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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    In the legal fight to reclaim the Ram Janmabhumi in Ayodhya, the discussion on Left Historians is a must
    Ritika Sharma works in Pharmaceutical industry and is a Management grad. Her interests at present are consumer behaviour, management, and politics.
    http://indiafacts.org/ayodhya-dispute-fighting-eminent-historians/

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    Deadly Attack Near U.K. Parliament; Car Plows Victims on Westminster Bridge

    Published on Mar 22, 2017

    VIDEO DETAILS THE MOMENTS THE NEWS BROKE... Parliament is in lockdown after reports of an attack at Westminster -- vehicle has mowed down 7 people, and in a seemingly separate incident a police officer has been stabbed and the assailant shot by police, Prime Minister was in the lobby at the time of attack and has been rushed away to safety in cavalcade...

    Shots were heard near Britain's Parliament on Wednesday, and an officer was stabbed. Witnesses said pedestrians were hit by a car on the nearby Westminster Bridge.
     By MEGAN SPECIA on Publish DateMarch 22, 2017. Photo by Andrew Testa for The New York Times.Watch in Times Video »
    https://www.nytimes.com/video/world/europe/100000005003180/uk-parliament-westminster-shooting-london-attack.html?action=click&contentCollection=world&module=lede&region=caption&pgtype=article

    LONDON — A knife-wielding assailant driving a sport utility vehicle mowed down panicked pedestrians and stabbed a police officer outside Parliament on Wednesday in a deadly assault, prompting the hasty evacuation of the prime minister and punctuating the threat of terrorism in Europe.
    At least five people, including the assailant, were killed and 40 others injured in the confusing swirl of violence, which the police said they assumed had been “inspired by international terrorism.” It appeared to be the most serious such assault in London since the deadly subway bombings more than a decade ago.
    Throughout a turbulent afternoon, ambulances, emergency vehicles and heavily armed security officers thronged the area outside Parliament, as one of the busiest sections of London was cordoned off and evacuated.
    Prime Minister Theresa May was rushed into a vehicle and spirited back to her office. She held a meeting of the government’s emergency committee and issued a statement on Wednesday night from her 10 Downing Street residence denouncing “the sick and depraved terrorist attack on the streets of our Capital this afternoon.”
    Mrs. May also said that “the full details of exactly what happened are still emerging,” but she confirmed that the attack had been carried out by a lone male assailant. As of late Wednesday, his identity had not been released, but Scotland Yard officials said they believed they knew who he was.
    The attack unfolded around 2:40 p.m., Assistant Commissioner Mark Rowley said at a news conference.
    Driving a large sport utility vehicle, the assailant slammed into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge near Parliament, killing two people and injuring 40 others, before crashing into a railing. A third person injured on the bridge later died at a hospital.
    Continue reading the main story




    Continue reading the main story

    Pedestrians wounded
    Palace of Westminster
    British Parliament
    Westminster Bridge
    RIVER THAMES
    Big Ben
    Attacker
    shot
    A car hit a
    fence here
    After the crash, the driver left the vehicle and approached Parliament, where he stabbed an armed police officer to death and was fatally shot by the police.
    The dead officer was identified as Keith Palmer, 48, a member of the Parliamentary and Diplomatic Protection Command with 15 years of experience.
    “This is the day we have planned for but we hoped would never happen,” Mr. Rowley said. “Sadly, it’s now a reality.”
    The attack came on the anniversary of suicide bombings in Brussels that killed 32 people, along with three bombers.
    It confirmed fears among counterterrorism officials that London, which had largely escaped recent terrorist attacks in Europe, would join cities like Paris, Brussels and Berlin as targets of mass violence.
    “Terrorism affects us all, and France knows the pain the British people are enduring today,” President François Hollande of France said at a news conference in Villepinte, near Paris.
    Continue reading the main story


    Photo

    People came to the aid of the wounded after the driver of a large vehicle mowed down pedestrians on Westminster Bridge. CreditToby Melville/Reuters
    Mrs. May, who spoke with Mr. Hollande and President Trump, said in her statement that Parliament would meet as normal on Thursday. She vowed to never permit “the voices of hate and evil to drive us apart.”
    Cmdr. B. J. Harrington of the Metropolitan Police said at a brief news conference earlier Wednesday that a “full counterterrorism investigation is underway.” He asked members of the public to report any suspicious activity and to share any images or video of the violence.
    Commander Harrington said that the acting police commissioner, Craig Mackey, had been at the scene of the attack and was not injured, but was “being treated as a significant witness.”
    At least three police officers were among those injured on the bridge. Also among the injured were three 10th-grade boys from a group of visiting students from the Brittany region of France, and a woman who fell or plunged into the River Thames.
    Mr. Hollande’s government said it had chartered a plane to London with families of the French victims.
    Tobias Ellwood, a minister in the Foreign Office, tried to save the life of the fatally stabbed police officer by giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
    Continue reading the main story


    Photo

    Tobias Ellwood, center, a Conservative member of Parliament and Foreign Office minister, helped an emergency services team attend to the stabbed police officer. CreditStefan Rousseau/Press Association, via Associated Press
    For more than two hours, astonished lawmakers inside the House of Commons, some of whom had ducked for cover, were told to stay in place as officers searched the premises office by office.
    “At the moment, the very clear advice from the police and the director of security in the house is that we should remain under suspension, and that the chamber should remain in lockdown until we’ve received advice that it is safe to go back to normal procedures,” David Lidington, the leader of the House of Commons, or lower house of Parliament, told lawmakers in remarks broadcast live on the BBC.
    Olly Grender, a member of the House of Lords, said that lawmakers were staying put. “We were in a meeting, I heard shouting through the window,” she said, adding that a colleague came in to tell them that a serious episode had taken place.
    Jayne Wilkinson, 59, from Birmingham, was near the statue of Winston Churchill in Parliament Square with her partner, David Turner, 56, when they saw people suddenly running from Parliament.
    The couple said they had seen a middle-aged man holding a knife. He ignored warnings from the police, running though the gates into the Parliament compound, she said.
    “They were shouting to warn him,” Ms. Wilkinson said. Soon after, she and her partner heard three gunshots and saw the man on the ground.
    Continue reading the main story


    Continue reading the main story

    On the Scene in London

    We gave live updates and responded to your questions in London, where a police officer was stabbed near the House of Parliament.
    Three construction workers inside the grounds of Westminster Palace said they had heard shots fired in rapid succession before they were escorted off the premises. “It was bang-bang-bang,” one said.
    Reuben Saunders, an American student at Cambridge University who was visiting Parliament, said he had been leaving the building when he saw a police officer accosted by an assailant armed with two knives or similar weapons.
    “He was at the gate, I heard screaming,” Mr. Saunders said. “I saw the man on the ground being repeatedly stabbed, or pummeled.”
    Mr. Saunders said two or three other police officers arrived, and “there were two or three gunshots.”
    Corinne Desray, a teacher who was outside Parliament with 39 teenage students on a three-day school trip from northern France, said they had heard three shots. “My colleague saw bodies lying on the floor and someone said a policeman has been knived,” she said. “I told the kids to leave quickly, we’re heading back to the bus.”



    Kirsten Hurrell, 70, who owns a newsstand opposite Big Ben, said she had seen a car swerve across a bicycle lane and into a fence around Parliament. She saw a body lying on the ground and called emergency services. “At first I thought it was an accident, but then I was told the car had already mowed down quite a number of people on Westminster Bridge,” she said, adding: “Now that it is a terrorist incident, it is a bit more daunting.”

    “I came out of the Tube and there were two armed policemen,” he said in an interview. “One grabbed my arm, pushed me to the left and said, ‘Get out of here,’ ” he said. “They were shouting at everyone to get away.”
    Robert Vaudry, 52, a fund manager from Stratford-upon-Avon, said he had emerged from the Westminster subway station around 2:40 p.m. for a meeting with a lawmaker when he realized that something was amiss.
    As he spoke, police officers were cordoning off the area. One officer shouted, “We need everyone to move back past Downing Street.”
    Radoslaw Sikorski, a former foreign minister of Poland who was in the area, was in a taxi on Westminster Bridge when the pedestrians were hit by the other vehicle.
    “I didn’t see the impact, I heard it — it sounded like a car hitting a sheet of metal,” he said. “I saw these people lying on the tarmac, on the pavement. I saw five people down, one unconscious and one bleeding heavily from his head. He was not moving. The taxi driver rang the emergency services, and people rushed to help.”
    Andrew Bone, the executive director of the Responsible Jewellery Council, an industry standards group, was on a bus heading toward Victoria Station when it was stopped at the edge of Parliament Square. Seeing the commotion, he initially thought an action movie was being shot, but quickly discerned the gravity of the situation as the bus was evacuated and he saw the vehicle that had crashed into a railing.



    Ambulances, emergency vehicles and heavily armed security officers thronged the area outside Parliament.CreditAndrew Testa for The New York Times
    “We had a front-row seat as the first responders arrived,” Mr. Bone said. “I am of the generation who remembers I.R.A. bombs in London during the Troubles,” he said, referring to the sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland. “We are not indifferent, but police have reacted with calm. I saw no panic.”
    Martin Vickers, a member of the House of Commons, was in a passageway in Parliament when he heard loud noises. He thought a motorcycle was backfiring. But as word spread that shots had been fired, he and dozens of other people were ushered onto the Thames embankment, next to Big Ben. There, he saw the vehicle that had been driven into the railings, and saw wounded pedestrians.
    Britain has not suffered a large-scale terrorist attack since July 7, 2005, when bomb attacks on subway trains and on a bus killed more than 50 people. Political violence is relatively rare in Britain, where gun ownership is seriously restricted.
    Jo Cox, a Labour member of Parliament, was assassinated in her constituency in northern England on June 16, a week before the contentious referendum on whether Britain should leave the European Union.
    In 1979, a lawmaker was assassinated near the Parliament building. Airey Neave, a Conservative Party member, was killed when his car was blown up.
    Jeremy Shapiro, a former State Department official now at the European Council on Foreign Relations, said that the London attack was consistent with the recent pattern of attacks in which a vehicle was used to kill people, citing attacks in France, Germany and Israel.
    “We’ve seen a gradual movement away from terrorist attacks on the West to attacks on softer and softer targets with more improvised weapons,” he said. “In a way, it’s a sign of desperation and a demonstration of the effectiveness of counterterrorism in the West. It’s spectacularly easy to kill a bunch of people with a car or a truck if you don’t care who they are.”



    https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/22/world/europe/uk-westminster-parliament-shooting.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=span-ab-top-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0

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    Shri RamJanma Bhoomi Agitation is not a mere Hindu-Muslim conflict or a Temple-Mosque conflict, It is a conflict of National vs Anti national. A Rashtra is not a just a piece of land but an epitome of oneness of society inhabited on that land. These sentiments are derived out of that land’s culture, history and values.

    Shri Ram is not just another character in the history but an idol of our cherished culture and values. He is an immortal living legend. He is the origin of our immortal culture which goes back in date thousands of years. There is a fascinating association, knowledge and faith among all caste, creeds, sexes, languages and regions about Shri Ram. Shri Ram symbolizes national unity. He is the spirit of our Rashtra.

    Even architects of our constitution found it prudent to put the picture of Shri Ram, Mata Sita and Shri Laxman on board of Pushpak in the first draft of our constitution. Constituent assembly was manned by luminaries from diverse religions, yet there were no concerns on the depiction of this picture. The same draft also portrayed the images of Shri Krishna, Bhagwan Buddha and Bhagwan Mahavir. All of them are eternal souls of our land. Hence it is our constitutional obligation to protect the birth place of Shri Ram.

    Statements by Dr. Rammanohar Lohiya

    We all know Dr. Rammanohar Lohiya, a well-known proponent of socialist philosophy. He also stated that:

    Rama, Krishna and Shiva are our idols. Rama integrated north-south whereas Krishna did the same for east-west. Masses view them as their adoring idols. Rama is the essence of austerity, Krishna is key to ungrudging life and Shiva is the epitome of uninhibited persona. Oh my motherland, bless me the wisdom of Shiva, heart of Krishna and the integrity of Rama.

    It is our national duty to guard the birth places of all such revered idols. It is inevitable for the unity and integrity of our nation.

    Reconstruction of Somnath Temple

    Shri RamJanma Bhoomi Agitation is a matter of national pride and self-respect. To wipe out the bruises of insult is courage. That is why this agitation. A sense of self-respect imparts the nation the strength to stand on its feet and ability to resolve its problems. Post-independence, such movements have been exceptions only. One such exception was reconstruction of Somnath temple. Since 1026, this temple has been ravaged 21 times but it was reconstructed again and again. At last, Aurangzeb ordered to replace this temple by a mosque in 1706. After gaining independence, to regain our lost glory, the then home minister Sardar VallabhBhai Patel professed to reconstruct Somnath temple again. Mahatma Gandhi endorsed the idea. Pandit Nehru’s cabinet, which even included Maulana Azad, too gave its approval. Parliament also nodded for the same.

    His Excellency, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, was the then president of India. On 11th May 1951, he established Shivlinga in Somnath temple. He did so irrespective of the objection by some secularists. He was absolutely convinced that this is a matter of self-respect and self-identity rather than anything else. In Somnath, he stated that Somnath is a sacred place for all Indians. Even if a place of faith is ruined, faith itself is infallible. Reconstruction of Somnath temple is a long held dream coming true. No amount of words are sufficient to express the joy of this dream coming true.

    On 25th December 1947, Gandhi Ji made an important statement in Delhi’s Birla House. One Urdu newspaper claimed that if Somnath happens so will Gajani’s reappearance. Gandhi Ji responded by saying that Gajani’s behaviour was highly uncivilized. It is very unfortunate if Indian Muslims take pride in Gajani. Muslims should concede maleficence under Islamic rule. It will not be acceptable if Muslims speak the language of Gajani again.

    Our sentiments in the context of Shri Ram JanamBhoomi are same as sentiments expressed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Mahatma Gandhi and Sardr VallabhBhai Patel in the context Somnath temple.

    Erasing the bruises of slavery

    After gaining independence in 1947, all the idols of Queen Victoria and King George V were removed from all the parks and squares. Roads were renamed. Delhi’s Irwin hospital was renamed as Jaiprakash Narayan Hospital. Minto Bridge is now called Shivaji Bridge. Mumbai’s Vincent road became Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Road. Victoria Terminus Railway station is now called Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. Because old nomenclature was the signature of our past slavery, they were done away with it. In the same way Babri Masjid is the signature of an insult bestowed upon us which can only be done away by erecting a Ram Temple at the same place.

    Church of Poland

    Half of Europe was under Islamic dominance for a long time. Islamic aggressors demolished many churches and erected mosques at the same place. Once the same European land gained independence, they took no time to demolish those mosques and re-erect churches. This was the way to get rid of all the manifestation of past humiliation. Poland was won over by Russia in 1815. As a mark of glory, Russia established a big church on a major square in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. Poland gained independence in 1918 after First World War. Again polish government replaced Russian made church with one of their own. Both Russia and Poland have Christianity as a vernacular religion, yet Russia chose to demolish a polish church, why? Self-respecting polish government responded by saying that Russian made church was signature of their triumph over Poland. Re-erecting a polish church was retaining the lost glory. This is called national pride. Taking cue from the very same sentiments, Kashi, Mathura and Ayodhya too must be liberated from past wounds.

    Dream of Shivaji

    When Aurangzeb destroyed Kashi Vishwanath Temple in 1669 and erected the mosque at the same place, Shivaji wrote a warning letter to Aurangzeb pledging to replenish all the Hindu places of worship including Kashi Vishwanath. Rejuvenation of such fallen places of worship used to be regular topic of discussion in Shivaji’s cabinet. Shivaji himself reconstructed many such temples. When he visited south India, he replenished 2 of today’s big temples in Tamilnadu. These 2 temples were ravaged by Mughals some years back. Even after Shivaji, the consequent Maratha regime continued this mission. Sacred places such as Trimbakeshwar, Sundar Narayan Temple at Nashik and MahaKaleshwar temple at Ujjain, which were demolished by Mughals, got replenished by Marathas.

    When Maratha dominance increased in north, process of liberating pious places of worship got accelerated. In 1751 and 1759, Nawab of Awadh was provided help on the precondition of liberation of Ayodhya, Prayag and Kashi. There was a consistent Maratha pressure for the same. Unfortunately, before they could be liberated, Marathas got defeated in the battle of Panipat in 1761.



    Muslims of India, Please be aware

    How are we related to Babar? He was an unruly and barbaric aggressor. He was from Middle East Asia. He first conquered Afghanistan and then came to India. Babar was cremated in Afghanistan. In 1969, one delegation from India visited Afghanistan. Dr. VedPratap Vedic, an erudite in Afghanistan Policy and a philosopher, was part of this delegation. This delegation went on to visit the cemetery of Babar. Cemetery was rather in very bad shape. Indian delegation asked Afghan authorities reason for this bad state of cemetery. Afghan leader answered that what relation we have with Babar? He was an aggressor for us. He enslaved us. Because he was Muslim, we did not do any harm to his cemetery. But the day it would fall, we all Afghans would be very happy. This leader was nobody else but the then Afghan Prime Minister Shri. Babrak Karmal. These sentiments should be understood by Indian Muslims.

    90% of Indonesian population is Muslim. It is a declared Islamic nation. Yet their most revered idol is Ram. Study of Ramayan is mandatory in their primary education. Then why not in India? Indonesia was a Hindu-Baudh dominated nation 700 years back. But still they are holding on to their values.

    Iran is an Islamic nation, yet Rustam Sohrab is their national idol. Rustam Sohrab was a Parasi who existed 3000 years back. He was not a Muslim. Pyramid is national idol in Egypt. Pyramids date back to 3500 years when Islam did not exist. Shri Ram also existed thousands of years back when Islam was nowhere on the horizon. Indian Muslims were Hindus only 200-400-800 years back. Then why Indian Muslims have hesitation in adopting Shri Ram as their Idol and inspiration?

    Many issues will be resolved if Indian Muslims draw their wisdom from Muslims of Iran and Egypt. India will retain its lost glory. India will be united never before.

    National vs. Anti-National

    Shri Ram is our Identity. He is the signature of our nationality. Babar, the aggressor, was our enemy. For Babar, Guru Nanak DevJi once said, only a procession of sinners can concede to Babar’s rule. Adulating Babar, the one who demolished temples, is anti-national. Are we worshippers of Ram or the inheritors of Babar? Everyone needs to ask this question to oneself.

    Construction of Ram temple is a matter of nationalism. There can be no compromise on the same.

    --
    Posted By VSK Tamilnadu to Vishwa Samvad Kendra - Tamilnadu at 3/23/2017 01:56:00 PM

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    “The person, who is able to recite the Vedas, but does not understand its meaning is like a post (sthaanu), or a mere load-bearer (bhaarahaara); but he who understands the meaning will attain all good here and hereafter, being purged from sins by knowledge.” ~ Yaska

    Introduction:

    The history of the science of linguistics in India can be traced back to the age of the Vedas, some 3,500 (or more) years ago. The necessity of ensuring that no corruption or modification should creep into the Vedic texts (and language itself) led Indian scholars to discuss, debate, and put forward theories of language, and discourse. Some of the prominent among those early scholars were Panini, Yaska, Katyayana, Patanjali, Bhartrihari, Shaktayana, Gargya, Audambarayna, etc.
    Yaska is known for his pioneering work in the science of etymology, the Nirukta. The exact date of Yaska’s existence in not known, but Saroop puts him at least a century earlier than Plato. Kapoor, on the other hand, puts him much earlier. “Indians have not been a biographical people and details of an individual’s life have not really mattered. What matters is the relative chronology of ideas” (Kapoor, 2010). Kapoor (2010) also mention a ‘meta-rule in Indian thought — “Not to mention Buddha is not to know Buddha and not to know Buddha is to have been born before Buddha.” It is important to note that neither Yaska, nor Panini mention Buddha, but Panini does quote Yaska. Based on this, Kapoor (2010) places him in the 9th century BCE, though he could have been much earlier.
    Yaska is the first writer on etymology and he is the first scholar to treat it as an independent science. Nirukta, written by Yaska, is a commentary on Nighantu. Yaska himself compiled a list of classified ambiguous or opaque Vedic words, based on meaning, for his Nighantu. As such, many consider Nighantu as the earliest work in lexicography. Nirukta is also considered one of the six Vedangas. The Vedangas (literally, the ‘limbs of the Vedas’) are the ancillary disciplines, a prerequisite of sorts, for mastering/understanding of the Vedas. The six Vedangas include shiksha (phonetics), kalpa (rituals), vyakarana (grammar), nirukta (etymology), chhanda (meter), and jyotish (astronomy).

