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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Raoul Pal, Paying Attention

     
    MARCH 29, 2017
    When my friend Raoul Pal – mastermind of Global Macro Investor and partners with Grant Williams in Real Vision TV – has something to say, my ears perk up. And when he leads off a piece this way, I am ALL ears:
    I’m going to blow your mind with this following article. My mind is still reeling from my discovery and from writing this piece.
    Turns out he’s talking about India, and more specifically, about recent advances in that nation’s technological infrastructure.
    (I)t is very rare indeed that a country develops an outsized technological infrastructure breakthrough that leaves the rest of the world far behind.
    But exactly this has just happened in India... and no one noticed.
    And Raoul wastes no time in telling us the implications of this development:
    India is now the most attractive major investment opportunity in the world.
    That’s quite a statement. So rather than tease his insight, I’ll just let Raoul make his case.
    It is this sort of “How did you find that?” idea that Raoul is known for. He writes one of the most expensive macroeconomic letters in the world, and his subscriber list is short and extremely exclusive.
    I first met Raoul maybe seven years ago in a small private hedge fund gathering to which he gave a presentation. We stayed in contact and begin to find ourselves together at various events, often ending up on panels and stages together. Raoul has become a good friend. Shane and I have been lucky enough to stay with him at his home on Little Cayman Island (total population 100 residents, with one bar and a few small hotels that cater to the serious scuba diving community. It is the ultimate libertarian paradise – no government! When something has to happen in the community, they simply get together at the bar, decide who’s going to pay for what, and get on with it.
    Raul comes up with more unique ideas per year than any man I know. What’s fascinating is that he comes up with an idea and then you begin to see it filtering into the trading/hedge fund community.
    This year at the Strategic Investment Conference, Raoul has agreed to let me utilize him a great deal more than in the past. Not only is he presenting with Grant Williams (a killer duo last year) but he will also be moderating and participating in a few panels. When you come to the conference (surely you are coming to the conference), you want to make sure to spend some time getting to know Raoul.
    And with that, I’m going to dive back into my own research and see if I can come up with a few more ideas worthy of your attention. Maybe not mind-blowing, but hopefully worth your time. Have a great rest of the week, and we’ll touch base again this weekend.
    Your just trying to keep up analyst,
    John Mauldin, Editor
    Outside the Box
    "Must See" Research Directly from John Mauldin to You
    Be the best-informed person in the room
    with your very own risk-free trial of Over My Shoulder.
    Join John Mauldin's private readers’ circle, today.

    India

    By Raoul Pal
    March 2017
    I’m going to blow your mind with this following article. My mind is still reeling from my discovery and from writing this piece.
    Let me enlighten you...
    Companies that create massively outsized technological breakthroughs tend to capture the investing population’s attention and thus their share prices trade at huge multiples, as future growth and future revenues are extrapolated into the future.
    From time to time, entire countries re-model their economies and shift their growth trajectory. The most recent example was the liberalisation of China’s economy and massive spending on infrastructure, which together created an incredibly powerful force for growth over the last two decades.
    But it is very rare indeed that a country develops an outsized technological infrastructure breakthrough that leaves the rest of the world far behind.
    But exactly this has just happened in India... and no one noticed.
    India has, without question, made the largest technological breakthrough of any nation in living memory.
    Its technological advancement has even left Silicon Valley standing. India has built the world’s first national digital infrastructure, leaping at least two generations of financial technologies and has built something as important as the railroad was to the UK or the interstate highways were to the US.
    India is now the most attractive major investment opportunity in the world.
    It’s all about something called Aadhaar and a breathtakingly ambitious plan with flawless execution.
    What just blows my mind is how few people have even noticed it. To be honest, writing the article last month was the first time I learned about any of the developments. I think this is the biggest emerging market macro story in the world.

    Phase 1 – The Aadhaar Act

    India, pre-2009, had a massive problem for a developing economy: nearly half of its people did not have any form of identification. If you were born outside of a hospital or without any government services, which is common in India, you don’t get a birth certificate. Without a birth certificate, you can’t get the basic infrastructure of modern life: a bank account, driving license, insurance or a loan. You operate outside the official sector and the opportunities available to others are not available to you. It almost guarantees a perpetuation of poverty and it also guarantees a low tax take for India, thus it holds Indian growth back too.
    Normally, a country such as India would solve this problem by making a large push to register more births or send bureaucrats into villages to issues official papers (and sadly accept bribes in return). It would have been costly, inefficient and messy. It probably would have only partially worked.
    But in 2009, India did something that no one else in the world at the time had done before; they launched a project called Aadhaar which was a technological solution to the problem, creating a biometric database based on a 12-digit digital identity, authenticated by finger prints and retina scans.
    Aadhaar became the largest and most successful IT project ever undertaken in the world and, as of 2016, 1.1 billion people (95% of the population) now has a digital proof of identity. To understand the scale of what India has achieved with Aadhaar you have to understand that India accounts for 17.2% of the entire world’s population!
    But this biometric database was just the first phase...

    Phase 2 – Banking Adoption

    Once huge swathes of the population began to register on the official system, the next phase was to get them into the banking system. The Government allowed the creation of eleven Payment Banks, which can hold money but don’t do any lending. To motivate people to open accounts, it offered free life insurance with them and linked bank accounts to social welfare benefits. Within three years more than 270 million bank accounts were opened and $10bn in deposits flooded in.
    People who registered under the Aadhaar Act could open a bank account just with their Aadhaar number.

    Phase 3 – Building Out a Mobile Infrastructure

    The Aadhaar card holds another important benefit – people can use it to instantly open a mobile phone account. I covered this in detail last month but the key takeaway is that mobile phone penetration exploded after Aadhaar and went from 40% of the population to 79% within a few years...
    The next phase in the mobile phone story will be the rapid rise in smart phones, which will revolutionise everything. Currently only 28% of the population has a smart phone but growth rates are close to 70% per year.
    In July 2016, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), which administers Aadhaar, called a meeting with executives from Google, Microsoft, Samsung and Indian smartphone maker Micromax amongst others, to talk about developing Aadhaar compliant devices.
    Qualcomm is working closely with government authorities to get more Aadhaar-enabled devices onto the market and working with customers – including the biggest Android manufacturers – to integrate required features, such as secure cameras and iris authentication partners.
    Tim Cook, CEO of Apple, recently singled out India as a top priority for Apple.
    Microsoft has also just launched a lite version of Skype designed to work on an unstable 2G connection and is integrated with the Aadhaar database, so video calling can be used for authenticated calls.
    This rise in smart, Aadhaar compliant mobile phone penetration set the stage for the really clever stuff...

    Phase 4 – UPI – A New Transaction System

    But that is not all. In December 30th 2016, Indian launched BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money) which is a digital payments platform using UPI (Unified Payments Interface). This is another giant leap that allows non-UPI linked bank accounts into the payments system. Now payments can be made from UPI accounts to non-UPI accounts and can use QR codes for instant payments and also allows users to check bank balances.
    While the world is digesting all of this, assuming that it is going to lead to an explosion in mobile phone eWallets (which is happening already), the next step is materializing. This is where the really big breakthrough lies...
    Payments can now be made without using mobile phones, just using fingerprints and an Aadhaar number.
    Fucking hell. That is the biggest change to any financial system in history.
    What is even more remarkable is that this system works on a 2G network so it reaches even the most remote parts of India!! It will revolutionise the agricultural economy, which employs 60% of the workforce and contributes 17% of GDP. Farmers will now have access to bank accounts and credit, along with crop insurance.
    But again, that is not all... India has gone one step further...

    Phase 5 – India Stack – A Digital Life

    In 2016, India introduced another innovation called India Stack. This is a series of secured and connected systems that allows people to store and share personal data such as addresses, bank statements, medical records, employment records and tax filings and it enables the digital signing of documents. This is all accessed, and can be shared, via Aadhaar biometric authentication.
    Essentially, it is a secure Dropbox for your entire official life and creates what is known as eKYC: Electronic Know Your Customer.    
    Using India Stack APIs, all that is required is a fingerprint or retina scan to open a bank account, mobile phone account, brokerage account, buy a mutual fund or share medical records at any hospital or clinic in India. It also creates the opportunity instant loans and brings insurance to the masses, particularly life insurance. All of this data can also in turn be stored on India Stack to give, for example, proof of utility bill payment or life insurance coverage.
    What is India Stack exactly?
    India Stack is the framework that will make the new digital economy work seamlessly.
    It’s a set of APIs that allows governments, businesses, startups and developers to utilise a unique digital infrastructure to solve India’s hard problems towards presence-less, paperless and cashless service delivery.
    • Presence-less: Retina scan and finger prints will be used to participate in any service from anywhere in the country.
    • Cashless: A single interface to all the country’s bank accounts and wallets.
    • Paperless: Digital records are available in the cloud, eliminating the need for massive amount of paper collection and storage.
    • Consent layer: Give secured access on demand to documents.
    India Stack provides the ability to operate in real time, transactions such as lending, bank or mobile account opening that usually can take few days to complete are now instant.
    As you can see, Smart phones will act as key to access the kingdom.
    This is fast, secure and reliable; this is the future...
    This revolutionary digital infrastructure will soon be able to process billions more transactions than bitcoin ever has. It may well be a bitcoin killer or at best provide the framework for how blockchain technology could be applied in the real world. It is too early to tell whether other countries or the private sector adopts blockchain versions of this infrastructure or abandons it altogether and follows India’s centralised version.
    India Stack is the largest open API in the world and will allow for massive fintech opportunities to be built around it. India is already the third largest fintech centre but it will jump into first place in a few years. India is already organizing hackathons to develop applications for the APIs.
    It has left Silicon Valley in the dust.

    Phase 6 – A Cash Ban

    The final stroke of genius was the cash ban, which I have also discussed at length in the past. The cash ban is the final part of the story. It simply forces everyone into the new digital economy and has the hugely beneficial side-effect of reducing everyday corruption, recapitalising the banking sector and increasing government tax take, thus allowing India to rebuild its crumbling infrastructure...
    India was a cash society but once the dust settles, cash will account for less than 40% of total transactions in the next five years. It may eliminate cash altogether in the next ten years.
    The cash ban digitizes India. No other economy in the world is even close to this.

    Phase 7 – The Investment Opportunity

    Everyone thinks they know about the Indian economy – crappy infrastructure, corruption, bureaucracy and antiquated institutions but with a massively growing middle class. Well, that is the narrative and has been for the last 15 years.
    But that phase is over and no one noticed. So few people in the investment community or even Silicon Valley are even vaguely aware of what has happened in India and that has created an enormous investment opportunity.
    The future for India is massive technological advancement, a higher trend rate of GDP and more tax revenues. Tax revenues will fund infrastructure – ports, roads, rail and healthcare. Technology will increase agricultural productivity, online services and manufacturing productivity.
    Telecom, banking, insurance and online retailing will boom, as will the tech sector.
    Nothing in India will be the same again.
    FDI is already exploding and will rise massively in the years ahead as technology giants and others pour into India to take advantage of the opportunity...
    I am long the telco sector (Bharti)...
    And I am long the Nifty Banks Index...
    I think India is going to offer an entire world of opportunity going forwards.
    If I can sum up, it’s in this one chart: the SENSEX in US Dollars. It looks explosive for the next 10 years...
    Incredible India indeed.
    ***Hot off the press***
    I decided to test the waters on Twitter on Sunday and Monday to find out how many non-Indians were aware of India Stack/Aadhaar. I have 24,000 followers on Twitter, many of which are you guys, and hosts of others heavily engaged in financial markets i.e. it’s a decent data sample.
    In the 12 hours since the survey began, around 900 people have responded. It appears that 90% of the investment world knows absolutely nothing about the biggest IT project ever accomplished and have never even heard of it.
    Now, that is an informational edge.

