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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Despite international media’s outrage, the India elephant should move forward

    Don’t commentators listen when President Ram Nath Kovind pitches for “compassionate society” or Prime Minister Narendra Modi exhorts citizens against religious intolerance or hatred?

    Aug 18, 2017 17:53 IST
    If the idea of India was still-born, then why blame Modi for killing it?If the idea of India was still-born, then why blame Modi for killing it? (Arun Sharma/ Hindustan Times)
    I would be the last person to highlight the compulsive Hindu- or India-bashing as we celebrate the 70th anniversary of our nation. But almost as striking as India’s achievements are some of our mean and mealy-mouthed detractors. Don’t get me wrong. I am all for a genuine introspection, even far-reaching criticism, especially if the latter is constructive. What better conjuncture than our Independence Day for such conjecture and reflection?
    But the bellyaching niggling and whining, especially of our celebrity pedants and self-proclaimed prophets, is in such bad taste on such an occasion. “India at 70, and the Passing of Another Illusion” by Pankaj Mishra (11 August, New York Times) is an example. The entire piece is one unremitting jeremiad on “religious-racial supremacists,” “xenophobic and racial” Hindus, “lynching of Muslims,” “assaults on couples,” “threats of rape against women,” “Hindu supremacists’ troll army,” “mob frenzy,” “jingoistic television,” “nationwide hunt for enemies,” “reactionary upper-caste Hindus,” “India’s lynch mobs,” and so on. The damning conclusion is as predictable as it is prejudiced: “Mr. Modi’s rule represents the most devastating, and perhaps final, defeat of India’s noble postcolonial ambition to create a moral world order.” As if this were not enough, Mishra asks us to “mourn this Aug.15 as marking the end of India’s tryst with destiny or, more accurately, the collapse of our exalted ideas about ourselves.”
    “Ourselves”? Mishra must be delusive. If not in solitary confinement, he stands isolated with a few fellow doomsayers, similarly marooned in their solipsistic, if not sponsored, splendour. Married well or highly privileged, talented writers like Mishra routinely fall into the gadfly trap—or should I say, trip? Do they consider themselves the divinely ordained conscience keepers of a people who would remain eternally benighted but for their gloomy auguries? Of course, it pays to trash India. What other motive can we ascribe to such egregious self-reproach? But these disgruntled Hindus don’t seem to do it purely for the money. They are not your ordinary sepoys or mercenaries. It is their passion, even pathology perhaps. But complain as they may till they go blue in the face, their carping amounts to little more than baying at the moon. For all practical purposes, India has passed them by.

    In Mishra’s case, by tracing the rot way back to 1948, via the 1984 Congress pogrom of Sikhs in Delhi, he seriously undermines his condemnation of Modi. If, as he alleges, “up to 40,000 Muslims were killed,” under Jawaharlal Nehru’s watch in the police action on Hyderabad in 1948, how is Modi responsible for the demise of the idea of India? With the ravages of Partition and creation of a theocratic Muslim state, wasn’t Nehru’s tryst with destiny already a disaster? How could 15 August 1947, in the words of W.E.B. Du Bois, be celebrated “as the greatest historical date” in modern times with the lonely Mahatma fire-fighting Hindu-Muslim riots in Calcutta on this very day instead of presiding over the honours in the Viceregal Palace? If the idea of India was still-born, then why blame Modi for killing it?

    If Mishra’s sense of history is wrong even more is his ethical inclination mistaken. In the case of Hyderabad he confidently maintains that the 40,000 killed were Muslims without substantiating either claim. The Razakaar atrocities and excesses on Hindus, the Nizam’s plan to create another Pakistan within India, Hyderabad’s appeal to the UN Security Council against India—all this is conveniently elided. If his figure of 40,000 killed is from the Pandit Sunderal Committee, then the actual number in the report is between 26,000-40,000, with the religion of the casualties not clearly identified. Mishra shows himself up not as a true critic, let alone friend of India, but as partisan, motivated, and unreliable.
    Don’t commentators listen when President Ram Nath Kovind pitches for “compassionate society” or Prime Minister Narendra Modi exhorts citizens against religious intolerance or hatred? Why don’t they find a single positive thing to say about India’s numberless achievements? Why does international media subject India to such scathing criticism when failed states such as Pakistan or authoritarian regimes such as China are seldom held accountable? Whenever anyone needs an excuse to sledge us, it is such unbalanced India-trashers who are sure to be quoted. No wonder Mishra earned the sobriquet of “general hater-in-chief of anything Indian.” But as he himself once confessed, “My dominant feeling every day is one of great ignorance.” We should take him at his word here and discount his rants.
    To end on a positive note, a great civilization, society, or state must not be overly touchy. Such hypersensitivity only reveals our own insecurities. To so seek the approbation and sympathy of friends and foes alike is unnecessary. This, indeed, was Jawaharlal Nehru’s undoing. An elephant does not slow down, let alone, stop at every barking cur. Similarly, India must move forward calmly, purposefully, and confidently to reassert her economic, cultural, political, and military power, not only in the region, but also in the world. But in doing so, we should never deviate from the path of dharma or righteousness. Therein lies our manifest destiny.
    Makarand Paranjape is a professor at the Jawaharlal Nehru University

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    Re-establishing the True Chronological History of India

    Created by: Vedveer Arya
    Date: August 19, 2017

    The chronic and complex problems in the study of ancient Indian chronology arise from a misunderstanding of the epochs of ancient Indian eras. Based on the epigraphic and literary evidence, we can conclusively fix the epochs of ancient Indian eras starting from the date of Buddha nirvana. There is abundance of epigraphic, archaeological and literary evidence for the critical study of the chronology of ancient India. Unfortunately, the exact epochs of certain ancient eras were forgotten by 10th and 11th centuries. Thus, we need to debate and establish the true epochs of ancient Indian eras.

    Re-establishing the True Chronological History of India Indian civilisation is arguably, the oldest continuous civilisation that possibly had its origin in the early beginnings of the Holocene around 15000-14000 BCE. Puranas relate the continuous chronology of the political history of ancient India starting from the Surya Vamshi king Ikshvaku to the kings of the Gupta dynasty. There is abundance of epigraphic, archaeological and literary evidence for the critical study of the chronology of ancient India. Unfortunately, the exact epochs of certain ancient eras were forgotten by 10th and 11th centuries. This led to many inconsistencies and contradictions in Indian chronology. In the last 233 years, Western historians and their followers took advantage of these inconsistencies and distorted the entire chronology of ancient India. They concocted many false theories and managed to take modern Indian historical research in the direction that suited their purpose. The Epochs of Ancient Indian Eras: The True Sheet-anchors of Indian Chronology As a matter of fact, the chronic and complex problems in the study of ancient Indian chronology arise from a misunderstanding of the epochs of ancient Indian eras. As unanimously accepted by all historians, inscriptions are the most valuable source of ancient Indian chronology. Based on the epigraphic and literary evidence, we can conclusively fix the epochs of ancient Indian eras starting from the date of Buddha nirvana. In the last three years, I have extensively worked on the subject and published a book “The Chronology of Ancient India: Victim of Concoctions and Distortions” and various articles which can be downloaded from 

    Based on my research work, I propose the following true epochs of ancient Indian eras.

    Following the Sankalp Se Siddhi (New India Movement 2017-2022), a great initiative by Honorable Prime Minister, let us take pledge to re-establish the true chronological history of India by 2022. Initiated by: Vedveer Arya

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    Cambridge University
    Cambridge University Press blocks its readers in China from articles

    Cambridge University Press accused of 'selling its soul' over Chinese censorship

    Academics and activists decry publisher’s decision to comply with a Chinese request to block more than 300 articles from leading China studies journal

    A list of the blocked articles, published by CUP, shows they focus overwhelmingly on topics China’s one-party state regards as taboo Photograph: Nick Ansell/PA

    The world’s oldest publishing house, Cambridge University Press, has been accused of being an accomplice to the Communist party’s bid to whitewash Chinese history after it agreed to purge hundreds of politically-sensitive articles from its Chinese website at the behest of Beijing’s censors.
    The publisher confirmed on Friday that it had complied with a Chinese request to block more than 300 articles from the China Quarterly, a leading China studies journal, in order “to ensure that other academic and educational materials we publish remain available to researchers and educators” in China.
    A list of the blocked articles, published by CUP, shows they focus overwhelmingly on topics China’s one-party state regards as taboo, including the 1989 Tiananmen massacre, Mao Zedong’s catastrophic Cultural Revolution, Hong Kong’s fight for democracy and ethnic tensions in Xinjiang and Tibet.
    They include articles by some of the world’s top China specialists including Columbia University’s Andrew Nathan, George Washington University’s David Shambaugh, and Harvard University scholars Roderick MacFarquhar and Ezra Vogel.
    A piece by Dutch historian Frank Dikötter and a book review by the Guardian’s former China correspondent, John Gittings, about the Cultural Revolution were also censored.
    In its statement, CUP insisted it was committed to freedom of thought and expression and had been “troubled by the recent increase in requests of this nature” from China. The publisher vowed to raise the issue with the “revelant agencies” in Beijing at an upcoming book fair. 
    But on Saturday, as reports of the publisher’s move spread, it faced a growing outcry from academics and activists who called for the decision to be reversed. 
    “Pragmatic is one word, pathetic more apt,” tweeted Rory Medcalf, the head of the national security college at the Australian National University. 
    John Garnaut, a longtime China correspondent and former adviser to the Australian prime minister, Malcolm Turnbull, described it as “an extraordinary capitulation” to China.
    Renee Xia, the international director of the Chinese Human Rights Defenders network, accused the publisher of having “sold its soul for millions of Chinese govt dollars”.
    Andrew Nathan, whose name appears three times in the list of censored articles, told the Guardian: “If the Press acceded to a Chinese request to block access to selected articles, as I gather is the case, it violated the trust that authors placed in it and has compromised its integrity as an academic publisher.”
    Nathan, the editor of a seminal work on the Tiananmen crackdown, added: “I imagine [CUP] might argue that it was serving a higher purpose, by compromising in order to maintain the access by Chinese scholars to most of the material it has published. This is similar to the argument by authors who allow Chinese translations of their work to be censored so that the work can reach the Chinese audience. [But] that’s an argument I have never agreed with.”
    “Of course, there may also be a financial motive, similar to Bloomberg, Facebook, and others who have censored their product to maintain access to the Chinese market. This is a dilemma, but if the West doesn’t stand up for its values, then the Chinese authorities will impose their values on us. It’s not worth it.”
    In an open letter two US scholars, Greg Distelhorst and Jessica Chen Weiss, complained that CUP’s move meant Chinese academics and scholars would now only have access to a “sanitized” version of their country’s history.
    “To me the problem is pretty straightforward: the problem is publishing a politically-curated version of Chinese history and doing so in the name of Cambridge University,” Distelhorst, an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, told the Guardian. 
    “This makes the publisher an active participant in rewriting history … When a government asks you to censor a piece of scholarship, that request is fundamentally opposed to a principle of academic freedom that I believe to be important to Cambridge and to many universities.”
    In a statement the editor of China Quarterly, Tim Pringle, voiced “deep concern and disappointment” at the tightening controls in China. “This restriction of academic freedom is not an isolated move but an extension of policies that have narrowed the space for public engagement and discussion across Chinese society.”
    Distelhorst said he sympathised with CUP and particularly the editors of China Quarterly: “Receiving censorship requests puts them in a really difficult position and forces a lot of hard trade-offs ... [But] I hope they will reconsider their decision to selectively censor articles and then present the censored version of the journal to the Chinese public.”
    Since Xi Jinping took power nearly five years ago Beijing has dramatically stepped up its efforts to control Chinese academia, with the president last year calling for universities to be transformed into Communist party “strongholds”.
    A growing number of intellectuals – the majority political scientists or international relations and law experts – have sought refuge in the US. “It is not as dramatic as the refugees from Hitler; not as dramatic as the enormous number who turned up [after Tiananmen] and we had to deal with. But it is growing and I am seeing them,” the veteran China expert Jerry Cohen, who has been helping some of the refugee scholars, said in an interview last year.
    Foreign academics have also been targeted, with Chinese authorities denying visas to academics deemed to be focusing on unwelcome topics. Until now, however, foreign academic journals appeared to have largely avoid scrutiny. 
    Nathan said China’s list of censorship demands to the CUP appeared to have been generated “by a naive machine search of article and review titles” which had targeted key words and names deemed sensitive. He called the move “a useless overreach” by Beijing.
    “What can it accomplish? I’m sorry to say that information control often works. But if you have so much money, staff, and time, that you can burrow down to the level of censoring academic publications in a foreign language that could only be used by your own academic community, then I think your censorship organs are over funded and you would do well to cut their budgets. As the saying goes, this is lifting up a stone only to drop it on one’s own foot.”
    One of the censored China Quarterly articles captures the kind of material China’s authoritarian leaders would prefer to see buried.
    In his 2016 contribution, The Once and Future Tragedy of the Cultural Revolution, Harvard’s MacFarquhar writes about the burgeoning Mao-esque personality cult around Xi and ponders “the vigorous attempt by the regime to consign the Cultural Revolution to the dustbin of history by discouraging research and teaching on the subject”.
    MacFarquhar writes: “The dangers of inducing national amnesia is encapsulated in George Santayana’s famous dictum: ‘Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.’”

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    Cast your vote: Create National Water Grid

    Create National Water Grid

    2 Vote(s)
    4998 Remaining
    Created by: Srinivasan Kalyanaraman
    Date: August 19, 2017
    Bharat is blessed with the greatest water tower in the world, the Himalayas. This tower is growing. With the waters stored in the tower, we can assure 24×7 water to every farm and every home in 6.2 lakh villages. NWDA perspective plan is the backbone for the National Water Grid which has been approved by Hon’ble Supreme Court in 2012 judgement of 3-judge bench headed by CJI Kapadia. With water available 24×7, farmers can grow upto 3 crops per year, thus increase food production two -or three-fold. Recurring problems of floods and droughts can be solved with the Grid in place.

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    This monograph demonstrates that unambiguous, exquisite Indus Script hypertexts seen on Rampurva Aśoka pillars, copper bolt (metal dowel), bull & lion capitals are proclamations, ketu -- yajñasya ketu--  of Soma Yāga performance. 

    All the pillars of Ashoka are built at Buddhist monasteries. “The pillars have four component parts in two pieces: the three sections of the capitals are made in a single piece, often of a different stone to that of the monolithic shaft to which they are attached by a large metal dowel. The shafts are always plain and smooth, circular in cross-section, slightly tapering upwards and always chiselled out of a single piece of stone. The lower parts of the capitals have the shape and appearance of a gently arched bell formed of lotus petals. The abaci are of two types: square and plain and circular and decorated and these are of different proportions. The crowning animals are masterpieces of Mauryan art, shown either seated or standing, always in the round and chiselled as a single piece with the abaci.”

    The appearance of capitals as bells signifies bronze-working competence: kaṁsá1 m. ʻ metal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Pat. as in S., but would in Pa. Pk. and most NIA. lggs. collide with kāˊṁsya -- to which L. P. testify and under which the remaining forms for the metal are listed. 2. *kaṁsikā -- . 1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. ʻ bronze dish ʼ; S. kañjho m. ʻ bellmetal ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ gong ʼ; Or. kãsā ʻ big pot of bell -- metal ʼ; OMarw. kāso (= kã̄ -- ?) m. ʻ bell -- metal tray for food, food ʼ; G. kã̄sā m. pl. ʻ cymbals ʼ; -- perh. Woṭ. kasṓṭ m. ʻ metal pot ʼ Buddruss Woṭ 109.2. Pk. kaṁsiā -- f. ʻ a kind of musical instrument ʼ; K. k&ebrevdotdot;nzü f. ʻ clay or copper pot ʼ; A. kã̄hi ʻ bell -- metal dish ʼ; G. kã̄śī f. ʻ bell -- metal cymbal ʼ, kã̄śiyɔ m. ʻ open bellmetal pan ʼ.kāˊṁsya -- ; -- *kaṁsāvatī -- ?Addenda: kaṁsá -- 1: A. kã̄h also ʻ gong ʼ or < kāˊṁsya -- .(CDIAL 2576)
    Image result for rampurva indus scriptBull capital, lion capital on Rampurva Aśoka pillarss
    An Indus Script hypertext message on the copper bolt which joins the bull capital with the pillar is about metalwork competence of artisans of Rampurva who made the pillar with capital. The decorative motifs on the abacus are also Indus Script hypertexts documenting metallurgical competence.

    The abacus of the bull capital shows pericarp of lotus, rhizomes, palm fronds. These signify: कर्णिक, कर्णिका f. the pericarp of a lotus rebus: कर्णिका 'steersman, helmsman' (seafaring merchant) PLUS (base of the abacus) tāmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tāmra 'copper' PLUS sippi 'mollusc', śilpin, sippi 'artificer'. Thus, the hypertext message is: helmsman, coppersmith artificer.

    Related imageThe abacus of the lion capital show decorative motifs of aquatic birds, hamsa and varāha 'boars'. These Indus Script motifs signify: বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [bārakaśa or bārakasan ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.

    The animals on the capital are Indus Script hypertexts: 

    1. Zebu: पोळ pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळ pōḷa 'magnetite (a ferrite ore)'
    2.. arā 'lion' rebus: āra 'brass', ārakū'brass alloy' 

    The pillars upholding the capital are Indus Script hypertexts: skambha 'pillar' rebus: kampaṭṭam, kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'.

    Thus, these pillars with animal capitals of Rampurva are proclamations of metal- and mint-work by artisans of Rampurva. The tradition of mounting a pillar as a proclamation of performance of Soma Yāga is a tradition documented in R̥gveda which refers to an octagonal pillar as ketuaṣṭāśri yūpa, ketu to proclaim a somasamsthā yāga. The expression used describe the purport of the yūpa is:  yajñasya ketu (RV 3.8.8).
    Hieroglyphs on the two-and-a-half feet long Rampurva copper bolt which joinss the bull capital to the pillar:
    1. goṭ 'seed' Rebus: koṭe ‘forging (metal)
    2. kanda 'fire altar' rebus: khaṇḍa 'metal implements'. 
    3. goṭ 'round, stone' Rebus: khoṭ 'alloy ingot' PLUS aya khambhaṛā 'fish fin' Rebus: aya kammaṭa 'iron mint'
    4. ḍanga 'mountain range' rebus: ḍangar 'blacksmith' PLUS bhaṭa 'rimless pot' rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'. 

    Thus, the hypertext on the Rampurva copper bolt is 1. a professional calling card of the metalsmithy/forge artisan with competence in forging metal implements, with iron mint and furnace and 2. proclamation of the performance of a Soma Yāga

    Thus, Indus Script hypertexts seen on Rampurva Aśoka pillars, copper bolt, bull & lion capitals are proclamations, ketu -- yajñasya ketu--  of Soma Yāga performance. 

    Fern stems are often referred to as "rhizomes". "In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (/ˈrzm/, from Ancient Greekrhízōma "mass of roots",[1] from rhizóō"cause to strike root")[2] is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that is usually found underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes. Rhizomes are also called creeping rootstalks and rootstocks. Rhizomes develop from axillary buds and grow perpendicular to the force of gravity. The rhizome also retains the ability to allow new shoots to grow upwards.
    Lotus rhizome.कर्णिक, कर्णिका f. the pericarp of a lotus MBh. BhP. &c; f. a knot-like tubercle Sus3r.; f. a round protuberance (as at the end of a reed or a tube) Sus3r. Rebus: कर्णिक m. a steersman W.
    Athyrium filix-femina.jpgA fern unrolls a young frond. These young fronds become decorative motifs of Indus Script artifacts.

    The use of rebus method to apply sound values to glyphs is well-attested in contemporary civilizations of Egypt and Sumer. When sound values related to the glyphs of the Indus writing system were identified from the glosses of the linguistic area, a surprising semantic cluster emerged related to homophones. While the glosses directly relatable to the emphatically, unambiguously identifiable glyphs were listed, the corresponding homophones produced a semantic cluster related to metallurgy, minerals, metals, alloys, smithy, smelters, furnace types and forge. 

    The rebus method automatically justified itself as a valid method and helped decode majority of the unambiguously identified glyphs (both pictorial motifs and signs) of the Indus Script writing system. The decoded rebus readings related to the repertoire of mine-workers, metal worker guild and smithy. That a guild was in vogue is inferred from the glyph of a trough shown in front of not only domesticated animals but also wild animals and the homophone for the trough  (pātra, pattar) indicates a guild, pattar, guild of goldsmiths. 