    Indian Knowledge Tradition

    The Vedas consist of eternal words and the mantras, out of which, it is believed an entire universe can be created. Vedic scholars believe that a universe of objective realities exists because humans can express it through language. Nothing exists without language. Every element, every object, every idea in this world exists because it can be expressed through a language (includes sounds, words). Rooted in this worldview, Vedic mantras were recited by the priests at the altar during rituals and ceremonies to produce desired results, say for example, rain. Since language was so central to the Vedic worldview, its purity, correct pronunciation, intonation, etc. was paramount in getting desired results. Despite the preeminence of the Vedas in the Indian Knowledge Tradition (IKT), there were fierce debates about the efficacy of the Vedic mantras itself. Yaska, in his Nirukta mentions Kautsa (another grammarian) who believed that Vedic mantras were meaningless. To counter Kautsa, Yaska asserts that Vedic texts cannot be studied in isolation. In order to get the meaning of the Vedic texts one has to study ‘with the system’, ‘in the system’. Besides a prerequisite of the six Vedangas, one must also understand the three basic concepts of the Vedas – (1) who the rishi (seer) is of the specific section (who is saying?), (2) to which devata the mantras are dedicated (for whom it is being said?), and (3) how is it set to meter or chhanda (how is it being said?). Considering the centrality of language in the IKT, it is no surprise that three of the six Vedangas (ShikshaVyakarana, and Nirukta) are directly related to the science of language.

    Origin of Language

    The question of the origin of language was hotly debate in the IKT. Yaska belonged to the school of Etymologists (Nairukt) whose primary belief was “all words are derived from original roots”. Though it may appear sometimes that Yaska believed in the Grammarians’ (Vaiyakaranas) viewpoint as he does accept the principle of onomatopoeia (Anukarana) as a phenomenon of language. But he seems to have taken the middle-path when he asserts that onomatopoeia is found only in the names of birds. The word dudumbhi is alternatively explained by Yaska as onomatopoeic – dudumbhir iti shabdanukaranam. Yaska often quotes Audambarayana’s extreme view in this regard where he had denied outright the role of onomatopoeia in the origin of language. Plato, on the other hand, considers onomatopoeia as the most important factor in the formation of language and finds a counterpart in India in Panini who too accepts this phenomenon. But Yaska, does not assign any significant role to onomatopoeia in the foundation of language. He remains a committed adherent of the root theory. Yaska believed that there are some words in the language that are formed by mere imitation of the sounds of nature, mostly birds. However, these words, he believed, can be derived otherwise as well.

    Eternity of Words

    In the IKT, both grammarians and philosophers alike, hotly debate the idea of the eternity of words. Katyayana, in a commentary on Panini, makes reference to two opposite schools of thought – Naityashabdika and Karyashabdika. It is to be noted that shabda in the IKT, refers to word, sound, and the language itself. Panini and Katyayana believed that words were eternal in nature. Audambarayana, as quoted by Yaska, held the contrary view where words were considered transitory in nature, that is, they last only so long as they are uttered – indriyanityam vachanaudambarayanah. But Yaska doubts the transitory nature of the words. He claims that it would be difficult to have a four-fold division of words (Vaikhari, Madhyama, Pashyanti, and Para) without considering them eternal. The Taittiriyas, the followers of the Taittiriya Pratishakhya, also seem to hold the same view that defines lopa as vinash or annihilation.

    Parts of Speech

    Pada, in Vajasneyi Pratishakhya, has been used to indicate meaningful sounds (arthaah padam). Panini describes pada as subant and tingant. Group of varnas has also been described as pada. Such definitions enable Yaska to use the term pada for his group of words listed in Nirukta. Yaska divides his group of words (padas) into four groups (chatvari padajatani namakhyate chopsargnipatashch) – (1)nama (noun), (2)akhyata (verb), (3)upasarga (preposition), and (4)nipat (particles).
    1. Nama (Noun): Nama, according to Yaska, has ‘being’ (satva) as its fundamental notion. Yaska believed that nouns are derived from verbs (dhatuj/akhyataj). This assertion, however, wasn’t without controversy. Many grammarians, including Gargya, argued that if all nouns were derived from verbs, every person who performs a particular action should have the same name. Yaska presents several counter arguments to Gargya’s criticism. For example, Yaska says, everybody who cuts wood is not called a carpenter. Similarly, a carpenter performs many other actions besides cutting wood. Therefore, objects are named for one specific important action.
    2. Akhyat (Verb): Yaska defines verbs as having bhava (becoming) its fundamental notion. It is the avastha, or the state, that is the determining factor between a noun and a verb. While verbs are sadhya, nouns are siddha. Yaska’s ‘becoming’ has both the notion of action and the notion of time. Yaska lists six modifications of verbs – (a) genesis, (b) existence, (c) alteration, (d) growth, (e) decay, and (f) destruction.
    3. Upasarga (Preposition): Yaska defined Upsargas as words that bring into prominence the subordinate meaning of nouns and verbs. Sanskrit grammarians differed in whether or not upsargas had meaning of their own. Yaska believed upasargas did have meaning of their own. In Nirukta, he lists 20 upsargas with their meaning. They are aa, a, para, abhi, prati, ati, su, nir, dur, ni, ava, ut, sam, vi, apa, anu, api, upa, pari, adhi.
    4. Nipat (Particles): The fourth parts of speech discussed in Nirukta is nipat (particles). Yaska says that particles occur in three senses – (1) comparative, (2) Conjunctive, and (3) expletive. Yaska gives a list of particles in each group, and explains their meanings. He even provides quotes from Vedic literature to illustrate their usages. There are several particles, but Yaska choses to list twenty-four of them. They are aha, a, it, iva, ima, u, ut, kam, kila, khalu, cha, chit, tvat, ha, nanu, nu, nunam, ma, na, sasvat, sim, ha, and hi.

    Nighantu

    Yaska’s Nirukta is the pre-eminent work on etymology. It is probably the first work on the subject and the first one to treat it as a separate scientific subject. Nirukta is listed as fourth of the six Vedangas in the Taittiriya Upanishad. Nirukta in itself is not an independent treatise. It is a commentary on Yaska’s earlier work Nighantu, which is a compilation of classified list of Vedic words.
    Nighantu is organized in five chapters. Chapters 1-3 are called Naighantuka Kanda, which deals with synonyms, and contain 1,341 words. Chapter 4 is called Naigama Kanda and it contains homonyms. This chapter lists 278 words. The 5th chapter, the Daivata Kanda, deals with the names of deities. The Daivata Kanda has 151 words. Out of the three chapters of Naighantuka Kanda, the first deals with physical objects like earth, water and objects of nature like cloud, dawn, day, and night. The second chapter of the Naighantuka Kanda deals with human beings and its anatomy such as arms, limbs, fingers, as well as qualities associated with humans such as wealth, anger, etc. The third and final Naighantuka chapter deals with abstract qualities such as heaviness and lightness of objects.
    Many scholars consider Nighantu as the earliest attempt at lexicography. Organization of chapters of Nighantu, at the very least, represents some sort of arrangement. However, it does not contain the exhaustive list of all Vedic words. It contains only problematic words – words that are ambiguous, opaque, or synonymous. Also, words are listed in the exact form in which they appear in the Vedic texts. A word may have a repeat entry if it has the same form but different meaning.

    Nirukta

    Nirukta is considered the oldest Indian treatise on etymology, philology, and semantics. However, Nirukta remains the pre-eminent work on etymology.  Yaska’s Nirukta is not only the first work on etymology, it is also the first work to treat etymology as a science. Yaska considers etymology as integral to the understanding and analysis of the Vedic texts and samhitas and as such a complement of grammar. Yaska goes so far as to claim that etymology is science, and it should be studied for its own sake, for the knowledge is commended, and ignorance is condemned (Chapter 1, 15-20).
    Yaska considers dhatu, or root, as the primordial element of a word. Every word has a root as its origin. In tracing the root, Yaska follows three basic rules. First rule has to do with the laws of phonology. For example, it is easy to trace the origin of words such as pachak, and bodh from the root pach, and budh respectively. However, such phonological connections aren’t always easy to make. As his second rule, Yaska then goes on to suggest considering the meaning of the word and try to derive the root from some similarity of form. In the absence of any such similarity, he recommends considering even a letter or a syllable. Yaska also had the foresight to see the misuse of this rule by the amateurs. He emphasizes the importance of context. He warns that single words isolated from their context should not be thus derived. Finally, Yaska claims that that the roots should be derived in accordance with their meaning. “If their meanings are the same, their etymologies should be the same, if the meanings are different, the etymologies should be different.”
    Nirukta has 12 chapters and Yaska deals with etymology proper starting with chapter 2, section 2. Chapter 1 (and part of chapter 2) of Nirukta deals with some very important theoretical aspects which gives us an insight into Yaska’s overall philosophical and linguistic approach. Those theoretical aspects can be grouped together as follows (Kapoor, 2010)
    1. Primacy of meaning, importance of the knowledge, and the meaningfulness of the Vedic mantras.
    2. Parts of speech.
    3. The verb-root principle.
    4. Language variation, its causes, forms, and effects.
    5. Principles of Nirvachana (etymology).
    Additionally, types of hymns and philosophy of gods is also discussed (in Daivata Kanda).

    Nighantu Chapters

    Categories Covered

    Nirukta Chapters & Sections

    Chapter 1, Naighantuka Kanda Synonyms Chapter 2
    Chapter 2, Naighantuka Kanda Synonyms Chapter 3, sections 1-12
    Chapter 3, Naighantuka Kanda Synonyms Chapter 3, sections 13-22
    Chapter 4, Naigama Kanda Homonyms Chapters 4, 5, and 6
    Chapter 5, Daivata Kanda Names of deities Chapters 7-12.
    Table: Organization of Nighantu and Nirukta chapters.
    Word entries in Nirukta follow a painstakingly elaborate process. This speaks volumes for the level of sophistication and understanding of the subject matter which cannot be mastered without the presence of a longstanding framework and tradition. For a typical Nirukta entry, Yaska takes a word, derives its verb-root, provides the meaning of the verb root, and then based on the verb-root meaning provides the meaning of the derived word. Further, Yaska illustrates the words with examples. In doing so, he cites the appropriate Vedic hymns. Additionally, he also provides social, historical, geographical, and philosophical information as well as explanation. When Yaska encounters a controversial (or a potentially controversial) word, in the true IKT tradition, he first provides purvapaksha (the counter opinion) followed by powerful arguments of his own against that opinion. Here is an example of a typical Nirukta entry (Nirukta, Chapter 2, section 5) (Saroop):
    The word gauh, is a synonym for ‘earth’ (so called) because it goes very far, or people go ever it (root gam). Or it may be derived from (the root) ga with the suffix au (ga+au=gau). Moreover, it is a synonym of ‘an animal’ from the same root also. Further, in the latter meaning, there are Vedic passages where primary forms (of gauh) are used in a derivative sense: ‘Mix soma with milk’, i.e., (gauh is used in the sense) of milk. Matsarah means soma; it is derived from (the root) mand meaning to satisfy. Matsarah is a synonym of greed also: it makes man mad after wealth. Payas (milk) is derived from (the root) pa (to drink), or from pyay (to swell). Kshiram (milk) is derived from (the root) kshar (to flow), or it is derived from ghas (to consume) with the suffix ira, like ushira (root of a plant). ‘Milking soma they sit on a cow-skin’, i.e., (gauh is used in the sense) of cow-skin for sitting on. Amshuh (soma is so called because) no sooner than it goes in, it is agreeable, or it is agreeable for life. Charma (skin) is derived from (the root) char (to move) or (it is so called because) it is cut off (from the body). ‘Thou art girded round with skin and phlegm, be strong’, this (is said) in praise of a chariot. Moreover, it means tendon and phlegm: ‘Girt with tendon and phlegm, it flies when discharged’; this is in praise of an arrow. Bow-string is called gauh also: if it be gavya, it is the derivative form; if not (it is causal), i.e., it sets arrow in motion.

    Conclusion

    Considering the depth and breadth of knowledge expressed through Yaska’s work, it is safe to say that Yaska is not only an etymologist par-excellence, he is also a semanticist and philosopher-grammarian. Yaska’s reflections on language and language philosophy, and his work on Nighantu and Nirukta points to an intellectual endeavor unparalleled in any knowledge tradition of the world. Yaska was acutely aware of the dialectical and regional variations in the spoken language. Yaska had the awareness of the existence and the foresight of the possible existence of other modes of expression. But he gives the articulate speech primacy over the others. Yaska, through his treatise, is able to conclusively settle some of the old controversies (verb-root controversy) of his time. His was also the first known attempt at developing a method for the interpretation of texts.

    References:

    Kapoor, Kapil. Dimensions of Panini Grammar: the Indian Grammatical System. New Delhi, D.K. Printworld, 2005.
    Sarup, Lakshman. Nighantu and the Nirukta, the Oldest Indian Treatise on Etymology, Philology, and Semantics. Sanskrit Text with an Appendix. 1927.
    USCCollege. “Kapil Kapoor Saturday Keynote Speaker.” YouTube, YouTube, 8 Nov. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=urj_cyh24Jk. Accessed 26 Feb. 2017.
     Disclaimer: The facts and opinions expressed within this article are the personal opinions of the author. IndiaFacts does not assume any responsibility or liability for the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or validity of any information in this article.
    va@gmail.com'
    Avatans Kumar (@avatans) is a marketing, IT, and PR professional. Avatans holds graduate degrees in Linguistics from JNU and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and MBA from Webster University. Avatans has keen interest in topics involving Indian Intellectual Tradition, history, and current affairs.

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    Manogna Sastry and Megh Kalyanasundaram have effectively debunked in a 40 min. presentation, the fraudulent, motivated and baseless chronological account rendered by Commie Sheldon Pollock.

    This well-documented, well-researched work by Manogna and Megh should become a harbinger for a truthful narrative to be made available to students and researchers on the story of Bhāratiya Civilization.

    I suggest that the remarkable historical researches dones by Manogna and Megh should become the basis for a textbook to be used in all schools all over the world, on a truthful, chronological narrative of Itihāsa of Bhāratam Janam. 

    This will also help identify areas for further historical researches to narrate the ātmā as living principle which govern life-activities  of 1.25 billion people, as the repayment of R̥ṇam owed to Pitr̥-s, Deva-s and ṣi-s who have defined the identity of Bhāratam Janam.

    Such a textbook should replace the fraudulent and baseless works spread by counterfeit scholars like Sheldon Pollock gaining currency and spoiling young, impressionable minds of students and researchers.

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    March 24, 2017

    PAPER TITLE: Purva Paksa of Sheldon Pollock's Use of Chronology

    AUTHORSManogna Sastry and Megh Kalyanasundaram

    ABSTRACT: Sheldon Pollock’s body of work shows his penchant for a few pet topics: his positioning Buddhism as the silver bullet that saved the ‘Indian’ from Vedic and Brahmanic oppression; his strenuous case to uncover tenuous parallels between Greek classics and Indian epics, effectively taking away the Indian claim to deeply native and formative elements of her culture; his dismissive condescension of centuries of indigenous oral traditions along with strategic emphasis of deliberately limited aspects of the essence and historicity of kāvya in evaluating its contributive value; his theorisation of a perceived tension between Sanskrit and the regional languages as well as his position that the field of Sanskrit has not had a history of examining its own literary change, among other similar fantastic claims. When different works from his scholarship are considered together, not only do logical and chronological inconsistencies become evident, but also the near-absence of detailed chronology, which in his own words is ‘central to comparative intellectual-historical practice.’ Ergo, beginning with a detailed consolidation of his dispersed chronological data into a framework and proceeding from thereon to address the questions enumerated in the position paper—“Does tradition disagree with some of the dates he assigns? Which ones and with what evidence or logic do traditional scholars disagree with SP?”—with a particular focus on the epoch around the first of the ‘two great moments of transformation in culture and power in premodern India’ when the ‘momentous rupture’ that led Sanskrit to descend from ‘The World of Gods’ to ‘the World of Men’—is central to the undertaking this effort represents. Particular recurrent themes in Pollock’s work as well as the larger context he provides for the study and revival (or a case for no revival) of Sanskrit, in context of his chronology, are also probed in this effort. 

    PRESENTATION VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJSsEA6fpJE&feature=youtu.be (41:10) Published on Mar 20, 2017


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    Image result for halil rud civilizationMap showing the main sites of Middle Asia in the third millennium BC (whorls indicate the presence of Indus and Indus-likeseals bearing multiple heads of different animals arranged in whirl-like motif). "The hypothesis which is validated in historical chronology of peoples’ movements in Eurasia is that Meluhha artisans and merchants of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization moved to spread the archaeometallurgical initiatives of alloying. They had invented a unique writing system with hieroglyph multiplexes as signifiers to compile metalwork catalogues. 
    This is consistent with the evidence of Baudhāyana Śrauta Sūtra  18.44:397.9 sqq which records: 

    Ayu migrated eastwards. His (people) are the Kuru-Pancalas and the Kasi-Videhas. 

    This is the Ayava (migration). Amavasumigrated westwards. His (people) are the Ghandhari, Parsu and Aratta. 
    This is the Amavasu (migration). 

    See: 
    https://www.academia.edu/14548989/Bhirrana_to_Mehrgarh_and_beyond_in_the_civilization_contact_areas_from_8th_millennium_BCE
    Meluhha and Jiroft

    A dominant hieroglyph depicted on Jiroft artifacts is a 'wallet'. The Meluhha word for this hieroglyph is dhokra. Meluhha hieroglyphs related to metalwork are depicted on artifacts shaped like wallets.

    Hieroglyph: wallet:  *dhōkka1 ʻ sacking, matting ʼ. 2. *dhōkha -- . 3. *dhōṅga -- 2. 4. *ḍhōkka -- 1. [Cf. *ṭōkka -- 1]1. Ext. --  -- : N. dhokro ʻ large jute bag ʼ, B. dhokaṛ; Or. dhokaṛa ʻ cloth bag ʼ; Bi. dhŏkrā ʻ jute bag ʼ; Mth. dhokṛā ʻ bag, vessel, receptacle ʼ; H. dhukṛī f. ʻ small bag ʼ; G. dhokṛũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- ṭṭ -- : M. dhokṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ; -- with -- n -- : G. dhokṇũ n. ʻ bale of cotton ʼ; -- with -- s -- : N. (Tarai) dhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in ʼ.2. L. dhohẽ (pl. dhūhī˜) m. ʻ large thatched shed ʼ.3. M. dhõgḍā m. ʻ coarse cloth ʼ, dhõgṭī f. ʻ wallet ʼ.4. L. ḍhok f. ʻ hut in the fields ʼ; Ku. ḍhwākā m. pl. ʻ gates of a city or market ʼ; N. ḍhokā (pl. of *ḍhoko) ʻ door ʼ; -- OMarw. ḍhokaro m. ʻ basket ʼ; -- N. ḍhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in, large basket ʼ.(CDIAL 6880) Rebus: dhokra kamar 'cire perdue, lost-wax casting metalworker'
    Related image Jiroft. Vase. Basket-shaped wallet. http://antikforever.com/Perse/Divers/jiroft.htm

    Bi. dhŏkrā ʻ jute bag ʼ; Mth. dhokṛā ʻ bag, vessel, receptacle ʼ; OMarw. ḍhokaro m. ʻ basket ʼ; -- N. ḍhokse ʻ place covered with a mat to store rice in, large basket ʼ.(CDIAL 6880) Rebus: dhokra kamar 'cire perdue, lost-wax casting metalworker'.

    āre 'lion' rebu: āra 'brass' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'.

    pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore)
    pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel' 

    Thus, this Jiroft vase with Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs is a professional calling card -- dharma samjñā 'responsibility badge' -- of the Meluhha  cire perdue metalcaster.

    Hieroglyph 1: kulā ʻhood of a snakeʼ(Assamese) (CDIAL 3350) खोळ (p. 216) [ khōḷa ] A hooded cloak for children. (CDIAL 3942)Rebus: kol metal (Ta.) kol = pan~calōkam (five metals) (Tamil) kol ‘working in iron’, blacksmith’; kolle'blacksmith’ kolhe ‘smelters’ kole.l ‘smithy, Te. kolimi furnace. Go. (SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; temple’ ;  (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge.(DEDR 2133) kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollanblacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·lKota smithy. Ka. kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; konimi blacksmith;(Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollëblacksmith.                                                                


    Hieroglyph 2: bica 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'haematite'   
    Hieroglyph 3: pōladu 'Black drongo' rebus:  pōlāda 'steel'
    Stairs of Konar Sandal Ziggurat The main part of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat of the Jiroft ancient site, located in the southern Iranian province of Kerman, has recently been excavated, the Persian service of CHN reported on Friday.


    Before the discovery of the ziggurat in 2002, Chogha Zanbil, a major remnant of the Elamite civilization near Susa , was the only surviving ziggurat in Iran . Chogha Zanbil Ziggurat dates back to 1250 BCE.


    “The main part of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat is the lower part and is 200 years older than the upper section. Thus, construction of the ziggurat was carried out in stages beginning in 2200 BCE,” said Professor Yusef Majidzadeh, the director of the archaeological team working at the site.


    Built some time around 2100 BCE by king Ur-Nammu, the Ur Ziggurat is the oldest one in Mesopotamia , but the Konar Sandal Ziggurat is a century older than it, he added.


