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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    PM Modi okays $1-billion deal with US for 4 Poseidons

    The India-US strategic clinch continues to get tighter with America bagging yet another mega arms deal to reassert its status as India’s largest weapons supplier.
    The India-US strategic clinch continues to get tighter with America bagging yet another mega arms deal to reassert its status as India’s largest weapons supplier.
    NEW DELHI: The India-US strategic clinch continues to get tighter. Soon after the two finalised the bilateral military logistics pact, the US has bagged yet another mega arms deal to reassert its status as India's largest weapons supplier in recent years. 

    Defence ministry sources said the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS), chaired by PM Narendra Modi, has cleared the acquisition of four Poseidon-8I longrange surveillance and antisubmarine warfare aircraft at a cost of over $1 billion. 

    "The contract will be inked with Boeing in the next few days. The first P-8I will be delivered to the Navy within three years," said a source. The four new P-8I aircraft, packed with radars and weapons, will join the first eight such aircraft inducted by the Navy in 2013-2015 under a $2.1 billion deal. 

    The Navy is using the eight P-8Is, armed with deadly Harpoon Block-II missiles, MK-54 lightweight torpedoes, rockets and depth charges, to keep an "intelligent hawk-eye" over the entire Indian Ocean Region, which has witnessed stepped-up Chinese submarine forays over the last two years. With an operating range of 1,200 nautical miles, "with four hours on station", the P-8Is provide the reach and flexibility to undertake extensive maritime surveillance and intelligence-gathering missions. 

    They can detect "threats" in India's immediate and extended areas of interest and neutralise them if required. The CCS approval comes after the defence ministry last week also cleared acquisition of 145 M-777 ultra-light howitzers from the US. 

    The Army wants these 155mm/39calibre howitzers as they can be swiftly airlifted to "threatened high-altitude areas" along the 4,057-km Line of Actual Control with China

    The US, of course, is now also aggressively hawking its fighter jets — the twin-engine F/A-18 "Super Hornet" (Boeing) or the single-engine F-16 "Fighting Falcon" (Lockheed Martin) — for the Make in India programme. 

    As earlier reported by TOI, the Pentagon aviation majors combine had made detailed presentations to the Indian defence establishment in April for the proposed fighter production line. US under secretary of defence Frank Kendall is leading a top Pentagon-industry delegation to NEW DELHI again this month for further talks. 

    This comes after India said it wanted "a much higher level" of transfer of technology (ToT) than the "limited" one on offer. 
    Incidentally, Swedish defence firm Saab has also submitted a detailed proposal, with "attractive ToT", for manufacture of its latest Gripen-E fighter in India.
    http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/pm-modi-okays-1-billion-deal-with-us-for-4-poseidons/articleshow/53017543.cms?prtpage=1

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    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/zofym3x

    Examples of incised copper tablets (Hieroglyph-multiplex: hare PLUS thorn/bush):
    m1491Act

    m1491Bct

    m1492Act

    m1492Bct

    m1493Bct
    1706 Hare
    m1494 
    Pict-42
    m1497Act
    Hieroglyph kharā 'hare' (Oriya): *kharabhaka ʻ hare ʼ. [ʻ longeared like a donkey ʼ: khara -- 1?]N. kharāyo ʻ hare ʼ, Or. kharā°riākherihā, Mth. kharehā, H. kharahā m(CDIAL 3823) ``^rabbit'' Sa. kulai `rabbit'.Mu. kulai`rabbit'.
    KW kulai @(M063)  खरगोस (p. 113kharagōsa m ( P) A hare.  (Marathi)

    Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) K. khāra -- basta f. ʻ blacksmith's skin bellows ʼ(CDIAL 9424)  khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru -द्वकुरु‍&below; । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji -; or -güjü -ग&above;जू&below; । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुः f. (sg. dat. -höjü , a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü ; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -। लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü - । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1 -म्य&above;च&dotbelow;ू&below; । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ -च्&dotbelow;ञ । लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.

    Donal B. Buchanan, in a short article, ("A short introduction to the study of the Indus Script with comments on the corner symbols", ESOP, The Epigraphical Society Occasional Papers, Volume 28, pp. 16-21) presents some examples of symbols which appear on 'corners' of inscriptions. The examples he cites include the following:

    m0304 Mohenjo-daro seal impression



    Thus, the focus of Buchanan is on 5 signs: 1. 'Standard device' normally shown in front of a one-horned young bull 2-3. Two types of feeding troughs (or containers for feeds) 4. Bush; 5. Person seated on a tree. Buchanan further suggests that these could be items being transported or cargo of some sort since the purported use of the seals is in connection with trade.

    These suggestions of Buchanan are substantially valid as will be argued below.

    Hypertext (hieroglyph-multiplex), One-horned young bull in front of 'standard device': Hieroglyphsãgaḍ, 'lathe' (Meluhha) Rebus 1: sãgaṛh , 'fortification' (Meluhha). Rebus 2:sanghAta 'adamantine glue'. Rebus 3:  sangāṭh संगाठ् 'assembly, collection'. Rebus 4: sãgaḍa 'double-canoe, catamaran'. Hieroglyph: one-horned young bull: खोंड (p. 216) [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi) kũdār 'turner, sculptor, engraver'.

    Tiger, etc. in front of the trough: Hieroglyph: pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattharaka 'merchant' pattar ‘guild, goldsmith’.

    Hare in front of the bush: Hieroglyph kharā 'hare' (Oriya) Rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri) PLUS kaṇḍɔ m. ʻ thorn'; kaṇṭa1 m. ʻ thorn ʼ BhP. 2. káṇṭaka -- m. ʻ thorn ʼ ŚBr., ʻ anything pointed ʼ R. 1. Pa. kaṇṭa -- m. ʻ thorn ʼ, Gy. pal. ḳand, Sh. koh. gur. kōṇ m., Ku. gng. kã̄ṇ, A. kāĩṭ (< nom. *kaṇṭē?), Mth. Bhoj. kã̄ṭ, OH. kã̄ṭa. 2. Pa. kaṇṭaka -- m. ʻ thorn, fishbone ʼ; Pk. kaṁṭaya<-> m. ʻ thorn ʼ, Gy. eur. kanro m., SEeur. kai̦o, Dm. kãṭa, Phal. kāṇḍukã̄ṛo, Sh. gil. kóṇŭ m., K. konḍu m., S. kaṇḍo m., L. P. kaṇḍā m., WPah. khaś. kaṇṭā m., bhal. kaṇṭo m., jaun. kã̄ḍā, Ku. kāno; N. kã̄ṛo ʻ thorn, afterbirth ʼ (semant. cf.śalyá -- ); B. kã̄ṭā ʻ thorn, fishbone ʼ, Or. kaṇṭā; Aw. lakh. H. kã̄ṭā m.; G. kã̄ṭɔ ʻ thorn, fishbone ʼ; M. kã̄ṭākāṭā m. ʻ thorn ʼ, Ko. kāṇṭo, Si. kaṭuva. kaṇṭala -- Addenda: kaṇṭa -- 1. 1. A. also kã̄iṭ; Md. kaři ʻ thorn, bone ʼ.2. káṇṭaka -- : S.kcch. kaṇḍho m. ʻ thorn ʼ; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) kaṇḍɔ m. ʻ thorn, mountain peak ʼ, J. kã̄ḍā m.; Garh. kã̄ḍu ʻ thorn ʼ. (CDIAL 2668) Rebus: kaNDa 'implements'. Thus, hare in front of thorn/bush signifies: khār खार् 'blacksmith' PLUS kaNDa 'implements', i.e. implements from smithy/forge.

    Hieroglyph: Person seated on a tree: kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' PLUS 

    Hieroglyph: हेर [ hēra ] m (हेरक S through or H) A spy, scout, explorator, an emissary to gather intelligence. 2 f Spying out or spying, surveying narrowly, exploring. (Marathi) *hērati ʻ looks for or at ʼ. 2. hēraka -- , °rika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ lex., hairika -- m. ʻ spy ʼ Hcar., ʻ thief ʼ lex. [J. Bloch FestschrWackernagel 149 ← Drav., Kuiēra ʻ to spy ʼ, Malt. ére ʻ to see ʼ, DED 765]1. Pk. hēraï ʻ looks for or at ʼ (vihīraï ʻ watches for ʼ); K.ḍoḍ. hērūō ʻ was seen ʼ; WPah.bhad. bhal. he_rnū ʻ to look at ʼ (bhal. hirāṇū ʻ to show ʼ), pāḍ. hēraṇ, paṅ. hēṇā, cur. hērnā, Ku. herṇo, N. hernu, A. heriba, B. herā, Or. heribā (caus. herāibā), Mth. herab, OAw. heraï, H. hernā; G. hervũ ʻ to spy ʼ, M. herṇẽ. 2. Pk. hēria -- m. ʻ spy ʼ; Kal. (Leitner) "hériu"ʻ spy ʼ; G. herɔ m. ʻ spy ʼ, herũ n. ʻ spying ʼ. Addenda: *hērati: WPah.kṭg. (Wkc.) hèrnõ, kc. erno ʻ observe ʼ; Garh. hernu ʻ to look' (CDIAL 14165) Ko. er uk- (uky-) to play 'peeping tom'. Kui ēra (ēri-) to spy, scout; n. spying, scouting; pl action ērka (ērki-). ? Kuwi (S.) hēnai to scout; hēri kiyali to see; (Su. P.) hēnḍ- (hēṭ-) id. Kur. ērnā (īryas) to see, look, look at, look after, look for, wait for, examine, try; ērta'ānā to let see, show; ērānakhrnā to look at one another. Malt. ére to see, behold, observe; érye to peep, spy. Cf. 892 Kur. ēthrnā. / Cf. Skt. heraka- spy, Pkt. her- to look at or for, and many NIA verbs; Turner, CDIAL, no. 14165(DEDR 903)

    Rebus: erka = ekke (Tbh.of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal);crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = anymetal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) Rebus: eraka= copper (Ka.)eruvai =copper (Ta.); ere - a dark-red colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eraka, era, er-a= syn. erka, copper, weapons (Ka.) 

    Tiger looking up/back as hieroglyph narrative: kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' krammara 'look back' rebus: kamar 'artisan, smith'.

    For the animals surrounding a seated person and the hieroglyph narrative on Mohenjodaro seal m0304, as they relate to trade and mineral/metal resources see: 
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/12/kamadha-penance-indus-script-hieroglyph.html rango 'buffalo' rebus: rango 'pewter' karibha 'trunk of elephant' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' ib 'iron'; kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter'; kANDA 'rhinoceros' rebus: kaNDa 'implements' meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron' karNaka 'spread legs' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' ṭhaṭera 'buffalo horns'. Rebus: ṭhaṭerā 'brass worker' muh 'face' rebus: muh 'ingot' muhA 'quantity of metal taken out of furnace' PLUS kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'.

    Thus, the 'corner symbols' focussed by Buchanan can be deemed to be  unique hypertexts of Indus Script which relate to traded metalwork catalogues.

    This is an amplification of the thesis that Indus Script is a knowledge system, documenting technical specifications of minera/metal resources used by artisans and products traded by seafaring merchants.

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    July 2, 2016



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    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/zu3ya5g


    Thanks to Asko Parpola for the brilliant identification of 'squirrel' hieroglyph in Indus Script Corpora. (www.harappa.com/script/indus-writing.pdf page 128



    The Indian sprachbund Proto-Prakritam gloss is: tuttūḍ"squirrel' (Sora) Rebus: 
    tuth 'blue vitriol or sulphate of copper'(Bengali) A reconstruction of Proto-Prakritam morpheme is NOT attempted as the build-up of the Proto-Prakritam or Meluhha lexis progresses. There are many phonemic variants in Indian languages, 
    anyone of which could lead to the *Proto-Prakritam etymon. On Nindowari seal, the 'squirrel' hieroglyph is shown together with the hieroglyph-multiplex of 'one-horned young bull' which signifies a 'turner'. It is possible that the tuttha signified rebus by the  'squirrel' hieroglyph is a 'turned' or 'furnaced' copper sulphate  which could have yielded 'pewter-zinc alloy' in a distillation resort of the type deployed in  Zawar, Rajasthan.
    తుత్తినాగము [ tuttināgamu ] tutti-nāgamu. [Chinese.] n. Pewter. Zinc. లోహవిశేషము (Telugu).

    Squirrel hieroglyph with variant orthographic representations is signified on three Indus Script inscriptions.

    Squirrel hieroglyph of Indus Script: Nindowari seal Nd-1; Mohenjo-daro seal m-1202; Harappa tablet h-771; Harappa tablet h-419; m1634 ceramic stoneware bangle (badge)


    m1634bangle


     Read from r. to l.: The prefixSign403: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa 'seafaring vessel'.




    Hieroglyph: squirrel (phonetic determinant): खार (p. 205) [ khāra ] A squirrel, Sciurus palmarum. खारी (p. 205) [ khārī ] (Usually खार) A squirrel. (Marathi) 


    A homonymous hieroglyph or allograph: arms with bangles: karã̄ n.pl.ʻwristlets, banglesʼ.(Gujarati)(CDIAL 2779) 


    khār खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b,l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta 'bellows of blacksmith'.

    Squirrel Sign 403 These are two inscriptions on two ceramic (stoneware) bangles. What do they signify?


     karã̄ n.pl.ʻwristlets, banglesʼ.(Gujarati)(CDIAL 2779) khār खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (Kashmiri)




    Hieroglyph: khāra, 'squirrel', rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)*śrēṣṭrī1 ʻ clinger ʼ. [√śriṣ1]Phal. šē̃ṣṭrĭ̄ ʻ flying squirrel ʼ?(CDIAL 12723) Rebus: guild master.
    The ring is: Sign403: Hieroglyph: bārī , 'small ear-ring': H. bālā m. ʻbraceletʼ (→ S. ḇālo m. ʻbracelet worn by Hindusʼ), bālībārī f. ʻsmall ear -- ringʼ, OMārw. bālī f.; G. vāḷɔ m. ʻ wire ʼ, pl. ʻ ear ornament made of gold wire ʼ; M. vāḷā m. ʻ ring ʼ, vāḷī f. ʻ nose -- ring ʼ.(CDIAL 11573) Rebus: bārī 'merchant' vāḍhī, bari, barea 'merchantbārakaśa

     'seafaring vessel'. Thus, bārī is a seafaring merchant.






    Thus, the sequence of hieroglyphsSquirrel + Sign 403 signifies two professional responsibilities/functions merchant, blacksmith.





    Many of the terra cotta bangles were originally painted with black or red designs. Terracotta bangles were worn. Inscribed stoneware bangles are too small in size and which could have been worn not as bangles as writlets or armlets, but tied with bands like fillets worn by th priest-king of Mohenjo-daro or as pendants on necklaces).





    The ceramic stoneware bangles were made with extraordinary care'; 21 such bangles have been found with inscriptions:





    A pot used as a furnace to make stoneware bangles carried an impression of an Indus seal (with one-horned young bull in front of a standard device sangaDa 'lathe, brazier') which signified that the functionary was खोंड [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) kundar  'turner' of sangara 'fortification'.





    21 sharply assigned responsibilities within the guild for metalwork, for e.g. 21 functional allocations of responsibilitie of artisans delineated in a Vedic village:


    1. iron smelting, furnace work (m1659)

    2. metal casting, engraving, documenting supercargo (m1647)

    3. bronze (casting)(m1646)

    4. gota (laterite) (m1641)

    5. Seafaring merchant, magnetite ingot workshop (m1643)

    6. Smithy, forge (m1641)

    7. Moltencast copper, brass (m1640)

    8. Alloy metal mint, weapons, implements workshop, guild master workshop (m1639)

    9. Bronze ingots, implements, magnetite ingots (m1638)

    10. Metalcasting workshop (cire perdue?)(m1637)

    11. Metal implements, weapons, smithy, forge (m1636)

    12. Blacksmith, guild-master of seafaring merchant-smith guild (m1634)

    13. Helman for supercargo boat, iron furnace work, metals workshop (m1633)

    14. Metal casting, alloy mixing workshop (m1632)

    15. dhā̆va 'smelter', supercargo of implements (m1631)

    16. Magnetite ingots, furnace work, supercargo engraver (m1630)

    17. Iron furnace work, metal casting of tin, helmsman supercargo of metals, bharat ‘mixed alloys’  metalworker (m1629)

    18. Minerals workshop guild (h2576)

    19. Magnetite ingots, smelter (h1010)

    20. dhā̆va 'smelter' tri-dhAtu, '‘three minerals (H98-3516/8667-01)

    21. Seafaring merchant, supercargo engraver(Blkt-6)


    Ceramic stoneware bangles (21 hypertexts which signify 21 functionaries)





    Blk6ACEbangle.jpg (15780 bytes)Balakot ceramic stoneware bangle blkt-6









    Grab403.jpg (1065 bytes)Grab404.jpg (1043 bytes)Grab405.jpg (1079 bytes)Grab406.jpg (998 bytes)Grab407.jpg (983 bytes)
    Signs 403-407 are shaped like a pair of bangles


    Balakot, Stoneware bangle and fragments (Blk-6, Parpola)



    The bangle has an inscription in red: Grab342.jpg (802 bytes)Grab403.jpg (1065 bytes)




        
    Nindowari seal Nd-1
    m1202
    h771
    h419
    Decipherment of Nd-1 inscription:

    tuttha 'squirrel' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter, zinc alloy'; dhAL 'slanted stroke' Rebus: dhALako 'large ingot' khANDa 'notch' Rebus: khANDa 'metal implements'; kolmo 'rice plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'; dula 'two, pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal'; kanda kanka 'rim of pot' Rebus: khaNDa 'implements' karNI 'supercargo, scribe'; maṇḍā 'warehouse, workshop' (Konkani); koDa 'one' Rebus: koD 'workshop'; aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'; kanac 'corner' Rebus: kancu 'bronze'. konda 'young bull' Rebus: kondar 'turner' koD 'horn' Rebus: koD 'workshop' sangaDa 'lathe, portable furnace' Rebus: sangar 'fortification' sanghAta 'adamantine glue' (Varahamihira)

    Decipherment of m1202 inscription:

    barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: bharat 'alloy of copper, pewter, tin' (Marathi) pattar 'trough' Rebus: pattar 'goldsmith guild'
    muhA 'ingot'; dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' muhA 'ingot' (Together, dul muhA  'cast iron ingot'); tuttha 'squirrel' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter, zinc alloy'; kanda kanka 'rim of pot' Rebus: khaNDa 'implements' karNI 'supercargo, scribe'; aduru 'harrow' Rebus: aduru 'native unsmelted metal';bhaTa 'warrior' Rebus: bhaTa 'furnace';  kanda kanka 'rim of pot' Rebus: khaNDa 'implements' karNI 'supercargo, scribe'; muhA 'ingot, quantity of iron ore smelted out of the smelter'.

    Decipherment of h771:

    dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast metal' muhA 'ingot' (Together, dul muhA  'cast iron ingot'); tuttha 'squirrel' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter, zinc alloy'; dula 'two' Rebus: dul 'cast metal or casting'. Thus, the epigraph with three hieroglyph-multiplexes read rebus: metal castings, cast metal ingot, pewter-zinc alloy.

    Alternative decipherment of h-419 with 'squirrel' hieroglyph:
    tuttha 'squirrel' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter, zinc alloy'; maṇḍā 'warehouse, workshop' (Konkani)

    Allograph (i.e. a hieroglyph which conveys a homonym comparable to that signified by 'squirrel' hieroglyph:

    Mahadevan concordance Sign 130 variants. This hieroglyph may signify: tutta 'goad' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter-zinc alloy'

    Allograph: tutta (goad) (Pali) tṓttra n. ʻ goad for cattle or elephants ʼ ŚBr. [√tud]
    Pa. tutta -- n. (with u from tudáti?), Pk. totta -- , tutta<-> n.; Si. tutta ʻ elephant goad ʼ.(CDIAL 5966) It is possible that one of the 500+ 'signs' or hieroglyph-multiplexes of Indus Script Corpora signifies this etymon cluster: tutta 'goad' Rebus: tuttha 'pewter-zinc alloy'.  A crook maybe signified by: मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.Mu.)

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    July 3, 2016

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    I deeply appreciate Donal B Buchanan sending me a reconstructed image of m0304 Mohenjo-daro seal. This is in continuation of the post at http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/07/six-unique-hypertexts-of-indus-script.html referring to Buchanan's insight on 'corner' pictorial narratives on Indus Script inscriptions.
    The image of Mohenjo-daro seal impression on the Left is a splendid reconstruction done by Donal B. Buchanan (personal communication) and the seal (m0304) is from the Corpus of Indus Inscriptions, Vol. I. 

    Don  couldn't complete 'healing' the missing back and tail of the tiger, but at least he is still recognizable. Thus, the pictorian narrative on Seal m0304 is unambiguous and clear. All hieroglyhs are readable as hypertext rebus of a metalwork catalog.

    m0304 seal of Mohenjo-daro showing a seated person surrounded by animals has been deciphered.

    The message of metalwork is from a brass-worker's mint and (अग्नि-)कुण्ड, (agni-)kuṇḍa, 'sacred fire-altar'. 
    This message is conveyed using Indus Script hieroglyphs.
    The hieroglyph on Seal m0304 ligatured to the buffal-horns of the seated person.

    Hieroglyph: thattār 'buffalo horn' Rebus: taār 'brass worker' urukku, n. < உருக்கு-. [T. ukku, K. urku, M. urukku.] 1. Steel; எஃகு. (சூடா.) 2. Anything melted, product of liquefaction; உருக் கினபொருள். செப்புருக் கனைய (கம்பரா. கார்கா. 91).உருக்குத்தட்டார் urukku-t-taṭṭār, n. < id. +. Goldsmiths; பொற்கொல்லர். (சிலப். 5, 31, உரை.)பணித்தட்டார் paṇi-t-taṭṭār, n. < id. +. Goldsmiths; பொற்கொல்லர். பணித்தட்டார் பணி பண்ணுமிடங்களில் (சிலப். 6, 135, உரை).தட்டார்பாட்டம் taṭṭār-pāṭṭam, n. < தட் டான்¹ +. Profession tax on goldsmiths; தட்டார் இறுக்கும் அரசிறைவகை. (S. I. I. ii, 117.)தட்டாரப்பாட்டம் taṭṭāra-p-pāṭṭam, n. < தட்டார் +. See தட்டார்பாட்டம். (S. I. I. iii, 115.) తట్టుముట్టు [ taṭṭumuṭṭu ] or తట్టుముట్లు taṭṭu-muṭṭu. [Tel.] n. Things, utensils, furniture, tools, household stuff. తట్టుముట్టాడు to surround (as poverty)చుట్టుకొనుతట్రపువాడు [ taṭrapuvāḍu ] taṭrapu-vāḍu. [Tel.] n. A goldsmith.


    Hieroglyph: kuṇḍa3 n. ʻ clump ʼ e.g. darbha -- kuṇḍa -- Pāṇ. [← Drav. (Tam. koṇṭai ʻ tuft of hair ʼ, Kan. goṇḍe ʻ cluster ʼ, &c.) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 374] (CDIAL 3266)


    Pictorial hieroglyph-multiplex: kuThi 'twig' Rebus: kuThi 'smelter' 

    kuṁḍa 'cluster' rebus: (अग्नि-)कुण्ड, (agni-) kuṇḍa 'fire-pit'. kuṇḍa -- 1: S.kcch. kūṇḍho m. ʻ flower -- pot ʼ, kūnnī f. ʻ small earthen pot ʼ; WPah.kṭg. kv́ṇḍh m. ʻ pit or vessel used for an oblation with fire into which barley etc. is thrown ʼ; J. kũḍ m. ʻ pool, deep hole in a stream ʼ; Brj. kū̃ṛo m., °ṛī f. ʻ pot ʼ.(CDIAL 3264)

    Glyph: clump between the two horns: kuṇḍa n. ʻ clump ʼ e.g. darbha-- kuṇḍa-- Pāṇ.(CDIAL 3236). kundār turner (A.)(CDIAL 3295). kuṇḍa n. ʻ clump ʼ e.g. darbha-- kuṇḍa-- Pāṇ. [← Drav. (Tam. koṇṭai ʻ tuft of hair ʼ, Kan. goṇḍe ʻ cluster ʼ, &c.) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 374] Pk. kuṁḍa-- n. ʻ heap of crushed sugarcane stalks ʼ (CDIAL 3266) Ta. koṇtai tuft, dressing of hair in large coil on the head, crest of a bird, head (as of a nail), knob (as of a cane), round top. Ma. koṇṭa tuft of hair. Ko.goṇḍ knob on end of walking-stick, head of pin; koṇḍ knot of hair at back of head. To. kwïḍy Badaga woman's knot of hair at back of head (< Badaga koṇḍe). Ka. koṇḍe, goṇḍe tuft, tassel, cluster. Koḍ. koṇḍe tassels of sash, knob-like foot of cane-stem. Tu. goṇḍè topknot, tassel, cluster. Te. koṇḍe, (K. also) koṇḍi knot of hair on the crown of the head. Cf. 2049 Ta. koṭi. / Cf. Skt. kuṇḍa- clump (e.g. darbha-kuṇḍa-), Pkt. (DNM) goṇḍī- = mañjarī-; Turner, CDIAL, no. 3266; cf. also Mar. gōḍā cluster, tuft. (DEDR 2081) kuṇḍī = crooked buffalo horns (L.) rebus: kuṇḍī = chief of village. kuṇḍi-a = village headman; leader of a village (Pkt.lex.) I.e. śreṇi jet.t.ha chief of metal-worker guild. koḍ 'horns'; rebus: koḍ 'artisan's workshop' (G.) Thus the entire glyphic composition of hieroglyphs on m1181 seal is a message conveyed from a sodagor 'merchant, trader'. The bill of lading lists a variety of repertoire of the artisan guild's trade load from a mint -- the native metal and brass workshop of blacksmith (guild) with furnace: aḍar kuṭhi 'native metal furnace'; soḍu 'fireplace'; sekra 'bell-metal and brass worker'; aya sal 'iron (metal) workshop'. 

    Thus, the horned crown is read together as:  taār 'brass worker' PLUS kuṇḍa 'fire-pit'.



    Hieroglyph: Tor. miṇḍ 'ram', miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: meḍ 'iron' (Ho.); med 'copper' (Slavic) kuṁḍa -- n. ʻ heap of crushed sugarcane stalks ʼ(Prakritam) Rebus: (agni-)kuṇḍa 'fire-pit'. dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' Thus, cast iron. 

    maṇḍā ‘raised platform, stool’ Rebus:  maṇḍā ‘warehouse’.

    The person is seated in penance: kamaḍha 'penance' (Pkt.) Rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Ta.) kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.) Thus, the over-arching message of the inscription composed of many hieroglyphs (of glyphic elements) thus is a description of the offerings of a 'mint or coiner (workshop with a golf furnace)'.Thus, together the person seated in penance PLUS platform read: kammaṭa maṇḍā 'mint warehouse'.

    kuṇḍī = crooked buffalo horns (L.) Rebus: kuṇḍī = chief of village. kuṇḍi-a = village headman; leader of a village (Pkt.lex.) I.e. śreṇi jeṭṭha chief of metal-worker guild.

    dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, two hayricks and two markhors relate to 1. metalcasting furnace; and 2. copper/iron metal castings  meḍ kuṁḍa 'iron furnace or fire-altar'. 