    "Stambha (also spelled as Skambha) - is used to denote pillar or column. In the context of Jain & Hindu mythology, it is believed to be a cosmic column which functions as a bond, which joins the heaven (Svarga) and the earth (Prithvi). A number of Hindu scriptures, including the Atharva Veda, have references to Stambha. In the Atharva Veda, a celestial stambha has been described as an infinite scaffold, which supports the cosmos and material creation. skambhá1 m. ʻ prop, pillar ʼ RV. 2. ʻ *pit ʼ (semant. cf. kūˊpa -- 1). [√skambh1. Pa. khambha -- m. ʻ prop ʼ; Pk. khaṁbha -- m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ; Pr. iškyöpüšköb ʻ bridge ʼ NTS xv 251; L. (Ju.) khabbā m., mult. khambbā m. ʻ stake forming fulcrum for oar ʼ; P. khambhkhambhākhammhā m. ʻ wooden prop, post ʼ; WPah.bhal. kham m. ʻ a part of the yoke of a plough ʼ, (Joshi) khāmbā m. ʻ beam, pier ʼ; Ku. khāmo ʻ a support ʼ, gng. khām ʻ pillar (of wood or bricks) ʼ; N. khã̄bo ʻ pillar, post ʼ, B. khāmkhāmbā; Or. khamba ʻ post, stake ʼ; Bi. khāmā ʻ post of brick -- crushing machine ʼ, khāmhī ʻ support of betel -- cage roof ʼ, khamhiyā ʻ wooden pillar supporting roof ʼ; Mth. khāmhkhāmhī ʻ pillar, post ʼ, khamhā ʻ rudder -- post ʼ; Bhoj. khambhā ʻ pillar ʼ, khambhiyā ʻ prop ʼ; OAw. khāṁbhe m. pl. ʻ pillars ʼ, lakh. khambhā; H. khām m. ʻ post, pillar, mast ʼ, khambh f. ʻ pillar, pole ʼ; G. khām m. ʻ pillar ʼ, khã̄bhi°bi f. ʻ post ʼ, M. khã̄b m., Ko. khāmbho°bo, Si. kap (< *kab); -- X gambhīra -- , sthāṇú -- , sthūˊṇā -- qq.v.2. K. khambürü f. ʻ hollow left in a heap of grain when some is removed ʼ; Or. khamā ʻ long pit, hole in the earth ʼ, khamiā ʻ small hole ʼ; Marw. khã̄baṛo ʻ hole ʼ; G. khã̄bhũ n. ʻ pit for sweepings and manure ʼ.*skambhaghara -- , *skambhākara -- , *skambhāgāra -- , *skambhadaṇḍa -- ; *dvāraskambha -- .Addenda: skambhá -- 1: Garh. khambu ʻ pillar ʼ.(CDIAL 13639)  *skambhadaṇḍa ʻ pillar pole ʼ. [skambhá -- 1, daṇḍá -- ]Bi. kamhãṛkamhaṛkamhaṇḍā ʻ wooden frame suspended from roof which drives home the thread in a loom ʼ. (CDIAL 13642) Rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinagemintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236)

    [quote]Rampurva is an archaeological site in the West Champaran district of the Indian state of Bihar, situated very close to the border with Nepal. It is known for the discovery of a pair of Aśoka Pillars in c. 1876 by A.C.L. Carlleyle. (Allen, Charles (2010). The Buddha and Dr. Führer: An Archaeological Scandal. Penguin Books India. pp. 66–67.)

     Indus Script hypertext on Rampurva copper bolt


    Rampurwa, Champaran, Bihar, India  


    Upto 3rd century BC
    ca 299-200 BCE  


    Plaster of Paris Stucco, 200 x 135 cm  


    Architectural fragment
    Presently located at: Calcutta, Indian Museum 



    Image Identification

    Accession No 36104
    Negative No 249.87
    American Institute of Indian Studies, Varanasi  


    American Institute of Indian Studies, Varanasi 

    "According to Cunningham, who wrote about the pillars says, that he excavated the surrounding of the site and disconnected its broken Capital from the shaft. The Capital was fastened to the shaft by a solid barrel shaped bolt of pure copper, measuring two and a half feet long and 5-5/16 inches in diameter at the centre and tapered slightly towards the ends where its circumference was 3-5/8 inches. The bolt projected exactly half its length or 1-1/4 inches from the shaft, and the projecting portion received the Capital; both ends were beautifully fitted into the stone, thus dispensing with any cement substance to firmly hold it together. The copper bolt was an exquisite piece of work, created into shape apparently with a hammer. The bolt is now kept in the Indian Museum, Kolkata and weighs 79 ½ lbs.Ref: Cunningham, ASI, XVI, pp.110-117; Carlleyle, CASI, XXII, pp.51-57; An. Rep., ASI, 1902-3, pp.38-40; 1907-8, pp.181-88; An Rep., ASI, E.C. 1906-7, p.16; 1912-13, p.36; BDG, Champaran, pp. 172-74.

    The bolt is apparently forged into form by hammer after being cast. This is confirmed by the inscription on the bolt written in Indus writing. The lexeme is: koṭe ‘forging (metal)(Munda) 

    The use of the Indus script glyphs on 
    Rampurva copperbolt*** reinforce the decoding of smithy repertoire.

    ***Rampurva copper bolt “The starting place for the inquiry is the Rampurva copper bolt at present in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. This was discovered in 1880 by Cunningham and H.B. Garrick. It was buried beside the fallen southerly pillar on which was engraved a set of Asoka’s pillar edicts. The pillar and its lion capital were subsequently fully excavated by Daya Ram Sahni. The more northerly Rampurva pillar is that associated with the famous bull capital. The bolt was examined by Cunningham who concluded that there could be n doubt of its being original and that it must have served to hold the lion capital in place upon its pillar. It is probable that other Asokan pillars and capitals bear mortises for similar bolts. This one is described as barrel shaped, of pure copper measuring 2 ft. ½ in. in length, with a diameter of 4 5/16 in. in the centre, and 3 5/8 in. at each end. Cunningham makes no mention of any marks upon the bolt, but Durga Prasad published an impression of four marks. They are made of lines of impressed dots and include the hill-with-crescent, the taurine or Nandipada, and the open cross:

    Here these signs occur upon an object which must have been made by craftsmen working for Asoka or one of his predessors.” (F.R. Allchin, 1959, Upon the contextual significance of certain groups of ancient signs, School of Oriental and African Studies, London.)

    goṭ 'seed' Rebus: koṭe ‘forging (metal)(Munda); khoṭ 'alloy ingot'. खोट (p. 212) [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. (Marathi) 

    kanda 'fire-altar' Rebus: khaṇḍa 'metal implements'. 

    goṭ 'round object' Rebus: khoṭ 'alloy ingot' PLUS bhaṭa 'rimless pot' Rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'; dhanga 'mountain-range' Rebus: dhangar 'metalsmith' PLUS bhaṭa 'rimless pot' Rebus: bhaṭa 'furnace'. Thus, the inscription on the Rampurva copperbolt provides technical specification on the metal object, the copper bolt: that it was made of an alloy ingot (from) furnace, (made by) metal implements metalsmith.

    Alternative: goṭ  'round object' Rebus: khoṭ 'alloy ingot' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236)

    Thus, the Indus Script hypertext on the Rampurva copper alloy bolt is a message of the professional competence of metalsmiths of the Bronze Age at Rampurva: alloy metal castings, metal furnaces, ingots, metalsmithy, mintwork.

    Who knows? The metalsmith might have worked for Asoka or Asoka's predecessors (earlier than 3rd cent. BCE), as Allchin surmises.

    Indus Script hypertexts on Rampurva bull and lion capitals of Aśoka pillars

    Lotus base of an Ashokan capital from Odisha.

    Frieze of the lost capital of the Allahabad pillar, with two lotuses with multiple calyx, framing a "flame palmette" surrounded by small rosette flowers, over a band of beads and reels.
    John Murray, 1876 - Illustration for History of Indian and Eastern Architecture by James Fergusson (John Murray, 1876).
    Frieze of capital of Lat at Allahabad, with flame palmette within multiple calyx lotuses. Similarities with a frieze from Delphi featuring lotus with multiple calyx:

    "Flame palmettes" around a lotus, Detail of Rampurva bull capital, detail of the abacus.
    Image result for rampurva indus scriptRelated imageRelated imageAn early representation of a zebu, on the Rampurva capital of the Pillars of Ashoka, third century BCE.

    पोळ pōḷa 'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: पोळ pōḷa 'magnetite (a ferrite ore)'  पोळा (p. 305) pōḷā m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship.  पोळ (p. 305) pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. 

    Related image

    Lion Capital found at Rampurva. The abacus is decorated with hamsa geese.
    karaṇḍa ‘duck’ (Sanskrit) karaṛa ‘a very large aquatic bird’ (Sindhi) Rebus: करडा [karaḍā] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c. (Marathi) 
    arā 'lion' rebus: āra 'brass', ārakū'brass alloy'
    Lion Capital Chunar Sandstone Circa Century BCE Rampurva AC CN 62 98 62 99 Indian Museum Kolkata 2014 4350Lion Capital found at Rampurva. The abscus is decorated with varāha.

    বরাহ barāha 'boar'Rebus: bāṛaï 'carpenter' (Bengali) bari 'merchant' barea 'merchant' (Santali) बारकश or बारकस [ bārakaśa or bārakasa ] n ( P) A trading vessel, a merchantman.
    The Pataliputra capital, from the Mauryancapital-city of PataliputraIndia, showing Persian and Mesopotamian influences, early Maurya Empire period, 3rd century BCE.
    Geographical spread of known pillar capitals.
    Distribution of the Edicts of Aśoka.

    A Note on the Allahabad Pillar of Aśoka

    C. S. Krishnaswamy Rao Sahib and Amalananda Ghosh
    The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland

    No. 4 (Oct., 1935), pp. 697-706

    Rosette design at the bottom of a statue of the Buddha, Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, circa 1st century CE.

    "The palmette is a motif in decorative art which, in its most characteristic expression, resembles the fan-shaped leaves of a palm tree. It has a far-reaching history, originating in ancient Egypt with a subsequent development through the art of most of Eurasia, often in forms that bear relatively little resemblance to the original. In ancient Greek and ancient Roman uses it is also known as the anthemion (from the Greekανθέμιον, a flower).

    An antefix (from Latin antefigere, to fasten before) is a vertical block which terminates the covering tiles of a tiled roof.
    Antefixes in position.
    An antefix in the form of a palmette. Frond is a large, fanlike leaf of a palm tree..
    Ta. kara-tāḷam palmyra palmKa. kara-tāḷa fan-palm, Corypha umbraculifera Lin. Tu. karatāḷa cadjan. Te. (B.) kara-tāḷamu the small-leaved palm tree.(DEDR 1270) *tāḍa3 ʻ fan -- palm ʼ, tāḍī -- 2 f. in tāḍī -- puṭa -- ʻ palm -- leaf ʼ Kād., tāla -- 2 m. ʻ Borassus flabelliformis ʼ Mn., tālī -- , °lakī -- f. ʻ palm -- wine ʼ W. [Cf. hintāla -- ]
    Pa. tāla -- m. ʻ fan -- palm ʼ, Pk. tāḍa -- , tāla -- , tala -- m., tāḍī -- , tālī -- f., K. tāl m., P. tāṛ m., N. tār (tāṛ ← H.), A. tāl, B. tāṛ, Or. tāṛatāṛitāḷa, Bi. tārtāṛ, OAw. tāra, H. G. tāṛm., M. tāḍ m., Si. tala. -- Gy. gr. taró m., tarí f. ʻ rum ʼ, rum. tari ʻ brandy ʼ, pal. tar ʻ date -- spirit ʼ; S. tāṛī f. ʻ juice of the palmyra ʼ; P. tāṛī ʻ the fermented juice ʼ; N. tāṛī ʻ id., yeast ʼ (← H.); A. tāri ʻ the fermented juice ʼ, B. Or. tāṛi, Bi. tārītāṛī, Bhoj. tāṛī; H. tāṛī f. ʻ the juice, the fermented juice ʼ; G. tāṛī f. ʻ the juice ʼ, M. tāḍī f. <-> X hintāla -- q.v.tālavr̥nta -- ; *madatāḍikā -- 
    Addenda: tāḍa -- 3: S.kcch. tāṛ m. ʻ palm tree ʼ.(CDIAL 6750) tālavr̥nta n. ʻ palm -- leaf fan ʼ MBh., °aka -- n. lex. [*tāḍa -- 3, vr̥nta -- 1]Pa. tālavaṇṭa -- , ta° m. ʻ fan ʼ, Pk. tālaveṁṭa -- , °voṁṭa -- , tāliaṁṭa -- , talaveṁṭa -- , °viṁṭa -- n.; Si. talväṭa ʻ palmyra fan' (CDIAL 5802)

    "From the 5th century, palmettes tended to have sharply splaying leaves. From the 4th century however, the end of the leaves tend to turn in, forming what is called the "flame palmette" design. This is the design that was adopted in Hellenistic architecture and became very popular on a wide geographical scale. This is the design that was adopted by India in the 3rd century BCE for some of its sculptural friezes, such as on the abaci of the Pillars of Ashoka, or the central design of the Pataliputra capital, probably through the Seleucid Empire or Hellenistic cities such as Ai-Khanoum." (loc.cit. "Reflections on The origins of Indian Stone Architecture", John Boardman, p.16). Reflections on the Origins of Indian Stone Architecture JOHN BOARDMAN
    Bulletin of the Asia Institute New Series, Vol. 12, Alexander's Legacy in the East Studies in Honor of Paul Bernard (1998), pp. 13-22 Published by: Bulletin of the Asia Institute, a Non-Profit Corporation
    "Flame palmette" design (center) at Didyma, 3rd century BCE.
    Several antefixae with "flame palmette" designs, Ai Khanoum, Afghanistan, 2nd century BCE.

    Pillars retaining their animals

    The most celebrated capital (the four-lion one at Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh)) erected by Emperor Ashoka circa 250 BC. also called the "Ashoka Column" . Four lions are seated back to back. At present the Column remains in the same place whereas the Lion Capital is at the Sarnath Museum. This Lion Capital of Ashoka from Sarnath has been adopted as the National Emblem of India and the wheel "Ashoka Chakra" from its base was placed onto the centre of the flag of India...
    The pillar at Sanchi also has a similar but damaged four-lion capital. There are two pillars at Rampurva, one with a bull and the other with a lion as crowning animals. Sankissa has only a damaged elephant capital, which is mainly unpolished, though the abacus is at least partly so. No pillar shaft has been found, and perhaps this was never erected at the site.
    The Ashoka lions at SarnathUttar Pradesh.
    The Vaishali pillar has a single lion capital.[24] The location of this pillar is contiguous to the site where a Buddhist monastery and a sacred coronation tank stood. Excavations are still underway and several stupas suggesting a far flung campus for the monastery have been discovered. The lion faces north, the direction Buddha took on his last voyage. Identification of the site for excavation in 1969 was aided by the fact that this pillar still jutted out of the soil. More such pillars exist in this greater area but they are all devoid of the capital.
    Front view of the single lion capital in Vaishali...Brahmi inscription on a fragment of the 6th Pillar of Ashoka from Meerut, British Museum.[
    The column at Lauriya-Nandangarh, 23 km from Bettiah in West Champaran districtBihar has single lion capital. The hump and the hind legs of the lion project beyond the abacus.
    Brahmi inscription on a fragment of the 6th Pillar of Ashoka from Meerut, British Museum.
    Alexander Cunningham, one of the first to study the inscriptions on the pillars, remarks that they are written in eastern, middle and western Prakrits which he calls "the Punjabi or north-western dialect, the Ujjeni or middle dialect, and the Magadhi or eastern dialect.".They are written in the Brahmi script.
    Bharhut lion pillar, 2nd century BCE.
    A later imitation, the Heliodorus pillar had a Garuda on top. Circa 100 BCE
    A gateway decoration built by the Satavahanas at Sanchi (1st century BCE).
    Another imitation, an Indo-Corinthian capital with elephants in the four cardinal directions, Jamal Garhi. First centuries of Common era.
    The iron pillar of Delhi, erected by Chandragupta II, circa 400 CE.

    See Susa ritual basin depicting goat-fish. It is possible to explain the name, 'Mendes' as a combination of the Indus script glyphs for mend 'ram' and ayo (ayas) 'fish' -- rebus: metal merchant. This could be a sustained memory of ancestors who traded in metalwork and who also get venerated as shown in the goat-fish glyph on the ritual basin of Susa.

    This limestone basin dates from the 13th or 12th century BC. It was used for ritual libations. The decoration depicts goatfish figures around a sacred tree in reference to the Mesopotamian god Enki/Ea. This reveals the full extent of the mutual influence of the Iranian and Mesopotamian cosmogonies. The sacred palm, the ancestor of the Assyrian sacred tree, reflects the importance of dates as a food source in the region. 

    A basin symbolizing the water cycle

    This basin was broken into several pieces when it was found and has been reconstituted. Used by priests in their ritual libations, liquid was poured out over the basin and was then collected for re-use. There were two types of ritual libations. The first reflected the water cycle, with water rising up from underground, filling rivers and wells. The other was an offering of beer, wine or honey, poured out for the deity in anticipation of his meal. The decoration of this basin suggests it was used for the first type of ritual libation. It is made in the shape of the realm of Enki/Ea, Apsu, the body of fresh water lying beneath the earth and feeding all the rivers and streams. Apsu is likewise represented in the bronze model called Sit-Shamshi (Louvre, Sb2743). The fact that it was found in Susa indicates that the Elamites adopted certain aspects of Mesopotamian mythology.

    Goatfish figures around a sacred palm

    The rim of the limestone basin is decorated with a single repeated motif: two goatfish figures, or Nou, on either side of a stylized tree. These creatures were the attributes of Enki/Ea, the Mesopotamian god of underground water, symbolizing his power to replenish vegetation, represented by the sacred palm tree. A similar stylized tree can be seen on the stele of King Untash-Napirisha (Sb12). The tree consists of a central trunk with a number of offshoots curved at the tip and with three palmettes on the upper part. The image is completely stylized, bearing only a very distant resemblance to actual date palm trees. This symbol of plant life reflects the importance of date palms in the region. Dates were a staple foodstuff for the local population.

    Stone relief from Mathurå depicting a gateway or torana. From Hackin 1954, fig. 494.

    Stone pillar from Mathurå. From Hackin 1954, fig. 515

    sangi 'mollusc', sangi 'pilgrim'; 

    sippi 'mollusc', śilpin, sippi 'artificer'. 
    Women standing under a Toraṇa. Begram Ivory Plaque which is a prototype for Bharhut-Sanchi Stupa Toraṇa

    The top architrave on the Begram Ivory plaque is topped by a row of hieroglyphs which are a continuum of the Indus Script Corpora tradition of deploying rebus-metonymy-layered cipher.

    On this frame, S'rivatsa is the centre-piece flanked on either side by the following hieroglyphs which are the signature-tunes of Meluhha writing system called Indus Script:

    1. Pair of molluscs tied together with a spathe-palm or palmetto: sangin 'mollusc' Rebus: sanghin 'member of guild'; karaNi 'palmetto' Rebus: kAraNIka 'scribe', 'supercargo' (of seafaring merchant)

    2. Standad device of lathe PLUS portable furnace which adorns over thousand inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora generally in front of a one-horned young bull: sangaDa 'lathe, portable furnace' Rebus: sangAta 'adamantine glue'; sanghar 'fortification'; jangada 'consignments on approval'

    3. S'rivatsa: kolA 'tail' Rebus: kole.l 'temple, smithy' PLUS ayo 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'

    Hieroglyph composition of spathe+ molluscs clanked by elephants.

    Hieroglyph: spathe, buds flanked by molluscs -- atop a ring flanked by two petas, dala 'petal'. DhALako 'ingot'

    Hackin 1954, p.169, figs.18 Ivory? Size: 10.6 x 15.8 x 0.4 cm Begram rectangular plaque depicting three palmettos with curled-up ends, held together by rings made up of lotus petals. Between the palmettos elongated fruit is shown . This scene is bordered by a band depicting a series of four-leaved flowers set in a square frame. In this hieroglyhphic multiplex, there are three distinct orthographic components:

    Mollusc 1. mollusc (snail) pair depicted by a pair of antithetical S curved lines: sã̄khī Rebus: sã̄kh ʻconch-shell-cutterʼ

    Palmetto or Spathe 2. spathe of a palm or palmetto: sippī f. ʻspathe of date palmʼ Rebus: sippi 'artificer, craftsman'. It could also be seen as a chisel:śaṅkula Rebus: sangin 'shell-cutter'.
    Tied together, cord 3. a thread or cord that ties the mollusc pair and spath in the centre together into a composite orthographic unit. dām ʻropeʼ Rebus: dhamma 'dharma' dham̄a ʻemployment in the royal administrationʼ.
    Hieroglyph on a Begram ivory plaque: a pair of molluscs tied with a chisel
    Hieroglyph: śaṅkula 'chisel' Rebus: sangin 'shell-cutter'. sangi 'mollusc' Rebus: sangi 'pilgrim'. Dama 'cord, tying' Rebus: dhamma 'moral conduct, religious merit'. A variant ties a fish with the hieroglyph complex: ayira, ayila 'fish' Rebus: ayira, ariya 'noble conduct'. Thus connoting ariya-dhama, ayira-dhamma; ariya-sangha, ayira-sangha (Pali). 
    Torana from Mathura and Mathura lion capital which incorporates many hieroglyph elements later to be found in Bharhut-Sanchi: Pair of tigers (lions?), molluscs, srivatsa
    Bharhut. Capital of Gateway post (After Cunningham)

    Ayagapatta. Pink sandstone relief showing puja to a stupa. Kusana period. Lucknow Museum. Note the pattern of molluscs on the Mathur panel which compares with Susa ritual basin glyphic. Photograph of a sculpture panel from Mathura, taken by Edmund William Smith in the 1880s-1890s. Mathura has extensive archaeological remains as it was a large and important city from the middle of the first millennium onwards. It rose to particular prominence under the Kushans as the town was their southern capital. The Buddhist, Brahmanical and Jain faiths all thrived at Mathura, and we find deities and motifs from all three represented in sculpture. In reference to this photograph in the list of photographic negatives, Bloch wrote that, "The technical name of such a panel was ayagapata [homage panel]." The tablet shows a representation of a stupa with a staircase
    leading up to a terrace which is surrounded by a railing similar of those of the stupas of Bharhut and Sanchi. It appears from the inscription that the tablet is Jain. The piece is now in the Lucknow Museum.
    Jaina tablet being offered by Vasu, daughter of Lavana Sobhika, relief from Kankalitila, Mathura, India, Hindu Civilization, Kushan Empire, 1st century. Centre-piece hieroglyph composition atop the third, top architrave is a spathe-palm or palmetto ligatured with molluscs; sippī f. ʻ shell, spathe of date palm ʼ Rebus: sippī 'sculpture, sculptor'.

