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A homage to Hindu civilization.

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    Updated: May 10, 2016 19:25 IST

    Narendra Modi’s degree ‘authentic’: Delhi University Registrar Tarun Das

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi's graduation degree (L), awarded by the Delhi University and Post-graduation degree from Gujarat University which were shown by BJP president Amit Shah and Finance Minister Arun Jaitley during a press conference at BJP headquarters, in New Delhi on Monday
    Prime Minister Narendra Modi's graduation degree (L), awarded by the Delhi University and Post-graduation degree from Gujarat University which were shown by BJP president Amit Shah and Finance Minister Arun Jaitley during a press conference at BJP headquarters, in New Delhi on Monday
    Downplaying allegations of glaring discrepancies, Delhi University on Tuesday said Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s B.A. degree as circulated by BJP is “authentic” and it has all the relevant records relating to his graduation while terming as “minor error” mention of 1979 in his degree when he passed out a year earlier.
    The clarification by Delhi University’s Registrar Tarun Das came amid the raging controversy over Mr. Modi’s educational qualifications with AAP continuing to question genuineness of the B.A. degree.
    “We have checked our records and it has been authenticated that Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s degree is authentic. He cleared the examination in 1978 and was awarded the degree in 1979,” he said hours after an Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) delegation went to the university seeking details of the degree.
    Asked about certain discrepancies being alleged by AAP in his mark sheets and degree certificate, he said, “the discrepancies in names in two marksheets exist in University records as well.”
    “The University seeks to maintain privacy of any student who is getting enrolled with it. In view of the queries and reports in media, we would like to state that Narendra Damodardas Modi had qualified for degree of Bachelors in Arts.
    His enrolment number was CC 594/74 and his examination roll number was 16594,” Mr. Das said.
    Asked about variations in Mr. Modi’s names in mark sheets, Mr. Das said it is a common error as far as middle names are concerned. “Similar errors are often pointed out by other students as well which are rectified when requested,” Mr. Das added.
    When asked about AAP’s allegation that why he was awarded the degree in 1979 when he graduated in 1978, Mr. Das said, “It is difficult to comment on minor errors.”
    On Monday, BJP president Amit Shah and Finance Minister Arun Jaitley had released copies of Mr. Modi’s B.A. and M.A. degrees in response to AAP’s allegations.
    The AAP had said the documents were “forged” and had “glaring discrepancies” in them.

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    Agusta middleman visited India 180 times between 2005 & 2013: Records

     | TNN | 

    Agusta middlemen Michel, Haschke & Gandhi family ties

    The Long relationship between the Michel family and the Gandhi family & how Haschke & RaGa are connected revealed

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    Everyone is aware of Sonia’s love for country: Amit Shah