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    The biggest technological revolution which has been absorbed seamlessly by Bhāratam Janam is the cellphone.

    The cellphone has not only overcome the last-mile problem faced by the landline network, but has made the technology accessible even to a vegetable vendor.

    When President Bill Clinton visited India, he reportedly asked: 'what is the propaganda machinery which makes over 50 million people assemble at a given place at a given time for a dip in the sacred Ganga?'

    Little did he know that every vegetable vendor among Bhāratam Janam keeps a calendar. She knows the next amāvāsya day and delivers pumpkins at doorsteps of customers to ward off the evil eye.

    Today that vegetable vendor not only uses the cellphone but knows how to reduce the phone charges by asking her customers to leave a 'missed call' because incoming calls are NOT charged in the Indian system of billing.

    What have mobile application developers done to help that vegetable vendor?

    I suggest that the following applications should be developed and loaded for free on every cellphone of every vegetable vendor:

    1. The day's morning prices in the wholesale vegetable market of popular vegetables and fruits
    2. News reports about delays if any in delivery trucks reaching wholesale markets (e.g. news reports of strikes or agitations by trucking companies)

    I am sure the youth among Bhāratam Janam will also develop mobile applications for other specific uses and specific users:

    1. Mobile app on weather conditions in the Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea alerting the seagoing fishermen and fisherwomen
    2. Mobile app transmitting satellite images of fish schools detected in the oceans encircling Bhāratam so that the fishing trawlers can focus on the specified locations with precise GPS indicators

    One application I have suggested is the adoption of the opensource code of Stellarium and create a Veda Stellarium to provide a daily calendar on a cellphone. This calendar should indicate the key panchanga info such as tithi, nakshatra and planetary skymap for any desired date. The propaganda machinery which Bill Clinton learnt about can be strengthened by declaring on the app the the next Kumbha Mela date in Prayag so that all pilgrims from the world over can gather in Prayag.

    (The need for adaptation of opensource Stellarium is this: Stellarium shows names of planets/stars using Latin names. The skymap output should show Veda names of planets and nakshatras. This means a simple concordance list of Latin names and Samskrtam names of planets/comets and stars of the constellation).

    NaMo, I request you to announce special prizes for mobile app developers who develop the Veda Stellarium type mobile applications and other applications useful to specific categories of Bhāratam Janam to help pursue their life-activities with accurate and timely information which a cellphone is supposed to provide.

    Namaskaram.

    Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center

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    The Honorable Paul Hellyer, Canada's former Minister of Defense has recorded this address, which gets to the heart of the truth of how power works in the world. Hellyer has been around the block, at a very hale and hearty 93 years
    old. Here are some choice words from this powerful announcement:
    "The United States and much of the Western world is ultimately controlled by an unelected, unaccountable cabal. Its apex is the banking and financial cartel,
    followed by the oil cartel, the CEOs of the largest and most powerful transnational corporations, major intelligence agencies, including the
    CIA, the FBI, the NSA and a major slice of the US military.
    "Their collective power and influence is incalculable and it is their plan for
    the US and the rest of us that is so alarming. Their plan is an empire
    greater in size and power than any empire before it. They call this the
    "New World Order", which ironically is the same name Hitler used for
    the smaller empire he imagined.

    "One sure thing: the New World Order will end all pretense of government of 
    "By and For the People". It will be a dictatorship of by and for a small
    minority of the rich and privileged elite. Much of its power lies in the
    privately-owned banking system. Why monarchs and politicians allowed the
    private cartel to become the monopoly supplier of new money, we will never
    know but this power is almost absolute and can determine the fate of nations
    and their people.
    "A system, where nearly all money is  created as debt - and debt that has to
    be repaid with interest - but where  noone creates any money, with which
    to pay the interest. It's a dead end that  leaves debtors with no alternative but
    to borrow the money to pay the interest  and go deeper and deeper into debt.
    It's so wild the absurd, that a grade 10  student would only need a few minutes
    to recognize it as one giant Ponzi  scheme!
    "Banks can invest five million dollars  and leverage it to create one hundred
    million dollars in loans that have to be repaid with interest. In effect, they
    skim ninety-five percent off the top of  every loan that is the reason I called
    them the 'Money Mafia'. Monetary is the most urgent of all essential reforms..."

    Video: (30 mins):

    Disturbing Message to All Americans from Former Defense Minister of Canada



    http://forbiddenknowledgetv.net/disturbing-message-to-all-americans-from-former-defense-minister-of-canada/


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IWfKfuuj6Jo  Disturbing Message To All Americans From Ex Defense Minister Of Canada
      

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    Pentagon Pictures Detail The Results Of Trump’s Devastating Attack On Syria’s Airbase [PICTURES]

    Photo of Russ Read




    Pentagon has released several aerial surveillance photos that detail the extensive damage done to a Syrian air base after President Donald Trump’s strike Thursday night. The photos detail the aftermath of the strike, which included 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles, pointing out particular impact craters and destroyed targets at the Syrian government’s al-Shayrat airbase.
    The U.S. air strike on Syria targeted several hangars. Source: U.S. Department of Defense
    Based on the pictures, it appears the strike specifically targeted the base’s aircraft shelters, which housed the planes reportedly responsible for Tuesday’s chemical weapons attack on civilians in Syria’s northwestern Idlib province. An estimated 72 people were killed in the sarin attack, while possibly hundreds sustained injuries.
    A second view of the craters and destruction at the air base. Source: U.S. Department of Defense
    The Tomahawk missiles used in the attack were launched by two Arleigh Burke class destroyers, the USS Ross and USS Porter, located in the eastern Mediterranean. The missiles were timed to strike the airbase within one minute of each other.
    The airstrikes targeted aircraft believed to have been used to drop sarin gas on civilians in Syria’s Idlib province. Source: U.S. Department of Defense
    Several videos and pictures taken at the scene of the attack show that the strike appeared to be highly successful in destroying many, if not all, of the aircraft located at the base. The Pentagon’s initial battle damage assessment report found that damage to the base was extensive.


    “We are assessing the results of the strike.  Initial indications are that this strike has severely damaged or destroyed Syrian aircraft and support infrastructure and equipment at Shayrat Airfield, reducing the Syrian Government’s ability to deliver chemical weapons,” said Navy Capt. Jeff Davis, the Pentagon’s spokesman, in a statement Thursday.


    Read more: http://dailycaller.com/2017/04/07/pentagon-pictures-detail-the-results-of-trumps-devastating-attack-on-syrias-airbase-pictures/#ixzz4ddveZGBW


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06F2TpHQzNs

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    Monsanto sneaks in banned GM seeds

    Monsanto is doggedly pushing GM seeds in India despite the spectacular collapse of Bt Cotton
     

    Monsanto sneaks in GM seeds in India

    Agriculture multinational, Monsanto, that is doggedly pushing Genetically Modified (GM) seeds in India despite the spectacular collapse of Bt Cotton, has been fraudulently introducing Round-Up resistant GMO Cotton in a number of States, without the knowledge and approval of the statutory bodies, most notably the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC). The affected States include Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Gujarat.
    RRF is Bt cotton with the addition of a herbicide-resistant gene, which has specifically been banned by the Supreme Court.                Monsanto is aggressively marketing its products in the hope of securing a post-facto approval, as when it entered India in 1995 and marketed Bt Cotton and lobbied the then government for approval, which it secured in 2002. Environmental activist, Vandana Shiva, had then gone to the Supreme Court, but the case was closed when Monsanto managed to secure government approval for Bollgard-I Bt Cotton. Recently, confident of managing approval for GM-Mustard with the help of a vocal lobby, it planned a merger with Bayer (which was buying it out); share prices began to rise when the Competition Commission of India put a spanner in the works.
    The discovery of Round-Up resistant Cotton has been scientifically validated by the Central Institute for Cotton Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Maharashtra, which tested samples of seed-cotton from nine fields of seven villages in Nagpur district. All tested positive for Bollgard-II and EPSPS, Round-Up-Ready-Flex (RRF).
    Further, seeds from the samples were subjected to 270 tests (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab) and found positive, barring a handful. RRF is Bt cotton with the addition of a herbicide-resistant gene, which has specifically been banned by the Supreme Court.
    Enraged at Monsanto habitually bypassing the mandatory screening and scientific processes before releasing new forms in agriculture, and getting them approved post facto, the RSS think tank, Swadeshi Jagran Manch, and leading environment organisation, Navdanya (of Vandana Shiva), have urged Prime Minister Narendra Modi to order a criminal investigation into the matter and ban Monsanto from operating in India, after exacting fines and due compensation for the damage done to farmers whose soil has been contaminated.
    India regulates GM crops under The Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous micro-organisms, Genetically engineered organisms or cells, issued under sections 6, 8 and 25 of the EPA.
    On World Health Day (7 April) it is pertinent to point out that Round-Up, a glyphosate-based herbicide, has been declared a “probable carcinogen” by the World Health Organisation; it is banned in several European countries in all forms and combinations. Sri Lanka banned glyphosate after over 20,000 people died and two lakh experienced kidney failure in a short period. Scientists linked the deaths directly to the use of this herbicide.
    RRF Bt Cotton represents a major health hazard for citizens as well as the soil which, once contaminated, could infect other crops grown in the same fields. SJM co-convener, Ashwani Mahajan, says Round-Up is highly toxic and is known to cause cancer, kidney failure, autism, DNA damage, and even disrupts the endocrine system. Argentina has seen a sharp rise in birth defects, cancers, kidney failures, infertility and other diseases due to unchecked use of Round-Up.
    Vandana Shiva says GM crops do not have higher yields or better nutrition. In fact, they render the soil dead, destroy biodiversity and cause death and diseases in plants, animals and human beings. Monsanto has deceived Indian farmers and the Government by illegally introducing RRF Bt Cotton, and must be brought to account for its reckless profiteering.

    Indian agriculture rests on biodiversity. The Indian farmer harvests and uses every bit of biodiversity, from the grass on the boundaries of farms to feed cows, to eating seasonal green leafy vegetables. Round-up will not only kill all this biodiversity, but will bequeath cancer to farmers and consumers, besides robbing India of food self-sufficiency and ruining the food culture of millions of rural Indians.
    This is why the Technical Expert Committee of the Supreme Court had concluded that Herbicide-tolerant crops should not be allowed in India as they kill all plants. In a land of rich biodiversity, they can destroy the food security and livelihood of small farmers. Herbicide-resistant traits can also contaminate crops of which India is a centre of Diversity.
    Since its entry in 1995, Monsanto has extracted Rs 7000 crore from poor cotton farmers and is directly responsible for pushing farmers into debt and suicide. Since 1995, over 3,10,000 farmers have committed suicide, most of which are from the cotton belt of India.
    India regulates GM crops under The Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous micro-organisms, Genetically engineered organisms or cells, issued under sections 6, 8 and 25 of the EPA. These permissions mandate Monsanto to ensure that there is no escape of genetically modified seeds into the environment.
    It is, therefore, shocking that Monsanto released Round-Up-Ready-Flex (RRF Bt Cotton) seeds across lakhs of acres in various districts of Gujarat, Odisha, Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. It seems to have released RRF trait after transferring it into several local varieties, to induce farmers to grow herbicide resistant cotton so as to sell the herbicide Round-Up in large quantities. This is a prelude to pressure the Government/GEAC to approve the RRF trait on grounds that it is popular with cotton farmers.