    Railing post with a lotus rhizome. Allahabad Museum. Stone. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh.Shunga. c. 2nd cent. BCE. 43x58x25 cm. Pillar shows in the middle a lotus flower. A border of palmettes on each bevelled side. A small fragment later joined to it. 

    Hieroglyph: tāmarasa 'lotus' Rebus: tāmra 'copper'.


    Ur-Nammu stela is a Meluhha metalwork catalog denoting the metalcastings, metal weapons, tools and metalware as:dul 'metal casting, to cast metal in a mould (Santali)'; ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (Gujarati);lokhãḍ n. ʻ tools, iron, ironware ʼ (Gujarati).

    This decipherment of Meluhha hieroglyphs complements the images presented on the 10 feet high stela of the then ongoing work of building temple, dagoba, the ziggurat of Ur linking heaven and earth and in celebration of the Bronze Age revolution.

    The focus of this note on the duplicated hieroglyph shown on the central register of Ur-Nammu stela.
     The two hieroglyphs show an identical palm frond with two hanging twigs or fronds as the centerpiece of an altar in front of both the male and female divinities. The male divinity is a builder holding a staff and bob plumb bob as perceptively noted by Jenny Vorys Canby whose painstaking researches resulted in a reasonable reconstruction of missing fragments of the stela. A major missing part unearthed by Canby is another hieroglyph: overflowing pots pouring into the center-piece altars with the palm fronds.

    The decipherment of the three hieroglyphs: 1. duplicated frond, 2. palm frond and 3. overflowing pot will provide a framework for unraveling the central message of the Ur-Nammu stela which is a monumental 10 feet high stela which surely shows builders at work in the bottom registe. The central message is the material resources with which the builders were working -- as conveyed by a rebus reading of the three hieroglyphs: metalcastings, metalware.

    1. duplicated frond: dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'metal casting, to cast metal in a mould (Santali)'

    2. palm frond: ḍāla -- n. ʻ branch ʼtāla -- 2 m. ʻ Borassus flabelliformis ʼ, palm (CDIAL 5750)Rebus: ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhālakī = a metal ingot. Vikalpa: Ka. (Hav.) aḍaru twig; (Bark.) aḍïrï small and thin branch of a tree; (Gowda) aḍəri small branches. Tu. aḍaru twig.(DEDR 67) Rebus: aduru gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhānti Subrahmaṇya’ Śastri’s new interpretation of the AmarakoŚa, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p.330).

    3. overflowing pot: lo 'overflowing' PLUS kand 'pot' Rebus: lōkhaṇḍa लोहोलोखंड 'copper tools, pots and pans' (Marathi)  N. lokhar ʻ bag in which a barber keeps his tools ʼ; H. lokhar m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; -- X lauhabhāṇḍa -- : Ku. lokhaṛ ʻ iron tools ʼ; H. lokhaṇḍ m. ʻ iron tools, pots and pans ʼ; G. lokhãḍ n. ʻ tools, iron, ironware ʼ; M. lokhãḍ n. ʻ iron ʼ (LM 400 < -- khaṇḍa -- )(CDIAL 11171) 

    Akkadian Cylinder Seal 2330-2150 BC (Wolkenstein) Serpent. Tree branches, divinities

    Both faces of a large fragment from the curved top edge of the stela. The upper body of the king appears on each side, with a female deity overhead pouring out streams of water.

    Artist's rendition of the proposed restoration of the 'front' of the Ur-Nammu stela (Drawing by Kathleen Galligan). Source: Jeanny Vorys Canby, A monumental puzzle, reconstructing the Ur-Nammu stela in:Expedition, Vol. 29 No. 1 
    Jeanny Vorys Canby has demonstrated the depiction of 'overflowing pots' hieroglyphs on the Ur-Nammu stela. This insight reinforces the purport of the stela: to record the Bronze Age metals and materials used in the building activity directed by Ur-Nammu.

    Just as the last-mile problem in expanding land-line telephony was resolved by the invention of wireless, mobile phone technology, the Indus script debate stands resolved by these factors: 1. continuity of the underlying culture and language of the civilization; 2. consistent rebus readings of all glyphs (irrespective of their being pictorial motifs or signs); and 3. the single category related the homophones to smithy repertoire. This dramatically establishes the fact that the inventors of early bronze-age metallurgical artifacts and techniques were also the inventors of a writing system which was necessitated by the imperative of trading surplus metal products across a vast interaction area stretching from Rakhigarhi (near Delhi) of Indus valley civilization area to Ur in Tigris-Euphrates river valley across the Persian Gulf of Mesopotamian civilization area. That the inscribed objects were used in the context of trade is also attested by the presence of seal impressions on packages and by the finds of seals with Indus writing in Mesopotamia civilization area. A by-product of this decoding of Indus script as mleccha has led to to the possibility of decoding many pictorial motifs displayed on many Mesopotamian cylinder seals, explained as caused by cultural exchanges and interaction with Meluhha (cognate: mleccha) speakers and possible acculturation of Meluhhans in the interaction area extending from Tigris-Euphrates doab to Indus-Sarasvati doab.

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    Meluhha speakers' (Indo-Iranian) arrival --from Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization-- on the Iranian plateau, east of Susa, east of Anshan (modern Tall-i Malyan, Fars province, Iran, central Zagros mountain range)
    Meluhha settlements.
    Image result for tali malyan archaeology
    Location of Anshan in Elamite empire.

    -- Leopard, scorpion & zebu Indus Script hypertexts signify wealth-producing metalwork, are attested in Tepe Yahya, Jiroft & other sites of Marhashi region bordering Meluhha

     Daniel T. Potts, Piotr Steinkeller have connected Konar-Sandal site with Marhashi (situated east of Elam, between Anshan and Meluhha).

    Indus Script hypertexts on the following artifacts:

    ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'alloy metal'
    kolmo'rice plant' Rebus: kolimi'smithy, forge'
    खरडा  kharaḍā 'A leopard' Rebus: karaḍā 'hard metal alloy'
    eruvai 'eagle' rebus: eruvai 'copper'
    फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood'  फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons' 
    arye 'lion' (Akkadian) Rebus: arā 'brassपोळा [ pōḷā ] rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, iron ore Fe3O4'

    rango'buffalo' rebus: rango'pewter' (alloy of copper, zinc, tin), 

    miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Munda.Ho.)
    dhanga 'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'
    loa 'ficus glomerata' rebus: loh'copper' [ lōhá ʻ red, copper -- coloured ʼ ŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ] Pa. lōha -- m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻ iron ʼ, Gy. pal. li°lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻ steel ʼ; Kho. loh ʻ copper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam. lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu°hā, A. lo, B. lono, Or. lohāluhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. lohlohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md. ratu -- lō ʻ copper .
    *lōhala -- , *lōhila -- , *lōhiṣṭha -- , lōhī -- , laúha -- ; lōhakāra -- , *lōhaghaṭa -- , *lōhaśālā -- , *lōhahaṭṭika -- , *lōhōpaskara -- ; vartalōha -- .Addenda: lōhá -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻ iron ʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md.  ʻ metal ʼ.(CDIAL 11158)]

    Meluhha Hieroglyphs from Elamite Cylinder seal Corpus of KJ Roach (2008)

    Fig. 7. Catalogue, p. 126.
    Source: Oscar White Muscarella, Jiroft and ‘Jiroft-Aratta’ -- a review article of Yousefl Madjidzadeh, Jiroft The earliest oriental civilization, Bulletin of the Asian Institute, 15 (2005) 173-198

    Shahi Tump. Lead weight.

    Hypertext: kola'woman' rebus: kol'working in iron'kolhe'smelter'

    Hypertext: पोळा [ pōḷā ] rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, iron ore Fe3O4'; kamar 'moon' rebus: kamar'blacksmith' (Santali); arka'sun' rebus: arka, era'copper'; dhanga'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar'blacksmith'

    Hypertext: bicha 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'stone iron ore, haematite'
    Hypertext: meḍ 'dance-step' rebus: meḍ'iron' (Mu.Ho.)
    Hypertext: खड्यावाघ khaḍyāvāgha m (खडा & वाघ) A leopard. खरडा  kharaḍā A leopard.  खरड्या kharaḍyā m or खरड्यावाघ m A leopard. Rebus: करडा  karaḍā Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c Rebus: खरड kharaḍa f (खरडणें) A hurriedly written or drawn piece; a scrawl; a mere tracing or rude sketch; खरडनीस  kharaḍanīsa c खरडनिशा a (खरड & P) A scrawler or bad writer. ; खरडनिशी  kharaḍaniśī f Scrawling, scribbling, bad writing. खरडा  kharaḍā also खरडें n A scrawl; a memorandum-scrap; a foul, blotted, interlined piece of writing. also खरडें n A rude sketch; a rough draught; a foul copy; a waste-book; a day-book; a note-book. A spotted and rough and ill-shaped pearl: also the roughness or knobbiness of such pearls. खरड्या kharaḍyā a (खरडणें) That writes or shaves rudely and roughly; a mere quill-driver; a very scraper. 
    Hieroglyph: miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ'iron' (Santali.Munda.Ho.)

    This monograph presents evidences for the arrival of Indo-Iranian (Meluhha) speakers on the Iranian plateau in Marhashi region (including Tepe Yahya and Jiroft).

    Tepe Yahya . finds with Indus Script glyphs. Seal impression. Pittman in Potts 2001: 267; Lamberg-Karlovsky & Tosi 1973: Fig. 137. Two clearly identifiable hypertexts on the seal impression which signify (copper, iron) metalwork are:

    sal 'splinter'; Rebus: sal 'workshop' (Santali) 

    eraka 'upraised hand' Rebus: eraka 'moltencast, metal infusion, copper'
    Sign 1

    Hieroglyph: mē̃d, mēd 'body, womb, back' Hieroglyp to signify mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron (metal)’ (Munda), med 'copper (metal)' (Slavic)

    Ta. mēṉi body, shape, colour, beauty; mēl body. Ma. mēni body, shape, beauty, excellence; mēl body. Koḍ. me·lï 
    body. Te. mēnuid.; mēni brilliancy, lustre; belonging to the body, bodily, personal. Kol. me·n (pl. me·nḍl) body. 
    Nk. mēn (pl. mēnuḷ) id. Nk. (Ch.) mēn id. Pa. mēn (pl. mēnul) id. Ga. (S.) mēnu (pl. mēngil (P.) mēn id. Go. (Tr.)
     mēndur (obl. mēnduḍ-), (A. Y. W. M.) mēndul, (L.)meṇḍū˘l, (SR.) meṇḍol id. (Voc. 2963). Konḍa mēndol human body. Kur. mē̃d, mēd body, womb, back. Malt. méth body. Cf. 5073 Ta.mey. (DEDR 5099) Rebus:
    "The main sites of the Bronze Age of Marhashi, currently known, are those of: Shahdad, Shahr-e Sukhteh, Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahi Tump, Tal-e Iblis, and Tepe Yahya Konar Sandal Konar Sandal is thought to be the site of the capital’s legendary Marhashi: Aratta."
     फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood'  फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons' 

    "Shahi Tump is a site in the valley of Kechi crossing the Makran in southern Pakistan It found, dating from the fourth millennium BC, a weight-filled copper lead, weighing 13.5 kg, ovoid, with a hanging loop at the top It is decorated with mosaics of shells 2 representing a leopard pursuing a gazelle This proves the mastery of copper technology in lost wax casting and that of lead, in addition to the artistic skill of the mosaic The excavations also be said that the locals were engaged at the fourth millennium, a sophisticated and developed agriculture and livestock Found there remains of wheat and barley 6-row.
    ayo'fish' rebus: aya'iron'ayas'alloy metal'

    "Tal-e Iblis
    Excavations at Tal-i-Iblis Bardsir today, revealed many objects of copper, cast using the lost wax dating from the fourth millennium BC It should be remembered that the technique of lost wax casting requires treatment with very high melting temperature and controlled to the degree that it could not be controlled until the late 19th century!"
     फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood'  फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons' 
    "Tepe Yahya
    Tepe Yahya is located in the valley of the river Kish-e Shur, near Jiroft in Kerman province, Iran It has been occupied since the 6th millennium BC In large workshops searched, they found many ceramics and metals, especially copper and bronze But chlorite vases and cylinder seals of steatite There were also tablets, written in cuneiform The site is abandoned, then reoccupied and was finally abandoned sometime in the second half of the third millennium BCE..."
    "Konar Sandal
    Konar Sandal in the valley of the Halil Rud, in Kerman, is located near the town of Jiroft This site is divided into two tells part of the same city, split by a river The tell B is a high terrace In the workshops unearthed were found numerous tablets in an unknown This is the wedge that resembles the linear Elamite or Proto-Elamite In the graves were found many vases chlorite Konar Sandal should be the main center of production of these vases found throughout the Iranian plateau to Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and around the Persian Gulf."
     arye'lion' (Akkadian) Rebus: arā 'brass' पोळा [ pōḷā ] rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, iron ore Fe3O4'

    Image result for tepe yahya indus script bharatkalyan97eruvai  'eagle' rebus: eruvai 'copper'

    Harappa seal impression. h-161a. Eagle glyph.

    Incised eagle from Tepe Yahya (Kohl in Potts 2011: 218, fig. 9.7). Eagle glhyph comparable to the glyph on Harappa seal impression.

    eruvai  'eagle' rebus: eruvai 'copper'

    Image result for tepe yahya indus script bharatkalyan97Storage jar decorated with mountain goats, early 4th millennium B.C.; Chalcolithic period, Sialk III 7 type Central Iran Ceramic, paint H. 20 7/8 in.

    miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Munda.Ho.)

    Markhor (Capra falconeri)Punjabi. mẽḍhā m. 'markhor'.(CDIAL 10310)Rebus: mẽḍh'iron' (Mu.)

    Antelope cervicapra (with high, wavy horns) is a species of the capra genus. Middle Persian Ērān can be derived from haraṇa, 'buck'.(See etyma cited in the note) which had a specific rebus reading connoting 'anvil' in earlier times. 

    Decoding haraṇa, 'buck'; rebus: haraṇa 'anvil'

    Samples of ancient Austrian anvils.

    हरण [ haraṇa ] m n (हरिण S) An antelope, a deer, Antilope cervicapra (Marathi.lex.) hariṇá ʻ yellow ʼ MaitrUp. 2. m. ʻ deer ʼ RV., hariṇīˊ -- 1 f. ʻ doe ʼ TS., hariṇaka -- m. ʻ small deer ʼ Kād. [Ac. to J. Przyluski JA 1929, 319 hariṇá -- ʻ deer ʼ ← Austro -- as., but Mu. words there quoted are ← IA. <-> hári -- ]1. K. haryunu ʻ having shoots or buds just bursting forth ʼ (or perh. rather der. from har < śára -- 1).2. Pa. Pk. hariṇa -- m., °ṇī -- f. ʻ deer ʼ, K. haryunu m., °rüñü f., rām. pog. kash. harn m., °nī f., ḍoḍ. harnō m., °nī f., S. haraṇu m., °riṇī f.; L. haraṇ m., harṇī f. ʻ ravine deer ʼ; P. harn, °nā m. ʻ deer ʼ, ludh. haran m., harnī f., WPah.bhad. harin m., harnī f., paṅ. haraṇ m., harṇī f., (Joshi) harn m., °nī f., jaun. hariṇ, A. harinā, B. harin, Or. hariṇi, haraṇī, Mth. harin, Bhoj. harnā, Aw.lakh. hannā m., °nī f., H. harin, °ran, hiran, har(i)nā, hirnā m., harinī, hiranī, haranī f., G. haraṇ n., M. haraṇ m.f.n., harṇī f.hariṇá -- . 2. WPah.kṭg. hɔˋrən -- śíṅg(ɔ) ʻ a kind of musical instrument (formed of or like a buck's horn) ʼ, J. harn m. ʻ buck ʼ, poet. hirəṇ m. ʻ deer ʼ, Ku. hariṇ, hiraṇ m., hiraṇ(ī) f. (CDIAL 13892) ஏணி² ēṇi, n. < ēṇī. 1. Deer, antelope; மான். (சூடா.) 2. Young deer, fawn; மான் கன்று. (திவா.)Eṇi (f.) [etym.? dial.] a kind of antelope, only two foll. cpds.: ˚jangha "limbed like the antelope" (one of the physical characteristics of the Superman) D ii.17; iii.143, 156; M ii.136; S i.16; Sn 165; ˚miga the eṇi deer J v.416; SnA 207, 217. (Pali) [The 'buck' -- a pair of them -- are also shown on the pedestal of seal m0304, close to the pair of haystacks.]ఏణము [ ēṇamu ] or ఏణి ēṇamu. [Skt.] n. A gazelle or black antelope. పెద్దకన్నులు గల నల్లయిర్రి. ఏణనయన ēṇa-nayana. adj. Stag-eyed, dark-eyed. ఏణాంకుడు ēṇ-ānkuḍu. n. The Moon, because his ensign is an antelope. శశాంకుడు. ఏణాక్షి ēṇ-ākshi. adj. Stag-eyed, gazelle-eyed, having beautiful eyes.(Telugu)एणः एणकः 1 A kind of black antelope; कांश्चिदेणान्स- माजघ्ने शक्त्या शक्तिमतां वरः Mb.1.69.22; तस्य स्तनप्रणयि- भिर्महुरेणशावैः the several kinds of deer are given in this verse :-- अनृचो माणवो ज्ञेय एणः कृष्णमृगः स्मृतः । रुरुर्गौर- मुखप्रोक्तः शम्बरः शोण उच्यते ॥ -2 (In Astr.) Capricorn. -Comp. -अजिनम् deer-skin. -तिलकः, -भृत् the moon; so ˚अङ्कः, -˚लाञ्छनः &c. व्यरोचतैणाङ्क इवोडुभिर्वृतः Bhāg.1. 29.43. -एणाङ्क-चूडः The god Śiva; एणाङ्कचूडस्य ततः प्रसादात् Śāhendravilās 1.62. -दृश् a. one having eyes like those of a deer. m. Capricorn. -नाभिः, -मदः Musk. एणी ēṇī एणी 1 A female black deer. -2 A kind of poison- ous insect. -Comp. -पद a. having feet like those of a deer. (-दः) a kind of snake.(Apte.lex.)mf(/ई). a species of deer or antelope (described as being of a black colour with beautiful eyes and short legs) AV. v , 14 , 11 VS. xxiv , 36 Mn. iii , 269 MBh. &c (Monier-Williams, p. 231).

    Rebus: A remarkable lexeme should be noted: WPah.erṇe ʻsmithy'. This semantic denotes the significance of 'anvil' in creating the repertoire of ancient smiths -- anvil IS the smithy. This decoding of the 'buck' glyph may explain the reason for the depiction of the 'buck' glyph in the entire interaction area: Meluhha-Elam-Iran-Mesopotamia-Persian Gulf. हरण [ haraṇa ] f ( H) अहिरण [ ahiraṇa ] f (Commonly ऐरण) An anvil.(Marathi) An anvil. adhikaraṇīˊ f. ʻ *anvil ʼ, adhikaraṇa -- n. ʻ receptacle, support ʼ TUp. [√kr̥1] Pa. adhikaraṇī -- f. ʻ smith's anvil ʼ; Pk. ahigaraṇī -- f. ʻ a piece of apparatus for a smith ʼ; K. yīran, dat. yṳ̄rüñ f. ʻ anvil ʼ, S. aharaṇi, araṇi f., L. (Jukes) ariṇ f., awāṇ. &circmacrepsilon;ruṇ, P. aihran, airaṇ, ā̆hraṇ f., WPah. bhal. arhini; roh. erṇe ʻ smithy ʼ, N. āran; H. aheran, ā̆hran m. ʻ anvil ʼ; -- H. Smith BSL 101, 115. adhikaraṇīˊ -- : S.kcch. eṇ f. ʻ anvil ʼ; WPah.kṭg. n/arəṇ, n/arṇi f. ʻ furnace, smithy ʼ; āˊrəṇ m. prob. ← P. Him.I 4; jaun. āraṇ, airaṇ; G. eraṇi f. ʻ anvil ʼ, M. aheraṇ, ahiraṇ, airaṇ, airṇī, haraṇ f.(CDIAL 252).Mth. hannā ʻ round block of iron pierced with a hole and placed on the perforated anvil (when iron is being pierced with holes) ʼ BPL 409 (CDIAL 13964)yīran ईरन् । स्थूणा f. (sg. dat. yīrüñü ईर&above;ञू&below;, Gr.Gr. 69), an anvil (El.; Gr.Gr. 14, 29, 69; H. xi, 16).(Kashmiri) For adhi- suffix, see Kannada lexeme: Ta. aṭai prop. slight support; aṭai-kal anvil. Ma. aṭa-kkallu anvil of goldsmiths. Ko. aṛ gal small anvil. Ka. aḍe, aḍa, aḍi the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to operate upon, a support; aḍegal, aḍagallu, aḍigallu anvil. Tu. aṭṭè a support, stand. Te. ḍā-kali, ḍā-kallu, dā-kali, dā-gali, dāyi anvil.(DEDR 86)

    Glyphic: yīran ईरन् । स्थूणा f. (sg. dat. yīrüñü ईर&above;ञू&below;, Gr.Gr. 69), an anvil (Kashmiri) Rebus: yīrān ईरान् m. Iran, Persia (El. irán; Gr.Gr. 15; Gr.M.; H. ii, 1).yīröni yīröni ईरा&above;नि&below; adj. (f. yīrāni यीरानि, Gr.Gr. 15), of or relating to Persia, Persian (El. irání). -- guru -- गुरु&below; । ईरानदेशोद्भवो &1;श्वः m. a Persian horse (Gr.Gr. 15).(Kashmiri)

    Meluḫḫa or Melukhkha is the Sumerian name of a prominent trading partner of Sumer during the Middle Bronze Age. Meluhha artisans and seafaring merchants documented their wealth-creating metalwork in Indus Script Corpora as hypertexts. Such hypertexts are also evidenced in Tepe Yahya & Jiroft (Marhashi) of Kerman region of Ancient Iran.
    Jiroft, Tepe Yahya, Mohenjo-daro (Meluhha)

    Cire perdue techniques of metalcasting in Mohenjo-daro and Shahi Tump: dhokra kamar
    Cire perdue. Mehergarh. 2.2 cm dia. 5 mm reference scale. Perhaps coppper alloyed with lead. 
    ara 'spoke' rebus: ara 'brass'.
    Remarkable evidences of the excellence achived in cire perdue metal catings are provided by bronze or copper alloy artifacts kept in the British Museum, said to have been acquired from Begram, and dated to ca. 2000 to 1500 BCE.