    The Ur Ziggurat was built in honor of the god Sin in Ur , a Sumerian city on the Euphrates , in the south of modern-day Iraq . It was called 'Etemennigur', which means 'house whose foundation creates terror'.


    “The archaeologists have determined the original shape of the Konar Sandal Ziggurat for restoration,” Majidzadeh said.


    Jiroft came into the spotlight nearly four years ago when reports of extensive illegal excavations and plundering of the priceless historical items of the area by local people surfaced.


    Since 2002, two excavation seasons have been carried out at the Jiroft site under the supervision of Majidzadeh, leading to the discovery of a ziggurat made of more than four million mud bricks dating back to about 2200 BCE.


    Jiroft is one of the richest historical areas in the world, with ruins and artifacts dating back to the third millennium BCE. Over 100 historical sites are located along the approximately 400 kilometers of the Halil Rud riverbank.


    Many Iranian and foreign experts see the findings in Jiroft as signs of a civilization as great as Sumer and ancientMesopotamia . Majidzadeh believes that Jiroft is the ancient city of Aratta , which was described as a great civilization in a Sumerian clay inscription.

    Konar Sandal white marble cylinder seal: metalwork repertoire
    Massimo Vidale and Dennys Frenez present (2015) "a detailed analysis of the iconography carved on a cylinder seal found in a metallurgical sitewithin the archaeological complex of Konar Sandal South, near Jiroft, in the Halil river valley of the Kerman province, south-eastern Iran. This seal is made of a whitish marble and  even if heavily worn by use it retainstraces of different animal figures. These animals represent the translation into local style of a rare but characteristic iconography found in the seal production of the Indus Civilization. The merging into a single seal of different animals, some of which clearly belong to the standard animal series of the Indus seals, might have provided theowner with a special authority that allowed him/her to hold different administrative functions. Moreover, the discovery at Konar Sandal South of a cylinder seal bearing an Indus-related iconography might further testify to the direct interest of Indus merchants and probably craftsmen in trade exchanges with a major early urban site in south-eastern Iran." (Massimo Vidale and Dennys Frenez, 2015, Indus components in the iconography of a white marble cylinder seal from Konar Sandal South (Kerman, Iran) in: South Asian Studies Vol. 31, No. 1, pp.144-154 )
    Photographs of the cylinder seal in white marble found at Konar Sandal South in the excavation of Trench IX. Courtesy of Halil  Rud Archaeological Project
    Drawing of the animals carved on the cylinder seal found at Konar Sandal South.
    "The cylinder seal published by Pittman is 23.97 mm long and has a maximum diameter at the base of 12.42mm. It is made of whitish marble with pale brown shadows...This seal has a zebu depicted in front of a small round object...The main subject of this seal and its iconographic arrangement are clearly Indus, but the engraving technique based on drill-holes links it to the copper seal from Konar Sandal South and with other stamp seals found in Oman, further stressing the intense cultural interactions that occurred between Eastern Arabia, Iran and the Indus Valley during the second half of the third millennium BCE...The second creature is an Indus unicorn...Image 3.3...probably belong to the head of an Indus buffalo...Image 3.4...may represent the long ears of a large, evidently disproportionate, hare or rabbit...Image 3.5...(maybe) a markhor wild goat (Capra folconeri) or a blackbuck antelope (Antilope cervicapra)...Considered all together, these animals may symbolize something more than a simple list or procession, representing instead the physical disembodiment of a concept represented on two similar Indus whirl-like images on stamp seals...In general, the Halil Rud animal imagery more directly linked to the iconography of the Indus civilization suggests a precise knowledge of very important eastern symbols, but also a strategic will of subverting their original implications, adapting them to the local style and tradition. More likely, the cylinder seal found at Konar Sandal South bears the linear translation of a similar rotatory template...The uncommon iconographies with multiple animal heads present in Indus seals production are still a mystery, but the most reasonable addumption is that animals and fantastic creatures represented different identities, social roles, and/or social segment of the developing universe...The white marble cylinder seal on study was found inthe excavation of Trench IX, a large trench (15 x 20 m)dug in a low mound  c. 500 m south-east of Konar Sandal South. In the same area, eight furnaces built onceramic jars operated on massive mud-bricks platforms.As stated by the excavator: Close to the furnaces, clear evidence of craft activitywas found including nearly five kilos of copper slag,fragments of ingots, and open molds. In addition, a number of copper and bronze objects and tools suchas chisels, stone vessels in marble, and steatite/chlorite,microlithic tools, and a large number of clay objects possibly connected with pyrotechnical activities havealso been recovered. It was evidently a neighbourhood occupied by a com-munity specialized in roasting and smelting copper ores and casting various types of artefacts in moulds and thorough lost-wax processes...The presence of a cylinder sealbearing a distinctive even if rare – Indus iconographysupports the hypothesis of a specific interest and actualfrequentation of Indus merchants and craftsmen, or of families maintaining formal ties with the Indus communities, in the copper ore deposits of the Kerman-Halilriver region. (Note: Originally put forward in S. Ashtana, 'Harappans interest in Kirman', Man and Environment, 3 (1979), 55-60. See also S. Ashtana, 'Harappan trade in metals and minerals: a regional approach, in Harappan civilization: a recent perspective, ed. by GL Possehl, 2nd edn, New Delhi, Oxford & IBH, 1993, pp. 271-86)."
    श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. पोळ (p. 305) pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. Rebus 1: pōḷa ‘magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4'.पोळ [ pōḷa ]  ‘magnetite (ore)’ (Asuri) पोलाद (p. 533) [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel (Marathi)
    Bolad (alternatively spelled PuladPulatPolat, or Polad in Persian and Turkic languages) is common given name among the Inner Asian peoples. The meaning of the word Bolad is "steel". In Khalkha Mongolian form of the word is Boldhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolad_(given_name)Addorsed zebu, Rakhigarhi. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magenetite, ferrite ore'. Thus the addorsed pair of zebus signifies: dul pōḷa, 'magnetite casting'. [After Fig. 69 in: KN Dikshit, 2013, Origin of early Harappan cultures in the Sarasvati Valley: Recent archaeological evidence and radiometric dates, Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology No. 9, 2013, pp. 88 to 142 (Plates)]
    Figurine of zebu, humped bull discovered in Binjor 4MSR http://www.dailypioneer.com/vivacity/revelations-in-history.html

    पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'zebu' rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] rebus: पोळा [ pōḷā ] 'magnetite, Fe3O4'. The word for magnetite ore [pōḷa] gave the root for the famed crucible wootz steel called [pōlāda] n ( or P)  [pōlādi]  'steel'. A variant expression iin Russian is:  bulat 'steel'.

    Mohenjo-daro Seals m1118 and Kalibangan 032, glyphs used are: Zebu (bos taurus indicus), fish, four-strokes (allograph: arrow). ayo 'fish' (Mu.) rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati) ayas 'alloy metal' (Rgveda)  gaṇḍa 'four' kaṇḍa 'arrow' rebus:khaṇḍa 'implements' PLUS poa ‘zebu' rebus polad 'steel'poa ‘magnetite ore'. Thus, the Mohenjo-daro and Kalibangan seals inMeluhha Sarasvati Script cipher, signify plain-text message: poa ‘magnetite ore' PLUS ayas 'alloy metal' khaṇḍa 'implements'.
    Bulat steel blade of a knife "Bulat is a type of steel alloy known in Russia from medieval times; regularly being mentioned in Russian legends as the material of choice for cold steel. The name булат is a Russian transliteration of the Persian word fulad, meaning steel. This type of steel was used by the armies of nomadic peoples. Bulat steel was the main type of steel used for swords in the armies of Genghis Khan, the great emperor of the Mongolian Empire. The technique used in making wootz steel has been lost for centuries and the bulat steel used today makes use of a more recently developed technique...Carbon steel consists of two components: pure iron, in the form of ferrite, and cementite or iron carbide, a compound of iron and carbon. Cementite is very hard and brittle; its hardness is about 640 by the Brinell hardness test, whereas ferrite is only 200. The amount of the carbon and the cooling regimen determine the crystalline and chemical composition of the final steel. In bulat, the slow cooling process allowed the cementite to precipitate as micro particles in between ferrite crystals and arrange in random patterns. The color of the carbide is dark while steel is grey. This mixture is what leads to the famous patterning of Damascus steel.Cementite is essentially a ceramic, which accounts for the sharpness of the Damascus (and bulat) steel. "
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulat_steel 
    Wootz was imported into the Middle East from Im India. (Jeffrey Wadsworth and Oleg D. Sherby (1980). "On the Bulat – Damascus Steel Revisited". Prog. Mater. Sci. 25 (1): 35–68)  "In the Muslim world of the 9th-12th centuries CE, the production of fuladh, a Persian word, has been described by Al-Kindi, Al-Biruni and Al-Tarsusi, from narm-ahanand shaburqan, two other Persian words representing iron products obtained by direct reduction of the ore. Ahan means iron. Narm-ahan is a soft iron and shaburqan a harder one or able to be quench-hardened. Old nails and horse-shoes were also used as base for fuladh preparation. It must be noticed that, according to Hammer- Purgstall, there was no Arab word for steel, which explain the use of Persian words. Fuladh prepared by melting in small crucibles can be considered as a steel in our modem classification, due to its properties (hardness, quench hardened ability, etc.). The word fuladh means "the purified" as explained by Al-Kindi. This word can be found as puladh, for instance in Chardin (1711 AD) who called this product; poulad jauherder, acier onde, which means "watering steel", a characteristic of what was called Damascene steel in Europe. In Russian the corresponding word is bulat and in Mongol bolot. In the 19th century AD, it was accepted as evident by European metallurgists that the ancient word bulat / fuladh and the newly introduced one Wootz represented the same kind of high carbon crucible steel (1-2wt % C) which should have been used by Muslim blacksmiths to forge the so called Damascene blades, the secret of which had been lost as was said by Russian and European metallurgists of that time.http://www.indianscience.org/essays/Wootzstory.shtml DP Agarwal, Linguistic Avatars of Wootz: the ancient Indian Steel in: History of Indian Science and Technology Source: J. LE COZE. 2003. About the Signification of Wootz and Other Names Given to Steel. Indian Journal of History of Science. 38 (2):117-127.
    The magnetite ore stones are identified as pola iron by Meluhha speakers.   
    अयस्कान्त [p= 85,1] m. (g. कस्का*दि) , " iron-lover " , the loadstone (cf. कान्ता*यसRagh. xvii , 63 , &c;  ayaskānta S (The iron gem.) The loadstone. (Marathi) Lodestone or Loadstone or Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring igneous and metamorphic rocks with black or brownish-black with a metallic luster. 

    Lodestones are naturally-occurring magnets, which can attract iron. Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite.


    [quote]Magnetite, a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides, is one of the more common meteor-wrongs. Magnetite displays a black exterior and magnetic properties....A piece of intensely magnetic magnetite was used as an early form of magnetic compass. Iron, steel and ordinary magnetite are attracted to a magnetic field, including the Earth's magnetic field. Only magnetite with a particular crystalline structure, lodestone, can act as a natural magnet and attract and magnetize iron. The name "magnet" comes from lodestones found in a place called Magnesia. [unquote] http://meteorite-identification.com/Hot%20Rocks/magnetite.html

    See: Srinivasan, Sharada; Ranganathan, Srinivasa (2004). "India's Legendary Wootz Steel: An Advanced Material of the Ancient World"Iron & Steel Heritage of India. Bangalore: National Institute of Advanced Studies: 69–82. 

    See: http://tinyurl.com/nsfgedh Pōlāda: archaeometallurgy of ancient Indian metalwork. Signified on Indus Script Corpora by hieroglyph: zebu, bos indicus

    See: http://met.iisc.ernet.in/~rangu/text.pdf (india's legendary 'wootz' steel - Materials Engineering)
    “Wootz was the first high-quality steel made anywhere in the world. According to reports of travelers to the East, the Damascus swords were made by forging small cakes of steel that were manufactured in Southern India. This steel was called wootz steel. It was more than a thousand years before steel as good was made in the West.” -J. D. Verhoeven and A. Pendray, Muse, 1998 Polad, bulat Polad,bulat crucible steel
    'Schrader gives a list of names for 'steel' related to Pers. pulAd; Syr. pld; Kurd. pila, pola, pulad; Pehl. polAwat; Armen. polovat; Turk. pala; Russ. bulat; Mizdzhegan polad, bolat; Mongol. bolot, bulat, buriat. He is unable to suggest an origin for these words. Fr. Muller pointed out that the Pehlevi and Armenian should be polapat and suggested Greek 'much-beaten' as the original word...not all the countries of Asia had been exhausted in search for similar names...by adding Tibetan p'olad, Sulu bAlan, Tagalog patalim, Ilocano paslip, we at once see that the origin of the word may lie to the east. Naturally one thinks of China as the possible point of issue, for there steel was known in the third millenium before our era and we have the positive reference to steel in a Chinese writer of the fifth century BCE...Cantonese dialect fo-lim, literally 'fire-sickle'..."(Wiener, Leo, 2002, Contributions toward a history of Arabico-Gothc culture, vol.4, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. xli-xlii)

    "...‘pulad’ of Central Asia. The oasis of Merv where crucible steel was also made by the medieval period lies in this region. The term ‘pulad’ appears in Avesta, the holy book of Zorastrianism and in a Manichéen text of Chinese Turkestan. There are many variations of this term ranging from the Persian

    ‘polad’, the Mongolian ‘bolat’ and ‘tchechene’, the Russian ‘bulat’, the Ukrainian and Armenian ‘potovat’, Turkish and Arab ‘fulad’, ‘farlad’ in Urdu and ‘phaulad’ in Hindi. It is this bewildering variety of descriptions that was used in the past that makes a study of this subject so challenging."
    https://www.scribd.com/doc/268526061/Wootz-Steel-Indian-Institute-of-Science Wootz Steel, Indian Institute of Science                                                                                                                                                         PWLẠD (پولاد) > BOLD RUSSIAN (ПОЛАД) ORIGIN: PERSIAN (TĀJĪK)  /  MONGOLIAN 
    INDO-EUROPEAN > INDO-IRANIAN > INDO-ARYAN 
    This name derives from the Mongolian (Qalq-a ayalγu) “Bold”, from the Persian (Tājīk) "pwlạd", meaning “steel”. 
    Bolad († 1313), was a Mongol minister of the Yuan Dynasty, and later served in the 
    Ilkhanate as the representative of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and cultural adviser
     to the Ilkhans. Geographical spread:
    http://www.name-doctor.com/name-polad-meaning-of-polad-25852.html
    See: http://tinyurl.com/zadb5cz
    पोळा [ pōḷā ] m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. "Pola is a bull-worshipping festival celebrated by farmers mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra (especially among the Kunbis). On the day of Pola, the farmers decorate and worship their bulls. Pola falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (the new moon day) in the month of Shravana (usually in August)."https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pola_(festival)  Festival held on the day after Sankranti ( = kANum) is called pōlāla paNDaga (Telugu).

    A phonetic determinant is provided by the popular bird, black drongo with habitat in Bharatam.Hieroglyph: eagle పోలడు [ pōlaḍu ] , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)(Telugu)
    పసి (p. 730) pasi pasi. [from Skt. పశువు.] n. Cattle. పశుసమూహము, గోగణము. The smell of "With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals."(Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 155–157.
    పసులపోలిగాడు pasula-pōli-gāḍu. n. The Black Drongo or King crow, Dicrurusater. (F.B.I.) ఏట్రింత.Also, the Adjutant. తోకపసులపోలిగాడు the Raquet-tailed Drongo shrike. Jerdon. No. 55. 56. 59. కొండ పనులపోలిగాడు the White bellied Drongo, Dicrurus coerulescens.  వెంటికపనుల పోలిగాడు the Hair-crested Drongo, Chibia hottentotta. టెంకిపనుల పోలిగాడు the larger Racket-tailed Drongo, Dissemurus paradiseus (F.B.I.)పసులవాడు pasula-vāḍu. n. A herdsman, గొల్లవాడు. the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)(Telugu)
    "With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals."(Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). Gurney and Jackson, London. pp. 155–157.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_drongo

    Rebus: Bolad (alternatively spelled PuladPulatPolat, or Polad in Persian and Turkic languages) is common given name among the Inner Asian peoples. The meaning of the word Bolad is "steel". In Khalkha Mongolian form of the word is Boldhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolad_(given_name)
    Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) IMG 7702 (1)..JPG
    A Black drongo in Rajasthan state, northern India

    Rebus: पोळ [ pōḷa ] 'magnetite', ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4 (Asuri)

    Rebus: cattle festival: पोळ (p. 305) pōḷa m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large.  பொலியெருது poli-y-erutu , n. < பொலி- +. 1. Bull kept for covering; பசுக்களைச் சினையாக்குதற் பொருட்டு வளர்க்கப்படும் காளை. (பிங்.) கொடிய பொலியெருதை யிருமூக்கிலும் கயி றொன்று கோத்து (அறப். சத. 42). 2. The leading ox in treading out grain on a threshing-floor; களத்துப் பிணையல்மாடுகளில் முதற்செல்லுங் கடா. (W.) பொலி முறைநாகு poli-muṟai-nāku, n. < பொலி + முறை +. Heifer fit for covering; பொலியக்கூடிய பக்குவமுள்ள கிடாரி. (S. I. I. iv, 102.)

    Rebus 1: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrous-ferric oxide Fe3O4'.
    पोळा [ pōḷā ] m (पोळ) A festive day for cattle,--the day of new moon of श्रावण or of भाद्रपद. Bullocks are exempted from labor; variously daubed and decorated; and paraded about in worship. (Marathi) "Pola is a bull-worshipping festival celebrated by farmers mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra (especially among the Kunbis). On the day of Pola, the farmers decorate and worship their bulls. Pola falls on the day of the Pithori Amavasya (the new moon day) in the month of Shravana (usually in August)." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pola_(festival) Festival held on the day after Sankranti ( = kANum) is called pōlāla paNDaga (Telugu).
    A pair of black drongo birds are perched on the Daimabad bronze chariot flanking the charioter.
    [quote]The Indus Valley sites display a highly sophisticated technology of copper and bronze metalworking, even in the earliest excavated levels of the major cities (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1967). Issues with the integrity of the stratigraphy of early excavations of these major Indus sites makes it harder for present-day archaeologists to track the different developmental stages of the civilization's metallurgy though. However, based upon the wide array of metal artifacts found in these early deposits, it is suggested that these advanced metallurgical skills were known to the inhabitants of the Indus Valley before city constructions began and possibly originated in previous cultures to the west from which the Indus people progressed from. 
    Roger Matthews, 2002, Zebu: harbingers of doom in Bronze Age western Asia? in: Antiquity 76 (2002) Number: 292: 438-446  https://www.scribd.com/doc/115702890/Ant-0760438 "The significance of zebu, or humped cattle as potential indicators of episodes of aridification in the Bronze Age of western Asia is explored through study of figurines and faunal remains from Mesopotamia, the Levant and Anatolia." "Magnetite is a mineral, ferrous-ferric oxide, one of the three common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group. Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth.[Harrison, R. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, RE; Putnis, A (2002). "Direct imaging of nanoscale magnetic interactions in minerals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99 (26): 16556–16561] Naturally magnetized pieces of magnetite, called lodestone, will attract small pieces of iron, and this was how ancient people first noticed the property of magnetism...Magnetite reacts with oxygen to produce hematite, and the mineral pair forms a buffer that can control oxygen fugacity.Gate on Nahalmishmar crown: pol m. ʻgate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate': Ka. por̤al town, city. Te. prōlu, (inscr.) pr̤ōl(u) city. ? (DEDR 4555) पोवळ or पोंवळ [ pōvaḷa or pōṃvaḷa ] f पोवळी or पोंवळी f The court-wall of a temple. (Marathi) *pratōlika ʻ gatekeeper ʼ. [pratōlī -- ] H. pauliyā, pol°, pauriyā m. ʻ gatekeeper ʼ, G. poḷiyɔ m.(CDIAL 8632) pratōlī f. ʻ gate of town or fort, main street ʼ MBh. [Cf. tōlikā -- . -- Perh. conn. with tōraṇa -- EWA ii 361, less likely with *ṭōla -- ] Pk. paōlī -- f. ʻ city gate, main street ʼ; WPah. (Joshi) prauḷ m., °ḷi f., pauḷ m., °ḷi f. ʻ gateway of a chief ʼ, proḷ ʻ village ward ʼ; H. paul, pol m. ʻ gate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate ʼ, paulī f. ʻ gate ʼ; OG. poli f. ʻ door ʼ; G. poḷi f. ʻ street ʼ; M. pauḷ, poḷ f. ʻ wall of loose stones ʼ. -- Forms with -- r -- poss. < *pradura -- : OAw. paüri ʻ gatepost ʼ; H. paur, °rī, pãwar, °rī f. ʻ gate, door ʼ.WPah.poet. prɔ̈̄ḷ m., prɔḷo m., prɔḷe f. ʻ gate of palace or temple ʼ.(CDIAL 8633) Porin (adj.) [fr. pora=Epic Sk. paura citizen, see pura. Semantically cp. urbane>urbanus>urbs; polite= poli/ths>po/lis. For pop. etym. see DA i.73 & 282] belonging to a citizen, i. e. citizenlike, urbane, polite, usually in phrase porī vācā polite speech D i.4, 114; S i.189; ii.280=A ii.51; A iii.114; Pug 57; Dhs 1344; DA i.75, 282; DhsA 397. Cp. BSk. paurī vācā MVastu iii.322. Porisa2 (nt.) [abstr. fr. purisa, *pauruṣyaŋ, cp. porisiya and poroseyya] 1. business, doing of a man (or servant, cp. purisa 2), service, occupation; human doing, activity M i.85 (rāja˚); Vv 6311 (=purisa -- kicca VvA 263); Pv iv.324 (uṭṭhāna˚=purisa -- viriya, purisa -- kāra PvA 252). -- 2. height of a man M. i.74, 187, 365.(Pali) పౌరము [ pauramu ] pauramu. [Skt. from పుర.] adj. Belonging to a city or town (పురము.) పౌరసతులు the ladies of the place: citizens' wives. పౌరలోకము paura-lōkamu. n. The townsfolk, a body of citizens. పౌరుడు pauruḍu. n. A citizen. పౌరులు citizens, townsfolk.(Telugu)
    Rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore' This may be reinforced by the phonetic determinant:  dula 'pair' 

    rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS pōladu 'Black drongo bird pair' shown on the crown.

    sã̄gāḍā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ (M.)(CDIAL 12859) Rebus: jaṅgaḍ ‘entrustment articles’ sãgaṛh m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ (Lahnda).(CDIAL 12845) Allograph: saṅgaḍa ‘lathe’. 'potable furnace'. sang ‘stone’, gaḍa ‘large stone’. Rebus: Vajra-samghāta is to be compounded of 8 parts of lead, 2 parts of bell metal and 1 part of brass, melted and poured hot. It is stated that when this type of cement is applied to temple, etc. they last for around thousand years. Vajra-samghāta means, composition as hard as thunderbolt. 

    http://www.niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/researchjournals/rejour/ijtk/Fulltextsearch/2006/April%202006/IJTK-vol%205(2)-April%202006-pp%20259-262.htm samghāta सं-घात b [p= 1130,1] close union or combination , collection , cluster , heap , mass , multitude TS. MBh. &c वज्र--संघात [p= 914,1]mfn. having the hardness or compactness of adamant (said of भीमMBh. i , 4775; m. N. of a kind of hard cement VarBr2S.