    kerala assembly elections 2016, kerala elections, Kerala polls, Amit Shah, Sonia gandhi, BJP President Amit Shah, Congress president Sonia Gandhi, BJP, Congress, Agustawestland deal, National herald case, @2G scam, india newsBJP chief Amit Shah (Left) and Congress President Sonia Gandhi.
    BJP chief Amit Shah on Tuesday took a dig at Congress President Sonia Gandhi, saying everyone was aware of her “love for her son, National Herald and 2G”.
    “Soniaji, everyone in this country is aware of your ‘desh prem’ (patriotism) and ‘putra prem’ (your love for your son), your National Herald prem’ (your love for National Herald).
    “The nation is also aware of various other scams including 2G, 3G, Adarsh scam, CWG and AgustaWestland,” Shah said at a rally in a bid to counter Gandhi’s emotional speech in Thiruvananthapuram on Monday, wherein she attacked BJP and Prime MinisterNarendra Modi for taking jibes at her Italian roots.
    “Yesterday, Soniaji came to Kerala and said allegations were leveled against her. Humne to kisi par aarop nahi lagaya (we have not made any allegations against anybody). We said bribe takers in the chopper deal will be punished.
    “Soniaji aap batiyae, aapko dar kyon lag raha hai. (Soniaji tell us why are you scared). Dal mein kuch kala nazar aa raha hai (There is something fishy),” he said.
    “There is corruption everywhere. The 10-year UPA rule resulted in scams totaling 12 lakh crore rupees but Sonia Gandhi ji talks about her love for the nation in Kerala,” he said.
    At a press meet in Thiruvanathapuram, Union Minister Nitin Gadkari said, “Neither the Prime Minister nor BJP has targeted and levelled corruption charges against Gandhi…I do not know what is the reason, when there are charges of corruption, they always use emotional politics. It is an old practice of
    Congress for many years.”
    He said when charges of corruption are leveled against Congress, the party sheds tears.
    Gandhi while addressing an election meeting last night had said India is her home and “it is here that my ashes will mingle with my loved ones”.
    The Congress President used an election rally here to hit back at Modi after the Prime Minister raked up the issue of her Italian roots twice in the last three days while making a veiled attack against her over the controversial AgustaWestland chopper deal.
    BJP’s only agenda was to uproot both Congress-led UDF and CPI-M led LDF from Kerala, Shah said.
    He also wanted to know if 93-year-old V S Achuthanandan, who is the LDF candidate from Malampuzha, would be made chief minister by the CPI-M if the LDF was voted to power.
    LDF has always unleashed violence against BJP-RSS workers, he alleged.
    BJP-NDA wants an opportunity to rule the state, he said and claimed that the experiment with the UDF-LDF did not do any good to Kerala.
    “Communists and Congress are not fighting the polls on any ideology, and only want to come to power,” he said.
    Shah also addressed meetings at nearby Thrissur district.
    Why was Sonia silent on graft during UPA rule, asks Amit Shah
    Published: 11th May 2016 05:08 AM
    Last Updated: 11th May 2016 05:23 AM
    Addressing the election rally of NDA in Nenmara Assembly segment here on Tuesday evening, Amit Shah said that Sonia Gandhi during her visit to Kerala had emotionally said that Prime Minister Narendra Modi was hurling baseless charges at the Congress.
    Amit Shah said that Narendra Modi had only stated that those who had committed corruption in the helicopter case will be brought to book.
    The people know as to why Sonia Gandhi is expressing her love for the country now. There were a large number of corruption cases during the UPA rule which include the National Herald case, Adarsh Flat case, Commonwealth case, 2G Spectrum case, coal auction case, helicopter and ship to name a few.
    He said the UDF Government was also engaged in corrupt deals like the Travancore Titanium case, Solar case and road and building scandals. However, the Congress was unable to raise any corruption cases against the BJP Government.
    To the charge of A K Antony that the BJP national leaders were concentrating on Kerala and had a hidden agenda, Amit Shah said that the BJP did not have a hidden agenda but will do everything before
    the people openly. The only agenda before the BJP is to remove the corrupt Congress government from power. Amit Shah called on the CPM to state as to who it proposed to make the Chief Minister -Achuthanandan or Pinarayi Vijayan in the event of winning the elections. He charged that it was the Communist party which had a hidden agenda of projecting Achuthanandan on the election front and proposed to make Pinarayi Vijayan as the Chief Minister.
    The CPM is stating that if the BJP -BDJS combine came to power it would result in communal strife. The BJP is in power in 14 states and also at the Centre and in all these states the situation is very peaceful. Among those who were present included the BJP candidates in Nenmara, Alathur and Chittur N Sivarajan, Srikumaran Master and M Shashikumar respectively and BJP district president Adv E Krishnadas.
    Narendra Modi had only stated that those who had committed corruption in the helicopter case would be brought to book.

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    The history of modern Indian corruption