    Six bronze stamps (a-b) circular with pin-wheel design recalling a svastika (c) square with heart-shaped pattern; broken lug on the back (d-f) broken with radiating spokes; one with broken lug.Six copper alloy stamps (a-b) circular with pin-wheel design recalling a svastika (c) square with heart-shaped pattern; broken lug on the back (d-f) broken with radiating spokes; one with broken lug.

    Six bronze stamps (a-b) circular with pin-wheel design recalling a svastika (c) square with heart-shaped pattern; broken lug on the back (d-f) broken with radiating spokes; one with broken lug.Six bronze stamps (a-b) circular with pin-wheel design recalling a svastika (c) square with heart-shaped pattern; broken lug on the back (d-f) broken with radiating spokes; one with broken lug.

    Six bronze stamps (a-b) circular with pin-wheel design recalling a svastika (c) square with heart-shaped pattern; broken lug on the back (d-f) broken with radiating spokes; one with broken lug.

    Six bronze stamps (a-b) circular with pin-wheel design recalling a svastika (c) square with heart-shaped pattern; broken lug on the back (d-f) broken with radiating spokes; one with broken lug.Six bronze stamps (a-b) circular with pin-wheel design recalling a svastika (c) square with heart-shaped pattern; broken lug on the back (d-f) broken with radiating spokes; one with broken lug.

    Cast, copper alloy, circular, openwork seal or stamp, comprising five wide spokes with projecting rims, radiating from a circular hub also encircled by a flange. The outer rim is mostly missing and two spokes are broken. The back is flat, with the remains of a broken attachment loop in the centre.

    2000BC-1500BC (circa) Copper alloy. Pierced. cast.

    Made in: Afghanistan(Asia,Afghanistan) 

    Found/Acquired: Begram (Asia,Afghanistan,Kabul (province),Begram)

    Figure 1: The amulet MR. from Mehrgarh.
    Figure 1
    (a) Map indicating the major Indo-Iranian archaeological sites dated from the seventh to the second millennia BC. Scale bar, 200 km. (b) View of the MR2 archaeological site at Mehrgarh (sector X, Early Chalcolithic, end of period III, 4,500–3,600 BC). (c) View of the front side of the wheel-shaped amulet. Scale bar, 5 mm. (d) Dark-field image of the equatorial section of the amulet.
    Two dancing girls from Mohenjo-daro made of bronze, cire perdue casting. Both seem to be carrying diya or 'lamps' on their hands to ignite the smelters/furnaces of the Meluhha smelters and smiths, artisans, lapidaries of the Bronze Age.
    Bronze statue of a girl c.2500 BC, now displayed at Karachi Museum, Pakistan.
    Dancing girl. Mohenjo-daro. Now displayed at National Museum, New Delhi.Lost-wax copper alloy casting. c. 2500 BCE. 

    Mohenodaro seal. Pict-103 Horned (female with breasts hanging down?) person with a tail and bovine legs standing near a tree fisting a horned tiger rearing on its hindlegs.
    Dholavira molded terracotta tablet with Meluhha hieroglyphs written on two sides. Hieroglyph: Ku. ḍokro, ḍokhro ʻ old man ʼ; B. ḍokrā ʻ old, decrepit ʼ, Or. ḍokarā; H. ḍokrā ʻ decrepit ʼ; G. ḍokɔ m. ʻ penis ʼ, ḍokrɔ m. ʻ old man ʼ, M. ḍokrā m. -- Kho. (Lor.) duk ʻ hunched up, hump of camel ʼ; K. ḍọ̆ku ʻ humpbacked ʼ perh. < *ḍōkka -- 2. Or. dhokaṛa ʻ decrepit, hanging down (of breasts) ʼ.(CDIAL 5567). M. ḍhẽg n. ʻ groin ʼ, ḍhẽgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. M. dhõgā m. ʻ buttock ʼ. (CDIAL 5585). Glyph: Br. kōnḍō on all fours, bent double. (DEDR 204a) Rebus: kunda ‘turner’ kundār turner (A.); kũdār, kũdāri (B.); kundāru (Or.); kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase; kundau dhiri = a hewn stone; kundau murhut = a graven image (Santali) kunda a turner’s lathe (Skt.)(CDIAL 3295) Tiger has head turned backwards. క్రమ్మర krammara. adv. క్రమ్మరిల్లు or క్రమరబడు Same as క్రమ్మరు (Telugu). Rebus: krəm backʼ(Kho.)(CDIAL 3145) karmāra ‘smith, artisan’ (Skt.) kamar ‘smith’ (Santali) 

    Hieroglyph: N. dhokro ʻ large jute bag ʼ, B. dhokaṛ; Or. dhokaṛa ʻ cloth bag ʼ; Bi. dhŏkrā ʻ jute bag ʼ; Mth. dhokṛā ʻ bag, vessel, receptacle ʼ; H. dhukṛīf. ʻ small bag ʼ; G. dhokṛũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- ṭṭ -- : M. dhokṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ; -- with -- n -- : G. dhokṇũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- s -- : N. (Tarai) dhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in ʼ.2. L. dhohẽ (pl. dhūhī˜) m. ʻ large thatched shed ʼ.3. M. dhõgḍā m. ʻ coarse cloth ʼ, dhõgṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ.4. L. ḍhok f. ʻ hut in the fields ʼ; Ku. ḍhwākā m. pl. ʻ gates of a city or market ʼ; N. ḍhokā (pl. of *ḍhoko) ʻ door ʼ; -- OMarw. ḍhokaro m. ʻ basket ʼ; -- N.ḍhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in, large basket ʼ.(CDIAL 6880) Rebus: dhokra ‘cire perdue’ casting metalsmith. 
    Plate II. Chlorite artifacts referred to as 'handbags' f-g (w 24 cm, thks 4.8 cm.); h (w 19.5 cm, h 19.4 cm, thks 4 cm); j (2 28 cm; h 24 cm, thks 3 cm); k (w 18.5, h 18.3, thks 3.2) Jiroft IV. Iconography of chlorite artifacts.

    Shahi Tump
    Image: Courtesy: Kenoyer.
    Image result for shahi tump

    Image result for shahi tump
    Leopards weight from Shahi-Tump (Baluchistan) made using cire perdue technique.  "The artefact was discovered in a grave, in the Kech valley, in Balochistan, southern part of present Pakistan. It belongs to the Shahi Tump - Makran civilisation (end of 4th millennium -- beginning of 3rd millennium BCe). Ht. 200 mm. weight: 13.5 kg. The shell has been manufactured by lost-wax foundry of a copper alloy (12.6%b, 2.6%As), then it has been filled up through lead (99.5%) foundry. The shell is engraved with figures of leopards hunting wild goats, made of polished fragments of shellfishes. No identification of the artefact's use has been given. (Scientific team: B. Mille, D. Bourgarit, R. Besenval, Musee Guimet, Paris)." 
    Mille, B., R. besenval, D. Bourgarit, Early lost-wax casting in Balochistan (Pakistan): the 'Leopards Weight' from Shahi-Tump in Persiens antike Pracht, Bergau-Handwerk-Archaologie, T. Stollner, R. Slotta, A. Vatandoust, A. ed., p. 274-80. Bouchum: Deutsches Bergbau Museum, 2004. Image result for shahi tump
    Leopard weight. Shahi Tump. H.16.7cm; dia.13.5cm; base dia 6cm; handle on top. 

    Seashells inlays on frieze. The pair of leopard and ibex is shown twice, separated by stylized flies.

    Languages of Meluhha (Mleccha) and Marhashi are cognates.

    "Not very far from the BMAC, to its south along the coast of Arabian Sea, are the Indus Valley, Elamite and Sumerian settlements stretching from east to west. The Sumerian name for the southern Indus Valley settlement (Mohenjo-daro) in Sind and Baluchistan is Meluhha. To its west is an area referred to as Marhashi by the Sumerians. Further west is the Elamite settlement of Shimashki (refer to the diagram below).  The languages of Meluhha and Marhashi are believed to be the same - we call it Meluhhan. The language of Shimashki is Elamite. BMAC artifacts have been found in all these places and also in the northern Indus areas (Harappa). This implies that there were trade links between these areas. Hence the languages of these areas are likely to have some common loan words between them. As the Indo Aryans were present in Central Asia for a considerable amount of time before moving into India it's likely that their language (Rig Vedic Sanskrit) would have substrates from all these older native languages from the areas around."
    "The Ninevite Gigamesh Epic, composed probably at the end of the second millennium BC, has Utnapishtim settled "at the mouth of the rivers", taken by all commentators to be identical with Dilmun." (W.F.Albright, The Mouth of the Rivers, AJSL, 35 (1919): 161-195).
    The mouth of the rivers may relate to the Rann of Kutch/Saurashtra lying at the mouth of the Sindhu and Sarasvati rivers. In the Sumerian myth Enki and Ninhursag, which recounts a Golden Age, paradise is described: "The crow screams not, the dar-bird cries not dar, the lion kills not... the ferry-man says not 'it's midnight', the herald circles not round himself, the singer says not elulam, at the outside of the city no shout resounds."  The cry of the sea-faring boatmen in Indian languages on the west-coast is: e_le_lo!
    Lines 123-129; and interpolation UET VI/1:
    "Let me admire its green cedars. The (peole of the) lands Magan and Dilmun, Let them come to see me, Enki! Let the mooring posts beplaced for the Dilmun boats! Let the magilum-boats of Meluhha transport of gold and silver for exchange...The land Tukris' shall transport gold from Harali, lapis lazuli and bright... to you. The land Meluhha shall bring cornelian, desirable and precious sissoo-wood from Magan, excellent mangroves, on big ships The land Marhashi will (bring) precious stones, dushia-stones, (to hang) on the breast. The land Magan will bring copper, strong, mighty, diorite-stone, na-buru-stones, shumin-stones to you. The land of the Sea shall bring ebony, the embellishment of (the throne) of kingship to you. The land of the tents shall bring wool... The city, its dwellin gplaces shall be pleasant dwelling places, Dilmun, its dwelling place shall be a pleasant dwelling place. Its barley shall be fine barley, Its dates shall be very big dates! Its harvest shall be threefold. Its trees shall be ...-trees."

    I suggest that Shahdad and Tepe Yahya were important settlements (which included Meluhhan settlements) of Marhashi). The inscriptional evidence of Indus writing in these settlements attest to the trade contacts between Meluhha and ancient Elam (souh-eastern Iran), close to Baluchistan.

    Researchers have suggested various locations for Marhashi. It refers to the lands situated to the east of Ur, during the period of Ur III state. It has also been called Old Akkadian Barahshum. Some place it in 'the perimeter of Kerman and eastern Fars' (Stein Keller 1982: 255) or in Iranian Baluchistan (Vallat 1993: CXIII).Karl Lamberg-Karlovsky suggests that the size of Shahdad (over 100 ha.)in Kerman makes Shahdad a possible capital of Marhashi; Tepe Yahya, a site in Kerman might have been one of the smaller towns of Marhashi (Lamberg-Karlovsky 2001: 278-279). As DT Potts notes in the embedded document, Sharkalisharri or his son went to Marhashi and married a Marhashian (Westenholz 1987: nos. 133 and 154). In the 18th year of Shulgi's reign, Shulgi's daughter became queen of Marhashi. 'The water buffaloes so beloved by the Sargonic seal cutters must have come to Babylonia as diplomatic gifts from Meluhha.' (Westenholz 199: 102; Boehmer 1975:4). DT Potts notes: "A well-known Old Babylonian inscription of Ibbi-Sin's from Ur (Sollberger 1965: 8, UET 8.34) records the dedication to Nanna of a statue of an ur gun-a Me-luhha-ki which the king had originally received a a gift from Marhashi and which he named 'let him catch' or 'may he catch'." (p.346) Elamites and soldiers are referred to 'Elamites of Marhashi' (Steinkeller 1982: 262, n. 97). Ur and Marhashi had always enjoyed friendly diplomatic relationships, sometimes fortified by royal marriages. Steinkeller suggests that the ur gun-a Meluhha-ki was a spotted feline given to Ibbi-Sin,it was 'most likely a leopard (Panthera pardus)(Steinkeller 1982: 253 and n. 61). It could also have been a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus vernaticus). In Hindi chita means 'spotted' (Yule and Burnell 1886: 187).
    Gold foil feline from Tal-i Malyan, Banesh period (courtesy of WM Sumner).

    It is possible that the cheetah from Meluhha was the animal given to Ibbi-Sin with the legend 'let him catch'.

    After Figure 11: a. mountains landscape and waers; (upper part) a man under an arch with sun and crescent moon symbols; (lower part) man seated on his heels holding zebus; b. man holding a snake; c. two men (drinking) and zebus, on a small cylindrical vessel; d. Head of woman protruding from  jar, and snakes; 3. man falling from a tree to the trunk of which a zebu is tied; f. man with clas and bull-man playing with cheetahs, and a scorpion in the center (on a cylindrical vessel).

    Hieroglyph: zebu, bos indicus: पोळ [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods पोळी [ pōḷī ] dewlap. Rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore'.

    Leopards weight from Shahi-Tump (Baluchistan) made using cire perdue technique.  "The artefact was discovered in a grave, in the Kech valley, in Balochistan, southern part of present Pakistan. It belongs to the Shahi Tump - Makran civilisation (end of 4th millennium -- beginning of 3rd millennium BCe). Ht. 200 mm. weight: 13.5 kg. The shell has been manufactured by lost-wax foundry of a copper alloy (12.6%b, 2.6%As), then it has been filled up through lead (99.5%) foundry. The shell is engraved with figures of leopards hunting wild goats, made of polished fragments of shellfishes. No identification of the artefact's use has been given. (Scientific team: B. Mille, D. Bourgarit, R. Besenval, Musee Guimet, Paris)." 

    Mille, B., R. besenval, D. Bourgarit, Early lost-wax casting in Balochistan (Pakistan): the 'Leopards Weight' from Shahi-Tump in Persiens antike Pracht, Bergau-Handwerk-Archaologie, T. Stollner, R. Slotta, A. Vatandoust, A. ed., p. 274-80. Bouchum: Deutsches Bergbau Museum, 2004. 

    Mille B., D. Bourgarit, R. Besenval, 2005, Metallurgical study of the 'Leopards Weight' from Shahi-Tump (Pakistan) in South Asian Archaeology 2001, C. Jarrige, V. Lefevre, ed., p. 237-244. Paris: Editions Recherches sur les Civilisations, 2005.

    Bourgarit, D., N. Taher, B. Mille & J.-P. Mohen Copper Metallurgy in the Kutch (India) during the Indus Civilization: First Results from Dholavira in South Asian Archaeology 2001, C. Jarrige, V. Lefevre, ed., p. 27-34. Paris: Editions Recherches sur les Civilisations, 2005. 
    Hieroglyph: leopard: karaḍa 'leopard' Rebus: karaḍa 'Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c., hard alloy' kolha Rebus: kolhe 'smelter'. kul ‘tiger’ (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha — m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ, °lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā, °lā m. krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu — m. Pāṇ. [√kruś] Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka — and kotthu -- , °uka — m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. koṭṭhu — m.; Si. koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42 (CDIAL 3615). कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pañcaloha’ (Ta.) 
    Hieroglyph: kāṇḍa 'water' Rebus: khāṇḍā 'metalware, pots and pans, tools' 
    Hieroglyph: dhanga 'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith' adar ḍangra ‘zebu or humped bull’; ḍangar ‘bull’ Rebus: adar ḍhangar 'native metal-smith'.

    Rebus: ḍangar ‘blacksmith’; aduru native metal (Kannada). Tu. ajirda karba very hard iron (DEDR 192). aduru =gaiyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhānti Subrahmaya śastri’s New interpretation of the Amarakośa, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p. 330) aduru ‘native metal’ (Kannada); ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Hindi)

    Hieroglyph: nAga 'snake' Rebus; nAga 'lead'

    Hieroglyph: kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'

    Hieroglyph: kola ‘woman’ kuṛī f. ʻ girl’ Rebus: kol ‘working in iron

    Hieroglyph: poLa 'zebu' Rebus: poLa 'magnetite' dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'
    Hieroglyph: bichi 'scorpion' Rebus: bica 'sand stone ore';  meṛed-bica 'iron stone-ore' (Santali. Munda)

    Hieroglyph:  OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible' Rebus: kuṭhārī 'granary, room' (Hindi)

    Hieroglyph: meDha 'polar star' Rebus: meD 'iron' (Ho. Munda)

    Indo-Europeans domesticated the cow, the bull and the horse. Root? gu̯au/-gu̯ou-: Sanskrit go-, Avestan gāu-, Tocharian keu /ko, Armenian kov, Lithuanian gùovs, German Kuh, Irish bó, all for 'cow', Albanian ka/kau, Greek βοῦς, 'ox, cow', Latin bōs, bovis, Croatian and Serbian vo, 'ox'. See discussions at

    Potts, D. T., Total prestation in Marhashi-Ur relations, Iranica Antiqua 37 (2002).
    DT Potts According to DT Potts, Aratta of Sumerian texts is not likely to be a reality.
    See: The Land of ArattaYousef Majidzadeh Journal of Near Eastern Studies Vol. 35, No. 2 (Apr., 1976), pp. 105-113 I suggest that araṭṭa, mentioned in tra is name of a region, derived from rāṣṭrá (R̥gveda)> Lāṭa, land of Gurjara-s: gurjararāṣṭra ʻkingdom of the Gurjarasʼ; gujrāṭ (Bengali). I make this suggestion because of the parallels between Gonur and Dholavira settlement structures which are fortified settlements. The Meluhha pronunciation variants are:  Pali. Prakrtam. raṭṭha -- n. ʻkingdom, countryʼ; Kumaunī. rāṭh ʻfaction, clan, separate division of a joint -- family groupʼ.
    See: The monograph discusses the presence of Meluhha artisans and Indus Script on Gonur artifacts, attesting to metalwork. It is hypothesised that the Gonur (Jiroft culture) artisans are westward migrants from Kurukshetra region of Sarasvati_Sindhu civilization.

    DT Potts also suggests that the regions of Iranian plateau bordering Meluhha are likely to be Marhashi. Potts, D. T., Total prestation in Marhashi-Ur relations, Iranica Antiqua 37 (2002).
    DT Potts  
     In Potts' view, Marhasi is a region composed of eastern Kerman, which included Tepe Yahya and Jiroft: "Conclusion. As the cuneiform sources on Marhashi attest, this was a country which, while it may have been distant from southern Mesopotamia, was nevertheless a reality. Its army and generals fought against Sargon, Rimushand Naram-Sin; its ruling family intermarried with the élite of Agade and Ur, exchanging diplomatic gifts; a contingent of its soldiers served the royal house of Ur; and its stones, most probably in the form of finished vessels, were familiar in Mesopotamia as well. The evidence summarized here – and in particular the inscribed chlorite fragment in Berlin – allow us to identify eastern Kerman (at least that portion which included Tepe Yahya and Jiroft) with Marhashi. Unlike Aratta, an alluring name perhaps but one which is attested only in a few pieces of tendentious literature written to glorify the Uruk legacy of the Third Dynasty of Ur, Marhashi was a real place, with real soldiers, fighting real battles and a ruling élite who were inter-married with two of the most powerful dynasties in the ancient world. Recent discoveries around Jiroft, which complement those made decades ago at Tepe Yahya, confirm the importance of the Bronze Age culture of southeastern Iran, a culture which we can now confidently associate with the land known to Sumerian and Akkadian scribes by the name of Marhashi." (DT Potts, 2004, Exit Aratta, in: Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstā4/1 (2004):1-11, p.10).