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. koḍ ‘horns’ Rebus: koḍ‘artisan’s workshop’.

    पोलाद [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) ولاد polād, s.m. (6th) The finest kind of steel. Sing. and Pl. folād P فولاد folād or fūlād, s.m. (6th) Steel. Sing. and Pl. folādī P فولادي folādī or fūlādī, adj. Made of steel, steel. (Pashto) pŏlād प्वलाद् or phōlād फोलाद् मृदुलोहविशेषः m. steel (Gr.M.; Rām. 431, 635, phōlād).pŏlödi pōlödi  phōlödi (= ) लोहविशेषमयः adj. c.g. of steel, steel (Rām. 19, 974, 167, pōo) pŏlāduwu शस्त्रविशेषमयः adj. (f. pŏlādüvü made of steel (H. v, 4).(Kashmiri).

    S.Kalyanaraman

    Sarasvati Research Center


    March 24, 2017

    Rebus: a 'magnetite, ferrite ore' This may be reinforced by the phonetic determinant:  dula 'pair' 
    rebus: dul'metal casting' PLUS pōladu 'Black drongo bird pair' shown on the crown.
    ̄ā m. ʻ frame of a building ʼ (M.)(CDIAL 12859) Rebus: jaga ‘entrustment articles’ sgah m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ (Lahnda).(CDIAL 12845) Allograph: sagaa ‘lathe’. 'potable furnace'. sang ‘stone’, ga‘large stone’. Rebus: Vajra-samghāta is to be compounded of 8 parts of lead, 2 parts of bell metal and 1 part of brass, melted and poured hot. It is stated that when this type of cement is applied to temple, etc. they last for around thousand years. Vajra-samghāta means, composition as hard as thunderbolt. 
    http://www.niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/researchjournals/rejour/ijtk/Fulltextsearch/2006/April%202006/IJTK-vol%205(2)-April%202006-pp%20259-262.htm samghāta सं-घात b [p= 1130,1] close union or combination , collection , cluster , heap , mass , multitude TS. MBh. &c वज्र--संघात [p= 914,1]mfn. having the hardness or compactness of adamant (said of भीमMBh. i , 4775; m. N. of a kind of hard cement VarBr2S.

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'. ko ‘horns’ Rebus: ko‘artisan’s workshop’.

    पोलाद [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. (Marathi) ولاد polād, s.m. (6th) The finest kind of steel. Sing. and Pl. folād P فولاد folād or fūlād, s.m. (6th) Steel. Sing. and Pl. folādī P فولادي folādī or fūlādī, adj. Made of steel, steel. (Pashto) pŏlād प्वलाद् or phōlād फोलाद् । मृदुलोहविशेषः m. steel (Gr.M.; Rām. 431, 635, phōlād).pŏlödi pōlödi  phōlödi (= ) । लोहविशेषमयः adj. c.g. of steel, steel (Rām. 19, 974, 167, pōo) pŏlāduwu । शस्त्रविशेषमयः adj. (f. pŏlādüvü made of steel (H. v, 4).(Kashmiri).
    S.Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    March 24, 2017



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    The Nuclear Great Game in Europe
    by Manlio Dinucci on 25 Mar 2017
    Should the Trump Administration respect the Non-Proliferation Treaty, it would withdraw its nuclear missiles, illegally stationed in Europe and would end its confrontation with Russia. Yet, EU member states opting to continue with the previous policy that they are already familiar with, rallied round the US “government of continuity” during the Munich Conference on Security. Thus, in the name of “self-preservation”, they seriously envisage subsidizing the French atomic bomb.
    *

    The New York Times launched the torpedo: the charge that Moscow has violated the Treaty on Medium Range Nuclear Weapons (“INF” by its English acronym) [1]. And this [torpedo] has struck its target: intensifying tensions in relations between the United States and Russia, slowing down or blocking negotiations of the deal that Trump alluded to even during his electoral campaign. The torpedo is etched with Obama’s signature. For it was he who in July 2014 (immediately after the Maidan Square Putsch and the ensuing crisis with Russia) accused Putin of testing a nuclear cruise missile called SSC-X-8 and thus violating the INF Treaty of 1987 that prohibits the lining up of land missiles even within a range between 500 and 5,500 km.


    According to declarations made by anonymous officials in the US intelligence community, two Russian battalions have already been armed, each one equipped with four mobile launchers and 24 missiles with nuclear heads.


    Before leaving his office as the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe last year, General Philip Breedlove warned that lining up this new Russian missile “cannot be left unresponded to”. However he remained silent on the fact that Nato has lined up in Europe around 700 US, French and British nuclear heads against Russia; virtually each one ready to launch 24/7. And gradually extending to the East, to include [parts of] the former USSR, Nato has drawn its nuclear forces gradually closer to Russia.


    It is in the context of such a strategy that the Obama administration took the decision to replace the 180 B-61 nuclear bombs – installed in Italy (50 at Aviano and 20 at Ghedi-Torre), Germany, Belgium, Holland and Turkey – with the B61-12. The latter are the new nuclear weapons, each with four power options that you can choose from depending on the target to strike. They have the capacity to penetrate the terrain to destroy the command centres’ bunkers. A 10 billion dollar programme given that each B61-12 will cost more than its weight in gold.


    At the same time, the US has built the first land missile battalion in Romania for “anti-missile defense”. This will be followed by another one in Poland, composed of the Aegis missiles, already installed on board four US warships stationed in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. This is the so-called “shield”, which serves to attack rather than defend: if they were to be able to realize it, the US and Nato would keep Russia under the threat of a nuclear first strike, confident that its “shield” would be able to neutralize the reprisal.


    What is more, Lockheed Martin’s system of vertical launch (Mk 41), installed on the ships and in the base in Romania, is capable of launching (according to specific techniques provided by that construction company), “missiles for every mission”, including those to “attack land targets with Tomahawk cruise missiles”, that can also be armed with nuclear heads.


    Moscow has warned that these battalions, which are also capable of launching nuclear missiles, constitute a violation of the INF treaty.


    What will the European Union do in this scenario? While it harps on about its commitment for nuclear disarmament, in its political circles it is conceiving what the New York Times defines as “an idea that before had been unthinkable: a EU nuclear arms programme”.


    Under such a plan, the French nuclear arsenal would be “reprogrammed to protect the rest of Europe and placed under a common European command” that would be funded through a common fund. This would be the case, “if Europe was no longer able to count on protection from the US”. In other words: if Trump sides with Putin and decides not to store any longer the B61-12 in Europe, the EU would consider pursuing a nuclear confrontation with Russia.


    Note

    [1] “Russia Has Deployed Missile Barred by Treaty, U.S. General Tells Lawmakers”, Michael Gordon, New York Times, March 9, 2017.


    Courtesy Voltaire Network; Translation Anoosha Boralessa

    Source: Il Manifesto (Italy)


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    Posted at: Mar 25, 2017, 1:14 AM; last updated: Mar 25, 2017, 1:14 AM (IST)

    ICHR to undertake project on Ram Setu

    New Delhi, March 24

    The Indian Council of Historical Research will undertake a two-month pilot project on ‘Ram Setu’ later this year to archaeologically “ascertain” if the structures were built naturally or were “man-made”.
    ICHR Chairman Y Sudershan Rao, addressing a press conference at the institution here, said the project period spans from October to November. “One of the major projects that we are going to initiate is the Ram Setu pilot project, which will seek to ascertain or find out if these structures were results of natural phenomenon or man-made,” he said.
    Asked as to who initiated the project, Rao said it was “completely an ICHR initiative but we may approach the Centre if needed”.
    The chairman said archaeology experts from ASI, research scholars, university students, marine experts and scientists would be part of the team. “A nationwide selection process would pick up students and scholars from various universities to be part of the team,” Rao added.
    Asked if the findings would be compared with writings in the epic Ramayana, the chairman said, “Our purpose only is to explore it from archaeological standpoint.”
    ICHR is a flagship research-based institution that functions under the Ministry of Human Resource Development. — PTI
    http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/ichr-to-undertake-project-on-ram-setu/381930.html

    Ram Setu a man-made structure or natural? Historical research council to explore

    INDIA Updated: Mar 24, 2017 21:28 IST
    Neelam Pandey
    Ram Setu

    Some claim the Sethu was a bridge was built by Lord Rama’s “Vanar Sena” (army of apes and monkeys) and hence cannot be touched.(Raj K Raj /HT Representative Photo)

    Is Ram Setu a natural phenomenon or a man-made structure? The Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) under the HRD ministry will conduct an underwater exploration study to find out.
    ICHR chairman Y Sudershan Rao said no underwater exploration has so far been done to find out whether Ram Setu or the Adam’s Bridge is a myth or artificial phenomenon.
    A theoretical training under a pilot project will begin in May and exploration will be done in October.
    The bridge between the coasts of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka has been at the centre of controversy since the Sethusamudram shipping canal project was planned, requiring dredging in the area.
    While some claim the Setu was a bridge was built by Lord Rama’s “Vanar Sena” (army of apes and monkeys) and hence cannot be touched, others insist it is a naturally formed chain of lime shoals. It is a 30-km-long stretch of limestone shoals that runs from Pamban Island near Rameshwaram in South India to Mannar Island off the northern coast of Sri Lanka.
    The development assumes significance as it comes in the wake up fresh demand being made from many quarters to build Ram Mandir in Ayodhya after the BJP came to power in Uttar Pradesh.
    The matter reached Supreme Court with petitions challenging the government’s decision to construct the Sethusamudram Canal by dredging a portion of the Ram Setu.
    The project is being commissioned under the marine technology training programme of ICHR dealing with under-water archeology and research scholars will be given training for this purpose.
    “It has been found that even Helen of Troy did exist through research. So unless we make an enquiry how will we know whether something exists or not? To know whether it is a myth or aberration or it did exist we need to undertake a physical study. The aim of the project is to collect material evidence,” said Rao.
    Depending on the success of the project and the material gathered, a decision on further exploration will be taken by ICHR. A group of 15-20 research scholars will be selected across the country and will be trained to conduct the research.
    The project will be headed by former Archeological Survey of India (ASI) director Alok Tripathi for underwater exploration. ICHR officials said they also will seek help of other maritime experts from ASI and maritime institutes.
    India has very few maritime archeologists and whether ICHR will be able to get help from such experts is a big question, sources said.
    When quizzed that in the past a number of studies have been done for Ram Setu, Rao said this is the first such effort being made by the council to find out whether ‘what is being said exists’.
    “We will only speak about the artifacts and not get into whether it was built by Lord Rama or not,” clarified Rao.
    Officials said that a board of studies will be constituted to select the students for this project and the research findings will be published by ICHR.
    “We will prepare a detailed plan as to what exactly is the research project going to look at. The theoretical two-week long training will be done in Delhi and rest of the work will be done at the site. We will approach the government if a need arises,’ said a senior official.














































































































    http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/ram-setu-a-man-made-structure-or-natural-ichr-to-explore/story-T9AtcmeKTvM6HVmIT5ulMO.html

    ICHR to Employ Underwater Archeology to Validate Ram Setu of Yore

    Updated: March 24, 2017, 11:28 PM IST
    ICHR to Employ Underwater Archeology to Validate Ram Setu of Yore
    A file photo of a poster demanding the scrapping of the Ram Sethu project in Tamil Nadu. (Photo: Getty Images)
    New Delhi: At the Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR), they are going cutting-edge to validate a mythical bridge whose claim dates back to several millennia.
    India’s apex historical body will now employ underwater archaeology to affirm if the Ram Setu, also known as the Adam’s Bridge, was artificially built or formed naturally.
    The Indian epic of Ramayana describes the Adam’s bridge – often linked to the chain of limestone shoals at the Palk Straits linking the Tamil Nadu coast to Sri Lanka – as an artificial bridge created to facilitate Lord Ram’s journey to Lanka to rescue Sita.
    Professor Y Sudershan Rao, Chairperson of ICHR, told News18 that there are clear indications on the west coast that suggests submersion of coastal area where civilization was flourishing.
    “We have sufficient literary evidence that ancient Dwaraka was swept away by sea tide,” he said, referring to Lord Krishna’s capital, believed to be submerged on the Gujarat coast.
    Similarly, we have indications in our earliest epic that a Setu was built by Sri Ram, he said, adding, “much discussion is going on this subject but no effort has been made by any agency- private or public- to explore our coast".
    ICHR will start this archaeological journey with a 14-day training-cum-course workshop on Under-water Archaeology in May.
    It will later undertake the pilot project on a coastal site at an opportune time.
    The Setu called Adam’s Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals found between Pamban Island or the Rameswaram Island, off the south-eastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the north-western coast of Sri Lanka.
    The Ram Setu claim has been riddled with opinions and counter opinions. While there are those who believe that it was built by Lord Rama’s “Vanar Sena” (army of apes) and hence cannot be touched, others claim that it is a naturally formed chain of lime shoals.
    “So ICHR would like to address this vital issue relating to our ancient past which may help us to judge the historicity and chronology of our great civilizations as reflected in our epics and other literature,” Dr Rao said.
    He pointed out that the under-water archaeology is an emerging specialty in archaeological science and in India it is still in a budding stage.
    “ICHR plans to provide theoretical and practical training to select young archaeologists and inspire them to take up explorative initiatives along our coast obtaining necessary clearances from all the concerned,” he said.
    The project will be headed by former Archeological Survey of India (ASI) director Alok Tripathi for underwater exploration and is being commissioned under the marine technology training programme of ICHR dealing with under-water archeology.
    Controversies around Ram Setu
    · The Sethusamudram project that intends to dredge up the shallow sea in Palk Straits so as to enhance a shipping route along the Indian peninsula had run into trouble with Hindutva organisations protesting. They claimed the dredging would destroy the remnants of Ram Setu.
    · The Government of India, in an affidavit in the Supreme Court, said that there is no historical proof of the bridge. In connection with the Sethusamudram project, the Madras High Court said that the Rama Sethu is a man-made structure.
    · In 2007, a publication of the National Remote Sensing Agency said that the structure "may be man-made". Archaeological Survey of India found no evidence for it being human-made.
    · In a 2008 court case, a spokesman for the government stated "So where is the Setu? We are not destroying any bridge. There is no bridge. It was not a man-made structure. It may be a superman-made structure, but the same superman had destroyed it. That is why for centuries nobody mentioned anything about it. It has become an object of worship only recently.”

    ICHR to undertake pilot project on Ram Setu structures

    “One of the major projects that we are going to initiate is the Ram Setu pilot project which will seek to ascertain or find out if these structures were results of natural phenomenon or man-made,” he said.

    The Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) is set to undertake an archaeological exploration into whether the Ram Sethu is a natural or man-made phenomenon.
    It will undertake this exploration in the months of October and November to come to an initial view before deciding whether a more detailed underwater archaeological excavation is required to probe deeper into the question, said ICHR chairman Y. Sudershan Rao.
    Also known as Adam’s Bridge, Ram Sethu is a stretch of limestone shoals running from Pamban Island near Rameswaram in South India to the Mannar Island near the northern coast of Sri Lanka.
    While there are geological theories on its natural formation, many devout Hindus believe that it was built by the army of Lord Ram to go to Lanka to wage war with its king, Ravan.
    “In October and November, we will try to figure out in one or two months whether more is required on this. We will also publish our findings,” Professor Rao said in a brief interaction with journalists. “We are not saying anything right now. It needs to be explored and we are just exploring.”

    Ocean archaeology

    The ICHR has linked this excavation to a two-week training session on ocean archaeology it will hold in May or June.
    Professor Alok Tripathi of Assam University at Silchar — formerly with the Archaeological Survey of India — is being roped in to impart training to 15-20 researchers into theoretical aspects of ocean archaeology.
    After this training, the researchers will be roped in to undertake the planned archaeological excavation of the Ram Sethu.
    When there was a plan a decade or two back to build a Sethusamudram shipping canal project to cut travel time for ships — as they could not cross the shallow Ram Sethu otherwise — both Hindu groups and environmentalists opposed it.

    This apart, the ICHR is also undertaking projects on the history of dance and the history of Indian art, Professor Rao said. It is also about to organise a conclave on antiquity and continuity in Indian history before the first millennium BCE.



