] m A stake-जोशी; a जोशी who keeps account of the तिथि &c., by driving stakes into the ground: also a class, or an individual of it, of fortune-tellers, diviners, presagers, seasonannouncers, almanack-makers &c. They are Shúdras and followers of the मेढेमत q. v. 2 Jocosely. The hereditary or settled (quasi fixed as a stake) जोशी of a village.मेंधला (p. 665) [ mēndhalā ] m In architecture. A common term for the two upper arms of a double चौकठ (door-frame) connecting the two. Called also मेंढरी & घोडा. It answers to छिली the name of the two lower arms or connections. (Marathi)

    मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end rebus: meḍ 'iron, metal' (Ho. Munda) 

    The association of dwarfs, gaNa is consistent with the interpretation of Ganesa iconography with elephant trunk: karibha 'elephant trunk' (Pali) rebua: karba 'iron' (Tulu); ib 'iron' (Santali) kara 'trunk' khAr 'blacksmith'. Siva's gaNa are Bharatam Janam, metalcaster folk engaged with पोतृ pōtṟ 'purifier priest' to signify dhā̆vaḍ, dhamaga 'smelter, blacksmith' working in alloy of three mineral ores. The garland depicted on Bhutesvar sculptural friezes signifies: dhAman 'garland, rope' rebus: dhamaga 'blacksmith', dhmAtr 'smelter'.

    मेधा = धन Naigh. ii , 10. pl. products of intelligence , thoughts , opinions) RV  mēdhḥ मेधः An offering, oblation. Thus,mēḍhā 'stake' is central to the process of yajna and creation of धन dhana, 'wealth'. (See depiction of dwarfs on Bhutesvar sculptural friezes to signify kharva, karba). Hieroglyph: खर्व (-र्ब) a. [खर्व्-अच्] 1 Mutilated, crippled, imperfect; Yv. Ts.2.5.1.7.-2 Dwarfish, low, short in stature. Rebus: karba 'iron' = kharva 'a treasure, nidhi of Kubera'.


    Worship of linga, of fire by Gandharva, Shunga period (ca. 2nd cent. BCE), ACCN 3625, Mathura Museum. Worship signified by dwarfs, Gaṇa (hence Gaṇeśa =  Gaṇa +  īśa).
    Mathura Museum. Kharva gaNa worship Shiva linga with vedika. ca. 1st cent. BCE
    A tree associated with smelter and linga from Bhuteshwar, Mathura Museum. Architectural fragment with relief showing winged dwarfs (or gaNa) worshipping with flower garlands, Siva Linga. Bhuteshwar, ca. 2nd cent BCE. Lingam is on a platform with wall under a pipal tree encircled by railing. (Srivastava,  AK, 1999, Catalogue of Saiva sculptures in Government Museum, Mathura: 47, GMM 52.3625) The tree is a phonetic determinant of the smelter indicated by the railing around the linga: kuṭa°ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ  Rebus: kuhi 'smelter'. kuṭa, °ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3, °ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ lex., °ṭaka -- m. ʻ a kind of tree ʼ Kauś.Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ, dar. kaṛék ʻ tree, oak ʼ ~ Par. kōṛ ʻ stick ʼ IIFL iii 3, 98. (CDIAL 3228). See: 
    aṣṭamangalaka hāra includes hieroglypyh of tree in-railing.


    aṣṭamangalaka hāra  depicted on a pillar of a gateway(toran.a) at the stupa of Sanchi, Central India, 1st century BCE. [After VS Agrawala, 1969, Thedeeds of Harsha (being a cultural study of Bāṇa’s Haracarita, ed. By PK Agrawala, Varanasi:fig. 62] The hāra  or necklace shows a pair of fish signs together with a number of motifsindicating weapons (cakra,  paraśu,an:kuśa), including a device that parallels the standard device normally shown in many inscribed objects of SSVC in front of the one-horned bull. 

    (cf. Marshall, J. and Foucher,The Monuments of Sanchi, 3 vols., Callcutta, 1936, repr. 1982, pl. 27).The first necklace has eleven and the second one has thirteen pendants (cf. V.S. Agrawala,1977, Bhāraya Kalā , Varanasi, p. 169); he notes the eleven pendants as:sun,śukra,  padmasara,an:kuśa, vaijayanti, pan:kaja,mīna-mithuna,śrīvatsa, paraśu,
    darpaṇa and kamala. "The axe (paraśu) and an:kuśa pendants are common at sites of north India and some oftheir finest specimens from Kausambi are in the collection of Dr. MC Dikshit of Nagpur."(Dhavalikar, M.K., 1965, Sanchi: A cultural Study , Poona, p. 44; loc.cit. Dr.Mohini Verma,1989, Dress and Ornaments in Ancient India: The Maurya and S'un:ga Periods,Varanasi, Indological Book House, p. 125). 



    W. Theobald, 1890, Notes on some of the symbols found on the punch-marked coins of Hindustan, and on their relationship to the archaic symbolism of other races and distant lands, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Bombay Branch (JASB), Part 1. History , Literature etc., Nos. III & IV, 1890, pp. 181 to 268, Plates VIII to XI

    W. Theobald, 1901, A revision of the symbols on the ‘Karshapana’ Coinage, described in Vol. LIX, JASB, 1890, Part I, No. 3, and Descriptions of many additional symbols, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Bombay Branch (JASB), No. 2, 1901 (Read December, 1899).

    Floating wall sculpture depicts a stupa Mara Buddha. Note: under the Bodhi tree is the empty pedestal with back cushions and pillows lined with carved swastika (Svastika, Swastika), at the foot of the pedestal are two footprints symbolizing the presence of the Buddha. Javelin in his Mara, Mara (sitting in the lower left corner) with gestures and facial expressions disappointed. The top left corner depicts Mara is riding elephants flee. (Ganthacala - Amaravati)

    Stupa of Bharhut. Staircase superimposed with a tree in railing surrounded by worshippers. A second foot-step at the bottom of the staircse. A foot-step at the top of the staircase, footstep in descent, inscribed with spoked wheel. A narrative of the descent of sacredness, divine. The vedika is decorated with square coins.Stupa of Bharhut. ca. 150 BCE. Center-piece of the torana (arch) is the sacred tree venerated by worshippers. Scarfs adorn the branches: dhatu 'scarf' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral ore'. The lower frame of the frieze shows a slab with hieroglyphs: daLa 'petals, leaves' rebus: dhALako 'ingot'. tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus:tAmra 'copper';atop the lotus is the hypertext of 'srivatsa':khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaTa'mint, coiner, coinage' PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal alloy'. Thus, iron, copper mint. Elephant on pillar: karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'. The top frame is adorned with a railing, vedika.
    Image result for stupa person emerging out of tree trunk
    Amaravati stupa.  Wheel spokes topped with 'srivatsa': khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage' PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal alloy' PLUS arA 'spokes' rebus: Ara 'brass'. Thus, iron, copper, brass, metal alloy mint.  
    Bharhut medallion. Shows a field of square mint coins. see jetavana jataka. A vase held in the hands of the central figure signifies a vase of prosperity. The tree on a railing: kuThi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter'.eraka 'knave of wheel' redbus: erako 'moltencast' PLUS arA 'spokes' rebus: Ara 'brass'. poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite ferrite ore'.
    Image result for endless knot india inscriptionsImage result for stupa person emerging out of tree trunkRailing crossbar with monks worshiping a fiery pillar, a symbol of the Buddha. Naga worshippers of fiery pillar, Amaravati stupa  Smithy is the temple of Bronze Age: stambha, thãbharā fiery pillar of light, Sivalinga. Rebus-metonymy layered Indus script cipher signifies: tamba, tã̄bṛā, tambira 'copper' 
    A hieroglyph-multiplex, iconogrpahic enquiry of archaeometallurgy and Indus Script Corpora parallels the extraordinary adhyatmika enquiry in Atharvaveda Skambha Sukta unraveling the purification processes signified by the sivalinga. It is a metaphor for the axis mundi linking earth and heaven as the artisans are awestruck by the mere earth dhatugarbha, dagoba yielding metal implements. The veneration of a linga documented with a purificatory inscrition links the Dong Son Bronze drum hieroglyphs, Sarasvati-Sindhu artefacts of sivalinga and Eurasian evidences of veneration of pitr-s, ancestors. This is a celebration of dharma-dhamma continuum venerated in a Darasuram temple frieze of siva emerging out of the linga with Brahma as hamsa searching in the heavens and Vishnu digging into the earth to find the endless, beginningless form of the Skambha, the pillar of light, the pillar of fire, sivalinga embedded in every fire-altar of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization by Bharatam Janam, the metalcasters of the Bronze Age. 
    Skambha Sukta ( Atharva Veda X-7 ) begins with this enquiry to unravel the implanted truth: kásminn áṅge tápo asyā́dhi tiṣṭhati kásminn áṅga r̥tám asyā́dhy ā́hitam


















    1.Which of his members is the seat of fervour: Which is the base of Ceremonial Order? Where in him standeth Faith? Where Holy Duty? Where, in what part of him is truth implanted?
    The sequences of questions posed in 44 sukta verses are an inquiry as profound as the Nasadiya Sukta of Rigveda. The wonder of the Rishi and the insights provided linking earth and heaven in an axis mundi the primordial pillar signified by the skambha (linga) metaphor is unsurpassed in any cosmic-consciousness enquiries of all time. 



    Abb.: Der Mahbodhi-Baum Koṇāgamana's, Bharhut, 150/100 v. Chr. (Mahabodhi tree of Koṇāgamana)

    Gateway decoration.Sanchi Stupa.

    Bharhut coping from stupa, Cleveland Museum, Sunga, India, 2nd Century, BCE., Sculpture and painting- The Cleveland Museum, ACSAA
    This is a magnificent example of a Meluhha hieroglyph narrative. It is a sculpturel frieze at Sanchi where devotees.venerate the tree emerging out of a temple.tree (kuTi) rebus: kuThi 'smelter'. guDi 'temple'. It is a kole.l 'smithy' Rebus: kole.l 'temple'.. Atop the roof of the walled smelter (out of which another Mathura panel shows a sivlinga emerging), the srivatsa hieroglyph together with a flower within a circle is shown as holding aloft the tree emerging out of the arch in the temple complex. The tree is topped by a parasol with garlands. kuTa 'parasole' rebus: kuTi 'smelter' is a semantic signifier reinforcement of the tree hieroglyph. The flower is puju again phonetically reinforced by the ayira puca/pica 'fish-tail'. The entire narrative is a rebus-metonymy representation of worship at a smithy as a metaphor for a temple.
    http://wildfiregames.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=16698&page=5
    tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'
    Section of a coping rail. 30.5x122 cm. 2nd cent. BCE Sunga. Bharhut.

    This is a magnificent example of a Meluhha hieroglyph narrative. It is a sculpturel frieze at Sanchi where devotees.venerate the tree emerging out of a temple.tree (kuTi) rebus: kuThi 'smelter'. guDi 'temple'. It is a kole.l 'smithy' Rebus: kole.l 'temple'.. Atop the roof of the walled smelter (out of which another Mathura panel shows a sivlinga emerging), the srivatsa hieroglyph together with a flower within a circle is shown as holding aloft the tree emerging out of the arch in the temple complex. The tree is topped by a parasol with garlands. kuTa 'parasole' rebus: kuTi 'smelter' is a semantic signifier reinforcement of the tree hieroglyph. The flower is puju again phonetically reinforced by the ayira puca/pica 'fish-tail'. The entire narrative is a rebus-metonymy representation of worship at a smithy as a metaphor for a metallurgical process.

    Vedika. Bodhi tree. Bodh Gaya.
    Sacred tree. Kamandalu. Smiths, artisans. ca. 200 BCE
    Ayagapatta. Bengal. Sacred tree within vedi, fire-altar. tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'.
    Gudimallam Shiva linga within vedika, railing.
    Many hieroglyphs of Indus Script Corpora continue to be used in historical periods. This note demonstrates that symbols of ancient Indian mints which adorn many early coins are Indus Script hieroglyphs, metalwork catalogues.