    The release of seeds with unapproved genetically modified traits in vast areas of important cotton-growing States violates various provisions of the Environment Protection Act and is punishable under Section 15 of the EPA. Monsanto must be investigated for such serious breach of conditions they are supposed to adhere to while handling hazardous micro organisms and genetically modified traits. It must also be made to pay fines to clean the environment from the pollution caused by the unauthorised release of RRF trait in cotton, which could run into thousands of crores of rupees.
    Monsanto should also be charged under relevant sections of the Biodiversity Act which has been violated, as in the case of Bt Brinjal, as it has used Indian cotton Germplasm without the approval of the Biodiversity Authority to transfer trait and released them into the environment. India with its rich biodiversity does not need GM crops; however, those committed to the claims of this fraudulent science should first develop a robust and independent biosafety assessment system to evaluate and monitor the same.
    Sandhya JainSandhya Jain Sandhya Jain is a writer of political and contemporary affairs. A post graduate in Political Science from the University of Delhi, she is a student of the myriad facets of Indian civilisation. Her published works include Adi Deo Arya Devata. A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa, 2004; and Evangelical Intrusions. Tripura: A Case Study, Rupa, 2009. She has contributed to other publications, including a chapter on Jain Dharma in “Why I am a Believer: Personal Reflections on Nine World Religions,” ed. Arvind Sharma, Penguin India, 2009.

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    A cipher NEED NOT be a secret. It is simply a substitution method. In this case, the script is mlecchita vikalpa, a substitution by mleccha 'copper' workers.

    The substitution is simple. Two homonyms are signified: one in cipher text by a hieroglyph/hypertext with hieroglyph components and the second in plain text by a Meluhha (mleccha) word or expression. It is as simple as Nar-Mer substitution in Egyptian hieroglyphs. 

    So, the cognitive issue is not a hurdle. Any meluhha speaker or meluhha translator (like Shu ilishu) would have seen and understood the substitution method INSTANTLY.

    Image result for shu ilishu cylinder seal
    The rollout of Shu-ilishu's Cylinder seal. Courtesy of the Department des Antiquites Orientales, Musee du Louvre, Paris.
    The cuneiform text reads: Shu-Ilishu EME.BAL.ME.LUH.HA.KI (interpreter of Meluhha language). Apparently, the Meluhhan is the person carrying the antelope on his arms. I suggest that the antelope is a hieroglyph which signifies 'mleccha, meluhha' 

    Hieroglyph: antelope: Ka. mēke she-goat;  the bleating of sheep or goats. Te. mē̃ka, mēka goat. Kol. me·ke id. Nk. mēke id. Pa. mēva, (S.) mēya she-goat. Ga. (Oll.) mēge, (S.) mēge goat. Go. (M) mekā, (Ko.) mēka id. ? Kur. mēxnā (mīxyas) to call, call after loudly, hail. Malt. méqe to bleat. [Te. mr̤ēka (so correct) is of unknown meaning. Br. mēḻẖ is without etymology; see MBE 1980a.] / Cf. Skt. (lex.) meka- goat.(DEDR 5087) Rebus: meluhha (mleccha, 'copper' merchant')


    Cylinder seal of Shu-ilishu, interpreter for Meluhha. Cuneiform inscription in Old Akkadian. Serpentine. Mesopotamia ca 2220-2159 BCE H. 2.9 cm, Dia 1.8 cm Musee du Louvre, Departement des Antiquites, Orientales, Paris AO 22310 “Based on cuneiform documents from Mesopotamia we know that there was at least one Meluhhan village in Akkad at that time, with people called ‘Son ofMeluhha‘ living there. The cuneiform inscription (ca. 2020 BCE) says that thecylinder seal belonged to Shu-ilishu, who was a translator of the Meluhhan language. “The presence in Akkad of a translator of the Meluhhan language suggests that he may have been literate and could read the undeciphered Indus script. This in turn suggests that there may be bilingual Akkadian/Meluhhan tablets somewhere in Mesopotamia. Although such documents may not exist, Shu-ilishu’s cylinder seal offers a glimmer of hope for the future in unraveling the mystery of the Indus script.”

    (Gregory L. Possehl,Shu-ilishu’s cylinder seal, Expedition, Vol. 48, Number 1, pp. 42-43).http://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/48-1/What%20in%20the%20World.pdf

    For a non-Meluhhan, the meanings of substituted codes are irrelevant; he or she just knows that a Meluhhan transaction has been documented.

    Let me provide a model by citing an example.

    Here is a hypertext on a Karen bronze drum.




    The substitution codes are hieroglyphs: elephant, peacock, frog. These codes are 'meaningful' to a Meluhhan. For a Non-Meluhhan, they are mere decorative pieces filling the space of a Karen bronze drum. The Meluhhan instantly reads the hieroglyphs and the cipher: karabha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' marakaka 'peacock' rebus:  marakaka loha 'copper alloy, calcining metal'; mūxā 'frog' rebus: muhã 'ingot or quantity of metal taken out of a furnace at one time'. So, my thesis is simple. Meluhhan uses the 'script metaphors' or substitution codes using the objects with which he is familiar. A mleccha, 'copper' worker is familiar with metalwork catregories like ingot, iron (ferrite) or calcining metal. Hence, I submit that the messaging was intended to be read and understood by Meluhha speakers or agents of merchants/artisans along the Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi to Haifa. For a Non-Meluhhan reader, the message is clear that some transaction some message exchange is taking place between and among Meluhhans. To this extent, the writing system was NOT intended to be a 'universally' recognizable system of coding. The message was restricted to Meluhha repertoire.
    S. KalyanaramanSarasvati Research Center April 8, 2017

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    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/lrtjddl
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    A cartouche with 24 dots on a faience tablet of Harappa is deciphered with the dots signifying खांडा khāṇḍā A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). I suggest that the jagged shaping of the faience tablet, variant shape of a ficus glomerata leaf loa 'ficus glomerata' rebus: loh 'copper' --is a signifier -- a semantic determinant -- of this word, khāṇḍā'A jag, notch' rebus: lokhāṇḍā'metal implements'. The implements could be weapons because the tree hieroglyph on the obverse of the tablet is: kuṭhāra 'tree' Rebus: kuṭhāru 'armourer'.कुठारु [p= 289,1] an armourer L. (Monier-Williams)

    A unique leaf-shaped, mold-made faience tablet or standard with jagged edges (H2000-4483/2342-01) was found in the eroded levels west of the tablet workshop in Trench 54. On one side is a short inscription under a rectangular box filled with 24 dots. The reverse has a narrative scene with two bulls fighting under a thorny tree.  https://www.harappa.com/category/slide-subject/narrative



    Metalwork documentation of extraordinary fidelity is realized by ancient artisans among Bhāratam Janam, 'metalcaster folk'.

    The assemblage of 24 dots are viewed as a pair of 12 dots. The group of 12 dots as a unit of meaning is a tradition of counting using 12 phalanges of a palm.

    Karl Menninger cites a remarkable instance. In the Bhāratiya tradition, finger signals were used to settle the price for a trade transaction. 

    Finger gestures were a numeric Meluhha cipher (mlecchita vikalpa)!


     A pearl merchant of South India settling price for a pearl using finger gestures under a handkerchief. Cited in Karl Menninger, 1969, Number words and number symbols: a cultural history of numbers, MIT Press, p.212. http://tinyurl.com/26ze95s

    Image result for counting twelve on palm
     Sign 121, Sign 121 variants, The number words in the 24 dots or a pair of 12 dots or notches are identified in three groups (rows) of four notched/dots on each row. 

    gaṇḍā 'an aggregate of four' rebus: khāṇḍā 'implements' as in lokhāṇḍā 'metal implements'
    kolmo 'three' rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. 

    Thus, three groups (rows) of four dots/notches in each row are read as: kolami khāṇḍā 'smithy (for) implements'.

    A pair of 12 dots/notches (as a group) is signified by dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.

    Thus, a pair of 12 dots/notches or a total of 24 dots/notches in a cartouche signifiy dul kolami khāṇḍā, 'cast metal weapons, implements smithy' 

    Sign 122 (Mahadevan concordance). That the twelve notches in three rows is a hieroglyph is further exemplified by hypertext Sign 122 which combines parenthetical marks to enclose the set of 3 rows of 4 notches in each row, i.e., a total of 12 notches. The use of parenthesis is also shown on the famous Gadd Seal of a water-carrier flanked by two stars and two parenthetical marks.

    Thus, the use of parenthetical marks in hypertext Sign 122 indicates that the twelve 'notches' are NOT a numeric count but a hieroglyph word read rebus to signify meaning. Parenthetical marks are a split lozenge which is the shape of an ingot. The word for an ingot is mũh, muha ̃'ingot' or muha ̃ 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' Thus, together, the hypertext of Sign 122 reads:dul kolami khāṇḍā  mũh, 'cast metal, weapons, implements, ingots smithy' 

    Gadd Seal 1 of water-carrier found in Ur confirms the hieroglyphic nature of the writing system. 
                        This hypertext Sign 15 is composed of two hieroglyphs: 1. rim of jar' 2. water-carrier           For Sign 15, the hypertext transfer protocol is: Step 1: kuṭi 'water-carrier' (Telugu) rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' (Santali). Thus, the reading of plain text is: supercargo (a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale) of smelter (output), scribed (accounted) Step 2: mēḍha ] ‘polar star‘ rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Santali.Ho.Munda) dula ‘two’ rebus: dul ‘metal casting’. PLUS (treating parenthetical marks as split lozenge to signify an ingot) mũh, muha ̃ 'ingot' or muha ̃ 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' Thus, together, the hypertext on Gadd seal reads: dul mẽṛhẽt mũh kuṭhi'cast iron ingot smelter'

    खांडा (p. 116) khāṇḍā m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended. 2 A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon).(Marathi). खाडा (p. 116) khāḍā m Intermission, a break, a gap, a vacant day. Ex. त्या कामास चार रोज खाडा पडला; त्या महिन्यांत तुझे चार खाडे झाले. 2 A hole, pit, hollow, any sunken or depressed spot.खांड (p. 116) khāṇḍa f (खंड S) A break or opening in a dam or mound; a crack or fissure in a wall &c. 2 A jag, indentation, denticulation. 3 A gap in the teeth. (Marathi)

    गंडा (p. 124) gaṇḍā m An aggregate of four (cowries or pice).(Marathi)

    कांडें (p. 86) kāṇḍēṃ n (कांड S) A joint or knot, an articulation. 2 The portion included between two knots, an internodation. 3 A piece (as of sugarcane or bamboo) comprising three or four knots. 4 The whole stem or trunk of a plant, or esp. up to the shooting of the branches. (Marathi)

    Such dots are seen on many metallic artefacts of Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization.

    Rectangle with 24 dots on Harappa faience tablet; deciphered: metalcasting artisans

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS baroṭi 'twelve' Rebus: bharata 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'. Thus together, copper-pewter-tin-alloy metal casting. PLUS कारु [ kāru 'twelve' Rebus: 'artisans' Thus, metal casting artisans.