    There is also a semantic reinforcement: on seal m0304, stacks of hay signify mēṭa 'stack of hay' which are phonetic determinants of the platform, raised place: mēṭa 'raised place'. Rebus reading is: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ 'iron (metal)''copper' (Slavic languages).

    Atharva Veda व्रात्य Vrātya is Rudra; 

    Hieroglyph: Pk. kuṁḍa -- n. ʻ heap of crushed sugarcane stalks ʼ; WPah. bhal. kunnū m. ʻ large heap of a mown crop ʼ; N. kunyũ ʻ large heap of grain or straw ʼ, baṛ -- kũṛo ʻ cluster of berries ʼ.

    Rebus: कुण्ड [p=289,3]kuṇḍa a round hole in the ground (for receiving and preserving water or fire cf. अग्नि-कुण्ड) , pit , well , spring or basin of water (especially consecrated to some holy purpose or person) MBh. R. &c; n. [अस् m. L. ] , a bowl-shaped vessel , basin , bowl , pitcher , pot , water-pot Ka1tyS3r. MBh.&c;कुण्डी f. ( Pa1n2. 4-1 , 42) a bowl , pitcher , pot Hcat. Prasannar.;  कुण्ड n. ifc. a clump (e.g. दर्भ-क्° , a clump of दर्भ grass) Pa1n2. 6-2 , 13

     (Three-faced hieroglyph-multiplex)


    Glyphics of shoggy, brisltles of hair on the face of the person: Shoggy hair; tiger’s mane. sodo bodo, sodro bodro adj. adv. rough, hairy, shoggy, hirsute, uneven; sodo [Persian. sodā, dealing] trade; traffic; merchandise; marketing; a bargain; the purchase or sale of goods; buying and selling; mercantile dealings (G.lex.) sodagor = a merchant, trader; sodāgor (P.B.) (Santali.lex.) 

    Face on m0304. Frontal PLUS Two faces in profile ligatured. I do not know if this signifies TvaSTR Tris'iras or tri-dhAtumũh 'face' Rebus mũhã̄ 'iron furnace output' kolom 'three' (faces) rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' Horns of buffalo: rango 'buffalo' rebus: rango 'pewter' (alloy of copper, zinc, tin), hence tri-dhAtu. This could be a synonym for dhAvaD 'smelter'.

    Hieroglyph: dhāˊtu 'strand' Rebus: mineral: dhāˊtu n. ʻ substance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour) ʼ Mn., ʻ ashes of the dead ʼ lex., ʻ *strand of rope ʼ (cf. tridhāˊtu -- ʻ threefold ʼ RV., ayugdhātu -- ʻ having an uneven number of strands ʼ KātyŚr.). [√dhā]Pa. dhātu -- m. ʻ element, ashes of the dead, relic ʼ; KharI. dhatu ʻ relic ʼ; Pk. dhāu -- m. ʻ metal, red chalk ʼ; N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M.dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ); -- Si.  ʻ relic ʼ; -- S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. (CDIAL 6773).


    Rebus reading of the ‘face’ glyph: mũhe ‘face’ (Santali) mũh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.); ingot (Santali) mũh metal ingot (Santali) mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt = iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends; kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali.lex.) kaula mengro ‘blacksmith’ (Gypsy) mleccha-mukha (Skt.) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) The Sanskrit loss mleccha-mukha should literally mean: copper-ingot absorbing the Santali gloss, mũh, as a suffix


    Hieroglyph: karã̄ n.pl.ʻwristlets, banglesʼ.(Gujarati)S. karāī f. ʻ wrist ʼ(CDIAL 2779) Rebus: khār खार्  'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

    sekeseke, sekseke covered, as the arms with ornaments; sekra those who work in brass and bell metal; sekra sakom a kind of armlet of bell metal (Santali) 



    Four animals (elephant, leaping tiger, rhinoceros, buffalo) PLUS image of a standing person with spread legs surround the seated person. These five hieroglyph-multiplexes are read rebus:
    1. karibha 'trunk of elephant' ibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron' (Tulu) ib 'iron' (Santali)
    2. kANDA 'rhinoceros' rebus: kaNDa 'implements'
    3. rango 'buffalo' rebus: rango 'pewter'
    4. kola 'tiger'rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' kũdā kol (tiger jumping) rebus: kũdār 'turner' (Bengali) कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi)
    5.meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) karNaka 'spread legs' rebus: karNI 'supercargo, merchant's responsible for the cargo of shipment')


    Hypertext on m0304 (Top line of 6 hieroglyphs)

    Rebus readings from R. in two parts of hypertext.
    Part 1 (with four hieroglyphs):
    Sign 1 (Mahadevan concordance)
    1. meD 'body' rebus: meD 'iron' med 'copper' (Slavic) karNaka 'spread legs' rebus: karNI 'supercargo, merchant's responsible for the cargo of shipment')

    2. ḍato =claws of crab (Santali) Rebus: dhātu 'mineral ore'. 


    3. kāru pincers, tongs. Rebus: khār खार्  'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)


    4. sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) PLUS Glyph of ‘rim of jar’: kárṇaka m. ʻ projection on the side of a vessel, handle ʼ ŚBr. [kárṇa -- ]Pa. kaṇṇaka -- ʻ having ears or corners ʼ; (CDIAL 2831) kaṇḍa kanka; Rebus: furnace account (scribe). kaṇḍ = fire-altar (Santali); kan = copper (Tamil) khanaka m. one who digs , digger , excavator Rebus: karanikamu. Clerkship: the office of a Karanam or clerk. (Telugu) káraṇa n. ʻ act, deed ʼ RV. [√kr̥1] Pa. karaṇa -- n. ʻdoingʼ; NiDoc. karana,  kaṁraṁna ʻworkʼ; Pk. karaṇa -- n. ʻinstrumentʼ(CDIAL 2790) karNI 'Supercargo'. Thus, cargo handed/accounted from workshop  account to supercargo.

    Part 2 with two hieroglyhs:
    5.  aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' (Gujarati); ayas 'metal' (Rigveda).PLUS khambhaṛā ʻfinʼ rebus:kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage' 

    6. PLUS kanka, karNaka 'rim of jar' rebus:karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'account,scribe'. Thus, this second part of the hypertext reads: Mintwork account (to) Supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.

    Thus, seal m0304 Mohenjo-daro is a comprehensive metalwork catalogue of a mint documenting,  using dharma saṁjñā 'responsibility markers or hieroglyphs, the tasks assigned to kuṇḍi-a = village headman' ; leader of a village (Pkt.lex.) i.e. śreṇi jet.t.ha chief of metal-worker guild. 

    This is an unambiguous, remarkable example proving that Indus Script is a knowledge system. There are over 7000 inscriptions on Indus Script Corpora detailing the technical specifications of the knowledge system which facilitated trade/exchange transactions by seafaring merchants of Meluhha.

    S.Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    July 3, 2016






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    Who were the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation? The Mystery of Mound 4

    Archaeologists at Rakhigarhi in Haryana hope their excavations throw up an answer to this and more, unlocking the mysteries of the people of ancient India.

    Written by Nirupama Subramanian With Alifiya Khan | Updated: July 3, 2016 8:39 am

    What lies beneath: Mound 4 has been encroached over the years. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)
    What lies beneath: Mound 4 has been encroached over the years. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)
    Mound 4 looks as unimpressive as it sounds, a small rise with plastic waste and garbage strewn along the three-minute walk to the top. Hundreds of pucca houses have been built on it, complete with cowsheds, the cattle contentedly chewing fodder, the men flaked out on cots in the verandahs, sleeping off the summer afternoon, women heard from inside houses but not seen. Appearances, though, are misleading. Under the sprawling settlement on Mound 4, say archaeologists, is the site of an at least 5,500 year-old human settlement, an important centre of the Harappan Civilisation in the Indus Valley, one that they claim could unlock the mysteries of the people of ancient India. Among the many questions it hopes to answer is an enduring one: who were the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?
    With a total of seven, or possibly nine, such mounds, Rakhigarhi, comprising the twin villages of Rakhi Khas and Rakhi Shahpur, in Hansi tehsil of Haryana’s Hisar district, 160 km from Delhi, is regarded as one of the two big Harappan settlements located in India — the other is Dholavaria in Gujarat.
    In recent years, Indian archaeologists studying Rakhigarhi have begun to estimate its size as at least 350 acres, describing it as the largest Harappan site yet, bigger than Harappa in Sahiwal and Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, the two Pakistani Harappan centres that have been the face of the Indus Valley Civilisation.
    In the mid-’90s, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) notified some of the land in Rakhigarhi, and four mounds are now categorised as “protected” sites. “The significance of Rakhigarhi is that this is the biggest now in terms of size of the settlement. It was thought that Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan was the biggest site so far. It is spread over 300 hectares but this is spread over 500 hectares,” says Vasant Shinde, professor of South Asian Archaeology at the Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute in Pune.
    Shinde, who has been carrying out excavations at the site with financial and logistics support from the Haryana government over the last two years, estimates Rakhigarhi’s antiquity as more than 7,000 years, going back to 5,500 BC, a period described by archaeologists as “early Harappan”. The settlement’s life span, Shinde said, included all Harappan phases — the early; the “mature”, or the Harappan civilisation phase from 2,600 BC to 2,000 BC; and the “late Harappan” in 1,500 BC, when it began to decline.
    From March to May, working with over 150 villagers, Shinde and his team of archaeologists from the Deccan College, carried out excavations at Rakhigarhi for the second consecutive year. At Mound 7, likely a burial site, where the team found five skeletons in 2015, another 39 skeletal remains were dug up this year.
    The zonal museum of archaeology in Hisar, Haryana. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)The zonal museum of archaeology in Hisar, Haryana. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)
    “We are not trying to understand the Harappan burial customs as a lot is known about that already. What we are trying to understand, instead, are the basic questions. Like there is a lot of controversy surrounding who the Harappan people were. Were they locals or outsiders?” he says. The most important question is the possibility of finding out “whether the modern population are descendants of Harappan people,” he adds. A DNA test is the only way to do that and there is good news on that front.
    “We have found what has not been found at any other Harappan excavation site before — a DNA extraction from the skeletal remains,” says Shinde, describing it as one of the biggest breakthroughs in Harappan research, “The important aspect that we are working, on which has never been done before, is the facial reconstruction of the Harappan people. The South Koreans have developed a software in which if we feed the DNA data along with the morphological features, like measurements of bones, it can help us reconstruct the face. For the first time, we will be able to see what Harappans looked like, the colour of their skin, their eyes and so on.”
    The lab in Seoul has sent the reports of the tests, but Shinde says they can’t be made public yet. He, along with his team, have tied up with top universities for cross-verification of the data. “Their experts will come down to Hyderabad in July and confirm the data and reports that we have received. Once that is done, we will apply for the data to be published in a world-reputed journal and only after that will we reveal it to the media and rest of the world,” he says.
    Haryana’s excellent roads make access to Rakhigarhi easy. From the smooth highway to a slip road, through a smaller road between fields lined with tall eucalyptus, where the wheat has recently been harvested and the dry soil awaits rain and the next crop, is a short distance to the place that could change what we know about ancient India. On the mounds between and around them, and inward, is the village of Rakhi Shahpur, and next to it, Rakhi Khas, with a combined population of about 20,000 people.
    Mound 7, where the bodies were found, is a private field and does not have ASI protection yet. After the excavation, carried out with the permission of the owner, it has gone back to being a field and has been tilled for the next crop. On Mound 2, signs of the excavation that Shinde and his team undertook earlier this year are still visible. A 10 ftx40 ft area, where there was a dig has been covered, first with a black plastic sheet and then with layers of mud.
    Objects from the dig. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)Objects from the dig. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)
    “This way the layer that we have dug remains protected. We only have to lift the plastic off when the digging resumes,” says CA Chaliya, the district archaeological officer from Hisar.
    Chaliya is well known in the village. The Haryana government’s archaeology department is funding the excavation. He is in charge of logistics, including hiring villagers to work at the dig. Through the season, the dig employed 100 to 150 people daily. Two women from the village, faces covered with their dupattas, joined the tour of the mound. “There should be more excavations in Rakhigarhi. It has been good for the village. Lots of people got jobs at the site for two or three months,” says Bateri, one of the women, “but still, some complain because they were not employed every day”.
    To keep the peace in the village, as well as earn everyone’s goodwill, Chaliya says he rotates the jobs between sets of villagers, paying them each Rs 350 per day. “But we cannot employ 500 people a day, that’s not the kind of work we do here,” he says.
    Rakhigarhi’s goodwill, says Shinde, is crucial to the study of the site. At first, the residents were opposed to the excavations because of the restrictions it placed on them. After continuous interaction with the villagers, explaining to them the importance of what lay beneath their land, and the potential it had for tourism and other development, Shinde says the villagers came around.
    “We do not feel the need for any security on the site anymore, thanks to the villagers. Whenever we go for excavations, they have a house ready for us and get us whatever we need. It’s a great working relationship and they are active stakeholders now,”he says.
    The villagers agree, mostly. “Our village has become famous. That is good for us,” says Bhupinder Singh. His father Surinder Singh’s home, complete with a cowshed and a well in the yard, doubled as a guest house for some members of the team during the excavation.
    Shinde said the team would not carry out more excavations at the site for the next one year. The Haryana government is also planning a museum at the site and has identified land for it. “We want to preserve the site and protect whatever we excavate, preserve the remains so that we can develop the site from tourism point of view. People should know, they should be able to imagine what it was to walk through the Harappan streets,” he says.
    The Harappan or the Indus Valley Civilisation, occurring in the Bronze Age, had a geographic spread greater than any contemporaneous civilisation. The Mesopotamian Civilisation in present-day Iraq, which began in 5,000 BCE and flourished between 3,500 BCE and 2,500 BCE, and with which the Indus Valley inhabitants had trade links, was located between two rivers — the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Nile Valley Civilisation grew at about the same time along the river, after which it is named in present-day Egypt.
    Mound 1 at Rakhigarhi. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)Mound 1 at Rakhigarhi. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)
    Remains of the Indus Valley Civilisation have been found as far out in the west as present-day Iran, present-day Afghanistan to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the east, and Maharashtra to the south. Since the discovery of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in 1922, over 1,000 Harappan sites have been discovered across India and Pakistan.
    The loss of the two major Harappan sites to Pakistan spurred archaeologists of a divided and newly independent India to find sites of the ancient civilisation within the new borders of the country. The endeavour yielded hundreds of sites in present-day Punjab and Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Among them, the discovery of Rakhigarhi in Haryana and Dholavaria in Gujarat are considered the most significant.
    The excavations at Rakhigarhi have revealed all the features of a typical Harappan settlement, says Banani Bhattacharya, deputy-director of Haryana’s archaeology department: a well-planned city with nearly two-metre-wide roads, brick-lined drains, pottery, terracotta statues, weights, bronze artifacts, combs, needles and terracotta seals; beads, tools, and, of course, the human remains.
    Shinde said the first priority was to study the history of each mound to understand the sequencing. “We have also found very thick habitation deposit, almost a 22-metre deposit. That indicates a very intensive and extensive human activity at the site,” he says. The findings at Rakhigarhi suggest it may have played an important role in the contacts with Mesopotamia. The site could, says Shinde, provide clues about the relations of the Harappan people with their contemporaries, and the nature of these interactions.
    For a site of its presumed importance, Rakhigarhi has not yet set the world of archaeology on fire. The wider world of Harappan scholars had adopted a wait-and-watch approach to the discoveries at Rakhigarhi. Jaya Menon, professor and head of the history department at Shiv Nadar University’s School of Humanities and Social Sciences, says, as one of a handful of large Harappan settlements, Rakhigarhi “may well have been at the centre of a sub-region within the Greater Indus Valley”. But, Menon, who is also an archaeologist, cautioned that as an assessment of its size had been made on the basis of a surface survey, “it is better to wait for more detailed work, involving a systematic survey combined with excavation”.
    International scholars did not initially pay much attention, says Shinde, “but after they came to know of our concentration on different aspects and the DNA extraction, there is a big buzz around it now.”
    The findings could prove to be contentious. Scholarship on ancient India has been bitterly divided between those who believe that the post-Harappan Vedic civilisation was brought to the region by migrating peoples (the invasion theory has long stopped being taken seriously), and those who believe it was indigenous and has a link to the Harappan civilisation. One of the big fights in Harappan academia has been over the horse — Hindutva-leaning scholars have tried, unsuccessfully so far, to demonstrate that the animal, which finds extensive mention in the Vedas, was present in the Indus Valley Civilisation, while others have pointed out that it came with the waves of migration from the West.
    The sarpanch of village Rakhi Khas, with his uncle and father. (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)The sarpanch of village Rakhi Khas, with his uncle and father.
    (Express photo by Jaipal Singh)
    “More recently,” says Menon, “it has become the fashion to study skeletons of roughly the late-Harappan and post-Harappan phases to see if there is any genetic change. The reason for doing so revolves around the issue of the homeland of the Aryans. Archaeologists studying genetic information have tried to show that there is no genetic change just when they would expect it to come, at about 1,500 BCE (the start of the Vedic period)”.
    However, she says such archaeologists had found no genetic change in skeletal remains of populations during the last 5,000 years, even though it is established that historically-known peoples, such as the Kushanas, came into the subcontinent and made it their home. “At the same time,” she says, “it should be mentioned that there probably was no mass migration of people.” Instead, she says, it was more likely there were “periodic movements of small groups of mobile peoples” into the region, who also probably brought in a new language, Sanskrit.
    Shinde says, at the moment, trying to establish a link between the Vedic period and the Indus Valley Civilisation is not the focus of his work. But he did not rule out the effort either, saying that, with the help of Sanskrit scholars at Deccan College, there is a plan for “a later stage” to “synchronise” the archaeological data with available literary data.
    “But to be clear, we are not here to establish a linkage. We are confident that this research will give some answers on whether Harappan culture was related to Hinduism, in either a clear yes or no,” he says. “When we took up the site, we were clear that we didn’t want to do the same excavations of bones, structures, pottery etc. We were clear that we wanted to understand who the Harappan people were, how their culture developed, how they declined and whether climatic conditions played a role, and how the Saraswati disappeared,” he says, in a reference to the river mentioned in the Rig Veda, and whose existence, too, is a matter of contention for scholars. “When we started work, we knew it was for the long haul,” he says.
    Among the finds at Rakhigarhi earlier this year, according to the Haryana archaeological department, were a couple of big bones, tentatively identified as those of two large mammals — the rhinoceros and the elephant. If proved, say the officials, it would show there was plenty of water in the vicinity, perhaps even swampy lands.
    Rakhigarhi is located in the Ghaggar river basin. Ghaggar is a seasonal river that begins in Himachal Pradesh and flows through Haryana, one of its tributaries becoming the Hakra in Pakistan. Those who believe that the Saraswati mentioned in the Rig Veda is no mythical river and actually existed in ancient India, also believe that it flowed on the same path as the present-day Ghaggar. The BJP-run Haryana government has sunk Rs 500 million to find the “lost” river, beginning with excavations in Yamuna Nagar and the Saraswati Heritage Development Board.
    Civilisations have been named after the rivers along which they came up. Thus, the earliest Harappan discoveries were named after the river Indus, in whose basin they were found. With so many new Harappan finds, many of them in the Ghaggar-Hakra basin, and hotly contested historical questions about ancient India, including over the origins of the Vedic culture, the discovery of Rakhigarhi has given rise to suggestions that the name Saraswati Valley Civilisation should be considered. It does not have many takers yet.
    “Renaming the civilisation on that basis is not reasonable, especially since Mohenjo-daro on the Indus from many points of view remains an exceptional Harappan settlement with features not found at any other Harappan site. The term ‘Saraswati Valley Civilisation’ has its votaries but they by no means encompass the entire body of Harappan scholars. Much more work needs to be done at Rakhigarhi before we can compare it to other Harappan settlements,” said Menon of Shiv Nadar University.
    What seems to be accepted, though, is that there was a river, a precursor to today’s Ghaggar, on the plains of which the Harappan settlements rose, their decline beginning with the drying up of the water body.
    For the people of today’s Rakhigarhi, the irony in the discovery of an ancient settlement along a presumed river in the two villages that they now inhabit, combined with the frenzied search for the lost Saraswati, is that today, they have no water.
    “We have to draw drinking water from tubewells in the fields,” says Bhupinder Singh. “We have sunk tubewells to irrigate our fields. The government gives us power to run them in the night. That’s when we fetch our water. We take plastic cans and bring them back on our bikes”.
    In Rakhi Khas, 21-year-old Sandeep, the recently elected sarpanch, has drawn a pipe, at his own expense, from the tubewell in his field to some 250 houses in Rakhi Khas. “That is our only lifeline right now,” says Pardeep, his uncle.

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    The hieroglyphs of Indus Script to signify metalwork, continue to be used in megalithic sites south of Vindhya mountain ranges.

    Distribution of megalithic sites in Peninsular India (After Map 1 in R. Mohanty) R. Mohanty, Megalithic and early iron age culture of Peninsular India, pp. 343-378 Chapter IV.2 The texts: political history and administration till c.200 BCE

    Tiger casting made of copper, inlaid with carnelian and sapphire from Kodumanal (After Fig. 30, R.Mohanty) This signifies a tiger in the round in the hieroglyhic tradition of Indus Script. kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith'. The infixing of gems (carnelian and sapphire) indicates the artisanal work of kundar  'turner'.

    Copper tripod from Mahurjhari (After Fig. 31, R. Mohanty) "A tripod made by three copper rods conically on a circular base is pecular and rare item found from  the recent excavation at Mahurjhari. On all the three rods, figures of deer, bird and fish were fixed on respectively on the base, middle and on the conical top." (R. Mohanty, p.368; cf. Mohanty, RK, 2005, Excavation at Mahurjhari and Exploration in Vidarbha, Maharashtra, Annual Report of Deccan College, Post Graduate and Research Institute, 2004-05, pp. 76-77). I suggest that the antelope, aquatic bird and fish are Indus Script hieroglyphs: mlekh 'goat' rebus:milakku 'copper', karaDa 'aquatic bird' rebus:karaDa 'hard alloy' ayo, aya 'fish' rebus: ayas 'alloy metal' aya 'iron'. The tripod is thus a document archive signifying working with basic minerals of copper, iron and other minerals to alloy with the basic minerals to produce hard alloys. The three rods of the tripod represent three strands: tri-dhAtu. This expression means 'three minerals'..

    A globular pot of copper, Mahurjhari (After Fig. 29, R.Mohanty)
    Iron tools from megaliths of Vidarbha (After Fig. 27, R. Mohanty) “A large number of iron artifacts were recovered from excavations at Burials as well as from the habitation…The entire range of iron artifacts can be divided as agricultural tools, offensive and defensive tools, specialized occupation related tools such as carpentry and leather work, household appliance, toiletry, horse bits, horse ornaments, ornaments and miscellaneous.” (R.Mohanty, p.365)

    Source:  R. Mohanty, Megalithic and early iron age culture of Peninsular India, Chapter IV.2 Peninsular and Southern India. The texts: political history and administration till c.200 BCE, in: Chakrabarti, DK and Makkhan Lal, (eds.), 2015, History of Ancient India, Vol. 3: pp.343-378.

    S.Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    July 3, 2016


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    Pict-49 Uncertain animal with dotted circles on the body. A horn or tusk is ligatured to the animal's nose. In front of the animalis a slantedline. There are two hieroglyphs as hypertext. 




    Hieroglyph: Dotted circles: See http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/03/indus-script-daya-dotted-circle-on.html dhāī˜ (Lahnda) signifies a single strand of rope or thread; rebus: dhAu 'mineral, red ore'.

    Image result for onager

     kōḍu horn. is a phonetic determinative of the rings on the neck of the animal (koḍiyum) rebus: koḍ'workshop'. khara 'donkey' rebu: khAr 'blacksmith'. Thus,the hypertext (hieroglyph-multiplex) blacksmith's workshop (for) dhAtu 'strand (dotted circle)' rebus: dhAtu 'minerls'. 

    The animal is comparable to the 'onager' hieroglyph on Mohenjodaro Seal 0290 inscription.

    Seal m 290 Mohenjo-daroIndus Script epigraph deciphered: kol 'working in iron' + pattar 'goldsmith guild' + ṭāṅka ʻleg, thighʼ (Oriya) rebus: 'mint'PLUS khar 'ass, onager' (Kashmiri) PLUS  kharedo = a currycomb (Gujarati) 'Thigh' hieroglyph deciphered as: ṭaṅka 'mint' PLUS khār खार् 'blacksmith' PLUS kharādī ‘ turner’ (Gujarati)  kola 'tiger' rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelter' kolle 'blacksmith' (Maybe, a feeding trough is in front of the tiger: pattara 'feeding trough' rebus: pattharaka 'merchant' pattara 'guild, goldsmith'. Thus, the inscription signifies mint of smiths' guild working in iron. (Alternative reading for leg, foot: khuṭo ʻ leg, foot ʼ, °ṭī ʻ goat's leg ʼ Rebus: khōṭā 'alloy'').

    ṭaṅka2 m.n. ʻ spade, hoe, chisel ʼ R. 2. ṭaṅga -- 2 m.n. ʻ sword, spade ʼ lex.
    1. Pa. ṭaṅka -- m. ʻ stone mason's chisel ʼ; Pk. ṭaṁka -- m. ʻ stone -- chisel, sword ʼ; Woṭ. ṭhõ ʻ axe ʼ; Bshk. ṭhoṅ ʻ battleaxe ʼ, ṭheṅ ʻ small axe ʼ (< *ṭaṅkī); Tor. (Biddulph) "tunger" m. ʻ axe ʼ (? AO viii 310), Phal. ṭhō˘ṅgi f.; K. ṭŏnguru m. ʻ a kind of hoe ʼ; N. (Tarai) ṭã̄gi ʻ adze ʼ; H. ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ; G. ṭã̄k f. ʻ pen nib ʼ; M. ṭã̄k m. ʻ pen nib ʼ, ṭã̄kī f. ʻ chisel ʼ. 2. A. ṭāṅgi ʻ stone chisel ʼ; B. ṭāṅg°gi ʻ spade, axe ʼ; Or. ṭāṅgi ʻ battle -- axe ʼ; Bi. ṭã̄gā°gī ʻ adze ʼ; Bhoj. ṭāṅī ʻ axe ʼ; H. ṭã̄gī f. ʻ hatchet ʼ.*ṭaṅkati2.(CDIAL 5427) ṭaṅkaśālā -- , ṭaṅkakaś° f. ʻ mint ʼ lex. [ṭaṅka -- 1, śāˊlā -- ]N. ṭaksāl°ār, B. ṭāksālṭã̄k°ṭek°, Bhoj. ṭaksār, H. ṭaksāl°ār f., G. ṭãksāḷ f., M. ṭã̄ksālṭāk°ṭãk°ṭak°. -- Deriv. G. ṭaksāḷī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ, M. ṭāksāḷyā m. Addenda: ṭaṅkaśālā -- : Brj. ṭaksāḷī, °sārī m. ʻ mint -- master ʼ.(CDIAL 5434)

    The slanted stroke in front of the animal on Pict-49 is ḍhāḷa 'slope' rebus: ḍhāḷa 'Cast, mould, form (as ofmetal vessels, trinkets &c.'; ḍhālako 'a large metal ingot'. Two other hieroglyphs (hypertext) on top line signify: kanka 'rim of jar' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo' karNaka 'engraver, account' PLUS dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Thus, the hypertext is an account rendered to Supercargo of metal castings from smithy/forge. The specific cargo include large ingots (perhaps oxhide shaped ingots) of minerals [perhaps, copper, iron indicated by the 'dotted circles' dhāī 'strand' rebus: dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi)].