    After Pl. 30 C in: Savita Sharma, 1990, Early Indian symbols, numismatic evidence, Delhi, Agama Kala Prakashan; cf. Shah, UP., 1975, Aspects of Jain Art and Architecture, p.77)

    Image result for jaina ananta gumpha tree[Pl. 39, Savita Sharma, opcit. Tree symbol (often on a platform) on punch-marked coins; a symbol recurring on many tablets showing Sarasvati hieroglyphs].
    Hieroglyph: Kur. mūxā frog. Malt. múqe id. / Cf. Skt. mūkaka- id. (DEDR 5023) Rebus: mū̃h 'ingot'.

    dhāī˜ (Lahnda) signifies a single strand of rope or thread.

    I have suggested that a dotted circle hieroglyph is a cross-section of a strand of rope: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) धवड (p. 436) [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of iron (Marathi).  Hence, the depiction of a single dotted circle, two dotted circles and three dotted circles (called trefoil) on the robe of the Purifier priest of Mohenjo-daro.


    Two examples of Indus Script seals with a three-stranded rope:
    m1406 



    Hieroglyphs: thread of three stands + drummer + tumblers


    dhollu ‘drummer’ (Western Pahari) dolutsu 'tumble' Rebus: dul ‘cast metal’

    karaḍa 'double-drum' Rebus: karaḍa 'hard alloy'.

    dhAtu 'strands of rope' Rebus: dhAtu 'mineral, metal, ore'


    The 'symbols' on punch-marked coins which are a continuum from Harappa (Indus) script hieroglyphs all of which relate to metalwork are:




















    Meluhha glosses read rebus related to metalwork for these Indus script hieroglyphs are detailed in the book, Indus Script -- Meluhha metalwork hieroglyphs (2014).
    See the hieroglyph of a fishtail PLUS two molluscs tied together with a dhAman 'rope' which signifies dhamaga 'blacksmith'. The word is also related to the gloss dhamma 'dharma' propounded by Jaina Tirthankara who is adored, venerated on the āyāgapaṭṭa.

    Meluhha rebus readings:

    sattva 'svastika glyhph' Rebus: jasta 'zinc'

    kuṭi ‘tree’ Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter’kuṭhāru 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhāru 'armourer'

    G. sãghāṛɔ m. ʻlathe’ 'portable furnaceRebus:  संघाट joinery; M. sãgaḍ ‘double-canoe’ Rebus: sangataras ‘stone-cutter, mason’


    Dm. mraṅ m. ‘markhor’ Wkh. merg f. ‘ibex’ (CDIAL 9885) Tor. miṇḍ ‘ram’, miṇḍā́l ‘markhor’ (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Munda.Ho.)

    kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'; kolhe 'smelter'

    kāṇḍa 'water' Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ Thus, cast bronze metalware.



    Hieroglyphs: mountain-range, leaflesss tree:  ḍã̄g mountain-ridge (H.)(CDIAL 5476). Rebus: dhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili) ढांक [ ḍhāṅka ] n ढांकळ f C An old and decaying tree: also the stump or naked stalks and stem remaining (of a little plant).(Marathi) WPah.kṭg. ḍāṅg f. (obl. -- a) ʻ stick ʼ, ḍaṅgṛɔ m. ʻ stalk (of a plant) ʼ Rebus: ḍhangar  blacksmith’ kolom ‘three’ Rebus: kolami ‘smithy, forge’ Vikalpa: khōṇḍa A tree of which the head and branches are broken off, a stock or stump: also the lower portion of the trunk—that below the branches. (Marathi) Rebus 1: kõdā 'to turn in a lathe' (Bengali) Rebus 2: koḍ 'workshop' (Gujarati) http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/12/yupa-medha-stake-indus-script.html

    Harappa tablet.clip_image003Tree shown on a tablet from Harappa.
    kuTi 'tree' Rebus: kuThi 'smelter'. In semantic expansion, tree as hieroglyph also signifies an armourer. कुठारु [p= 289,1]  ‘a tree, a monkey, an armourer’ (Monier-Williams)

    Hieroglyph: kuThAru 'monkey''tree' Rebus: kuThAru 'armourer'. (kuThAru 'treasury' rebus: kuThAru 'armourer'koThAri 'crucible' Rebus: koThAri 'treaurer, warehouse'
    m0483a

    m0483b kāru ‘crocodile’ (Telugu). Rebus: artisan (Marathi) Rebus: khār ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri) ayakāra ‘ironsmith’ (Pali)[fish = ayaayo (Munda. Gujarati); crocodile = kāru (Te.)] 

    Text  1620 of m0483a
    Chanhudaro 28
    Harappa Script. Tree in railing.
    Hieroglyph: kuṭhi ‘tree' Rebus: kuhi ‘smelter, furnace’.
    kuire bica duljad.ko talkena, ‘they were feeding the furnace with ore’. (Santali) This use of bica in the context of feeding a smelter clearly defines bica as ‘stone ore, mineral’, in general.

    Evolution of srivatsa sign as fish-fins tied: ayo kammaṭa 'iron mint'
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 indra dhvaja
    Makara with fish-tails and emergence of a smith, ivory-carver, artificer. Plaque from Casket V. Begram. Site 2, Chamber 10. Ivory. Inv. no.: MG 1901.makara 'composite of crocodile + tiger' rebus: dhamaka, dhmakara 'blacksmith' Decorated with fish-fin hypertext. khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus:  kammaṭa, kambāra in smithy, mint. coiner, coinage' 
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 indra dhvaja
    Related image

    svastika glyph' rebus: sattu (Tamil), satta, sattva (Kannada) jasth जसथ् ।रपु m. (sg. dat. jastas ज्तस), zinc, spelter; pewter; zasath ् ज़स््थ् ्or zasuth ज़सुथ ्। रप m. (sg. dat. zastas ु ज़्तस),् zinc, spelter, pewter (cf. Hindī jast). jastuvu; । रपू्भवः adj. (f. jastüvü), made of zinc or pewter.(Kashmiri). 

    śrivatsa symbol [with its hundreds of stylized variants, depicted on Pl. 29 to 32] occurs in Bogazkoi (Central Anatolia) dated ca. 6th to 14th cent. BCE on inscriptions Pl. 33, Nandipāda-Triratna at: Bhimbetka, Sanchi, Sarnath and Mathura] Pl. 27, Svastika symbol: distribution in cultural periods] The association of śrivatsa with ‘fish’ is reinforced by the symbols binding fish in Jaina āyāgapaṭas (snake-hood?) of Mathura (late 1st cent. BCE).  śrivatsa  symbol seems to have evolved from a stylied glyph showing ‘two fishes’. In the Sanchi stupa, the fish-tails of two fishes are combined to flank the ‘śrivatsa’ glyph. In a Jaina āyāgapaṭa, a fish is ligatured within the śrivatsa  glyph,  emphasizing the association of the ‘fish’ glyph with śrivatsa glyph.

    (After Plates in: Savita Sharma, 1990, Early Indian symbols, numismatic evidence, Delhi, Agama Kala Prakashan; cf. Shah, UP., 1975, Aspects of Jain Art and Architecture, p.77)




    In Indus Script Corpora, 'endless knot' hieroglyph can be read with two hieroglyph components: 1. strand of rope or string; 2. twist: dām 'rope, string' rebus: dhāu 'ore'  rebus: मेढा [mēḍhā] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi). Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic) mẽhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Munda).
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 dotted circle indus script
    Copper plate. Mohenjo-daro.

    mēḍhā 'twist' rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron'; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into biconical ingots . 


    Chanhudaro-49 a,b,c

    + hieroglyph in the middle with covering lines around/dots in corners poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite'; dhAv 'strand' rebus: dhAv 'smelter'; dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ; kulA 'hooded snake' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'; kolmo 'three' koD 'horn' rebus: kolimi 'smithy' koD 'workshop'. tri-dhAtu 'three strands, threefold' rebus: tri-dhAv 'three mineral ores'.poLa 'zebu' rebus: poLa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'. phaDa 'cobra hood' rebus: phaDa 'manufactory'.

    फडा (p. 313) phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c.

    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain).  फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्या- चा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singingshop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work,--as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊस, वांग्या, मिरच्या, खरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चाल, पड, घाल, मांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) फडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस.  फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business फड्या (p. 314) phaḍyā m ( H) One who sells (grain &c.) in small quantities, a retail-dealer. 

    The inscription on Mohenjo-daro copper plate m1457 shows two hieroglyphs: 1. svastika; 2. ornamental figure of twisted string. Both hieroglyphs are read rebus in Meluhha: 
    m1356, m443 table 
    m1356 Copper plate

    The endless knot is deciphered as: med 'copper', dhāu 'metal'.
    The svastika is deciphered as: sattva, jasta 'zinc, sphalerite'.

    मेढा [ mēḍhā ] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl.(Marathi) mer.ha = twisted, crumpled, as a horn (Santali.lex.) meli, melika = a turn, a twist, a loop, entanglement; meliyu, melivad.u, meligonu = to get twisted or entwined (Te.lex.) [Note the endless knot motif]. Rebus: med. ‘iron’ (Mu.) Rebus: medh 'yajna' sattva 'svastika glyph' Rebus: sattva, jasta 'zinc'.

    Interesting motif from a BMAC seal which can be followed through the centuries is the endless knot (Knot of Eternity) ... (2500- 1500 BC)
    Motif from a BMAC seal. 2nd millennium BCE
    A new copper plate of Dhruva II of the Gujarat Rashtrakuta branch, datedsaka 806 (AS Altekar, Epigraphia INdica, Vol. XXII, 1933-34, pp. 64-76).Note the signature of the king on line 69 in Kannada while the inscription is in Samskrtam.  After the signature and before the word लिखितं 'likhitam' is engraved an ornamental design. It is an Indus Script hieroglyph: 'endless knot' which occurs on a number of inscriptions which is deciphered in this monograph: .मेढा [mēḍhā] A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl (Marathi). Rebus: meḍ 'iron, copper' (Munda. Slavic) mẽhẽt, meḍ  'iron' (Munda). Rebus: medha 'yajna'.मेध [p= 832,3] an animal-sacrifice , offering , oblation , any sacrifice (esp. ifc.ib. MBh. &c मेधाa symbolical N. of the letter ध् Up.= धन Naigh. ii , 10. any valued object , (esp.) wealth , riches , (movable) property , money , treasure , gift RV. &c.

    Consistent with Naighantuka, the word medhA also means 'कविधानम्' according to s'abdakalpadruma: I assume that medhA = dhAnam means (in the context of the hieroglyph on Dhruva II inscription): धानम् dhānam नी nī धानम् नी [धा भावे-ल्युट्] 1 A receptacle, seat; as in मसीधानी, राजधानी, यमधानी; रविं दधाने$प्यरविन्दधाने Śi.4.12. -2 Nourishing, nourishment. -नी 1 The site of a habitation.