    "Marhaši (Mar-ḫa-šiKI 𒈥𒄩𒅆𒆠MarhashiMarhasiParhasiBarhasi; in earlier sources Waraḫše) was a 3rd millennium BC polity situated east of Elam, on the Iranian plateau. It is known from Mesopotamian sources, and its precise location has not been identified, though some scholars link it with Jiroft. An inscription attributed to Lugal-Anne-Mundu of Adab (albeit in much later copies) mentions it among the seven provinces of his empire, between the names of Elam and Gutium. This inscription also recorded that he confronted their governor (ensi), Migir-Enlil of Marhashi, who had led a coalition of 13 rebel chiefs against him.The Awan kings of Elam were in conflict with a Sumerian ruler's attempt to seize the market at Warakshe, a kingdom apparently near Elam on the Iranian plateau, rich in luxury products of all types, especially precious stones. During the Akkadian Empire, Warakshe was conquered by Sargon the Great

    Indus script glyphs and use of bullae in the context of trade/cultural interaction areas 

    1. with notes on 'writing, counting' cf. the work of Denise Schmandt-Besserat. 
    2. Enrico Ascalone's evidence on interaction areas in International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East 4, 2004, Berlin. cf. "...the extensive evidence for Bactrian Margiana materials recovered from Susa, Shahdad, Yahya, Khinaman, Sibri, Nausharo, Hissar, etc., might make it the prime candidate for Indo-Iranian arrival on the Iranian Plateau."(C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, 2002, Archaeology and Language, The Indio-Iranians, Current Anthropology, Volum3 43, Number 1, February 2002, p.84)

    Image result for shahi tump

    Meluhha and use of tokens in Tepe Hissar as bronze-age dawns

    "Susa was not alone in Iran in yielding tokens in the second half of the fourth millennium BCE; the counters endured in the other prehistoric sites. They are attested, for example, at Chogha Misha and Farukhabad in Susiana; Tepe Yahya and Shahdad in the south of the country; and at Tepe Hissar in the north...It is remarkable, however, that most Iranian token assemblages do not give any indication of change. Instead, they maintain the usual types of counters known since the eighth millennium BCE. For example, Farukhabad, Sharafabad, KS 34 and KS 76 in the west, Tepe Sialk on the Iranian Plateau, and Tepe Yahya have assemblages consisting mostly of plain cones, spheres, disks, cylinders, and tetrahedrons. The case fo Tepe Hissar is interesting. Level II, which produced tokens with a modest number of specimens bearing punctuations, corresponds to a period of change in administrative and craft activities. The appearance of cylinder seals, tablet blanks, and jar stoppers coincides with an increase in copper smelting and the use of exotic materials such as gold, silver, lapis lazuli, carnelian, turquoise, and alabaster."(Denise Schmandt-Besserat, 1992, Before Writing: From counting to cuneiform, Univ. of Texas Press, p.85) 

    Distribution of Tokens in the Middle East. From Denise Schmandt-Besserat, "An Ancient Token System: The Precursor to Numerals and Writing," Archaeology 39 (Nov.-Dec. 1986): 38

    For a brief account of the theses of Denise Schmandt-Besserat, see:Tokens: the origin of mathematics

    See a good summary at: 
    1/ Denise Schmandt-Besserat, 2008, Two precursors of writing: plain and complex tokens (Collection: Denise Schmandt-Besserat 1st edition: Barcelona, 8 December of 2008; cf. The origins of writing ed. Wayne M. Senner. 1991: 27-41).

    2. Denise Schmandt-Besserat, 1977, The earliest precursor of writingScientific American. June 1977, Vol. 238, No. 6, p. 50-58.

    Lapis lazuli seal from Tomb 110, Tepe Gawra (G4-769). Iraq. Courtesy, Univ. Museum, Univ. of Pennsylvania. "In level X of Tepe Gawra, Tombs 102, 110, and 114 were among the richest sculptures of the site. They included obsidian, serpentine, or electrum vessels, gold ornaments in the form of studs, beads, or rosettes, stone maceheads, and lapis lazuli seals. (fig. 50)"(ibid., p.103).

    A standing person is an Indus script glyph. Decoded as meḍ 'body'(Mu.); rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.); helper of merchant (Pkt.)

    After Fig. 44.1 En. After Pierre Amiet. La Glyptique mesopotamienne archaique (Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1980), pl. 46: 639; Fig. 44.2 En. ibid. pl. 44: 655.

    "The five sites that produced the largest complex tokens assemblages -- Uruk and Tello in Iraq, Susa and Chogha Mish in Iran, and Habuba Kabira-Tell Kannas in Syria -- have strikingly similar assemblages. Although the cities were separated by several hundred miles, they shared the same monumental architecture characterized by a central plan and a decoration of niches and clay cone mosaics...Furthermore, the seals and sealings of the five cities were exactly alike, bearing analogous motifs. Among them was featured, for example, the bearded figure of the Mesopotamian priest-king, the so-called En, in his typical attire consisting of a robe in a netlike fabric and a round headdress (figs. 44.1 and 44.2). Finally, all five sites except Tello yielded envelopes holding tokens and impressed tablets. The various features which occur with consistency in the assemblages of sites yielding complex tokens -- the priest-king, public monumental architecture, measures, seals and complex tokens -- represent the elements of an elaborate bureaucracy. They indicate the presence of a powerful economic institution headed by an En acting in public buildings decorated with mosaics and relying upon a control of goods involving seals, beveled-rim bowls, and complex tokens."(ibid., p.101).

    "It is likely that the strings of tokens fulfilled the same function as the envelopes described below, providing an alternative way of storing token. If this assumption is correct, presumably both ends of the string were tied together and secured by sealings identifying the account and preventing any tampering. I propose that a category of small bullae, bearing sealings, could have served this purpose." After Fig. 53. ibid., p. 109. Proposed reconstruction of a string of tokens by a solid bulla. Drawing by Ellen Simmons.
    Note the seal impression of a short-horned bull on the bulla (Fig. 54)."The bullae are made of clay. They are solid, modeled in an oblong or biconoid shape, and measure about 7 cm. in length and 5 in diameter. The artifacts show, at both ends, the trace of the strings to which they are attached and are covered with sealings." After Fig. 54. ibid., p. 109. Two bullae (Sb62898 and 9297). Iran. Courtesy Musee du Louvre. Department des Antiquites Orientales. [Note: cowries were used for counting and as 'currency of exchange' in ancient India. It is likely that the cowries could have been similarly held on a string as tokens of counting, together with a seal or seal impression which indicated the commodity transacted.]
    A string of cowries. An Indus valley shellbead string, ca. 3rd –2nd millennium BC. Drilled cowrie shells. ~8.5 inches. Categorising, counting tokens (used with bulle)?

    The short-horned bull is clearly an identifier describing the profession of the artisan or of the commodity category being counted to complete the bill of lading by the Indus artisan-trader.

    Plain Bulla envelope. Schoyen collection. Representing an account or agreement of tentatively one large measure of barley. “Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete), diam. 6,0-6,8 cm, cylinder seal impression of several men facing tall ringstaff; and another with animals; token inside: 1 large sphere diam. 2 cm (D.S.-B.2:2). Context: MSS 4631-4646 and 5144-5127 are from the same archive. Only 25 more bulla-envelopes are known from Sumer, all excavated in Uruk. Total number of bulla-envelopes worldwide is ca. 165 intact and 70 fragmentary. Commentary: While counting for stocktaking purposes started ca. 8000 BC using plain tokens of the type here, more complex accounting and recording of agreements started about 3700 BC using 2 systems: a) a string of complex tokens with the ends locked into a massive rollsealed clay bulla (see MS 4523), and b) the present system with the tokens enclosed inside a hollow bulla-shaped rollsealed envelope, sometimes with marks on the outside representing the hidden contents. The bulla-envelope had to be broken to check the contents hence the very few surviving intact bulla- envelopes. This complicated system was superseded around 3500-3200 BC by counting tablets giving birth to the actual recording in writing, of the sexagesimal counting system (see MSS 3007 and 4647), and around 3300-3200 BC the beginning of pictographic writing (see MSS 2963 and 4551).”

    Complex bulla. "Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3500-3200 BC, 1 oblong bulla, diam. 2,5x6,5 cm, rollsealed with a line of animals walking left or 2 men standing with arms raised, pierced for holding a string of counting tokens.Context: For another bulla of the same type, see MS 5113.Commentary: The bulla originally locked the ends of a string with a number of complex counting tokens attached to it, representing 1 transaction. The string with the tokens was hanging outside the bulla like a necklace. If the string had, say, 5 disk type tokens representing types of textiles, this number could not be tampered with without breaking the seal. The tokens could also be entirely enclosed in the centre of the bulla, see MSS 4631, 4632 and 4638. Tokens were used for accounting purposes in the Near East from the Neolithic period ca. 8000 BC until ca. 3200 BC, when they were superseded by counting tablets and pictographic tablets. Some of the earliest tablets have actual tokens impressed into the clay to form numbers and pictographs, and some of the pictographs were illustrations of tokens, see MS 4551."

    These are examples of use of bullae for 'accounting' in Syria. Since, no comparable patterns of bullae have been evidenced in the corpora of Indus inscriptions, it is unclear (and will only be a matter of conjecture and hypotheses formulation) whether a similar practice occurred in civilization contact areas using the Indus script to record transactions of artisan repertoire.

    " Susa, a particular seal impression featuring a line of peaceful animals and a line of felines was impressed on a solid bulla as well as on two envelopes. The number of seals is also the same on solid bullae and envelopes: Both have mostly the impression of a single seal rolled all over their surfaces and, on occasion, two or three."(ibid., p. 110). After Fig. 55. Bulla with impressed marking. Habuba Kabira (MII:139). Syria. Photo by Klaus Anger; courtesy Museum fur Vor-und Fruhgeschichte, Berlin.

    Purpose of writing in Indus script glyphs in the context of bullae.

    "Numerous impressions of seals have been found on ceramics (Josh) and Parpola 1987:103) as well as on "tags" or bullae used to seal bundles of trade goods (Josh) and Parpola 1987:273). Traces of rope impressions on the back of many "tags" indicates that they were applied to bundles of goods, possibly to denote ownership or for security purposes. " ( Geoffrey Cook,1994, "An Harappan Seal at Berkeley," in: Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, ed., From Sumer to Meluhha: Contributions to the Archaeology of South and West Asia in Memory of George F. Dales, Jr., Wisconsin Archaeology Reports, Vol. 3, Madison, Wisconsin, 1994.)

    Denise Schmandt-Besserat, in what could "...possibly the single most important contribution published in recent years concerned with the antecedents to writing," has shown one purpose of seals, seal impressions and tablets (for e.g. of the types of miniature incised tablets of Harappa of the size of a thumb-nail) -- counting and preparing bills of lading of traded commodities. 

    Denise Schmandt-Besserat's study of tokens and bullae and brilliant insights on the use of seal impressions on bullae strings, validates the decoding of Indus script cipher. Denise is the scholar who identified and demonstrated the sequence of counting and writing in the evolution of a what constituted a cultural revolution in communication systems. The Indus script hieroglyphs were identified with an underlying language: Meluhha (mleccha) -- and writing began as a logical sequence from the early systems of counting and categorising using tokens and bullae.

    The sequence is confirmed by the semantics of a lexeme in Indian linguistic area: ákṣarā -- f. ʻ word, speech ʼ RV. [kṣará -- ]Pa. akkhara -- ʻ lasting ʼ, n. pl. ʻ syllables, words ʼ; Pk. akkhara -- m.n. ʻ written syllable ʼ; K. achur, pl. -- ar m. ʻ letter of the alphabet ʼ(CDIAL 38)Ko. ekm (obl. ekt-) counting, taking account of something; ekaṭ- (ekac-) to count (kaṭ- to tie); eku·ṭ- (eku·c-) to count (ku·ṭ- to make to join, gather); ekmu·ṛ- (ekmu·c-) to count. To. ökm (obl. ökt-) arithmetic, account, figures. Tu. ekkam the unit of numeration, first place in ciphering. Te. ekkamu a unit, the place of units, a multiplication table. ? Ma. akkam a numerical figure. / ? < Skt. eka-.(DEDR 769)(L) {V(lay)} ``to ^count''. Nom. ???. *Or.<>. #42001. (Munda etyma)లెక్క [ lekka ] lekka. [Tel.] n. Number, సంఖ్య. An account, a sum in arithmetic, reckoning.(Telugu) likhá m. ʻ writer ʼ Pāṇ.com., likhitr̥ -- m. ʻ painter ʼ Viddh. [√likh]G. lahiyɔ, laiyɔ m. ʻ writer, scribe ʼ.(CDIAL 11047)likháti ʻ scratches ʼ AV., ʻ writes ʼ Yājñ. [√likh]Pa. likhati ʻ scratches, carves, writes ʼ; Aś.shah. likhapeśami, man. likhapita -- , gir. likhāpisaṁ, dh. likhiyisāmi ʻ will write ʼ, NiDoc. lihati, Pk. lihaï, MB. lihe, Or. lihibā, M. lihiṇẽ, Ko. liuṁk, Si. liyanavā, caus. liyavanavā; Md. liyāka sb. ʻ writing ʼ.likháti. 1. WPah.poet. līṇo ʻ to draw, write ʼ, Md. liyanī (absol. lī), liyum ʻ writing ʼ.likhyatē ʻ is written ʼ Kathās.: OP. likhaṇu ʻ to write ʼ, P. likhṇā, B. lekhā, H. likhnā.(CDIAL 11048).

    "Sibri. South-west of Mehrgarh and close to the Harappan period mount of Nowsharo, the deflated site of Sibri extends over an area of at least one hectare…A number of terracotta objects were recovered from sibri, including pawns, small wheels, spindle-whorls, rattles (Figure 8.4C), and sling-balls. Two crucible fragments were also collected…One of the rattles, with circular impressions on it, looks very much like a specimen from Mehrgarh and one from Shahdad (Hakemi, 1972: Plate XXIIA). Another example (Fig. 8.4C) bears incised signs which could represent numbers…Perhaps the most interesting finds from Sibri are the seals, which are of two types. The principal kind is the compartmented seal made of bronze or of stone…The second type of seal is represented by a single piece. It is a black steatite cylinder with a pierced boss on top, engravings of a zebu facing what is probably a lion around the cylinder, and an engraved scorpion on the base. (Fig. 8.4A). This cylinder seal was found associated with two beads in black steatite and, with them, may have formed part of a necklace. This piece is very similar to a few cylinder seals found in Margiana from the surface of the Taip sites (Masimov, 1981). One seal from Margiana bears a representation of a zebu. Not far from the place where the seal came was found a bronze shaf-hole axe-adze (Fig. 8.1E) of a type also well-known in the Murgabo-Bactria area as well as at Mohenjo-daro. Other bronze objects include a few pins.”(Marielle Santoni, Sibri and the South Cemetery of Mehrgarh: third millennium connections between the northern Kachi Plain (Pakistan) and Central Asia, in: South Asian Archaeology 1981; Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, held in Cambridge University, 5-10 July 1981, edited by Bridget Allchin, California University Press, pp.54-55)

    Fig. 8.4A Stone Cylinder seal. Sibri.

    Fig. 8.4C. Sibri. Terracotta rattles. 
    Rattles. Harappa culture. Boston Museum.
    Fig. 8.1E. Shaft-hole axe/'adze of copper or bronze. Sibri.
    Rattle. Chanhudaro.Spherical rattle, hollow with small bits of clay inside, painted in red slip with decoration of concentric circles.PROVENANCE[Expedition date:] 1935-1936 Season CREDIT LINE Joint Expedition of the American School of Indic and Iranian Studies and the Museum of Fine Arts, 1935–1936 Season. Ball-shaped rattle Pakistan, Indus Valley, Chanhu-Daro, about 2600–1900 B.C.Chanhu-Daro, Indus Valley, Pakistan DIMENSIONS Legacy dimension: Diam: 5.5 cm

    Marine shell 36.2400 Carved ball. Chanhudaro. Diameter: 3.2 cm Boston Museum. If this was used as a bulla, the likely decoding of the 'dotted circle' glyph: kandhi ‘a lump, a piece’ (Santali)The dotted circles also adorn the standard device which is a drill-lathe, sangaḍa खंड [ khaṇḍa ] A piece, bit, fragment, portion.(Marathi) Rebus: kandi ‘beads’ (Pa.)(DEDR 1215). khaṇḍ ‘ivory’ (H.) Vikalpa: Rebus: khaṇḍaran, khaṇḍrun ‘pit furnace’ (Santali)Thus, the package to which such a bulla might have been attached might have contained ivory artifacts or beads or drill lathes or provided for a count of furnaces. काढतें [ kāḍhatēṃ ] n Among gamesters. An ivory counter &c. placed to represent a sum of money. (Marathi) 
    An Indus valley shellbead bracelet, ca. 3rd –2nd millennium BC. The necklace of drilled cowrie shells. ~8.5 inches. 

    Dotted circles incised on steatite bead; No. 5256 ca. 3rd –2nd millennium BC. The carved, drilled and polished gray stone bead with incised annulet and oblique designs. 1 x 1.2 inches.. Did the number of 'dotted circles' glyphs on the bead represent the count of 'number of furnaces' worked on by the Indus smith/arisan?

    Fish-shaped tablet (text 3428), Harappa with incised text; eye is a dotted circle; after Vats 1940: II, pl. 95, no.428; Parpola, 1994, p. 194. 'Fish-eye' as a glyph? Dotted circle. Denotes the 'furnace'. To be read with the glyphs: fish + arrow + rimless pot or fish+four (strokes) + rimless pot; rebus reading: ayaskaṇḍa bhaṭa 'excellent iron' (out of the furnace -- kaṇḍa bhaṭa). 'Arrow' and 'count of four strokes' glyphs are allographs: kaṇḍa 'arrow'; kaṇḍa 'four koḍa'(lit. four one-s). 'Fish-eye' or 'dotted circle' is thus a phonetic determinant of the lexeme: kaṇḍa. A vikalpa rebus reading is: kaṇḍa 'ivory' or 'bead'.

    The sequence of sign-glyphs occurs without the 'fish-shaped' tablet replacing it with a 'fish' glyph as part of the inscription. The inscription also occurs without the 'fish-eye' glyph shown on tablet text 3428.

    This identical inscription set appears on two sides of two miniature tablets, Harappa (a) H-302; (b) 3452; after Vats 1940: II, 452 B. Parpola, 1994, p. 194.

    Both these examples of inscriptions (one fish-shaped tablet and the other plain-shaped, rectangular tablet) are a record of the iron furnaces worked on by the Indus artisans of Harappa. Maybe, these were 'identity' tokens for the artisans of the guild.

    It is unclear if the 'terracotta balls' can be categorised as bullae. The excavator of Mohenjo-daro does not report on the uniqueness of the three pellets that a 'rattle' contained. Marshall's report: "Ratttles (Pl. CLIII, 11). Round pottery rattles with small pellets of clay inside are well known at Mohenjo-daro. The one illustrated (C 2567) is among the best of those found. It is 2.55 inches in diameter and is of light-red ware decorated with parallel circles in red paint. Level. 12 feet below surface. Room 9, Block 8, Section C, DK Area. The rattles found vary in size from 1.5 inches to 2.6 inches in diameter, and are all made of light-red ware. Some are plain and others decorated with thick lines, always of red and arranged either laterally or vertically. These rattles were probably made by wrapping the clay round a combustible core, in the centre of which the roughly made baked clay pellets were placed to produce the sound. (In one rattle that we opened were three small clay pellets.) In every case they are hand-made, not moulded, and they are invariably well finished, but without a slip. They are found at all levels. In none of the rattles was there a vent-hole to allow the gases resulting from the combustion of the core to escape. Possibly the porous nature of the pottery would of itself permit a gas to pass through easily, and that may be the reason why these toys were not coated with a slip."(John Marshall, Mohenjo-dro and the Indus Civilization: being an official account of archaeological excavations at Mohenjo-Daro carried out by the Government of India between the years 1922 and 1927, Repr. Asian Educational Services, 1996, p.551)

    During historical periods, there is an instance of a rattle with a glyphic impression: "From Harinarayanpur Shri P. C. Das Gupta secured a terracotta seal showing two beak-headed abstract figures facing each other (pi. LXXXIII, 2), ...and a rattle with a seated figure (pi. LXXXIV, 2)." (Indian Archaeology 1957-58 A review, p.70) 

    If, in fact,such rattles were bullae, it is likely that some bullae might also have been used conjointly -- as evidenced by Denise Schmandt-Besserat in Susa and other sites of the Indus script interaction areas of Elam/Mesopotamia -- with the Indus script seal (with hieroglyphs) to record the profession of the artisan or the product made by the artisan and thus complete the 'bill-of-lading' for the trade transaction -- the tokens denoting the count (quantity).

    The images are also repeated in: Jarrige, Catherine, Jean-François Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron, editors (1995/1996) Mehrgarh: Field Reports 1974-1985 - From Neolithic Times to the Indus Civilization. The Reports of Eleven Seasons of Excavations in Kachi District, Balochistan, by the French Archaeological Mission to Pakistan. Sindh, Pakistan: The Department of Culture and Tourism, Government of Sindh, Pakistan, in Collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (Seventh season 1980-1981 Excavations at Mehrgarh).

    The representation of 'zebu' on the Mehrgarh cylinder seal (in the context of the shaft-hole-axe/adze) is significant, since the glyph is decoded adar ḍangra 'zebu'; rebus: aduru ḍhangar native-metal- smith (Meluhha/mleccha Indian linguistic area).

    The context of predominantly 'smith's repertoire' decoded in Indus script Cipher, gets validation from the Mehrgarh Field Reports 1975-1985 cited above.

    Location map. Tepe Hissar in relation to Meluhha.

    Hissar I painted ware is decorated with geometric, plant, and animal motifs (gazelles, ibexes, and birds).After FIGURE 2. Gold applique Ibex (H3211); one of five from Hoard I. Treasure Hall; Period IIIC, 1940-1705 BC, 1932. Source: (Tappa Ḥeṣār), prehistoric site located just south of Dāmḡān in northeastern Persia.

    Sutka-koh, Meluhha. Persian Gulf.

    This is a continuation of the blogpost which decoded mlekh 'goat' (Brahui) identified rebus with meluhha (mleccha, Indian linguistic area): Goat and fish as hieroglyphs of Indus script: Susa-Meluhha interactions. Meluhhan interpreter 'may have been literate and could read the undeciphered Indus script.' 

    An example of Indus script glyphs used in interaction areas is the transelamite cylinder-stamp seal from Jalalabad. Enrico Ascalone provides scores of seals demonstrating interaction with Indus civilization.