    Given the orthographic accent on the ears, the animal may signify a donkey. Rings are ligaturred to the neck of the animal: koḍiyum 'rings on neck'.Ta. kōṭu (in cpds. kōṭṭu-) horn, tusk, branch of tree, cluster, bunch, coil of hair, line, diagram, bank of stream or pool; kuvaṭu branch of a tree; kōṭṭāṉ, kōṭṭuvāṉrock horned-owl (cf. 1657 Ta. kuṭiñai). Ko. ko·ṛ (obl. ko·ṭ-) horns (one horn is kob), half of hair on each side of parting, side in game, log, section of bamboo used as fuel, line marked out. To. kwid; horn, branch, path across stream in thicket. Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr̤ hornTu.kōḍů, kōḍu horn. Te. kōḍu rivulet, branch of a river. Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn. Ga. (Oll.) kōr (pl. kōrgul) id. Go. (Tr.) kōr (obl. kōt-, pl. kōhk) horn of cattle or wild animals, branch of a tree; (W. Ph. A. Ch.) kōr (pl. kōhk), (S.) kōr (pl. kōhku), (Ma.) kōr̥u (pl. kōẖku) horn; (M.) kohk branch (Voc. 980); (LuS.) kogoo a horn. Kui kōju (pl. kōska) horn, antler. Cf. 2049 Ta. koṭi.(DEDR 2200) Rebus: koḍ 'workshop' (G.) B. kõdā 'to turn in a lathe'; Or. kū̆nda 'lathe', kũdibā, kū̃d 'to turn' (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d 'lathe') koḍ ‘workshop’ (G.) B. kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; Or. kū̆nda ‘lathe’, kũdibā, kū̃d ‘to turn’ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ‘lathe’) (CDIAL 3295)कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi)  kundār turner (A.); kũdār, kũdāri (B.); kundāru (Or.); kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase; kundau dhiri = a hewn stone; kundau murhut = a graven image (Santali) 

    This note identifies this body part as khara Equus hemionus, 'Indian wild ass' which roams the Great Indian Thar desert and Rann of Kutch. khara 'wild ass, onager' rebus: khār खार् 'blacksmith' (Kashmiri)

    *kharapāla ʻ donkey -- driver ʼ. [khara -- 1, pālá -- ]Paš. kharwāl. (CDIAL 3822) khara1 m. ʻ donkey ʼ KātyŚr., °rī -- f. Pāṇ.NiDoc. Pk. khara -- m., Gy. pal. ḳăr m., kắri f., arm. xari, eur. gr. kherkfer, rum. xerú, Kt. kur, Pr. korūˊ, Dm. khar m., °ri f., Tir. kh*lr, Paš. lauṛ. kharm., khär f., Kal. urt. khār, Phal. khār m., khári f., K. khar m., khürü f., pog. kash. ḍoḍ. khar, S. kharu m., P. G. M. khar m., OM. khari f.; -- ext. Ash.kərəṭék, Shum. xareṭá; <-> L. kharkā m., °kī f. -- Kho. khairánu ʻ donkey's foal ʼ (+?).*kharapāla -- ; -- *kharabhaka -- .Addenda: khara -- 1: Bshk. Kt. kur ʻ donkey ʼ (for loss of aspiration Morgenstierne ID 334).(CDIAL 3818)*kharatara -- ʻ mule ʼ. [khara -- 1: cf. Ir. *xaratara -- in Khot. khaḍara ʻ mule ʼ H. W. Bailey BSOAS x 590 and letter 14.9.79, Sogd. gatark Benveniste Textes sogdiens 179 (→ Turk. qatir → Oss.dig. qadir). See Type aśvatará -- in New Indo -- aryan R. L. Turner in ColPa 419ff.](CDIAL 3820a)

    khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m. (sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन्, which is to be distinguished from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), ablacksmith, an iron worker (cf. bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.Pr. 46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta
    khāra-basta खार-बस््त । चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü -ब&above;ठू&below; । लोहकारभित्तिः f. the wall of a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय् । लोहकारपत्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -dŏkuru  । लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji ; or -güjü । लोहकारचुल्लिः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल् । लोहकारकन्दुःf. (sg. dat. -höjü ), a blacksmith's smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu -; । लोहकारपुत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -küṭü ; । लोहकारकन्या f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü 1  । लोहकारमृत्तिका f. (for 2, see [khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -nĕcyuwu -न्यचिवु&below; । लोहकारात्मजः m. a blacksmith's son. -nay -नय् । लोहकारनालिका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañĕ  लोहकारशान्ताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān वान् । लोहकारापणः m. a blacksmith's shop, a forge, smithy (K.Pr. 3). -waṭh -वठ् । आघाताधारशिला m. (sg. dat. -waṭas -वटि), the large stone used by a blacksmith as an anvil.(Kashmiri)


    dula 'two' rebus: dul 'metal casting' PLUS kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. Thus, metal casting smithy/forge.

    kanka 'rim of jar' (Santali) Rebus: kárṇi 'supercargo' karṇaka 'scribe, account';


    Hieroglyph: ढाळू (p. 204) ḍhāḷū a ( H) Steeply sloping. ढाळ (p. 204) ḍhāḷa Slope, inclination of a plane. 

    Rebus 1: ḍhālako a large metal ingot (Gujarati) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (Gujarati).ढाळ (p. 204) ḍhāḷa Cast, mould, form (as ofmetal vessels, trinkets &c.) 

    *ḍhalati ʻ bends over, falls ʼ. 2. Caus. *ḍhālayati. [Perh. < dhvárati ʻ bends, causes to fall ʼ RV. (K. points to -- r -- , see *āḍḍhalati); *ḍhulati similarly < *dhurati(cf. aor. adhūrṣata RV.). But cf. *ḍāl -- . -- √*ḍhal]1. Pk. ḍhalaï ʻ falls, drips ʼ; K. ḍalun ʻ to slip, stumble, be displaced ʼ; S. ḍharaṇu ʻ to descend, run down, pour in (of water) ʼ; L. ḍhalaṇ ʻ to decline, flow down a slope ʼ; P. ḍhalṇā ʻ to be poured out, fall, melt ʼ; WPah. bhal. ḍhalṇū ʻ to fall ʼ, Ku. ḍhalṇo; N. ḍhalnu ʻ to topple over ʼ; A. ḍhaliba ʻ to lean ʼ, B. ḍhalā; Or. ḍhaḷibā ʻ to stumble, reel, incline ʼ; Bi. ḍharab ʻ to empty (the bucket at a well) ʼ; Mth. ḍharab ʻ to flow, drop, hang down ʼ; OAw. ḍharaï ʻ flows down, falls, melts ʼ; H. ḍharnā ʻ to flow down ʼ, ḍhalnā ʻ to topple over ʼ; OMarw. ḍhalaï ʻ falls, declines ʼ; G. ḍhaḷvũ ʻ to slip, be poured out ʼ; M. ḍhaḷṇẽ ʻ to lean over ʼ. -- Ext. with -- kk -- : S. ḍharkaṇu ʻ to roll ʼ; P. ḍhalaknā ʻ to lean over, be spilt ʼ; WPah. cam. ḍhaḷakṇā ʻ to be pushed away ʼ; Ku. ḍhalkaṇo ʻ to overflow ʼ; N. ḍhalkanu ʻ to lean over, lie down ʼ; B.ḍhalkā ʻ to get loose ʼ; H. ḍhalaknā ʻ to lean over, be spilt ʼ; G. ḍhaḷaktũ ʻ leaning ʼ.2. Pk. ḍhālaï ʻ throws down, makes nod ʼ; K. ḍālun ʻ to remove, throw ʼ; S. ḍhāraṇu ʻ to cause to alight, pour out ʼ; P. ḍhālaṇā ʻ to pour, throw, melt ʼ; Ku. ḍhālṇo ʻ to fill, throw, cut down ʼ; N. ḍhālnu ʻ to fell ʼ; A. ḍhāliba ʻ to pour ʼ, B. ḍhālā, Or. ḍhāḷibā, Mth. ḍhārab, Bhoj. ḍhāral, H. ḍhārnāḍhālnā, G. ḍhāḷvũ; M. ḍhāḷṇẽ ʻ to smooth the clods in a field, to shed its lustre (of a pearl) ʼ.Addenda: *ḍhalati. 1. WPah.kṭg. ḍhɔˋḷnõ ʻ to fall, set (of sun), flow ʼ, J. ḍhaḷṇu.2. *ḍhālayati: WPah.kṭg. ḍhàḷnõ ʻ to throw, pour down, chop (wood) ʼ; J. ḍhāḷṇu ʻ to cause to melt ʼ.(CDIAL 5581)

    Hieroglyph: Ko. aḍ oblique, slanting, at right angles, crosswise; oḍ crosswise, obstructing, prostrate, contour line round a hill;Koḍ. aḍḍa crosswise; Ka. aḍḍane, aḍane across, transversely (DEDR 83). *aḍḍa ʻ transverse ʼ. [Same as prec.? -- ← Drav., see *aḍ -- ]S. aḍ̠o m. ʻ edge of a boat, thwart ʼ, aḍ̠ī f. ʻ rail across bottom of a lathe ʼ, āḍ̠o ʻ transverse ʼ; L. aḍḍā m. ʻ thwart of a boat ʼ; P. āḍḍā ʻ crooked ʼ; B. āṛ ʻ aslant ʼ, āṛā ʻ beam ʼ; Or. āṛa ʻ width ʼ, āṛā ʻ cross -- beam ʼ, Mth. āṛ, āṛi ʻ boundary between fields ʼ; H. āṛ f ʻ horizontal line painted across forehead ʼ, āṛā ʻ transverse ʼ; OMarw. āḍoʻ transverse ʼ; G. āḍũ ʻ slanting ʼ, āḍ f. ʻ curved piece of mica worn as ornament by women on forehead ʼ; M. āḍẽ n. ʻ ridgepole, cross -- bar, keel ʼ, aḍvā ʻ transverse ʼ; Ko. āḍa ʻ crosswise ʼ; -- compounded with an IA. word of same meaning: Or. āṛa -- bã̄ka ʻ oblique ʼ; H. aṛbaṅgā ʻ crooked ʼ, m. ʻ obstruction ʼ (→ N. aṛb(h)aṅge ʻ crosswise, obstacle ʼ).Addenda: *aḍḍa -- : S.kcch. āḍī f. ʻ crossbeam ʼ; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) aṛi f. ʻ plough -- handle, plough -- stick with handle ʼ, J. āṛī. (CDIAL 189)

    Rebus 1: Ta. aṭai prop. slight support; aṭai-kal anvilMa. aṭa-kkallu anvil of goldsmiths. Ko. aṛ gal small anvil. Ka. aḍe, aḍa, aḍi the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to operate upon, a support; aḍegal, aḍagallu, aḍigallu anvil. Tu. aṭṭè a support, stand. Te. ḍā-kali, ḍā-kallu, dā-kali, dā-gali, dāyianvil. Cf. 3865 Ta. paṭṭaṭai.(DEDR 86)

    Rebus 2: Ta. aṭṭam terraced roof, upper story. Ma. aṭṭam roof used as store-room, scaffold on four poles. Ko. aṭt loft, attic. To. oṭm (obl. oṭt-) place for firewood made of cords tied from side rafters to roof. Ka. aṭṭa upper loft in a house, apartment of roof, tower, buttress (one of the tatsamas). Koḍ. aṭṭa loft. 
    Tu. aṭṭa upper loft, garret, upper room, ceiling; aṭṭaḷu an upstairs room; aṭṭoḷigè loft supported on posts, temporary gallery; kutt-aṭṭa, kutt-aṭṭè upper loft for storing rice. Te. aṭuka loft under the roof of a house; aṭṭaḍi, aṭṭamu fortified place in front of building, room or chamber built over gate of a fort; (VPK) aṭṭuka (aṭaka, aṭuka, aḍuku), aṭṭava (aṭava, aṭṭām) attic;aṭṭava a supporting roof (pandal) for creepers. Pa. aṭu attic room; aṭṭa bamboo framework for roof. Go. (Mu. Ma.) aṭṭe (pl. -ŋ) laths laid across rafters of roof; (Tr.) attēcross-bars of wood used in building the walls of a house (Voc. 29). Pe. āṭu attic (< Or.). Kur. aṭṭā raised platform, scaffold, loft in house. /Cf. Turner, CDIAL, no. 180; Burrow 1969.277 for uncertainty whether IA or Dr. in origin. (DEDR 93) aṭṭa2 ʻ high ʼ, m. ʻ tower, watchtower ʼ Kālid., aṭṭaka -- m. ʻ tower ʼ lex. [Non -- aryan Mayrhofer EWA i 25] Pa. aṭṭa -- , °aka -- m. ʻ watchtower, platform, hide -- out in a tree ʼ; Pk. aṭṭa -- ʻ big ʼ, m.n. ʻ watchtower, room on roof ʼ; Paš. aṭ ʻ rock ʼ; Ku. āṭāṭi ʻ shelf in the kitchen ʼ; N. āṭ ʻ a mud shelf on which to keep vessels ʼ; A. āṭi°iyā, ʻ high bank, prominence ʼ; H. aṭṭā m. ʻ heap ʼ, aṭā m. ʻ upper room ʼ, aṭiyā f. ʻ small thatched room on the roof ʼ; G. āṭ f. ʻ an arrangement of cow -- dung cakes to prevent the cooking -- pot from upsetting ʼ; Si. aṭuva ʻ platform, loft, structure over fireplace ʼ.(CDIAL 180).

    Alternative:
    dánta m. ʻ tooth ʼ RV. [dánt -- RV.]Pa. danta -- m. ʻ tooth, tusk ʼ; Pk. daṁta -- m. ʻ tooth, part of a mountain ʼ; Gy. eur. dand m. ʻ tooth ʼ, pal. dṓndă, Ash. dō˘nt, Kt. dut, Wg. dō̃tdū̃t, Pr. letumlätəm'ätəmʻ my (?) tooth ʼ, Dm. dan, Tir. d*lndə, Paš. lauṛ. dan(d), uzb. dōn, Niṅg. daṅ, Shum. dandem ʻ my tooth ʼ, Woṭ. dan m., Gaw. dant, Kal.urt. d*ln, rumb. dh*lndōŕy*lk (lit. ʻ front and back teeth ʼ? -- see *dāṁṣṭra -- ); Kho. don, Bshk. d*lndə, Tor. d*ln, Kand. dɔdi, Mai. dān, Sv. dānd, Phal. dān, pl. dānda, Sh.gil. do̯n, pl. dōnye̯ m. (→ Ḍ. donm.), pales. d*ln, jij. dɔn, K. dand m., rām. pog. ḍoḍ. dant, S. ḍ̠andu m.; L. dand, mult. ḍand, (Ju.) ḍ̠ãd m., khet. dant ʻ tooth ʼ, (Shahpur) dãd f. ʻ cliff, precipice ʼ; P. dandm. ʻ tooth, ʼ WPah.bhad. bhal. paṅ. cur. dant, cam. dand, pāḍ. dann, Ku. N. dã̄t (< *dã̄d in N. dã̄de ʻ harrow, a kind of grass ʼ), A. B. dã̄t, Or. dānta, Mth. Bhoj. Aw.lakh. H. Marw. G. M. dã̄t m., Ko. dāntu, Si. data. -- Ext. -- ḍa -- : Dm. dandə́ŕidánduri ʻ horse's bit ʼ, Phal. dándaṛi. -- Addenda: dánta -- : S.kcch. ḍandh m.pl. ʻ teeth ʼ; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) dānd m., J. dã̄d m., Garh. dã̄t, Md. dat. (CDIAL 6152) dantaka (a) ʻ *having teeth ʼ. (b) in cmpd. ʻ tooth ʼ TS. (c) m. ʻ projection on a rock ʼ lex. [dánta -- ](a) K. dondu ʻ tusked ʼ; Or. dāntā ʻ having teeth ʼ; G. dã̄tɔ m. ʻ a kind of rake or harrow ʼ. -- (b) Pa. dantaka<-> m. ʻ ivory pin ʼ; S. ḍ̠ando m. ʻ tooth of an instrument ʼ; L.ḍandā m. ʻ tooth (of rake &c.) ʼ, dandī f. ʻ milk -- tooth ʼ; Or. dāntī ʻ toothlike projection ʼ; H. dã̄tā m. ʻ large tooth, tooth (of comb &c.) ʼ, dã̄tī f. ʻ tooth, cog ʼ; G. dã̄tɔ ʻ cog ʼ, dã̄tī f. ʻ wedge between the teeth of a comb ʼ; M. dã̄tā ʻ tooth (of rake &c.), cog ʼ; Si. dätta, st. däti<-> ʻ tooth (of a saw) ʼ. -- (c) L. dandī f. ʻ cliff ʼ; N. dã̄ti ʻ edge of a hole used in a game ʼ; A. dã̄ti ʻ edge ʼ; -- ext. -- r -- : L.awāṇ. dandrī ʻ edge ʼ, A. dã̄tri ʻ edge of platform ʼ. <-> S. ḍ̠andi f. ʻ selvage of a web ʼ, L. dand f. ʻ precipice ʼ < *dantī -- ? *dantāla ʻ toothed ʼ. [dánta -- ]Pk. daṁtāla -- m., °lī -- f. ʻ grass -- cutting instrument ʼ; S. ḍ̠andārī f. ʻ rake ʼ, L. (Ju.) ḍ̠ãdāl m., °lī f.; Ku. danyālo m. ʻ harrow ʼ, gng. danyāw (y from danīṛo < dantín -- ); N. dãtār ʻ tusked ʼ (← a Bi. form); A. dãtāl adj. ʻ tusked ʼ, sb. ʻ spade ʼ; B. dã̄tāl ʻ toothed ʼ; G. dãtāḷ n., °ḷī f. ʻ harrow ʼ; M. dã̄tāḷ ʻ having projecting teeth ʼ, dã̄tāḷ, °ḷē,dãtāḷ n. ʻ harrow, rake ʼ.Addenda: *dantāla -- : Garh. dãdāḷu ʻ forked implement ʼ, Brj. dãtāl, dãtāro ʻ toothed ʼ, m. ʻ elephant ʼ.(CDIAL 6153, 6160)*dantula, dantūlá -- ʻ having teeth ʼ Pāṇ.gaṇa. [~ danturá -- . -- dánta -- ]L.awāṇ. dandlā ʻ large -- toothed ʼ; N. dãtulo ʻ having prominent teeth ʼ (t from dã̄t), H. dãtulā. (CDIAL 6168)

    I have suggested that a dotted circle hieroglyph is a cross-section of a strand of rope: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f. Rebus: dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) धवड (p. 436) [ dhavaḍa ] m (Or धावड) A class or an individual of it. They are smelters of iron (Marathi).  Hence, the depiction of a single dotted circle, two dotted circles and three dotted circles (called trefoil) on the robe of the Purifier priest of Mohenjo-daro.

    N. dhāu ʻ ore (esp. of copper) ʼ; Or. ḍhāu ʻ red chalk, red ochre ʼ (whence ḍhāuā ʻ reddish ʼ; M. dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ (whence dhā̆vaḍ m. ʻ a caste of iron -- smelters ʼ, dhāvḍī ʻ composed of or relating to iron ʼ) is related to the hieroglyph: strand of rope: S. dhāī f. ʻ wisp of fibres added from time to time to a rope that is being twisted ʼ, L. dhāī˜ f.(CDIAL 6773) తాడు [ tāḍu ] or త్రాడు tādu. [Tel.] n. A cord, thread, string. दामन् n. [दो-मनिन्] 1 A string, thread, fillet, rope. 

    The phoneme dhāī˜ (Lahnda) signifying a single strand may thus signify the hieroglyph: dotted circle. This possibility is reinforced by the glosses in Rigveda, Tamil and other languages of Baratiya sprachbund which are explained by the word dāya 'playing of dice' which is explained by the cognate Tamil word: தாயம் tāyamn. < dāya Number one in the game of dice; கவறுருட்டவிழும் ஒன்று என்னும் எண். 
    The semantics: dāya 'Number one in the game of dice' is thus signified by the dotted circle on the uttariyam of the pōtṟ पोतृ,'purifier' priest. Rebus rendering in Indus Script cipher is 

    dhāˊtu n. ʻsubstance ʼ RV., m. ʻ element ʼ MBh., ʻ metal, mineral, ore (esp. of a red colour)ʼ; dhāūdhāv m.f. ʻ a partic. soft red stone ʼ(Marathi) dhatu 'ore' (Santali)

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    July 3, 2016

    0 0


    Monday , July 4 , 2016 |

    Affluent and educated killers

    - Dhaka cafe attackers' roots skirt beaten path, Bangladesh wakes up to a new enemy

    A woman (not Nasima whose appeal is below) cries as she attends a candlelight vigil in Dhaka on Sunday. (Reuters picture)
    July 3: The Bangladesh capital woke up to a cloudy Sunday after incessant rain through the night. But another spectre crept up and menaced Dhaka as it emerged that most of the cafe terrorists came from well-to-do families and might have been alumni of elite private institutions.
    "Terror activities in our country were always linked to madarsa students coming from a poor background and brainwashed by religious teachers.... The terror attack at the Holey Artisan cafe is a game-changer. I was surprised to learn about the background of the terrorists," said a businessman before taking a flight to Calcutta from Dhaka's Shah Jalal International Airport.
    Several times in the past, the rise of radicalisation has been linked to the spread of madarsas - which do offer an avenue for parents who cannot afford mainstream education for their children - across the country with funding from the Jamaat-e-Islami, the hardline party.
    Against this backdrop, the limited information trickling out has caught Bangladesh by surprise and convulsed social media.
    Reports in local media, which spoke to acquaintances of the attackers and picked up information from social media, suggested that the gunmen were not have-nots. Although tight-lipped on specific information, officials also echoed the view.
    Official sources have identified five of the gunmen as Akash, Bikash, Don, Badhon and Ripon. However, The Daily Star newspaper of Bangladesh said friends of three of these attackers cited different names: Nibras Islam, Meer Saameh Mubasher and Rohan Imtiaz.
    Nibras is an alumnus of Turkish Hope School and North South University, "a top private university" in Dhaka, according to the Star. He pursued higher studies on the Australian Monash University's Malaysia campus, according to his friends.
    Similarly, Meer and Rohan, son of a politician, were students of an elite school in Dhaka, their friends said.
    All three youths had disappeared from the social circuit a few months ago and sources close to their families said they could notice sudden signs of religious leanings among them.
    The profiles of the young men - they appeared to be in their twenties and the government said three were aged below 22 - did not fit the usual template of poor economic background and education rooted in seminaries.
    Sumir Barai, a cook at the Holey Artisan Bakery where the hostage situation unfolded on Friday night, said the attackers spoke cosmopolitan Bengali and some English when conversing with the foreigners. "They were all smart and handsome and educated," The New York Times quoted him as saying. "If you look at those guys, nobody could believe they could do this."
    The attackers' background was more in sync with that of many of their victims who had varied interests and were thriving in a wired world than the stereotypes yoked to terrorism.
    The change in the profile of the perpetrators of terror in Bangladesh - which witnessed machete-wielding zealots pouncing on individuals -suggests radicalisation is spreading its reach and climbing up the social ladder of the country, which has clocked steady economic growth for around a decade.
    "Look at Osama bin Laden, who came from a privileged background. People from rich background leading terror activities is common in Central Asia and other parts of the world.... The worry is it has come to Bangladesh and we have to counter this," said human rights activist and anti-radicalisation crusader Shahriar Kabir.
    According to him, the most potent tool to fight radicalisation was to instil Bengali pride among the youths, many of whom are not aware of their roots and the sacrifice made by their predecessors to liberate and build Bangladesh.
    A retired officer, Maj. Gen. Abdur Rashid, suggested monitoring of private universities, several of which are funded and run by the Jamaat-e-Islami, an ally of the country's main Opposition, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. "These universities are outside the purview of monitoring.... There are more than a hundred such institutions. The curriculum and the teachers should be under the scanner as we cannot allow radicalisation of young minds," he added.
    The Bangladesh government insisted the attack was the handiwork of "homegrown" terrorists, blamed Pakistan's ISI and ruled out the involvement of the Islamic State.
    Hossain Toufique Imam, the political adviser to Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, said the way in which the hostages were killed with machetes suggested the role of a local terrorist group, the banned Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen. "Pakistan's ISI and Jamaat connection is well known... they want to derail the current government," Imam told a TV channel.
    Bangladesh police chief Shahidul Hoque claimed that five of the attackers were "listed as militants and law enforcers made several drives to arrest them".
    Home minister Asaduzzaman Khan said neither the Islamic State nor al Qaida was involved. "This was done by JMB," Khan said, referring to the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh, which claims to represent the Islamic State in Bangladesh.
    Only a suspect
    The home minister clarified tonight that a person taken alive by the police was only a suspect. Official sources had yesterday given the impression that his status as a gunman had been established. Six terrorists had been killed. Khan said the militants had not made any demands.

    http://www.telegraphindia.com/1160704/jsp/frontpage/story_94722.jsp#.V3mjlLh97IU

    My brother died protecting his friends at Holey Artisan: Zaraif Hossain

    TNN | Jul 3, 2016, 10.00 PM IST
    My brother died protecting his friends at Holey Artisan: Zaraif Hossain
    KOLKATA: Just days before Dhaka's terror attack, Faraaz Hossain was in Kolkata to do an internship with Pepsico. Little did anyone know that it would be his last visit to the city that has been his favourite since childhood.

    On Friday evening, Faraaz, Tarishi Jain and Abinta Kabir had decided to meet a fourth friend at the Holey Artisan restaurant. Their friend, Miraaj al-Haque, who arrived late, couldn't get in because the terrorists had already taken control inside. Tarishi, Faraaz and Abinta succumbed but Miraaj survived!

    Twenty-year-old Faraaz was the youngest son of Muhammad Waquer Bin Hossain and Simeen Hossain, managing director of Eskayef Pharmaceuticals Limited, Transcom Consumer Products Limited and Transcom Distribution Limited. He was the grandson of Latifur and Shahnaz Rahman, the chairman of the Transcom Group. Rahman is the owner of media house "Prothom Alo" and "The Daily Star".

    Faraaz, who was called Chotoo at home, was a Fall 2015 graduate of Oxford College of Emory University and a student at Emory University's Goizueta Business School in Atlanta. On May 18, he came to Dhaka to spend his summer holidays and was scheduled to return to the US in the end of August. His elder brother Zaraif, whom Faraaz used to address as Bhaiyu, describes him as a person who was "extremely sensitive towards others" and always "careful" about how his actions would affect those around him. "He would go the extra mile to ensure that everybody was happy," Zaraif said from their residence in Dhaka on Sunday.