    Hieroglyph: A pair of twelve dots: dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS कारु [ kāru ] m (S) A common term for the twelve बलुतेदार q. v. Also कारुनारु m pl q. v. in नारुकारु Rebus: कारु [ kāru ] m (S) An artificer or artisan. बाराकारू (p. 576) [ bārākārū ] m pl The twelve कारू or बलतेदार. See बलुतेदार.बलोतें, बलोतेदार, बलोता or त्या (p. 567) [ balōtē, mbalōtēdāra, balōtā or tyā ] Commonly बलुतें &c.

    Hieroglyph: गोटा [ gōṭā ] m A roundish stone or pebble. 2 A marble (of stone, lac, wood &c.) Rebus 1: खोट (p. 212) [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. Rebus 2: goTa 'laterite (ferrous ore)' [ khōṭasāḷa ] a (खोट & साळ from शाला) Alloyed--a metal. (Marathi) Bshk. khoṭ ʻ embers ʼ, Phal. khūṭo ʻ ashes, burning coal ʼ; (CDIAL 3931)

    PLUS कारु [ kāru ] 'twelve' Rebus: 'artisan' dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' Thus, the 24 dots signify: ingot, laterite metalcasting artisan. The faience tablet of Harappa on both sides signifies through hieroglyph-multiplexes a catalogue of metallurgical competence of the metalsmiths, laterite (ferrous) metalcasters.

    Rebus 2: गोठघोळणी [ gōṭhaghōḷaṇī ] f A goldsmith's instrument for forming गोठ (metal bracelet).गोट [ gōṭa ] m ( H) A metal wristlet. An ornament of women. 2 Encircling or investing
    Pair of bulls deciphered as copper-pewter-tin-alloy metalcasters

    Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree (DEDR 2200). Rebus 2: खोट [khōṭa] alloyed ingot (Marathi). koḍ ‘artisan’s workplace’. 

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' Hieroglyph: barad, balad 'ox' Rebus: भरताचें भांडें (p. 603) [ bharatācē mbhāṇḍēṃ ] n A vessel made of the metal भरत. 2 See भरिताचें भांडें.भरती (p. 603) [ bharatī ] a Composed of the metal भरत.भरत (p. 603) [ bharata ] n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.  Thus, the pair of bulls (ox) signified: copper-pewter-tin-alloy metalcasters

    Leafless tree on faience tablet. Deciphered: metal alloy turner

    Hieroglyph: khōṇḍa ‘leafless tree’ (Marathi). Rebus 1: kõdā’turner’ (Bengali) खोदणें (p. 122) khōdaṇēṃ v c & i ( H) To dig. 2 To engrave (Marathi); thus, engraver.

    I suggest that the leafless tree hieroglyph signifies that the cast metal implements are engraved.

    Hieroglyph: kuṭi, kuṭhi, kuṭa, kuṭha a tree (Kaus'.); kuḍa tree (Pkt.); kua_ tree; kar̥ek tree, oak (Pas;.)(CDIAL 3228). kuṭha, kuṭa (Ka.), kudal (Go.) kudar. (Go.) kuṭhāra, kuṭha, kuṭaka = a tree (Samskritam) kuṭ, kurun: = stump of a tree (Bond.a); khuṭ = id.(Or.) kuṭamu = a tree (Telugu)  Rebus 1: kuṭhi 'smelter' Rebus 2: kuṭhāru 'armourer'.कुठारु [p= 289,1] an armourer L. (Monier-Williams)
    Text on Harappa faience tablet deciphered. alloy metal, copper-pewter-tin alloy, supercargo-scribe, portable furnace.

    From r. aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'metal (alloy)' PLUS aaren 'lid' Rebus: aduru 'unsmelted metal' PLUS khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint. Ka. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner.(DEDR 1236) Thus, together, unsmelted alloy metal mint. 

    baraDo 'spine' Rebus: bharata 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin'; karīka 'rim of jar' Rebus: karī  'supercargo' karīka 'scribe'; karava narrow-necked jar' Rebus: karba 'iron' kharva 'nidhi of Kubera'. कंकवा (p. 123) [ kaṅkavā ] m A sort of comb. See कंगवा. कोंगें (p. 180) [ kōṅgēṃ ] n A long sort of honeycomb.Rebus: kanga 'portable furnace' Rebus: kangar 'large brazier': *kāṅgārikā ʻ poor or small brazier ʼ. [Cf. kāgni -- m. ʻ a small fire ʼ Vop.: ka -- 3 or kā -- , aṅgāri -- ] K. kã̄gürükã̄gar f. ʻ portable brazier ʼ whence kangar m. ʻ large do. ʼ (or < *kāṅgāra -- ?); H. kã̄grī f. small portable brazier ʼ.(CDIAL 3006) 

    Who are the 12 बलुतेदार, public servants of a village in ancient India?

    बलुतेदार or बलुता (p. 567) [ balutēdāra or balutā ] or त्या m (बलुतें &c.) A public servant of a village entitled to बलुतें. There are twelve distinct from the regular Government officers पाटील, कुळकरणी &c.; viz. सुतार, लोहार, महार, मांग (These four constitute पहिली or थोरली कास or वळ the first division. Of three of them each is entitled to चार पाचुंदे, twenty bundles of Holcus or the thrashed corn, and the महार to आठ पाचुंदे); कुंभार, चाम्हार, परीट, न्हावी constitute दुसरीor मधली कास or वळ, and are entitled, each, to तीन पाचुंदेभट, मुलाणा, गुरव, कोळी form तिसरी or धाकटी कास or वळ, and have, each, दोन पाचुंदे. Likewise there are twelve अलुते or supernumerary public claimants, viz. तेली, तांबोळी, साळी, माळी, जंगम, कळवांत, डवऱ्या, ठाकर, घडशी, तराळ, सोनार, चौगुला. Of these the allowance of corn is not settled. The learner must be prepared to meet with other enumerations of the बलुतेदार (e. g. पाटील, कुळ- करणी, चौधरी, पोतदार, देशपांड्या, न्हावी, परीट, गुरव, सुतार, कुंभार, वेसकर, जोशी; also सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, कुंभार as constituting the first-class and claiming the largest division ofबलुतें; next न्हावी, परीट, कोळी, गुरव as constituting the middle class and claiming a subdivision of बलुतें; lastly, भट, मुलाणा, सोनार, मांग; and, in the Konkan̤, yet another list); and with other accounts of the assignments of corn; for this and many similar matters, originally determined diversely, have undergone the usual influence of time, place, and ignorance. Of the बलुतेदार in the Indápúr pergunnah the list and description stands thus:--First class, सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, महार; Second, परीट, कुंभार, न्हावी, मांग; Third, सोनार, मुलाणा, गुरव, जोशी, कोळी, रामोशी; in all fourteen, but in no one village are the whole fourteen to be found or traced. In the Panḍharpúr districts the order is:--पहिली or थोरली वळ (1st class); महार, सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, दुसरी or मधली वळ (2nd class); परीट, कुंभार, न्हावी, मांग, तिसरी or धाकटी वळ (3rd class); कुळकरणी, जोशी, गुरव, पोतदार; twelve बलुते and of अलुते there are eighteen. According to Grant Duff, theबलतेदार are सुतार, लोहार, चाम्हार, मांग, कुंभार, न्हावी, परीट, गुरव, जोशी, भाट, मुलाणा; and the अलुते are सोनार, जंगम, शिंपी, कोळी, तराळ or वेसकर, माळी, डवऱ्यागोसावी, घडशी, रामोशी, तेली, तांबोळी, गोंधळी. In many villages of Northern Dakhan̤ the महार receives the बलुतें of the first, second, and third classes; and, consequently, besides the महार, there are but nine बलुतेदार. The following are the only अलुतेदार or नारू now to be found;--सोनार, मांग, शिंपी, भट गोंधळी, कोर- गू, कोतवाल, तराळ, but of the अलुतेदार & बलुते- दार there is much confused intermixture, the अलुतेदार of one district being the बलुतेदार of another, and vice versâ. (The word कास used above, in पहिली कास, मध्यम कास, तिसरी कास requires explanation. It means Udder; and, as the बलुतेदार are, in the phraseology of endearment or fondling, termed वासरें (calves), their allotments or divisions are figured by successive bodies of calves drawing at the कास or under of the गांव under the figure of a गाय or cow.)(Marathi)

    बलुतें (p. 567) [ balutēṃ ] n A share of the corn and garden-produce assigned for the subsistence of the twelve public servants of a village, for whom see below. 2 In some districts. A share of the dues of the hereditary officers of a village, such as पाटील, कुळकरणी &c. बलोतें, बलोतेदार, बलोता or त्या [ balōtē, mbalōtēdāra, balōtā or tyā ] Commonly बलुतें &c.

    Derived from अलात [ alāta ] n The blade of an oar. áritra (arí° ŚBr.) n. ʻ oar ʼ RV.Pa. aritta -- n. ʻ punting -- pole ʼ; Pk. aritta -- n. ʻ rudder ʼ, alitta -- , āl° n. ʻ oar ʼ; Si. riṭa°ṭi ʻ long pole used as an oar ʼ Geiger GS 32 but without explanation of  < tr.(CDIAL 608)

    बारकें [ bārakēṃ ] n An aggregate of twelve (as of bamboosticks &c.)

    बारनिशी or सी [ bāraniśī or sī ] f ( P) The office or duty of बारनीसबा0 करणें g. of o. To enter upon the books.
    बारनीस [ bāranīsa ] m ( P) The officer of the state whose business it was to affix the word बार (Entered) to notes, bills, orders, letters &c. which had been duly copied or registered in the दफतर. This entering, as well as the registering book, is called बारनिशी.

    On the shape of the tablet: leaf-shaped, mold-made faience tablet or standard with jagged edges may perhaps suggst a ficus : loa 'ficus leaf' rebus: loh 'copper'

    dvāˊdaśa ʻ twelve ʼ RV. 2. duvāˊdaśa RV.\1. Pa. dvādasabārasa, Aś.shah. badaya (Hultsch badaśa), gir. dbādasa, NiDoc. dvadaśabadaśa, Pk. bārasabāraha, Ash. bäisbās, Wg. bāš, Niṅg. bas, Dm. báš, Tir. bọ̈̄, Niṅg. bas, Shum. bās, Woṭ. bārō̃, Gaw. bāš, Bshk. bāh, Sv. bā̆š, Phal. bāšbōš, Sh. bāĭ (→ Ḍ. baī), K. bāh, S. ḇārãhã (ḇāraho m. ʻ the figure 12 ʼ < Pk.bārasaya -- n.), L. bār(h), khet. bārhā̆, P. bārã̄, bhaṭ. bārā, WPah. bhad. bāhrē, bhal. bāre, pāḍ bārah, paṅ. cur. bāhrā, Ku. N. A. B. Or. bāra, Mth. bārah, Bhoj. bārē, Aw.lakh. bārā, H. bārahbārā, OMarw. bārā, G. bār, M. Ko. bārā, Md. bāra.2. Aś.man. duvaḍaśa, kāl. duvāḍasa, jau. duvadasa, dh. duvādasa, Pk. duvālasa, Kt. dyīċ, Pr. wṳ̄zuüz, Paš. duwāˊi, Tor. duāš, Kand. dwālaš, Mai. dwālaš, ky.duwāˊleš, Si. doḷasadoḷaha, Md. doḷos.dvādaśá -- , dvādaśama -- .Addenda: dvāˊdaśa: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) bāra ʻ 12 ʼ, Garh. bāra, Md. (old) doḷas (bāra ← Ind.).(CDIAL 6658) dvādaśama ʻ twelfth ʼ MBh. [dvāˊdaśa]Pa. dvādasama -- , Pk. duvālasama -- , bārasama -- , S. ḇārhõ, N. bāraũ, H. bārahwã̄, G. bārmũ, M. bārāvā.(CDIAL 6660)