    Published: 10th May 2016 04:00 AM
    Last Updated: 10th May 2016 08:57 AM
    The Court of Appeals in Milan has sent two senior officials of Finmeccanica, the Italian aerospace company, to jail for false accounting and corruption in the `3,600-crore AgustaWestland helicopter deal. It now transpires that the company had set apart 30 million Euros towards bribes to Indians to win this contract.
    Corruption in defence deals is nothing new in India, but the AgustaWestland bribery case stands out for a very special reason, namely, that bribe-givers have been packed off to jail by an Italian court even as Indian investigators are groping in the dark as they search for the bribe-takers. This has happened in the past too.
    But, while we are seized of the case at hand, we need to look at the larger issue, namely, the modern Indian history of corruption, and get to the genesis of bribes and commissions. There are many prominent witnesses to this history of corruption, who provide us valuable evidence of how and where it all began. These witnesses include, former President R Venkataraman, former Cabinet Secretary BG Deshmukh, former CBI Director Mr AP Mukherjee, former Ambassador and a member of the Nehru family Mr BK Nehru and Mr JRD Tata. The most important witness to this history is Mr R Venkataraman. In his autobiography, My Presidential Years, he provides us a nugget of information that holds the clue to corruption and bribery in big  international deals. He refers to a conversation he had with JRD Tata, when the latter called on him at Rashtrapati Bhavan.
    Commenting on Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s statement on Bofors, Mr Tata told the President “it would be difficult”  for the Congress Party to deny the receipt of commission, because, since 1980, industrialists were not approached for political contributions. Consequently, the general feeling among industrialists was that the party was financed by commission on deals. Although Mr Venkataraman held key portfolios, including Defence, in the Indira Cabinet, he does not challenge or repudiate the comments of Mr Tata. He just slips it in and allows his readers to digest the information! The testimony of Mr BG Deshmukh, who was Cabinet Secretary from 1986 to 1989, is even more damning. In his autobiography titled, A Cabinet Secretary Looks Back, Mr Deshmukh deals with the Bofors scandal involving corruption in the purchase of field guns from this Swedish company in 1986 and links it to Indira Gandhi’s policy of not collecting party funds within the country, preferring instead to take cuts on global deals.
    According to him, the genesis of the Bofors affair lay “in the practice initiated by Indira Gandhi for collecting funds for the Congress Party.” According to him, collection of party funds was more transparent in Jawaharlal Nehru’s time. In his view, at the beginning of her tenure as PM, Indira Gandhi realised that she needed funds to fight elections “to establish herself as the undisputed leader of the Congress Party.” Once she established herself, Deshmukh says, Indira Gandhi “decided that a far better way to collect funds for the party was through claiming cuts from foreign deals.” This system, according to him, “earned notoriety” in foreign countries. “In the HDW Submarine case, I was told the West German defence ministry had intimated to the defence supplier the amount of corruption that would be required to be paid in selling defence equipment. Commission on such deals was 10 per cent or more in Latin America and Africa, whereas India was placed in the 5-10 per cent bracket,” he says.
    Mr Deshmukh’s reference to HDW is significant because like Bofors, this deal too became controversial following a telex message which indicated HDW would have to give a commission of seven per cent in order to clinch the contract. In his autobiography, BK Nehru too refers to collection of party funds by the Congress and quotes Rajiv Gandhi as having told him that in the 1980s, “crores and unaccounted crores” had been collected for party purposes.
    Much of this gets further corroboration in former CBI Director Mr AP Mukherjee’s book, Unknown facets of Rajiv Gandhi, Jyoti Basu and Indrajit Gupta. He says Rajiv Gandhi told him at the height of the Bofors controversy in 1989 that a big all-India party needed “substantial amounts of money. When he discussed it with colleagues, they said commissions to middlemen should be banned but commissions to be given as a matter of routine practice by the suppliers of major defence materials could be pooled under the care of some non-government entity which could be utilised solely for the purpose of meeting the inescapable expenses of the party.” Mr Mukherjee says Rajiv told him that endorsed this idea.
    Later, after the fall of the Rajiv government, the VP Singh Government secured the help of the Swiss and British governments and got evidence of the Bofors’ payments trail. One trail established that Bofors had remitted US $ 7.3 million to the Swiss Bank account of Maria and Ottavio Quattrocchi, close friends of Sonia and Rajiv. So, there is sufficient evidence to establish that commissions on international deals have been ‘de rigueur’ since the 1980s. 
    There are some who,  for domestic political reasons, despise everything that is Italian. That would not be the right approach. The recent AgustaWestland judgement shows we have much to learn from Italy. We must hope that the investigators will follow the leads and complete the process initiated by the court in Milan. On reading the judgement, one thing is for sure, if the investigators track down the final beneficiary, the Italians will not mind it!
    Asurya prakash is the chairperson of Prasar Bharati

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    Once the ED trace the Tunisian company investment in Emaar the Gandhi will be arrested.