    It was also this sense of ensuring the wellbeing of everyone around that prompted Faraaz not to leave his friends behind at the restaurant even when terrorists had allowed him to leave. "From what I have gathered, my brother was allowed to leave. But he had gone there with his friends and didn't want to leave them behind. So he had asked 'what about them?' When he was told that they couldn't leave, he decided to stay back. Muslims are not supposed to believe in violence. He was a true Muslim which is why he stayed back and proved to be one," Zaraif said.

    On being asked if he had been able to fathom why the terrorists had agreed to let him go, Zaraif said it could possibly be because he was a Bangladeshi Muslim. "From what I understand, they were asked to recite prayers. For my brother, it wouldn't have been difficult. While in Dhaka, he was interning at Transcom from where he was having an induction at Pepsico. During a recent trip to the Pepsico headquarters in Gurgaon, he had gone to Nizamuddin," Zaraif said.

    On June 26, Faraaz was in Kolkata. He stayed at the Taj Bengal till June 29. During his last Kolkata trip, Faraaz had visited some mazhars as well. "He had gone to the house of Shashab nana - a very pious man who was close to my grandparents. He went to Shashab nana's house to pay his respect. On his own volition, he went to two or three mazhars in Kolkata as well. This time, he even told me that he wanted to keep 20 fasts during Ramzan. But he had some gaps in between while in India but wanted to still try and get as close as possible to the 20-fast mark," he said.


    For Faraaz, it wouldn't have been difficult to say the religious prayers. "But Tarishi wasn't a Muslim. This just goes on to show that my brother respected all religions. Abinta was a Muslim but she had stated that she was a US citizen. Tarishi, Abinta, Faraaz and Miraaj were extremely close and this would be their night to hang out before they left for Eid holidays. Abinta and Tarishi came back from university in the US to Dhaka for summer break. Miraaj is a rising senior at their high school - the American International School of Dhaka," he said.


    While in college, Faraaz was an extremely meritorious student too. He was part of Phi Eta Sigma - an inter-collegiate freshman honor society. "He retained a GPA above 3.9. He was in the top 10% of his class. My brother had incredible leadership abilities and was the Executive Council High School President as well as Prom King. He was his class president in high school every year except the sophomore year and was a chair which is a leadership position in the Student Activities Committee (SAC) at Emory. He was a part of the handpicked Dean's freshman council at Emory as well," Zaraif said, remembering how Faraaz had even planned where his family members would sit during his graduation ceremony two years from now!


    Zaraif insists that his little brother was "destined for greatness". "Manchester United was his life. After he visited, Old Trafford, Manchester United's home stadium, he was filled with so much emotion because this footall club was so close to his heart. He claims his favourite cities were Dhaka and then Manchester. Dhaka betrayed him," he said.

    An "absolute go-getter", friends and family remember him as extremely responsible and meticulous. He was up for any challenge. Friday too was a challenge for him when he remained to protect his two friends. "Our mom has raised us to always respect and protect women and he did so till the end," Zaraif said. As the world salutes this braveheart, Faraaz will remain a hero for posterity.

    0 0

    Mirror: http://tinyurl.com/zpojmat

    Indus Script inscriptions metalwork catalogs of Balakot & other fortified sites, Persian Gulf-Makran-Kutch Indian Ocean coast line

    sãgaṛh 'fortification', koṭṭa 'fortified settlement' signified on Indus Script inscriptions by the hieroglyphs: 1. सांगड [sāṅgaḍa] m f (संघट्ट S) f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together and 2. sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'. ‘brazier’ 3. koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ kola'tiger' 
    Ghanjah (غنجه) or kotiya - a large vessel, similar to the Baghlah, with a curved stem and a sloping, ornately carved transom.

    Sambuk.
    A model of an Indian kotia dhow made entirely in wood with metal and organic material fittings. 
    http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/7020.html  National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London.

    The shape of the dow compares with the boat shown on a Mohenjo-daro prism tablet (though without the sails) which is shown carrying 'oxhide' ingots & hard alloys (karaDa 'aquatic bird' rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy' dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metalcasting'.)


    Oman, Dhofar, S/Y Sanjeeda, a traditional kotiya dhow of the type that traded throughout the Indian Ocean, off Mirbat.
    Hieroglyph (hypertext) koTiya 'rings on neck' of one-horned young bull: It is remarkable that the one-horned young bull is often decorated with rings on neck and inscriptions include the most freuquently-occurring hieroglyph karNaka, kanka'rim of jar' signifying karNI'Supercargo' these signify that the account of shipment/cargo recorded on the inscription related to a Supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale. in-charge of the cargo on koṭiya ʻsailing vessel'. Thus, the professional responsibility of the holder of the seal/badge with these hieroglyphs is a  jangadiyo 'military guard carrying treasure into the treasury'. 

    Hieroglyph (hypertext) 1:
    Dwaraka. Turbinella pyrum, s'ankha seal with   सांगड [sāṅgaḍa] 'a body formed with combination of parts of animals'

    Hieroglyph (hypertext) 2:


    Rebus: sanghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati). jangadiyo 'military guards carrying treasure into the treasury' (Gujarati)  The mercantile agents who were jangadiyo received goods on jangad 'entrusted for approval'. An ancient Near East accounting system was jangaḍ. The system of jangaḍ simply meant 'goods on approval' with the agent -- like the Meluhhan merchant-agents or brokers living in settlements in ancient near East -- merely responsible for showing the goods to the intended buyers. సంగడము (p. 1272) saṅgaḍamu sangaḍamu. [from Skt. సంగతమ్.] n. Dumb-bells, సాముచేయువారు తిప్పేలోడు. Help, assistance, aid, సహాయము. Friendship, ౛త, స్నేహము. Meeting, చేరిక. Nearness, సమీపము. A retinue, పరిచారము. Service, సేవ. An army, సేన. "అనవుడు వాడునగుచు నీవిక్రమంబునకు నా వెరపు సంగడంబుగాదె." M. VII. iv. 59. "ఉ అంచెలుగట్టి కాలి తొడుసైచనననీవుగదమ్మప్రోదిరా, యంచలివేటి సంగడములయ్యెను." Swa. v. 72. Trouble, annoyance, ౛ం౛ాటము, సంకటము. సంగడమువాడు sangaḍamu-vāḍu. n. A friend or companion. చెలికాడు, నేస్తకాడు. సంగడి sangaḍi. n. A couple, pair, ౛ంట ౛త, ౛ోడు. Friendship, స్నేహము. A friend, a fellow, a playmate, నేస్తకాడు. A raft or boat made of two canoes fastened side by side.  http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/06/ancient-near-east-jangad-accounting-for.html

    Rebus: Ancient Indian dhow was called kotiya 'cargo sailing vessel'.) 


    krōṣṭŕ̊ ʻ crying ʼ BhP., m. ʻ jackal ʼ RV. = krṓṣṭu -- m. Pāṇ. [√kruś]Pa. koṭṭhu -- , °uka -- and kotthu -- , °uka -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ, Pk. koṭṭhu -- m.; Si. koṭa ʻ jackal ʼ, koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ GS 42; -- Pk. kolhuya -- , kulha -- m. ʻ jackal ʼ < *kōḍhu -- ; H. kolhā°lā m. ʻ jackal ʼ, adj. ʻ crafty ʼ; G. kohlũ°lũ n. ʻ jackal ʼ, M. kolhā°lā m.(CDIAL 3615) kolo, koleā 'jackal' (Kon.Santali); kola kukur 'white tiger' (A.)

    Hieroglyph (hyertext) 3:
    Leopard weight. Shahi Tump. H.16.7cm; dia.13.5cm; base dia 6cm; handle on top  koṭiya ʻ leopard ʼ rebus:  koṭiya ʻsailing vessel' miṇḍā́l 'markhor' (CDIAL 10310) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic). Thus, copper and lead shipments are signified by the hieroglyphs on the leopard weight which has been created using cire perdue (lost-wax) technique of metal casting..

    A striking feature of Sarasvati civilization sites (ca. 3500 to 1900 BCE) is that almost all of them are fortified. Such a fortified town may be signified by the hieroglyph 'lathe/brazier': sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'. ‘brazier’ (Gujarati) सांगड [sāṅgaḍa] m f (संघट्ट S) f A body formed of two or more (fruits, animals, men) linked or joined together (Marathi). Rebus: sangara ‘proclamation’; *saṁgaḍha ʻ collection of forts ʼ. [*gaḍha -- ] L. sãgaṛh m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ.(CDIAL 12845) gaḍha *gaḍha ʻ fort ʼ. [Poss. with ODBL 500 < *gr̥dha- (> gr̥há -- ), Av. gərəda -- ] Pk. gaḍha -- m., °ḍhā -- f. ʻ fort ʼ; K. gaḍ m. (= vill. *gaṛ?) ʻ small masonry fort built in the hills by a local chieftain ʼ; S. g̠aṛhu m. ʻ fort ʼ, P. gaṛh m., Ku. gaṛ, A.gar, B. gaṛ, Or. gaṛ(h)a, Mth. Bhoj. gaṛh, OAw. gaḍha m., H. gaṛhī f. (→ N. gaṛi), OMarw. OG. gaḍha m., G. gaḍhghaṛ m. (whence gaḍhī m. ʻ inhabitant of a hill fort ʼ), M. gaḍhīgaḍḍī f. Addenda: *gaḍha -- : S.kcch. gaḍḍh m. ʻ fort ʼ.*gaḍhapati ʻ commander of a fort ʼ. [*gaḍha -- , páti -- ]G. gaḍhvī m.(CDIAL 3986, 3987)


    Dholavira. A covered drain and its mouth in front of the eastern fortification wall with its gate. This small stormwater drain let rain water into the eastern reservoir situated in front.

    Dholavira. The fortification wall of the citadel on the northern side. Note how the wall slopes towards the top as in walls in other Harappan sites, to give it life and strength.

    Fortification area Mohenjo Daro The State of Sind Pakistan
    Fortification surrounding the Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro.


    Sangar from Western Sahara, 1980's (photo from wikipedia).
    There is a unique dhow which was used by seafaring merchants on Indian Ocean in ancient times. This dhow was called kotiya'cargo sailing vessel'. 

    This name for the sailing vessel may have been derived from kot which is a suffix of many place names along the Persian Gulf-Makran-Kutch Coastline, for examples, names of Sarasvati civilization sites such as Balakot, Surkotada, Dholavira (Kotda). Kot is a common place name for 'fortified place' in Indian sprachbundkōṭṭa1 m. (n. lex.) ʻ fort ʼ Kathās., kōṭa -- 1 m. Vāstuv.
    Aś. sn. koṭa -- ʻ fort, fortified town ʼ, Pk. koṭṭa -- , kuṭ° n.; Kt. kuṭ ʻ tower (?) ʼ NTS xii 174; Dm. kōṭ ʻ tower ʼ,Kal. kōṭ; Sh. gil. kōṭ m. ʻ fort ʼ (→ Ḍ. kōṭ m.), koh. pales. kōṭ m. ʻ village ʼ; K. kūṭh, dat. kūṭas m. ʻ fort ʼ, S. koṭu m., L. koṭ m.; P. koṭ m. ʻ fort, mud bank round a village or field ʼ; A. kõṭh ʻ stockade, palisade ʼ; B. koṭkuṭ ʻ fort ʼ, Or. koṭakuṭa, H. Marw. koṭ m.; G. koṭ m. ʻ fort, rampart ʼ; M. koṭkoṭh m. ʻ fort ʼ, Si. koṭuva(Geiger EGS 50 < kōṣṭhaka -- ).Addenda: kōṭṭa -- 1: A. kõṭh ʻ fort ʼ and other lggs. with aspirate and meaning ʻ fort ʼ perh. X kṓṣṭha kōṭṭapāla m. ʻ commander of a fort ʼ Pañcat. [kōṭṭa -- 1, pāla -- ] Pk. koṭṭavāla -- , kuṭ° m. ʻ police officer ʼ; K. kuṭawāl m. ʻ captain of a fort, chief of police, city magistrate ʼ; S. koṭāru m. ʻ district officer who watches crops, police officer ʼ; L. kuṭvāl m. ʻ a kind of village constable ʼ; WPah. bhal. kuṭwāl m. ʻ hon. title of a Ṭhakkur ʼ; B. koṭāl ʻ watchman, constable ʼ (ODBL 329 < *kōṣṭhapāla -- ); Or. kaṭuāḷa ʻ town policeman ʼ; H. koṭwār°wāl m. ʻ police officer ʼ (→ L. koṭvāl m., S. koṭvālu m.), G. koṭvāḷ m.(CDIAL 3500, 3501)  (a) Ta. kōṭṭai fort, castle; kōṭu stronghold. Ma. kōṭṭa fort, residence; kōṭu fort. Ko. ko·ṭ castle, palatial mansion. To. kwa·ṭ bungalow. Ka. kōṭe fort, rampart; (PBh.) kōṇṭe fort. Koḍ. ko·ṭe palace. Tu. kōṭè fort. Te. kōṭa,(Inscr.) koṭṭamu id. Kuwi (S.) kōṭa 
    palace, fort. / Cf. Skt. koṭṭa-, koṭa- fort, stronghold. (b) Ko. go·ṛ obl. go·ṭ-) wall. Ka. gōḍe id. 
    Tu. gōḍè id. Te. gōḍa id. Kol. (SR.) goḍā id. Kuwi (S.) kōḍa wall, prison; (Isr.) kōḍa wall. (DEDR 2207)
     Makran coast (Balakot site) is an extension of the Persian Gulf in the Indian Ocean, jutting into the Rann of Kutch, Gujarat.See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/06/sarasvati-sindhu-civilization-contacts.html
    .
    Map of the north-west Indian subcontinent showing the main Harappan sites mentioned in the text (courtesy of Dr A. Uesugi).
    General map of Pakistan and surrounding countries. A cluster of Sarasvati civilization sites are west and east of the Makran Coast (Balakot): Shahi-Tump, SatkagenDor, Sokta Koh, Kulli, Chanhu Daro, Allah Dino, Dholavira, Pabumath, Zekda, Khirsara, Desalpur, Narapa, Konda Bhadli, Bhuj, Surkotada, Kanmer, Shikarpur, Bagasra (Gola Dhoro), Nagwada, Kuntsi, Nageshwar

    Kanmer
    Series of excavated Meretrix shells showing successive stages of bangle manufacture (clockwise from upper left hand corner). Series of excavated Meretrix shells showing successive stages of bangle manufacture (clockwise from upper left hand corner). Figure after Dales and Kenoyer, 1977


    http://www.penn.museum/documents/publications/expedition/PDFs/19-2/Shell.pdf 

  • Expedition, Volume 19
  • Issue 2
  • January 1977 
  • Shell Working at Ancient Balakot, Pakistan By: George F. Dales and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer


    Kanmer sealings.Three clay sealings from Kanmer with 'one-horned young bull' (unicorn) motif. Figure 3b. Top view of the three Kanmer sealings (pictured in Figure 3a) with different motifs suggesting different uses/users? http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/08/bronze-age-kanmer-bagasra.html
    koḍa ‘one’(Santali) Rebus: koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop’. kõda ‘young bull-calf’. Rebus: kũdār ‘turner’. sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. Rebus: samgara ‘living in the same house, guild’. Hence, smith guild.

    kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kasa 'bronze' (Te.) Also: khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.).
    mēd ‘body’ (Kur.)(DEDR 5099); meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) karNaka 'spread legs' rebus: karNI 'supercargo' karNadhAra 'helmsman'



    The hypertext on Kanmer sealings also occurs on a Mohenjo-daro seal m1162.

    That a glyph similar to the one used on Kanmer tablets occur at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa is significant to help identify the Indian sprachbund with Meluhha (Mleccha) speech area.

    It would appear that the three tablets (seal impressions) originated in three distinct phases of the lapidary/smithy processes, based on the following rebus readings of three distinct sets of  incised glyphs on the obverse of the tablets. The three phases are: mineral workshop, furnce workshop (smithy), metal workshop (forge).

    Mineral workshop








    sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.) Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (H.)

    kod. ‘one’ (Santali); rebus: kod. ‘workshop’ (G.)


    Furnace workshop

    aar ‘splinter’ (Ma.); aaruni ‘to crack’ (Tu.)  aduru ‘native metal (Ka.)
    baa = a kind of iron (G .) baa = rimless pot (Kannada)

    S. bahu m. ‘large pot in which grain is parched, large cooking fire’, bahī f. ‘distilling furnace’; L. bhaṭṭh m. ‘grain—parcher's oven’, bhaṭṭhī f. ‘kiln, distillery’, awā. bhah; P. bhaṭṭh m., °hī f. ‘furnace’, bhaṭṭhā m. ‘kiln’; S. bhaṭṭhī keī ‘distil (spirits)’.  (CDIAL 9656)


    Metal workshop
    ayo, hako 'fish'; a~s = scales of fish (Santali); rebus: aya = iron (G.); ayahayas = metal (Skt.)
    sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.) Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (H.)

    kod. ‘one’ (Santali); rebus: kod. ‘workshop’ (G.)



    Decoding of the identical inscription on the three tablets of Kanmer.

    Glyph: One long linear stroke. koḍa  ‘one’ (Santali) Rebus: koḍ ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi) Glyph: meḍ ‘body’ (Mu.) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) Ligatured glyph : aar ‘harrow’ Rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Kannada). Thus the glyphs can be read rebus. Glyph: koḍiyum ‘heifer’ (G.) Rebus: koḍ ‘workshop (Kuwi) Glyph: sangaḍa ‘lathe’ (Marathi) Rebus 1: Rebus 2: sangaḍa ‘association’ (guild). Rebus 2: sangatarāsu ‘stone cutter’ (Telugu). The output of the lapidaries is thus described by the three tablets: aduru meḍ sangaḍa koḍ ‘iron, native metal guild workshop’.

    Elephant glyph: ibha 'elephant' (Skt.) Rebus: ib 'iron' (Santali) ibbo 'merchant' (Gujarati)

    Metal

    ayo ‘fish’ (Mu.); kaṇḍa ‘arrow’; kaṇḍa, kāṇḍa, kāe = an arrow (Ka.) kāṇḍ  kāṇ  kōṇ, ko~_, ka~_ arrow (Pas'.);ka~_ī arrow (G.) Cf. kaṇam ‘arrow’ (Ta.) Rebus: ayaskāṇḍa “a quantity of iron, excellent iron” (Pāṇ gaṇ)
    Workshop

    sal “stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty” (H.);

    Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali); śāla id. (Skt.)

    Turner

    kundau, kundhi corner (Santali) kuṇḍa corner (S.)khoṇḍ square (Santali)  *khuṇṭa2 ʻ corner ʼ. 2. *kuṇṭa -- 2. [Cf. *khōñca -- ] 1. Phal. khun ʻ corner ʼ; H. khū̃ṭ m. ʻ corner, direction ʼ (→ P. khũṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ); G. khū̃ṭṛī f. ʻ angle ʼ. <-> X kōṇa -- : G. khuṇ f., khū˘ṇɔ m. ʻ corner ʼ. 2. S. kuṇḍa f. ʻ corner ʼ; P. kū̃ṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ (← H.).(CDIAL 3898).


    Allograph: kunta 'lance, spear' (Kannada)

    Rebus: kunda1 m. ʻ a turner's lathe ʼ lex. [Cf. *cunda -- 1N. kũdnu ʻ to shape smoothly, smoothe, carve, hew ʼ, kũduwā ʻ smoothly shaped ʼ; A. kund ʻ lathe ʼ, kundiba ʻ to turn and smooth in a lathe ʼ, kundowā ʻ smoothed and rounded ʼ; B. kũd ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdākõdā ʻ to turn in a lathe ʼ; Or. kū˘nda ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdibākū̃d° ʻ to turn ʼ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ʻ lathe ʼ); Bi.kund ʻ brassfounder's lathe ʼ; H. kunnā ʻ to shape on a lathe ʼ, kuniyā m. ʻ turner ʼ, kunwā m. (CDIAL 3295). kundakara m. ʻ turner ʼ W. [Cf. *cundakāra -- : kunda -- 1, kará -- 1A. kundār, B. kũdār°ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ.(CDIAL 3297). Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold.Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold. (DEDR 1725).

    Ka. kunda a pillar of bricks, etc. Tu. kunda pillar, post. Te. kunda id. Malt. kunda block, log. ? Cf. Ta. kantu pillar, post.(DEDR 1723). கற்கந்து kaṟ-kantu n. < கல் +. Stone pillar; கற்றூண். கற்கந்தும் எய்ப்போத்தும் . . . அனை யார் (இறை. 2, உரை, 27).


    m1162. Mohenjo-daro seal with the same hieroglyph which appears on Kanmer circular tablets. Glyph 33. Text 2068 kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus:  kasa  bronze';  kã̄sāri  ʻpewterer’ (Bengali) Also: khareḍo = a currycomb (G.) Rebus: kharādī ' turner' (G.).Ibha'elephant' Rebus: ibbo 'merchant'.

    m1162 Text 2058 Ligatured glyph of two sememes: 1. meḍ ‘body’(Mu.); rebus: ‘iron’ (Ho.) 2. karNaka 'spread legs' rebus: karNI 'Supercargo, a representative of the ship's owner on board a merchant ship, responsible for overseeing the cargo and its sale.'

    "Compared to the small size of the settlement the number of copper objects recovered is very high, which includes a copper vessel, containing eight bangles and an axe perhaps stored for recycling the precious metal, besides a variety of other copper objects. One of the important discoveries from southern half of the settlement outside the fortification is the recovery of unique copper knives with bone handles or protective sheath meant to protect the sharp working edge of the tool. A unique copper battle-axe "parshu", is also a very interesting find from this area, the small size of the battle - axe perhaps suggesting some ritualistic function. These unique copper knives were recovered in association with large quantities of animal and fish bones and at present we are trying to understand if these knives had any functional relation with butchering and preparation of the fish for drying etc. It is very rare to come across such unique knives with well-preserved handles or covers, hence throw up a challenge for archaeologists to conserve them as it is. No evidence of copper smelting has been found from the site. However, recovery of a few heavily sand tampered clay crucibles with copper adhering in them, perhaps point to the fact that they were used in melting the copper. Many of these copper objects were perhaps made at the site using sand molds that would leave very little or no traces for the archaeologist."

    Seals and sealings, Gola Dhoro (Bagasra)"One of the steatite seals discovered this season has decorative linear patterns incised on three sides and a deep, scooped out rectangular socket-like cavity on the fourth side and originally it perhaps had a sliding lid to cover the socket. These are in addition to the usual engraved inscription and the unicorn figure on the seal and therefore it appears to be a unique one, since such seals with socket have not been reported from any other Harappan site so far.https://www.harappa.com/goladhoro/goladhorosealfind.html Kuldeep S. Bhan, P. Ajithprasad, H. Sonawane and S. Pratap Chandran, 'Gola Dhoro (Bagasra) seals'

    Gola Dhoro seal (with a socket to hold a plate). gaNda 'four' rebus: khaNDa 'implements' aya khambhaṛā 'fish-fin' rebus: aya, iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage' aDaren 'lid' rebus: aduru 'unsmelted metal' bhaTa 'warrior' rebus: bhaTa 'furnace' dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal' PLUS kamaDha 'bow and arrow' rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage' kanac 'corner' rebus:kancu 'bronze'. kondh 'young bull'. kũdār 'turner, brass-worker'. sangaDa 'lathe, brazier' rebus: sangAta 'collection' (of metalwork) koTiya'rings on neck' rebus: kotiya'cargo sailing vessel'. 

    At Shikarpur were found, in addition to an inscribed square terracotta tablet, two terracotta sealings with possible textile (?) marks or impressions of threat and knot, on the obverse. Thumb-nail impressions, like crescent marks are found all around one seealing which also shows a one-horned young bull joined with the heads of a bull and an antelope looking backwards (See d in Figure). A second sealing has impressions from three different inscribed seals.

    The legible glyphs on seal (a) in the Figure are:

    A warrior glyph.
    Three linear strokes, followed by a horn glyph

    Read rebus:  

    bhaṭa 'warrior'. Rebus: bhaṭa ‘furnace
    kolom ’three. Rebus: kolami ’smithy, forge’.
    kõ ‘horn’ Rebus: khoṭa ʻingot forged, alloyʼ Vikalpa: ko 'horn' Rebus: ko 'workshop'.

    The thumb-nail U shaped impressions on the Shikarpur sealings may denote:

    U Glyph: bahu m. ‘large pot in which grain is parched.


    Rebus: baṭi, bhaṭi ‘furnace’ (H.) Rebus: baṭa = a kind of iron (G.) bhaṭa ‘furnace’ (G.) baṭa = kiln (Santali). bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace (Santali) baṭhi furnace for smelting ore (the same as kuṭhi) (Santali) bhaṭa = an oven, kiln, furnace; make an oven, a furnace; iṭa bhaṭa = a brick kiln; kun:kal bhaṭa a potter’s kiln; cun bhaṭa = a lime kiln; cun tehen dobon bhaṭaea = we shall prepare the lime kiln today (Santali); bhaṭa ‘furnace’ (G.) baṭa = kiln (Santali); bhaṭṭha -- m.n. ʻ gridiron (Pkt.)  baṭhu large cooking fire’ baṭhī f. ‘distilling furnace’; L. bhaṭṭh m. ‘grain—parcher's oven’, bhaṭṭhī f. ‘kiln, distillery’, awāṇ. bhaṭh; P. bhaṭṭh m., ṭhī f. ‘furnace’, bhaṭṭhā m. ‘kiln’; S. bhaṭṭhī keṇī ‘distil (spirits)’.  (CDIAL 9656)

    Shikarpur 2009. Terracotta inscribed square tablet and terracott sealings with inscribed seal impressions.

    Shikarpur 2009: Copper implements.


    Khirsara. During 1976-77 exploration, an Archaeological Survey of India official discovered a big cubical weight, chunks of pottery, sprinklers and spouts of red polished ware from the site. In December 2009, a team from the Vadodara division of the Archaeological Survey of India started excavation at this site after the discovery of a 300 m² fortification wall. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khirasara

    A bar seal with writing in Harappan script. Only one other bar seal figures in the total of 11 seals found so far in Khirsara. The entire metalware catalog of the inscription on the tablet reads:
    meḍ 'iron'+ tagaram'tin'+ dul aduru 'cast native metal'.+ ayah, ayas 'metal' + aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace+ dhātu 'mineral'+ kolimi kanka 'smithy/forge account (scribe)'. 
    Thus, the smithy forge account is for iron, tin, cast native metal, unsmelted native metal, metal (alloy), mineral.

    A bar seal with writing in Harappan script. Only one other bar seal figures in the total of 11 seals found so far in Khirsara.