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    http://tinyurl.com/lnj2uuz Sarasvati-Sindhu Script
    The suggested decipherment framework covers both the Script and Itihāsa of Bhāratam Janam.
    https://youtu.be/m6LIiVflpGc (19:41) sindhu sarasvati script voice annotations Decipherment of Sarasvati-Sindhu (Bharati) Script, a presentation in 23 slides (19:41) with voice annotations. The complementing monograph was presented in ICHR Annual Conference (2017) on March 29, 2017 in 336 pages including thumbnail images of about 5000 inscriptions.
    Abstract
    Sindhu-Sarasvati Script: Repository of Economic Prosperity in Ancient India
    This paper narrates the economic history of the Indian nation (with its center in the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization) over the first millennium during which India enjoyed the status of being the most prosperous nation of the world with 32% share of the total world economy (Global GDP). The paper is developed with reference to the Sindhu-Sarasvati Script Corpora which, I have argued elsewhere, constitute Bronze Age metalwork catalogues. The paper will discuss in greater detail the following points (reproduced in the corresponding ppt slides):
    The rediscovery of the Sarasvati River using satellite imagery, archaeological reports and ancient texts has been a multi-disciplinary milestone in knowledge discovery about the antiquity of culture in Bharat. This rediscovery has been followed up by identifying the people who lived on the banks of Sarasvati River in over 2000 archaeological sites. A breakthrough discovery occurred thanks to the work of students of Institute of Archaeology, Delhi in a site called 4MSR in Binjor on the banks of River Sarasvati, near Anupgarh (about 7 kms, from the present international border with Pakistan). This discovery is momentous and firmly anchors the Harapap (or Sarasvati-Sindhu) civilization on Vedic culture. The historic epoch-making discovery in April 2015, includes the finds of a Vedic fire-altar with the signature tune of an octagonal yupa अष्टाश्री यूप, as described in Vedic texts (Rigveda, Taittiriya Samhita, Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa) for a Soma Samsthā, Soma Yāga. The finds also include a Harappa Script seal with inscription describing a metalwork catalogue). The owner of the seal is deciphered from the ‘standard device, sangaḍa, ‘lathe, brazier or portable furnace’) as rebus: samgraha, samgaha ‘arranger, manager’.
    Following the octagonal Yupa found in Binjor dated to ca. 2500 BCE as a Mature Harappan site (4MSR), 19 yupa inscriptions have been found in historical periods in Rajasthan, Mathura, and East Borneo (Mulavarman) recording performanceof Soma Samsthā Soma Yāga. This astonishing continuity of Vedic culture in Sarasvati River Basin is a breakthrough in studies of History and Culture in Ancient Bhārata.
    Using data mining techniques and tantra yukti doctrine to document the matches between hieroglyphs on Harappa Script inscriptions and the vocabulary of Meluhha (Indian sprachbund). As a first step in delineating the Harappa language, an Indian lexicon[(file://HP-PC/Users/HP/Google%20Drive/IndianLexicon.pdf )] provides a resource, compiled semantically in clusters of over 1240 groups of words/expressions from ancient Bhārata languages as a Proto-Indic substrate dictionary. Decipherment of over 4000 inscriptions in Harappa Script as metalwork catalogues results in the knowledge discovery about archaeo-metallurgical contributions of Bhāratam Janam to Bronze Age Revolution along a Maritime Tin Route from Hanoi (Vietnam) to Haia (Israel). The knowledge discovery also covers the weltanschuaang of dharma-dhamma because the artisan and merchant guilds treated their workplace of kole.l smithy/forge as kole.l ‘temple’. Octagonal shaped Yupa provides the iconography framework for worship of Sivalinga with octagonal Rudra bhāga. Find of five Sivalinga in Harappa link with Atharva Veda Skambha Sukta (AV X.7,8) reinforcing the vedic ādhyatmika foundations of Bhārata culture.
    Slide One
    Sindhu-Sarasvati Script: Repository of Economic Prosperity in Ancient India
    S.Kalyanaraman; Sarasvati Research Centre; March 24, 2017
    Slide Two
    Sindhu-Sarasvati Script is a continuum of Vedic culture of wealth-creation through the institution of yajña.
    Slide Three-Four
    Sindhu-Sarasvati Script is also a continuum of Bhāratiya Sprachbund i.e. a commonwealth of languages spoken in India (including Austro-Asiatic languages) where unique linguistic features and vocabularies were absorbed from one another to give rise to the Sprachbund that facilitated economic cooperation leading to prosperity. Indian Lexicon
    Slide Five
    Bhāratiya sprachbund remained active and contributed to the continuity of economic prosperity over the first millennium because of the presence of mlecchita vikalpa (cipher-writing code or system) that was regularly taught to youth who were inducted in the family trade/business as part of the Varnashramadharma model (see Vidyāsamuddeśa of Vātsyāyana).
    Slide Six-Seven
    Examples of mlecchita vikalpa (cipher-writing) as an art/science The writing continued on Punch-marked coins of mints from 600 BCE
    Sindhu-Sarasvati Script Corpora (made of over eight thousand glyphs based on languages from the Sprachbund) constituted catalogues of metal works that acted as engines of economic prosperity from the Bronze Age on until the end of first millennium.
    Slide Eight-Nine-Ten-Eleven
    Bronze Age revolution occurred when Tin-Bronzes replaced the scarce arsenical bronzes, 4th millennium BCE
    Hypertexts read rebus from the toy chariot excavated from Daimabad is one illustration of how the Sindhu-Sarasvati Script Corpora yields data for extrapolating the continued presence of vigorous economic activity in ancient India.
    Slide Twelve-Thirteen-Fourteen
    Maritime Tin Route linking Hanoi and Haifa, which preceded the Silk Road by two millennia, was witness to a prosperous India.
    Slide Fifteen-Sixteen
    Dong Son (Vietnam)/Karen Bronze Drums with cire perdue tympanums signify metalwork using Sindhu/Sarasvati Script hieroglyphs/hypertexts. Cultural traits developed in the Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization had spread over most of South-East-Asia.
    Slide Seventeen
    People of ancient India (Bhāratamjanam) contributed to 32% of Global GDP from 1 CE on until the end of the first millennium according to Angus Maddison. This was made possible thanks to the ‘artha niti’(work ethics and philosophy) documented by Kautilya and others.
    Slide Eighteen-Nineteen-Twenty
    Domestication of crops like cotton, rice, millet, creation of śreṇis (guilds), i.e., institutions acting as corporate forms for wealth-creation that were consistent with the Weltanschauung of dharma were other supporting factors of continued economic prosperity (abhyudaya) during the first millennium in Bharata.
    Slide Twenty-one
    Sindhu-Sarasvati Script Corpora constitute Bronze Age metalwork catalogues
    Slide Twenty-two-Twenty-three
    Ātmā of Bhāratam Janam
    The gesture of welcome and greeting (namaste), yogasana (yoga posture), parting of hair, a variety of terracotta toys etc constitute metaphors of life principles and life activities of the people of India (Bhāratam Janam) that continue from the Vedic and Sindhu-Sarasvati times.
    Thanks to Dr Shrinivas Tilak
    Namaste
    Sarasvati Script.pdf Full Paper http://tinyurl.com/lnj2uuz Sarasvati-Sindhu Script

























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    Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads 
    Michael D. Frachetti1, C. Evan Smith1, Cynthia M. Traub& Tim Williams3
    doi:10.1038/nature21696
    page1image2864 page1image3024 page1image3184
    There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient ‘Silk Roads’ across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use ‘flow accumulation’ modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia. We then compare the locations of known high-elevation Silk Road sites with the geography of these optimized herding flows, and find a significant correspondence in mountainous regions. Thus, we argue that highland Silk Road networks (from 750 m to 4,000 m) emerged slowly in relation to long-established mobility patterns of nomadic herders in the mountains of inner Asia. 

    Editor's summaryinالعربية

    The Silk Road refers to a network of ancient trade routes that have crossed central Asia since time immemorial. But how did it get started? Conventional models usually start by inferring the easiest paths between sites already known to be part of the network. This introduces a circular argument as it biases the results towards what is already known. Here Michael Frachetti and colleagues take a different approach to show that the network emerged from hundreds of years of interactions between pastoralists moving their livestock between higher and lower elevations in response to the seasons in this generally mountainous region. They suggest that the Silk Road network therefore materialized slowly from the long-established, local mobility patterns of nomadic herders. This finding may encourage archaeologists to seek more nuanced explanations for the evolution of ancient connectivity.
    http://sci-hub.cc/10.1038/nature21696

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    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/nyjm428 

    C. Sivaramamurti in his lecture in 1962 refers to the flaming pillar of Amaravati sculptural friezes, in the following terms: “…in a period when the human form of Buddha was in vogue, as it had come into use much earlier, the sculptor has introduced in the place of the figure of the standing Master, a symbolic device and a special one, unknown elsewhere, a creation of the Amaravati sculptor himself, a flaming pillar on a pair of feet on lotus crowned by a wheel topped by triratna. This special symbol suggests the glory of Buddha as higher than the flaming pillar, the combined concept of Agni and Rudra, and higher than the wheel, the solar symbol, as combining all the best in triratna in himself. The great stature of Buddha is thereby pronounced almost in this symbolic Buddhist Viśvarupa. This form so appealed to the Amaravati sculptor, who created it, that wherever special emphasis was to be placed on Buddha’s great personality, the flaming pillar, as standing Buddha, was repeated." (C. Sivaramamurti, Bulletin of the Madras Government Museum, the Amaravati mode of sculpture, First edn. 1976 Repr. 2007, Chennai, Govt.Museum, p.2) http://www.e-books-chennaimuseum.tn.gov.in/ChennaiMuseum/images/books/BULLETIN%20OF%20THE%20MADRAS%20GOVENMENT%20MUSEUM%20THE%20AMARAVATI%20MODE%20OF%20SCULPTURE.pdf

    See: Sivaramamurti, C. Amaravati Sculptures in the Madras Government Museum. Madras: 1942, 1956  https://archive.org/download/AmaravatiSculpturesInTheMadrasGovernmentMuseum/Amaravati%20Sculptures%20in%20the%20Madras%20Government%20Museum.pdf

    For a reading of the hypertexts on the flaming pillar friezes, in the Sindhu-Sarasvati hieroglyph tradition, see: 

    http://tinyurl.com/lnj2uuz Sindhu-Sarasvati Script: repository of economic prosperity in Ancient India

    http://tinyurl.com/kwp6r9o Hooded serpent hypertext signifies phaṇi lead or zinc paṇi merchant market

    With due deference to the scholarsship and erudition of Sivaramamurti as the Curator of the Museum and as an art critic with brilliant contributions to study of art traditions of Bharatam, I submit in all humility that Sivaramamurti has erred in assuming what the sculptor of Amaravati attempted to convey by a flaming pillar. In my view, the symbol atop the pillar is NOT triratna but a pair of fish-fins of the same type which adorn the gateways of Sanchi and Bharhut. The fish-fin is a hypertext which signifies kambhar̥ā 'fish-fin' rebus kammaa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. This fish-fin hypertext is elaborated as s'rivatsa to signify wealth-creation. I also suggest that many hypertexts in the Sindhu-Sarasvati Script tradition can be traced in the hypertexts depicted on Amaravati sculptures and friezes -- to signify metalwork catalogues.

    The Amaravati Album

    This album of drawings is a landmark in the history of archaeology in India. The pictures were made in 1816 and 1817 by a team of military surveyors and draftsmen under the direction of Colonel Colin Mackenzie (1757-1821), the first Surveyor-General of India.
    The album contains maps, plans and drawings of sculpture from the stupa at Amaravati. A stupa is a Buddhist monument that usually takes the form of a burial mound. Relics connected with the life of the Buddha are buried at the centre of the stupa.
    Adoration of the Buddha Begging Bowl


    The adoration of the Buddha's begging bowl. Drawing by Henry Hamilton of a carved limestone medallion unearthed at Amaravati in 1817. [WD 1061, folio 65].
    Copyright © The British Library Board
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    Mackenzie first encountered the remains of the Buddhist stupa at Amaravati in 1798. At that time, Buddhism was not a prominent religious system in that part of India and Mackenzie speculated that it was a Jain monument rather than a Buddhist one. His decision to return to the site in 1816 with a survey team was motivated by his belief that the monument and its sculptures were of profound historical importance, even though he was unaware that it was a second-century Buddhist stupa. He arranged for some of the sculptures to be removed from the site, but it appears that most of them remained at Amaravati.
    Within a few decades of Mackenzie's survey of the site, the true sectarian function and antiquity of the stupa at Amaravati was recognised. Bizarrely, this recognition coincided with a series of further excavations that were not as carefully documented as the survey instigated by Mackenzie in 1816.
    The Mackenzie Amaravati Album is an extremely valuable document for archaeologists, art historians and museum professionals today, as it provides a reliable record of how the monument's foundations looked before they were disturbed and where the sculptures were positioned.
    The drawings also reliably depict 84 of the sculptures that once adorned the sides of the stupa and the stone railing that surrounded it. Of the 84 sculptures documented in the Mackenzie Amaravati Album, only 27 of them have been identified.

    This means that 57 of the sculptures drawn in 1816-1817 are missing. Perhaps some of these missing sculptures will be located in museums and private collections, and the history of their removal from the site can be more clearly understood.

    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/homepage.html

    Maps and Plans

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Amaravati Survey 1816


    A map of Amaravati and the surrounding countryside based on a survey conducted in 1816. [WD1061, folios 4 to 5]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Plan of the town of Amrawutty, of the country near it, and of the Site of the ancient City of Daranacottah.Larger image (142KB)
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    Stupa Excavation 1816

    A plan of the stupa excavation in March 1816 showing the location of excavated stones. [WD1061, folio 6.]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Sketch of Depauldinna at Amrawutty in its present state. Inscriptions along the South East side of the plan read as follows: 6 stones; 20 stones very neatly executed; 14 Stones Drawn by Newman; 7 Stones.Larger image (42KB)
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    Stupa Excavation 1817


    Plan of the stupa excavation in June 1817. [WD1061, folios 7 to 8].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Plan descriptive of the present state of the Mound of Depaldenna at Amrawutty, showing what has been cleared out and what still remains to be removed, laid down from actual measurements, June 1817. The yellow colour denotes stones that are entirely destroyed. The white shews the place of stones that have been removed and are now missing. Scale of 20 feet to an inch. Drawn by J. Mustie, 26 March, 1819.Larger image (94KB)
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    Stupa Excavation 1817
    Section plan of the stupa excavation in June 1817. [WD1061, folio 9]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Copied by J. Mustie, 6th March 1819.
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    Stone Circles
    Three plans and one section plan of stone circles near the stupa. [WD1061, folio 10]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

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    Amaravati Map 1816

    Inch to mile map of Amaravati and the surrounding countryside in 1816. [WD1061, folio 89]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Map of Amrawutty in Guntoor & of Purtyall & the Diamond Mines with the villages Adjacent reduced from the Original Survey in 1816. The Limits of the Diamond Mines of Purtyall is denoted by a yellow tinge. Scale of One Mile to an Inch. Cop'd by J. Mustie 5th February 1820.Larger image (119KB)
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/mapsandplans.html

    Drum Slabs


    The Mackenzie Amaravati Album contains 24 drawings of stone slabs that originally clad the base of the stupa. These drum slabs are consistently carved with images of stupas surrounded by devotees, animals and celestial beings. No one drum slab is the same as another, but they can be distinguished by common motifs located at the central panel of each piece. Some of the motifs found at the centre of these stupa slabs are nagasseated Buddhas and standing Buddhas. Others show at their centre miscellaneous subjects such as trees being worshiped and scenes from Jataka stories.

    Drum Slabs: Nagas

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    The central decoration of these drum slabs is a multi-headed serpent.
    Drum Slab folio 18
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.8in. by 2ft.8in.[WD1061, folio 18]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: H.H. September 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 20
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.5in. by 3ft.0.9in. [WD1061, folio 20]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:Tope slab. 25th Sept'r 1816. M.BLocation of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 23
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft.5in. by 2ft.9in. [WD1061, folio 23].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:H.H. 15th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 32
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.6in. by 3ft.2in. [WD1061, folio 32]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Inner Circle S.W. No.7. 27th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 35
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.9in. by 3ft. [WD1061, folio 35]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: Inner circle S.W. side. No.8. 15th Nov'r. 1816. T.A. & M.B.

    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 46

    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4.5ft. by 3ft. [WD1061, folio 46]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Sculpture at Amrawutty. Resembles No. 7. March 5th 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 74; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 93; BM81.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/nagas.html

    Drum Slabs: Seated Buddhas

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    These drum slabs all feature seated Buddha figures at their centre.
    Drum Slab folio 24
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft. by 5ft.8.5in. [WD1061, folio 24]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: No.1. M.B. 16th Sept. 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 70; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 100; BM72.
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    Drum Slab folio 33

    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.2in. by 3ft.4in. [WD1061, folio 33]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:East side inner circle. T.A. 12th Nov'r 1816.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Broken Drum Slab folio 55
    Drawing of a broken drum slab showing half a stupa measuring 2ft. 10.6in. by 2ft.8in. [WD1061, folio 55].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Inner Circle East side No.12. W.S. March 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Madras Government Museum, Chennai. Accession number 235.
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    Drum Slab folio 67
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft. by 4ft.0.75in. [WD1061, folio 67]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: No.21. T. A. May 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 79
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.8.25in. by 3ft.0.25in. [WD1061, folio 79]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: No. 1 fronting from the right hand side. T.A.

    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 80

    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft.5in. by 3ft.l0in. [WD1061, folio 80]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: No.2. T.A.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slabs: Standing Buddhas

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Drum Slab folio 69
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.8.75in. by 2ft.l0in. [WD1061, folio 69]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Begun by J. Mustie & finished by Abdula 13th Sept 1819.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. (Enter search term: "Amaravati". Click on 2nd item.) See Knox (1992) catalogue number 72; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 15 and 98; BM79.
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    Drum Slab folio 70
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.9in. by 4ft[WD1061, folio 70]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:No.27. T. A. June 1817.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 71
    Drawing of a (a) drum slab and (b) narrow slab showing a woman standing under a torana. The two pieces measure (a) 5ft.l0in. by 3ft.6.75in, (b) 5ft.l0in. by 10.25in. [WD1061, folio 71].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: No.69 T. A. June 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab folio 78

    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft.3in. by 4ft[WD1061, folio 78]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:No.3. T. A. 11 Sept'r 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slabs: Miscellaneous Subjects

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Devotees Worshipping a Wheel
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 3ft.3.25in by 3ft.1in. Devotees worshiping a wheel at centre. [WD1061, folio 16]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: T.A. Sept'r 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 77; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 97; BM 87.
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    Kneeling Elephant
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.6.6in. by 4ft. Kneeling elephant at centre. [WD1061, folio 26]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: East side Inner Circle; No.6; No.5 by Burke, and No. 7 by Anderson. Both of this kind sent in last time. H.H. 15th October 1816.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Drum Slab with Medallions
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft.lin. by 3ft.2in. Two medallions at centre. [WD1061, folio 34].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Inner Circle S.W. No.6. 8th November 1816. M.B.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Devotees Adoring a Tree
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft. by 3ft.9.25in. Devotees adoring a tree at centre. [WD1061, folio 44]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Inner circle. 2. Stone to the North. W.S. 9th March 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Devotees Adoring a Reliquary
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 4ft.lin. by 3ft.9.5in. Devotees adoring a reliquary at centre. [WD1061, folio 47]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: Inner circle No.2 to the North East. T.A. 6th March 1817.

    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number
    68; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 101; BM69.
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    Drum Slab with Medallions
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 3ft.7.5in. by 3ft. 11.5in. Two medallions at centre. [WD1061, folio 52]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Inner circle No. 1 to the North East. T.A. 20th March, 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 76; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 94; BM85.
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    Devotees Adoring the Footprints of Buddha
    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft.3in. by 4ft.0.75in. Devotees adoring the footprints of the Buddha. [WD1061, folio 68]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: No.22. T. A. May 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Two Naga Kings

    Drawing of a drum slab measuring 5ft.7in. by 4ft.0.25in. Two naga kings at centre. [WD1061, folio 81]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: No.4. T.A. 26 Sept'r
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Rectangular Slabs


    There are 14 drawings in the Mackenzie Amaravati album that have here been classifed as rectangular slabs. About half of these are carved with a single framed scene, while the other half display two or more framed scenes.

    Rectangular Slabs: Single-framed scenes

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    King with Attendants
    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing a king with attendants. [WD1061, folio 13]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 5ft.3ins. by 3ft.8ins. September 4th 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum (search term: 'Amaravati'. Click on the 5th image). See Knox (1992) catalogue number 100; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 81; BM49.
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    Birth of the Buddha
    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing birth of the Buddha. [WD1061, folio 17]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 5ft. 1in. by 2ft.9in. T.A. Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    King and a Rishi
    Drawing of a rectangular slab with two frames showing a king on a throne and a rishi with female attendants. [WD1061, folio 22].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 5ft.6in. by 2ft.5in. This figure is represented in the original with a modest smile in her countenance as if looking downward. (The figure referred to is indicated by an "x" at the bottom centre of the composition.) H.H. 25 Sept'r 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Devotees Around a Tree
    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing devotees around a tree.[WD1061, folio 25]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 3ft.0.5in. by 2ft.8in. Large Stone to the SW. 10th Oct'r 1816. M.B
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Vase of Flowers
    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing a vase of flowers. [WD1061, folio 38]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: 4ft.4.5in. by 2ft.2.5in. Loose stone to the East. C.B. Dec'r 1816.

    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Stupa

    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing a stupa. [WD1061, folio 39]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 4ft.9.5in. by 2ft.8in. Loose stone to the East. C.B. Dec'r 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number
    95; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 66; BM115.
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    Rectangular Slabs: Two or more framed scenes

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Stupa and Tree
    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing a stupa above and a tree surrounded by attendants below. [WD1061, folio 19]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 4ft.7.5in. by 1ft.10.5in. The figures in this page are represented very handsome with smiles on their countenances. H.H. September 1816
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Seated Buddhas and Siddharta
    Drawing of a rectangular slab with four square frames showing a stupa, a seated Buddha with attendants, another seated Buddha with attendants and Siddharta on horseback. [WD1061, folio 21]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:3ft. 11in. by lft.2.2in. M. Burke 21 Sept. 1816.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Horse and Gate
    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing a horse walking through a gate. [WD1061, folio 28].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:5ft.l0in. by 3ft.8in. Loose stone lying to the S.E. H.H. 18th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum (search term: 'Amaravati'. Click on the 6th image). Knox catalogue (1992) number 103; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 73; BM51.
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    Horse and Gate
    Drawing of a rectangular slab showing similar scene to folio 28.[WD1061, folio 29]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:11ft. 1in. by 3ft.l0in. Loose stone lying in the S.E. corner of the reservoir. H.H. 20th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: Madras Government Museum, Chennai. Accession number 192. See Sivaramamurti catalogue (1998) Plate XIX, 1.
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    Two Seated Devotees
    Drawing of a rectangular slab with two scenes showing two devotees seated around a chakra above and four figures with a wheel and a horse below. [WD1061, folio 30]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: 7ft. by 3ft. Loose stone lying on the East side. H.H. 22nd October 1816.