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    Displaying 5e4dd7cdebd8af9c3c00a2259d82100a.jpg

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    Thursday, 12 May 2016 | Gautam Mukherjee | in Edit
          It is not a coincidence that the arrival of Subramanian Swamy into the Rajya Sabha and the BJP’s sharpened attack on the Congress’s first family over the AgustaWestland scam have happened at the same time
    The elevation of the brilliant and rapier-sharp Subramanian Swamy into the Rajya Sabha, represents the beginning of the end for the erstwhile touch-me-not ‘first and last’ family of the Congress. Swamy has come in with the personal backing of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, that of BJP party president Amit Shah, and the top brass of the RSS. Further, Subramanian Swamy, a top-notch economist, capable of taking bold steps, may also soon be offered the Finance portfolio. This new innings for Swamy may also harbinger an economic policy course-correction. He is noted for advocating the abolition of income tax, paid only by a miniscule proportion of the overall population, mainly from the salaried middle class. Swamy, if he becomes Finance Minister, is expected to move much faster with other second-generation reforms, long awaited by the international investment community, as well.
    The timidity on this front thus far may have been due, in part, to resistance from vested interests and pressure groups, including trade unions. But at the same time, it is undeniable that the Government has failed to elicit cooperation from the Congress, however gingerly it was handled. If Swamy takes over the Finance Ministry, the Congress will not figure in his calculations.
    Swamy, therefore, lost no time in calling out the new Government stance. He sallied forth in his very first address in the upper House, in repeating allegations from a recent Italian court judgement  against ‘Signora Gandhi’, possibly being the principal bribe-taker in the AgustaWestland scandal. This was, as usual, broadcast live to the nation, before being expunged from the parliamentary record, for not following laid-down procedures by naming people not present in the House.
    The re-emergence of parliamentarian Subramanian Swamy also puts paid to his jealous and discomfited detractors within the BJP fold, some of whom are allegedly sympathetic to the Congress high command. The determined, supremely confident, and energetic Swamy, has now thrown down the gauntlet. But the Congress is floundering, having admitted bribes were taken. Not being able to match Swamy in reasoned debate, the party continued its practice of necessitating adjournments through chaos.
     This has been the established Rahul Gandhi strategy in Parliament since 2014, justified as a tit-for-tat retaliation for the BJP during the UPA years. But, this unimaginative and reactionary tactic is suffering now from the law of diminishing returns, both in Parliament and in the public perception.
    Oddly enough, legislative bills, if not the most important ones, are getting passed, despite Congress obduracy. Meanwhile, the public is growing increasingly unsympathetic. Not allowing Parliament to function is not only proving counter-productive, it is also isolating Congress within the opposition ranks. Whether Swamy succeeds in putting Sonia Gandhi and Rahul Gandhi in jail via his private effort on theNational Herald scandal, remains to be seen. But he has already done considerable damage to the inviolate image of the Nehru-Gandhis.
     And now, with Minister for Defence Manohar Parrikar’s backing, will the various investigative agencies and arms of the Government succeed in prosecuting Sonia Gandhi for AgustaWestland as well? Investigations are on in right earnest — only for the first time, after the UPA tried to bury the scam. Rahul Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi were both released on bail in the National Herald case. The prima facie evidence of wrongdoing has been established.
    In the AgustaWestland matter, a mounting body of circumstantial evidence is beginning to pile up, with more people in the know coming forward and speaking up, now that the political dispensation has changed. Crucial missing files, saved from possible evidence-destroying arson, have been recovered, and the foreign missions are also on the job. The Government is serious about getting to the bottom of this.
    Meanwhile, at 10, Janpath, it is taking the thick skin of a threatened one-horned Indian rhino to carry on. It takes hard-boiled pretence at composure to attempt deflection  using high falutin talk of democracy, the Constitution, intolerance, character assassination, lies, innuendo, and political vendetta. Wiggle on the hook as they might, the Nehru-Gandhis have lost a great deal of credibility. The courts may be a while before they grind to a verdict, ranging in depth and duration from the district courts, up through the high courts, all the way to the Supreme Court.
    The lesser fry, such as the bureaucrats, Armed Forces personnel, who have received proportionately small amounts as bribe,when put under intense scrutiny, will probably provide much of the incriminating evidence on the ‘main beneficiaries’. The various shadowy middlemen in the AgustaWestland deal, Europeans and Indians alike, some who have been close to the Nehru-Gandhis for long, may also think it opportune to spill the beans.
    But, the voters, participating in ongoing and impending State Assembly elections; they who threw out the late Rajiv Gandhi after Bofors, will not let Sonia Gandhi, son Rahul, daughter Priyanka Vadra and son-in-law Robert Vadra, back into power. The Congress coteries and courtiers may try to brazen it out, telling themselves they will be back in the saddle, come 2019. It seems increasingly unlikely that the Congress will be the principal party in any anti-BJP coalition.
    After the election results in Assam and Kerala come out later this month, the Congress may find itself with next to no State left. In West Bengal, even if its alliance comes out on top, it won’t be the Congress that benefit as much as the communists will.
    Meanwhile, Sonia Gandhi’s harried proclamations of innocence, and not being ‘afraid’ are being belied by her body language. This is showing immense strain, in Parliament, in political speeches, media comments and out on the street. How can the Nehru-Gandhis win the perception battle now, even amongst neutrals, when the torrent of bribery and corruption stories regarding them never seems to let up? So much so, there is no pronouncement from them these days that is not bracketed along with corruption allegations, to complete the context.
    One can march on camera for 10 minutes in the noon-day sun, without breaking a sweat, and even court arrest along with an 82 year old former Prime Minister, ostensibly for ‘democracy’ But bored TV anchors and guests are shaking their heads at the charade, with one keeping an empty chair for missing Congress spokespersons. And out in cyberspace, there is much jeering, and lampooning social media commentary on the Congress.