    Bi. bārā ʻ opening in a bangle -- maker's furnace ʼS. L. (Ju.) ḇārī f. ʻ small window ʼ, L.awāṇ. bārī f.; P. bār m. ʻ door, mouth of a vessel ʼ, bārī f. ʻ window ʼ; WPah.bhal. bhid. jaun. dār n. ʻ door ʼ; Ku. bār ʻ household, family ʼ; N. ghar -- bār ʻ family ʼ (whence ghar -- bāri ʻ married ʼ);OAw. bāru m. ʻ door ʼ; H. ghar -- bār, -- dār m. ʻ house and home ʼ; OMarw. bāra m. ʻ door, house ʼ; G. bār n. ʻ door, courtyard in front of house ʼ, bārũ n. ʻ door, gate, harbour ʼ, bārī f. ʻ window ʼ; M. dār n. ʻ door ʼ, dārẽbārẽ n. ʻ hole in a fence to carry a water -- channel ʼ, bārī f. ʻ window, passage through hedge or fence ʼ.(CDIAL 6663)

    *dula ʻ hole ʼ. [√dal1?]Ku. dulo m., °li f., dulno m. ʻ hole, cavity, animal's den ʼ; N. dulo ʻ hole, animal's hole (e.g. of a mouse) ʼ, nāka ko dulo ʻ nostril ʼ, dulko ʻ little hole ʼ; -- M. ḍuḷū̃ n. ʻ little hole ʼ, ḍolā m.; -- poss. Ash. dūra ʻ hole ʼ (kāsāradūˊra ʻ nostril ʼ, dum -- durḗk ʻ smoke -- hole ʼ); Wg. dúridorīˊg ʻ smoke -- hole ʼ: but these poss. < dúr -- . -- Connexion, if any, with P. duḍ(h) f. ʻ wolf's den ʼ, ḍuḍḍ f. ʻ mouse -- hole ʼ (CDIAL 6452)

    dula 'second' (Prakritam):*dutīya ʻ second ʼ. 2. *dutīyā -- f. ʻ second day of lunar fortnight ʼ. [~ dvitīˊya -- . -- dav -- ]1. Pa. dutiya -- , °aka -- ʻ second ʼ, dutiyyatā -- f. ʻ friend<-> ship ʼ; Aś. dutiya -- , kq. dutīya -- ʻ second ʼ, Pk. dula -- , duijja -- ; Woṭ. dūi m. f. adj. ʻ other ʼ; Tor. duī ʻ second ʼ; Sv. dūi ʻ other ʼ, Phal. dūidĭ̄; L. dūjā, mult. dūjhā, (Ju.) ḍ̠ujhā, P. dūjjādūjādūā, bhaṭ. duwwā, WPah.cur. dūã̄, bhad. duijaũ, A. dūjā; MB. duaja ʻ second ʼ, B. doj -- bare ʻ a bridegroom for second time ʼ (← west ODBL 805); Or. duiduādujā ʻ second ʼ, duj -- bara ʻ remarried widow ʼ; Mth. dujai ʻ secondly ʼ; OAw. H.dūjā ʻ second ʼ; G. dujũ ʻ other, different ʼ; M. duj̈ā ʻ second ʼ.2. K. dŏy f. ʻ second day of lunar fortnight ʼ, P. dūj f., OAw. dūija, H. dūj f.*dutīyajanī -- .Addenda: *dutīya -- : WPah.kṭg. (kc.) dujjɔ ʻ second ʼ, J. dujā.(CDIAL 6402) Rebus: dul 'metal casting' (Santali)

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast (metal).Rebus 1: dul ‘to cast in a mould’; dul mṛht, dul mee, 'cast iron'; koe mee ‘forged iron’ (Santali) Bshk. ḍōl ʻ brass pot (CDIAL 6583). 


    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    April 9, 2017


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    India’s first community radio still makes the right connect



    Leading lights H. Narsamma and N. Narsamma who run the community radio station at Machnoor Village in Sangareddy district of Telangana.  

    Sangam, which went on air in 2008, continues its two-hour broadcast in Telugu and reaches out to people of 150 villages in Telangana

    Musligari Nagamani, a farmer, is listening to the radio sitting a few inches away from her as she cooks dinner on firewood in her tiled-roof house. The broadcast in Telugu is peppered with local colloquialisms and slang. This is how evenings are spent in most houses in Pastapur, a village in the Jarasangam mandal of the Sangareddy district, ever since the very popular Sangam Radio, the first community radio in India, was launched in 2008 after decade-long efforts to get the license for it.
    Off the main road of Zaheerabad, it takes 10 kilometres down a right turn to reach the radio station, which cannot be seen from the road since it is surrounded by trees. The tower that broadcasts eagerly awaited transmissions for two hours every evening sticks out from over them.
    “We relax and listen to the radio while preparing dinner. We hear our language in our way of speaking. It makes me feel like one of our neighbours is talking to us about different things,” says Nagamani who, like her mother M. Ratnamma, prefers to listen to the radio than sit in front of the TV.
    “Villagers feel happy when they hear their voice on the radio in the form of songs or discussions. They will also share this joyfully with their neighbours. The song the community radio plays depends on the season, whether it time to plough, plant seeds, irrigate or harvest. The songs recall our tiring work at the field in the morning,” says Begari Sammamma of the village of Bidakanne. Over the years, Sangam has collected of about 2,500 songs sung by members of the community, often with instrumental accompaniment. Apart from songs, programmes can feature farming practices, how to observe festivals, birthday wishes and health tips.

    Interactive mode

    The last half hour is allotted for listeners who want to call broadcasters and share their views with them. For example, missing cattle are reported and traced with the help of listeners. “The owners contact the radio to thank the listeners,” she added.
    Sangam reaches about 150 villages in Jarasangam, Zaheerabad and Raikod, and parts of Kohir and Nyalkal, everyday from 7 p.m. to 9. p.m. Each village has a population of between 600 to 1,200 people. Transmission has never been disrupted in the last eight years, except on four days due to a short circuit.

    Empowering facilitator

    The Pastapur-based Deccan Development Society (DDS), an NGO working on issues related to farmers, sees community radio as a facilitator for two-way communication, as opposed to the one way of conventional media.
    As early as 1999, Sangam had started narrow-casting, in which recordings made on a tape (some of their early recordings are still in this format) is broadcast for a limited audience in a place where the community can gather. DDS also established an FM radio station, a transmission tower and recording facilities, with the support of UNESCO, in the same year. Thereafter, it waited for permission from the government, which took nine years to arrive.
    P.V. Satheesh, director, DDS, recalls, “While it used to cost about ₹5 crore to establish an FM radio station at that time, we were able to do it with only ₹20 lakh. Our transmission radius is about 30 kilometres, whereas for the All India Radio, it is 100 kilometres.”
    Hyderabad Narsamma and Nalugindla Narasamma, the two Dalit women (another first) behind the Sangam radio broadcasts, are educated up to Class X. By day, they are farmers working in the fields, by night, they turn broadcasters.
    The radio runs with about eight reporters — three men and five women, none of whom have yet completed Class X at school. All staff are on the rolls of the DDS.
    Hyderabad Narsamma studied at the Pachasala, a school run by the DDS, where Mr. Satheesh would call her 'General' for her leadership and organisation skills, a sobriquet that stuck — most people know her as General Narasamma instead of Hyderabad Narasamma.

    Village visits

    “When we plan to visit a village, it will be in such a way that we spend almost the entire day meeting different sections of the people and recording their observations on various issues. If we meet elderly people, we record their experiences of farming when they were young, the songs they sang while working in the fields or during weddings and festivals. They know such a lot and we are sharing that abundant knowledge with others,” ‘General’ Narasamma told this reporter.
    And guess how much it costs to run Sangam? ₹10,000 per month — that’s their power and phone bill.
    http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indias-first-community-radio-still-makes-the-right-connect/article17894370.ece?homepage=true

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    Om Namo Narayanaya
    Dr. M. R. Ravi

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    madhu
    Warrant Against Madhu Kishwar: Is Freedom of Expression only for Secessionists?
    A Srinagar court has issued a non-bailable warrant against noted academic, writer and social activist Madhu Kishwar in connection with a criminal defamation case filed by Shujaat Bukhari, the Editor in Chief of Srinagar based newspaper, Rising Kashmir