    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number 101; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 71; BM50.
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    Horse and Naga King
    Drawing of a rectangular slab with two scenes showing four standing figures with a horse above and Naga king with four Naga women below.[WD1061, folio 31]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft. by 3ft.l0in. Loose stone lying on the south side. H.H. 25th October 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number 102; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 72; BM53.
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    Female Figure and Devotees
    Drawing of two rectangular slabs showing (a) female figure (b) devotees venerating a tree and a wheel. [WD1061, folio 42]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: a) 3ft. 11.75in. by lft.2.25in. b) 3ft.7.75in. by lft.4in. These stones were placed on either side of the annexed drawing. (a) T.A. 15th Feb'y 1817 (b) W.S. 15th.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Seated and Standing Figures


    Drawing of two rectangular fragments showing (a) legs and lower torsos of seated figures venerating a throne (b) four standing and two seated people. [WD1061, folio 56]

    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: (a) lft.l0in. by 2ft.7.25in. C.B. March 1817. (b) 5ft.5.9in. by 3ft.5.4in. M.B. March 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/twoframe.html

    Medallions

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Two Medallions
    Drawing of two medallions (perhaps the inner and outer face of the same piece). [WD1061, folio 45]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:3ft. by 3ft.2in. Outer circle 2nd. H.H. March 8th 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Men Running Through a Crowd
    Drawing of railing medallion carved with scene of men running through a crowd. [WD1061, folio 49]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:3ft.1.8in. across (height not given). H.H. 14th March 1817.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Devotees Around a Stupa
    Drawing of medallion showing devotees around a stupa. [WD1061, folio 63].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:2ft.11.5in. by 3ft.3.3in. The best finished sculpture in Depaldinna. Outer gate. .H. April 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum, Knox (1992) catalogue number 27; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 85; BM8.
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    Adoration of the Buddha Begging Bowl
    Drawing of medallion showing a man holding a begging bowl surrounded by devotees. [WD1061, folio 65]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 2ft.11in. by 3ft.2.6in. Outer circle No.18 (No.19 drawn by Newman) Principal figure horse. H.H. April 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Madras Government Museum, Chennai. Accession number 132. See Sivaramamurti catalogue (1998), plate number XXVI.
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    Dancers and Musicians
    Drawings of both sides of a medallion. The front is carved with dancers and musicians and the back with a lotus medallion. [WD1061, folio 66]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: 2ft.llin. by 3ft.3in. Outer Circle 16 (17 drawn by Newman). T. A.15th April 1817.

    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Male Devotees Around a Throne
    Drawing of two medallions (probably the front and back of the same piece) showing (a) male devotees surrounding a throne (b) lotus medallion. [WD1061, folio 76]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: No.61. H.H. August 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Naga King
    Drawing of two medallions (probably the front and back of the same piece) showing (a) Naga king surrounded by women (b) lotus medallion. [WD1061, folio 77]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft.1.5in. by 3ft.3in. No.59. H.H. August 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Seated Couple
    Drawing of a medallion with seated couple surrounded by attendants.[WD1061, folio 85]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 2ft.6.5in. by 2ft.6.5in. T.A.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Elephant and Riders
    Drawing of medallion with elephant and riders. [WD1061, folio 86]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 2ft. 11.5in. by 2ft.11.5in. The situation of this stone is to the south of the stones Mr. Hamilton drew last. T.A.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Lotus Pattern


    Drawing of medallion with lotus pattern. [WD1061, folio 87]

    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Ground.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/medallions.html

    Rectangular Slabs Decorated with Medallions

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Lotus Medallions and Gandharvas
    Drawing of a railing pillar with two lotus medallions and gandharvas. [WD1061, folio 36]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft.7in. by 2ft.9in. Exterior circle (counting from the North) No.6. 19th November 1816. M.B.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number 5; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 5; BM46.
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    Lotus Medallions and Figures
    Drawing of a railing pillar with two lotus medallions. Figures adoring a throne are shown in the area between the medallions. [WD1061, folio 37]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft.5in. by 2ft.7.5in. Exterior Circle (intermediate stones circular and no figures). No.5A . 25th November 1816. M.B.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Newborn Child and Devotees
    Drawing of a railing column showing scenes of a newborn child being publicly presented. Above are devotees venerating a peacock. Below is a lotus medallion. [WD1061, folio 43]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 5ft. by 3ft. of 4 stones to the south. 1st. T.A. H.H. March 4th 1817.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Lotus Medallions
    Drawing of a railing pillar with two lotus medallions. [WD1061, folio 48]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft.7in. by 3ft. H.H. 12th March 1817.Location of Sculpture:Unknown.
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    Seated King and Queen
    Drawing of a railing pillar showing a seated king and queen above a lotus medallion. [WD1061, folio 53]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 3ft.8.3in. by 2ft. 11.6in. Outer circle No.9. M. B. March 1817.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Devotees with Nobles and a Bullock Cart
    Drawing of a railing pillar with scenes of devotees, nobles and a bullock cart. [WD1061, folio 54]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 4ft. 10.5in. by 2ft.10.6in. Outer circle No. 8. M.B. March 1817.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Devotees Surrounding a Throne
    Drawing of a railing pillar. Central image shows devotees surrounding a throne. Seated figures above and lotus medallion below. [WD1061, folio 58].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 4ft.7.5in. by 2ft.8.9in. Outer circle No. (14 or) 21 M.B. March 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Three Ganas
    Drawing of a railing pillar showing three Ganas. Lotus medallions above and below. [WD1061, folio 60]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: 6ft.0.75in. by 2ft.l0in. C. B. April 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number 14; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 83; BM17.
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    Three Ganas in Centre
    Drawing of a railing pillar showing three Ganas at centre and lotus medallions above and below. [WD1061, folio 61]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: 6ft.11.25in. by 2ft.9.25in. Sculpture on the back part of the stone forming the outer circle (the opposite side was drawn by Newman). C. B. April 1817.

    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number 12; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 84; (BM11).
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    Seated Nobles and a Young Family
    Drawing of a railing pillar showing seated nobles and a young family. Lotus medallion below. [WD1061, folio 64]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft. by 2ft.8.lin. No.15. C. B. April 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    People at Rest
    Drawing of a railing pillar showing scenes of people at rest. Lotus medallion below. [WD1061, folio 72]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 5ft. by 2ft.8.25in. 3rd Stone East of No.57. T. A. July 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Devotees Surrounding the Footprints of Buddha
    Drawing of a railing pillar showing devotees surrounding the foot prints of the Buddha, a seated man and a seat under a tree. Medallion showing devotees above and lotus medallion below. [WD1061, folio 73]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 5ft.l0in. by 3ft.1in. No.57. T. A. August 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Soldiers with an Elephant and Devotees
    Drawing of two railing pillars showing (a) three lotus medallions (b) soldiers and an elephant moving into battle. Devotees surrounding a standing Buddha above and a lotus medallion below. [WD1061, folio 74]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: (a) 6ft.1in. tall. (a&b) 3ft.11.2in. wide. (a) No.57 (b) No.58 The accompanying Facsimile was taken from a stone placed here .- H.H. August 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Nobles at Lesiure

    Drawing of a railing pillar showing nobles at leisure and a man on horseback returning with troops. Medallion above shows a crowd of female devotees. Lotus medallion below. [WD1061, folio 75]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 6ft.6.5in. by 2ft.9.3in. H.H. August 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/decoratedslabs.html

    Friezes

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Running Men Frieze
    Drawing of a piece of rail coping showing two running men carrying a large garland. [WD1061, folio 15]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 2ft.8in. by 3ft. l0in. March 1816.
    Location of Sculpture: The National Museum of India, New Delhi. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 44; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 79; BM30.
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    Royal Procession Frieze
    Drawing of a frieze in two parts showing nobles, a royal procession, Naga people and devotees around a seated Buddha. [WD1061, folio 41]
    Copyright © The British Library Board


    Inscribed:a) lft.5.2in. by 3ft.7.5in. b) lft.3in. by 6ft.3.8in. H.H. March 1817.Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Buddha Frieze
    Drawing of three rectangular fragments carved with Buddhas. (a) Seated Buddha with horse and rider below. (b) Standing Buddha next to a seated king. (c) Standing Buddha, seated Buddha and a stupa surrounded by devotees. [WD1061, folio 62].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:(a) 3ft. by lft.1.9in. (b) lft.4.7in. by 2ft.11.9in. (c)lft.1.6in. by 2ft.10.9in. M.B. April 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Herd of Cows Frieze
    Drawing of two rectangular fragments showing (a) a herd of cows (b) railing pattern. [WD1061, folio 82]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: (a) 2ft.7.75in. by 2ft.5in. (b) lft.llin. by 2ft.9in. Began 3rd finished 5 Oct'r 1817. T.A.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Seated King Frieze
    Drawing of a railing coping with narrative carving showing a seated king, musicians and dancers and a queen reclining on a bed. [WD1061, folio 83]
    Copyright © The British Library Board
    Inscribed: 2ft.9in. by 7ft.4.25in. Specimen of the Ancient Sculptures from the Dipaldinna at Amrawutty. Drawn by Nujbulla 22nd April 1819.

    Location of Sculpture: Indian Museum, Calcutta.
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    Veneration of a Stupa Frieze

    Drawing of a piece of railing coping showing the veneration of a stupa and a seated king and queen surrounded by attendants. [WD1061, folio 84]
    Copyright © The British Library Board


    Inscribed: 2ft.6.25in. by 3ft.3.5in. Drawn by Pearylaul 27th Aug'st 1819.
    Location of Sculpture: The British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 40; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 89; BM34.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/friezes.html

    Pillars and Columns

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Column with Wheel
    Drawing of a tall rectangular stele showing a column with wheel on top. [WD1061, folio 14]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:5ft. by 13in. Sept. 14 1816; 22 Sept.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Two Pilasters
    Drawing of two drum pilasters showing (a) a column with wheel on top and (b) four panels showing a stupa, a seated Buddha, another seated Buddha and standing man with horse. [WD1061, folio 27]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:(a) 4ft.8.lin. by 10.5in. 15th October 1816. (b) 4ft. 2.3in. by 8in. M. Burke 20th October 1816. Location of Sculpture: The piece labelled "b" is in the British Museum. See Knox catalogue (1992) number 83; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 110; BM73.
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    Two Pillars
    Drawing of two pillars labelled "a" and "b", each showing a column with a wheel on top. [WD1061, folio 40].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: a) 4ft.l0in. by l0in. b) 4ft.l0in. by 10.5in. The pillars found lying to the south which belong to the same circle. H.H. March 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: The piece labelled "b" is in the British Museum. See Knox catalogue (1992) number 81; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 107; BM71.
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    Three Pillars

    Drawing of three pillars carved with (a) seated Buddhas and a stupa capital (b) seated Buddhas and a stupa capital (c) a column surrounded by devotees. [WD1061, folio 59]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:(a) 4ft.1.8in. by 7.2in. (b) 4ft.6.9in. by 7.2in. (c) 3ft.5.9in. by 11.4in. Pillars found lying on the South which belong to the inner circle. M.B. April 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: The pieces labelled "a" and "b" are in the British Museum. See Knox catalogue (1992) numbers 85 and 86; Barrett (1954) catalogue numbers 111 and 112; BM84 and BM86.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/pillarsandcolumns.html

    Fragments

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Fragments from the Amaravati Album
    Drawing of three fragments showing (a) stupa and wheel (b) gandharvas and men adoring a throne (c) seated men and a man with a snake headdress. [WD1061, folio 50]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: (a) 4ft.6.5in. by 3ft.8in. (b) 3ft.10.5in. by 3ft.8in. (c) 3ft.lin. by 2ft.9.5in. C. Barnett 17th March, 1817.
    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    Fragments from the Amaravati Album
    Drawing of three fragments showing (a) four devotees surrounding a building (b) seated Buddha and man on horse (c) three men on stools.[WD1061, folio 51]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed:(a) 2ft.6.5in. by lft.10.75in. (b) 2ft.7.5in. by lft.2in. (c) l0ft.10.5in. by lft.9.5in. C. Barnett 12th March 1817.Location of Sculpture: The fragment labelled "c" is in the British Museum. See Knox (1992) catalogue number 104; Barrett (1954) catalogue number 74; BM52.
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    Fragments from the Amaravati Album

    Drawing of two fragments showing (a) a wheel and stupa (b) humans and gandharvas. [WD1061, folio 57].
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: (a) 3ft.7.5in. by 3ft.6.5in. (b)3ft.6in. by 3ft.5.75in.
    C. Barnett March 1817.

    Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/fragments.html

    Stones with Inscriptions

    Although the pictures below show only a portion of each drawing, they lead into pop-up images of entire drawings. Detailed scans of each folio can be accessed through the links, but will take some time to download.
    Rectangular Slab with Inscription
    Drawing of a tall rectangular slab bearing an inscription. [WD1061, folio 11]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: 5ft. by lft.5ins. Reduction of an Ancient Inscription on Stone found in Depaldinna at Amrawutty - The lower part of the stone broken off.
    Location of Sculpture: British Museum. Knox (1992) catalogue number 130; BM67.
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    Broken Slab with Inscription

    Drawing of a broken slab bearing an inscription. [WD1061, folio 12]
    Copyright © The British Library Board

    Inscribed: Fac Simile of an inscription which was placed on the East side of the South Gateway of Dipaldinna August 1816. Cop'd by J. Gould, 18 December 1817. Location of Sculpture: Unknown.
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    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/inscriptionalstones.html

    Further Reading

    Some of the Mackenzie drawings depict stones now held in museums in India and London. A list of published catalogues from some of these museums is given below.


    1. Barrett, Douglas. Sculptures from Amaravati in the British Museum. London: The British Museum, 1954.
    2. Knox, Robert. Amaravati: Buddhist Sculpture from the Great Stupa. London: British Museum Press, 1992.
    3. Nainar, N.P. and Sarkar, H. Amaravati. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 1972.
    4. Sivaramamurti, C. Amaravati Sculptures in the Madras Government Museum. Madras: 1942.
    http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amaravati/furtherreading.html

     
    A fascinating relief at Konark depicts the workers who brought the blocks of stone with which the temple was built.

    The warmth and the encompassing protection of the natural order is beautifully expressed in Naga deities, who are part human and part serpent.

    The main entrance to the jagmohan is made in the style of temple doorways that was established by the 5th century. It is made out of chlorite and is fully carved. There are eight rows of carvings; the innermost one is deeply recessed. Among the motifs here are Nagas, loving couples who celebrate the harmony of existence, and the continuous vine of the pulsating life force of the world. Such vines, which carry the bounty and fruitfulness of nature, have been seen in Indian art since the earliest of times. Fine examples of them are in the sculpted reliefs of the stupa railings of Bharhut, Sanchi and Amaravati.

    http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl2512/stories/20080620251206600.htm



    Bharhut torana.
    Image result for amaravati naga
    Amaravati
    click to open a full-size photo (2-7 MB)
    Three Naga
    s.

    Related image
    Asitas visit to Suddhadhana Satavahana, 1st-2nd Century Amaravati at National Museum Delhi India 
    Leaving Horse and Groom
    Once Prince Siddhartha had seen suffering in the world outside the palace walls, he vowed to leave the palace and seek a greater understanding of the world.
    Siddhartha left the palace in the middle of the night with his horse Kanthaka and his groom Chandaka. At the village gate, Siddhartha took off his princely robes and cut his hair. He sent his groom and horse back to the palace. Then he began his journey alone.
    This scene shows Siddhartha sitting on a throne saying goodbye to his horse and groom. Chandaka holds his staff and kneels in front of Siddhartha. Kanthaka's head can be seen to the right of Siddhartha.
    http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/buddha/explore/pili2_b4.html
    Related imageFragment of the Universal Monarch (Chakravartin) a previous Buddha, Amaravati, 2nd C. CE
    Image result for amaravati nagaRelated imageÉveil du Buddha, école d'Amaravati (Pinterest)

    Brief Notes on Various Schools of Art in the Post-Mauryan Period

    Brief notes on Various Schools of art in the Post-Mauryan period!
    The Post-Mauryan period saw the development of local or regional styles of sculptural art-Gandhara and Mathura in the north and Amarvati in the lower Krishna-Godavari valley.
    Mauryan
    Image Courtesy : us.123rf.com/400wm/400/400/yogeshsmore/yogeshsmore1205/india.jpg
    Gandhara School: A great deal of Gandhara sculpture has survived dating from the 1st to probably as late as the 6th on 7th Century, but in a remarkably homogenous style, almost always in a blue-grey mica schist, though sometimes in a green phyllite on in stucco or very rarely in terracotta.
    Except for a handful of Hindu icons, sculpture took the from either of Buddhist cult objects – Buddhas and Bodhisattvas primarily – or of architectural ornament for Buddhist monasteries, such as friezes end stair-risers, to beautify rather rough masonry or to decorate the lower portions of stupas. They show almost exclusively events in the life of the historical Buddha, chiefly his birth, Great Departure and Pariniravana.
    The characteristic Gandhara sculptures, the standing or seated Buddha, reflects the essential nature of Gandhara art. The iconography is purely Indian. The seated Buddha is almost always cross- legged in the traditional Indian way. He was the physical marks of a Buddha, chief among them, the usina, the urna and elongated ears.
    Usina simply means a peak topknot of uncut hair. Urna is believed to be a hairy mole, which marked the Buddha’s forehead. The Gandhara Buddha never wears earrings or ornaments of any sort in his elongated ears. The Gandhara Buddha is invariably shown making one of the four significant and unchanging hand gestures, known as mudras, one of the most characteristic features of Indian iconography.
    The Western classical element resides in the style, in the treatment of the robe (the heavy folds of the robe) and in the physiognomy of the Buddha, the head is certainly based on the Greek God, Apollo. The main centers from where the art pieces of the Gandhara School have been found are Jalalabad, Hadda, Bamaran, Begram and Taxila. The chief patrons of the Gandhara art were the shakas and the Kushanas.
    Mathura School: The origin of the Mathura art form is traced back to the 2nd century BC, and by the 1st century AD it had become a major school of art. Mathura produced sculptural works in quantities rivaled only by Gandhara, and while were eagerly sought after and imitated all over northern India. It was here in the Kushana period that the brahmanical icon was born; and also the Jina image, creating its own style of the Buddha and Bodhisattava image.
    Jains produced distinctive cult objects in the form of the Sarvatobhadrika images (four standing Jinas back to back) and the ayagapatas or votive tobelts, square slabs bearing relief sculptures on the side, possibly used as altars near a stupa for depositing offerings. Some show figures or scenes or stupas, other is carved with decorative patterns and such ancient Indian symbols as the svastika and the twin fish, adopted by the Jains as well as the Buddhists.
    The great of standing Buddhas of Mathura are usually well over life size but with very little depth. They nonethless exude a sense of power with their excessively wide shoulders, thin prominent breasts, and deep navels. They invariably stand with their feet well apart and usually with a lion or a sheaf of lotuses between the feet.
    The surviving heads bore a usina of a peculiar shape – hence the name Kapardin (from Kaparda). The hair was a smooth close fitting cap and foreheads were marked with the uma. The right shoulder is invariably bare, the upper garment looped over the left arm, the left hand resting on the hip, the right hand raised, palm outwards in abhaya posture. The standing Buddhas from Mathura were installed at Sravasti Sarnath (by bhikshu Bala in the period of Kanishka I and Kausambi.
    Small seated Buddhas from Mathura were installed at Sanchi Abhichhatra and as Far East as Bengal and north-west as charsadda, outside Peshawar. The seated Buddhas from Mathura are even more important than the standing over because it is this form, the Yogic position called padmasana, (his legs tightly folded so that the soles of both feet, decorated with the Buddhist triratna and Dharmachakra’ signs face upward) which the great majority of Indian images have continued to take until the present day and because their iconography is richer.
    The two turbaned male figures holding cowries on either side of the Buddha are the first of the attendants which had thenceforth flanked many Indian deities. There is a plain halo around his head and on the ground of the statue, the branches and leaves of a pipal tree; the symbol of the enlightenment appears in low relief.
    Most of the inscriptions record the setting up of a Bodhisattava image at this time and not of a Buddha – a large standing Bodhisattava in the round, who in contrast to the Buddha, wears jewellery and usually a rolled scarf over a shoulder and looping down below the knee, but the robust and well flushed bodies are the same.
    The appearance of Hindu icons at Mathura coincides with the emergence of the two great theistic cults, the saiva and the vaisnava, each with its own pantheon, but their number is insignificant in comparison to Buddhist and Jaina images. The two prominent icons, to speak of an established iconography, area lingas with one face or faces of Shiva projecting from them, and the goddess Durga slaying the demon buffalo (Durga Mahisasuramardini).
    Small icons of Varah Vishnu, recognizable by his characteristic crown, shiva as Ardhanari, (half man half woman, the division being vertical), Sasthi and Kartikeya have all been found. The iconography of the principal Gods was still in the process of formation.
    Considering the quintessentially Indian aesthetic sense in most Mathura sculpture (carved out of the characteristic red sandstone with beige spots), it would not be right to think of Mathura as culturally isolated. Its position being important trade routes from Konkan to the lower doab and Pataliputra on the one hand and Gandhara on the other make this unlikely.
    A significant dimension of Mathura art is that it also produced free-standing sculptures of kings and other notables, for examples, of the great Kanishka, portraits which are rare in Indian art.
    Another thing worth noticing about this school is that it depicts various patterns of life on the votive pillars, e.g. scenes from forests.
    Amaravati: Except for the splendid standing Buddhas, none earlier than the 3rd on 4th century AD, which later provided the model for those of Sri Lanka and South-east Asia, early Andhra sculptures consists almost exclusively of reliefs. The sculptural reliefs all in marble like limestone of Palnad, decorating the monumental stupas at Amaravati, date back from 2nd century BC and others not so outstanding are from Nagarjuna Konda. Lesser stupas with sculptural reliefs were erected at a few other sites. Among them is Jagaayapeta, the source of the famous chakravartin (world-emperor) relief.
    The relief at Amaravati represents the traditional narrative arts taking themes from Buddha’s life and from Jataka stories. In the narrative scenes the superlative beauty of the individual bodies (they are well-modeled with long legs and slender frames and sensual expressions) and the variety of poses, many realizing new possibilities of depicting the human form, as well as the swirling rhythms of the mass compositions, all combine to produce some of the most glorious reliefs in world art.
    Kings, princes and palaces figure prominently in sculptural representations. For example, the story of King Udayana and his queen is depicted on a relief, as is also a scene of a king on March with horse riders and footmen and a king in his court receiving presents, etc.
    • Ancient Art (Sculpture) from Amaravati
      • Amaravati art as one of the three major styles or schools of ancient Indian Sculpture
        • Other two being the Gandhara style and the Mathura style.
      • Use of White marble (to Potrays a Greco-Roman influence)
      • Physical beauty with elegance
      • Narrative rather than individualistic (not deities but Humans)
      • Depiction of Kings and Princes
      • Direct result of the close trade and diplomatic contacts between south india and the ancient roma
      • Amaravati has itself yielded a few Roman coins
      • World’s finest examples of Narrative sculpture.