    Rebus readings of Indus writing (from r.): मेंढरी [ mēṇḍharī ] f A piece in architecture. मेंधला [mēndhalā] m In architecture. A common term for the two upper arms of a double चौकठ (door-frame) connecting the two. Called also मेंढरी & घोडा. It answers to छिली the name of the two lower arms or connections. (Marathi) meḍhi ‘pillar’. Rebus: meḍ 'iron'.

    tagaraka 'tabernae montana' Rebus: tagaram'tin' (Malayalam)

    sangaḍa ‘bangles’ (Pali). Rebus: sangaḍa ‘lathe, furnace’. saghaḍī = furnace (G.) Rebus: jaṅgaḍ ‘entrustment articles’ sangaḍa ‘association, guild’. dula 'pair' Rebus: dul ‘casting’.

    Ku. koṭho ʻlarge square houseʼ Rebus: Md. kořāru ʻstorehouseʼ

    aḍar ‘harrow’ Rebus: aduru = gaiyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Kannada) dula 'pair' Rebus: dul ‘casting’. Thus the composite glyph reds dul aduru 'cast native metal'.

    ayo ‘fish’ (Mu.) Rebus: aya = iron (G.); ayah, ayas = metal (Skt.)

    aḍar ‘harrow’ Rebus: aduru = gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Kannada)

    ḍato = claws of crab (Santali); dhātu = mineral (Skt.), dhatu id. (Santali) 

    kanka 'rim-of-jar' Rebus: furnace account (scribe); khanaka 'miner' (Skt.). kolom 'three' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge' (Telugu) The ligature of three strokes with rim-of-jar hieroglyph thus reads: kolimi kanka 'smithy/forge account (scribe)'.

    Khirsara. Beads.
    Khirasra. Disc-shaped gold beads found in a pot.
    Khirasra. A copper fish-hook found in a trench.






    Dholavira. A chessboard (on the stone slab at right) and an architectural member that resembles a Sivalinga.
    Dholavira. A grinding stone at the site museum.





    Rebus readings of Meluhha Indus writing on the exquisite socketed seal of Bagasra (Gola Dhoro) 

    This seal (GD1) was discovered in the gateway of the city wall at Gola Dhoro (Bagasra). 

    The socket might have held a lid to enclose a tablet containing some other message(s) to complete the metalware catalog created by the inscriptions on three sides of the uniquely fashioned seal.

    Pictorial motif of a one-horned young bull in front of standard device is common to all the five seals of Gola Dhoro (Bagasra) and a sealing of Gola Dhoro:  kod.iyum 'young bull' (Gujarati); Rebus: kot.e 'forge'; kod. 'workshop'. sangad.a 'lathe, furnace'. Rebus: jangad 'entrustment note' (Gujarati) 

    ^ glyph as a pictorial (lid) Lexemes: aaren, aren lid, cover (Santali) Rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.)

    The word for a 'set of four' is: gaṇḍa (Santali); bar gaṇḍa poesa = two annas; pon gaṇḍa aphor menaka, there are 16 bunches of rice seedlings; gaṇḍa guṇḍa to be broken into pieces or fragments; fragments; gaṇḍa gui to dive, to make up an account; the system of 'gaṇḍa gui' is to put down a pebble, or any other small object, as the name of each person entitled to share is mentioned. Then a share is placed alongside of each pebble, or whatever else laid down. (Santali.lex.) Thus, the complex glyph is read: aduru ayo kaṇḍ 'native metal furnace'.

    bhaṭa ‘warrior’; bhaṭa ‘six’ (G.) Rebus: baa = kiln (Santali); baṭa = a kind of iron (G.) kamakom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaā (Has.), kamakom (Nag.); the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.) Glyph: gan.d.a ‘male person, hero’
    kāmahum = a bow; kāmaḍī, kāmaḍum = a chip of bamboo (G.) Rebus: kampaam coinage, coin (Ta.); kammaṭṭam, kammiṭṭam coinage, mint (Ma.); kammatia coiner (Ka.)(DEDR 1236) kammaṭa = coinage, mint (Ka.M.) kampaṭṭa-k-kūṭam mint; kampaṭṭa-k-kāran- coiner; kampaṭṭa- muḷai die, coining stamp (Ta.lex.)


    Explaining the pair of bows:


    Glyph: dol ‘likeness, picture, form’ [e.g., two tigers, two bulls, sign-pair.]

    Kashmiri. dula दुल  युग्मम् m. a pair, a couple, esp. of two similar things (Rām. 966).


    ḍol ‘the shaft of an arrow, an arrow’ (Santali)


    Rebus: dul meṛeḍ  cast iron (Mundari. Santali) dul ‘to cast metal in a mould’ (Santali)
    pasra meṛed, pasāra meṛed = syn. of koṭe meṛed = forged iron, in contrast to dul meṛed, cast iron (Mundari.lex.) 

    Forge -- Metal Turner Workshop

    sal “stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty” (H.);

    Rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali); s’a_la id. (Skt.)


    Turner

    kundau, kundhi corner (Santali) kuṇḍa corner (S.)khoṇḍ square (Santali)  *khuṇṭa2 ʻ corner ʼ. 2. *kuṇṭa -- 2. [Cf. *khōñca -- ] 1. Phal. khun ʻ corner ʼ; H. khū̃ṭ m. ʻ corner, direction ʼ (→ P. khũṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ); G. khū̃ṭṛī f. ʻ angle ʼ. <-> X kōṇa -- : G. khuṇ f., khū˘ṇɔ m. ʻ corner ʼ. 2. S. kuṇḍa f. ʻ corner ʼ; P. kū̃ṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ (← H.).(CDIAL 3898).

    Rebus: kunda1 m. ʻ a turner's lathe ʼ lex. [Cf. *cunda -- 1N. kũdnu ʻ to shape smoothly, smoothe, carve, hew ʼ, kũduwā ʻ smoothly shaped ʼ; A. kund ʻ lathe ʼ, kundiba ʻ to turn and smooth in a lathe ʼ, kundowā ʻ smoothed and rounded ʼ; B. kũd ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdākõdā ʻ to turn in a lathe ʼ; Or. kū˘nda ʻ lathe ʼ, kũdibākū̃d° ʻ to turn ʼ (→ Drav. Kur. kū̃d ʻ lathe ʼ); Bi.kund ʻ brassfounder's lathe ʼ; H. kunnā ʻ to shape on a lathe ʼ, kuniyā m. ʻ turner ʼ, kunwā m. (CDIAL 3295). kundakara m. ʻ turner ʼ W. [Cf. *cundakāra -- : kunda -- 1, kará -- 1A. kundār, B. kũdār°ri, Or. kundāru; H. kũderā m. ʻ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes ʼ, °rī f., kũdernā ʻ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe ʼ.(CDIAL 3297).  Ta. kuntaṉam interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (< Te.). Ka. kundaṇa setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold; kundana fine gold.Tu. kundaṇa pure gold. Te. kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold. (DEDR 1725).

    Ka. kunda a pillar of bricks, etc. Tu. kunda pillar, post. Te. kunda id. Malt. kunda block, log. ? Cf. Ta. kantu pillar, post.(DEDR 1723). கற்கந்து kaṟ-kantu n. < கல் +. Stone pillar; கற்றூண். கற்கந்தும் எய்ப்போத்தும் . . . அனை யார் (இறை. 2, உரை, 27).


    kolom 'sprout' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. kolmo 'three' Rebus: kolami 'smithy, forge'. An alternative reading could be: tagaraka 'tabernae montana' Rebus: tagaram 'tin'. Thus, the inscription may read: tagaram kolami 'tin smithy/forge'.
    Gola Dhoro (Bagasra) GD5 seal. Rebus readings of inscription:



    ^ glyph as a pictorial (lid) Lexemes: aaren, aren lid, cover (Santali) Rebus: aduru ‘native metal’ (Ka.)


    The word for a 'set of four' is: gan.d.a (Santali); bar gan.d.a poesa = two annas; pon gan.d.a aphor menaka, there are 16 bunches of rice seedlings; gan.d.a gun.d.a to be broken into pieces or fragments; fragments; gan.d.a gut.i to dive, to make up an account; the system of 'gan.d.a gut.i' is to put down a pebble, or any other small object, as the name of each person entitled to share is mentioned. Then a share is placed alongside of each pebble, or whatever else laid down. (Santali.lex.) 

    Thus, the complex glyph is read: aduru ayo kaṇḍ 'native metal furnace'.


    ayo, hako 'fish'; a~s = scales of fish (Santali); rebus: aya = iron (G.); ayahayas = metal (Skt.)


    Kashmiri. dula दुल । युग्मम् m. a pair, a couple, esp. of two similar things (Rām. 966). Rebus: dul meṛeḍ  cast iron (Mundari. Santali) dul ‘to cast metal in a mould’ (Santali) 


    kundau, kundhi corner (Santali) kun.d.a corner (S.); ku~_t. corner, side (P.)(CDIAL 3898).



    khon.d. square (Santali)Rebus: kund lathe (A.); kundiba to turn and smooth in a lathe (A.); ku~d lathe (B.); ku~da_, ko~da_ to turn in a lathe (B.); ku~_nda lathe (Or.); ku~diba_, ku~_diba_ to turn (Or. > ku~_d lathe (Kur.); kund brassfounder's lathe (Bi.); kunna_ to shape on a lathe (H.); kuniya_ turner (H.); kunwa_ turner (H.)(CDIAL 3295).




    1. Pk. kaṁkaya -- m. ʻ comb ʼ, kaṁkaya -- , °kaï -- m. ʻ name of a tree ʼ; Gy. eur. kangli f.; Wg. kuṇi -- přũ ʻ man's comb ʼ (for kuṇi -- cf. kuṇälík beside kuṅälík s.v. kr̥muka -- ; -- přũ see prapavaṇa -- ); Bshk. kēṅg ʻ comb ʼ, Gaw. khēṅgīˊ, Sv. khḗṅgiā, Phal. khyḗṅgia,  kēṅgī f., kāṅga ʻ combing ʼ in ṣiṣ k° dūm ʻ I comb my hair ʼ; Tor. kyäṅg ʻ comb ʼ (Dard. forms, esp. Gaw., Sv., Phal. but not Sh., prob. ← L. P. type < *kaṅgahiā -- , see 3 below); Sh. kōṅyi̯ f. (→ Ḍ. k*lṅi f.), gil. (Lor.) kōĩ f. ʻ man's comb ʼ, kōũ m. ʻ woman's comb ʼ, pales. kōgōm. ʻ comb ʼ; K. kanguwu m. ʻ man's comb ʼ, kangañ f. ʻ woman's ʼ; WPah. bhad. kãˊkei ʻ a comb -- like fern ʼ, bhal. kãkei f. ʻ comb, plant with comb -- like leaves ʼ; N. kāṅiyo, kāĩyo ʻ comb ʼ, A. kã̄kai, . kã̄kui; Or. kaṅkāi,  kaṅkuā ʻ comb ʼ, kakuā ʻ ladder -- like bier for carrying corpse to the burning -- ghat ʼ; Bi. kakwā ʻ comb ʼ, kakahā, °hī, Mth. kakwā, Aw. lakh. kakawā, Bhoj. kakahī f.; H. kakaiyā ʻ shaped like a comb (of a brick) ʼ; G. (non -- Aryan tribes of Dharampur) kākhāī f. ʻ comb ʼ; M. kaṅkvā m. ʻ comb ʼ, kã̄kaī f. ʻ a partic. shell fish and its shell ʼ; -- S. kaṅgu m. ʻ a partic. kind of small fish ʼ < *kaṅkuta -- ? -- Ext. with -- l -- in Ku. kã̄gilo, kāĩlo ʻ comb ʼ.2. G. (Soraṭh) kã̄gaṛ m. ʻ a weaver's instrument ʼ?3. L. kaṅghī f. ʻ comb, a fish of the perch family ʼ, awāṇ. kaghī ʻ comb ʼ; P. kaṅghā m. ʻ large comb ʼ, °ghī f. ʻ small comb for men, large one for women ʼ (→ H.kaṅghā m. ʻ man's comb ʼ, °gahī, °ghī f. ʻ woman's ʼ, kaṅghuā m. ʻ rake or harrow ʼ; Bi. kãgahī ʻ comb ʼ, Or. kaṅgei, M. kaṅgvā); -- G. kã̄gsī f. ʻ comb ʼ, with metath. kã̄sko m., °kī f.; WPah. khaś. kāgśī, śeu. kāśkī ʻ a comblike fern ʼ or < *kaṅkataśikha -- .*kaṅkatakara -- , *kaṅkataśikha -- .Addenda: káṅkata -- : WPah.kṭg. kaṅgi f. ʻ comb ʼ; J. kāṅgṛu m. ʻ small comb .kaṅkatakara CDIAL 2599 *kaṅkatakara ʻ comb -- maker ʼ. [káṅkata -- , kará -- 1]H. kãgherā m. ʻ caste of comb -- makers ʼ, °rī f. ʻ a woman of this caste ʼ.


    kāmsako, kāmsiyo = a large sized comb (G.) Rebus: kasa= bronze (Te.) kã̄sāri  ʻpewterer’ (Bengali)  kãsārī; H. kasārī  m. ʻ maker of brass pots’ (Or.) Rebus: kaṁsá1 m. ʻ metal cup ʼ AV., m.n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Pat. as in S., but would in Pa. Pk. and most NIA. lggs. collide with kāˊṁsya -- to which L. P. testify and under which the remaining forms for the metal are listed. 2. *kaṁsikā -- .1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. ʻ bronze dish ʼ; S. kañjho m. ʻ bellmetal ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ gong ʼ; Or. kãsā ʻ big pot of bell -- metal ʼ; OMarw. kāso(= kã̄ -- ?) m. ʻ bell -- metal tray for food, food ʼ; G. kã̄sā m. pl. ʻ cymbals ʼ; -- perh. Woṭ. kasṓṭ m. ʻ metal pot ʼ Buddruss Woṭ 109. 2. Pk. kaṁsiā -- f. ʻ a kind of musical instrument ʼ; A. kã̄hi ʻ bell -- metal dish ʼ; G. kã̄śī f. ʻ bell -- metal cymbal ʼ,kã̄śiyɔ m. ʻopen bellmetal panʼ kāˊṁsya -- ; -- *kaṁsāvatī -- ? Addenda: kaṁsá -- 1: A. kã̄h also ʻ gong ʼ or < kāˊṁsya – (CDIAL 2576). kāṁsya ʻ made of bell -- metal ʼ KātyŚr., n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ Yājñ., ʻ cup of bell -- metal ʼ MBh., aka -- n. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ. 2. *kāṁsiya -- .[kaṁsá -- 1] 1. Pa. kaṁsa -- m. (?) ʻ bronze ʼ, Pk. kaṁsa -- , kāsa -- n. ʻ bell -- metal, drinking vessel, cymbal ʼ; L. (Jukes) kã̄jā adj. ʻ of metal ʼ, awāṇ. kāsā ʻ jar ʼ (← E with -- s-- , not ñj); N. kã̄so ʻ bronze, pewter, white metal ʼ, kas -- kuṭ ʻ metal alloy ʼ; A. kã̄h ʻ bell -- metal ʼ, B. kã̄sā, Or. kãsā, Bi. kã̄sā; Bhoj. kã̄s ʻ bell -- metal ʼ,kã̄sā ʻ base metal ʼ; H. kās, kã̄sā m. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ, G. kã̄sũ n., M. kã̄sẽ n.; Ko. kã̄śẽ n. ʻ bronze ʼ; Si. kasa ʻ bell -- metal ʼ. 2. L. kã̄ihã̄ m. ʻ bell -- metal ʼ, P. kã̄ssī, kã̄sī f., H.kã̄sī f.*kāṁsyakara -- , kāṁsyakāra -- , *kāṁsyakuṇḍikā -- , kāṁsyatāla -- , *kāṁsyabhāṇḍa -- .Addenda: kāṁsya -- : A. kã̄halso ʻ gong ʼ, or < kaṁsá -- . (CDIAL 2987).*kāṁsyakara ʻ worker in bell -- metal ʼ. [See next: kāṁsya -- , kará -- 1] L. awāṇ.kasērā ʻ metal worker ʼ, P. kaserā m. ʻ worker in pewter ʼ (both ← E with -- s -- ); N. kasero ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; Bi. H. kaserām. ʻ worker in pewter ʼ. (CDIAL 2988). kāṁsyakāra m. ʻ worker in bell -- metal or brass ʼ Yājñ. com., kaṁsakāra -- m. BrahmavP. [kāˊṁsya -- , kāra -- 1] N. kasār ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; A. kãhār ʻ worker in bell -- metal ʼ; B. kã̄sāri ʻ pewterer, brazier, coppersmith ʼ, Or. kãsārī; H. kasārī m. ʻ maker of brass pots ʼ; G.kãsārɔ, kas m. ʻ coppersmith ʼ; M. kã̄sār, kās m. ʻ worker in white metal ʼ, kāsārḍā m. ʻ contemptuous term for the same ʼ. (CDIAL 2989).




    Surkotada 4  9094 Surkotada 7.Inscribed on pottery.
    Text 9091 Surkotda 1. Seal

    Text 9091 reads:
    era, er-a = eraka = ?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.) [Note Sign 391 and its ligatures Signs 392 and 393 may connote a spoked-wheel, nave of the wheel through which the axle passes; cf. ara_, spoke] eraka, era, er-a = syn. erka, copper, weapons. Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) 

    Glyph: ‘archer’: kamāṭhiyo = archer; kāmaṭhum = a bow; kāmaḍ, kāmaḍum = a chip of bamboo (G.) kāmaṭhiyo a bowman; an archer (Skt.lex.)   Rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.); kampaṭṭam coinage, coin, mint (Ta.) kammaṭa = mint, gold furnace (Te.) 


    kolmo ‘paddy plant’ (Santali); Rebus: kolimi ‘smithy, forge’ (Te.) kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolma hoṛo = a variety of the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) + 'splinter' glyph: sal 'splinter' Rebus: sal 'workshop'. Thus, the pair of glyphs read: kolimi sal 'smithy/forge workshop'.

    gaṇḍa ‘four’ (Santali); rebus: kaṇḍ fire-altar, furnace’ (Santali) + 

    kolmo ‘paddy plant’ (Santali); Rebus: kolimi ‘smithy, forge’ (Te.). Together, the pair of glyphs read: kaṇḍ kolimi smithy/forge (with) fire-altar.

    The entire inscription Text 9091 on Surkotada1 Seal thus reads: eraka 'copper molten cast' + kammaṭa 'mint' + kolimi sal 'smithy/forge workshop' + kaṇḍ kolimi smithy/forge (with) fire-altar.

    Surkotada 2,3,6 Indus Writing Meluhha inscriptions

    Glhyph 391 Glyph: nave of wheel; Rebus: Molten cast copper
    era, er-a = eraka = ?nave; erako_lu = the iron axle of a carriage (Ka.M.); cf. irasu (Ka.lex.) [Note Sign 391 and its ligatures Signs 392 and 393 may connote a spoked-wheel, nave of the wheel through which the axle passes; cf. ara_, spoke] eraka, era, er-a = syn. erka, copper, weapons. Rebus: er-r-a = red; eraka = copper (Ka.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) agasa_le, agasa_li, agasa_lava_d.u = a goldsmith (Te.lex.) erka = ekke (Tbh. of arka) aka (Tbh. of arka) copper (metal); crystal (Ka.lex.) cf. eruvai = copper (Ta.lex.) eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) 


     Glyph composition: rim of jar + notch, jag खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. kaṇḍa kanka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali)kaṇḍa ‘furnace, fire-altar’ (Santali);

     khanaka ‘miner’ karNaka ‘scribe’ (Skt.) Thus the composite glyph reads: kanka khāṇḍā 'scribe metal tool, pots and pans, metalware'.


    Glyph: rhombus. khoṇḍ square (SantaliRebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali)

    Turner

    kundau, kundhi corner (Santali) kuṇḍa corner (S.)khoṇḍ square (Santali)  *khuṇṭa2 ʻ corner ʼ. 2. *kuṇṭa -- 2. [Cf. *khōñca -- ] 1. Phal. khun ʻ corner ʼ; H. khū̃ṭ m. ʻ corner, direction ʼ (→ P. khũṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ); G. khū̃ṭṛī f. ʻ angle ʼ. <-> X kōṇa -- : G. khuṇ f., khū˘ṇɔ m. ʻ corner ʼ. 2. S. kuṇḍa f. ʻ corner ʼ; P. kū̃ṭ f. ʻ corner, side ʼ (← H.).(CDIAL 3898).

    Text 9092 on Surkotada2 Seal. Glyphs read rebus:

    ḍato = claws of crab (Santali) ḍato ‘claws or pincers (chelae) of crabs’; ḍaṭom, ḍiṭom to seize with the claws or pincers, as crabs, scorpions; ḍaṭkop = to pinch, nip (only of crabs) (Santali) Rebus: dhātu = mineral (Skt.)


    ḍhālako = a large metal ingot (G.) ḍhālakī = a metal heated and poured into a mould; a solid piece of metal; an ingot (G.) dula 'pair' Rebus: dul 'cast (metal)' Thus the composite glyph of claws of crab + pair of ingots read: dul ḍhālako 'cast mineral ingot'.


    Glyph composition: rim of jar + notch, jag खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). (Marathi) Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’.




    khaḍā ‘circumscribe’ (M.); Rebs: khaḍā ‘nodule (ore), stone’ (M.) kolmo ‘paddy plant’ (Santali); Rebus:kolimi ‘smithy, forge’ (Te.) kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolma hoṛo = a variety of the paddy plant (Desi)(Santali.) Thus the glyph comosition reads: khaḍā kolimi 'ore (mineral) smithy/forge'.






    Metal blade/ploughshare smithy/forge

    kolmo 'paddy plant' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'. 


    Pa. phāla -- m. (?) ʻ board, slab ʼ, phālaka -- ʻ splitting ʼ; Gy. eur. phal ʻ board ʼ, wel. phal f. ʻ pailing, rail, stake ʼ; K. phal f. ʻ strip of wood ʼ (or < phala --3?); S. phāra f. ʻ slice ʼ; P. phāl f. ʻ wedge ʼ; Ku. phālo ʻ piece of wood or metal, iron bar ʼ; N. phāli ʻ thin strip of metal ʼ; A. phāli ʻ strip ʼ; B. phālā ʻ chip ʼ, °li ʻ strip ʼ; Or. phāḷiā ʻ chip ʼ; Bi. phārī ʻ half a hide ʼ; H. phāl m. ʻ lump of areca -- nut ʼ, (poet.) phār m. ʻ piece ʼ; G. phāḷɔ m. ʻ share ʼ; M. phāḷ ʻ slip of wood ʼ.(CDIAL 9073).


    Rebus: phāˊla ʻ ploughshare ʼ RV., ʻ mattock ʼ R. Pa. Pk. K. phāl m. ʻ ploughshare, metal blade of mattock &c. ʼ S.phāru m. ʻ ploughshare, steel edge of a tool ʼ; L. phālā m. ʻ ploughshare ʼKu. phālo, gng. phāw, N. phāli, A. B. phāl, Or. phāḷa, (Bastar) phāra, Bi. phār, Mth. phār°rāphālā, Bhoj. phār, H. phāl°lā m., °lī f.,phār°rā m., M. phāḷ m.(CDIAL 9072). *lōhaphāla -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , phāˊla -- 1WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl m. ʻ an agricultural implement ʼ Him.I 197(CDIAL 11160).


    Thus the pair of glyphs read: phāl kolimi 'metal blade/ploughshare smithy/forge'.


    kaṇḍa kanka ‘rim of jar’ (Santali) kaṇḍa ‘furnace, fire-altar’ (Santali); khanaka ‘miner’ karNaka ‘scribe’ (Skt.) 





    TThe entire text 9092 inscription on Surkotada2 seal reads: dhātu 'mineral' + dul ḍhālako 'cast mineral ingot'+  kanka khāṇḍā  scribe -- ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’+ khaḍā kolimi 'ore (mineral) smithy/forge'+ phāl kolimi 'metal blade/ploughshare smithy/forge'+ kaṇḍa kanka ‘furnace, fire-altar’ ; khanaka ‘miner’ karNaka ‘scribe’.

    gaNDa 'four' Rebus: khaNDa 'metal implements' aya 'fish' Rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' aDaren 'lid' Rebus: aduru 'native metal'

    kōḍu horn (Kannada. Tulu. Tamil) खोंड [khōṇḍa] m A young bull, a bullcalf. (Marathi) Rebus: कोंड [kōṇḍa] A circular hamlet; a division of a मौजा or village, composed generally of the huts of one caste. खोट [khōṭa] Alloyed--a metal (Marathi).

    Hieroglyphsãgaḍ, 'lathe' (Meluhha) Rebus 1: sãgaṛh , 'fortification' (Meluhha). Rebus 2:sanghAta 'adamantine glue'. Rebus 3: 

     sangāṭh संगाठ् 'assembly, collection'. Rebus 4: sãgaḍa 'double-canoe, catamaran'.

    Hieroglyph: one-horned young bull: खोंड (p. 216) [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi)

    Hieroglyph: one-horned young bull: खोंड (p. 216) [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. 

    Rebus: कोंद kōnda ‘engraver, lapidary setting or infixing gems’ (Marathi)  खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f Sculpture, carving, engraving. 

    ko_d.iya, ko_d.e = young bull; ko_d.elu = plump young bull; ko_d.e = a. male as in: ko_d.e du_d.a = bull calf; young, youthful (Te.lex.)


    Hieroglyph:  ko_t.u = horns (Ta.) ko_r (obl. ko_t-, pl. ko_hk) horn of cattle or wild animals (Go.); ko_r (pl. ko_hk), ko_r.u (pl. ko_hku) horn (Go.); kogoo a horn (Go.); ko_ju (pl. ko_ska) horn, antler (Kui)(DEDR 2200). Homonyms: kohk (Go.), gopka_ = branches (Kui), kob = branch (Ko.) gorka, gohka spear (Go.) gorka (Go)(DEDR 2126).




    खोंड (p. 216) [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. 2 

    kot.iyum = a wooden circle put round the neck of an animal; kot. = neck (G.lex.) [cf. the orthography of rings on the neck of one-horned young bull].खोंड (p. 216) [ khōṇḍa ]A variety of जोंधळा.खोंडरूं (p. 216) [ khōṇḍarūṃ ] n A contemptuous form of खोंडा in the sense of कांबळा-cowl.खोंडा (p. 216) [ khōṇḍā ] m A कांबळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood. 2 fig. A hollow amidst hills; a deep or a dark and retiring spot; a dell. 3 (also खोंडी & खोंडें) A variety of जोंधळा.खोंडी (p. 216) [ khōṇḍī ] f An outspread shovelform sack (as formed temporarily out of a कांबळा, to hold or fend off grain, chaff &c.) 

     

    Rebus signifier of the rings on neck: A ghanjah or ganja (Arabic: غنجه ), also known as kotiya in India, is a large wooden trading dhow, a traditional Arabic sailing vessel. Thus, the rebus reading could be: kotiya 'a ghanjah dhow seafaring vessel'.

    "The western-Indian-Ocean ship-types known as baghlas, ghanjas and kotias, and previously thought to have been differentiated only by detail of decoration, are shown to have significant morphological and structural differences. Some of those differences are attributed to the different technologies or traditions of shipbuilding found in Arabia, Persia and India...Baghlas and ghanjas were Arabian vessels while kotias were Indian vessels, principally from the Gulf of Kutch, Gujerat…”

    Volume 36Issue 1pages 91–111March 2007
    Fishing vessel. Jangada.
    Outrigger, Oru.