    In response to the non-bailable warrant, Madhu Kishwar has published an article on her blog regarding the facts of the case and how it unfolded and IndiaFacts is reproducing the same here.
    Background: In response to reports of politically engineered violent anti India protests in Kashmir I expressed my distress at the high decibel, pro-secessionist, anti-India propaganda launched by leading journalists and newspapers in Kashmir who seemed to be providing very provocative and lop sided coverage which romanticized those attacking the army and indulging in terrorist strikes and stone pelting
    I made special mention of Shujaat Bukhari owner-cum editor Rising Kashmir not because his paper is theonlyexample of pro Pak journalism but because he is a favorite of leftists and he pretends to be defender of human rights- though only of terrorists!Prior to setting up his own paper, Rising Kashmir, Bukhari used to be Bureau-Chief of The Hindu for Kashmir.
    The sum and substance of my tweets was that even though Bukhari takes money from government agencies—both state & central government, yet he parrots the Pakistani script.The Rising Kashmir coverage of the Pakistan engineered unrest in the Valley is very pro-secessionist. Incidentally Shujaat’s brother Basharat Bukhari is a senior cabinet minister in PDP government and the family is part of the power establishment of Kashmir. But like many other politicians and journalists Shujaat’s paper gives a pro-Pak tilt to the coverage of events in Kashmir.
    In response to my tweets, Shujaat Bukhari filed a criminal defamation suit against me in December 2016.
    Facts of Defamation Case:
    • On December 3, 2016, Bukhari’s criminal defamation case against me was listed for first hearing in the court of Chief Judicial Magistrate, Srinagar. On the very first day itself, the CJM, Ms Masarat Shaheen, examined the complaint as well as two witnesses cited by Shujaat Bukhari both of who give their evidence in Urdu. Normally, such procedures take months & years in our legal system.
    • That very day on 3rd December, CJM issued bailable warrants against me. This alacrity on behalf of CJM itself indicates active bias in favor of Shujaat.
    • My offence, if any, did not merit a warrant. As per Indian Penal Code as well as Ranbir penal Code operative in Kashmir, as a first step in such cases, the court should at best issue summons. Only when the accused refuses to appear or has committed some heinous crime, warrants are to be issued. Three four tweets saying Shujaat supports secessionist groups is hardly a heinous crime, especially considering that Shujaat has not thought it fit to deny the charge in his petition before CJM.
    • However, he denies that he takes money from Indian agencies. Even if under the table payments cannot be “proved”, he cannot deny that he has been seeking and getting ads from state government as well as DAVP. So his paper runs with government money.
    • As per Kashmir paper reports, I was expected to appear before CJM Srinagar on December 2, 2016. But the bailable warrant was served to me much after 24th. Therefore, I did not feel obliged to appear merely on the basis of report in Rising Kashmir.
    • The issuance of bailable warrants instead of summons was an irregularity particularly when the accused in the case is a woman living outside the State. What is glaring is the fact that the CJM while deviating from the “procedure established by law” as contained in section 90 assigned no reason for issuing warrants at the very first instance.
    • The warrants were finally served/executed on me on 24.01.2017 and sought my appearance before the court on 28.01.2017—a very short notice considering I am based in Delhi & case was in Srinagar.
    • Even so, my lawyer, Ravi Sharma flew from Delhi to appear on 28 January 2017 with an application seeking exemption from personal appearance in CJM court in Srinagar citing the Supreme Court guidelines for such cases in Bhaskar Industries Ltd. Vs. Bhivani Denim and Apparels Ltd.In my application, I assured the Court that my lawyer would not miss any hearing or seek adjournments in terms of the above-cited SC order.
    • In the above order the SC clearly lays down that personal appearance can be exempted when the ‘accused” is a woman and/or living far away in another city or stateand/or is a senior citizen and/or is in poor health. I qualified on all counts and had been advised by my doctors to take rest for some weeks after a major surgery on 4th January 2017 at Medanta Hospital. I had submitted a medical certificate to this effect from the Medanta doctor who conducted my surgery.
    • Another important consideration for seeking exemption from personal hearing is the continuing surcharged atmosphere in the Valley, especially in Srinagar where my safety and security would be in serious jeopardy. This is especially so because Shujaat Bukhari is well connected with secessionist groups.
    • The CJM heard the case that day but gave an orderon 20 March, 2017 disposing off my application seeking permanent exemption filed and directed me to appear before the court on 3rd April, 2017 or else face arrest warrants. I decided not to obey the order since it was premised on deliberate erroneous interpretation of the above-mentioned SC judgment.
    • The nature of news reports and editorial comments in Rising Kashmir over a period of time clearly show that he is a sympathizer and supporter of separatists and militants (a euphemism for terrorists). Under these circumstances, especially given his political clout and close links with militant groups, it is reasonable for me to apprehend that forcing me to go to Srinagar is to put my life and limb at risk. For the record, the Bar Association of Kashmir has been open in its support of militants & Pakistan backed secessionist movement.
    • Since my lawyer and I were convinced that the order of the CJM dated 20 March, 2017 was borne out of misreading/misinterpretation of the Apex Court’s judgment in Bhaskar Industries Ltd case, I decided not to appear personally on 3rd April. However, my lawyer Ravi Sharma appeared on the scheduled date before the CJM and submitted an Application seeking modification of her order of 20 March and also sought exemption from personal appearance for 3rdApril, 2017.
    • In the alternative, I requested the CJM to grant “reasonable time” for me to seek clarification from the Supreme Court whether or not her order insisting on my personal appearance & issuing warrants was legally sound.
    • Unfortunately, CJM sahiba issued NON BAILABLE WARRANTS against me without paying attention to the averments and submissions made in my application and without giving my counsel proper hearing.
    • Thus CJM Masarat Shaheen has passed three consecutive orders that indicate prejudice and bias against me.
    Options before me: Petition the High Court of J&K for stay order on the arrest warrant, apply for transfer of case from Srinagar because my appearance in Srinagar court poses serious risk to my life and does not promise me a fair trial. I also intend to challenge CJM’s orders in defiance of Supreme Court guidelines at an appropriate level.
    I am ready for the prolonged legal and political battle this involves, no matter what it takes.
    It is noteworthy that Shujaat Bukhari does not deny my charge that his paper is pro-separatist and follows the Pak agenda. The only charge he has denied is that he takes money from Indian agencies. Is he willing to reveal where he got the funds to set up his paper? Who pays for his many trips to Pakistan, Dubai and other countries? Knowledgeable people close to him allege that Shujaat cultivates and curries favour with Indian intelligence agencies and Military Intelligence as a cover for his ISI links!
    Shujaat should be willing to reveal where the money came from for his setting up three papers–two in Urdu apart from Rising Kashmir in English as well as a printing press. Is he willing to reveal how he  bought several prime properties in Srinagar? All this when the print edition of Rising Kashmir and the two Urdu papers he set up subsequently all have a minuscule circulation in the Valley! They are meant only to make money through government ads and other forms of patronage. He inflates the circulation figures to corner more ads and subsidised news print. Its only on the Net that Rising Kashmir gets some traction.
    I have a right to ask him to reveal information about his financial affairs because in the interest of transparency, MANUSHI posts on its website accurate information regarding every rupee that it gets by way of donations or sale of its publications as well as audited accounts of how the money is spent. Is Shujaat Bukhari ready to be as transparent about the finances of his newspapers?
    Even if we don’t  take into account undercover payments made to separatist leaders and journalists in Kashmir by ISI, can Shujaat deny that he seeks and gets advertisements from the state government as well as DAVP–which releases central government ads?
    The big question I want answered: Why is the J&K government and central government patronising separatist newspapers?
    The deafening silence of the champions of “freedom of expression”Please note the deafening silence regarding this case in the “liberal” mainstream media. Compare it to the national and international media fury unleashed when a defamation case was filed against Ashis Nandy by an Ahmedabad based NGO for Nandy’s baseless  and outrageous defamatory statements published in The Times of India against Modi and Gujarati Hindus. He was projected by the entire media as a victim of “fascist” wrath. Top Congress party lawyers rose to his defence and argued his case up to the Supreme Court–all free of charge. But it didn’t make big news when Nandy ended up offering an unconditional apology for his defamatory article when the Supreme Court was on the verge of indicting him!
    Or compare the media outrage over Teesta Setalvad being booked on proven charges of brazen corruption and siphoning off money collected in the name of riot victims being spent on personal luxuries and aiyyashi!
    But in this case, there is total silence in the mainstream media and by the leaders of the Award Wapsi Brigade! I bet in their worldview, it’s not I who am the victim of lawless orders emanating from a Srinagar court in favour of an influential separatist newspaper. Instead, Shujaat Bukhari is likely to be seen as a victim of my ‘intolerance” against his freedom to help Pakistan break up India one more time.
    Disclaimer: The facts and opinions expressed within this article are the personal opinions of the author. IndiaFacts does not assume any responsibility or liability for the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or validity of any information in this article.
    Madhu Purnima Kishwar is a Maulana Azad National Professor, ICSSR and founder of Manushi–a human rights/ women’s rights organization. Among others, she is the author of “Modi, Muslims and Media” ( Manushi Publications), Zealous Reformers, Deadly Laws, (Sage Publishers), Deepening Democracy–Challenges of Governance & globalization in India ( Oxford University Press), Off the Beaten Track: Essays on Gender Issues ( Oxford University Press), Religion at the Service of Nationalism & Other Essays ( Oxford University Press).
    http://indiafacts.org/freedom-of-expression-only-for-secessionists/

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    ‘Seized papers reveal hand of Ministers’


    ₹89.65 crore routed through CM, five Cabinet colleagues

    The Income Tax Department on Saturday sent a report to the chairman of the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) detailing the searches carried out on Friday, which revealed the route of distribution of ₹ 89 crore by the AIADMK (Amma) to voters in R.K. Nagar, which goes to by-poll on April 12.
    The CBDT will submit a report to the Election Commission of India.
    According to one of the documents released to the media, ₹89.65 crore was routed through Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami and five of his senior Cabinet colleagues — K.A. Sengottaiyan, Dindigul C. Srinivasan, P. Thangamani, S.P. Velumani and D. Jayakumar and Rajya Sabha MP R. Vaithilingam, covering 85% of the electorate in R.K. Nagar. Party deputy general secretary T.T.V. Dhinakaran is contesting from the constituency. Other documents revealed the supply chain below from these party in-charges for the by-election. The calculations indicate that each vote was priced at an average of ₹4,000.
    At least one leaked document was related to payments received and paid by S. Geethalakshmi, Vice- Chancellor of Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University, during November 2016.
    I-T senior officials confirmed that the documents in circulation were seized during the searches conducted at more than 30 locations, mostly from the premises of State Health Minister C. Vijayabaskar. “We are examining how the Ministers got the funds. In the absence of a satisfactory explanation, they will be taxed,” said a senior I-T officer examining the case.
    IT officials also claimed that Mr. Vijayabaskar was a silent partner in sand baron Sekhar Reddy’s firm SRS Mining.
    “He has not shown those details in his accounts and we are verifying that. This will be also taxed,” an officer said.
    With regard to the VC of Dr MGR Medical University, Dr. Geethalakshmi, the taxmen said that several incriminating documents have been found and preliminary analysis show that the money is unaccounted for. “Money has been given and taken for transfers, postings and few tenders.”
    When asked how the documents were leaked, IT officials said that they had to face a volatile crowd at some places during the raids and some of the assembled persons were trying to grab the seized documents and run way.
    “We immediately took photos in our cell phones and maybe someone leaked it,” an officer said.
    The taxmen also said that at R.K.Nagar residents were not allowing IT officials to question or talk, instead they got aggressive and asked what was their problem if people took cash for votes.

    ‘CM should resign’

    Meanwhile, DMK working president M.K. Stalin said Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami should step down from his post owning responsibility for the money distribution and irregularities committed by his cabinet colleagues.
    Demanding the removal of all Ministers involved in money distribution in R.K.Nagar by-poll, he said the CBI should file cases against Health Minister C. Vijya Basakar, whose house was raided by IT officials.
    In a statement here, he said all Ministers involved in irregularities should be barred from contesting elections in the future as the media had already released evidence collected during IT raids.
    At Ramanathapuram, BJP senior leader L Ganesan said the party has nothing to do with the IT raids. Talking to reporters, Mr. Ganesan said  “The outcome of the raids would be made public soon.”
    (With inputs from B. Kolappan and D.J. Walter Scott)
    http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/seized-papers-reveal-hand-of-ministers/article17895186.ece