    • Vidya Amirapu  
      Nice article-well summarising the facts. If So Ga's body language belies " Mai Indira ki Bahu hoon aur kissi sey nahi darthi".....then full mark to Dr Swamy. His efforts have borne fruits despite his detractors.
      Dr Swamy, NaMo and BJP are in a sweet spot and we are enjoying every moment of the IPL (Indian Parliamentary League) Onward to victory-aapkey muh main ghee shakkar!
      3 days ago
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      Hirendranath Up Voted
      • S. Kumar  
        You are being unduly optimistic. Congress moles in BJP are still powerful and influential and Modi is in thrall to them. He has just wasted 2 years. Swamy too will be reined in. Sorry for the dampener.
        3 days ago
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        Hirendranath Up Voted
        • Arish Sahani  
          67 Yrs of congress rule has given one great gift to Indians. Corruption rooted in each dept and each is affected by this . 
          Modi want Congress free Govt means overall of all depts. It will take time and people need to help him by winning each election to make life of next generation better .
          3 days ago
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          Roger · Hirendranath Up Voted
          • JJitendra  
            Swamy's induction in RS has been the master stroke of BJP strategists.BJP waited for two long years for Congress to see the logic of constructive co operation that is due to a party that has won 282 seats.Knives are out now.Only dynasts are to be blamed for this.
            3 days ago
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            Roger · Hirendranath Up Voted
            • MM.  
              By no means you can call a family No 1, neither they are first citizen of India, President of India, you can after all call them First Corrupt family of India.
              3 days ago
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              Roger · Jayanti Up Voted
              • BBharatK  
                He wrote: first and last’ family of the Congress.
                3 days ago
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              • HH.Balakrishnan  
                Sir, " And now, with Minister for Defence Manohar Parrikar’s backing, will the various investigative agencies and arms of the Government succeed in prosecuting Sonia Gandhi for AgustaWestland as well?" I seriously doubt the professional investigative competence of our investigative machinery.They have allowed themselves to be used by the Netas, In the process they have allowed their professional competence to be 'Gone with the Wind'. And, even if they succeed in charge sheeting the accused, there is the broken and in ICU - Criminal Justice System of this country to reckon with. After all a Special Court was established for the 2G Scam. It was to have 'no adjournments'. It was to sit daily 'except on Sundays and public holidays'. YET WHERE IS THE JUDGEMENT ??? Our judiciary has become a 'Law Unto Themselves' . Sorry state of affairs.
                3 days ago
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                Amarendra · Roger · Hirendranath · Yogesh · Jayanti Up Voted
                • HH.Balakrishnan  
                  Sir, " Further, Subramanian Swamy, a top-notch economist, capable of taking bold steps, may also soon be offered the Finance portfolio ". How middle class India 'longs for such a news' to become reality. The present FM has been a DISASTER - all the way. Talk of 'square pegs in round holes' !!