    Kotiya dhow of Oman


    kod. = place where artisans work (G.lex.) kod. = a cow-pen; a cattlepen; a byre (G.lex.) gor.a = a cow-shed; a cattleshed; gor.a orak = byre (Santali.lex.) कोंड (p. 180) [ kōṇḍa ] A circular hedge or field-fence. 2 A circle described around a person under adjuration. 3 The circle at marbles. 4 A circular hamlet; a division of a मौजा or village, composed generally of the huts of one caste.कोंडडाव (p. 180) [ kōṇḍaḍāva ] m Ring taw; that form of marble-playing in which lines are drawn and divisions made:--as disting. from अगळडाव The play with holes.कोंडवाड (p. 180) [ kōṇḍavāḍa ] n f C (कोंडणें & वाडा) A pen or fold for cattle.कोंडाळें (p. 180) [ kōṇḍāḷēṃ ] n (कुंडली S) A ring or circularly inclosed space. 2 fig. A circle made by persons sitting round. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/06/banawali-28-bhirrana-4-farmana-1-kanmer.html 


    S. Kalyanaraman 

    Sarasvati Research enter

    July 4, 2016


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    Kingfisher Airlines’ account books go missing amid fraud probe

    Kingfisher Airlines tells Serious Fraud Investigation Office that an IT services vendor took away computers and servers with the accounts information

    The missing data has resulted in a major roadblock in the investigations into Vijay Mallya-promoted Kingfisher Airlines, which collapsed in 2012. Photo: HT
    Mumbai: The investigation into an alleged fraud at the now defunct Kingfisher Airlines Ltd has run into an unlikely hurdle: the airline’s books of accounts have vanished.
    Executives of the grounded airline have informed officials of the Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) that a vendor had carted away the computers and servers that stored the financial accounts of the airline for non-payment of dues.
    The airline claims that it has no backup of the files, two SFIO officials said, requesting anonymity.
    The missing data has resulted in a major roadblock in the investigations into Vijay Mallya-promoted Kingfisher Airlines, which collapsed in 2012.
    Mallya, who left the country as creditors approached the courts to recover over `9,000 crore owed by the airline, has declined to return to India claiming that he fears an unfair trial.
    Demanding his return are at least five law enforcement and judicial bodies in India—the Supreme Court, the Enforcement Directorate (ED), the service tax department, SFIO and the income-tax department.
    Mallya, 60, who presided over a liquor empire until a few years ago and was ranked the 45th richest Indian by Forbes in March 2012 with a net worth of $1 billion, was summoned by the ED in April.
    SFIO, which works under the ministry of corporate affairs, is seeking details from former employees of the airline, lenders and audit firms about loans taken out by Kingfisher Airlines and the collateral for these.
    “It was rather strange when the top management representatives of Kingfisher Airlines informed us that the airline has lost its books and accounts as vendors pulled out the system which had the accounts. The airline executives claimed that they never had a backup,” said one of the SFIO officials cited above.
    The second official said the investigation has been delayed owing to the disappearance of the books of accounts. “However, we are seeking details from lenders and all financial institutions involved with Kingfisher Airlines. We are going ahead with questioning the top officials,” he added.
    A UB Group spokesperson declined to comment on the development or identify the IT vendor.
    Shriram Subramanian, founder and managing director at proxy advisory firm InGovern Research Services Pvt. Ltd, said investigative agencies have the power to hold the company and its officers accountable for any missing data.
    “The company can claim anything they want. Our investigative agencies are very lax, and don’t display any sense of urgency in ring-fencing systems and data related to any case,” Subramanian said.
    According to the Companies Act, a company is required to maintain books of accounts for a period of at least eight years. However, accountants advice that the books of accounts should be retained for more than eight years as the accounts can be opened even after that period for assessment by tax authorities.
    If the company’s claims are true then it would be in violation of the Companies Act as the airline was grounded in 2012 and accounts have not been maintained for the mandatory eight-year period. SFIO has written to Mallya’s counsel requesting his personal presence to settle the issues and has sought the view of the ministry of corporate affairs on the matter.
    “It is absolutely rubbish—a company of the size of Kingfisher Airlines which was operating an airline, no less, cannot claim that they do not have a backup of books of accounts. If this is what the company is claiming then the situation is far murkier than what meets the eye and was initially thought,” said Amarjit Chopra, a former president of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.
    Mallya in a 12 June statement said that Kingfisher Airlines had provided full details supported by copies of bank statements and Swift (a global payments network) copies showing that the funds were utilized for legitimate business purposes, in a reply to an allegation that the business tycoon had siphoned off funds.
    Mallya had also said that if the ED wishes to expand its scope to include all banks, “Kingfisher Airlines will be only too happy to provide full details and cooperate in the investigation”.


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    4 July 2016

    Archaeologists discover Indo-Greek city in Swat, Pakistan 

    Arch_Project_Barikot_Ghundai
    Archaeologists in their fresh excavations at Bazira, Barikot, Pakistan discovered large layers of the Indo-Greek civilisation. The excavated city revealed weapons and coins as well as important pottery forms that used to be imported from Greek Bactria and from the Mediterranean area in second century BC. The archaeological team consisting of Italian and Pakistani archaeologists included Elisa Iori of Bologna University, Cristiano Moscatelli of Naples University and Amanullah Afridi and Syed Niaz Ali Shah of the KP Directorate of Archaeology and Museums.
    Dr Luca Maria Olivieri, head of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Pakistan, revealed that the team unearthed some very important discoveries in Bazira, Swat during their recent excavation in April-June. Excavation trainings at Barikot are funded by the Pakistan-Italian Debt Swap Programme. “Very little is known in the archaeology of the sub-continent about the material culture of the Indo-Greek. However, this time we discovered at Barikot ample layers associated not only to the Indo-Greek city (when the settlement was encompassed by the Defensive Wall, 2nd BC), but also to the pre-Greek city, the Mauryan settlement (3rd BC),” Olivieri said. Extensive evidence of the proto-historic village (Gandhara Grave Culture; 7th-8th century BC) were also found outside the Indo-Greek defensive wall.
    The recent excavations unearthed a large Temple with four pillars on the northern part of the excavated area belonging to late-Kushana era (3rd century AD). “This is the third coeval public cultic space found in the late city, and it is confirming the existence of Buddhist architecture, not connected to the mainstream stupa-cum-viharas layout of the contemporary Buddhist complexes. On the contrary, these new architecture have more in common with Central Asian coeval examples and antecedents,” Olivieri added. The pre-Greek layers were found to be artificially destroyed and obliterated along the Defensive Wall at the time of its construction, to make space to the fortification, revealing conspicuous traces of the Iron Age village (7th BC). Olivieri’s team was currently excavating one hectare with a stratigraphy from 7th BC to 3rd AD in Bazira. The area corresponded to circa 1/12 of the entire city.
    “The KP government is about to acquire all the excavated areas and a large buffer area around them. We are really grateful to the efforts of the provincial department of archaeology and the government,” he said. The archaeological site of Barikot is currently one of the largest and most important sites that is set to become one of the largest and long-lasting excavation projects in Pakistan 30 years down the line. It is the only Indo-Greek city excavated at that scale, and one of the few examples of a Kushan urban settlement scientifically excavated in South Asia.”Olivieri added.
    http://www.newdelhitimes.com/archaeologists-discover-indo-greek-city-in-swat-pakistan123/
    Archaeologists excavate Indo-Greek and Saka-Parthian structures at Bazira, Swat. — Dawn photo
    Archaeologists excavate Indo-Greek and Saka-Parthian structures at Bazira, Swat. — Dawn photo
    MINGORA: Archaeologists in their fresh excavations here at Bazira, Barikot, have discovered large layers of the Indo-Greek city with weapons and coins as well as important pottery forms imported from Greek Bactria and from the Mediterranean area in second century BCE.
    Dr Luca Maria Olivieri, head of the Italian Archeological Mission in Pakistan, told Dawn that during their recent excavation in April-June his team unearthed some very important discoveries in Bazira, Swat.
    The team was formed by Italian and Pakistani archaeologists, including Elisa Iori of Bologna University, Cristiano Moscatelli of Naples University and Amanullah Afridi and Syed Niaz Ali Shah of the KP Directorate of Archaeology And Museums. Excavation trainings at Barikot are funded by the Pakistan-Italian Debt Swap Programme.

    Weapons, coins and pottery also found in fresh excavations


    “Very little is known in the archaeology of the sub-continent about the material culture of the Indo-Greek. However, this time we discovered at Barikot ample layers associated not only to the Indo-Greek city (when the settlement was encompassed by the Defensive Wall, 2nd BCE), but also to the pre-Greek city, the Mauryan settlement (3rd BCE),” he said, adding that outside the Indo-Greek defensive wall extensive evidence of the proto-historic village (Gandhara Grave Culture; 7th-8th century BCE) were also found.
    He said that during the recent excavations they also discovered a large late-Kushan Temple with four pillars on the northern part of the excavated area (3rd century CE). “This is the third coeval public cultic space found in the late city, and it is confirming the existence of Buddhist architecture, which has nothing to do with the mainstream stupa-cum-viharas layout of the contemporary Buddhist complexes. Vice-versa, these new architecture have more in common with Central Asian coeval examples and antecedents,” he added.
    He said that during the excavations the archaeologists also discovered that all the pre-Greek layers were artificially destroyed and obliterated along the Defensive Wall at the time of its construction, to make space to the fortification, revealing conspicuous traces of the Iron Age village (7th BCE).
    Dr Luca said that his team was currently excavating one hectare with a stratigraphy from 7th BCE to 3rd CE in Bazira. The area corresponded to circa 1/12 of the entire city. “The KP government is about to acquire all the excavated areas and a large buffer area around them. We are really grateful to the efforts of the provincial department of archaeology and the government,” he said.
    Terming the archaeological site of Barikot one of the largest and most important sites in future, he claimed: “I foresee that in future Barikot will become one of the largest and long-lasting excavation projects in Pakistan (30 years so far) if not in the entire sub-continent. It already represents the only Indo-Greek city excavated at that scale, and one of the few examples of a Kushan urban settlement scientifically excavated in South Asia.”
    Published in Dawn, June 26th, 2016 http://www.dawn.com/news/1267322/archaeologists-discover-layers-of-indo-greek-city-in-swat/print
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

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    22 Ancient Shipwrecks Discovered in Greek Waters
    Wednesday, October 28, 2015
    Greece Fourni shipwrecks
    (V. Mentogianis)
    SOUTHAMPTON, ENGLAND—Twenty-two shipwrecks have been discovered and mapped in a 17-square-mile area near Greece’s Fourni archipelago. The islands are in the middle of high-traffic routes that connected the Aegean to the Levant, the Black Sea regions, and Egypt. “Surpassing all expectations, over only 13 days we added 12 percent to the total of known ancient shipwrecks in Greek territorial waters,” Peter Campbell of the University of Southampton and the RPM Nautical Foundation told Discovery News. The wrecks range in age from the Archaic Period (700-480 B.C) through the sixteenth century A.D. More than half of them date to the Late Roman Period (300-600 A.D.). “What is astonishing is not only the number of the shipwrecks but also the diversity of the cargoes, some of which have been found for the first time,” said underwater archaeologist George Koutsouflakis. Three of those cargoes include Archaic pots from the island of Samos, second-century A.D. amphoras from the Black Sea region, and carrot-shaped amphoras from Sinop, which is located on Turkey’s Black Sea coast. The team expects to find many more wrecks along the archipelago’s coastline next season. To read more about underwater archaeology, go to "History's 10 Greatest Wrecks."

    http://www.archaeology.org/news/3836-151028-greece-fourni-shipwrecks

    Stunned Archaeologists Find 22 Ancient Greek Shipwrecks

    Two weeks of diving uncovered centuries of sunken ships, and researchers are deciphering the clues contained in each.
    Clay jars called amphoras are all that’s left of many of the newly found shipwrecks. By studying them, archaeologists can determine what the ships were carrying, where they were from, and when they sank. 
    A spate of shipwrecks recently found near a group of Greek islands has given researchers new insights into how trade routes and sailing technology evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean. And with more exploration planned, additional discoveries are still likely.

    Over a stretch of two weeks in September, tips from local fishermen and sponge divers led a team of Greek and American archaeologists to the precise locations of 22 shipwrecks in a 17-square-mile area around the Fourni archipelago in the eastern Aegean.
    The find is remarkable both for the sheer number of wrecks in the small area and the range of time periods the vessels came from.
    The earliest wreck dates to the Archaic Period (700-480 B.C.), while the most recent is from the Late Medieval Period (16th century A.D.). Ships from the Classical Period (480-323 B.C.) and the Hellenistic Period (323-31 B.C.) were also found, though a majority—12 of the 22—sailed and sank at some point during the Late Roman Period (300-600 A.D.)
    “It’s an extremely rich area,” says Greek director George Koutsouflakis, an archaeologist with the Hellenic Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities.
    Finding 22 shipwrecks in only two weeks is incredibly rare, but more discoveries in the area are likely—the team has surveyed only 5 percent of Fourni’s coasts, and local fishermen have given them many more tips.
    All the ships were merchant vessels traversing a route that connected Anatolia, Samos, and the Black Sea region to Rhodes, Cyprus, and even Egypt. Wooden ships generally decompose underwater or get eaten by seaworms. But their cargo—ancient clay storage jars called amphorae—survive. Each ship was carrying several hundred amphorae. By assessing the size and shape of the jars, archaeologists can infer where and when they were made.
    Residue or DNA analysis will confirm what they contained, but the primary goods are not in doubt.
    “We know from comparable shipwrecks and terrestrial sites that the three major goods would have been olive oil, wine, and fish sauce,” says Jeffrey Royal, a co-director from the Florida-based RPM Nautical Foundation.








    An archaeologist photographs a shipwreck pile composed of Late Roman amphoras in order to create a 3D site plan. The discovery added 12 percent to the total of known ancient shipwrecks in Greek territorial waters in just 10 diving days.

    An archaeologist photographs a shipwreck pile composed of Late Roman amphoras in order to create a 3D site plan. The discovery added 12 percent to the total of known ancient shipwrecks in Greek territorial waters in just 10 diving days.
     

    These bulk items were likely stored in the larger amphorae, while smaller ones might have held jams, fruits, honey, hazelnuts, almonds, as well as luxury commodities like perfumes.
    Many merchant crews in the Classical Period were composed of 10 to 15 sailors. By the Late Roman Period advances in sailing technology, such as lateen sails that ran from fore to aft, reduced crews to as few as five to seven people. Unlike the famous Greek and Roman warships known as triremes, the smaller merchant ships derived power primarily from sails rather than banks of rowers.
    Some of the ships around Fourni appear to have encountered sudden storms and strong winds that smashed them against cliffs and rock formations in shallow water.
    “You can look at the spatial patterning of the sites and reconstruct a plausible story about what happened,” says Peter Campbell, a co-director of the project from the University of Southampton. “It looks like some of them were anchored behind cliffs to shelter from a northwest wind, but this made them vulnerable to a southern wind that drove them against the cliffs.”
    The ancient sailors’ chances of survival would have been slight. “Of the 22 wrecks we studied, there were probably four where they might have had a chance to swim to a beach or shore. But most of the spots were next to sheer cliffs. There’s no way they would’ve survived in a storm,” Campbell says.
    The archaeologists have only begun to analyze the material they collected from the shipwrecks in September, but the abundance of late Roman ships is already striking. They suspect that this apparent spike in traffic may be linked to the rise of Constantinople and the Eastern Roman Empire in the fourth century. They expect their ongoing research to answer many specific questions about ancient maritime trade networks and how they related to the shifting political  structures of the Eastern Mediterranean.
    Fourni was already known to some smugglers before this September’s survey. Locals had reported seeing suspicious activity in the water near certain sites, and the archaeologists found some evidence of looting when they dove the wrecks.
    Pinpointing exact locations for 22 of the area’s shipwrecks will make it easier for Greek authorities to supervise the sites. The archaeologists also hope that the knowledge gained during excavations will give local communities a stronger sense of connection to their history.
    “An engaged local population is the best form of protection,” Campbell says.
    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/11/151103-greek-shipwreck-find-trading-route/

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    Kejriwal's principal secretary Rajendra Kumar, 4 others arrested in corruption case

    TNN & Agencies | 

    Kejriwal's principal secretary Rajendra Kumar and four others were arrested by CBI in a Rs 50 crore corruption case
    • CBI had raided office of principal secretary Rajendra Kumar on December 15, 2015.
    NEW DELHI: Delhi chief minister Arvind Kejriwal's principal secretary underway," CBI Rajendra Kumar 
    and four others were arrested by the CBI on Monday evening in an alleged corruption case to the tune of Rs 50 crore. The CBI, in December last year, had conducted raid on Rajender Kumar's office at the Delhi Secretariat.
    "Allegations are related to bribery and abuse of position against them, further probe is 

    is underway," CBI Spokesperson RK Gaur told media.



    CBI says that there is a strong evidence of quid pro quo against Rajender Kumar. All the five accused will be produced in Delhi's Patiala House court on Tuesday.

    According to the first information report, Rajendra Kumar promoted a company, Endeavour System Pvt. Ltd. from 2007, by allegedly misusing his official position and facilitated tenders worth Rs.9.5 crore to the company.

    Delhi's deputy CM Manish Sisodia hit out at the Centre shortly after the arrest, saying, "Centre has now stooped very low. This is all a conspiracy.""All this has been done to paralyse the CM office," he also said.

    CBI had raided office of principal secretary Rajendra Kumar on December 15, 2015. Since then, it has been a bone of contention between the Kejriwal government and the Centre.
    The other four arrested have been identified as Tarun Sharma (then assistant directorof the VAT dept), Sandeep Kumar (Owner of a private company which is front company of Rajender Kumar), Dinesh Gupta and Ashok Kumar.
    http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Kejriwals-principal-secretary-Rajendra-Kumar-4-others-arrested-in-corruption-case/articleshow/53046680.cms

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    This is an addendum to http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/07/sagarh-fortification-kotta-fortified.html which discussed the deciphered Bronze Age glosses of 

    sãgaṛh'fortification', koṭṭa'fortified settlement', koṭiyaʻsailing vessel dhow' signified on Indus Script inscriptions. Rebus for  sãghāṛɔ 'lathe'. ‘brazier’ -- a recurrent hieroglyph-multiplex -- could beM. sãgaḍ  m.f. ʻ float made of two canoes joined together ʼ (LM 417 compares saggarai at Limurike in the Periplus, Tam. śaṅgaḍam, Tu. jaṅgala ʻ double -- canoe ʼ) Si. san̆gaḷa ʻ pair ʼ, han̆guḷaan̆g° ʻ double canoe, raft ʼ(CDIAL 12859) 


    Similarly, koṭiya 'sailing vessel' may be signified by the hieroglyph of 'one-horned young bull'కోడియ (p. 326) kōḍiya Same as కోడె.   కోడె (p. 326) kōḍe kōḍe. [Tel.] n. A bullcalf. కోడెదూడ. A young bull. కాడిమరపదగినదూడ. Plumpness, prime. తరుణము. జోడుకోడయలు a pair of bullocks. కోడె adj. Young. కోడెత్రాచు a young snake, one in its prime. "కోడెనాగముం బలుగుల రేడుతన్ని కొని పోవుతెరంగు"రామా. vi. కోడెకాడు kōḍe-kāḍu. n. A young man. పడుచువాడు. A lover విటుడు. 13). The most frequently occurring hieroglyph on Indus Script corpora is a one-horned young bull. It is possible this hieroglyph signifies koṭiya ʻsailing vessel dhow'. If so, most of the inscriptions of Indus Script Corpora may denote cargo shipped by seafaring merchants of Meluhha. 



    Periplus mentions kotumba to pilot merchant vessels into Bharuch. This kotumba (kottymba) may be cognate with kotia dhow, shipping vessel of ancient India. kotia handle upto 200 tons of cargo.
    Modern Omani dhow. (Source: Dionisius A.Agius, 2012, Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman, Routledge). 

    Variant spellings appear in texts: kotia, cotia,kUtiyya (pl. kawAti or kUtiyyAt) – a Kuwait and Bhraini ocean-going vessel with features similar to baghla and ghanja. Kotia is relatedto the Arabic root qit’a (name of a ship); q.t. means ‘to cross (a river or an ocean).”The sambuk, though of Arab origin, is often constructed in boat-building yards on the west coast of India, an important centre being at Beypore, south of Calicut on the mouth of the river Chaiyar. In addition to the sambuk, various watercraft, such as the padava, kotia, pattemar, etc., were also built at this centre.” (Himanshu Prabha Ray, 2003, The archaeology of seafaring in ancient South Asia, Cambridge University Press, p.67). Hornell nots that the baghla and the gunja are the Arab forms of the Indian kotia, the Arab bum the counterpart of the Indian dhangi and nauri, while the Indian batel represents the Arab sambuk (J. Hornell 1920, The origins and significance of Indian boat designs,Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta,  repr. 1970 by South Indian Federation of Fishermen Societies, Trivandrum.) http://www.siffs.org/books/indianboatdesign.pdf

    Names of important boat types and some socio-economic cultural and ecological factors mentioned by James Hornell, 1920 (After Map 3.1 in Fishing boat designs in India)


    See: https://www.academia.edu/16081800/Origins_of_Southeast_Asian_Shipping_and_Maritime_Communication_across_the_Indian_Ocean Waruno Mahdi, 2013, Origins of southeast Asian shipping and maritime communication across the Indian Ocean, in: Gwyn Campbell ed. Early exchange between Africa and the Wider Indian Ocean World, Palgrave.



    Object ID: AAE0156 Overall: 413 x 1382 x 344 mm

    Scale: Unknown. A model of an Indian kotia dhow made entirely in wood with metal and organic material fittings. The hull is made plank-on-frame and varnished and has a lead keel.The stempost is very deep and shallow terminating in a parrots head figurehead with the beak pointing towards the stern. There are reliefs of two sea creatures carved on either side of the stempost and, at the front of the stempost, is a small carving of a birds head. The main deck has two hatches, the forward one is rectangular in shape with two covers, the rearmost one is triangular and has four covers. The mainmast is positioned just forward of amidships and provision for it is at the front of the triangular cargo hatch. Main deck fittings include a grapnel, stockless anchor, a capstan with six bars and a short companion ladder that provides access to the upper deck. The mainsail is latrine rigged. The mizzen mast is positioned on the upper deck and is also latrine rigged. Forward of the mizzen mast is a six bar capstan and aft is a binnacle and a wheel that works the rudder. The port and starboard stern quarters each have two portholes which are glazed and above them is decorative rope detail that extends to the stern. The stern is decoratively carved and a pair of stern mounted davits stow a small workboat carved from a single piece of wood. A second workboat is stowed elsewhere on the model. The model is displayed on a pair of shaped crutches fixed to a rectangular baseboard with straight bevelled edges, the whole of which is painted black.

    Credit: National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London

    Materials: metal: brass; metal: copper; organic: cotton; wood

    Birds shown on kotia stempost may compare with the birds shown on a bot of Mohenjo-daro prism tablet.
    Shown together with oxhide ingots and two palm trees, it has been shown that the birds were karaDa 'aquatic bird' rebus: karaDa 'hard alloy' DhALa 'large ingot' with the phonetic determinant of tALa 'palm tree' dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. See decipherment of Indus Script inscription on the tablet at 


    The boat was carrying cargo of oxhide ingots and hard alloys of ayakara 'metalsmith' (aya 'fish' rebus: ayas 'metal' PLUS karA 'crocodile' rebus: khAr 'blacksmith'). Two parts of hypertext on Side 3: On side 3 of the tablt, there are 8 hieroglyphic 'signs' signifying the nature of the metalwork involved for the cargo. This is a two part inscription.

    Part 1 of the inscription from l.

    कर्णक m. du. the two legs spread out AV. xx , 133 , 3 rebus: karNI 'helmsman, supercargo'. The hieroglyph of a standing person with legs spread out is thus a semantic determinant of the adjoining hieroglyph: rim of jar: karNika 'rim of jar' rebus: karNika 'scribe, account'. The next two hieroglyphs from the left are a pair of ingots: dhALako 'ingots' dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal'. Thus, cast ingots.

    Part 2 of the inscription from l.
    karNika 'rim of jar' rebus: karNika 'scribe, account'
    ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal'
    kolom 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'
    kolmo 'rice plant' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge' PLUS circumscript of oval: dhALko 'ingot'. Thus ingot for smithy/forge work.

    Birds signified on Kotia stemposts may be compared with the bird shown on a seal from probably Knossos area dated to ca. 1600 BCE:

    Type IV ship represented on a seal from unknown provenance (probably Knossos area) dated around 1600 BCE. It has a curved hull with bird symbol, pointed sterpost and ten parallel oblique lines, probable oars. Mast with yard and boom, sail surface delimited vertically by cut lunette-like lines, cross-hatching. Source: Greek age of bronze ships 
    http://www.salimbeti.com/micenei/ships.htm The bird coule be kanka'heron'which also appearson Dong Son Bronze drums (madeusing cire perdue lost-wax technique of casting) kaṅká m. ʻ heron ʼ VS. [← Drav. T. Burrow TPS 1945, 87; onomat. Mayrhofer EWA i 137. Drav. influence certain in o of M. and Si.: Tam. Kan. Mal. kokku ʻ crane ʼ, Tu. korṅgu, Tel. koṅga, Kuvi koṅgi, Kui kohko]Pa. kaṅka -- m. ʻ heron ʼ, Pk. kaṁka -- m., S. kaṅgu m. ʻ crane, heron ʼ (→ Bal. kang); B. kã̄k ʻ heron ʼ, Or. kāṅka; G. kã̄kṛũ n. ʻ a partic. ravenous bird ʼ; -- with o from Drav.: M. kõkā m. ʻ heron ʼ; Si. kokā, pl. kokku ʻ various kinds of crane or heron ʼ, kekī ʻ female crane ʼ, kēki ʻ a species of crane, the paddy bird ʼ (ē?).(CDIAL 2595) Rebus: kanga, kangar 'brazier' (Kashmiri)
    Flying birds on Dong Son Bronze Drums

     kanka 'heron'on Dong Son Bronze Drum tympanum.