    मेधा, स्त्री, (मेधते सङ्गच्छते अस्यामिति । मेध् + “षिद्भिदादिभ्योऽङ् ।” ३ । ३ । १०४ । इत्यङ् । टाप् ।) धारणावती बुद्धिः । इत्यमरः । १ । ५ । २ ॥ धारणाशक्तियुक्ता धीर्मेधा मेधते सङ्गच्छतेऽस्यां सर्व्वं बहुश्रुतं विषयीकरोति इति वा मेधा मेधृ-ञ सङ्गे मेधायां सेमक्तात् सरोरित्यः आपबहु-श्रुतविषयीकरणं धारणा यदुक्तं धारणा बुद्धे- र्गुणविशेषः इति ॥ इति भरतः ॥ * ॥ (यथा, मुण्डकोपनिषदि । ३ । २ । ३ । “नायमात्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यो न मेधया न बहुना श्रुतेन । यमेवैष वृणुते तेन लभ्य- स्तस्यैष आत्मा विवृणुते तनूं स्वाम् ॥”) मेधाकरं औषधं यथा, -- “शङ्खपुष्पी वचा सोमा ब्राह्मीब्रह्मसुवर्च्चला । अभया च गुडूची च अटरूषकवाकुची । एतैरक्षसमैर्भागैर्घृतं प्रस्थं विपाचयेत् ॥ कण्टकार्य्या रस प्रस्थं बृहत्या च समन्वितम् । एतद्ब्राह्मीघृतं नाम स्मृतिमेधाकरं परम् ॥”ति गारुडे १९८ अध्यायः ॥ * ॥ मेधाकरगणो यथा । सतताध्ययनम् । तत्त्व- ज्ञानकथा ।श्रेष्ठतन्त्रशास्त्रावलोकनम् । सद्द्वि- जाचार्य्यसेवा च । इति पुराणम् ॥ (दक्षप्रजा- पतिकन्याविशेषः । यथा, -- “कीर्त्तिलक्ष्मी र्धृतिर्मेघा पुष्टिः श्रद्धा क्रिया मतिः ॥” इति वह्निपुराणे गणभेदनामाध्याये ॥ धनम् । इति निघण्टुः । २ । १० ॥ “मिधृ मेधृ सङ्गमे च । चकारात् हिंसामेधयोश्च । मिधिः सङ्गत्यर्थः ।इति माधवः । घज् । सङ्गच्छतेऽनेन सर्व्वं तद्बता हिंस्यते वा तद्वान् चौरादिभिः घ्नन्ति चैवार्थकारणात् इति महाभारतम् ॥ यद्वा, मतौ धीयते अर्जयितव्यंरक्षितव्यं दातव्य- मिति धनवता बुद्धौ धनं धार्य्यते । तत्र मति- शब्द उपपदे धातोः घञर्थे कविधानम् इति कः । पृषोदरादित्वात् मतिशब्दस्य मेभावः ।”इति तद्भाष्ये देवराजयज्वा ॥)


    The dAna referred in the grant signed by Dhruva II also includes dhana 'property, gift' signified by mēḍhā'twist' rebus: medhA, and hence, the use of the Indus Script hieroglyph. 


    The earlier rebus rendering of the hieroglyph mēḍhā 'twist' is a commodity: med 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) and hence, its occurrence together with svastika hieroglyph which signifies: jasta, sattva, 'zinc' in the context of trade by seafaring merchants of Meluhha. Together, the hypertext is: iron and zinc.
    m1431aHieroglyph: heraka ‘spy’. Rebus: eraka, arka 'copper, gold'; eraka 'moltencast, metal infusion'; era ‘copper’. āra 'spokes’ Rebus: āra 'brass. Hieroglyph: हेर [ hēra ] m (हेरक S through or H) A spy, scout, explorator, an emissary to gather intelligence. 2 f Spying out or spying, surveying narrowly, exploring. (Marathi) *hērati ʻ looks for or at ʼ. 2. hēraka -- , °rika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ lex., hairika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ Hcar., ʻ thief ʼ lex. [J. Bloch FestschrWackernagel 149 ← Drav., kuiēra ʻ to spy ʼ, Malt. ére ʻ to see ʼ, DED 765]

    Pk. hēraï ʻ looks for or at ʼ (vihīraï ʻ watches for ʼ); K.ḍoḍ. hērūō ʻ was seen ʼ; WPah.bhad. bhal. he_rnū ʻ to look at ʼ (bhal. hirāṇū ʻ to show ʼ), pāḍ. hēraṇ, paṅ. hēṇā, cur. hērnā, Ku. herṇo, N. hernu, A. heriba, B. herā, Or. heribā (caus. herāibā), Mth. herab, OAw. heraï, H. hernā; G. hervũ ʻ to spy ʼ, M. herṇẽ 2. Pk. hēria -- m. ʻ spy ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) "hériu" ʻ spy ʼ; G. herɔ m. ʻ spy ʼ, herũ n. ʻ spying ʼ. Addenda: *hērati: WPah.kṭg. (Wkc.) hèrnõ, kc. erno ʻ observe ʼ; Garh. hernu ʻ to look' (CDIAL 14165) Ko. er uk- (uky-) to play 'peeping tom'. Kui ēra (ēri-) to spy, scout; n. spying, scouting; pl action ērka (ērki-). ? Kuwi (S.) hēnai to scout; hēri kiyali to see; (Su. P.) hēnḍ- (hēṭ-) id. Kur. ērnā (īryas) to see, look, look at, look after, look for, wait for, examine, try; ērta'ānā to let see, show; ērānakhrnā to look at one another. Malt. ére to see, behold, observe; érye to peep, spy. Cf. 892 Kur. ēthrnā. / Cf. Skt. heraka- spy, Pkt. her- to look at or for, and many NIA verbs; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14165(DEDR 903) 



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    https://tinyurl.com/y7ycqvdl 
    mēḍi dhā̆vaḍ
     ḍhāllā paṭṭī 'iron 
    smelters, ingot town'


    Indus Script hypertexts: m, 'plait' dāwanī f. ʻropeʼ dhāī 'twisted rope' paḍa m.’cloth' (Prakrtam) pāṭ°ṭā ʻboard, bench, stool, throneʼ (Bengali) 

    Rebus: 
    मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'metal'(Samskrtam.Santali.Mu.Ho) dhā̆vaḍ m.ʻiron-smeltersʼ फडphaḍa 'metalwork artisan guild', 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal workers guild'. 

     

     

    See:  http://tinyurl.com/juqd2gh

    The following sculptural frieze of Amaravati is a narrative of a metals manufactory. The pun on the word dhāī'twisted rope' signifies two meanings: dhā̆vaḍ m.ʻiron-smeltersʼ and dhamma'Bauddha dharma'. The interpretation of the four sculptural friezes of Amaravati is also explained as a narrative of Māyā's dream related to the birth of the Buddha as a white elephant. karabha, ibha 'elephant' rebus; karba, ib'iron', Māyā is a kole, in the lineage of kolhe'smelters'. The tree in the background is a semantic determinant: kuṭi'tree' rebus: kuṭhi'smelter'. The birth of the Buddha is also narrated as the production of iron from a smelter by the nāga signified by फड, phaḍa'cobra hood' rebus: फड, phaḍa'metalwork manufactory artisan guild'. 

    Image result for amaravati slab

    .
    Amaravati drum slab
    dāwanī f. ʻropeʼ dhāī 'twisted rope' dhā̆vaḍ m.ʻiron-smelters’
    pāṭ°ṭā ʻboard, bench, stool, throneʼ (Bengali) Rebus: फडphaḍa 'metalwork artisan guild', 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal workers guild'. 
    kola 'woman' rebus: kolhe 'smelters', kolle 'blacksmith' kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'smithy, forge'
    kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'

    A divinity emerges out of the tree trunk on the following frieze signifying the worship of the smelter: kole.l'smithy, forge' rebus: kole.l'temple'.

    See: 

    Bharata Hindu, Jaina, Bauddham traditions. Tree metaphors and orthographic narratives kuṭhi 'sacred, divine, tree' rebus, kuṭhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore' Harappa, kuṭi 'temple' 


    An artisan emerges out of a tree trunk venerating the cosmic dance phenomenon of mere earth and stone getting transformed in a smelter into wealth-yielding iron and metal. The Meluhha words signified as hierglyphs include the tree out of which the worshipping artisan emerges and the strings/strands of rope carried by a woman approaching the vedika of the sacredd tree. These are quintessential Indus Script hieroglyphs related to metalwork.
    Image result for artisan emerges out of tree trunk amaravati  Amaravati. Sculptural frieze. A face (of an artisan) emrges ou of tree trunk within vedika, sacred railing. A worshipper carries three strands (of a rope): tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'dhAu 'strand'. Rebus:  M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆va m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ)(CDIAL 6773).dhAtu 'strand' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral ore' (Rigveda) tri-dhAtu 'three strands' rebus: tri-dhAtu 'three mineral ores': e.g. haematite, magnetite, laterite three ferrite red coloured ores. A face emergs out of the tree trunk: mũhe ‘face’ rebus mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; kolhe tehen me~ṛhe~t mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron(Santali) Rebus: mūhā 'ingot'; compound formation: mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali)  Another worshipper holds an ingot as an offering in front of the tree-in-railing (vedika).
    Hieroglyph: kuṭa2°ṭi -- , °ṭha -- 3°ṭhi -- m. ʻ tree ʼ lex., °ṭaka -- m. ʻ a kind of tree ʼ Kauś.Pk. kuḍa -- m. ʻ tree ʼ; Paš. lauṛ. kuṛāˊ ʻ tree ʼ, dar. kaṛék ʻ tree, oak ʼ ~ Par. kōṛ ʻ stick ʼ IIFL iii 3, 98.(CDIAL 3228) कुटि a [p= 288,2] m. a tree L., the body कुठि [p= 289,1]mfn. " leafless , bare " or " crooked , wry " (Comm. ; said of a tree) Shad2vBr.m. a tree L., a mountain (Monier-Williams)

    Rebus:kuhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore, to smelt iron’;koe ‘forged (metal)(Santali) kuhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore to smelt iron’; kolheko kuhieda koles smelt iron (Santali) kuhi, kui (Or.; Sad. kohi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kuire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of ēkui has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kuhi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted, as seen in fig. 1, and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari) kuhi = a factory; lil kuhi = an indigo factory (kohi - Hindi) (Santali.Bodding) kuhi = an earthen furnace for smelting iron; make do., smelt iron; kolheko do kuhi benaokate baliko dhukana, the Kolhes build an earthen furnace and smelt iron-ore, blowing the bellows; tehen:ko kuhi yet kana, they are working (or building) the furnace to-day (H. kohī ) (Santali. Bodding)  kuṭṭhita = hot, sweltering; molten (of tamba, cp. uttatta)(Pali.lex.) uttatta (ut + tapta) = heated, of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure (Pali.lex.) kuṭṭakam, kuṭṭukam  = cauldron (Ma.); kuṭṭuva = big copper pot for heating water (Kod.)(DEDR 1668). gudgā to blaze; gud.va flame (Man.d); gudva, gūdūvwa, guduwa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715). dāntar-kuha = fireplace (Sv.); kōti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kōlhā house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kuhī factory (A.); kohābrick-built house (B.); kuhī bank, granary (B.); koho jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse (G.); kohīlare earthen jar, factory (G.); kuhī granary, factory (M.)(CDIAL 3546). koho = a warehouse; a revenue office, in which dues are paid and collected; kohī a store-room; a factory (Gujarat) ko = the place where artisans work (Gujarati) 
    Amaravati drum slab (Birth scenes) (1880.7-9.44; Knox 61)
    Amaravati drum slab (Birth scenes) (1880.7-9.44; Knox 61)
    A drum slab carved in limestone with the four events related to the Buddha’s birth: Mayadevi’s Dream (top right); the Interpretation of the Dream attended by the dikpala-s (top left); the Birth of the Buddha attended again by the dikpala-s (bottom right); the Presentation of the Buddha to the caitya of the Sakyas (bottom left). This frieze is a divinity emerging out of the throne and presenting a twisted rope to the woman worshipper. I suggest that this is a smelter's narrative of a फड, phaḍa, metals manufactory.