    Budha statue under construction, Amravati, andhra pradesh, india

    Mallikarjuna alayam, Amravati

    Statua di Buddha ad Amaravati, India, Andhra Pradesh, gennaio 2006

    Kala Chakra Budha Statue at Amaravathi in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Amareswara Temple at Amaravati

    Sri Hanuman Statue at Amaravathi in Andhra Pradesh

    AMARAVATHI BOUDDHA STUPA LARGEST IN INDIA

    River krishna at Amaravati

    Krishna river Scenery

    MUSIUM, AMARAVATHI, GUNTUR

    STUPA MODEL, MUSIUM, AMARAVATHI, ANDHRAPRADESH

    New sculptures at Budha Statue at Amaravathi

    DYANA BUDDA, AMARAVATHI, GUNTUR

    Budha Statue at Amaravathi

    SRI MALLIKARJUNA TEMPLE prasadam counter ,AMARAVATHI

    Krishna River at Amaravathi

    Amaravathi musuem

    Sri Mallikarjuna Temple Entrance,AMARAVATHI

    BOATS PARKED AT KRISHNA RIVER ,AMARAVATHI

    Krishna River at Amaravathi

    BOATS PARKED AT KRISHNA RIVER ,AMARAVATHI

    Amaravathi Kala Chakra Budha Statue at in Andhra Pradesh (GK Anapathi)

    Amaravathi Kala Chakra Budha Statue at in Andhra Pradesh (GK Anapathi)

    River Krishna from Amaravati Temple

    Sri Amareswaraswamy Temple at Amaravathi in Andhra Pradesh

    Similar look like Varanasi in Amaravathi

    BUDDHA STATUE, AMARAVATHI

    Amaravathi


    Amaravati,like Bharhut and Sanchi, artifacts constitute a continuum from Sindhu-Sarasvati Script heritage.
    Amaravati frieze shows a woman scribe and an artisan scribe inscribing on tablets

    Hieroglyph karaṇa rebus: kārṇī 'supercargo of a ship' kul-- karṇī m. ʻ village accountant ʼ(Marathi) 

    dhAtu 'strands of rope' rebus: dhAtu 'mineral ore, element'; kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter', kariba 'trunk of elephant' rebus: karba 'iron'; kharA 'crocodile' rebus: khAr 'blackwmith'; kol 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron', kolle 'blacksmith', kolhe 'smelters'. Parasol hieroglyph: Ta. kuṭai umbrella, parasol, canopy. Ma. kuṭa umbrella. Ko. koṛ umbrella made of leaves (only in a proverb); keṛ umbrella. To. kwaṛ id. Ka. koḍe id.,parasol. Koḍ. koḍe umbrella. Tu. koḍè id. Te. goḍugu id., parasol. Kuwi (F.) gūṛgū, (S.) gudugu, (Su. P.) guṛgu umbrella (< Te.). / Cf. Skt. (lex.) utkūṭa- umbrella, parasol. (DEDR 1653).. Rebus: koD 'workshop'. Ta. koṭṭakai shed with sloping roofs, cow-stall; marriage pandal; koṭṭam cattle-shed; koṭṭil cow-stall, shed, hut; (STD) koṭambe feeding place for cattle. Ma. koṭṭil cowhouse,shed, workshop, house.Ka. koṭṭage, koṭige, koṭṭige stall or outhouse (esp. for cattle), barn, room. Koḍ. koṭṭï shed. Tu. koṭṭa hut or dwelling of Koragars; koṭya shed, stall. Te. koṭṭā̆mu stable for cattle or horses; koṭṭāyi thatched shed. Kol. (Kin.) koṛka, (SR.) korkā cowshed; (Pat., p. 59) konṭoḍi henhouse
    Nk. khoṭa cowshed. Nk. (Ch.) koṛka id. Go. (Y.) koṭa, (Ko.) koṭam (pl. koṭak) id. (Voc. 880); (SR.) koṭka shed; (W. G. Mu. Ma.) koṛka, (Ph.) 
    korka, kurka cowshed (Voc. 886); (Mu.) koṭorla, koṭorli shed for goats (Voc. 884). Malt. koṭa hamlet. / Influenced by Skt. goṣṭha-. (DEDR 2058)


    Wash drawing by Murugesa Moodaliar of a carved railing coping from the Great Stupa of Amaravati. "The drawing No.27 depicts a long narrative scene carved on the inner face of a railing coping which has been assigned to the early High Period at Amaravati, 2nd century CE. The scene has been identified as representing the 'adoration of the stupa'. The drawing No.28 depicts the carvings on the outer face of the same railing coping. The decoration consists of an ondulating garland carried by running turbaned young men. In the spaces created by the garland there are the following elements: a stupa with worshippers; a trio of rampant animals supported by three dwarfs standing on addorsed makaras, mythological sea-monsters; a dharmacakra, the Wheel of the Law over an empty throne, symbol of the First Sermon of the Buddha; the bird Garuda perched on the coiled body of a naga (serpent)."

    Image result for amaravati naga



    Indus script hypertexts on Amaravati sculptural proclamations signify dhāma ʻreligious conductʼ(Old Bengali) and relate to metal- mint-work.

    kulā ʻwinnowing fan' (Oriya.Assamese)(CDIAL 3350) rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'.  kaláśa ʻwaterpotʼ RV., a metaphor of prosperity. nidhí m. ʻ setting down (food), hoard ʼ RV. [√dhā]Pa. nidhi -- m. ʻ receptacle, treasure ʼ; Pk. ṇihi -- m. ʻ storehouse ʼ; Si.  ʻ subterranean treasure -- chamber, mine ʼ; -- Kho. (Lor.) niya ʻ a place where there is litter and rubbish ʼ phonet. rather < nidhāˊ -- .(CDIAL 7207) The inverted 'srivatsa' or fish-fin khambhaṛā 'fin' base of the vase of prosperity signifies kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal'. I suggest that the hypertext messagig on this sculptural frieze is a proclamation of metal-, mint-work as a nidhi, a treasure. Thre carriers of the three strands of rope are nidhāˊ'depositing' the metallic in the treasury. dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M.dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773).
    Fragments from the sculptural ruins of Amaravati. 

    Amaravati. Dome slab. With Indus Script hieroglyphs. khambhaṛā 'fin' rebus: kammaṭa 'coiner, coinage, mint' tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'.aya 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' kol 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'. sippi 'mollusc' rebus: sippi 'artisan, sculptor'.

    Drawing of two medallions (perhaps the inner and outer face of the same piece). [WD1061, folio 45]. The top medallion shows nAga venerating a blazing pillar of light: yupa, iSTi. Atop this pillar, the 'srivatsa' hypertext proclaims the mint sculptor. Bottom medallion: tAmarasa 'lotus' rebus: tAmra 'copper'.

    Dome slab. Srivatsa hypertexts.

    A wheel atop a pillar is also adorned with 'srivatsa' hypertext. eraka 'nave of wheel' rebus: eraka 'moltencast, copper'. arA 'spoke' rebus: Ara 'brass' as in ArakUTa (Samskrtam) The wheel is also a metaphor for dhammacakka (Pali)



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    See: http://tinyurl.com/l2bxm7g  which demonstrated that a hypertext khambhaṛā 'fish fin' (Lahnda. CDIAL 13640) signifies rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage' (Kannada).

    Other inscriptions from the Script Corpora are selected and presented in this monograph to signify the plain text: ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' using the mlecchita vikalpa, 'Meluhha rebus cipher'.

    Ta. kampaṭṭam coinage, coin. Ma. kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mintKa. kammaṭa id.; kammaṭi a coiner. (DEDR 1236)
    Image result for sheaf indus script

    Hypertexts which signify ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' are the following hieroglyph compositions as hypertexts. These are presented in seven sections:

    1. Fish-fin

    3. Eagle (Black drongo PLUS wings/plumage)

    3. Plaits of hair PLUS eagle PLUS wings

    4. Elephant/Tiger PLUS wings

    5. Makara (hypertext composition of fish, fish-fin, elephant, crocodile) with fish-fin

    6. Sheaf

    7. Shoulder


    1 Fish-fin

    khambhaṛā m. ʻ fin ʼ(Lahnda. CDIAL  13640) rebus: ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith'
    ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' (R̥gveda)

    Image result for sheaf indus script
    Fish PLUS fish-fin on Binjor seal
    Image result for sheaf indus script
    Makara with fish-tails and emergence of a smith, ivory-carver, artificer. Plaque from Casket V. Begram. Site 2, Chamber 10. Ivory. Inv. no.: MG 1901.

    2 Eagle (black drongo PLUS wings/plumage)

    పోలడు (p. 820) pōlaḍu , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)  rebus: pōlaḍu 'steel' (Russian. Persian) PLUS
    wings/plumage

     *skambha2 ʻ shoulder -- blade, wing, plumage ʼ. [Cf. *skapa -- s.v. *khavaka -- ]
    S. khambhu°bho m. ʻ plumage ʼ, khambhuṛi f. ʻ wing ʼ; L. khabbh m., mult. khambh m. ʻ shoulder -- blade, wing, feather ʼ, khet. khamb ʻ wing ʼ, mult. khambhaṛā m. ʻ fin ʼ; P. khambh m. ʻ wing, feather ʼ; G. khā̆m f., khabhɔ m. ʻ shoulder ʼ.(CDIAL 13640) rebus:  ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith'
    Image result for sheaf indus scriptEagle PLUS wings
    Image result for sheaf indus script
    Makara with fish-tails and emergence of a smith, ivory-carver, artificer. Plaque from Casket V. Begram. Site 2, Chamber 10. Ivory. Inv. no.: MG 1901.

    3 Plaits of hair PLUS eagle PLUS wings

    मेढा (p. 391) mēḍhā A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl rebus:  med 'ironmed 'copper' (Slavic) medhā 'dhana, yajna'.
    PLUS
    పోలడు (p. 820) pōlaḍu , పోలిగాడు or దూడలపోలడు pōlaḍu. [Tel.] n. An eagle. పసులపోలిగాడు the bird called the Black Drongo. Dicrurus ater. (F.B.I.)  rebus: pōlaḍu 'steel' (Russian. Persian) PLUS
    wings/plumage
    PLUS
     *skambha2 ʻ shoulder -- blade, wing, plumage ʼ. [Cf. *skapa -- s.v. *khavaka -- ]
    S. khambhu°bho m. ʻ plumage ʼ, khambhuṛi f. ʻ wing ʼ; L. khabbh m., mult. khambh m. ʻ shoulder -- blade, wing, feather ʼ, khet. khamb ʻ wing ʼ, mult. khambhaṛā m. ʻ fin ʼ; P. khambh m. ʻ wing, feather ʼ; G. khā̆m f., khabhɔ m. ʻ shoulder ʼ.(CDIAL 13640) rebus: Central Asia seal. Bird (eagle) PLUS wings. ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith'

    Image result for sheaf indus script
    Hieroglyphic hypertexts on Gundestrum cauldron. Three plait of hair; winged eagle.
    4. Elephant/Tiger PLUS wings (plumage)


    Image result for sheaf indus scriptHarappa hypertext: Elephant PLUS plumage. Plumage: birds' feathers collectively
    karba, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant' PLUS khambh 'plumage' rebus: ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith'

    Image result for sheaf indus script
    Tiger PLUS wings. Sculpural frieze.Ancient Near East ANZU bird.
    kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' 
    PLUS
     *skambha2 ʻ shoulder -- blade, wing, plumage ʼ. [Cf. *skapa -- s.v. *khavaka -- ]
    S. khambhu°bho m. ʻ plumage ʼ, khambhuṛi f. ʻ wing ʼ; L. khabbh m., mult. khambh m. ʻ shoulder -- blade, wing, feather ʼ, khet. khamb ʻ wing ʼ, mult. khambhaṛā m. ʻ fin ʼ; P. khambh m. ʻ wing, feather ʼ; G. khā̆m f., khabhɔ m. ʻ shoulder ʼ.(CDIAL 13640) rebus: Central Asia seal. Bird (eagle) PLUS wings. ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith'

    5.Makara (hypertext composition of fish, fish-fin, elephant, crocodile) with fish-fin

    karibha, ibha'elephant' rebus: karba, ib'iron' PLUS ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas'alloy metal' PLUS karā'crocodile' rebus: khār'blacksmith'
    PLUS
    khambhaṛā m. ʻ fin ʼ(Lahnda. CDIAL  13640) rebus: ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith'
    Image result for sheaf indus script
    Hypertext: Bharhut medallion.  fin, fish,crocodile, elephant trunk 

    6. Sheaf Image result for pashupati seal indus script

    Seal m0304 Mohenjo-daro. A pair of sheafs constitute the base of the platform for the person seated in penance.

    A pair of sheaves on seal m0304 as hypertext

     *skambhākara ʻ heap of sheaves ʼ. [skambhá -- 1, ākara -- ] Mth. khamhār ʻ pile of sheaves ʼ; -- altern. < *skambhaghara -- : B. khāmār ʻ barn ʼ; Or. khamāra ʻ barn, granary ʼ. Addenda: skámbhana -- : S.kcch. khāmṇo m. ʻ bed for plants ʼ.(CDIAL 13643) Sheaf = a bundle of grain stalks laid lengthways and tied together after reaping. Thus, khamhār 'sheaves' rebus: ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith' PLUS dula 'two' rebus; dul 'metal casting'. Thus, metalcasting,blacksmith,mint.

    7. Shoulder

    Image result for sheaf indus script

    Shoulders spread to hold back rearing tigers (Sindhu-Sarasvati Script hypertext narrative)
    baṭa'six' rebus: bhaṭa'furnace, smelter' PLUS मेढा (p. 391) mēḍhā  A twist or tangle arising in thread or cord, a curl or snarl rebus:  me 'ironmed 'copper' (Slavic) medhā 'dhana, yajna' PLUS  goṭa 'round stone' rebus: goṭa 'laterite, ferrite ore'. 


    skámbhatē Dhātup. ʻ props ʼ, skambháthuḥ RV. [√skambhPa. khambhēti ʻ props, obstructs ʼ; -- Md. ken̆bum ʻ punting ʼ, kan̆banī ʻ punts ʼ?(CDIAL 13641a)

    Thus, together, the hypertext reads  goṭa meḍ bhaṭa 'laterite, ferrite furnace' PLUS kola'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' PLUS dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, together with the narrative of 'obstruction' the hypertext expression signifies  ಕಮ್ಮಟ kammaṭa 'mint' kambāṟa 'blacksmith' working with metal furnace (for) metalcasting.

     skambhá1 m. ʻ prop, pillar ʼ RV. 2. ʻ *pit ʼ (semant. cf. kūˊpa -- 1). [√skambh]1. Pa. khambha -- m. ʻ prop ʼ; Pk. khaṁbha -- m. ʻ post, pillar ʼ; Pr. iškyöpüšköb ʻ bridge ʼ NTS xv 251; L. (Ju.) khabbā m., mult. khambbā m. ʻ stake forming fulcrum for oar ʼ; P. khambhkhambhākhammhā m. ʻ wooden prop, post ʼ; WPah.bhal. kham m. ʻ a part of the yoke of a plough ʼ, (Joshi) khāmbā m. ʻ beam, pier ʼ; Ku. khāmo ʻ a support ʼ, gng. khām ʻ pillar (of wood or bricks) ʼ; N. khã̄bo ʻ pillar, post ʼ, B. khāmkhāmbā; Or. khamba ʻ post, stake ʼ; Bi. khāmā ʻ post of brick -- crushing machine ʼ, khāmhī ʻ support of betel -- cage roof ʼ, khamhiyā ʻ wooden pillar supporting roof ʼ; Mth. khāmhkhāmhī ʻ pillar, post ʼ, khamhā ʻ rudder -- post ʼ; Bhoj. khambhā ʻ pillar ʼ, khambhiyā ʻ prop ʼ; OAw. khāṁbhe m. pl. ʻ pillars ʼ, lakh. khambhā; H. khām m. ʻ post, pillar, mast ʼ, khambh f. ʻ pillar, pole ʼ; G. khām m. ʻ pillar ʼ, khã̄bhi°bi f. ʻ post ʼ, M. khã̄b m., Ko. khāmbho°bo, Si. kap (< *kab); -- X gambhīra -- , sthāṇú -- , sthūˊṇā -- qq.v.2. K. khambürü f. ʻ hollow left in a heap of grain when some is removed ʼ; Or. khamā ʻ long pit, hole in the earth ʼ, khamiā ʻ small hole ʼ; Marw. khã̄baṛo ʻ hole ʼ; G. khã̄bhũ n. ʻ pit for sweepings and manure ʼ.*skambhaghara -- , *skambhākara -- , *skambhāgāra -- , *skambhadaṇḍa -- ; *dvāraskambha -- .Addenda: skambhá -- 1: Garh. khambu ʻ pillar ʼ.(CDIAL 13639). This pillar adored in Atharvaveda Skambha Sukta (AV X.7, X.8) is also exemplified in Bhuteswar sculptural representations atop smelters.

    mũh 'a face' in Sindhu-Sarasvato (Indus) Script Cipher signifies mũh, muha ̃ 'ingot' or muha ̃ 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.PLUS kuṭhi 'tree' rebus: kuṭhi  'smelter'. The gaṇa are kharva 'dwarfs' rebus: karb'iron' (workers) PLUS dāma 'garland' rebus: dhmā  ध्मा a [p= 509,3] or धम् cl.1 P. ध्/मति (A1. °ते Up. MBh. ; p. ध्मान्तस् = धमन्तस् BhP. x , 12 ,7 ; perf. दध्मौ , pl. A1. °मिरे MBh. ; aor. अध्मासीत् Ka1v. ; Prec. ध्मायात् or ध्मेयात् Gr. ;
     fut. धमिष्यति MBh. ; ध्मास्यति,ध्माता Gr. ; ind.p. -ध्म्/आय Br. ) to blow (either intrans. as wind [applied also to the bubbling सोम RV. ix , 73] or trans. as, to blow a conch-shell or any wind instrument) RV. &c  ; to blow into (loc.) MBh. l , 813  ; to breathe out , exhale RV. ii , 34 , 1 MBh. xiv , 1732  ; to kindle a fire by blowing RV. ii , 24 , 7 MBh. ii , 2483  ; to melt or manufacture (metal) by blowing RV. &c  ; to blow or cast away MBh. v , 7209 : Pass. धम्यते , ep. also °ति , ध्माय्/अते , °ति ( S3Br. MBh. ) to be blown &c : Caus. ध्मापयति MBh. (aor. अदिध्मपत् Gr. ; Pass. ध्माप्यते MBh. ) to cause to blow. or melt  ; to consume by fire , reduce to cinder MBh. Sus3r. : Desid. दिध्नासति Gr.:
     Intens. देध्मीयते Pa1n2. 7-4 , 31  ; दाध्मायते , p. °यमान being violently blown (conch-shell) BhP. i , 11 , 2. [cf. Slav. dumo " smoke "]

    These examples from the Script Corpora are a celebration of the mintwork as a principal wealth-creation activity for the nation composed of śreṇi 'guilds'. Hence, even in front of wild, undomesticated animals hieroglyph pattar'feeding trough' signifies pattar'goldsmith guild, śreṇi'.