    Canoe from ethnographic boat model of an Indian kotias type dhow. Used in coastal and open waters, and as working vessels in the harbour at Porbandar (Bombay Province, N.W. India).
    http://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/536208.html#mDMuABtgdlWAis2A.99

    S. Kalyanaraman
    Sarasvati Research Center
    July 4, 2016

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    ED summons Karti in Aircel Mais scam

    Tuesday, 05 July 2016 | PNS | New Delhi

    Rate : 5/5                Like : 1
    The Enforcement Directorate has summoned former Finance Minister P Chidambaram’s son Karti in the Aircel-Maxis scam. The ED has asked Karti to appear at its Delhi office on Tuesday morning with all documents of his financial transaction with Aircel and Malaysian company Maxis. The ED has specifically sought Karti to produce payments of around $2 lakh received from Maxis during the scam period.
    According to staffers of Karti’s company, he had sought more time from ED on Monday morning. The summon was issued to Karti by ED’s Investigating Officer Rajeshwar Singh last week. The ED’s finding of around $2 lakh pay off to Karti’s company, Chess Management Services Private Limited, by three Maxis group companies during 2007 to 2010 is expected to create trouble for Chidambaram, who was in charge of the Finance Ministry when approvals were given to Maxis to take over Aircel.
    During the raids at Karti’s companies, the investigators had found that Chess Management Services received more than $1 lakh from a Maxis group company Bumi Armada Berhad. Chess Management had also received more than $60,000 from Maxis Mobile Sdn Bhd and around $35,000 from Astro All Asia Network. These two companies are already chargesheeted by the CBI and the ED for routing kick-backs to former Telecom Minister Dayanidhi Maran’s family company Sun TV. The ED has now established money trail to Chidambaram’s son’s companies during the scam period also. The 2G court had already dispatched Letter Rogatory to London regarding Astro All Asia Network’s money trail with NDTV too.
    The ED had sought Karti to bring bank details of his companies from 2005, including the controversial firm Advantage Strategic Consulting caught for financial transactions with Aircel during the scam period. The ED has already interrogated Karti’s partners Ravi Vishwanathan, C Bhaskararaman, CBN Reddy and Mohanan Rajesh.
    The CBI and the ED have in their charge-sheets detailed the illegalities in the FIPB approval given by Chidambaram in 2006 to Maxis to take over the mobile phone operator Aircel. Both agencies have already informed the 2G Court on filing supplementary charge-sheet in Aircel-Maxis scam regarding the illegalities and violations committed by Chidambaram. The CBI had interrogated Chidambaram in December 2014 for violations in the FIPB approval.
    Chidambaram had expressed his anger against Investigating Officer Rajeshwar Singh when his son's companies were raided in December 2014. The joint raid by ED and Income Tax Investigation Wing had unearthed massive property amassment by Karti’s companies in 14 countries. During the UPA tenure, the Finance Ministry had removed Singh from ED and the Supreme Court had slammed the Government. The apex court in October 2014 had ordered the Finance Ministry to reinstate the officer within three working days.
    http://www.dailypioneer.com/nation/ed-summons-karti-in-aircel-scam.html

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    medha is yajña.

    Indus Script Corpora hieroglyph meḍhā m. ʻpost, forked stake' is read rebus: medha, 'yajña'Sivalinga is a divine impeller; the metaphor is ताण्डव नृत्यम् the cosmic dance of transmutation. 

    Such a yupa, a post fixed in the middle of the sacrificial ground is used in yajña. अन्तःपूर्वेण यूपं परीत्यान्तःपात्यदेशे स्थापयति Kāty. -पातित,-पातिन् (Apte. Samskrtam). This is clearly an invocation to the paramaatman, as elaborated in this note with particular reference to the octagonal shape of the Yupam यूपं before commencing the yajña.

    Almost every fire-altar found in Sarasvati civilization sites has such a meḍhā installed in the altar. The conclusive evidence comes from Binjor   yajña kuNDa with an अष्टाश्रि 'having eight corners' (Vedic) yupa discovered in April 2015 by a young team of students from Institute of Arcaheology, National Museum, New Delhi. 

    ashtAs'ri yupa is signified by s'ivalinga and ekamukha s'ivalinga.  A s'ivalinga is meḍhā -- with a unique octagonal/quadrangular shape as prescribed in Vedic texts -- rebus medha 'yajña'. Scores of s'ivalingas are found in India, Nepal, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand with such s'ivalinga and ekamukha s'ivalinga of octagonal shape in rudra bhAga (middle). Images of such lingas of octagonal shape in rudra bhAga are appended for ready reference. If a mukha 'face' is ligatured to the linga, the rebus rendering is: mũh 'face' Rebus: mũhe 'ingot' rebus: muhã 'quantity of metal produced at one time in a native smelting furnace.' PLUS meḍhā 'stake, yupa' rebus: medha 'yajña'. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/01/casala-on-yupa-indus-script-hieroglyph_6.html 

     (vajra)

    The transmission and dissemination of a knowledge system to carburize ores to produce hard alloys and metals is thus complete, precise and unambiguous, through Indus Script Corpora.

    This authenticated transmission through data archiving using inscriptions on seals or tablets or other objects reinforces that Indus Script is a knowledge system conveyed through metallurgical metaphors of hypertexts (hieroglyph-multiplexes).


    This meḍhā rebus: medha 'yajña' is also a metallurgical metaphor to signify Prakrtam lōkhaṇḍa 'iron work, iron implements' as will be seen on Candi-Sukuh evidence discussed by Stanley J. O'Connor (embedded article). Mulavarman's yupa inscription described the soma yaga as बहुसुवर्णकbahusuvarṇaka, the same metaphorical expression used in the epic Valmiki Ramayana, sto ignify creation and distribution of wealth. Every one of the 19 yupa inscriptions are on octagonal-shaped pillars and relate to the performance of soma  yajña categories of अहीन सत्त्र (performed for 2-12 days, for more than 12 days).

    'यज्ञो वै मेधः'इति श्रुतेः । एकविंशति- मेधान्ते Mb.14.29.18. (com. मेधो युद्धयज्ञः । 'यज्ञो वै मेधः'इति श्रुतेः ।) 

    All the 19 yupa inscriptions recorded in Epigraphia Indica are  अहीन or सत्त्र soma  yajña lasting for over 2 days.

    अष्टन् [p=116,2] अष्ट्/औ ([ RV. AV. &c ]) or अष्ट्/आ ([ RV. viii , 2 , 41]) or अष्ट्/अ ([ RV. x , 27 , 15 AV. &c ]) pl. eight (other forms are: gen. अष्टानाम् Mn. &c instr. अष्टभ्/इस् RV. ii , 18 , 4 S3Br. &c loc. अष्टास्/उ S3Br. &c );[Lat. octo ; Goth. ahtau;
     Mod. Germ. acht ; Eng. eight ; Lith. asztuni ; Slav. osmj.]). The dual form अष्ट्/औ (in Vedic) is semantically 'two fours'. gaNDa 'four' rebus: kanda 'fire-altar'. Thus, the expression अष्टा* श्रि 'having eight corners' in 3rd kanda of Shatapatha brahmana also signifies the key comprehensive penetration of space by the  यूपं  or skambha or .meḍhā 'stake' coveredwith cashAla (wheat chaff) in the carburization process to produce hard metal out of the working with fire.áṅgāra m. n. ʻ glowing charcoal ʼ RV., °aka -- lex. 2. *iṅgāra -- , iṅgāla -- m. Vāsav. com.1. Pa. aṅgāra -- m. ʻ charcoal ʼ, Pk. aṁgāra -- , °aya -- , aṁgāla -- , °aya -- m., Gy. eur. angár ʻ charcoal ʼ, wel. vaṅār m. (v -- from m. article), germ. yangar (y -- from yag, s.v. agní -- 1); Ash. aṅāˊ ʻ fire ʼ, Kt. aṅǻ, Gmb. aṅāˊ, Pr. anéye, Dm. aṅgar (a < ā NTS xii 130), Tir. Chilis Gau. K. nār (n <  -- , not ← Psht. nār ← Ar. AO xii 184), Paš. aṅgāˊr, Shum. ã̄r (← Paš. NOGaw 59), Gaw. Kal. Kho. aṅgāˊr, Bshk. äṅgāˊr, Tor. aṅā, Mai. agār, Phal. aṅgṓr, Sh. agāˊrha° m.; S. aṅaru m. ʻ charcoal ʼ (a < ā as in Dm.), L. aṅgār m., P. aṅgyār°rā m., EP. ãgeār (y or e from MIA. aggi < agní --1?), WPah. bhid. aṅgāˊrõ n., pl. -- , Ku. aṅār (ḍaṅār id. X ḍājṇo < dahyátē), N. aṅār, A. āṅgāreṅgār, B. āṅgārāṅrā, Or. aṅgāra; Bi. ãgarwāh ʻ man who cuts sugar -- cane into lengths for the mill ʼ (=pakwāh); OMth. aṁgāra, Mth. ãgor, H. ãgār°rā m., G. ãgār°rɔ m., M. ãgār m., Si. an̆gura. -- Wg. ãdotdot;řã̄īˊ ʻ fire ʼ (as opp. to aṅarīˊk ʻ charcoal ʼ, see aṅgāryāˊ -- ) poss. < agní -- 1, Morgenstierne NTS xvii 226.2. Pa. iṅghāḷa -- ʻ glowing embers (?) ʼ, Pk. iṁgāra -- , iṁgāla°aya -- ; K. yĕngur m. ʻ charcoal ʼ, yĕnguru m. ʻ charcoal -- burner ʼ; M. ĩgaḷĩgḷā m., Ko. ĩgḷo. -- Deriv. M. ĩgḷā m. ʻ a kind of large ant ʼ, ĩgḷī f. ʻ a large black deadly scorpion ʼ.aṅgāraka -- , aṅgāri -- , aṅgāryāˊ -- ; aṅgāradhānī -- , *aṅgāravarta -- , *aṅgārasthāna -- , *aṅgr̥ṣṭha -- .Addenda: áṅgāra -- : Md. an̆guru ʻ charcoal ʼ.(CDIAL 125)

    The centrality of the carburization process using caSAla atop yupa is a significant component of the knowledge system of ancient metallurgists to enhance the utility and exchange value of hard alloys or hardened metals (e.g. from mRdu 'soft iron' to .ukku 'steel'). The semantics of the north-east direction īˊśāna -- , °ná -- ʻ ruling ʼ RV. [√īś] (CDIAL 1618) ईश् m. A master, lord, the Supreme Spirit. ईशा- बास्यमिदं सर्वम् Īśop.1 summarizes the significant and dominant role of the multi-faceted (eight-faceted) yupa in the divine intervention, in the cosmic dance of mere earth and stone getting transformed into utility value and exchange value metal ingots generating wealth for a fire-worker artisan working with fire and dhAtu'minerals. 

    Knowledge system disseminated through Indus Script Corpora also finds expression in Vedic metaphor such as ईशावास्यम् N. of the ईशावास्योपनिषद्, also called ईशोप- निषद्; the only instance of an upaniṣad included in a Saṁhitā (Vāj.4.1).or ईशा*वास्यn. " to be clothed or pervaded by the Supreme " , N. of the ईशोपनिषद् (q.v.) which commences with that expression. This may explain the octagonal or eight-faced pillar which is the subject of an adhyatma philosophical tractus par excellence in Atharva Veda X.7 Skambha Suktam. 

    kásminn áṅge tápo asyā́dhi tiṣṭhati kásminn áṅga r̥tám asyā́dhy ā́hitamkvà vratáṃ kvà śraddhā́sya tiṣṭhati kásminn áṅge satyám asya prátiṣṭhitam (AV X.7.1)

    Which of his members is the seat of Fervour: Which is the base of Ceremonial Order? Where in him standeth Faith? Where Holy Duty? Where, in what part of him is truth implanted?

    Consequently, his insight is that an octagonal yupa signifies any somayaga. Vajapeya is one of seven somayagas which constitute somasamsthA. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2016/01/octagonal-yupo-bhavati-satapatha.html


    The evidence for the performance of a soma  yajña in Binjor and Kalibangan dated to ca. 2500 BCE in Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization is a stunning evidence of the Vedic yajna tradition. This tradition continues into the historical periods evidenced by 19 yupa inscriptions in regions such as Rajasthan, Isapur (suburb of Mathura) and East Borneo.

    It will thus be appropriate to refer to the octagonal yupa in the Binjor agnikuNDa as a signifier of a somayaga, perhaps a particular type of somayaga which was called Vājapeya Soma samsthA.

    In most of the 19 yupa inscriptions, the yaga is recorded to have gone on for several days, hence may be called अहीन Soma yoga (or Soma samsthA). such a somayaga could have been a Vājapeya.

    एकविंशति is a count of twenty-one , a collection or combination of twenty-one TS. S3Br.

    Thus, medha is yajña. अहीन  is a yajña lasting 2 to 12; a सत्त्र  is an extended अहीन which could lastfrom 12 days upto a year. अहीन सत्त्र soma  yajña or सोम--संस्था [p= 1250,3] f. the basis or initial form of a सोम sacrifice MBh. Gaut. Ma1rkP performed for several days -- from 12 days upto a year. Examples of सोम--संस्था are seven: अग्निष्टोम, अत्यग्निष्टोम, उक्थ, षोढशी, अतिरात्र, आप्तोर्याम and वाजपेय

    Example of  सत्त्र is गवाम्--यन [p= 351,3]n. id. AitBr. iv , 17 A1s3vS3r. Ka1tyS3r. MBh. iii , 8080.

    Example of अहीन is. वाज--पेय one of the seven forms of the सोम-sacrifice (offered by kings or Brahmans aspiring to the highest position , and preceding the राज-su1ya and the बृहस्पति-sava) AV. Br. S3rS. MBh. R. Pur. वाज--पेय is name of the 6th book of the शतपथ-ब्राह्मण in the काण्व-शाखा

    अहीन [p= 125,3] m. (fr. /अहन् Pa1n2. 6-4 , 145) "lasting several days", a sacrifice lasting several days AitBr. A1s3vS3r. &c; mfn. unimpaired , whole , entire , full S3Br. AitBr. &c. 

    Somayaga or soma samsthA are seven. “Agnishtoma is considered to be a prakriti soma yajna (A template based on which other six are done --Atyagnistoma, Aptoryama, Atirātra ,uktha,  shodasi, Vājapeya).  The Vājapeyais the highest soma yajna. The performer of the Vajapeya has to be led into the country by the king himself and anna abhishekam has to be performed by the king for the performer of Vājapeya. Then the person who has performed this is given the title Vājapeyaji. Generally based on number of days performed, soma sacrifices are split into 1. Ekaha (one day) 2. Ahina (2-12 days) and 3. Satra (12 days till one year).  The agnishtoma is an example of a 1 day sacrifice. The Vajapaya is an example for Ahina and the Gavamayana is an example for a satra. Specifically it is a samvatsara satra meaning it lasts for one year. The entire 7th kanda of the Taittriya samhita deals with satra type sacrifices.” 

    सत्त्र [p=1138,2] n. " session " , a great सोम sacrifice (lasting accord. to some , from 13 to 100 days and performed by many officiating Brahmans ; also applied to any oblation or meritorious work equivalent to the performance of a सत्त्र ; सत्त्र्/अस्य्/अर्द्धिः N. of a सामन् A1rshBr. RV. &c. wealth L

    अष्टा* श्रि [p= 117,1] mfn. having eight corners S3Br. MBh iii, 10665 अश्रि 
    [p= 114,2] f. the sharp side of anything , corner , angle (of a room or house) , edge (of a sword) S3Br. Ka1tyS3r [L=19806] often ifc. e.g. अष्टा*श्रि , त्रिर्-/अश्रि , च्/अतुर्-श्रि , शता*श्रि q.v. (cf. अश्र); ([cf. Lat. acies , acer ; Lith. assmu3])(Monier-Williams) aṣṭan अष्टन् num. a. [अश-व्याप्तौ कनिन् तुट् च Uṇ.1.154.] (nom., acc. अष्ट-ष्टौ) Eight. It often occurs in comp. as अष्टा with numerals and some other nouns; as अष्टादशन्, अष्टाविंशतिः, अष्टापद &c. [cf. L. octo; Gr. okto;Zend  astani Pers. hasht.].
    अस्रम् an octagon. -अस्रः A kind of single-storeyed building octangular in plan. अस्रः [अस्-रन्] 1 A corner, an angle   अस्रिय a. octangular; asriḥ अस्रिः 1 An angle; अष्टास्रयः सर्व एव श्लक्ष्णरूपसमन्विताः Rām.1.14.26.  आश्रय  [p= 158,2] > आ- √श्रि.m. that to which anything is annexed or with which anything is closely connected or on which anything depends or rests Pa1n2. R.Ragh. Sus3r. a recipient , the person or thing in which any quality or article is inherent or retained or receiveddwelling , asylum , place of refuge , shelter R. S3is3. &chelp , assistance , protection Pan5cat. Ragh. &c mfn. ifc. depending on , resting on , endowed or furnished with (e.g. अष्ट-गुणा*श्रय » under अष्ट).  यूप[p= 856,1] m. (prob. fr. √ युप् ; but according to Un2. iii , 27 , fr. √2. यु) a post , beam , pillar , (esp.) a smooth post or stake to which the sacrificial victim is fastened , any sacrificial post or stake (usually made of bamboos or खदिर wood ; in R. i , 13 , 24 ; 25, where the horse sacrifice is described , 21 of these posts are set up , 6 made of बिल्व , 6 of खदिर , 6 of पलाश , one of उडुम्बर , one of श्लेष्मातक , and one of देव-दारुRV. &ca column erected in honour of victory , a trophy (= जय-स्तम्भL.N. of a partic. conjunction of the class आकृति-योग (i.e. when all the planets are situated in the 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th houses) VarBr2S.

    19 yupa inscriptions have been recorded from Rajasthan, Allahabad, Mathura and East Borneo (Mulavarman yupa inscription). All the inscriptions are associated with अष्टा* श्रि  'octagonal' yupa. A Yupa is a post, beam, pillar used in soma  yajña. Such a yupa in fact is a signature tune of an ayamedha 'yajña' involving metals. (ayas ' अयस् [p= 85,1] n. iron , metal RV. &can iron weapon (as an axe , &c RV. vi , 3 ,5 and 47 , 10gold Naigh.steel L. ; ([cf. Lat. aes , aer-is for as-is ; Goth. ais , Thema aisa ; Old Germ. e7r , iron ; Goth. eisarn ; Mod. Germ. Eisen.]).  अय [p= 84,2] N. of a periodical sacrifice MBh. मेध [p= 832,3] an animal-sacrifice , offering , oblation , any sacrifice (esp. ifc.ib. MBh. &cmēdhḥ मेधः 1 A sacrifice, as in नरमेध, अश्वमेध, एकविंशति- मेधान्ते Mb.14.29.18. (com. मेधो युद्धयज्ञः । 'यज्ञो वै मेधः'इति श्रुतेः ।). -2 A sacrificial animal or victim. -3 An offering, oblation. -4 Ved. The juice of meat, broth.-5 Ved. Sap, pith, essence. -Comp. -जः an epithet of Viṣṇu. mēdhā मेधा [मेध्-अञ्] (changed to मेधस् in Bah. comp. when preceded by सु, दुस् and the negative particle अ) 1 Retentive faculty, retentiveness (of memory); धी- र्धारणावती मेधा Ak. -2 Intellect, intelligence in general; यत् सप्तान्नानि मेधया तपसाजनयत् पिता Bṛi. Up.1.5.1; Bg. 1.34; आयुष्मन्तं सुतं सूते यशोमेधासमन्वितम् Ms.3.263; Y. 3.173. -3 A form of Sarasvathī. -4 A sacrifice. -5 Strength, power (Ved.). -Comp. -अतिथिः N. of a learned commentator on Manusmṛiti. -जननम् N. of a rite for producing mental and bodily strength. -जित् m. an epithet of Kātyāyana. -रुद्रः an epithet of Kālidāsa.mēdhyaमेध्य a. [मेध्-ण्यत्, मेधाय हितं यत् वा] 1 Fit for a sacrifice; अजाश्वयोर्मुखं मेध्यम् Y.1.194; Ms.5.54. -2 Relating to a sacrifice, sacrificial; मेध्येनाश्वेनेजे; R.13. 3; उषा वा अश्वस्य मेध्यस्य शिरः Bṛi. Up.1.1.1. -3 Pure, sacred, holy; भुवं कोष्णेन कुण्डोघ्नी मध्येनावमृथादपि R.1.84; 3.31;14.81. -4 Ved. Fresh, strong, vigorous. -5 Wise, intelligent. -ध्यः 1 A goat. -2 A Khadira tree. -3 Barley (according to Medinī). -ध्या 1 N. of several plants (केतकी, शङ्खपुष्पी, रोचना, शमी &c.). -2 The gall- stone of a cow (रोचना). -3 A particular vein.

    mēṇḍha2 m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- , mēṇḍa -- 4miṇḍha -- 2°aka -- , mēṭha -- 2mēṇḍhra -- , mēḍhra -- 2°aka -- m. lex. 2. *mēṇṭha- (mēṭha -- m. lex.). 3. *mējjha -- . [r -- forms (which are not attested in NIA.) are due to further sanskritization of a loan -- word prob. of Austro -- as. origin (EWA ii 682 with lit.) and perh. related to the group s.v. bhēḍra -- ]1. Pa. meṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- ʻ made of a ram's horn (e.g. a bow) ʼ; Pk. meḍḍha -- , meṁḍha -- (°ḍhī -- f.), °ṁḍa -- , miṁḍha -- (°dhiā -- f.), °aga -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, Dm. Gaw. miṇ Kal.rumb. amŕn/aŕə ʻ sheep ʼ (a -- ?); Bshk. mināˊl ʻ ram ʼ; Tor. miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ; Chil. mindh*ll ʻ ram ʼ AO xviii 244 (dh!), Sv. yēṛo -- miṇ; Phal. miṇḍmiṇ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍṓl m. ʻ yearling lamb, gimmer ʼ; P. mẽḍhā m., °ḍhīf., ludh. mīḍḍhāmī˜ḍhā m.; N. meṛhomeṛo ʻ ram for sacrifice ʼ; A. mersāg ʻ ram ʼ ( -- sāg < *chāgya -- ?), B. meṛā m., °ṛi f., Or. meṇḍhā°ḍā m., °ḍhi f., H. meṛhmeṛhāmẽḍhā m., G. mẽḍhɔ, M. mẽḍhām., Si. mäḍayā. 2. Pk. meṁṭhī -- f. ʻ sheep ʼ; H. meṭhā m. ʻ ram ʼ.
    3. H. mejhukā m. ʻ ram ʼ.*mēṇḍharūpa -- , mēḍhraśr̥ṅgī -- .Addenda: mēṇḍha -- 2: A. also mer (phonet. mer) ʻ ram ʼ(CDIAL 10310) Rebus 1: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) Rebus 2:  yajña: mḗdha m. ʻ sacrificial oblation ʼ RV. Pa. mēdha -- m. ʻ sacrifice ʼ; Si. mehe sb. ʻ eating ʼ ES 69.(CDIAL 10327)


    Hieroglyphs: pillar, curl: mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts ʼ AV., °thī -- f. KātyŚr.com., mēdhī -- f. Divyāv. 2. mēṭhī -- f. PañcavBr.com., mēḍhī -- , mēṭī-- f. BhP. 1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, N. meh(e), mihomiyo, B. mei, Or. maï -- dāṇḍi, Bi. mẽhmẽhā ʻ the post ʼ, (SMunger) mehā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. mehmehā ʻ the post ʼ, (SBhagalpur) mīhã̄ ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, (SETirhut) mẽhi bāṭi ʻ vessel with a projecting base ʼ.2. Pk. mēḍhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, mēḍhaka<-> ʻ small stick ʼ; K. mīrmīrü f. ʻ larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts ʼ (for semantic relation of ʻ post -- hole ʼ see kūpa --2); L. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ; P. mehṛ f., mehaṛ m. ʻ oxen on threshing floor, crowd ʼ; OA meṛhamehra ʻ a circular construction, mound ʼ; Or. meṛhīmeri ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ; Bi. mẽṛ ʻ raised bank between irrigated beds ʼ, (Camparam) mẽṛhā ʻ bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. (SETirhut) mẽṛhā ʻ id. ʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ. mēthika -- ; mēthiṣṭhá -- .(CDIAL 10317) mēthiṣṭhá ʻ standing at the post ʼ TS. [mēthí -- , stha -- ]Bi. (Patna) mĕhṭhā ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, (Gaya) mehṭāmẽhṭā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ.(CDIAL 10319) *mēṇḍhī ʻ lock of hair, curl ʼ. [Cf. *mēṇḍha -- 1 s.v. *miḍḍa -- ]S. mī˜ḍhī f., °ḍho m. ʻ braid in a woman's hair ʼ, L. mē̃ḍhī f.; G. mĩḍlɔmiḍ° m. ʻ braid of hair on a girl's forehead ʼ; M. meḍhā m. ʻ curl, snarl, twist or tangle in cord or thread ʼ.(CDIAL 10312) Rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic)

     खांड (p. 116) khāṇḍa n A beam, or a stout and squared piece of timber. खांडा (p. 116) khāṇḍā m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended. 2 A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). लोखंड (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍa n (लोह S) Iron. लोखंडाचे चणे खावविणें or चारणें To oppress grievously. लोखंडकाम (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍakāma n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith. लोखंडी (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍī a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron. 2 fig. Hardy or hard--a constitution or a frame of body, one's हाड or natal bone or parental stock. 3 Close and hard;--used of kinds of wood. 4 Ardent and unyielding--a fever. 5 लोखंडी, in the sense Hard and coarse or in the sense Strong or enduring, is freely applied as a term of distinction or designation. Examples follow.  लोखंडी (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍī f (लोखंड) An iron boiler or other vessel. लोखंडी छाप (p. 423) lōkhaṇḍī chāpa m (Iron type.) A term, according to popular apprehension, for Leaden types and for Printing; in contrad. from दगडछाप Lithography.  kāṇḍa 'arrowhead''arrowhead' Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar' (Santali) rebus: khANDA kāṇḍa'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware' (Marathi) ... The semantics of khaNDa 'implements' is attested in Santali: me~r.he~t khaNDa 'iron implements'. 

    Santali glosses A lexicon suggests the semantics of Panini's compound अयस्--काण्ड [p= 85,1]  m. n. " a quantity of iron " or " excellent iron " , (g. कस्का*दि q.v.)( Pa1n2. 8-3 , 48)(Monier-Williams).


    From the example of a compound gloss in Santali, I suggest that the suffix -kANDa in Samskritam should have referred to 'implements'. Indus Script hieroglyphs as hypertext components to signify kANDa 'implements' are: kANTa, 'overflowing water' kANDa, 'arrow' gaNDa, 'four short circumscript strokes'.


    gaNDa 'four' is signified by four 'spheres' ligatured to the top of the yupa (sivalinga) in Candi Sukuh. Rebus: khaNDa 'implements' See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/01/significance-of-linga-and-4-spheres-on.html

    sit shamshi musée du louvre parís tabla de bronce que parece resumir ...

    On Sit Shamshi bronze the Sun is symbolized by the Ziggurat temple flanked on either side by a linga-s and 4 spheres. What is the significance of the pair of linga and 4 spheres flanking a dagoba, ziggurat?  लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] 'metalwork' [Hieroglyphs: (lo + gaṇḍa) 'phallus + four, swelling'; Rebus: loh 'copper, metal' + kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)]


    Three stakes on Sit-Shamshi bronze.
    Glyph: मेंढा [ mēṇḍhā ] A crook or curved end (of a stick, horn &c.) and attrib. such a stick, horn, bullock. मेढा [ mēḍhā ] m A stake, esp. as forked. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.(Marathi)(CDIAL 10317) Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) Vikalpa: khuṇṭ ‘stump’. Rebus: khũṭ ‘community, guild’ (Mu.) Thus, three jagged sticks on the Sit Shamshi bronze may be decoded as khũṭ kolami ‘smithy guild’ or, meḍ kolami 'iron (metal) smithy'. 'Iron' in such lexical entries may refer to 'metal'.