    The following sculptural frieze in mathura Museum of Shunga period signifies ḍhāllā paṭṭī'ingot town' signified by Indus Script hypertexts.Sculptural frieze. Mathura Museum. पट्टी paṭṭī 'plait' rebus: पट्टी f. a city , town (cf. -निवसन). The ox-hide ingot is the centre-piece on the doorway of the temple. ढाल [p= 431,1]n. " a shield " » °लिन्.ढालिन् [p= 431,1] mfn. armed with a shield (Monier-Williams) ḍhālako a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhāla n. ʻ shield ʼ lex. 2. *ḍhāllā -- .1. Tir. (Leech) "dàl"ʻ shield ʼ, Bshk. ḍāl, Ku. ḍhāl, gng. ḍhāw, N. A. B. ḍhāl, Or. ḍhāḷa, Mth. H. ḍhāl m.2. Sh. ḍal (pl. °le̯) f., K. ḍāl f., S. ḍhāla, L. ḍhāl (pl. °lã) f., P. ḍhāl f., G. M. ḍhāl f.Addenda: ḍhāla -- . 2. *ḍhāllā -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ḍhāˋl f. (obl. -- a) ʻ shield ʼ (a word used in salutation), J. ḍhāl f.(CDIAL 5583)

    WPah.kṭg. ḍhàḷnõ ʻ to throw, pour down, chop (wood) ʼ; J. ḍhāḷṇu ʻ to cause to melt ʼ.(CDIAL 5581)

    mEḍi plait (Kannada) *mēṇḍhī ʻ lock of hair, curl ʼ. [Cf. *mēṇḍha -- 1 s.v. *miḍḍa -- ]S. mī˜ḍhī f., °ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ, L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔmiḍ° m. ʻ braid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ; M. meḍhā m. ʻ curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread ʼ.(CDIAL 10312) Ta. miṭai (-v-, -nt-) to weave as a mat, etc. Ma. miṭayuka to plait, braid, twist, wattle; miṭaccal plaiting, etc.; miṭappu tuft of hair; miṭalascreen or wicket, ōlas plaited together. Ka. meḍaṟu to plait as screens, etc. (Hav.) maḍe to knit, weave (as a basket); (Gowda) mEḍi plait. Ga.(S.3miṭṭe a female hair-style. Go. (Mu.) mihc- to plait (hair) (Voc. 2850).(DEDR 4853) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Mu.Ho.) meḍhā 'stake, yupa' rebus: medha 'yajña, nidhi'.strand (of hair): dhāˊtu  *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV.,ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773)

    Rebus: dhāvḍī  'iron smelting': Shgh. ċīwċōwċū ʻ single hair ʼ ; Ash. dro ʻ woman's hair ʼ, Kt. drū, Wg.drūdrū̃; Pr. ui ʻ a hair ʼ; Kho. dro(hʻ hair ʼ, (Lor.) ʻ hair (of animal), body hair (human) ʼ Orm. dradrī IIFL i 392 (semant. cf. Psht. pal ʻ fringe of hair over forehead ʼ < *pata -- (CDIAL 6623) drava द्रव [p= 500,3] flowing , fluid , dropping , dripping , trickling or overflowing with (comp.) Ka1t2h. Mn.MBh. Ka1v. fused , liquefied , melted W. m. distilling , trickling , fluidity Bha1sha1p. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ)(CDIAL 6773)

    Centre-piece frieze on the entrance to a temple. kolel 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge'

    The same shapee ox-hide ingot is shown as cargo on a boat of a Mohenjo-daro tablet

    Tin and copper ox-hide ingots.

    Ox-hide ingot

    Gundestrup cauldron narrative of plaited hair using Indus Script hypertext.
    Mathura museum. Sculptural frieze showing royalty. The word signified is पट्ट 'cloth' rebus: 'coronation' of king and queen. The signifier is the cobra hood. phaḍa 'throne, hood of cobra' rebus: फड, phaḍa 'metalwork artisan guild' 

    dāwanī f. ʻropeʼ rebus: dhamma 'dharma' dhā̆vaḍ'smelter'

    *dāmakara ʻ string -- maker ʼ. [dāˊman -- 1, kará -- 1]L. dāvur, dãvar, mult. ḍã̄var (Ju. ḍ̠ -- ) m. ʻ spider ʼ.*dāmadhāra ʻ holding the rope ʼ. [dāˊman -- 1, dhāra -- 1]N. dayẽro ʻ the man who drives the animals treading out rice ʼ.dāˊman1 ʻ rope ʼ RV. 2. *dāmana -- , dāmanī -- f. ʻ long rope to which calves are tethered ʼ Hariv. 3. *dāmara -- . [*dāmara -- is der. fr. n/r n. stem. -- √2]
    1. Pa. dāma -- , inst. °mēna n. ʻ rope, fetter, garland ʼ, Pk. dāma -- n.; Wg. dām ʻ rope, thread, bandage ʼ; Tir. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Paš.lauṛ. dām ʻ thick thread ʼ, gul. dūm ʻ net snare ʼ (IIFL iii 3, 54 ← Ind. or Pers.); Shum. dām ʻ rope ʼ; Sh.gil. (Lor.) dōmo ʻ twine, short bit of goat's hair cord ʼ, gur. dōm m. ʻ thread ʼ (→ Ḍ. dōṅ ʻ thread ʼ); K. gu -- dômu m. ʻ cow's tethering rope ʼ; P. dã̄udāvã̄ m. ʻ hobble for a horse ʼ; WPah.bhad. daũ n. ʻ rope to tie cattle ʼ, bhal. daõ m., jaun. dã̄w; A. dāmā ʻ peg to tie a buffalo -- calf to ʼ; B. dāmdāmā ʻ cord ʼ; Or. duã̄ ʻ tether ʼ, dāĩ ʻ long tether to which many beasts are tied ʼ; H. dām m.f. ʻ rope, string, fetter ʼ, dāmā m. ʻ id., garland ʼ; G. dām n. ʻ tether ʼ, M. dāvẽ n.; Si. dama ʻ chain, rope ʼ, (SigGr) dam ʻ garland ʼ. -- Ext. in Paš.dar. damaṭāˊ°ṭīˊ, nir. weg. damaṭék ʻ rope ʼ, Shum. ḍamaṭik, Woṭ. damṓṛ m., Sv. dåmoṛīˊ; -- with -- ll -- : N. dāmlo ʻ tether for cow ʼ, dã̄walidāũlidāmli ʻ bird -- trap of string ʼ, dã̄waldāmal ʻ coeval ʼ (< ʻ tied together ʼ?); M. dã̄vlī f. ʻ small tie -- rope ʼ. 2. Pk. dāvaṇa -- n., dāmaṇī -- f. ʻ tethering rope ʼ; S. ḍ̠āvaṇuḍ̠āṇu m. ʻ forefeet shackles ʼ, ḍ̠āviṇīḍ̠āṇī f. ʻ guard to support nose -- ring ʼ;. ḍã̄vaṇ m., 
    ḍã̄vaṇīḍāuṇī (Ju. ḍ̠ -- ) f. ʻ hobble ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ strip at foot of bed, triple cord of silk worn by women on head ʼ, awāṇ. dāvuṇ ʻ picket rope ʼ; P. dāuṇdauṇ, ludh. daun f. m. ʻ string for bedstead, hobble for horse ʼ, dāuṇī f. ʻ gold ornament worn on woman's forehead ʼ; Ku. dauṇo m., °ṇī f. ʻ peg for tying cattle to ʼ, gng. dɔ̃ṛ ʻ place for keeping cattle, bedding for cattle ʼ; A. dan ʻ long cord on which a net or screen is stretched, thong ʼ, danā ʻ bridle ʼ; B. dāmni ʻ rope ʼ; Or. daaṇa ʻ string at the fringe of a casting net on which pebbles are strung ʼ, dāuṇi ʻ rope for tying bullocks together when threshing ʼ; H. dāwan m. ʻ girdle ʼ, dāwanī f. ʻ rope ʼ, dã̄wanī f. ʻ a woman's orna<-> ment ʼ; G. dāmaṇḍā° n. ʻ tether, hobble ʼ, dāmṇũ n. ʻ thin rope, string ʼ, dāmṇī f. ʻ rope, woman's head -- ornament ʼ; M. dāvaṇ f. ʻ picket -- rope ʼ. -- Words denoting the act of driving animals to tread out corn are poss. nomina actionis from *dāmayati2.3. L. ḍãvarāvaṇ, (Ju.) ḍ̠ã̄v° ʻ to hobble ʼ; A. dāmri ʻ long rope for tying several buffalo -- calves together ʼ, Or. daũ̈rādaürā ʻ rope ʼ; Bi. daũrī ʻ rope to which threshing bullocks are tied, the act of treading out the grain ʼ, Mth. dã̄mardaũraṛ ʻ rope to which the bullocks are tied ʼ; H. dã̄wrī f. ʻ id., rope, string ʼ, dãwrī f. ʻ the act of driving bullocks round to tread out the corn ʼ. -- X *dhāgga<-> q.v.*dāmayati2; *dāmakara -- , *dāmadhāra -- ; uddāma -- , prōddāma -- ; *antadāmanī -- , *galadāman -- , *galadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāman -- , *gōḍḍadāmana -- , *gōḍḍadāmara -- .dāmán -- 2 m. (f.?) ʻ gift ʼ RV. [√1]. See dāˊtu -- .*dāmana -- ʻ rope ʼ see dāˊman -- 1.Addenda: dāˊman -- 1. 1. Brj. dã̄u m. ʻ tying ʼ. 3. *dāmara -- : Brj. dã̄wrī f. ʻ rope ʼ.(CDIAL 6281 to 6283)
    Image result for nagaraja erapattra bharhut
    Nāgaraja, Erapattra worshipping at the smelter and tree. kuṭi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'. Bharhut, 100 BCE. The hypertext is mounted on a pedestal, paa 'throne, tablet, a thatch or roof (= पटलL.' , फडpha'cobra hood' rebus: 

    फड
    phaa 'arsenal, metalwork artisan guild in charge of manufactory'. 

    फडा (p. 313) phaḍā f (फटा S) The hood of Coluber Nága &c.

    फडकरी (p. 313) phaḍakarī m A man belonging to a company or band (of players, showmen &c.) 2 A superintendent or master of a फड or public place. See under फड. 3 A retail-dealer (esp. in grain).  फड (p. 313) phaḍa m ( H) A place of public business or public resort; as a court of justice, an exchange, a mart, a counting-house, a custom-house, an auction-room: also, in an ill-sense, as खेळण्या- चा फड A gambling-house, नाचण्याचा फड A nachhouse, गाण्याचा or ख्यालीखुशालीचा फड A singingshop or merriment shop. The word expresses freely Gymnasium or arena, circus, club-room, debating-room, house or room or stand for idlers, newsmongers, gossips, scamps &c. 2 The spot to which field-produce is brought, that the crop may be ascertained and the tax fixed; the depot at which the Government-revenue in kind is delivered; a place in general where goods in quantity are exposed for inspection or sale. 3 Any office or place of extensive business or work,--as a factory, manufactory, arsenal, dock-yard, printing-office &c. 4 A plantation or field (as of ऊस, वांग्या, मिरच्या, खरबुजे &c.): also a standing crop of such produce. 5 fig. Full and vigorous operation or proceeding, the going on with high animation and bustle (of business in general). v चाल, पड, घाल, मांड. 6 A company, a troop, a band or set (as of actors, showmen, dancers &c.) फडनीस (p. 313) phaḍanīsa m ( H) A public officer,--the keeper of the registers &c. By him were issued all grants, commissions, and orders; and to him were rendered all accounts from the other departments. He answers to Deputy auditor and accountant. Formerly the head Kárkún of a district-cutcherry who had charge of the accounts &c. was called फडनीस.  फडझडती (p. 313) phaḍajhaḍatī f sometimes फडझाडणी f A clearing off of public business (of any business comprehended under the word फड q. v.): also clearing examination of any फड or place of public business फड्या (p. 314) phaḍyā m ( H) One who sells (grain &c.) in small quantities, a retail-dealer. 

    paṭṭarājñī f. ʻ turbaned queen ʼ lex. [paṭṭa -- 2, rājñī -- ]S. paṭarāṇī f. ʻ chief queen ʼ, P. paṭrāṇī f., N. paṭarāni, B. pāṭrāni, Or. pāṭarāṇi, H. paṭrānī f., G. paṭrāṇī f., M. paṭṭarāṇī f.(CDIAL 7708)

    paṭṭana n. ʻ town ʼ Kauṭ., °nī -- f. lex. 2. páttana -- n. MBh. [Prob. ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 383 and EWA ii 192 with ṭṭ replaced by IA. tt. But its specific meaning as ʻ ferry ʼ in S. L. P. B. H. does lend support to its derivation by R. A. Hall in Language 12, 133 from *partana -- (√pr̥ ~ Lat. portus, &c.). Poss. MIA. pattana -- , paṭṭana -- ʻ *ferry ʼ has collided with Drav. loanword for ʻ town ʼ]1. Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ city ʼ, °aka -- n. ʻ a kind of village ʼ; Pk. paṭṭaṇa -- n. ʻ city ʼ; K. paṭan m. ʻ quarter of a town, name of a village 14 miles NW of Śrinagar ʼ; N. pāṭan ʻ name of a town in the Nepal Valley ʼ; B. pāṭan ʻ town, market ʼ; Or. pā̆ṭaṇā°anā ʻ town, village, hamlet on outskirts of a big village ʼ; Bi. paṭnā ʻ name of a town ʼ; H. pāṭan m. ʻ town ʼ, G. pāṭaṇ n.; M. pāṭaṇ ʻ name of a town ʼ; Si. paṭuna ʻ town ʼ. -- Pa. paṭṭana -- n. ʻ harbour, port ʼ, Pk. paṭṭaṇa -- n.; H. paṭnīpā̆ṭaunīpāṭūnī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ; Si. paṭuna ʻ harbour, seaport ʼ.2. Pk. pattaṇa -- n. ʻ town ʼ, Si. patana. -- S. pataṇu m. ʻ ferry ʼ (whence pātaṇī m. ʻ ferryman ʼ, f. ʻ ferry boat ʼ); L. pattan, (Ju.) pataṇ m. ʻ ferry ʼ; P. pattaṇ ʻ ferry,landing -- place ʼ, pattaṇī°tuṇī m. ʻ ferryman, one who lives near a ferry ʼ; B. pātanī ʻ ferryman ʼ.(CDIAL 7705)