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                How a 15-year-old discovered an ancient city

                • 10 May 2016
                William GadouryImage copyrightCANADIAN SPACE AGENCY
                What was your biggest achievement at the age of 15? Well, a Canadian teenager may have outshone the experts after discovering a lost Mayan city. William Gadoury, from Saint-Jean-de-Matha, Quebec, made the discovery by comparing star charts with satellite images. The new city, discovered in a Mexican jungle, is thought to be the fourth biggest Mayan city, and has been named 'Mouth of Fire' by the teenager.
                The revelation went viral after a report on the findings was posted on Reddit - withhundreds of commenters amazed by the teenager's discovery.
                RedditImage copyrightREDDIT
                Comment on RedditImage copyrightREDDIT
                William has been fascinated by the Mayans for much of his childhood, ever since a Mayan calendar predicting the 2012 apocalypse sparked his interest.
                His hobby eventually turned into serious research. The imaginative youngster theorised that the locations of Mayan cities might correspond to stars in Mayan constellations. He analysed 22 Mayan star maps from ancient books (known as the Madrid Codex), and overlaid the star positions onto Google Earth images of the Yucatan Peninsula. He was able to show that the 117 Mayan cities did indeed match the star positions, with the brightest stars representing more major cities.
                A Mayan pyramid in the ancient city of Comalcalco
                Image captionA Mayan pyramid in the ancient city of Comalcalco
                William then overlaid a 23rd constellation, finding a discrepancy; three stars but only two known ancient cities. The location corresponding to the third star was on the Mexico-Belize border. But the as-yet undiscovered city was covered in thick vegetation, making his findings inconclusive.
                Thankfully, the teenager had a close relationship with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) - he had won a science competition a year earlier for his theory - and they had already been providing him with images from their RADARSAT-2 satellite, which has cutting-edge terrain mapping abilities. They gave him images of the new location.
                Canadian Space Agency satellite images showing the lost Mayan cityImage copyrightCANADIAN SPACE AGENCY
                Image captionA radar image taken by RADARSAT-2 shows a square, man-made structure in the Yucatan Peninsula jungle
                He also scoured the internet for other satellite images from 2005, when a fire had engulfed the area leaving it more exposed - and any remains more visible.
                Armed with his images, he then collaborated with Remote Sensing expert Dr. Armand Larocque from the University of New Brunswick. By studying the satellite images and applying digital image processing a fascinating discovery was made; LaRocque concluded that the 15 year old had found a major city with 30 buildings and a large pyramid.
                His findings have been met with widespread praise, with scientists from the Canadian Space Agency describing his work as 'exceptional'. They also presented him with a medal of merit.
                William named the city K'ÀAK 'CHI' which means Mouth of Fire.
                So what next for William? He plans to go to the International Science Fair in Brazil in 2017 to present his findings. He also hopes that archaeologists will visit the site very soon. On the possibility of an archaeological dig, Rocque is realistic, tellingThe Montreal Journal "It's always about money. An expedition's costs are horribly expensive".
                Regardless, William's legacy will almost certainly be etched into history. According to reports, the findings are soon to be published in a scientific journal, and it is thought that methods similar to his could lead to the discovery of more lost Mayan Cities.
                Update: Since publication of this article some other experts have expressed scepticism at William's findings. Dr. David Stuart, an anthropologist from The Mesoamerica Center, University of Texas posted a response on Facebook claiming 'ancient Maya didn't plot their ancient cities according to constellations'. Stuart - an expert on the Maya Civilisation - described the square feature as an 'old fallow cornfield'.
                Blog by Alex Dackevych