    The Candi Sukuh temple fortification on Mt. Lawu in Central Java is comparable to one of the 16  pyramids in Greece dated to 2720 BCE called Pyramid in Hellenicon, Greece (Fig. 7).

     http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/01/meluhha-hieroglyphs-and-candi-sukuh.html
    Photo 1: “True” pyramids on Gizeh plateau (Egypt): Cheops, Khefren and Mikeren pyramids are three out of 130 pyramids built in ancient Egypt; perfect orientation North-South, East-West
    Photo 2: Mayan pyramid in Tikal (Northern Guatemala), the highest pyramidal structure in Central America
    Photo 3: Candi Sukuh, Java, Indonesia, pyramidal temple
    Photo 4: Step stone pyramid in Mel, Mauritius
    Photo 5: Model of step Pyramid of Akapana in Bolivia, granite blocks were used in construction
    Photo 6: Step circular pyramid in Andon, Korea (one of three stone pyramids in Korea)
    Photo 7: Pyramid in Hellenicon, Greece, 2720 B.C.(one of the 16 pyramids in Greece)
    Photo 8: Pyramid in Sicily (one of five locations among the ancient pyramids in Italy)
    Photo 9: Guimar pyramid, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, one of six step stone pyramids in Guimar; dozens of pyramidal structures in Tenerife and La Palma have been destroyed by modern civilization
    Photo 10: Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan, Mexico, 1858, completely covered by soil and vegetation
    Photo 11: Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan, Mexico, 1985, after the excavation
    Photo 12: Pyramid - Han Yang Ling Mausoleum, Xian, China, completely covered by soil and vegetation
    Photo 13: Pyramid - Han Yang Ling Mausoleum, Xian, China, Model of the pyramid in Museum,
    perfect orientation North-South, East-West
    Photo 14: Step pyramid in Kavachi region, Southern Peru, orientation towards the cardinal points,
    (total of 34 pyramids in this area, and 250
    Tucume pyramids on the North)
    Photo 15: Step pyramid in Saqqara, Egypt
    Photo 16: Nubian pyramids in Northern Sudan (total of 224 stone pyramids were built)
    Photo 17: Mahalatea step pyramid in Tahiti
    Photo 18: Red Pyramid in Egypt
    Photo 19: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, Visoko, Bosnia-Herzegovina, with it’s height of 220 meters - tallest pyramidal structure of the ancient World; preliminary report on the rectangular base: 440x660 meters
    http://www.cerchinelgrano.info/piramidi_bosnia.htm

    On top of the Mt.Lawu fortification of Candi Sukuh stood this 1.82m. tall linga.

    The Lingga discovered at Candi Sukuh on the slopes of Mt. Lawu in Central Java and now in the  National Museum in Jakarta; note the keris. (from c.j. van der Vlis report of 1843).



    Candi Cetho. Lingga shows a pair of balls at the top of the penis -- to be read rebus as Meluhha hieroglyph composition: lo-khaNDa, penis + 4 balls; Rebus: iron, metalware.

    The four balls of the penis are also clearly shown on a 6 ft. tall linga inscribed with 1. a sword; and 2. inscription in Javanese, referring to 'inauguration of the holy ganggasudhi...'

    See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/01/sekkizhar-periya-puranam-candi-sukuh.html Histoire ancienne des Etats hindouises along the Tin Road from Haifa to Hanoi. NaMo, Obama, announce United Indian Ocean States.

    gangga sudhi 'water purification' puja, a consecration also referred to on Candi Sukuh linga inscription.The gloss sudhi also indicates that the consecration is related to veneration of ancestors. Water purification is a metaphor for purification processes in metalwork, removing impurities from minerals to produce pure metal and also alloy metals. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/06/ancient-near-east-bronze-age-legacy_6.html

    Depicting water ablutions on sunrise or sunset in front of the four-step ziggurat: Susa. Sit-Shamshi (Musée du Louvre, París).  The expression gangga sudhi 'holy purification' ritual is relatable rebus: kanga 'brazier' rebus: gangga 'water' (from me-kong 'mother river') and the respnsibility assigned to PotR in Rigveda as 'purifier' priest among the 16 priests performing a yajña.

    thus, it appears that the metaphor of a sivalinga as a stake shown on Sit Shamshi bronze and on Candi Sukh inscription referring to gangga sudhi 'holy purification' is  mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ(Pali) rebus: medha ' yajña'.

    Associated with Candi Sukuh temple complex is the sculptural frieze signifying Bhima Swarga narrative (Java version of Mahabharata with Bhima leading Pandavas to rescue Pandu from hell), which shows Bhima as smith producing a sword, Ganes'a with a dance step and Arjuna working the bellows. This depiction of metalwork is comparable to the Bhutesvar friezes which show ekamukha linga atop a smelter with tree in the backgroud. kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' meD 'dance steop' rebus; meD 'iron' karibha 'elephant' rebus: karba 'iron'. khaNDa 'sword', khaNDa 'implements'.
    Image result for vogel yupa inscriptionsBhutesvar. Ekamukhalinga atop smelter with tree in backgrounda with kharva, 'dwarfs' nearby. They are Divinity of wealth Kubera's gaNa.

    These rebus readings explain the hypertext (hieroglyph-metaphor) on Susa ritual basin with goat-fish-reed hieroglyphs.
    The Indus Script hypertexts on gthe Susa ritual basin are deciphered: aya, ayo 'fish' rebus: aya 'iron' ayas 'metal' PLUS  miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ rebus: meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet 'iron' (Munda.Ho.) med 'copper' (Slavic) eruvai 'European reed' rebus: eruvai 'copper'  eruvai
     European bamboo reed. See கொறுக்கச்சி. (குறிஞ்சிப். 68, உரை.) 6. Species of Cyperus. See பஞ்சாய்க்கோரை. எருவை செருவிளை மணிப்பூங் கருவிளை (குறிஞ்சிப். 68). rebus:  eruvai
    Copper; செம்பு. எருவை யுருக்கினா லன்ன குருதி (கம்பரா. கும்பக. 248).  The pairing of animals: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'metal casting'. Thus, the ritual basin of Susa is a purification process of smelted copper/iron or moltencast metal (copper or pyrites) in a yajña -- a process also depicted on Sit Shamshi bronze offering ablutions to Sun divinity.

    lo 'penis' Rebus: loh 'copper, metal' Go<luGguj>(Z) [lUGguy']  {NB} ``male ^genitals, ^penis, ^scrotum''.(Munda etyma) Hieroglyph: loe 'penis' (Ho.) Rebus: loh 'copper, iron, metal' (Indian sprachbund, Meluhha)


    Hieroglyph: ``^penis'':So. laj(R)  ~ lij  ~ la'a'j  ~ laJ/ laj  ~ kaD `penis'.Sa. li'j `penis, esp. of small boys'.Sa. lO'j `penis'.Mu. lOe'j  ~ lOGgE'j `penis'.  ! lO'jHo loe `penis'.Ku. la:j `penis'.@(C289) ``^penis'':Sa. lOj `penis'.Mu. lOj `penis'.KW lOj@(M084) <lO?Oj>(D),,<AlAj>(L)//<lAj>(DL)  {N} ``^penis''.  #43901. <ului>(P),,<uluj>(MP)  {NB} ``^penis, male organ, male^genitals''.  Cf. <kOlOb>(P),<susu>(M) `testicle'; <kuLij>(M), <kuRij>(P) `vulva'.  *Sa., MuN<lO'j>, MuH, Ho<lo'e>,So.<laj-An>, U.Tem.<lo'> ??. %33271.  #33031.So<lO?Oj>(D),,<AlAj>(L)//<lAj>(DL)  {N} ``^penis''.
    <lohosua>(D)  {NI} ``^dance''.  #20141. Rebus: <loha>(BD)  {NI} ``^iron''.  Syn. <luaG>(D).  *@.  #20131)  laúha -- ʻ made of copper or iron ʼ Gr̥Śr., ʻ red ʼ MBh., n. ʻ iron, metal ʼ Bhaṭṭ. [lōhá -- ] Pk. lōha -- ʻ made of iron ʼ; L. lohā ʻ iron -- coloured, reddish ʼ; P. lohā ʻ reddish -- brown (of cattle) ʼ.lōhá 11158 lōhá ʻ red, copper -- coloured ʼ ŚrS., ʻ made of copper ʼ ŚBr., m.n. ʻ copper ʼ VS., ʻ iron ʼ MBh. [*rudh -- ] Pa. lōha -- m. ʻ metal, esp. copper or bronze ʼ; Pk. lōha -- m. ʻ iron ʼ, Gy. pal. li°lihi, obl. elhás, as. loa JGLS new ser. ii 258; Wg. (Lumsden) "loa"ʻ steel ʼ; Kho.loh ʻ copper ʼ; S. lohu m. ʻ iron ʼ, L. lohā m., awāṇ. lōˋā, P. lohā m. (→ K.rām. ḍoḍ. lohā), WPah.bhad. lɔ̃u n., bhal. lòtilde; n., pāḍ. jaun. lōh, paṅ. luhā, cur. cam.lohā, Ku. luwā, N. lohu°hā, A. lo, B. lono, Or. lohāluhā, Mth. loh, Bhoj. lohā, Aw.lakh. lōh, H. lohlohā m., G. M. loh n.; Si. loho ʻ metal, ore, iron ʼ; Md.ratu -- lō ʻ copper ʼ.WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lóɔ ʻ iron ʼ, J. lohā m., Garh. loho; Md.  ʻ metal ʼ. (CDIAL 11172).
    lōhakāra m. ʻ iron -- worker ʼ, °rī -- f., °raka -- m. lex., lauhakāra -- m. Hit. [lōhá -- , kāra -- 1]Pa. lōhakāra -- m. ʻ coppersmith, ironsmith ʼ; Pk. lōhāra -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, S. luhā̆ru m., L. lohār m., °rī f., awāṇ. luhār, P. WPah.khaś. bhal. luhār m., Ku. lwār, N. B. lohār, Or. lohaḷa, Bi.Bhoj. Aw.lakh. lohār, H. lohārluh° m., G. lavār m., M. lohār m.; Si. lōvaru ʻ coppersmith ʼ.WPah.kṭg. (kc.) lhwāˋr m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, lhwàri f. ʻ his wife ʼ, Garh. lwār m. (CDIAL 11159).lōhaghaṭa 11160 *lōhaghaṭa ʻ iron pot ʼ. [lōhá -- , ghaṭa -- 1]Bi. lohrā°rī ʻ small iron pan ʼ.*lōhaphāla -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , phāˊla -- 1]WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl m. ʻ an agricultural implement ʼ Him.I 197; -- or < †*lōhahala -- .(CDIAL 11160)lōhala ʻ made of iron ʼ W. [lōhá -- ]G. loharlohariyɔ m. ʻ selfwilled and unyielding man ʼ.(CDIAL 11161).*lōhaśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [lōhá -- , śāˊlā -- ]Bi. lohsārī ʻ smithy ʼ. (CDIAL 11162).lōhahaṭṭika 11163 *lōhahaṭṭika ʻ ironmonger ʼ. [lōhá -- , haṭṭa -- ] P.ludh. lōhṭiyā m. ʻ ironmonger ʼ.†*lōhahala -- ʻ ploughshare ʼ. [lōhá -- , halá -- ]WPah.kṭg. lhwāˋḷ m. ʻ ploughshare ʼ, J. lohāl ʻ an agricultural instrument ʼ; rather < †*lōhaphāla -- .(CDIAL 11163).

    Hieroglyphs: gaṇḍa 'swelling' gaṇḍa 'four' gaṇḍa 'sword'
    Rebus: kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi)

    Together, hieroglyphs: lo + gaṇḍa. Rebus: लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] 'metalwork'

    Metaphor: Sh. K.ḍoḍ.  m. ʻ light, dawn ʼ; L. awāṇ.  ʻ light ʼ; P. lo f. ʻ light, dawn, power of seeing, consideration ʼ; WPah. bhal. lo f. ʻ light (e.g. of moon) ʼ.(CDIAL 11120). + kaṇṭa 'manliness'. Metaphorical rendering of the effulgence (sun and moon) associated with the pillar of light yielding the imagery of an representation of a fiery pillar with unfathomable beginning, unreachable end, thus of infniity of Mahadeva representing the paramaatman for the aatman in search of nihs'reyas (moksha), from Being to Becoming, the way earth and stones transmute into metal in the smelter and smithy, kole.l 'smithy, temple'.

    Bharatiyo, 'metalcasters' (Gujarati) are awestruck by this parallel with the cosmic energy replicated in the energies of the smelter, fire-altar and smithy. Hence, the veneration of the linga + 4 spheres as the essence of every phenomenon on cosmos, on the globe, of the world. These hieroglyphs and related metaphors thus yield the gestalt of Bharatiyo, 'metalcasters' (Meluhha). This enduring metaphor finds expression in sculptures on many Hindu temples of Eurasia.

    The gloss gaṇḍu 'manliness' (Kannada); 'bravery, strength' (Telugu) is a synonym of the expression on Candi Suku linga inscription: 'sign of masculinity is the essence of the world'. Thus, the gloss lokhaṇḍa which is a direct Meluhha speech form related to the hieroglyph composition on Candi Suku inscription is the sign of masculinity. The rebus renderings of khandoba or kandariya mahadeva are elucidations of the rebus gloss: kaṇḍa, 'mahadeva S'iva or mahes'vara.' The hieroglyphs deployed on the 1.82m. tall stone sculpture of linga with the inscription and hieroglyphs of sword, sun, moon and four balls deployed just below the tip of the phallus are thus explained as Meluhha speech: lokhaṇḍa. The rebus rendering of the phrase is: lo 'light' and kaṇṭa 'manliness'. These attributes constitute the effulgence of the linga as the fiery pillar, skhamba venerated in Atharva Veda Skhamba sukta as the cosmic effulgence as the cosmic essence.

    gaṇḍa -- m. ʻ four' (Munda) गंडा[ gaṇḍā ] m An aggregate of four (cowries or pice). (Marathi) <ganDa>(P)  {NUM} ``^four''.  Syn. <cari>(LS4), <hunja-mi>(D).  *Sa., Mu.<ganDa> `id.', H.<gA~Da> `a group of four cowries'.  %10591.  #10511.<ganDa-mi>(KM)  {NUM} ``^four''.  |<-mi> `one'.  %10600.  #10520. Ju<ganDa>(P)  {NUM} ``^four''.  gaṇḍaka m. ʻ a coin worth four cowries ʼ lex., ʻ method of counting by fours ʼ W. [← Mu. Przyluski RoczOrj iv 234]S. g̠aṇḍho m. ʻ four in counting ʼ; P. gaṇḍā m. ʻ four cowries ʼ; B. Or. H. gaṇḍā m. ʻ a group of four, four cowries ʼ; M. gaṇḍā m. ʻ aggregate of four cowries or pice ʼ.(CDIAL 4001)


    gaṇḍa -- m. ʻswelling, boil, abscessʼ(Pali)


    Rebus: kaṇḍ 'fire-altar' (Santali) kāṇḍa ‘tools, pots and pans and metal-ware’ (Marathi) खंडा [ khaṇḍā ] m A sort of sword. It is straight and twoedged. खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m A kind of sword, straight, broad-bladed, two-edged, and round-ended. खांडाईत [ khāṇḍāīta ] a Armed with the sword called खांडा. (Marathi)


    लोखंड [ lōkhaṇḍa ] n (लोह S) Iron.लोखंडकाम [ lōkhaṇḍakāma ] n Iron work; that portion (of a building, machine &c.) which consists of iron. 2 The business of an ironsmith.

    लोखंडी [ lōkhaṇḍī ] a (लोखंड) Composed of iron; relating to iron.

    *khaṇḍaka3 ʻ sword ʼ. [Perh. of same non -- Aryan origin as khaḍgá -- 2]Pk. khaṁḍa -- m. ʻ sword ʼ (→ Tam. kaṇṭam), Gy. SEeur. xai̦o, eur. xanroxarnoxanlo, wel. xenlī f., S. khano m., P. khaṇḍā m., Ku. gng. khã̄ṛ, N. khã̄ṛokhũṛo (X churi < kṣurá -- ); A. khāṇḍā ʻ heavy knife ʼ; B. khã̄rā ʻ large sacrificial knife ʼ; Or. khaṇḍā ʻ sword ʼ, H. khã̄ṛā, G. khã̄ḍũ n., M. khã̄ḍā m., Si. kaḍuva.(CDIAL 3793)  खंडा (p. 110) khaṇḍā m A sort of sword. It is straight and twoedged. See खांडा.  खंडेराव (p. 110) khaṇḍērāva m (खंड Sword, and राव) An incarnation of Shiva. Popularly खंडेराव is but dimly distinguished from भैरव.खंडोबा (p. 111) khaṇḍōbā m A familiar appellation of the god खंडेराव. सोळा गुणांचा खं0 खंडोबाची काठी (p. 111) khaṇḍōbācī kāṭhī f The pole of खंडोबा. It belongs to the temples of this god, is taken and presented, in pilgrimages, at the visited shrines, is carried about in processions &c. It is covered with cloth (red and blue), and has a plume (generally from the peacock's tail) waving from its top. 

    19 yupa inscriptions related to 19 octagonal yupa are traceable to the tradition evidenced in Sarasvati civilization. Almost every site of the civilization has shown fire-altars with forked stake (brick or stone pillars), evoking the अष्टाश्रि 'having eight corners' (Vedic) yupa. Two evidences are sharp and emphatic: 1.the fire-altar of Kalibangan together with a terracotta cake with inscription (which is a metalwork catalogue) and  2. अष्टाश्रि 'having eight corners' (Vedic) yupa found in a yajña kuNDa in Bijnor (near Anupgarh) on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati also attested in an Indus Script seal documenting a metalwork catalogue.

    Kalibangan caturas'ri yupa and (related) inscription

    Pl. XXII B. Terracotta cake with incised figures on obverse and reverse, Harappan. On one side is a human figure wearing a head-dress having two horns and a plant in the centre; on the other side is an animal-headed human figure with another animal figure, the latter being dragged by the former. Kalibangan. Mature Indus period: terracotta cake incised with horned deity. Courtesy: Archaeological Survey of India See notes at http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/05/functions-served-by-terracotta-cakes-of.html


    kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.)The bunch of twigs = kūdī, kūṭī(Skt.lex.) kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the Atharvaveda(AV 5.19.12) and KauśikaSūtra (Bloomsfield's ed.n, xliv. cf. Bloomsfield,American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss anBohtlingk, 98) denotes it as a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177).Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelting furnace‘; koṭe ‘forged metal’ (Santali)  kamāṭhiyo=archer;kāmaṭhum =a bow; kāmaḍī ,kāmaḍum=a chip of bamboo (G.) rebus: kammaTa 'mint, coiner, coinage'. The archer wears buffalo horns: ṭhaṭera 'buffalo horns'. ṭhaṭerā 'brass worker' (Punjabi) .



    Hieroglyph narrative of a tiger tied to a rope (to be tied to a pillar, stake): mēthí m. ʻ pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop for supporting carriage shafts ʼ AV., °thī -- f. KātyŚr.com., 

    mēdhī -- f. Divyāv. 2. mēṭhī -- f. PañcavBr.com., mēḍhī -- , mēṭī -- f. BhP.1. Pa. mēdhi -- f. ʻ post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stūpa ʼ; Pk. mēhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, N. meh(e), mihomiyo, B. mei, Or. maï -- dāṇḍi, Bi. mẽhmẽhā ʻ the post ʼ, (SMunger) mehā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. mehmehā ʻ the post ʼ, (SBhagalpur)mīhã̄ ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ, (SETirhut) mẽhi bāṭi ʻ vessel with a projecting base ʼ.2. Pk. mēḍhi -- m. ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, mēḍhaka<-> ʻ small stick ʼ; K. mīrmīrü f. ʻ larger hole in ground which serves as a mark in pitching walnuts ʼ (for semantic relation of ʻ post -- hole ʼ see kūpa -- 2); L. meṛh f. ʻ rope tying oxen to each other and to post on threshing floor ʼ; P. mehṛ f., mehaṛ m. ʻ oxen on threshing floor, crowd ʼ; OA meṛhamehra ʻ a circular construction, mound ʼ; Or. meṛhī,meri ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ; Bi. mẽṛ ʻ raised bank between irrigated beds ʼ, (Camparam) mẽṛhā ʻ bullock next the post ʼ, Mth. (SETirhut) mẽṛhā ʻ id. ʼ; M. meḍ(h), meḍhī f., meḍhā m. ʻ post, forked stake ʼ.mēthika -- ; mēthiṣṭhá -- . mēthika m. ʻ 17th or lowest cubit from top of sacrificial post ʼ lex. [mēthí -- ]Bi. mẽhiyā ʻ the bullock next the post on threshing floor ʼ.mēthiṣṭhá ʻ standing at the post ʼ TS. [mēthí -- , stha -- ] Bi. (Patna) mĕhṭhā ʻ post on threshing floor ʼ, (Gaya) mehṭāmẽhṭā ʻ the bullock next the post ʼ.(CDIAL 10317 to, 10319) mēḍhā ‘stake’ rebus: meD 'iron', med 'copper' (Slavic) 


    The tiger is being pulled to be tied to a post, pillar.
    Hieroglyph: Ka. kunda a pillar of bricks, etc. Tu. kunda pillar, post. Te. kunda id. Malt. kunda block, log. ? Cf. Ta. kantu pillar, post. (DEDR 1723) Rebus: (agni)kuNDA 'fire-altar, vedi'.
    Note the Isapur yupa which show ropes in the middle and on the top to tie an animal as shown on the Kaibangan terracotta cake. In the case of the Kalibangan terracotta cake, the hieroglyph shows a kola, 'tiger' tied to the rope. The rebus reading is kol 'working in iron'. The work in iron is signified by the post, yupa: meḍ(h), 'post, stake' rebus: me 'iron', med 'copper' (Slavic). 

    Thus, the terracotta cake inscription signifies a iron workshop smelter/furnace and smithy. 
    Kulli. Plate. Two tigers tied to a meshed axle. Stars. Fish.

    Decipherment:

    dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal'

    kola 'tiger' rebus: kolhe 'smelter' kol 'working in iron' kolle 'blacksmith'. http://www.harappa.com/figurines/index.html kola 'tiger' kola 'woman' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Ta. kol working in iron, blacksmith; kollaṉ blacksmith. Ma. kollan blacksmith, artificer. Ko. kole·l smithy, temple in Kota village. To. kwala·l Kota smithy. Ka.kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace; (Bell.;.P.U.) konimi blacksmith
    (Gowda) kolla id. Koḍ. kollë blacksmith. Te. kolimi furnace. Go.(SR.) kollusānā to mend implements; (Ph.) kolstānā, kulsānā to forge; (Tr.) kōlstānā to repair (of ploughshares); (SR.) kolmi smithy (Voc. 948). Kuwi (F.) kolhali to forge(DEDR 2133).

    मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] the polar star (Phonetic determinant); meḍ(h), meḍhī f.,  meḍhā m. ʻpost, forked stakeʼ Rebus 1: meD'iron' (Ho.); med 'copper' Rebus 2: medha  'yajña'

    kāṇḍa 'water' rebus: kāṇḍa 'tools, pots and pans and metal-ware'.

    Thus, the inscription on the Kulli plate signifies iron smelting, cast iron (metal) implements.



    The evidence of सोमः संस्था, Vajapeya yajna attested by Indus Script Corpora and the agnikunda at the sites of Binjor and Kalibangan attest to the vedic culture continuum in Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization.

    वाजपेय is a सोमः संस्था, i.e. a profession involving the processing of Soma, performance of soma yajna. A hieroglyph which signifies such a yajna is an octagonal shaped yupa. This octagonal shape of yupa is attested in ancient texts.

    सोमः संस्था, Vajapeya yajna can be interpreted as a smelting process involving metalwork, thus producing bahusuvarNaka as noted in a Mulavarman yupa Pallava Devanagari script inscription in Samskritam of Kodei, East Borneo, dated ca. 4th century. Mulavarman is grandson of one KuNDunga. Seven inscriptions which date back to 400 CE on yupa pillars are associated with Vaprakes'vara temple. (Vogel, 'The yupa inscriptions', pp. 167-232. B.R. Chatterjee, Inda and Java, Calcutta, 1933, II, Inscription, pp. 8-19. BC Chhabra, 'Three more Yupa inscriptions of King Mulavarman from Kotei (E. Borneo), JGIS, XII, 1945, pp.14-37 (reprinted in TBG, LXXXIII, 1949, pp. 370-374 with an additional note by JG de Casparin; 'Yupa inscriptions', India Antiqua, Leyden, 1947, pp. 77-82; Braddell, 'An introduction to the study of ancient times', JRASMB, XV, 3, 1937, pp. 118-19). TBG: Tijdschrift voor Indische Taa-, Land-, en Volkenkunde ultgegeven door het Bataviaasch Genootschap, van Kunsten en Wetenschappen.


    The earliest archaeological evidence (until April 2015) for such a yupa comes from Isapur, a suburb of Mathura, together with an inscription of Kushana priod ca. 1st cent. CE. Another site which evidences an agnikunda, a quadrangular yupa and a terracotta cake with Indus Script hieroglyphs points to the performance of a सोमः संस्था, Vajapeya yajna is Kalibangan. Both Binjor and Kalibangan sites evidence metalwork, based on the decipherment of Indus Script hieroglyphs dug in the artifacts of the sites.

    A remarkable archaeological evidence comes in April 2015 from an archaeological site of Binjor, excavated by the students of Institute of Archaeology, Archaeological Survey of India. The agnikunda was excavated togther with an octagonal shaped yupa in situ. The site is dateable to ca. 2500 BCE based on the evidence of an Indus Script seal found at the site. The seal is a metalwork catalogue. See: http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2015/12/binjor-seal-with-indus-script.html
    That the Vajapeya was performed in Binjor is a stunning evidence which is evidence of the continuum of Vedic culture in Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization because the Binjor archaeological site is on the banks of Vedic River Sarasvati, close to Anupgarh. Anupgarh is the site clearly recognized in a LANDSAT image which shows the River Sarasvati lost in the sands of the Great Marusthali desert due to plate tectonics which resulted in the 90-degree westward diversion of the tributary River Sutlej at Ropar joining the River Sindhu in Bahawalpur province abandoning the Vedic River Sarasvati. When Sutlej had joined River Sarasvati at Shatrana, the width of the combined river palaeo-channel is 20 km., wider than the width of 14 kms. of Brahmaputra river at Manas, Arunachalpradesh.




    Palaeo-drainage map of Thar desert region using IRS P3 WiFS satellite image Vedic River Sarasvati



    Synoptic view of Landsat images of NW India showing 6-8 km. wide palaeo-

    channel of Sarasvati River (from Siwalik thru Kalibangan and Anupgarh to Marot)

    Ancient River Sarasvati forked at Anupgarh (Rajasthan) as seen from 

    the LANDSAT image. 

    Binjor is close to Anupgarh at the River fork.

    One channel forked westwards to flow into Cholistan desert