    *paṭṭakara ʻ cloth -- maker ʼ. [Cf. paṭṭakarman -- n. ʻ weaving ʼ Pañcat. -- paṭṭa -- 2, kara -- 1]Or. pāṭarā ʻ a Hindu caste of cloth -- dealers ʼ; Bi. paṭaherā ʻ maker of fancy silk ʼ; -- cf. Pk. paṭṭakāra -- m. ʻ weaver ʼ.(CDIAL 7702) *paṭṭadukūla ʻ fine silk cloth ʼ. [paṭṭa -- 2, dukūlá -- ]OG. paṭaülaüṁ n., G. paṭoḷũ n. ʻ a fine silk cloth worn by women ʼ?Addenda: *paṭṭadukūla -- : S.kcch. paṭoro m. ʻ silk sāṛī ʼ; OMarw. paṭoḷī ʻ a partic. female garment ʼ.(CDIAL 7704)

    paṭṭakila m. ʻ tenant of royal land ʼ Vet. -- . [*paṭṭakinpaṭṭa -- 1]Pk. paṭṭaïl(l)a -- m. ʻ village headman ʼ; G. paṭel m. ʻ hereditary headman ʼ (whence paṭlāṇi f. ʻ his wife ʼ); OM. pāṭaïlu, M. pāṭel°ṭīl m. ʻ village headman ʼ.(CDIAL 7703)
    पट्टी paṭṭī f (S) A strip, slip, shred; a narrow and long piece (of cloth, metal, wood &c.); A fold, plait, ply, ruffle (as of a turban &c.) पट्टें  paṭṭēṃ n (पट्ट S) A breadth (of cloth). पटका paṭakā m (पट्ट S through H) A cloth about a span in breadth worn round the waist, a girdle. (Marathi) पट्टें (p. 274) paṭṭēṃ n (पट्ट S) A breadth (of cloth).paṭa m. ʻ woven cloth ʼ MBh., °aka -- m., paṭikā -- f. lex., paṭīˊ -- f. Pāṇ.gaṇa. [Cf. paṭṭa -- 2, paṭṭa -- 3, *palla -- 3, pallava -- 2. -- Prob. with karpaṭa -- and karpāsa -- ← Austro -- as. J. Przyluski BSL xxv 70; less likely with A. Master BSOAS xi 302 ← Drav.]Pa. paṭa -- m., °ṭi -- , °ṭikā -- f. ʻ cloth, garment ʼ; Pk. paḍa<-> m. ʻ cloth ʼ, °ḍī -- , °ḍiyā -- f. ʻ a kind of garment ʼ; Wg. paṛīk ʻ shawl ʼ; S. paṛu m. ʻ covering of cloth for a saint's grave ʼ, paṛo m. ʻ petticoat ʼ; Si. paḷapalaʻ cloth, garment ʼ, piḷiya ʻ cloth, clothes ʼ; Md. feli ʻ cotton cloth ʼ.(CDIAL 7692) paṭānta m. ʻ hem or edge of a garment ʼ MBh. [paṭa -- , ánta -- ]Or. paṇantapaṇata ʻ end of a garment, one half of a cloth ʼ.(CDIAL 7697) paṭṭa2 m. ʻ cloth, woven silk ʼ Kāv., ʻ bandage, fillet turban, diadem ʼ MBh. [Prob. like paṭa -- and *phēṭṭa -- 1 from non -- Aryan source, of which *patta -- in Gy. and *patra -- in Sh. may represent aryanization of paṭṭa -- . Not < páttra -- nor, with P. Tedesco Archaeologica Orientalia in Memoriam Ernst Herzfeld 222, < *pr̥ṣṭa<-> ʻ woven ʼ, while an assumed borrowing from IA. in Bur. ph*llto -- čiṅ ʻ puttees ʼ is too flimsy a basis for *palta -- (~ Eng. fold, &c.) as the source NTS xiii 93]Pa. paṭṭa -- m. ʻ woven silk, fine cloth, cotton cloth, turban ʼ, °ṭaka -- ʻ made of a strip of cloth ʼ, n. ʻ bandage, girdle ʼ, °ṭikā -- f.; NiDoc. paṭa ʻ roll of silk ʼ Lüders Textilien 24; Pk. paṭṭa -- m. ʻ cloth, clothes, turban ʼ; Paš. paṭā ʻ strip of skin ʼ, ar. weg. paṭīˊ ʻ belt ʼ; Kal.rumb. pāˊṭi ʻ scarf ʼ; Phal. paṭṭaṛa ʻ bark ʼ; K. paṭh, dat. °ṭas m. ʻ long strip of cloth from loom ʼ, poṭu m. ʻ woollen cloth ʼ, pôṭu m. ʻ silk, silk cloth ʼ (← Ind.?); S. paṭūm. ʻ silk ʼ, paṭū̃ m. ʻ a kind of woollen cloth ʼ, paṭo m. ʻ band of cloth ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ bandage, fillet ʼ; L. paṭṭ m. ʻ silk ʼ, awāṇ. paṭṭī f. ʻ woollen cloth ʼ; P. paṭṭ m. ʻ silk ʼ, paṭṭī f. ʻ coarse woollen cloth, bandage ʼ; WPah.bhal. peṭṭu m. sg. and pl. ʻ woman's woollen gown ʼ; Ku. pāṭ ʻ silk ʼ; N. pāṭ ʻ flax, hemp ʼ; A. B. pāṭ ʻ silk ʼ (B. also ʻ jute ʼ); Or. pāṭa ʻ silk, jute ʼ, paṭā ʻ red silk cloth, sheet, scarf ʼ, (Bastar) pāṭā ʻ loincloth ʼ; Bhoj. paṭuā ʻ jute ʼ; OAw. pāṭa m. ʻ silk cloth ʼ; H. paṭ m. ʻ cloth, turban ʼ, paṭṭū m. ʻ coarse woollen cloth ʼ, paṭṭī f. ʻ strip of cloth ʼ, paṭkā m. ʻ loincloth ʼ; G. pāṭ m. ʻ strip of cloth ʼ, °ṭɔ m. ʻ bandage ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ tape ʼ; Ko. pāṭṭo ʻ strap ʼ; Si. paṭa ʻ silk, fine cloth ʼ, paṭiya ʻ ribbon, girdle, cloth screen round a tent ʼ. -- Gy. rum. pato ʻ clothing ʼ, gr. patavo ʻ napkin ʼ, wel. patavō ʻ sock ʼ, germ. phār ʻ silk, taffeta ʼ; Sh.koh. gur. pāc̣ṷ m. ʻ cloth ʼ, koh. poc̣e ʻ clothes ʼ.*paṭṭakara -- , *paṭṭadukūla -- , *paṭṭapati -- , paṭṭaraṅga -- , paṭṭarājñī -- , *paṭṭavaya -- ; *niṣpaṭṭa -- ; *antarapaṭṭa -- , *andhapaṭṭa -- , *kakṣapaṭṭa -- , *karpaṭapaṭṭikā -- , *ghumbapaṭṭa -- , carmapaṭṭa -- , *dupaṭṭikā -- , *paggapaṭṭa -- , *paścapaṭṭa -- , *laṅgapaṭṭa -- , *vasanapaṭṭa -- , śīrṣapaṭṭaka -- .Addenda: paṭṭa -- 2: WPah.poet. pakṭe f. ʻ woman's woollen gown ʼ (metath. of *paṭke with -- akka -- ); Md. fořā ʻ cloth or Sinhalese sarong ʼ, fařu(v)i ʻ silk ʼ, fař ʻ strip, chain ʼ, fař jehum ʻ wrapping ʼ (jehum verbal noun of jahanī ʻ strikes ʼ).(CDIAL 7700)

    पट्टेकरी (p. 274) paṭṭēkarī m (पट्टा & करी) A belted man, a beadle, a peon &c. Also पट्टेवाला, but this word is Hindustání. 2 A man skilful at, or one who uses, the weapon पट्टा. 

    पट्टा (p. 273) paṭṭā m ( H) A kind of sword. It is long, twoedged, and has a hilt protecting the whole fore arm. Applied also to a wooden sword for practice and sports. 2 A stripe, streak, line. 3 A slip or long piece of ground. 4 A strip (as of lace or cloth, of border or edging). 5 A cincture (of silver or gold) for the waist: also a zone, girdle, or belt more generally.

    पट paṭa m f (पट्ट S) A chequered board or cloth (to play at chess, songṭyá &c.) 2 A roll, list, catalogue (as of names): a roll, record, chronicle: a writing registering particulars or exhibiting the rule and practice; a table or a schedule: also, as संक्रांतिपट, ग्रहणपट, लग्नपट, मुहूर्त्तपट, a paper detailing (with astrological reference) the points and items connected with the sun's passage through the signs; with eclipses, auspicious periods and conjunctions &c.: also a string of pictures pasted one to another. 3 S Cloth.(Marathi)

    पटवारी (p. 273) paṭavārī m ( H) An officer of a village,--a land-steward &c. The office, now extinct, corresponded with that of कुळकरणी. Used now pleonastically with the word पाटील, as पाटीलपटवारी. 

    पट्टीचा वैदिक (p. 274) paṭṭīcā vaidika m A वैदिक or doctor of the Vedas worthy to sit in the पट्टी (assembly or line of the learned). Hence a term for a skilful disputant, or a scholar, savant, or erudite person gen. पट्टींतला (p. 274) paṭṭīntalā a Competent to sit in the पट्टी or row of Bráhmans to read the Vedas. Hence Competent, capable, proficient, smart gen.;--used of कारकून -कारभारी -गाणार -वाजंत्री -कथेकरी -सोदा- शिंदळ -लबाड &c. 

     पट्टाधिकार (p. 274) paṭṭādhikāra m (S) The chief office of the state, prime ministership. 2 Right of the पट्टा or investing deed. In this sense the compound पटा- धिकार q. v., although only of popular authority, is preferable.पट्टाधिकारी (p. 274) paṭṭādhikārī m (S) The prime minister or premier. 