    After Fig. 1 Transelamite cylinder-stamp seal from Jalalabad. Source: Archaeological National Museum of Tehran, NMI 2698. In: (Enrico Ascalone, Cultural interactions among Mesopotamia, Elam, Transelam and Indus civilization. The evidence of a cylinder-stamp seal from Jalalabad (FARS) and its significance in the historical dynamics of south-eastern Iran, in: International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East 4, 2004, Berlin (4 ICAANE). Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, Berlin, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2008, pp. 255-276). "The iconographical representation (Fig. 1) shows a composite being with Mesopotamian kaunakes flanked by dragon's heads, with naked torso and unfortunately a raised face while it left up the arms ending with dragon heads; in front of him are three figures with long clothes, one of them is knelled down with up arms, two are simply bowed. A Harappan or pseudo-Harappan inscription is located in the central upper part of seal, while a globe, two three-petals vegetable elements and a eight-pointd star are depicted in the last free-spaces of cylindrical surface. On the base is depicted a single icon representing a profile head with beard and horned hat...the epigraphic evidence is related to the Harappan inscriptions corpora as known in the Indus valley and in Harappan cylinder seals found in Mesopotamia and Susiana." (ibid., p. 255)

    Enrico Ascalone provides samples of seals comparable to Indus script glyphs (ibid., pp. 267 to 276); he also explains in his article, reasons he why he finds comparable glyphic elements across indus, elamite/iran interaction areas:

    Fig. 6f: Transelamite stamp seal from Tepe Giyan Source: Archaeological National Museum of Tehran, NMI 737/6

    Seals from Afg of BMAC complex with motif shared with Ahar-Banas chalcolithic

    Thanks for these exquisite images of seals (called compartmentalised seals) from BMAC.   

    Following notes point to the essential similarity between Ahar-Banas artifacts and the finds from other sites of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization. In particular, the seal showing a + shaped fire-altar may be explained as a Vedi. Similar hieroglyphs occur on Indus Script Corpora, for example the following:

    Kot Diji type seals with concentric circles from (a,b) Taraqai Qila (Trq-2 &3, after CISI 2: 414), (c,d) Harappa(H-638 after CISI 2: 304, H-1535   after CISI 3.1:211), and (e) Mohenjo-daro (M-1259, aftr CISI 2: 158). (From Fig. 7 Parpola, 2013).
    Distribution of geometrical seals in Greater Indus Valley during the early and *Mature Harappan periods (c. 3000 - 2000 BCE). After Uesugi 2011, Development of the Inter-regional interaction system in the Indus valley and beyond: a hypothetical view towards the formation of the urban society' in: Cultural relations between the Indus and the Iranian plateau during the 3rd millennium BCE, ed. Toshiki Osada & Michael Witzel. Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora 7. Pp. 359-380. Cambridge, MA: Dept of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University: fig.7.

    I suggest that the 'dotted circle' signifies on Indus Script corpora: ḍāv ʻdice-throwʼ Rebus: dhāu 'ore'.See: 

     Evolution of Brahmi script syllables ḍha-, dha- traced from Indus Script hieroglyph dotted circle, dām 'rope (single strand or string?)', dã̄u 
    ʻtyingʼ, ḍāv m. ʻdice-throwʼ rebus: dhāu 'ore' 
    Brahmi script syllables ḍha-, dha- are derived from Indus Script hieroglyphs: dhāv 'string, dotted circle' rebus: dhāu'ore'
    Button seal. Harappa.
    Fired steatite button seal with four concentric circle designs discovered at Harappa.    This paper examines the nature of Indus seals and the different aspects of seal iconography and style in the Indus civilization.: Fired steatite button seal with four concentric circle designs discovered at Harappa. 
    Sibri cylinder seal with Indus writing hieroglyphs: notches, zebu, tiger, scorpion?. Each dot on the corner of the + glyph and the short numeral strokes on a cylinder seal of Sibri, may denote a notch: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.

     m0352 cdef

    The + glyph of Sibri evidence is comparable to the large-sized 'dot', dotted circles and + glyph shown on this Mohenjo-daro seal m0352 with dotted circles repeated on 5 sides A to F. Mohenjo-daro Seal m0352 shows dotted circles in the four corners of a fire-altar and at the centre of the altar together with four raised 'bun' ingot-type rounded features.

    Rebus readings of m0352 hieroglyphs:

      dhātu 'layer, strand'; dhāv 'strand, string' Rebus: dhāu, dhātu 'ore'

    1. Round dot like a blob -- . Glyph: raised large-sized dot -- (gōṭī ‘round pebble);goTa 'laterite (ferrite ore)
    2. Dotted circle khaṇḍa ‘A piece, bit, fragment, portion’; kandi ‘bead’;
    3. A + shaped structure where the glyphs  1 and 2 are infixed.  The + shaped structure is kaṇḍ  ‘a fire-altar’ (which is associated with glyphs 1 and 2)..
    Rebus readings are: 1. khoṭ m. ʻalloyʼgoTa 'laterite (ferrite ore); 2. khaṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’; 3. kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar, consecrated fire’.

    Four ‘round spot’; glyphs around the ‘dotted circle’ in the center of the composition: gōṭī  ‘round pebble; Rebus 1: goTa 'laterite (ferrite ore); Rebus 2:L. khoṭf ʻalloy, impurityʼ, °ṭā ʻalloyedʼ, awāṇ. khoṭā  ʻforgedʼ; P. khoṭ m. ʻbase, alloyʼ  M.khoṭā  ʻalloyedʼ (CDIAL 3931) Rebus 3: kōṭhī ] f (कोष्ट S) A granary, garner, storehouse, warehouse, treasury, factory, bank. khoṭā ʻalloyedʼ metal is produced from kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar’ yielding khaṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’. This word khaṇḍā is denoted by the dotted circles.

    eraka 'wing' Rebus: eraka 'moltencast' garuDa 'eagle' Rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy'; garuDa 'gold' (Samskritam)

    Hieroglyph: eruvai 'eagle'; synonym: गरुड 'eagle' eraka 'wing'. Rebus: eruvai 'copper' (Tamil. Malayalam)करडा [ karaḍā ] Hard from alloy--iron, silver &c.  eraka 'moltencast' See:

    Harappa seal h166A, h166B. Vats, 1940, Excavations in Harappa, Vol. II, Calcutta: Pl. XCI. 255


    वेदि [p= 1017,2] f. (later also वेदी ; for 1. 2. » col.2) an elevated (or according to some excavated) piece of ground serving for a sacrificial altar (generally strewed with कुश grass , and having receptacles for the sacrificial fire ; it is more or less raised and of various shapes , but usually narrow in the middle , on which account the female waist is often compared to it) RV. &cthe space between the supposed spokes of a wheel-shaped altar , S3ulbas.a stand , basis , pedestal , bench MBh. Ka1v. &c  

    Hieroglyph/Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar' (Santali) kāṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware' (Marathi)

    वेदि  f. knowledge , science (» अ-व्°)

    नाग nāga [p= 532,3] m. (prob. neither fr. न-ग nor fr. नग्न) a snake , (esp.) Coluber Naga S3Br. MBh. &c

    नाग  nāga n. (m. L. ) tin , lead Bhpr. n. a kind of coitus L.

    गरुड [p= 348,3] m. ( √2. गॄ Un2. iv , 155 , " devourer " , because गरुड was perhaps originally identified with the all-consuming fire of the sun's rays) , N. of a mythical bird (chief of the feathered race , enemy of the serpent-race [cf. RTL. p.321] , vehicle ofविष्णु [cf. RTL. pp. 65 ; 104 ; 288] , son of कश्यप and विनता ; shortly after his birth he frightened the gods by his brilliant lustre ; they supposed him to be अग्नि , and requested his protection ; when they discovered that he was गरुड , they praised him as the highest being , and called him fire and sun MBh. i , 1239 ff. ; अरुण , the charioteer of the sun or the personified dawn , is said to be the elder [or younger cf. RTL. p.104] brother of गरुड ; स्वाहा , the wife of अग्नि , takes the shape of a female गरुडी = सुपर्णी MBh. iii , 14307 and 14343) Suparn2. TA1r. x , 1 , 6 MBh. &ca building shaped like गरुड R. VarBr2S. See:

    gāruḍa गारुड a. (-डी f.) [गरुडस्येदं अण्] 1 Shaped like Ga- ruḍa. -2 Coming from or relating to Garuḍa. -डः, -डम् 1 An emerald; राशिर्मणीनामिव गारुडानां सपद्मरागः फलितो विभाति R.13.53. -2 A charm against (snake) poison; संगृहीतगारुडेन K.51 (where it has sense 1 also). -3 A missile presided over by Garuḍa. -4 A military array (व्यूह) of the shape of Garuḍa. -5 Gold. 

    Ta. eruvai a kind of kite whose head is white and whose body is brown; eagle. Ma. eruva eagle, kite.(DEDR 818). Rebus: eruvai ‘copper’ (Tamil).

    eṟaka ‘wing’ (Telugu) Rebus: erako ‘molten cast’ (Tulu) loa ‘ficus’; rebus: loh 

    ‘copper’. Pajhar ‘eagle’; rebus: pasra ‘smithy’. 

    Hieroglyph: वज्र[p= 913,1] mfn. shaped like a kind of cross (cf. above ) , forked , zigzag ib. [cf. Zd. vazra , " a club. "]

    Rebus: वज्र[p= 913,1] mn. n. a kind of hard iron or steel L. mfn. adamantine , hard , impenetrable W." the hard or mighty one " , a thunderbolt (esp. that of इन्द्र , said to have been formed out of the bones of the ऋषिदधीच or दधीचि [q.v.] , and shaped like a circular discus , or in later times regarded as having the form of two transverse bolts crossing each other thus x ; sometimes also applied to similar weapons used by various gods or superhuman beings , or to any mythical weapon destructive of spells or charms , also to मन्यु , " wrath " RV. or [with अपाम्] to a jet of water AV. &c ; also applied to a thunderbolt in general or to the lightning evolved from the centrifugal energy of the circular thunderbolt of इन्द्र when launched at a foe ; in Northern Buddhist countries it is shaped like a dumb-bell and called Dorje ; » MWB. 201 ; 322 &c ) RV. &ca diamond (thought to be as hard as the thunderbolt or of the same substance with it) , Shad2vBr. Mn. MBh. &cm. a form of military array , Mn. MBh. &c (cf. -व्यूह)a kind of hard mortar or cement (कल्क) VarBr2S. (cf. -लेप)

    m0451A,B Text 3235 

    m1390Bt Text 2868 Pict-74: Bird in flight.
    Elamite bird (eagle?) with spread wings on an axe-head from Tepe Yahya (Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. and D.T. Potts. 2001. Excavations at Tepe Yahya, Iran, 1967-1975: The Third Millennium. Cambridge: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, p.216).

    Two seals from Gonur 1 in thee  Murghab delta; dark brown stone ((Sarianidi 1981 b: 232-233, Fig. 7, 8) eagle 
    engraved on one face.

    "a fortified enclosure of mud and brick, comparable to the citadels of the Harappans, spread over 500 sq m. It was filled with ash and cowdung. A people called the Ahars had built it in Balathal near modern Udaipur some 4,500 years ago.
    Carbon dating established that they had lived in and around the Mewar region in Rajasthan between 3,500 and 1,800 B.C. They were Mewar's first farmers, older even than the Harappans. But why had they built a fort only to fill it with ash and cowdung? To solve the mystery, a team of Indian archaeologists excavating the site went on removing layer after layer of civilisation. ...Who Were The Ahars?

    There are 90 sites of Ahar - a ruralsociety. The recent round of excavations is establishing that Ahar culture and Harappan civilisation were different though contemporary and related. This village life emerged much before the mature Harappan era...In modern Rajasthan, Ahar sites have been reported in Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Dungarpur, Bhilwara, Rajsamand, Bundi, Tonk and Ajmer dotting10,000 sq km. "There is a commonality in all 90-sites located in South eastern Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh,'' says Jaipur-based Rima Hooja, a scholar on Ahar culture...The excavations reveal a large number of bull figurines indicating the Ahar people worshipped the bull. At Marmi, a site near Chittorgarh, these figures have been found in abundance indicating it could be a regional shrine of the bull cult of this rural population. Discovery of cow-like figurines in Ojiyana, the first site found on the slope of a hill, has baffled archaeologists...

    Decorated black-and-red pottery is a mark of Ahar culture distinct from the Harappan where the interiors of vessels was black. In Balathal, the black-and-red ware constitute only 8 per cent of the ceramic assemblage whereas in Ahar it is 70 per cent.,,Unlike other chalcolithic cultures which had stone tools, the Aharites made copper tools such as chisels, razors and barbed and tanged arrow heads, apparently for hunting. Probably, they had the advantage of access to copper from the Khetri mines and in the nearby Aravalli hills. There is evidence of copper melting too. Harappans probably imported copper ores and even finished copper goods from Ahar people...Balathal, for example, remained unoccupied until 300 B.C., when in the Mauryan era, some people re-occupied the sites. Lalti Pandey of the Institute of Rajasthan Studies says of these people that "they knew of iron smelting and manufactured iron implements''. Two iron smelting furnaces have been found in Balathal in this phase. It is around this period's layer that the fifth skeleton was found." -- Rohit Parihar in                                                                                                       See: Two Indus Script inscribed anthropomorphs of Ancient Bharatam copper complexes are deciphered as seafaring metalsmiths, merchants...              

    The decipherment is consistent with the archaeological finds of Bhirrana-Kalibangan-Karanpura-Ahar-Banas complex as Vedic Sarasvati civilization metalwork continuum of Bharatam Janam (RV 3.53.12), 'metalcaster folk'. 
    Ahar-Banas region of Rajasthan (close to the Khetri copper belt) is a copper complex.
    I suggest that the prefix maha- in Marhashi is a metathesis of combined expression: mah+ arṣa partly derived as 'sacred descent' from आर्ष [p= 152,3] mf()n. relating or belonging to or derived from ऋषिs (i.e. the poets of the Vedic and other old hymns) , archaistic MBh. R. &c; n. the speech of a ऋषि , the holy text , the वेदNir. RPra1t. Mn. ; n. sacred descent Comm. on La1t2y. Ya1jn5.  

    मर्य a. Ved. Mortal. -र्यः 1 A man. -2 A young man. -3 A male. -4 A lover, suitor. -5 A stallion, horse. -6 A camel. PLUS आर्ष 'sacred descent' may lead to the derived expression which signifies marya+mahas +arṣa > Marhashi as a region of young men of 'venerable, sacred descent'. (Note, of a later date, ca. 16th cent. BCE: cf. maryannu'chariot-mounted hereditary warrior nobility' in Mitanni treaties).
    Maha (m. & nt.) [fr. mah, see mahati & cp. Vedic nt. mahas] 1. worthiness, venerableness Miln 357. -- 2. a (religious) festival (in honour of a Saint, as an act of worship) Mhvs 33, 26 (vihārassa mahamhi, loc.); VvA 170 (thūpe ca mahe kate), 200 (id.). mahā˚ a great festival Mhvs 5, 94. bodhi˚ festival of the Bo tree J iv.229. vihāra˚ festival held on the building of a monastery J i.94; VvA 188. hatthi˚ a festival called the elephant f. J iv.95.

    Mahati [mah; expld by Dhtp 331 as "pūjāyaŋ"] to honour, revere Vv 4711 (pot. med. 1 pl. mahemase, cp. Geiger, P.Gr. § 129; expld as "mahāmase pūjāmase" at VvA 203). Caus. mahāyati in same sense: ger. mahāyitvāna (poetical) J iv.236. -- Pass. mahīyati Vv 621 (=pūjīyati VvA 258); 6422 (ppr. mahīyamāna= pūjiyamāna VvA 282). pp. mahita.

    Mahatta (nt.) [fr. mahat˚ cp. Sk. mahattva] greatness J v.331 (=seṭṭhatta C.); Vism 132, 232 sq.; VbhA 278 (Satthu˚, jāti˚, sabrahmacārī˚); DA i.35; VvA 191. Mahant (adj.) [Vedic mahant, which by Grassmann is taken as ppr. to mah, but in all probability the n is an original suffix. -- cp. Av. mazant, Sk. compar. mahīyān; Gr. me/gas (compar. mei/zwn), Lat. magnus, Goth. mikils=Ohg. mihhil=E. much] great, extensive, big; important, venerable. -- nom. mahā Sn 1008; Mhvs 22, 27. Shortened to maha in cpd. pitāmaha (following a -- decl.) (paternal) grandfather PvA 41; & mātāmaha(maternal) grandfather (q. v.). -- instr. mahatā Sn 1027. -- pl. nom. mahantā Sn 578 (opp. daharā). -- loc. mahati Miln 254. -- f. mahī -- 1. one of the 5 great rivers (Np.). -- 2. the earth. See separately. -- nt. mahantaŋused as adv., meaning "very much, greatly" J v.170; DhA iv.232. Also in cpd. mahantabhāva greatness, loftiness, sublimity DhsA 44. -- Compar. mahantatara DhA ii.63, and with dimin. suffix ˚ka J iii.237. -- The regular paraphrase of mahā in the Niddesa is "agga, seṭṭha, visiṭṭha, pāmokkha, uttama, pavara," see Nd2 502.
      Note on mahā & cpds. -- A. In certain cpds. the combn with mahā (mah˚) has become so established & customary (often through politeness in using mahā˚ for the simple term), that the cpd. is felt as an inseparable unity and a sort of "antique" word, in which the 2nd part either does not occur any more by itself or only very rarely, as mah' aṇṇava, which is more freq. than aṇṇava; mah'âbhisakka, where abhisakka does not occur by itself; cp. mahânubhāva, mahiddhika, mahaggha; or is obscured in its derivation through constant use with mahā, like mahesī [mah+esī, or īsī], mahesakkha [mah+esakkha]; mahallaka [mah+*ariyaka]; mahāmatta. Cp. E. great -- coat, Gr. a)rx˚ in a)rx -- iatro/s=Ger. arzt. Only a limited selection of cpd. -- words is given, consisting of more frequent or idiomatic terms. Practically any word may be enlarged & emphasized in meaning by prefixing mahā. Sometimes a mahā˚ lends to special events a standard (historical) significance, so changing the common word into a noun proper, e. g. Mah -- âbhinikkhammana, Mahāpavāraṇa. -- B. Mahā occurs in cpds. in (a) an elided form mah before a & i; (b) shortened to maha˚ before g, d, p, b with doubling of these consonants; (c) in the regular form mahā˚: usually before consonants, sometimes before vowels.(Pali)

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    This should not be politicized, but I think Army did not give adequate protection to at that time:Manohar Parrikar

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    Indian Army stands united to welcome Lt. Col. Purohit forming a human chain at Colaba Military Station in South Mumbai. Brothers in arms.
    9:09 PM - 22 Aug 2017Malegaon blasts 2008 case: Lt. Col. Purohit speaks exclusively to NewsX
    The Supreme Court on Monday granted bail to Lt. Colonel Shrikant Prasad Purohit in the 2008 Malegaon serial blast case.

    “We set aside order of Bombay High Court.” the bench of Justice R K Agrawal and AM Sapre said while granting conditional bail to Lt Colonel Purohit.
    The Lieutenant Colonel served in the Indian Army between 2002-2005 taking part in the counter-terrorism operation throughout Jammu and Kashmir. He later was shifted to Military intelligence due to some health issues.
    After granting bail to other accused Sadvi Pragya Singh in April this year the Supreme Court today granted bail to chief Malegaon accused Lt. Col. Purohit.
    In an exclusive interview to NewsX’s Ashish Singh, Col. Purohit revealed all the details of incidents that occurred before he was detained and what atrocities he had to go through during the whole investigation. The interview also reflects on his exposure of the most wanted criminal Daood Ibrahim and how the mafia don operated in India and had links with several naxal groups.