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    April 2, 2017
    ...

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    SNAPSHOT
    The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) recently discovered a Harappa-like site in Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu. This discovery is important for more than one reason, writes Aravindan Neelakandan.

    Indus Civilisation Site In Tamil Nadu?The Keeladi Discovery Shouldn’t Fall Prey To False History

    Aravindan is a contributing editor at Swarajya.Indus Civilisation Site In Tamil Nadu?The Keeladi Discovery Shouldn’t Fall Prey To False HistorySouth India can rightly be considered as the Cinderella of Indian history. While a lot of archaeological excavation and discoveries have been carried out in North India for the last three centuries, comparatively very little has happened in the south.
    However, from discoveries of megalithic sites and cave drawings to the occasional unearthing of burial sites and potteries with graffiti, South India has shown a great promise to archaeologists despite no systematic work being conducted here so far.
    The Sangam literature (300 BCE to 400 CE) shows a vibrant Tamil life with well laid out towns which are organically related to a colourful village life. Some songs give detailed descriptions of port cities and various settlements. However, there have not been enough archaeological substantiation attempted for the historical data embedded in Sangam literature. Coins have been obtained with the names of some of the rulers. 

    The news of Keeladi, a village in Sivaganga district in Tamil Nadu, having thrown up large scale urban settlements more than 2000 years old, coinciding with the Sangam age, is good encouragement for Indian archaeology. There have been reports that the urban remains unearthed have similarity to the Harappan civilisation. In fact, the period now suggested coincides with the so-called second urbanisation wave which happened around the same period in the Gangetic plains.
    The prevailing notion was that the Harappan civilisation was destroyed or occupied by invading Aryans and subsequently there was a ‘Vedic dark age’. When curtains were lifted, the second urbanisation had started which was not related to Harappan culture. As more and more archaeological sites emerge, the notion of discontinuity gives place to the notion of transformation. For example, DP Agrawal had written in 1971 that after the ‘Aryan invasion’ there was a subsequent discontinuity, and a new Gangetic urban civilisation arose. However, by 2007 Agrawal was listing no less than nine important continuities that archaeology can attest between the Harappan and post-Harappan civilisations.
    Colonial Indologists and Marxist historians have always tried to find archaeological evidence for Aryan invasion/migration in the form of discontinuity with the Harappan culture and presence of a new alien non-Harappan material culture. The chosen candidate for this was then Painted Gray Ware (PGW) artefacts.
    With Vedic motifs discerned on these potteries, they were seen as the best candidates for the new Aryan culture associated with the ‘second urbanisation’. However, as more and more archaeological sites were revealed these artificially constructed barriers started getting blurred. Archaeologist Jim Shaffer has pointed out that the archaeology shows ‘no cultural discontinuities separating PGW from the indigenous proto-historic [Harappan] culture’.
    A case in point is the Alamgirpur site. This Harappan site on the banks of Yamuna, a tributary of Ganges, was discovered by Y.F.Sharma in the 1950s. After a gap of 50 years, the site was opened for excavations and study in 2008. The new excavations by RN.Singh ‘revealed that there is no stratigraphic gap; in fact, it appears that there was an overlap phase of PGW ware and the Harappan’.
    Clearly the two-thousand years old site in Tamil Nadu needs to be placed in the same context and continuity between Harappan and the sites belonging to ‘second urbanisation’ wave is to be expected. It is to be viewed in the larger context of pan-Indic phenomenon.
    In Indian context there has always been a tension between archaeology and mythical constructs like Aryans. This not limited to colonial Indologists and Marxist historians alone. The Indic side, too, has erred with marine excavations at Dwaraka and allowing themselves to be used by the likes of Graham Hancock.
    In Tamil Nadu, this acquires yet another dimension with the claim of direct Harappan-Tamil lineage. This could then cut off archaeology in Tamil Nadu from its Indian context and make it an island as well as a tool in the hands of crack-pot racists. Given all these dimensions the archaeological discovery in Keeladi village needs to be treated with all the seriousness it deserves.

    https://swarajyamag.com/culture/indus-civilisation-site-in-tamil-naduthe-keeladi-discovery-shouldnt-fall-prey-to-false-history

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    The link between semantic clusters and cognitive image clusters results in a writing system called mlecchita vikalpa (Meluhha cipher). This is an expression used by Vātsyāyana to signify a cipher writing system. Two other language-related arts identified in Vātsyāyana's list of 64 arts taught to youth are: akṣaramuṣṭika kathanam (wrist-finger narrative) and deśa bhaṣā jñānam (knowledge of dialects).

    Take the metalwork semantic clusters of Meluhha words. Match them with cognate image clusters signifying similar-sounding words (homonyms). This rebus Meluhha cipher results in cracking the code. This is a contribution to cybernetics, 'the science of communications and automatic control systems in both machines and living things.'

    The artisans who invented the writing system used the semantics inherent in their metalwork and seafaring activities and realized that some words which could be rendered as 'picture-writing' could substitute for 'metalwork'. This cybernetic principle is demonstrated in the following semantic clusters and matching image (hieroglyph) clusters:

    1. Hieroglyphs semantics elephant, sun's rays, hare, dotted circle
    2. Endless knot hieroglyph (semantics: twist) on copper plate
    3. Hieroglyph (semantics, Buffalo)
    4. Hieroglyphs semantics crocodile, fish, fish-fin


    1. Hieroglyphs elephant, sun's rays, hare, dotted circle
    Image result for theobald crocodile fish punch-marked

    Image result for crocodile fish punch-marked
    Image result for punch-marked coins crocodileImage result for punch-marked coins crocodile
    Punch-marked coin symbols (hieroglyphs): elephant, hare, sun's rays, dotted circle.

    karibha, ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba, ib 'iron' ibbo 'merchant'
    kulai = hare (Santali) rebus: kolle 'blacksmith' kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron'
    arka 'sun's rays' rebus: arka, eraka 'moltencast, copper, gold'
    dāya 'dotted circle' rebus: dhāū, dhāv m.f. ʻa partic. soft red ore' (R̥gveda), hence, dhā̆vaḍ 'iron-smelters' (Marathi)

    2. Endless knot (semantics: twist) on copper plate
    Image result for bharatkalyan97 dotted circle indus script
    mēḍhā 'twist' rebus: मृदु mṛdu, mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron'; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into biconical ingots . 

    3. Hieroglyph (semantics, Buffalo)
    Image result for buffalo indus script


    m0312 Mohenjo-daro seal. Buffalo, tumblers
    rango 'buffalo' Rebus: rango 'pewter'.

    4. Hieroglyphs: semantics crocodile, fish, fish-fin

    Image result for ayo fish indus scriptImages of fish-fin
    Image result for ayo fish indus scriptHarappa h330 seal
    Image result for crocodile fish tablet punch-marked symbolsm0482A One side of a two-sided tablet m1429C One side of a prism tablet

    ayo 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloyed metal' (R̥gveda) aya'iron' (Gujarati)
    karā'crocodile' (Telugu) rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

    khambhaṛā'fish-fin' (Lahnda) rebus: kammaṭa 'mint, coiner, coinage'

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    April 3, 2017


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    Bhuteśvar kuṭhi 2nd cent.BCE The structural tradition for smelter/furnace will be traced into Mlecchita vikalpa Sindhu-Sarasvati Script signifiers.
    kuṭhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore, to smelt iron’;koṭe ‘forged (metal)(Santali) kuṭhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore to smelt iron’; kolheko kuṭhieda koles smelt iron (Santali) kuṭhi, kuṭi (Or.; Sad. koṭhi) (1) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith; kuṭire bica duljad.ko talkena, they were feeding the furnace with ore; (2) the name of ēkuṭi has been given to the fire which, in lac factories, warms the water bath for softening the lac so that it can be spread into sheets; to make a smelting furnace; kuṭhi-o of a smelting furnace, to be made; the smelting furnace of the blacksmith is made of mud, cone-shaped, 2’ 6” dia. At the base and 1’ 6” at the top. The hole in the centre, into which the mixture of charcoal and iron ore is poured, is about 6” to 7” in dia. At the base it has two holes, a smaller one into which the nozzle of the bellow is inserted and a larger one on the opposite side through which the molten iron flows out into a cavity (Mundari) kuṭhi = a factory; lil kuṭhi = an indigo factory (koṭhi - Hindi) (Santali.Bodding) kuṭhi = an earthen furnace for smelting iron; make do., smelt iron; kolheko do kuṭhi benaokate baliko dhukana, the Kolhes build an earthen furnace and smelt iron-ore, blowing the bellows; tehen:ko kuṭhi yet kana, they are working (or building) the furnace to-day (H. koṭhī ) (Santali. Bodding)  kuṭṭhita = hot, sweltering; molten (of tamba, cp. uttatta)(Pali.lex.) uttatta (ut + tapta) = heated, of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure (Pali.lex.) kuṭṭakam, kuṭṭukam  = cauldron (Ma.); kuṭṭuva = big copper pot for heating water (Kod.)(DEDR 1668). gudgā to blaze; gud.va flame (Man.d); gudva, gūdūvwa, guduwa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715). dāntar-kuṭha = fireplace (Sv.); kōti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kōlhā house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kuṭhī factory (A.); koṭhā brick-built house (B.); kuṭhī bank, granary (B.); koṭho jar in which indigo is stored, warehouse (G.); koṭhīlare earthen jar, factory (G.); kuṭhī granary, factory (M.)(CDIAL 3546). koṭho= a warehouse; a revenue office, in which dues are paid and collected; koṭhī a store-room; a factory (Gujarat) koḍ = the place where artisans work (Gujarati) 


    kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali) kuṛī f. ‘fireplace’ (H.); krvṛI f. ‘granary (WPah.); kuṛī, kuṛo house, building’(Ku.)(CDIAL 3232) kuṭi ‘hut made of boughs’ (Skt.) guḍi temple (Telugu) 


    There are at least four hieroglyphs/hypertexts to signify kuṭhi 'smelter, furnace':

    1. kuṭhi 'tree'.
    2. kūṭī 'twig'
    3. kūti 'pudendum muliebre' 
    4. kuṭhe = leg of bedstead or chair 

    1. kuṭhi 'tree'.Hieroglyph: mountain: कुठि [p= 289,1] m. a tree L. m. a mountain L.(Samskritam)

    Image result for kiln harappaHarappa. Terracotta tablet.
    Pl. 39, Tree symbol (often on a platform) on punch-marked coins; a symbol recurring on many Indus script tablets and seals. 

    2. kūṭī 'twig' Hieroglyph: bunch of twigs: कूटी [p= 299,3] v.l. for कूद्/ई.  कूदी [p= 300,1] f. a bunch of twigs , bunch 

    kanda 'fire-altar'


     This hieroglyph is signified three times on the cylinder seal. kolom 'three' Rebus: kolimi'smithy, forge' kole.l 'smithy, temple'. Holly Pittman notes: “The cross, shown three times in the upper field, is a sign belonging to the Proto-Elamite script.” (Prudence O. Harper et al, opcit., p.74). 


    Heulandite. H. 1 3/8 in. (3.4 cm); dia. 1 in. (2.4 cm) Proto-Elamite period, ca 3100-2900 BCE Sb 2675 Comment by Holly Pittman on Rutten, (Ed.), 1935-36, Encyclopedie photographique de l’art, Paris: “Although the tree on the mountain is undoubtedly a landscape element, tree, mountain, and the combination of the two are distinct script signs as well.” (After Fig. 45, Prudence O Harper et al, opcit., p.74).


    Two goats + mountain glyph reads rebus: meḍ kundār 'iron turner'. Leaf on mountain: kamaṛkom 'petiole of leaf'; rebus: kampaṭṭam 'mint'. loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali) Rebus: lo ‘iron’ (Assamese, Bengali); loa ‘iron’ (Gypsy). 

    kamaṛkom 'petiole of leaf'; rebus: kammaṭa, kampaṭṭam 'mint'. loa = a species of fig tree, ficus glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali) Rebus: lo ‘iron’ (Assamese, Bengali); loa ‘iron’ (Gypsy) mlekh 'goat' rebus: milakkhu,mleccha 'copper' ṭākuro = hill top (N.); ṭāngī  = hill, stony country (Or.);  ṭān:gara = rocky hilly land (Or.); ḍān:gā = hill, dry upland (B.); ḍā~g = mountain-ridge (H.)(CDIAL 5476). 


    3. kūti 'pudendum muliebre' (Ta.); posteriors, membrum muliebre (Ma.); ku.0y anus, region of buttocks in general (To.); kūdi = anus, posteriors, membrum muliebre (Tu.)(DEDR 1888) kola ‘foetus’ [Glyph of a foetus emerging from pudendum muliebre on a Harappa tablet.] kuṭhi = the pubes (lower down than paṇḍe) (Santali) kuṭhi = the womb, the female sexual organ; sorrege kuṭhi menaktaea, tale tale gidrakoa lit. her womb is near, she gets children continually (H. koṭhī, the womb) (Santali.Bodding) kōṣṭha = anyone of the large viscera (MBh.); koṭṭha = stomach (Pali.Pkt.); kuṭṭha (Pkt.); koṭhī heart, breast (L.); koṭṭhā, koṭhā belly (P.); koṭho (G.); koṭhā (M.)(CDIAL 3545). kottha pertaining to the belly (Pkt.); kothā corpulent (Or.)(CDIAL 3510). koṭho [Skt. koṣṭha inner part] the stomach, the belly (Gujarat). kūṭu = hip (Tu.); kuṭa = thigh (Pe.); kuṭe id. (Mand.); kūṭi hip (Kui)(DEDR 1885). gūde prolapsus of the anus (Ka.Tu.); gūda, gudda id. (Te.)(DEDR 1891).

    kuṭhi ‘smelter, furnace’. kuṭire bica duljad.ko talkena, ‘they were feeding the furnace with ore’. (Santali) This use of bica in the context of feeding a smelter clearly defines bica as ‘stone ore, mineral’, in general.

    kuṭhi  ‘vagina’; rebus: kuṭhi  ‘smelting furnace bichā 'scorpion' (Assamese). Rebus: bica 'stone ore' as in meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Mu.lex.) dul 'pair, likeness' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' (Santali) Thus the hieroglyphs connote a smelter for smelting and casting metal stone ore.


    Seal impession from Ur showing a squatting female. L. Legrain, 1936, Ur excavations, Vol. 3, Archaic Seal Impressions. [cf. Rahmandheri seal with two scorpions flanking a similar glyph with legs apart – also looks like a frog]. kuṭhi pudendum muliebre’ (Mu.) khoḍu m. ‘vulva’ (CDIAL 3947). Rebus: kuṭhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Mu.) khŏḍ m. ‘pit’, khö̆ḍü f. ‘small pit’ (Kashmiri. CDIAL 3947). Rebus: खोट khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge


    268-270 Leon Legraine. Ur excavations III, Archaic seal impressions, OUP, 1936, Plate 14.

    The squatting woman on the Ur cylinder seal impression may be showing dishevelled hair providing for rebus reading: <rabca?>(D)  {ADJ} ``with ^dishevelled ^hair''.  Rebus: రాచ (adj.) Pertaining to a stone. bicha, bichā ‘scorpion’ (Assamese) Rebus: bica ‘stone ore’ (Mu.) sambr.o bica = gold ore (Mundarica)  Thus, the reading of the Ur cylinder seal impression may depict: meṛed-bica ‘iron stone-ore’ kuṭhi‘smelter, furnace’.


    4. kuṭhe = leg of bedstead or chair (Santali.lex.) Rebus: kuṭhi ‘a furnace for smelting iron ore, to smelt iron’;koṭe ‘forged (metal)(Santali)
    Image result for smelter indus script


    Terracotta tablet.
    Pakistan, Harappa, Silver brooch edged in gold and ornated with steatite beads Pakistan, Mohenjo-daro, Archaeological Museum, Indus Valley art

    Copper alloy. Dancing lady.

    Image result for kiln harappaBull PLUS bird. Artifact of the newly emerging Halil Rud civilization in Southeastern Iran contemporary with Harappan civilizati

    Terracotta bird with bull's head
    http://www.akg-images.fr/archive/-2UMEBMBXBD2I.html

    पोळ pōḷa, 'Zebu, bos indicus' of Sarasvati Script corpora is rebus:pōlāda 'steel', pwlad (Russian), fuladh (Persian) folādī (Pashto) pōḷa 'zebu' rebus: pōḷa 'magnetite, ferrite ore)pōladu 'black drongo bird' rebus: pōḷad 'steel' The semantics of bull (zebu) PLUS black drongo bird are the reason why the terracotta bird is shown with a bull's head as a phonetic determinative to signify 'steel/magnetite ferrite ore'.


    Part of a terra cotta kiln setter found in the Trench 54 South workshop debris. The tip is not vitrified and may have been buried in ash during the firing process. 
    Image result for kiln harappaHarappa. Kot Diji phase kiln.The larger Kot Diji phase kiln, here shown under excavation, had a highly vitrified and reduced interior.
    Image result for kiln harappa
    The site of Chak 90-12L is one of the larger sites found along the Beas, at 7.5 hectares. Other kilns were identified based on vitrified walls, wasters and firing debris. A single stratigraphic exposure was examined at the site of 90-12L. A stepped trench was extended to a depth of 1.9 m and revealed a sequence analogous to those identified at smaller mound sites along the Beas. https://www.harappa.com/beas/site-chak-90-12l
    Image result for kiln harappaHarappa kiln 62Period 4 (Late Harappan transitional) kiln with hollow lower fire box and arched floor with holes for allowing heat to enter the upper firing chamber. This type of kiln was introduced at Harappa ca. 1900 BC and allowed the potters to reach higher temperatures more efficiently (Trench 43). https://www.harappa.com/indus4/62.html
    Image result for kiln harappaLarge updraft kiln of the Harappan period (ca. 2400 BCE) found during excavations on Mound E Harappa, 1989 (After Fig. 8.8, Kenoyer, 2000)
    Image result for kiln harappa

    Image result for furnace indus script
    A pot used as a furnace to make stoneware bangles carried an impression of an Indus seal (with one-horned young bull in front of a standard device).
    Image result for furnace harappaFurnace. Harappa.

    Image result for kiln harappaHarappa 1999, Mound F, Trench 43: Period 5 kiln, plan and section views
    Rakhigarhi. A pear-shaped potter's kiln built of clay and plastered on the inner side with fine silt, at Farmana. Its flat bottom and the sides are burnt red because of prolonged usage. Inside the circular portion of the kiln is a large brick, probably meant to support pots to be fired in it. Photo:Deccan College, Pune
    Image result for kiln harappaKiln Fire box. Harappa. Looking into the hollow fire box of the Period 4 kiln with arched floor (see image 62). The column of soil in the center was left for support of the floor (Trench 43).

    Smelter furnace. Harappa.

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    April 3, 2017


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    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/k4yuuga

    The basin was used to perhaps quench copper or metal alloy ingot in oil. The ciphertexts on Susa basin signify -- in plain texts, wealth-creating 1. sippi 'craftsman', 2. saṃghāta, 'metal calx'.sangara 'trade',  3. ayas kampaṭṭa 'alloymetal mint' 4. meḍh 'merchant'

    The hypertext hieroglyph components are presented in 4 sections:

    1. mollusc, shell: sippi 'craftsman'

    *sippī ʻ shell ʼ. [← Drav. Tam. cippi DED 2089] Pa. sippī -- , sippikā -- f. ʻ pearl oyster ʼ, Pk. sippī -- f., S. sipa f.; L. sipp ʻ shell ʼ, sippī f. ʻ shell, spathe of date palm ʼ, (Ju.) sip m., sippī f. ʻ bivalve shell ʼ; P. sipp m., sippī f. ʻ shell, conch ʼ; Ku. sīpsīpi ʻ shell ʼ; N. sipi ʻ shell, snail shell ʼ; B. sip ʻ libation pot ʼ, chip ʻ a kind of swift canoe ʼ S. K. Chatterji CR 1936, 290 (or < kṣiprá -- ?); Or. sipa ʻ oyster shell, mother -- of -- pearl, shells burnt for lime ʼ; Bi. sīpī ʻ mussel shells for lime ʼ; OAw. sīpa f. ʻ bivalve shell ʼ, H. sīp f.; G. sīp f. ʻ half an oyster shell ʼ,chīp f. ʻ shell ʼ; M. śīpśĩp f. ʻa half shellʼ, 
    śĩpā m. ʻ oyster shell ʼ; -- Si. sippiya ʻ oyster shell ʼ ← Tam.(CDIAL 13417) Ta. ippi pearl-oyster, shell; cippi shell, shellfish, coconut shell for measuring out curds. Ma. ippi, cippi oyster shell. Ka. cippu, sippu, cimpi, cimpe, simpi, simpu, simpe oyster shell, mussel, cockle, a