    *paggapaṭṭa ʻ turban ʼ. [*paggā -- , paṭṭa -- 2M. pāgoṭẽ n. ʻ turban ʼ.(CDIAL 7642) *paggā ʻ headdress ʼ. [Scarcely with ODBL 461 < pragraha -- ]K. pag f. ʻ turban ʼ, S. pag̠a f., L. pagg, pl. °gã f., (Ju.) pag̠ f., P. pagg f., Ku. pāg f., N. A. B. pāg, Or. pāga, Bi. Mth. H. pāg f., G. pāgh f.; -- ext. -- ḍa -- : K. pagürü f., S. pag̠iṛī f., L. pagṛī f., P. paggaṛ m.; Ku. pāgṛo m. ʻ turban, loin -- sheet ʼ; N. pagari ʻ turban, cap ʼ; A. pāguri ʻ turban ʼ, B. pāgṛi, Or. pagaṛi, Bi. pagrī, H. pagṛī f. (→ Mth. pagaṛī), G. pāghṛī f.; M. pagḍī f. ʻ child's turban ʼ.*paggapaṭṭa -- .Addenda: *paggā -- : S.kcch. pāgpāgh ʻ turban ʼ, WPah.kṭg. pagg (prob. ← P. Him.I 109), pāg f., J. pāg f., A. pāg AFD 182; Md. faguḍi ʻ turban ʼ ← Ind.(CDIAL 7644)

     *ghumba ʻ head covering ʼ. 2. *ghumbapaṭṭa -- . [paṭṭa -- 2]1. N. ghum ʻ covering of interlaced bamboo strips and leaves carried against rain or sun ʼ.2. N. ghumṭo ʻ woman's head cloth ʼ, B. ghomṭā, Or. ghumbaṭā; G. ghumṭɔ m. ʻ woman's head cloth ʼ, ghumṭī f. ʻ leaf umbrella ʼ. -- Relationship of these not clear with S. ghū̃ghā̆ṭu m. ʻ woman's head cloth ʼ, P. ghuṅg(h)aṭm., N. ghũguṭo, H. ghū̃ghaṭ m.f., G. ghũghaṭ m., °ghṭī f.; M. ghũghūṭ°ghaṭ m. ʻ head cloth ʼ.Addenda: *ghumba -- . 2. *ghumbapaṭṭa -- : S.kcch. ghūmṭo m. ʻ veil ʼ; ghūṅghaṭ m.(CDIAL 4584)

    *kakṣapaṭṭa ʻ loincloth ʼ. [Cf. kakṣāpaṭa -- m. Pañcat. :kákṣa -- 1paṭṭa -- 2Pk. kacchaṭṭī -- , °chuṭṭiyā -- , °chōṭī f.; L. kachvaṭṭī f. ʻ gusset ʼ; P. kachoṭā m. ʻ loincloth ʼ, A. kasṭākāsuṭi, Or. kāchaṭā°ṭi, H. kachauṭī f., G. kachɔṭɔ m., °ṭī f.; M. kasoṭā m. ʻ tuck or end of dhoti ʼ. Addenda: *kakṣapaṭṭa -- : A. also kāchuṭi (phonet. kasuti) ʻ hem of a lower garment ʼ AFD 217.(CDIAL 2590)  kakṣyāˋ f. ʻ girdle, girth ʼ RV., kakṣyà -- ʻ pertaining to a girdle, girded (?) ʼ RV., ʻ girth ʼ in kakṣyaprāˊ -- ; kakṣā -- f. ʻ girdle ʼ MBh., ʻ loincloth ʼ BhP., kakṣa -- m. ʻ girdle ʼ MBh., ʻ end of lower garment, hem ʼ BhP. both prob. with kṣ for kṣy. [kákṣa -- 1]Pa. kacchā -- f. ʻ belt, loin -- or waist -- cloth ʼ; Pk. kakkhā -- , kacchā -- f., °cha -- m. ʻ loincloth ʼ; Ku. kākhā pl. ʻ strings by which a load is tied to the back ʼ; N. kāch ʻ cloth worn between the legs, edge, hem ʼ; B. kāchkāc ʻ hem of loincloth tucked in between the legs ʼ; Or. kācha ʻ a small cloth ʼ, kāchā ʻ loincloth ʼ, kachā ʻ end of garment tucked in ʼ; Bi. kāchā ʻ small tight loincloth ʼ; H. kāch°chā m. ʻ loincloth ʼ whence kāchnā ʻ to tie it ʼ, kāchnī f. ʻ a cloth worn over the loincloth ʼ and similarly Mth. kachani ʻ a small loincloth ʼ; G. kāch°chɔ m. ʻ tuck in a dhoti, loincloth ʼ, kāchṛɔ m. ʻ tuck in a sari ʼ; M. kāskã̄s f. ʻ tuck in a dhoti ʼ (kã̄cyā m. ʻ fold of dhoti, girdle ʼ ← H. LM 308); Si. käsa -- paṭa ʻ fold in a body cloth ʼ. -- Sh. kăči̯ adv. ʻ near ʼ (< kakṣyē?), Mai. kas, Tor. kač, Chil. kaċ; Woṭ. gasī˜ ʻ beside, with, by ʼ. *kakṣyānta -- , *kakṣyāpōkka -- . Addenda: kakṣyāˊ -- : WPah.kṭg. káċċhu m., ° m. ʻ strap (for carrying a bag on the back) ʼ, J. kāchṛi f. ʻ rope for a load ʼ; kṭg. kəċhe/uṇõ ʻ to tie a load on the back with a rope ʼ.(CDIAL 2592)

    paṭṭa1 m. ʻ slab, tablet ʼ MBh., °ṭaka -- m., °ṭikā -- f. Kathās. [Derivation as MIA. form of páttra -- (EWA ii 192), though very doubtful, does receive support from Dard. *paṭṭa -- ʻ leaf ʼ and meaning ʻ metal plate ʼ of several NIA. forms of páttra -- ]Pa. paṭṭa -- m. ʻ slab, tablet ʼ; Pk. paṭṭa -- , °ṭaya -- m., °ṭiyā<-> f. ʻ slab of stone, board ʼ; NiDoc. paṭami loc. sg., paṭi ʻ tablet ʼ; K. paṭa m. ʻ slab, tablet, metal plate ʼ, poṭu m. ʻ flat board, leaf of door, etc. ʼ, püṭü f. ʻ plank ʼ, paṭürü f. ʻ plank over a watercourse ʼ (< -- aḍikā -- ); S. paṭo m. ʻ strip of paper ʼ, °ṭi f. ʻ boat's landing plank ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ board to write on, rafter ʼ; L. paṭṭ m. ʻ thigh ʼ, f. ʻ beam ʼ, paṭṭā m. ʻ lease ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ narrow strip of level ground ʼ; P. paṭṭ m. ʻ sandy plain ʼ, °ṭā m. ʻ board, title deed to land ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ writing board ʼ; WPah.bhal. paṭṭ m. ʻ thigh ʼ, °ṭo m. ʻ central beam of house ʼ; Ku. pāṭo ʻ millstone ʼ, °ṭī ʻ board, writing board ʼ; N. pāṭo ʻ strip, plot of land, side ʼ, °ṭi ʻ tablet, slate, inn ʼ; A. pāṭ ʻ board ʼ, paṭā ʻ stone slab for grinding on ʼ; B. pāṭ°ṭā ʻ board, bench, stool, throne ʼ, °ṭi ʻ anything flat, rafter ʼ; Or. pāṭa ʻ plain, throne ʼ, °ṭipaṭā ʻ wooden plank, metal plate ʼ; Bi. pāṭ ʻ wedge fixing beam to body of plough, washing board ʼ, °ṭī ʻ side -- piece of bed, stone to grind spices on ʼ, (Gaya) paṭṭā ʻ wedge ʼ; Mth. pāṭ ʻ end of handle of mattock projecting beyond blade ʼ, °ṭāʻ wedge for beam of plough ʼ; OAw. pāṭa m. ʻ plank, seat ʼ; H. pāṭ°ṭā m. ʻ slab, plank ʼ, °ṭī ʻ side -- piece of bed ʼ, paṭṭā m. ʻ board on which to sit while eating ʼ; OMarw. pāṭī f. ʻ plank ʼ; OG. pāṭīuṁ n. ʻ plank ʼ, pāṭalaüm. ʻ dining stool ʼ; G. pāṭ f., pāṭlɔ m. ʻ bench ʼ, pāṭɔ m. ʻ grinding stone ʼ, °ṭiyũ n. ʻ plank ʼ, °ṭṛɔ m., °ṭṛī f. ʻ beam ʼ; M. pāṭ m. ʻ bench ʼ, °ṭā m. ʻ grinding stone, tableland ʼ, °ṭī f. ʻ writing board ʼ; Si. paṭa ʻ metal plate, slab ʼ. -- Deriv.: N. paṭāunu ʻ to spread out ʼ; H. pāṭnā ʻ to roof ʼ.paṭṭakila -- ; *akṣapaṭṭa -- , *upparapaṭṭa -- , kaṣapaṭṭikā -- , *catuṣpaṭṭa -- , candanapaṭṭa -- , *talapaṭṭa -- , *tāmrapaṭṭa -- , *dhurapaṭṭa -- , *dhūḍipaṭṭa -- , *pakṣapaṭṭa -- , *prastarapaṭṭa -- , *phalapaṭṭa -- , lalāṭapaṭṭa -- , śilāpaṭṭa -- , *śr̥ṅgapaṭṭa -- , *skandhapaṭṭa -- .Addenda: paṭṭa -- 1: WPah.kṭg. pāṭ m. ʻ mill -- stone ʼ (poss. Wkc. pāṭ m. ʻ female genitals ʼ, paṭṭɔ m. ʻ buttocks, back ʼ; bhal. paṭṭ m. ʻ thigh ʼ Him.I 110); kṭg. paṭḷɔ m. ʻ small wooden stool ʼ.(CDIAL 7699)


    Depicts a scene from the Buddha’s life when he was prince Siddhartha, before his renunciation of his princely status and his subsequent quest for enlightenment. He is surrounded by palace women
    indian_museum5
    Life scenes of Buddha: Carved slab fragment from the ancient stupa in Amaravati on the banks of River Krishna (2nd Century, Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh, White Limestone)

    relief of the departure of prince siddhartha 2s ad amaravati
    Relief of the departure of prince siddhartha 2 cent. CE. Amaravati

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    A short note on the iconography of Sindhu Seals

    Mrugendra Vinod  (September 2017)

    Anandavan Bhakta Samudaya, Varanasi, An institute of advanced studies in Veda and Modern Sciences

    Identifying the objects depicted in the Sindhu Seals is an outstanding issue of immense historical interest having a direct bearing on the authorship of the culture and further attempts to decipher the script.

    It is well known that the object beneath the motif animal is a cult object. We observe a correlation between the type of the animal and the cult object. Animals are either domestic or wild. And the objects are staff or tree like and vessel or manger like.
    We here draw a table of the variety of these objects versus the motif animal.

    From the above data we can draw a rule that domestic animal is associated with tree like object and wild animal is associated with manger. Elephant and Zebu are not associated with any object and hence are neutral. The solitary exception is that of Rhino with staff.
    We see from Vedic Rituals of Ashvamedha this very distinction viz. Domestic animals are tied to the 21 Yupas and Wild animals are held in the gaps between Yupas in appropriate enclosures. (ref.1)

    Yupa is the staff to which the sacrificial animal is tied. The Yupa is capped by the Chashal made from the same tree with a drilled hole. The Yupa is made as an octagonal staff by carpenter’s chisel. The chips are used to make the Svaru to be inserted in the Rashana or Darbha-rope wound around the Yupa in the middle of the Yupa.(fig.1)

    This Chashal and Svaru give the Yupa its distinction and are analogous to the horns of a horned animal. (ref.2)
    The ivory stick object M-2116 (Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions 3.1) makes this association of cult icon to Yupa amply clear.



    The branched tree object in M-1180; B-4 is also as per Ashvamedha procedure. (Ref.3)
    The Ashvamedha Ritual refers to Gomriga as the sacrificial animal on the main (Agnishtha) Yupa along with the Ashva and Tupar i.e. hornless Goat. (Ref.4)



    The ‘Unicorn’ has already been identified as Bos primigenius by Asko Parpola. (Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions)
    The Walls of Ishtar of Babylon has a fine specimen of this animal called Auruch on its Gate. (Internet Image)
    The Ashvamedha ritual has an elaborate procedure for putting gold beads in the mane of the horse. The decorative shoulder and neck of Gomriga suggest this ornamentation. (Ref.5)
    The Pashu Sangh of Ashvamedha includes all the animals depicted in the seals and many more. (Ref.6)
    The gold needles are found in Mohen jo Daro. They are explicitly referred to in Ashvamedha Ritual. (Ref.7)

    There is a remarkable copper tablet depicting an animal. This is Shinshumar of Ashvamedha Pashusangh. (Ref. 8)
    The Walls of Ishtar of Babylon has a fine specimen of this animal called Sirrush or Dragon on its Gate. (Internet Image)


    From the above remarks it is obvious that the seals are a handiwork of witnesses to the Ashvamedha Ritual or students of the Ashvamedha Manual.