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                To the Editor:
                Re “Debate Erupts in California Over How Curriculum Should Portray India” (news article, May 6):
                In the debate over how to portray ancient India, and the use of the term “India,” current scholars of India, in particular political scientists, have intervened, preferring to use the term “South Asia,” which is also used at Harvard as the name for the academic unit that deals with the Indian subcontinent.
                Even those preferring this clumsy alternative do not shy away from the term “Indian” for the subcontinent — even your headline writer cannot evade the term “India.”
                For ancient India, as known to the classical Greeks and to Alexander, and to Greek and Roman geographers, to Portuguese adventurers, to 17th- and 18th-century British, French and Dutch merchants, to British imperialists, what other term, or some equivalent, would serve?
                They could not conceive of it as “South Asia.” They knew it as a distinctive civilization, stretching from the Indus to the Ganges, from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean (and should we change that name, too?), with its own ancient languages, and classic texts, and religions descended from them.
                “South Asia” is in vogue to avoid offending Pakistan and Bangladesh, but for history before 1947 no other term will serve.
                NATHAN GLAZER
                Cambridge, Mass.
                The writer, the sociologist, is professor emeritus at Harvard.

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                Dear Editor, NY Times
                I agree with Vidhima that to call India as ‘South Asia’ is akin to asking her to change her name.

                Hindu or India have been traditionally used to indicate the locus of a large population of the world which has the weltanschauung ‘world view’ of Dharma-Dhamma.

                In Rigveda, one of the oldest human documents, there is a Sukta 10.125 where the divinity of learning calls herself, in a soliloquy, ‘I am Rashtrii’ which means, I am the Nation. This is the socio-political framework for a nationstate giving 

                 a geographical boundary for governance
                ​ of people who were called Bharatam Janam​
                . The Shukla Yajurveda (also called Vajasneyi Samhita
                ​ 10.2​
                ) describes in detail the attributes of such a nation, rashtram.

                History cannot be wiped out by the attempts at renaming using geographically bizarre notions such as South Asia without taking into account the works like the magnum opus of George Coedes, the French Epigraphist who titled his 1944 work Les états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient (Trans. The Hinduised states of the Far Orient or Far East). If the political science scholars want to invent new names, they can as well choose Hindu Rashtrii which will be in conformity with the texts and political science literature.

                ​ The spread of this nation was described in literature as Asetu himachalam, that is, 'From the Setu or Adam's bridge to Himalayas'. As we all know, the Himalayas range from Hanoi in Vietnam to Teheran in Iran making the glacieal ranges the Greatest Water Tower of the Globe still growing thanks to plate tectonics with Indian plate lifting up the Eursian plate making the dynamic Himalayas grow 1 cm taller every year and yielding five of the greatest rivers of the globe, all of them perennial rivers.​

                Dr. S. Kalyanaraman, Director, Sarasvati Research Center 

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                CSIR launches India’s first ayurvedic anti-diabetic drug

                 February 03, 2016  DeshGujarat


                The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) today launched the country’s first anti-diabetic ayurvedic drug for type two Diabetes mellitus.

                The drug BGR-34 is developed jointly by National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) and Central Institute for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), the Lucknow-based research units of CSIR.

                Launching the drug at a function here, Senior Principal Scientist, CSIR-NBRI, Dr A K S Rawat said, “Six crore adult Indian population has been found to be diabetic and there is no effective solution for diabetes as yet.

                “We are sure that eminent medical professionals will recommend it to their patients suffering from type two Diabetes mellitus for quicker and consistent response.

                “The scientists of NBRI and CIMAP joined hands to develop an effective, safe, patient-friendly solution towards management of type two Diabetes. While the modern diabetes drugs are known for side-effects and toxicity, BGR-34 works by controlling blood sugar and limiting the harmful effects of other drugs,” he said.

                Dr Ch V Rao, Principal Scientist CSIR-NBRI said, “BGR-34 is a unique product that manages the lives of people suffering from diabetes. One of the critical ingredients is that it inhibits DPP-4 and enhances insulin secretion. The product has passed several battery of tests and showed hypoglycemic activity in experimental subjects”.

                For the purpose of quality commercial production and extended distribution, AIMIL Pharmaceuticals (I) Ltds, known for its innovative Ayurvedic products, has been transferred the rights and technical knowhow to produce and market it for medical use.

                K K Sharma, Managing Director of AIMIL pharmaceuticals, said, “We have decided to launch this marvelous anti-diabetic product in the name of BGR-34, which stands for Blood Glucost Regulator, containing 34 identified active phyto-constitutes from herbal resources.”