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    US Navy strike group heads towards N. Korea over Pyongyang’s ‘nuclear threat’
    The aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) transits the Pacific Ocean © Reuters
    Published time: 9 Apr, 2017 09:07
    The US Navy has sent a carrier-led strike group toward the western Pacific Ocean to provide a physical presence near the Korean Peninsula in a show of force against North Korea’s “destabilizing” nuclear weapons program and looming missile tests.
    “US Pacific Command ordered the Carl Vinson Strike Group north as a prudent measure to maintain readiness and presence in the Western Pacific,” Commander Dave Benham, spokesman at US Pacific Command, told AFP.
    “The number one threat in the region continues to be North Korea, due to its reckless, irresponsible and destabilizing program of missile tests and pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability,” he added.
    Deployed from San Diego to the western Pacific since early January, the strike group has been involved in numerous drills with Japan and South Korea and routine patrol operations in the disputed South China Sea. It is now headed from Singapore to the Western Pacific Ocean, scrapping planned port visits to Australia.
    Retired four-star US General Jack Keane said earlier this week that in the wake of recent nuclear missile tests conducted by North Korea, bombing the country’s nuclear facilities “may be the only option left.”
    Keane told Fox News that if the US was facing an imminent attack from a North Korean intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), US President Donald Trump would have to act preemptively. “We’re rapidly and dangerously heading towards the reality that the military option is the only one left when it comes to getting North Korea to denuclearize,” Keane told Fox News.
    Last month, Trump accused North Korea of “behaving very badly” and “playing” the US for years.
    US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson also told reporters during his visit to South Korea that Washington’s “policy of strategic patience has ended,” noting that “all options are on the table.
    Viktor Ozerov, head of the defense affairs committee in the upper house of the Russian parliament, warned on Sunday that there’s a high risk of a US missile strike on North Korea’s military facilities.
    The US president could make the move due to the absence of unanimous condemnation from the UN Security Council of the US missile attack on Syria, Ozerov said.
    On Friday, the US carried out a missile strike on the Shayrat airfield near Homs in response to an alleged chemical attack on a rebel-held town in Idlib province, the blame for which Washington pinned on Syrian President Bashar Assad.
    A total of 59 Tomahawk missiles were deployed in the pre-dawn attack. The Russian Defense Ministry noted on Saturday that Washington has presented no evidence yet that the Shayrat airfield had any chemical weapons. 
    Syrian officials have so far confirmed that six people were killed and several others wounded in the operation.
    “The US attack on the airfield of the Syrian Armed Forces, which was not unanimously condemned by the UN Security Council, was explained by the threat of US national security. North Korea can be perceived by Washington as an even greater threat,” Ozerov told RIA Novosti.
    On Saturday, North Korea lambasted the US strike, saying it was “an unforgivable act of aggression” that also proved that Pyongyang’s decision to develop nuclear weapons was “the right choice a million times over.”
    “The US missile attack against Syria is a clear and unforgivable act of aggression against a sovereign state and we strongly condemn this,” KCNA quoted an unnamed spokesman for the North Korean Foreign Ministry as saying.
    “The reality of today proves our decision to strengthen our military power to stand against force with force was the right choice a million times over,” KCNA said. On Wednesday, Pyongyang fired a medium-range ballistic missile into the Sea of Japan, drawing strong condemnation from Tokyo and Seoul.
    Last month, North Korea, believed to be working toward developing a long-range missile capable of hitting the US mainland with a nuclear warhead, successfully fired four ballistic missiles into the Sea of Japan, three of which reached Japan’s territorial waters.  
    https://www.rt.com/news/384094-us-strike-group-korea-nuclear/

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    Jharkhand: Vulnerable tribal groups to get food delivered at their door steps

    INDIA Updated: Apr 04, 2017 00:55 IST
    Sanjoy Dey
    Jharkhand

    Louis Marandi, the minister for social welfare and women and child development, inaugurating the food post scheme in Sundar Pahari block in Godda district of Jharkhand.(HT Photo)


    Jharkhand’s primitive tribes will now get food at their door steps. The state government on Monday launched its ambitious food post scheme, the first of its kind in the country, for 70,000 families of particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs) enrolled under the National Food Security Act (NFSA).
    By delivering food through special messengers, the government aims to check malnutrition and hunger deaths among these tribes, officials said.
    The NFSA was launched in Jharkhand on September 25, 2015, and covers more than 2.63 people of the state’s total population of 3.29 crore. Under the scheme, PVTGs are entitled to 35 kg free ration every month.
    Since the PVTGs -- whose dwindling population is a concern for the state as well as the Centre -- lead a wanderers life in jungles and hills, the NFSA has failed to reach out to them effectively for their benefit.
    A survey conducted in two PVTGs villages in Garhwa and Sahebganj districts last year revealed that families of the Soriya Paharaiya -- an extremely endangered PVTG -- from the two villages have to dole out up to Rs 300 to access their free ration.
    Women from a tribal group in Dhawadih village in Jharkhand ‘s Palamu feeding their children. (HT Photo)
    A right to food activist and the Supreme Court commissioner’s advisor on the same, Balram, who goes by one name, had carried out the survey.
    “As per the Supreme Court order dated November 28, 2001, ration distribution should be made available free of cost every month to all the PVTG families at a nearest point. Unfortunately, the so-called nearest points for many of the PVTGs means travelling up to 50-60 km to and fro, which consumes an entire day,” Balram said.
    Ads by ZINC
    State food minister Saryu Rai said, “We got many reports that PVTGs are not getting their benefits under NFSA due to distance and unawareness towards their rights. So, we have decided to start food post so that these groups could get their rights at door step.”
    The scheme was started from three blocks including Sundar Pahari (Godda), Chainpur (Palamu) and Barhait (Sahebganj) on Monday. All 24 districts of the state will covered under the scheme by April end, said Vinay Kumar Choubey, secretary of food and public distribution department.
    Choubey said that block level officials would be engaged as special messengers for the schemes, who would deliver a packet of 35-kg rice to each household.
    “The delivery boy will carry an Aadhaar enabled POS machine to authenticate the actual delivery,” said Choubey, who claimed Jharkhand is the first state in the country to launch food post.
    The scheme will also boost the income of rural women, as government has decided to purchase 35-kg plastic bags from Sakhi Mandal (women self-help groups).
    “We have tied up with women SHGs in different villages for providing the 35 kg poly bags. This will increase income of rural women,” Choubey said.
    http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/jharkhand-first-in-india-to-deliver-food-through-post-to-vulnerable-tribal-groups/story-Q3BpeEHoMZlGZjW2FJ7bXJ.html

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    Prime Minister orders CBDT to probe Chidambaram family under Black Money and Benami Act

    Based on the letters written by Dr. Swamy on illegal assets of Chidambaram, the PM has ordered CBDT and Revenue Secretary to act immediately
     

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    The objective of this illustrated essay is to provide anItihāsa narrative of Bhāratam Janam (‘metalcaster folk’ RV 3.53.12) of the Bronze Age.

    The essay provides

    1. an overview of how Bhāratam became the richest nation on the globe by 1 CE as recorded by Economic historian, Angus Maddison in his report to OECD before the formation of the European Union; and
    2. an intimation of the roles of Bhāratam Janam as artificers and seafaring merchants managing metalwork production and trade along an Ancient Maritime Tin Route between Hanoi (Vietnam) and Haifa (Israel) which route predated Silk Road by two millennia.

    A defining moment is recorded in an exquisite painting in the Steel Authority of India Institute in Ranchi. The painting shows Purushottama gifting in 323 BCE, a steel sword to Alexander on the banks of Jhelum before Alexander returns to Mesopotamia. In the background of this painting, a smithy/forge is shown with artisans at work in smithy/forge producing metal tools, implements and weapons.Inline image
    This is a signature portrait of the Hindu civilization indicating contributions made by ancient artisans to theArtha samgraha (wealth creation) of the Nation ofBhāratam.
    Similar contributions made by artisans during earlier millennia are documented on over 8000 Sindhu-Sarasvati Script inscriptions.
    Sindhu-Sarasvati Script inscriptions are metalwork catalogues which are data archives of contributions made by ancient metalworkers to creation of wealth (Artha samgraha) of the nation. The contributions are so impressive that an economic historian, Angus Maddison reports to OECD before the announcement of European Union, the contributions made by Ancient India (Ancient Bhāratam) to Global wealth in 1 Common Era.
    Inline image
    This bar chart showing contributions to Global wealth between 1 CE and 2008 CE records that India (Ancient Bhāratam) accounted for over 32% of the Global wealth (GDP, Gross Domestic Product).
    How is this Artha samgraha status of Ancient India (Ancient Bhāratam) in 1 CE explained?
    For several millennia, in earlier years, Ancient Indian (Bhāratiya) artisans had domesticated rice, millet and  also cotton. They had also worked with mineral resources to create many metal alloys to manufacture tools, implements, weapons. Such work or life activities of artisans are recorded in historical studies and on Sindhu-Sarasvati Script inscriptions.


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  • 04/11/17--00:58: NSA of USA spying on BJP
  • http://media2.intoday.in/indiatoday/images/stories/wikileaks_video_305_041117092647.jpg
    Global whistle blower agency Wikileaks has thrown a new bombshell. It has claimed that the United States National Security Agency hacked into Pakistan's mobile network systems. In a tweet, Wikileaks has said that hundreds of NSA cyber weapons variants publicly released including code-showing, hacking of Pakistan mobile system. Also, in the same tweet NSA has authorised to spy on foreign-based political organisations including the BJP in India and the Pakistan Peoples Party, claims Wikileaks.

    NSA of USA spying on BJP http://indiatoday.intoday.in/video/wikileaks-us-nsa-spying-on-bjp-pakistan-peoples-party/1/925847.html

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    Chidambaram In Trouble: CBDT May Probe Illegal Assets 

      Retweeted
    Chidambaram In Trouble: CBDT May Probe  Illegal Assets 
    There seems no escape for the Chidambaram family now. The illegal amassment of wealth across the globe and 21 illegal foreign bank accounts of Karti and his companies has come under the scanner of the new Black Money Act and Benami Act. The Prime Minister Narendra Modi has directed the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) to probe the matter now. 

    The Prime Minister’s direction is based on the three complaints filed by the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) leader Subramanian Swamy citing the findings of Income Tax’s Chennai Unit’s findings. The former finance minister P Chidambaram’s family has acquired properties and assets in 14 countries.

    Swamy produced the findings of the 200-page report of the Income Tax Act. He has demanded that the “corrupt family” be booked under the new Black Money Act and Benami Act by Income Tax under CBDT, apart from Prevention of Corruption Act, Disproportionate Asset Case by CBI and Prevention of Money Laundering Act by Enforcement Directorate. Modi has directed Revenue Secretary and the CBDT Chairman to initiate necessary action immediately.

    The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Enforcement Directorate (ED) have informed the Supreme Court about initiating action against Chidambaram in Aircel-Maxis scam- which unearthed the illegal assets accumulated.
    https://swarajyamag.com/insta/chidambaram-in-trouble-cbdt-may-probe-illegal-assets

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    P Chidambaram is lying in his Statement released to the press via

    P Chidambaram is lying in his Statement released to the press

    Press statement of Chidambaram in the Maxis approval by FIPB hides the conditions for approval

    Press statement of Chidambaram in the Maxis approval by FIPB hides the conditions for approval
    Details provided by the former Finance Minister Palaniappan Chidambaram about the 5 departments related to Foreign Investment Proposals Board (FIPB) approving Aircel Maxis investment in his statement released to the Press have been shown to be lies. The clearance by FIPB was subject to conditions. Chidambaram could not approve Aircel Maxis without checking conditions met as per Press Note 5 of 2005 and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Rules. Below is the Press Release by Chidambaram:


    Press Statement of P Chidambaram
    The Press Release makes it sound as if the Aircel-Maxis deal was just another day at the office, a routine affair. This flies in the face of the response received by Senior BJP leader Subramanian Swamy to a Right To Information (RTI) request on “whether FIPB approval was obtained in the Aircel-Maxis deal”. The response from the Department of Economic Affairs detailing the minutes of the meeting that took place on this matter have been released and a copy of the same is shown below:

    Department of Economic Affairs response to the RTI
    The approvals were subject to the licensing conditions of Department of Telecommunications and guidelines notified in the Press Note No. 5 of 2005. This detailed Press Notification can be accessed here. From this notification, Clause 1-D is reproduced below:
    FDI upto 49 per cent will continue to be on automatic route. Foreign
    Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) approval shall be required for FDI in the
    licensee company/Indian promoters/investment companies including their
    holding companies if it has a bearing on the overall ceiling of 74 per cent.
    While approving the investment proposals, FIPB shall take note that
    investment is not coming from unfriendly countries.
    The last line in the clause above bears careful reading… Saudi Telecom has a 25% stake in Maxis as well as in several telecommunication companies in Pakistan, which means that the Maxis acquisition would have been scrutinized closely. The other glaring factor is that Foreign companies could only own 74% of Indian Telecom companies, yet Maxis ended up owning almost 99%!
    The Aircel-Maxis case, currently in the Supreme Court has just got more interesting!