    References
    Ref.1 यूपेषु ग्राम्यान् पशून्नियुञ्जन्नति। आरोकेष्वारण्यातधारयन्नति। पशूनाां व्यावृत्यै। िै.ब्रा.3.8.19
    ....एकवविँशन्नियूूपााः। िै.ब्रा.3.8.20
    Ref.2 ब्रह्म स्रुचो घृिवि ाः। ब्रह्मणा स्वरवो न्नििााः। ब्रह्म यज्ञस्य ितिवाः। ऋन्नत्वजो ये हन्नवष्कृिाः।। शृङ्गाण वेच्छृन्नङ्गणािँ सतददृन्निरे। चषालवतिाः स्वरवाः पृन्निव्याि्। िे देवासाः स्वरवस्िन्नस्िवािँसाः। निाः सन्निभ्याः सिातिावगाि।। िै.ब्रा.2.4.7
    वैष्णवो वै देविया यूपाः ---- अनक्षसङ्गां वृश्चेि् ---- बहुपणं िस्िै बहुशािां वृश्चेि् ---- पांचारत्नां --- एकवविँशत्यरत्नां ---- अष्टान्निर्ूवन्नि ---- चषालां प्रन्नििुञ्चन्नि ---- नान्नर्दघ्ने पररव्ययन्नि ---- ऊर्धवां वा िस्यावाचीं वावोहेि् ---- स्वरां यूपस्य ---- िै.सां. 6.3.3,4
    Ref.3 स ककककद न्नव न्नवद गयन्नित्युपाकरोन्नि न्निशािो यूपाः --- वाराह िौ.सू.3.4.5.20-22
    न्नवशाियूपे आन्निनिालर्ेि --- वाराह िौ.सू.3.4.5.23
    Ref.4 अिां िूपरां गोिृगि्। िानन्निष्ठ आलर्िे। िै.ब्रा.3.8.22
    A short note on the iconography of Sindhu Seals
    8
    पुरस्िात्प्रत्यञ्चां िूपरां न्नचनोन्नि। पश्चात्प्राच नां गोिृगि्। ---- अिां िूपरां गोिृगन्निन्नि सवूहुि एिाञ्जुहोन्नि। िै.ब्रा.3.8.20
    अि सायणर्ाष्यां- शृांगह नाः पशुस्िूपराः। शृांगवान् िनुष्यत्हांसकाः धूिूाः बल वदूाः गोिृगाः। यद्वा गोन्नहरणयोाः सांयोगेन उत्पिाः सांकीणूजान्निाः गोिृगाः।
    अिस्िूपरोगोिृगस्िे प्राजापत्यााः। िै.सां.उ.का.13
    Ref. 5 न्नहरण्ययााः काचा र्वन्नति। िै.ब्रा.3.9.4.5
    न्निसहस्रां िण न् लोिस्ववयवेषु ग्रथ्नन्नति। र्ूररन्नि हररिान्----रजिान्-----शांिियान्---। वा.िौ.3.4.4.47
    Ref. 6 आरण्य पशुसांघ – इांद्राय राज्ञे सूकराः ---- िै.सां. 5.5.11 – 5.5.24
    ग्राम्य पशुसांघ – रोन्नहिो धूम्ररोन्नहिाः --- िै.सां. 5.6.11 – 5.6.23
    प्लुन्नषिशकान्, करण्डेषु सपाून्, पांजरेषु िृगव्याघ्रत्सांहान्, कुांर्ेषु िकरित्स्यिण्डूकान्, जालेषु पन्नक्षणाः, कारासु हन्नस्िनाः, नौषु चौदकान्नन, यिािून्नििरान्----िा.िौ.राज.2.4.4


    Ref. 7 यत्सूच न्नर्रन्नसपिातकल्पयन्नति।----िय्याः सूच्यो र्वन्नति। अयस्िय्यो रजिा हररण्याः। िै.ब्रा.3.9.6
    Ref. 8 न्नसतधोाः वशिँशुिाराः । िै.सां. 5.5.11


    About the author:

    Mrugendra Vinod did his B.E. in Comp.Sc. in 1982-86 from M.S.University of Baroda. He worked for TIFR in HEGRO, Pachmarhi, MP for a very short while. Then he joined SAG, DRDO, Metcalfe House, Delhi and worked till 1989. He has since been practising and studying Vedas. Recently he read a paper ‘The Length of the Course of Sarasvati River from Vinashana to Plaksha Prasravana’ in an international conference on Sarasvati in Lucknow University 8-9 May 2017. He is presently working on Sarasvati in the light of Veda Shakha Literature.
    Contact: 8808482224; 8449280771; mrugendravinod@gmail.com

    Acknowledgement:
    Author wishes to note his obligation to Brahmashree Narayan Ghanapathi of Varanasi for his kind and invaluable discussions and also Brahmashree Chandrashekhar Dravid Ghanapathi for his kind help in citing passages as also Su. Suvrata and Ch. Narayan and Ku. Shruti for patient discussions.

    Note: I received this communication from Shri Vinayak Kale. In view of its importance with the insights provided by Mrugendra Vinod, I submit this blogpost for comments and suggestions by scholars (which can be sent to Shri Mrugendra Vinod at the email address provided).

    Namaskaram.

    Kalyanaraman, Sarasvati Research Centre

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    Researchers announce $1 mn prize to build computer programme to solve Queens Puzzle

    Building a computer programme to solve a chess problem called the Queens Puzzle could win you a prize of million dollars, say scientists who have thrown open a challenge that they claim is impossible to crack.

    By: PTI | Published:September 4, 2017 11:50 am
    Queens Puzzle, Queens Puzzle in Chess, What is Queens Puzzle,  million, Computer programme, Computers Chess, Computers solve Chess puzzleResearchers from the University of St Andrews in the UK believe any programme that can crack the famous “Queens Puzzle”, would be so powerful that it could solve tasks currently considered impossible. (Representational Image. Source: Reuters)

    Building a computer programme to solve a chess problem called the Queens Puzzle could win you a prize of million dollars, say scientists who have thrown open a challenge that they claim is impossible to crack. Devised in 1850, the Queens Puzzle originally challenged a player to place eight queens on a standard chessboard so that no two queens could attack each other.
    This means putting one queen in each row, so that no two queens are in the same column, and no two queens are in the same diagonal. Although the problem has been solved by human beings, once the chess board increases to a large size no computer programme can solve it.
    Researchers from the University of St Andrews in the UK believe any programme that can crack the famous “Queens Puzzle”, would be so powerful that it could solve tasks currently considered impossible, such as decrypting the toughest security on the internet.
    They found that once the chess board reached 1,000 by 1,000 squares, computer programmes could no longer cope with the vast number of options and sunk into a potentially eternal  struggle. The struggle is akin to the fictional “super computer” Deep Thought in Douglas Adams’ popular sci-fi series the Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, which took seven and a half million years to provide an answer to the ‘Meaning of Everything’, researchers said.
    “If you could write a computer programme that could solve the problem really fast, you could adapt it to solve many of the most important problems that affect us all daily,” said  Ian Gent, professor at St Andrews.
    “This includes trivial challenges like working out the largest group of your Facebook friends who do not know each other, or very important ones like cracking the codes that keep all our online transactions safe,” Gent added.
    The reason these problems are so difficult for computer programmes, is that there are so many options to consider that it can take many years, researchers said. This is due to a process of “backtracking” – an algorithm used in programming where every possible option is considered and then “backed away” from until the correct solution is found, they said.
    “However, this is all theoretical, in practise, nobody has ever come close to writing a programme that can solve the problem quickly. So what our research has shown is that – for  all practical purposes – it can not be done,” said Peter Nightingale, a senior research fellow at St Andrews.
    The prize money of one million dollars, awarded by Clay  Mathematics Institute in the US is available to anyone who can solve the puzzle. The study was published today in the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research.


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    I suggest that this book should be mandatory reading in every school and institution to understand the nature of distortions and falsification of historical narratives by motivated zealots.

    S. Kalyanaraman

    The Battle for India
    Colonial Resources and Postcolonial Discourses

    Author: B.S.Harishankar

    Publishers:Vivekananda Kendra, Chennai
    Price Rs.375

     


    Our historical consciousness  encompassing various traditions and cultures and simultaneously retaining the fundamental unity  has been axed by colonialism  with its Aryan invasion theory. This theory was propagated not only  by administrative and educational machinery of  colonial government. It was fuelled by a vast network of missionaries. This fact has been kept in the dark in  historical researches. The idea of Indo European was launched by colonial and missionary network using  linguistic and anthropological research and exhibitions.The detailed study and categorization of Indian society into  various tribes and races  which were subdued by invading hordes of Aryans was a critical part of the colonizing project.The languages in India were divided into Aryan and aboriginal.For more than a century  this notion was systematically framed, nourished and propagated.

    It became fundamental in defining ancient India.The theory  propagated in India by John Wilson,W.W.Hunter and Issac Taylor remained unchallenged during lifetime of colonial archaeologists such as Alexander Cunningham, R.E.M.Wheeler and Stuart Piggot. From linguistic side it was propagated by F.Max Muller, George Grierson, Herman Oldemberg and recently by M.Witzel.

    This  book  by B.S.Harishankar comprehensively examines missionary commitment of early sanskritists such as John Muir, Max Muller and Monier Williams and dravidiologists such as Robert Caldwell and G.U.Pope.Many personalities held high offices in indological and oriental research groups which tremendously influenced educational policies of colonial government and  universities.

    Recently there has been an orchestrated effort through various  councils, organizations, colloquiums, seminars, debates and publications to  keep alive and reinforce the Aryan invasion theory and dalit massacre. The massacre of native population and Sarasvati river issues  have  been extensively  debated in the work. 

    Many research groups are funded by western groups. The author points out that   left historians and subaltern groups  in India use the Aryan invasion theories for political ends and capturing academic bodies and research centres. Such notorious interventions have been highlighted. Surprisingly they maintain a strong network with  dalit research groups funded by churches. With extensive bibliography, index, maps and quotations, the work by Harishankar  brings out and discusses hidden and  untouched areas  in ancient Indian history and archaeology which have strong  religio political interventions.

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    https://tinyurl.com/ya6whdyw

    Hypertext composed of Signs (Hieroglyphs) 48, 342, 176 is a triplet of hieroglyphs with the most frequent occurrence in Indus Script Corpora.

    Read from r. to l.: baraḍo, kaṇḍ kanka, khareḍo
    Rebus rendering of hypertext and meaning: bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin); kaṇḍ 'fire-altar'  कारणी or कारणीक karaṇī supercargo of a ship' kanda kanka 'fire-trench account'; kharaḍā खरड़ा Wealth account ledger (raised script) accounting system traced to Indus Script, 4th millennium BCE; brief metalwork memorndum; draft, rough writing. Thus, together the hypertext means: copper-zinc-tin bharat alloy, furnace supercargo, wealth-account ledger.


    kaṇḍ kanka, ‘rim-of-jar’

    Rebus:

    kaṇḍ 'fire-altar' (Santali) Tu. kandůka, kandaka ditch, trench. Te. kandakamu id. Konḍa kanda trench made as a fireplace during weddings. Pe.kanda fire trench. Kui kanda small trench for fireplace. Malt. kandri a pit. (DEDR 1214).
    kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)
    कर्णक 'helmsman'
    कारणी or कारणीक karaṇī 'supercargo of a ship' a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.
    kanda kanka 'fire-trench account'
    baraḍo = spine; backbone; the back; baraḍo thābaḍavo = lit. to strike on the backbone or back; hence, to encourage; baraḍo bhāre thato = lit. to have a painful backbone, i.e. to do something which will call for a severe beating (Gujarati)

    Rebus:

    भरत bharat 'alloy' bhāraṇ = to bring out from a kiln (G.)  bāraṇiyo = one whose profession it is to sift ashes or dust in a goldsmith’s workshop (G.lex.) In the Punjab, the mixed alloys were generally called, bharat (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin). In Bengal, an alloy called bharan or toul was created by adding some brass or zinc into pure bronze. bharata = casting metals in moulds; bharavum = to fill in; to put in; to pour into (G.lex.) Bengali. ভরন [ bharana ] n an inferior metal obtained from an alloy of coper, zinc and tin. baran, bharat ‘mixed alloys’ (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi)
    khareḍo 'a currycomb' (Gujarati) खरारा [ kharārā ] m ( H) A currycomb. 2 Currying a horse. (Marathi)

    Rebus: 

    करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) 
    kharādī ' turner, a person who fashions or shapes 
    kharaḍā खरड़ा Wealth account ledger (raised script) accounting system traced to Indus Script, 4th millennium BCE; brief metalwork memorndum; draft, rough writing
    mũh 'shape of bun ingot'

    Rebus

    mũh, muhã 'ingot' or muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.'


    kuṭi ‘water-carrier’ PLUS hypertext 'rim-of-jar'

    Rebus 

    kuṭhi ‘smelter/furnace’
    baṭa 'rimless pot' Rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'baa 'iron'

    |||| Sign 89

    gaṇḍa'four'Rebus kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi). Thus Sign 328 PLUS Sign 89 constitute a hypertext to mean: metal equipment furnace.

    ||| Sign 95

    kolmo'three' Rebus kolimi'smithy,forge'. Thus Sign 328 PLUS Sign 95 constitute a hypertext to mean: smithy, forge furnace.

    || Sign 75

    dula'two' Rebus dul'metal casting'. Thus Sign 328 PLUS Sign 95 constitute a hypertext to mean: metal casting furnace.