     Here are the excerpts:

    Ashish Singh: I have read about your case from the documents. I just want to understand from the horse’s mouth. The entire story… how were you picked up…  having gone through all the documents of army and court, it appears that there is much more than meets the eye…
     Lt Col Purohit:  It does
    Ashish Singh: Could you tell me please?
    Lt Col Purohit: I will speak nothing.                                                                                            
    Ashish Singh: Sir, just for my understanding please. I want to understand this entire case. How were you picked up, how were you tortured?
    Lt Col Purohit: It’s there in the papers – everything is there in the papers.
    Ashish Singh: I just want to understand directly from you how you were picked up. This is one of the main issues in the case.
    Lt Col Purohit: See- you must understand one thing. In the army, you cannot move on your own to any place. You have to go on a movement order.
    When I was told to go to Delhi, I moved with the understanding that I am going to Delhi but I was made to undertake the journey to Mumbai by Col Shrivastava. I never had that movement order with me.  It apparently came up in the court of inquiry. Col Shrivastava had picked up my movement order without me knowing. He had told the officer not to hand over my movement order to me and also not to disclose to me change of destination.  
    ‘Col Purohit should never know where he is going’.  That’s how it is and then I was taken to Mumbai, bundled up in a vehicle, taken to bloody Khandala and from 29th to 3rd of November – I faced a nightmare.
    Ashish Singh: How?  Were you tortured?
    Lt Col Purohit: Tortured? I think torture is sober word.
    Ashish Singh: What did they do?
    Lt Col Purohit: What they did not, they kept pulling my hair, kept me naked; semi nude. What would you say hand cuffed, tight blind folded abuses hurled to my wife, my sister and my mother, they also threatened that they will parade them in front of me and will put them behind the bars.
    They threatened that my son will go to orphanage and tied me by my wrist on the horizontal bar my legs stretched you name a thing doesn’t remind me of this.
    Ashish Singh: They made you confess for the Malegaon blast?  They forced you to confess but you did not?
    Lt Col Purohit: Confession is something – if you have done something then you confess. I have done nothing, so what am I supposed to confess?
    Ashish Singh: What did they ask you to confess?
    Lt Col Purohit:  That I am involved in that stupid case.
    Ashish Singh: In which a lot of other people have already got bail.
    Lt Col Purohit:  I am not talking about anything which is subjudice.
    Ashish Singh: I have gone through your documents and the court of inquiry. It appears that a lot of it is politics and your lawyers have been suggesting that you are behind the bars just because of your political nature
    Lt Col Purohit: you still have doubts about it?
    Ashish Singh:  What did they do? I have seen your Dawood report. Sir, I just want to understand these reports… right from Dawood to fake currency to a terrorist in Kashmir travelling in a politician’s car
    Lt Col Purohit: Yes, it is all there in black and white, I have reported all these matters in the report
    Ashish Singh: What all did you report sir? Could you please elaborate?
    Lt Col Purohit: As you said these things, Kashmiri terrorist traveling in a politician’s red beacon car. Dawood, his connection with naxalites at the behest of ISI and how he was conducting the coordination part of it, nexus of the fraternity you just talked about, I don’t even want to name them.
    I don’t want to talk about politicians as a serving office but then it is that way. The fake currency racket, the involvement of people who call themselves politicians.  
    I don’t find my performance or performing my duties wrong… if I see something going wrong in this country… I am serving the flag… I am serving the president… I recognize the political party let me tell you. I should not have opinion about politicians and politics neither should I have any inclination or soft corner for them. In my life I have never voted -let me tell you – and I am never going to vote in my life. That is the level I keep myself at…
    Ashish Singh: It seems the system has let you down – and the Army.
    Lt Col Purohit: No, don’t say anything about Army. I have faith in them they have stood by me, don’t say anything about the Army.
    Ashish Singh: You are still a serving officer?
    Lt Col Purohit: I am and I would remain one.
    Ashish Singh: But they did let you down at one point…
    Lt Col Purohit: Don’t even say that. Wrong people go high up at wrong times but the organization is strong. It’s a fantastic organization and I serve it with a lot of pride and honor.
    Ashish Singh: You have written a lot of letters. It seems you are fighting for the pride and uniform?
    Lt Col Purohit:  What else an officer has other than his pride and honor to defend? Tell me?  You feel do we work for money in the army? You are sadly mistaken. It is that few grams of brass that matters to us. It is that colored ribbon what matters to us.  It matters nothing for civilians and you would never understand these kinds of things. I am talking to you and I am getting Goosebumps. Let me tell you. It (army) is my place. I belong there. I belong to my olive green uniform.
    Ashish Singh: You still want to serve the army once you come out?
    Lt Col Purohit: Why do you ask me this?  You want me to break down? Don’t say this; I am a man from trenches. I have faced bullets. I belong to a martial clan. My pride, my flag, and my family flag I never let anyone down. That’s my army you have gone through my court of enquiry. You must have seen that not a single officer has spoken against me. In fact, it was my open challenge in the court that I surrender my right to examine anyone in my defense. I said call anyone – from sipahi to hawaldar to a general with whom I have served even for a single day.  Any one, who says that Col Purohit does not have officer-like qualities, does not have an officer’s character.  I said I’ll put down my badges of ranks in front of you. I have no right to serve under you if any one whether in my command or who commands me says that I am not worthy of the uniform.
    Ashish Singh: Yes, all 59 officers have given the statement in your favor
    Lt Col Purohit:  I say it even today; anyone let them say that I’m not worthy to be an officer. I should cease to exist.
    Ashish Singh: If the army is completely backing you, the court of enquiry has given you clean chit; officers have given statements in your favor, completely supporting you then is it just a political game? You have irritated a lot of politicians.
    Lt Col Purohit: It is for you to answer. For me my job is over, my fight is over.
    I was fighting for my papers from the army which they have given me. I have proved through these papers to everyone, whether someone wants to look into it or he doesn’t. It doesn’t matter to me.
    Ashish Singh: Sir, I have read a report which you have reported that Dawood was present in Mumbai, his connections and how was his movement?
    Lt Col Purohit: Yes. That’s what I am saying. I was doing my job
    Ashish Singh: What was it Sir? What did they suggest? One particular thing, I want to ask, who did you report to? What was that report? Do you remember, can you tell us exactly? Like when, where?
    Lt Col Purohit:  It was 2005, if I remember correctly, in the month of June 5th or 6th June and then it has come in papers, in 2011 then everyone accepted that yes he was there (in Mumbai) and he was acting as a pivot between ISI and Naxals.
    Ashish Singh: Colonel, are you telling me he (Dawood) was present in India (in 2005)?
    Lt Col Purohit: It is there in papers.
    Ashish Singh: But did the authorities act after that? Did anyone take your report seriously? Were you called?
    Lt Col Purohit: I can only say that when my reports reached at an appropriate level, they were verified and based on that I was called by ATS superintendent along with senior officers and the senior officers said that in the court of enquiry. When the reports were verified, probably they were found to be correct. That’s why we were invited.                                                                                                                                                                          

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    This monograph presents selected Jiroft or Halil Rud artefacts with Indus Script hypertexts and derives the meanings of the Meluhha hypertexts. 

    Meluhha is the parole (speech form), lingua franca of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization. 

    These readings of Jiroft hypertexts are premised on the suggested presence of Meluhha speakers of artisan guilds  in Halil Rud (Jiroft culture), as explorers for metal resources and producers of metal products to create wealth of their nation or janapada

    Jiroft culture and Harappa culture are cognates: an iconographic comparison reveals the deep roots of Indo-Iranian traditions. See notes on the arrival of Meluhha speakers in Indo-Iranian region: 


    When a hypertext is presented with a black drongo perched on a zebu (bos indicus), it is not necessary to posit a mythological narrative. Treating this as a hypertext of metaphors rendered rebus in Indus Script Meluhha provides a truthful framework for realizing the meanings of the signifier and the signified in the message. Hieroglyph: black drongo: పోలడు pōlaḍu rebus: पोलाद [ pōlādan ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) bulad'steel, flint and steel for making fire' (Amharic); lād'steel' (Arabic) The Prakritam gloss पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu' as hieroglyph is read rebus: pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide'; poliya 'citizen, gatekeeper of town quarter'. Thus, the black drongo perched on a zebu, bos indicus as a hypertext signifies: magnetite, ferrite ore and steel.

    This monograph is framed on an archaeometallurgical background to provide 'meanings' to the hypertexts and expands upon insights provided by the remarkable article by Massimo Vidale which appeared in 2015. Massimo Vidale elucidates the mythological framework of some vivid pictorial motifs. 

    This monograph provides a Meluhha reading of the hypertexts and deciphers the wealth-producing metalwork of artisans of Jiroft or Halil Rud Civilization which had deep interactions with the neighbour, Sarasvati-Sindhu or Meluhha civilization.

    In the Bronze Age, cultural hypertexts have travelled far into the Ancient Near East as evidenced by the following maps and images of cultural artefacts (Images from

    Hypertexts of Shahdad standard
    Related image
    Check the figuress of the flag in this picture! #shahdad #kerman #iran #historical #old #oldest #flag #metal #civilization #culture #boy #girl #animal #god #war #instaold #instapersia #instaakas #instadaily #igdaily
    “The shaft is set on a 135 mm high pyramidal base. The thin metal plate is a square with curved sides set in a 21 mm wide frame. On the plate there is a figure of a goddess sitting on a chair and facing forward. The goddess has a long face, long hair and round eyes. Her left hand is extended as if to take a gift…a square garden divided into ten squares. In the center of each square there is a small circle. Beside this garden there is a row of two date palm trees…Under this scene the figure of a bull flanked by two lions is shown…The sun appears between the heads of the goddess and, one of the women and it is surrounded by a row of chain decorative motives.” (Hakemi, Ali, 1997, Shahdad, archaeological excavations of a bronze age center in Iran, Reports and Memoirs, Vol. XXVII, IsMEO, Rome. 766 pp, p.271, p.649). The inscriptional evidence discovered at this site which is on the crossroads of ancient bronze age civilizations attests to the possibility of Meluhha settlements in Shahdad, Tepe Yahya and other Elam/Susa region sites. The evolution of bronze age necessitated a writing system -- the answer was provided by Indus writing using hieroglyphs and rebus method of rendering Meluhha (mleccha) words of Indian sprachbund.
    A metal flag found at Shahdad, one of eastern Iran's early urban sites, dates to around 2400 B.C. The flag depicts a man and woman facing each other, one of the recurrent themes in the region's art at this time. (Courtesy Maurizio Tosi) 
    Three pots are shown of three sizes in the context of kneeling adorants seated in front of the person seated on a stool. meṇḍā 'kneeling position' (Gondi) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Munda)

    eruvai 'kite' Rebus:eruvai 'copper'
    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'
    arya 'lion' (Akkadian) Rebus: Ara 'brass'
    kul, kOla 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'
    poLa 'zebu' Rebus: poLa 'magnetite'
    kōla = woman (Nahali) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five 
    metals, pañcaloha’ (Tamil) kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)
    kaṇḍō a stool. Malt. Kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnacealtar (Santali) Alternative: paṭa 'slab, turban, throne Rebus: फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons'

    If the date palm denotes tamar (Hebrew language), ‘palm tree, date palm’ the rebus reading would be: tam(b)ra, ‘copper’ (Pkt.)

    kuṭi ‘tree’. Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter’ (Santali). The two trees are shown ligatured to 

    a rectangle with ten square divisions and a dot in each square. The dot may 

    denote an ingot in a furnace mould.

    Hieroglyph: BHSk. gaṇḍa -- m. ʻ piece, part ʼ(CDIAL 3791)
    Hieroglyph: Paš. lauṛ. khaṇḍā ʻ cultivated field ʼ, °ḍī ʻ small do. ʼ (→ Par. kheṇ ʻ field ʼ IIFL i 265); Gaw. khaṇḍa ʻ hill pasture ʼ (see also bel.)(CDIAL 3792)
    Rebus: khaṇḍa 'implements'
     Santali glosses

    Glyph of rectangle with divisions: baṭai = to divide, share (Santali) [Note the 
    glyphs of nine rectangles divided.] Rebus: bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali) 

    ā= a branch of a tree (G.) Rebus: hāḷako = a large ingot (G.) ḍhāḷakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (G.)

    Three sets of entwined 'glyphs (like twisted ropes) are shown around the entire narrative of the  Shahdad standard.

    Twisted rope as hieroglyph:
    Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn.Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ)(CDIAL 6773).dauRA 'rope' rebus: dhAvaD 'smelter'

    Impression of cylinder seal from Gonur-1. "In this connection worthy of utmost attention is the impression of a cylinder seal on one of the Margianian vessels, found .... at Gonur. The central figure of a frequently repeated frieze composition is a standing nude anthropomorphic winged deity with an avian head holding two mountain goats by the legs...Such anthropomorphic winged and avian-headed deities are represented fairly fully in the glyptics and on the seals of Bactria.... These Bactrian images find the most impressive correspondence in Syro-Hittite glyptics...If the fact that it’s for the Mittani kingdom that the names of Aryan deities are evidenced is taken into account the importance of the Bactrian-Margianian images will become obvious in the light of solving the Aryan problem on the basis of new archaeological data." (Sarianidi,V., 1993, Margiana in the Ancient Orient. In IASCCA Information Bulletin, 19, pp. 5-28. Nauka.).
    Sarianidi notes that the conflict motif (involving an avian-headed person and animals) is recurrent at a number of BMAC contact areas to the west of Bactria upto Greece. The conflict motif on Indus script inscriptions do not show an avian-headed person, but perhaps a woman in conflict with two felines on either side of the person.

    Image result for vaulting over bison indus scriptm0312 Persons vaulting over a water buffalo. The water buffalo tosses a person on its horns. Four or five bodies surround the animal.

    Spread of the motif of acrobats jumping over bulls shown on objects from Bactria to Greece. Indus script does show a motif of men vaulting over a bovine (buffalo), but the artistic rendering are not exactly comparable to the acrobat motif of BMAC.
    The motifs on Indus seals (winged feline, conflict of a woman with two felines, rhinoceros, snakes, eagle (or, bird-in-flight), goat) have been decoded as hieroglyphs of Indian linguistic area related to metalworking trades.
    For example, rhinoceros is decoded as: baḍhia = a castrated boar, a hog; rebus: baḍhi ‘a caste who work both in iron and wood’; baḍhoe ‘a carpenter, worker in wood’; badhoria ‘expert in working in wood’(Santali) Thus, when an eagle is shown attacking rhinoceros, the motif can be read rebus: pajhar badhia = pasra badhoe, 'carpenter's workshop or workshop of an artisan working in wood and metal.'
    Amulets and seals made of soft stone and pierced lengthwise often have a swastika engraved on one side. (Sarianidi, V. I., Die Kunst des Alten Afghanistan, Leipzig, 1986, Abb. 100; Fig. 1 after Sarianidi, V. I., Bactrian Centre of Ancient Art, Mesopotamia, 12 / 1977, Fig. 59 / 18; Fig. Of inter-locked snakes after Sarianidi, V. I., Seal- Amulets of the Murghab Style, in: Kohl, Ph. L., ed., The Bronze Age Civilization of Central Asia, New York, 1981,
    Fig. 7.). Svastika is an Indus script hieroglyph.
    It would thus appear that the user of Indus script hieroglyphs on the Gonur Tepe inscriptions – showing eagle hieroglyphs, wings of falcon (seals/seal impressions) is describing the nature of metalworking he or she is engaged in. It would also appear that the explanations of the narratives in Rigveda and in Mesopotamian hieroglyphs (cf. Apkallu) are echoes of these metalworking activities of Indus artisans (smiths and mine-workers).

    Cult vessel from Togolok-1 temple.

    The cult vessel is found at Margiana and Bactria. Winged felines are found at Margiana and southwest of Afghanistan. Winged-feline is a motif found on Indus script objects and also on Nal pot (the site Nal has also yielded other Indus script objects).
    era female, applied to women only, and generally as a mark of respect, wife; hopon era a daughter; era hopon a man’s family; manjhi era the village chief’s wife; gosae era a female Santal deity; buḍhi era an old woman; era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman (Santali)
    erako = molten cast (G.) eraka, (copper) ‘metal infusion’; eraka ‘copper’ (Ka.)

    Seal of a Metal guild-master. Hieroglyph: śrēṣṭrī 'ladder' Rebus: seh ʻ head of a guild, Members of the guild (working with a furnace) are: blacksmith, turner, smelter, coppersmith, ironsmith (magnetite ore), Supercargo who is a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.

    sãgaḍ f. ʻa body formed of two or more fruits or animals or men &c. linked together' (Marathi). This gloss sãgaḍ as a body of written or pictorial material of hieroglyphs (voiced in Meluhha speech) can be used to create a ciphertext with elements of enhanced cyber-security encryptions. This ciphertext can be called: Hieroglyphmultiplextext. Rebus 1: sãgaḍ māṇi 'alloying adamantine glue, सं-घात caravan standard' -- vajra saṁghāṭa in archaeometallurgy, deciphered in Indus Script Corpora. Enhanced encryption cyber-security. Rebus 2: जांगड [jāṅgaḍa] ad Without definitive settlement of purchase--goods taken from a shop. जांगड [ jāṅgaḍa ] f ( H) Goods taken from a shop, to be retained or returned as may suit: also articles of apparel taken from a tailor or clothier to sell for him. 2 or जांगड वही The account or account-book of goods so taken.Rebud 3: sangaDa 'a cargo boat'. Rebus 4: sangaRh 'proclamation'.

    śrēṇikā -- f. ʻ tent ʼ lex. and mngs. ʻ house ~ ladder ʼ in *śriṣṭa -- 2, *śrīḍhi -- . -- Words for ʻ ladder ʼ see śrití -- . -- √śri]H. sainī, senī f. ʻ ladder ʼ; Si. hiṇi, hiṇa, iṇi ʻ ladder, stairs ʼ (GS 84 < śrēṇi -- ).(CDIAL 12685). Woṭ. Šen ʻ roof ʼ, Bshk. Šan, Phal. Šān(AO xviii 251) Rebus: seṇi (f.) [Class. Sk. Śreṇi in meaning “guild”; Vedic= row] 1. A guild Vin iv.226; J i.267, 314; iv.43; Dāvs ii.124; their number was eighteen J vi.22, 427; VbhA 466. ˚ -- pamukha the head of a guild J ii.12 (text seni -- ). — 2. A division of an army J vi.583; ratha -- ˚ J vi.81, 49; seṇimokkha the chief of an army J vi.371 (cp. Senā and seniya). (Pali)

    *śrētrī ʻ ladder ʼ. [Cf. śrētr̥ -- ʻ one who has recourse to ʼ MBh. -- See śrití -- . -- √śri]Ash. ċeitr ʻ ladder ʼ (< *ċaitr -- dissim. from ċraitr -- ?).(CDIAL 12720) *śrēṣṭrī2 ʻ line, ladder ʼ. [For mng. ʻ line ʼ conn. with √śriṣ2 cf. śrḗṇi -- ~ √śri. -- See śrití -- . -- √śriṣ2]Pk. sēḍhĭ̄ -- f. ʻ line, row ʼ (cf. pasēḍhi -- f. ʻ id. ʼ. -- < EMIA. *sēṭhī -- sanskritized as śrēḍhī -- , śrēṭī -- , śrēḍī<-> (Col.), śrēdhī -- (W.) f. ʻ a partic. progression of arithmetical figures ʼ); K. hēr, dat. °ri f. ʻ ladder ʼ.(CDIAL 12724) Rebus:  śrēṣṭhin m. ʻ distinguished man ʼ AitBr., ʻ foreman of a guild ʼ, °nī -- f. ʻ his wife ʼ Hariv. [śrḗṣṭha -- ]Pa. seṭṭhin -- m. ʻ guild -- master ʼ, Dhp. śeṭhi, Pk. seṭṭhi -- , siṭṭhi -- m., °iṇī -- f.; S. seṭhi m. ʻ wholesale merchant ʼ; P. seṭh m. ʻ head of a guild, banker ʼ, seṭhaṇ°ṇī f.; Ku.gng. śēṭh ʻ rich man ʼ; N. seṭh ʻ banker ʼ; B. seṭh ʻ head of a guild, merchant ʼ; Or. seṭhi ʻ caste of washermen ʼ; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. sēṭhi ʻ merchant, banker ʼ, H. seṭh m., °ṭhan f.; G. śeṭhśeṭhiyɔ m. ʻ wholesale merchant, employer, master ʼ; M.śeṭh°ṭhīśeṭ°ṭī m. ʻ respectful term for banker or merchant ʼ; Si. siṭuhi° ʻ banker, nobleman ʼ H. Smith JA 1950, 208 (or < śiṣṭá -- 2?)(CDIAL 12726)

    This denotes a mason (artisan) guild -- seni -- of 1. brass-workers; 2. blacksmiths; 3. iron-workers; 4. copper-workers; 5. native metal workers; 6. workers in alloys.

    The core is a glyphic ‘chain’ or ‘ladder’. Glyph: kaḍī a chain; a hook; a link (G.); kaḍum a bracelet, a ring (G.) Rebus: kaḍiyo [Hem. Des. kaḍaio = Skt. sthapati a mason] a bricklayer; a mason; kaḍiyaṇa, kaḍiyeṇa a woman of the bricklayer caste; a wife of a bricklayer (G.)

    The glyphics are:

    1.     Glyph: ‘one-horned young bull’: kondh ‘heifer’. kũdā‘turner, brass-worker’.

    2.     Glyph: ‘bull’: ḍhangra ‘bull’. Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’. koD 'horns' rebus: koD 'workshop'

    3.     Glyph: ‘ram’: meḍh ‘ram’. Rebus: meḍ ‘iron

    4.         Glyph: ‘antelope’: mr̤eka ‘goat’. Rebus: milakkhu ‘copper’. Vikalpa 1: meluhha ‘mleccha’ ‘copper worker’. Vikalpa 2: meṛh ‘helper of merchant’.

    5.         Glyph: ‘zebu’: khũ ‘zebu’. Rebus: khũṭ ‘guild, community’ (Semantic determinant of the ‘jointed animals’ glyphic composition). kūṭa joining, connexion, assembly, crowd, fellowship (DEDR 1882)  Pa. gotta ‘clan’; Pk. gotta, gōya id. (CDIAL 4279) Semantics of Pkt. lexeme gōya is concordant with Hebrew ‘goy’ in ha-goy-im (lit. the-nation-s). Pa. gotta -- n. ʻ clan ʼ, Pk. gotta -- , gutta -- , amg. gōya -- n.; Gau.  ʻ house ʼ (in Kaf. and Dard. several other words for ʻ cowpen ʼ > ʻ house ʼ: gōṣṭhá -- , Pr. gūˊṭu ʻ cow ʼ; S. g̠oṭru m. ʻ parentage ʼ, L. got f. ʻ clan ʼ, P. gotargot f.; Ku. N. got ʻ family ʼ; A. got -- nāti ʻ relatives ʼ; B. got ʻ clan ʼ; Or. gota ʻ family, relative ʼ; Bhoj. H. got m. ʻ family, clan ʼ, G. got n.; M. got ʻ clan, relatives ʼ; -- Si. gota ʻ clan, family ʼ ← Pa. (CDIAL 4279). Alternative: 

    adar ḍangra ‘zebu or humped bull’; rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.); ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.)
    6.     The sixth animal can only be guessed. Perhaps, a tiger (A reasonable inference, because the glyph ’tiger’ appears in a procession on some Indus script inscriptions. Glyph: ‘tiger?’: kol ‘tiger’.Rebus: kol ’worker in iron’. Vikalpa (alternative): perhaps, rhinocerosgaṇḍa ‘rhinoceros’; rebus:khaṇḍ ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’. Thus, the entire glyphic composition of six animals on the Mohenjodaro seal m417 is semantically a representation of a śrḗṇi, ’guild’, a khũ , ‘community’ of smiths and masons.
     bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' Also, baTa 'six' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace'.
    Meluhha or Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization

    Map showing the main sites of Middle Asia in the third millennium BC (whorls indicate the presence of Indus and Indus-like seals bearing multiple heads of different animals arranged in whirl-like motif).

    The hypertexts on the images of the following artefacts presented by Massimo Vidale are drawn from Indus Script Corpora and meanings presented with rebus renderings, consistent with the decipherment of about

    8000 inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora.