    Sree Iyer

    An inventor and out-of-the-box thinker, Sree Iyer has 37 patents in the areas of Hardware, Software, Encryption and Systems. 

    His first book NDTV Frauds has been published and is an Amazon Bestseller.

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    What is Free Speech for Wendy Doniger Should be Free Speech for Madhu Kishwar

    04/11/2017 02:07 am ET


    Three years ago, the academic and literary world erupted in outrage when Professor Wendy Doniger’s Indian publisher announced that it would be withdrawing and pulping remaining copies of her book The Hindus: An Alternative History as part of a legal settlement with an offended Indian complainant.
    That concern about free speech was understandable (even if the refusal by some newspapers to publish debates about the merits of the book by other scholars itself wasn’t quite free speech friendly at all). It is just as well that when the book returned to Indian bookstores shortly after through a different publisher, there were neither legal nor illegal measures taken by anyone in India to intimidate the author, publisher or bookstores.
    Just imagine how frightening it would have been otherwise.
    No need to imagine, actually, it just happened.
    What if a scholar, a woman, and a legendary figure in her own right for speaking truth to power, found herself facing not just the temporary withdrawal of her books from the market, but her actual arrest and imprisonment for a mere tweet?
    Madhu Kishwar is an Indian scholar, activist and the founder of Manushi, an important and much respected institution in the Indian women’s movement. She is also an active public intellectual, and often uses Twitter to engage with urgent and important issues, often those that are critical of governments (she wrote a pioneering book on the political manipulation that distorted the facts of the 2002 Gujarat riots in order to demonize then Chief Minister Narendra Modi, but has also been fearlessly critical of his party in later times).
    Last December, Professor Kishwar tweeted in response to a tweet by another journalist that the brother of a minister in the Kashmir state government who happened to be an editor of a local Kashmiri newspaper received funding from the Indian government “but spit(s) venom at India.” The editor filed a defamation case against Professor Kishwar, and in a reportedly unusual move for the Indian legal system, the court went so far as to issue not merely a summons to Professor Kishwar, but an actual arrest warrant. (Read Professor Kishwar’s statement here and also read a critique of the politics behind her intimidation by Kashmiri writer Ashish Dhar here).
    Whatever the merits of the charges of defamation, and however above our scope of understanding that the wisdom of the courts may be, the fact is that this may be singularly most directly threatening act of intimidation made against an academician in India in recent times.
    Just to keep this in perspective, Professor Doniger may have been pained by the legal challenge one of her books faced in India in 2014, but no Indian court was so harsh or intolerant as to demand her arrest and imprisonment.
    Yet, the silence around Professor Kishwar’s right to free speech, fair treatment in the legal process, and indeed even physical well-being is devastating in its brazenness and indeed callousness.
    In February 2014, the New York Times published no less than eight (8) reports referring to the legal controversy in India over Wendy Doniger’s book, including an editorial signed by the board entitled “Muzzling Speech in India.” When February ran out of days, the saga bravely went on into March with an op-ed by Professor Doniger herself. USA Today published a piece by popular religion writer Stephen Prothero in which Doniger was compared to Sojourner Truth, an African-American woman who was born into slavery, not exactly Doniger’s profile at all. Anyway.
    Clearly, Professor Doniger’s pain was felt very deeply indeed. But will they bother to speak about Professor Kishwar’s pain?
    PEN International condemned the “chilling climate of censorship in India” in 2014 when it involved Wendy Doniger. Will they speak for the sanctity of another writer’s pen? Or is this a privilege that somehow women writers of the third world are deemed unworthy of having?
    Academicians from around the world came to the support of Professor Doniger then. Will the Chronicle of Higher Education, or Inside Higher Education, or the Times Higher Education Supplement, or any forum for academic freedom come to the aid of Professor Kishwar? 
    The state of the Indian news media is even more appalling. As of the time of my writing this piece, a search reveals only two reports of this case in Indian publications, out of which one calls itself the leading voice of Indian Muslims and Professor Kishwar an “angry lady” with a “victimhood” narrative.
    The Times of India, The Hindu, The Indian Express, all of them carried several reports and opinion pieces back in 2014 in support of a book that is now happily for all concerned freely and widely available in India today. But they have not even reported this story until now, let alone shown editorial support for Madhu Kishwar.
    Professor Kishwar has also expressed concerns for her safety and health several times in the past few months. Not one academician, writer, or so-called champion of free speech has even covered her predicament, let alone come to her support. But I hope this silence will not continue.
    If you believe that condemning a scholar to jail for criticizing the empirically verifiable editorial position of a newspaper is unacceptable, then speak up now, and get every writer, journalist, and scholar you know to speak up too. What’s free speech for Wendy Doniger, or for any writer or scholar or human being, should be free speech for Madhu Kishwar too.

    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/what-is-free-speech-for-wendy-doniger-should-be-free_us_58ec7252e4b0ea028d568c99?

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    Image result for pagoda gold coin durgaImage result for pagoda gold coin durgaVijayanagar, Achyutaraya 1529-1542 durga ¼ pagoda
    Coin #23:
    Kidarites of Kashmir, Toramana II, AE dinar, c. 7th century CE
    Stylized king standing facing, sacrificing at altar at left /
    Goddess enthroned facing, holding lotus flower and diadem
         Brahmi legend at right: jaya
    Weight: 7.04 gm., Diam: 21 mm.
    Ref: Mitchiner Non-Islamic 151-154

    Coin 23 illustrates the same phenomenon (of the combination of Hunnic and Indian influences) on a Hunnic coin from Kashmir. The Kidarites were a Hunnic tribe who contributed to the decline of Kushan power by seizing the northern parts of their kingdom in the 4th century. Although the major center of Kidarite power itself came under attack and was broken up, small offshoot Kidarite tribes retained power in different regions of northern India for several centuries. One such offshoot is now called the Kidarites of Kashmir, who gave rise to a kingdom that persisted in various forms for approximately 700 years. The coinage of this region followed from the late Kushan type of the 4th century, with a standing king sacrificing at a fire altar on the obverse, and a seated Ardochsho/Lakshmi on the reverse. On this coin, for example, it is clear that the deity on the reverse has become Lakshmi, as what used to be a cornucopia in her left arm has here become a long-stemmed lotus flower. We also see the Sanskrit word Jaya, or "victory," in Brahmi letters in the reverse right field.
    http://coinindia.com/fifty-coins3.html

    Image result for ancient pagoda coinINDIA KALACHURIS of TRIPURI Gangeya Deva Gold coin 
    Image result for pagoda gold coin durgaNayakas of Chitradurga: Durgi Pagoda. M#882Image result for pagoda gold coin bhagavati
     Vijayanagar: Hari Hara II (1377-1404) Gold half pagoda, Uma-Mahesvara type, Siva with damaru or drum.

    The world "pagoda" is derived from "bhagavati". This is not a joke. The story in this account of the Brisbane Pagoda

    The Brisbane Pagoda

    One of the pleasures of travel is the encounter with the familiar at the most unlikely places. It forces attention on forms and designs that were glossed over as part of one’s childhood world. The unfamiliar awakens the powers of observation. One gets to know more of the cultural spaces of the faraway regions than one’s own.
    Even though the pagoda form of the temple arose in India, one pays little attention to it in its native setting. An old theory sees the word pagoda derived from the name of a gold coin that was current in India in the 18th century. On one side of the coin was the form of the Goddess, Bhagavati, and on the other the shape of a terraced temple. The Austrian missionary and Sanskritist Paulinus of St. Bartholomew (1748-1806), who lived in Southern India during 1774-1789, informs that the coin was called Bhagavati. Specifically, it was a Durgi, for it had the image of Durgā.
    The name of the coin in rapid colloquial speech sounded like pagode or pagoda to the Europeans but they wrongly associated it with the shape of the temple. In time, other gold coins issued by various Indian kings were also called pagoda by the Europeans, although their local names were determined by the imprint like Rāma, Varāha, Matsya, Venkateśvara, and so on and their value varied based on the purity of gold. Col Thomas Munro writing in 1806 about the Bellary district observed that there were 32 kinds of pagodas and 16 kinds of rupees (silver coins).
    Paulinus, the first European to notice that Sanskrit and European languages belonged to the same family and publish a grammar of Sanskrit in Europe, lived in India around the time that the term pagoda came into European usage. James Prinsep (1799-1840) is responsible for popularizing the erroneous view that the term pagoda is derived from the shape of the pyramidal temple depicted on one side of the coin. The common Tamil name for the gold coin was Varāha from the imprint of the boar on the obverse side of the most popular coin.
    My wife and I would have missed the much-loved Brisbane Pagoda but for our friends and long-term residents Prabhakar Murthy and his wife Jayashree, who declared it a sight not to be missed. They explained that it served as the Nepal Pavilion for World Expo ’88 and it became so popular that the city decided to install it at the northwestern end of the South Bank Parklands on the bank of the Brisbane River.
    We were staying at a hotel on the Spring Hill that sits above the Central Business District of the city. From there, we first walked by the Roma Street Parklands with its Mahatma Gandhi statue.  Next came the Old Windmill, the oldest surviving building in Queensland, which was built by convicts in the colonial era to grind grains. The Windmill originally had wind-powered sails and also a treadwheel.  From there the pedestrian-only zone of the city are nearby as is the bridge on the river.
    The pagoda form, with its tiered roofs, is believed to have evolved from the stupa. I particularly like wooden pagodas with their multiple eaves and simplicity of conception. The ancient Pashupatinath Temple on the Bagmati River in Kathmandu is an early example of the wooden pagoda. According to historians, the pagoda form was taken from Nepal to China in the seventh century from where it spread to the other eastern countries. The Malla kings built some of the greatest pagodas in Nepal.
    The pagoda is now associated more with China than India. It is amusing that another common word associated with China, mandarin, comes from the Sanskrit for minister or official, mantrin. The Indian interlocutors told the Portuguese that the Chinese officials they wished to meet were mantrin and the word stuck and eventually became the name of the influential variety of the Chinese language that the officials spoke.
    As a student of temple architecture, it has long been my wish to visit the great wooden temples of Nepal in Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur, for these and other similar temples in the mountains of India constitute a unique branch of Indian temple architecture. But somehow it has not come to pass. So I was mighty pleased when I realized that Brisbane’s Pagoda is a replica of the Pashupatinath Temple.
    Craftsmen from 160 families worked on the Brisbane Pagoda in Kathmandu over a two-year period. The pieces were fashioned out of Terai timber, shipped to Australia, and assembled at the Expo site on the Brisbane River by Australian workers under Nepalese supervision.
    The pagoda has images representing the different incarnations of Śiva and the Buddha, and an image of Avalokiteśvara, the deity of compassion. The Peace Pagoda is used for weddings and other private functions, and it also has benches for personal meditation. The pagoda is just a ferry-ride away from the University of Queensland campus.

    Subhash Kak

    Subhash Kak

    Subhash Kak is Regents Professor at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater. Born in Srinagar and educated in Kashmir and Delhi, he has lived in the United States since 1979. He has has written six volumes of poetry in English and Hindi and another fourteen books on a wide variety of subjects that include history of science and art. He was the anchor in Raga Unveiled, which is a four-hour long documentary on Hindustani classical music.

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