    Central triplet of hieroglyphs and the connected sets of messages constitue vākyapadīya to signify: 

    कारणी or कारणीक karaṇī 'supercargo of a ship' a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale (dealing with) copper-zinc-tin bharat alloy, furnace karaṇī supercargo, wealth-account ledger. metal casting furnace (account). smithy, forge furnace (account). metal equipment furnace (account).
    Image result for spine backbone indus script
    Yadav, Nisha, 2013, Sensitivity of Indus Script to type of object, SCRIPTA, Vol. 5 (Sept. 2013), pp. 67-103
    Sanchi stupa pillar. Pericarp of lotus. lotus. sippi, 'bivalve shell, spathe of date palm' rebus: sippi 'craftsman' कर्णिक [p= 257,2] mn. the pericarp of a lotus MBh. Rebus: कारणी or कारणीक karaṇī 'supercargo of a ship' a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale 


    Buddha paying a visit to his father's house by Amaravati karabha, ibha'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' kola 'woman' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron', Koles, the lineage of Māyādevi, the Buddha's mother.
    Related imageAmaravati stupa, Worship of throne with Wheel. India, 1st century BCE āra 'spoke of wheel' Rebus: āra 'brass'. फड, phaḍa, paā 'throne', pāda 'feet' Rebus: फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metalworkers guild'
    Devotion to seat and dharmacakra-pillar (above), and devotion to seat and bodhi tree (below).  Casing slab fragment, relief sculpture, White marble,  Satavahana, India, Amaravati, Guntur Dt., Andhra Pradesh, ca. 2nd century CE, Madras Government Museum, Madras, Tamil Nadu
    Devotion to seat and dharmacakra-pillar (above), and devotion to seat and bodhi tree (below). Casing slab fragment, relief sculpture, White marble, Satavahana, India, Amaravati, Guntur Dt., Andhra Pradesh, ca. 2nd century CE, Madras Government Museum, Madras, Tamil Nadu

    kuṭhi ‘tree’ Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter/furnace’
    Bodhi tree in stone from Thailand
    kuṭhi ‘tree’ Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter/furnace’
    Dharmachakra carved in stone
    Related image
    Related image
    Related image
    Detail of stupa relief, throne and wheel. Amaravati
    Click the image to open in full size.
    khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' PLUS ayo 'fish' PLUS dula 'two' Rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage' PLUS aya 'iron' PLUS dula 'metal casting'.
    Click the image to open in full size.

    See: 

    https://tinyurl.com/y7ycqvdl Indus Script hypertexts: mēḍi, 'plait' dāwanī f. ʻropeʼ dhāī 'twisted rope' paḍa m.’cloth' (Prakrtam) pāṭ°ṭā ʻboard, bench, stool, throneʼ (Bengali)  Rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽht,me 'metal'(Samskrtam.Santali.Mu.Ho) dhā̆vaḍ m.ʻiron-smeltersʼ फडphaḍa 'metalwork artisan guild', 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal workers guild'. 

    Phanigiri, Museum, Nalgonda, Amaravati, Sculpture, Buddhism Relief Sculpture
    Phanigiri, Museum, Nalgonda, Amaravati, Sculpture, Buddhism Relief Sculpture. makara 'composite animal: crocodile PLUS elephant' rebus: dhmakara, dhamaka 'bellows-blower, blacksmith' PLUS kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'.

    Indus Script hypertexts: m, 'plait' dāwanī f. ʻropeʼ dhāī 'twisted rope' paḍa m.’cloth' (Prakrtam) pāṭ°ṭā ʻboard, bench, stool, throneʼ (Bengali) 

    Rebus: 
    मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'metal'(Samskrtam.Santali.Mu.Ho) dhā̆vaḍ m.ʻiron-smeltersʼ फडphaḍa 'metalwork artisan guild', 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal workers guild'. 


    Hieroglyphmultiplextext of stalks as horns is displayed on another frieze of Sanchi with an elephant ligatured to the body of a bull:
    Hieroglyph multiplex: Sanchi stupa. railing. 2nd cent. BCE. Hieroglyphs are: elephant (face, trunk), bull (body), safflower, leafless stalks as horns

    Hieroglyphs:
    With  karaṇḍā 'stalks' as koD 'horns' and artisans (carrying goads or weapons or काण्डी kANDI 'little stalk or stem') hieroglyph components added as signifiers on the frieze:


    sangaḍi = joined animals (Marathi) [In this hieorglyphmultiplex, body of a bull is joined to the face and trun of an elephant]
    Rebus: saMghāta 'caravan'

    barad, barat, 'bull' rebus: baran, bharat 'mixed alloys' (5 copper, 4 zinc and 1 tin) (Punjabi) bharana id. (Bengali)
    tāmarasa'lotus' rebus: tāmra'copper'करडी [ karaḍī ] f (See करडई) Safflower Rebus: खरडा [ kharaḍā ] scribbling, engraving Rebus: करडा (p. 137) [ karaḍā ] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. PLUS kolmo 'three' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. 
    kara‘elephant’s trunk’ rebus: khar‘blacksmith’ PLUS ibha'elephant' Rebus: ibbo'merchant' Pronounced together: (kar+ibbha) karb‘iron’ (See: Tulu. ajirda karba very hard iron; karba iron ib'iron')


    Or. kāṇḍa, kã̄ṛʻstalk, arrow ʼ(CDIAL 3023). Rebus: khāṇḍā'tools, pots and pans, metal-ware'. ayaskāṇḍa'a quantity of iron, excellent iron'. 



    0 0

    IO San 3621 ff.3v (text) and 3r (picture)


    This painting comes from the fifth book, called the Beautiful Book. Arrived on the island of Lanka, Hanuman has shrunk in size, and eventually finds Sita near a dazzling white temple in a grove of ashoka trees within the palace complex. She is seated on the ground like a female ascetic and sunk in melancholy. From his perch in a tree Hanuman can see her guarded by female demons and surrounded by Ravana's wives, the daughters of gods and other divine creatures whom he had already captured. Ravana, who has ten heads and twenty arms, comes to beg her to marry him, but she repulses him. If she does not change her mind, Ravana threatens, he will have her killed. One of his wives seeks to divert him, but he strides angrily away. Sita is comforted by Hanuman when he reveals himself to her as Rama's messenger with his ring, but she cannot allow herself to be rescued by him: to her husband alone belongs the right to rescue her and the glory of so doing. She does however give Hanuman a jewel as a token for Rama. The fifth book of the Mewar Ramayana is represented today by an album of eighteen full-size paintings, with text on the back, without a colophon. It was acquired in 1912 by the India Office Library (now part of the British Library). The paintings are in a Deccani-influenced style closely related to that of the Book of Kiskindha.


    Sundara kāṇḍa: Hanuman finds Sītādevi



    The Ramayana

    The epic Ramayana has been performed throughout India and South East Asia for at least 2000 years. The earliest written text dates back to 400 AD, and was written by the poet Valmiki who brought together stories, songs and prayers connected to Rama and Sita. The epic's origins are in India and Hinduism, but over the centuries the story has crossed seas and mountains, languages and religions, performance styles and art forms. There are Muslim versions in Java, and Buddhist versions in Thailand. The story exists as shadow plays in Indonesia, temple carvings in Cambodia, dances, plays and ritual enactments throughout India. The text lives in books made of ola leaf in Sri Lanka and on painted boxes in North India. One of the phenomenons of this epic is its migration around the world, which has led to multiple versions and tellings, each storyteller re-composing the story for each audience. Ramayana is still a living performance tradition today.
    Choose the following parts of the stories below:

    Princess Sita's Kidnap

    Hanuman's Leap to Lanka

    Finding Sita at Ravana's Palace in Lanka

    The Medicine Mountain

    Sita's Fire Test


    alt MAHAFREED IRANI | Updated: Mar 22, 2014, 05:00 PM IST, DNA webdesk
    The Mewar Ramayana, considered to be one of the most beautiful illustrated manuscripts in the world is now available online thanks to a partnership between the British Library and CSMVS Museum of Mumbai. The lavish manuscript which was created by several artists was commissioned by Rana Jagat Singh I of Mewar in 1649 and produced in his court studio at Udaipur. The online version has made available hundreds of folios from it, including 377 vividly illustrated paintings. The project, which took three years to put together, is sponsored by the Jamsetji Tata Trust, the World Collections Programme, and the Friends of the British Library.
    The digital Mewar Ramayana allows users to ‘turn the pages' in the unbound style reflecting the traditional Indian loose-leaf format. It has interpretive text and audio. Users can use tools to zoom into the miniatures to view their detailing.
    What is the Mewar Ramayana?
    Divided into seven books, the manuscript's text was written by Jain scribe Mahatma Hirananda and its miniature paintings created by various artists including studio master Sahib Din. Production of the manuscript started in 1649 and was completed in 1653 in the first year of the reign of his Rāṇā Rāj Siṅgh (r. 1652–80). The manuscript features intricate and miniature paintings of Hindu gods, battles, landscapes and animals alongside which are 800 pages of text in Sanskrit. Three different studio masters including Sahib Din organised the illustrations of the various volumes over a period of several years.
    Why was the Mewar Ramayana split between the UK and India?
    After being split between the UK and India for over 150 years, the online version will reunite the epic for the first time.
    Originally in seven volumes corresponding to the seven books of the epic, four of them (Books 2, 4, 6 and 7) were given by Mahārāṇā Bhīm Siṅgh of Mewar (1778–1828) to Colonel James Tod (1782–1835) who in 1818 became the first British political agent in Rajasthan. On his departure from India he brought them to England and they are now in the British Library.
    Book 1 remains in India, mostly in Mumbai, at the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya and in a private collection, with two folios in the Baroda Museum, while Book 3 remained in the palace library in Udaipur before passing to the Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute and is now in Jodhpur. The dismembered fifth book is represented now only by an album of eighteen paintings, also in the British Library.
    On his return to England in 1823, Tod presented his four Rāmāyaṇavolumes to the royal bibliophile, the Duke of Sussex (1773–1843), along with a later manuscript of the first book done in Udaipur in 1712. They were acquired by the British Museum library at the sale of the Sussex collection in 1844 and became known as the ‘SussexRāmāyaṇa’. All the originally loose leaves of these Indian manuscripts were inlaid into heavy, sized paper and bound up in three extremely handsome European goatskin covers, tooled and gilded.
    How to view the Mewar Ramayana online?
    The book is available online via a software called Turning the Pages that allows libraries, museums and galleries around the world provide access to their collections. The new version of 'Turning the Pages' is built in HTML5. It is not reliant on 'plugins' you need to install first, as with previous versions. It will work with the following browsers:
    Internet Explorer 9 +
    Google Chrome 14+
    Firefox 11+
    Safari
    Note: The virtual book, is a very large file and may take several minutes to download on slower internet connections.

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