    1.zebu or bos indicus पोळ [pōḷa], 'zebu' as hieroglyph is read rebus: pōḷa, 'magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide'
    2. Black drongo perched on a zebu పోలడు pōlaḍu 'black drongo' rebus: पोलाद [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel.
    3. waterflow or waves kāṇḍa 'water' Rebus: khāṇḍā 'metalware, pots and pans, tools'. vanyāˊ (Pāṇ.gaṇa) f. ʻ heavy rain ʼ Kr̥ṣis.[vana -- 2 n. ʻ water ʼ Naigh., Kālid., vāna -- 3 n. ʻ tidal wave, boreʼ W. ~ vāˊr --] A. bān ʻ flood, abundance, swarm ʼ; Or. bāna ʻ tide, wave, flood ʼ.Addenda: vanyāˊ -- : B. bān ʻ flood ʼ. (CDIAL 11278) Rebus:bāṇá (bāˊṇa -- AV.) m. ʻ reed -- shaft, arrow ʼ RV. 2. vāṇá -- 1 m. ʻ arrow, pipe ʼ, vāṇīˊ -- f. ʻ reed ʼ RV. [Cf. *vāṇa -- 2. <-> Differing Austro -- as. sources suggested by J. Przyluski BSL xxv 56 and PMWS 34. -- → Par. bân&omacrtodtod;bânug ʻ arrow ʼ IIFL i 240]1. Pa. Pk. bāṇa -- m. ʻ arrow ʼ; Kal.rumb. buŕə̃ ʻ arrowhead ʼ; K. bān m. ʻ arrow ʼ, S. ḇāṇu m., L. P. bāṇ m., Ku.gng. bã̄&rtodtilde;ə, A. B. bān, Or. bāṇa (whence bāṇuā ʻ hunter ʼ), Bi. bān, OAw. bāna m., H. bān, m., G. bāṇ n., M. bāṇ m., Si. baṇa.2. P. vāṇ m. ʻ arrow ʼ.bāṇāsana -- ; *antarabāṇa -- .Addenda: bāṇa -- : WPah.kṭg. bāṇ m. ʻ arrow ʼ. (CDIAL 9203)
    6. markhor miṇḍāl 'markhor' (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati)(CDIAL 10120) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron' (Santali.Munda.Ho.)
    7. eagle eruvai 'eagle' rebus: eruvai 'copper'
    8. cobra hood फड, phaḍa 'cobra hood'  फड, phaḍa 'Bhāratīya arsenal of metal weapons' 
    9. woman/man kola 'woman' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolimi 'smithy, forge'. mē̃d, mēd 'body, womb, back' Hieroglyp to signify mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron (metal)’ (Munda), med 'copper (metal)' (Slavic)
    10.mountain range dhanga 'mountain range' Rebus: dhangar 'blacksmith'
    11. tiger kul ‘tiger’ (Santali); kōlu id. (Te.) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.)Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha — m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H.kolhā, °lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ, °lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā, °lā m. krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu — m. Pāṇ. [√kruś] Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka — and kotthu -- , °uka — m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. koṭṭhu — m.; Si. koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42 (CDIAL 3615). कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol ‘furnace, forge’ (Kuwi) kol ‘alloy of five metals, pañcaloha’ (Tamil) 
    12. sun  arka 'sun' rebus: arka, era 'copper'. mēḍha ] the polar star (Phonetic determinant); rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.); med 'copper' (Slavic)
    13. moon  kamar 'moon' rebus: kamar'blacksmith' (Santali)  OP. koṭhārī f. ʻ crucible' Rebus: kuṭhārī 'granary, room' (Hindi)
    14. door (temple entrance?) kole.l 'temple' rebus: kole.l 'smithy, forge'
    15. twisted rope dām 'rope (single strand or string?)', ̄u ʻtyingʼ, āv m. ʻdice-throwʼ rebus: dhāu 'ore'; dhāv 'string, dotted circle' rebus: dhāu'ore' dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelter. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 10317) rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Mu.Ho.); med 'copper' (Slavic)
    16. lion arye 'lion' (Akkadian) Rebus: arā 'brass'. 

    See: Locations of Konar Sandal, Shahdad, Tepe Yahya

    पोळa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' of Sarasvati Script corpora is rebus:pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian), fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto)

    See: South Asian Studies, 31:1, 2015, pp 144-154. 

    Rare White Marble Cylinder Seal from Jiroft

    April 13th, 2015

    Cylinder seal photograph courtesy of Halil Rud Archaeological Project. Paper first published in April 2015 in South Asian Studies.

    poa'zebu, bos indicus' rebus: poa'magnetite ferrite ore'

    Source of images: Massimo Vidale, 2015, Searching for mythological themes on the ‘Jiroft’ chlorite artefacts, in: Iranica Antiqua, Vol. L, 2015. pp. 15-59

    The Indus Civilization Through a Halil Rud Civilization Object

    [quote]A new paper (2016) by Denys Frenez and Massimo Vidale examines a curious artifact of the newly emerging Halil Rud civilization in Southeastern Iran contemporary with Harappan civilization that includes hallmarks of Indus iconography with notable twists. Translated Symbols. Reminiscences in a Carved Chlorite Artefact of the Halil Rud Civilization shows how much we are slowly beginning to learn about how Indus symbolism and belief systems intersected with the wider Near Eastern region, and suggest that there is so much to still be learned as future artifacts come to light. Two of the most and imaginative – and careful – archaeologists working on the region today offer another fascinating meditation on an object with multiple ramifications, while addressing the complexities of working with yet another looted object that is escaping the kind of analysis and study it deserves.
    Also summarizes what we know about the so-called Halil Rud civilization, which many suspect was the Marhashi/Parhashum civilization referred to in ancient texts but whose physical location seems to only have become apparent after the floods of 2001 in the Jiroft valley led to the exposure of thousands of ancient graves.

    1. Carved chlorite plaque of the Halil Rud civilization inspired to the Indus unicorn motif (size not available)
    2. Major sites of the Indus Civilization and other contemporaneous sites with commercial relations with the Indus Valley
    3. Main types of chlorite carved containers and other artifacts of the Halil Rud Civilization (courtesy Y. Madjidzadeh)
    4. Indus unicorn motif represented on stamp seals and amulets in steatite; b) Indus ritual 'filter' or 'standard' represented on stamp seals in steatite, miniature tablets and figurines in terracotta and ivory (courtesy A. Parpola and Harappa Archaeological Research Project) [unquote]

    Iranian Journal of Archaeological StudiesThe Function of a Chlorite Hand-Bag of the Halil Rud Civilization as Inferred from Its Wear Traces

    Article 1Volume 2, Issue 2, Winter 2012, Page 1-11 
    Document Type: Research Paper
    Massimo Vidale1Roberto Micheli2
    1Department of Cultural Heritage : Archaeology, History of Art, of Music and Cinema, University of Padua, Italy
    2Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trieste, Italy
    A chlorite “hand-bag” belonging to the once-called “intercultural style” production, currently on exhibit in the National Archaeological Museum, Tehran, is described focusing attention, for the first time, to the peculiar wear traces clearly visible on the handle and along its contour. The strong wear suggests that the hand-bag was suspended for a long time on a cord; and that in this setting it was gradually polished while rubbing against a soft surface, most probably a vertical one, covered with cloth. While this inference is based on a single object, and therefore is far from being granted, we propose that wear traces can provide a useful key for understanding the function of these peculiar objects. At a later stage of its life-cycle, the hand-bag was broken and restored with iron fittings and nails. As the edges of the great Iranian deserts are a favorable location for the recovery of iron-rich meteorites, we propose that the iron parts of the Tehran hand-bag should be analyzed to test the possible presence of rare metals like nikel, niobium and others, more abundant in meteorites than in terrestrial iron.
    Halil Rud CivilizationIntercultural StyleChlorite Hand-bagMeteoritic Iron

    Jiroft, Cradle Of Human Civilization In Iran?

    For centuries, Mesopotamia was thought to be the world's oldest civilization. This was generally accepted by most people until a 5,000-year old temple was discovered in Jiroft Historical Site in Iran's southern Kerman province, prompting archaeologists to identify the region as the world's oldest cradle of human civilization.

    Jiroft, cradle of human civilization in Iran?
    One of the mounds at Jiroft Historical Site 
    [Credit: Ali Shahryari]
    Jiroft has undergone different phases of archeological excavations since 2002. Although many valuable objects, including two clay inscriptions carrying the oldest human scripts, have been unearthed during authorized excavations in the region, many more such objects have been found by pillagers and smuggled abroad to become the centerpieces in museums across the world.

    Nader Alidad Soleimani, the manager of Jiroft's Cultural Heritage Site, has been studying the location for the past 20 years. He has greatly contributed to safeguarding the cultural and historical remains of Jiroft.

    Iran Daily conducted an interview with him to get detailed information about the ongoing studies.

    Excerpts follow:

    ID: Please explain the various phases of excavations that have been conducted in Jiroft.

    SOLEIMANI: The first phase of official archaeological studies was conducted during 2002-2007. The studies resumed in the region in 2014 after a seven-year pause. However, I have been exploring the Jiroft region since 1995, since I was aware of the historical importance of Jiroft, years before official studies began. Currently, the second season of excavations is underway in Esfandagheh Plains in Jiroft. The first season was completed last summer.

    Jiroft, cradle of human civilization in Iran?
    Excavations at site B - thought to be a citadel 
    [Credit: National Geographic]
    Valuable architectural items have been unearthed during the first and the second excavation seasons, including evidences of Neolithic settlement and the remnants of ancient buildings in red and yellow colors. In addition to archaeological excavations, the joint three-month research studies were conducted in collaboration with a delegation from German University of Tübingen International and Iranian experts during Feb. 20-May 20, 2015. The research yielded positive outcomes and raised our knowledge about the historical site.

    ID: American archaeologists have described Jiroft's excavations as the largest excavation projects of its kind ever conducted in the Middle East. The importance of Jiroft's human civilization has been accepted by French, British and Italian experts as well. Many experts also believe that if any important event were to occur in the field of archaeology within the next 50 years, it would definitely occur in Jiroft. Please tell us more about the geographic situation of Jiroft and its importance.

    SOLEIMANI: Many think that Jiroft is only a city with identifiable boundaries. This is while, when we talk of Jiroft we mean an extensive cultural field that once was thrived along Halilroud river. The river is situated in the southeast of Iran near Jiroft, Kerman province. The river, which extends for 390 kilometers, runs along the Jiroft and Kahnuj districts. It originates in Hazar mountains, some 3,300 meters above sea level and about 100 kilometers to the northwest of Jiroft, and flows to the southwest. Many historical hills have been located in this massive area, each providing valuable evidence of the cultural richness of the region. The region is host to various archeological teams every year.

    Jiroft, cradle of human civilization in Iran?
    An inscription found in archaeological excavations of Kerman Province near,Jiroft,  
    or the Halil Rud region of Iran, which dates back to the sixth millennium BC
     [Credit: Sciencepost]
    ID: Which countries are involved in the archaeological excavation project of Jiroft?

    SOLEIMANI: The US, France, Italy and, very recently, Germany have so far sent archaeological teams to Jiroft. Foreign archaeological teams can only work under the supervision of Iranian experts. Their activities are also limited.

    ID: Why are foreign teams needed for excavations?

    SOLEIMANI: Today, archaeology is regarded as an interdisciplinary field. Ancient Botany and Osteology are among the fields of study that have contributed to the development of global archaeology over the past few years. Such fields of study are not available in Iranian universities. Sometimes, they are available but domestic knowledge about them is poor. Theses shortcomings make the need for using the proficiency of foreign archaeologists greatly felt. Foreign experts engaged in excavations help train Iranian students, improve their knowledge, and contribute to the archaeological excavations.

    ID: Numerous illegal diggings have taken place in the region in the past, leading to the smuggling of many valuable items. What has the government done to address illegal pillagers or prevent such problems from recurring?

    SOLEIMANI: Illegal diggings have damaged Jiroft historical site over the years, leading to the smuggling of a great volume of valuable historical objects, which are now being kept at the world's prestigious museums. The Iranian government has taken effective steps for the repatriation of such objects. Eighteen artifacts, each dating back to 5,000 years were returned home four years ago thanks to  former government's efforts. The return of historical objects becomes a more complicated if they are owned by unknown private collectors or kept at private museums. Filing lawsuit against private collectors in international courts is a tougher job.

    ID:  How much money is allocated for archaeological projects annually?

    SOLEIMANI: An annual $10,000 is allocated by the government for archaeological excavations in Jiroft, which is meager given the extensive areas which have to be explored. An archaeological team consists of only six individuals and this is not enough for conducting excavations over such extensive areas. All the shortages pave the ground for looters, and increase the risk of illegal diggings. urrently, the digs are refilled on the completion of the projects so that the site and historical objects can be protected. This is while, a historical site, such as Jiroft, can also serve as an open-air museum. An open-air museum attracts so many visitors and contributes to the development of tourism sector as well.

    Author: Fatemeh Shokri & Atefeh Rezvan-Nia | Source: Iran Daily [August 04, 2015]

    Ancient Metal Relics Discovered In Jiroft
    Persian Journal ^ | 7-19-2006 

    Posted on 21/07/2006, 03:34:59 by blam
    Ancient Metal Relics Discovered in Jiroft
    Jul 19, 2006

    The police department of Jiroft succeeded in confiscating 41 metal relics belonging to the pre-historic and historic periods. The most ancient one is a Riton belonging to the third millennium BC. Riton is a kind of goblet with the head of an animal, usually in the shape of a lion, horse, ibex, or winged lion.

    "The police department of Jiroft found 41 bronze, copper, and silver relics. The most ancient one is a Riton with the head of a humped cow belonging to some 5000 years ago," said Nader Soleimani, archeologist from the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Department of Kerman province.
    According to Soleimani, a bronze dagger belonging to the first millennium BC with the design of an animal like crocodile is one of the other interesting relics in this collection. "The designs which can be seen on this dagger depict something like the crocodiles which still exist in south of Chabahar Port in Iran's Sistan va Baluchestan province. The person who came up with this design must have seen this animal closely to be able to put down such accurate pattern," added Soleimani.
    A bronze axe and a copper plaque engraved with a humped cow, an ibex and palm tree are the other discovered relics. "Such designs had already been seen in other parts of Jiroft on artifacts made with soapstone," said Soleimani.
    Soleimani also announced the existence of a small bronze vessel belonging to the third millennium BC with some geometrical designs, and also 24 antique coins belonging to different periods of Parthian, Sassanid, the beginning of Islamic, Seljuk, Ilkhanid, Safavid, and Qajar periods in this newly discovered collection.
    Jiroft historical site is located in Kerman province on the basin of Halil Rud River. Jiroft is known to be one of the most historical sites of the world which enjoyed a rich civilization in the third millennium BC. Over 100 historical sites have so far been identified along the bank of Halili-Rud River, extended for 400 kilometers.
    Lack of enough control over this historical site and unawareness of the public about its importance turned Jiroft into a paradise for illegal diggers, plundering a large number of ancient relics in this site. What happened in Jiroft is today known as one of the most tragic events in archeology. It was only after all these illegal excavations that the archeologists rushed to this area to study one of the most prominent historical sites in Iran which revealed much about one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. Some archeologists believe that more findings on the earliest civilization that lived in Jiroft will be a turning point in their current understanding of the history of civilization.

    "This threshold of history found in Jiroft is what is lost in the evolution course of the Mesopotamian civilization and is not that notable in that of Egypt. There are so many objects dating to this time found in the Halil-Rud Area, which can fill the gap in the formation and development course of the Jiroft civilization. Therefore, one can say that Jiroft is the capital of today's world archeology because it allows the archeologists to modify the previous theories on how people lived during that time. The part of history that was hidden in the strata of Iran's plateau is essential to rebuilding the base of world's history," these words were expressed by Jean Perrot, one of world's greatest archeologists who headed the French teams working in Iran from 1968 to 1978 and also attended the International Conference of Halil-Rud Civilization which was held in Jiroft from 1-3 February 2005.
    Up until now, some 4000 historical relics which had been unearthed during illegal excavations in Jiroft have been identified and confiscated by the police department.

    Halil-Rud Civilization: Shahdad

    Shahdad Halil-Rud Civilization تمدن هلیل رود- شهداد Ever since the excavations of Ali Hakemi at the site of Shahdad at the edge of the Dasht-I Lut, we have understood that the Bronze Age communities of the Iranian plateau played a central role in the greater ancient world system of exchange that connected all of the Middle East during the 3rd millennium BC. When published in comprehensive form, Hakimi’s results, combined with Tal-I Iblis and Yahya, allowed us to begin to sketch picture of long distance interaction that began with the arrival of the proto- Elamites into the region around 3000 BC and intensified for a millennium before it faded in response to environmental challenges. With additional data coming from the recent excavation at the sites of Konar Sandal South and North in the Halil River Valley, we can now begin to construct a picture of interaction that puts the region of Kerman as a central nexus of interaction in all directions. (Pittman 2011) Prehistoric Shahdad was a major Bronze Age centre discovered at the edge of the Dasht-e-Lut in 1968. From that point up until the early 1970s, the late professor ALI HAKEMI of the Archaeological Institute of Iran supervised intensive excavations at Shahdad over seven consecutive seasons, revealing extensive evidence for a sophisticated civilization using a range of elite artifacts, elaborate metalwork technology, complex burial practices and archaic pictographs. In many ways, the late 1960s and 1970s were a truly pioneering period for the archaeology of southeast Iran, and work at sites like Shahdad, Tal-e Iblis, and Tepe Yahya revolutionized our understanding of Iran in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. Since the publication of the monumental volume “SHAHDAD - Archaeological Excavations of a Bronze Age Center in Iran” by ISMEO in 1997, there have been several major books published on the archaeology of southeast Iran, and extensive new excavations at several mound sites, including Konar Sandal at Jiroft in the Halil Rud plain. Five Linear Elamite texts inscribed on metal vessels (W, X, Y, Z and A’) have been recently ‘published’. Through their comparison with the susian Linear Elamite documents corpus, they permit to identify several graphical variants for the same sign. This consideration about graphical variations in Linear Elamite writing gives a better understanding of the only inscription (S) found up to now in Shahdad. Then will be particularly examined the sign probably used to note down the sound in, for which ‘occidental’ variations (in Susa and Marv Dasht plain), different from ‘oriental’ ones (in Shahdad and Konar Sandal), have been identified. ( Desset, 2011) We sampled a small collection of copper working indicators (slag, crucibles, kiln linings, possibly ore fragments) from 4th and 3rd millennium BCE settlement areas of Shahdad. These finds were investigate by the means of XRD, SEM and metallographic analysis, providing preliminary information on the type of metallurgical processes carried out in the site and their changes in time.( Vidale, 2011) Southeast of Iran especially Kerman region has played an important role during the fourth and third millennium BC due to its rich Mines. The most important metallurgical analysis is Hakemi’s work, which have been carried out on Shahdad samples. He has analyzed these samples through AAS, EDAX, SEM and XRFS. Results of his analyses show that high percentage of the coppers in the Shahdad objects testify that craftsmen of Shahdad had not alloyed copper and tin during the 4th and 3rd millennium BC; however a few samples showed that they might have been aware to alloy copper and tin. ( Mortazavi, 2011) The finds of objects made of a special type of coralline limestone are distributed over a vast area that extends from the Persian Gulf and the eastern Iranian Plateau to Mesopotamia. While two manufacturing areas of this stone have been recently identified at Shahdad (see the related paper of Vidale, Desset, Pignatti and Conti), a group of such objects found in excavations at Tello (ancient Girsu) and bearing dedicatory inscriptions of rulers of the so-called Second Dynasty of Lagash, or of high-ranking officials in their service, attest to trade relationships between the independent city-state of Lagash and the East (possibly the area of Shahdad) throughout several generations. These objects are also remarkable in that they represent a unique class of prestige goods and votive artefacts: indeed, in Mesopotamia, they are almost exclusively found at Lagash and for a relatively short period of time. An argument is presented that the ancient name of the stone of which they were made was pirig-gùnu, "spotted lion," that is "leopard spotted stone" - a name that recalls one of the animal symbols par excellence in the Iranian art of the third millennium BC. (Marchesi, 2011) Between 1967 and 1970 three sites in Eastern Iran, Shahdad, Shahr-i Sokhta, Tepe Yahya, contributed to open a new perspective on the emergence of civilization in the Ancient Orient filling the geographic gap between the Near East and the Indian Subcontinent, proving that political complexity and economic wealth had been equally shared by the all agricultural heartlands east of Mesopotamia. While trade circuits and exchange networks did connect desert highlands and alluvial floodplains in a mosaic of polities culturally linked in spite of the autarchic structure of their economies. (Tosi, 2011)

    1. Jiroft. Antelope, snake, tiger. ranku 'antelope', 'liquid measure'; read rebus: ranku 'tin'. kol = tiger (Santali) kol ‘pancaloha, alloy of five metals (Ta.) na_ga `serpent' (Sanskrit) na_ga `lead' (Sanskrit)

    pōḷa dhā̆vaḍ sãgaṛh 'fortified settlement of magnetite steel, ore workers' signified by Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs

    --Hieroglyphs पोळ pōḷa 'zebu'& pōlaḍu 'black drongo' signify polad 'steel';  saggeḍa 'cup' signifies sãgaṛh 'fortified settlement'; samghāta 'adamantine glue or hard metallic cement'

    --Evidence from Nahal Mishmar, Jiroft, Halil Rud, Konar Sandal Ancient Near East (Sarasvati Civilization contact areas of Bronze Age, 3rd millennium BCE)

    It is remarkable that Meluhha artisans had attained in 3rd millennium BCE the metallurgical competence to formulate adamantine glue (vajra) or hard metallic cement.

    Massimo Vidale et al have provided remarkable archaeological narratives from Konar Sandal and Halil Rud (Helmand): (Konar Sandal)