                AIMIL pharmaceuticals already had one successful technological collaboration with Defence Research and Development Organisation for effective and safe treatment of leucoderma, still considered a big challenge.

                The product for leucoderma was launched in the market in the name of ‘Lukoskin’, he added.



                CSIR launches first ayurvedic anti-diabetic drug

                IANS | Feb 3, 2016, 04.37 PM IST

                KOZHIKODE: The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) on Wednesday launched BGR-34 -- the country's first anti-diabetic ayurvedic drug designed for Type-2 diabetes mellitus, which has been scientifically validated for its efficacy and safety.

                BGR-34 has been developed jointly by the National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) and the Central Institute for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), which are the research units of CSIR and located in Lucknow.

                BGR-34 costs Rs 5 per tablet and is available at all major chemist counters in Kerala.

                Speaking at the launch, A K S Rawat, senior principal scientist, CSIR-NBRI, said six crore of the adult Indian population has been diagnosed with diabetes.

                "We are sure that eminent medical professionals will now recommend it to their patients suffering from Type-2 diabetes mellitus for quicker and consistent response. CSIR's premier research institutions have developed and established the efficacy of BGR-34," said Rawat.

                Scientists of NBRI and CIMAP made an in-depth study of over 500 renowned ancient herbs and finally identified the six best herbs listed in ayurvedic ancient texts to be combined in different fractions and quantities and processed meticulously to develop this new drug.

                V Rao, principal scientist CSIR-NBRI, said BGR-34 is a unique product that manages the lives of human beings suffering from diabetes.

                "This product passed several battery of tests and showed hypoglycaemic activity in experimental subjects," said Rao.

                For the purpose of quality commercial production and extended distribution, Aimil Pharmaceuticals (I) Ltd, known for its innovative, quality herbal and ayurvedic products, has been transferred the rights and technical knowhow to produce and market it for medical use.

                K K Sharma, managing director of Aimil Pharmaceuticals, said they were happy to partner institutes of such repute for passing on its benefits to the people.



                                         BGR-34 : Anti-Diabetic Medicine


                Note: This product is sold to you on the premise that you have received advice from a doctor and that you are not self-medicating.

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                Rs. 505.00

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                Product Description

                BGR-34, a Blood Glucose Regulator brings the revolution, with a breakthrough Phyto-research of decade, jointly developed by scientist of CSIR-NBRICSIR-CIMAP.

                BGR-34 manages the lives of suffering Diabetics. It is an optimized concentration of synergistically acting herbal extracts makes it highly efficacious in Type-2 Diabetes mellitus.

                Dosage :

                2 tablets twice a day before your meal.

                Additional Information

                Brand                        -  BGR-34

                Seller Name              -  Aimil Healthcare & Reseach Centre

                Quantity                    -  100 tablets

                Concern                    -  Type-II Diabetes

                Flavour                      -  Unflavoured

                Container                  -  Pet Bottle

                Dosage Form            - Tablets Dose - 2 Tablets a day

                Natural / Synthetic   - 100% natural

                Herb Highlights

                Daruharidra - Improves health & functioning of pancreas, naturally.

                Vijaysar - Rich in flavonoids, strengthens the cells and help maintain normal blood glucose level.

                Giloy - A unique herb to improve immunity. Helps improve resistance to infections.

                Majeeth - Powerful anti-oxidant activity. Helps protect vital organs from oxidative damage.

                Methika - One of the best sources of Micro-nutrients. Nourishes &tones  the vital organs.

                Gudmar - Maintains post-prandial blood glucose level by delaying glucose absorption.

                Contact Us

                Aimil Healthcare & Research Centre
                2699 Street No 13, Main Patel Road, Ranjeet Nagar,
                New Delhi-110008




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                Christian Michel-owned Panama company Keyser Incorporated in AgustaWestland probe

                The company, Keyser Incorporated, is registered in Panama and was founded by Christian’s father Wolfgang Michel, who died in 2012.
                The company, Keyser Incorporated, is registered in Panama and was founded by Christian’s father Wolfgang Michel, who died in 2012.

                According to ED investigators, there is evidence that Beetle Nut Home opened at least two ultra-luxury shops in Delhi and Mumbai in recent years.
                NEW DELHI: Christian Michel with a Panama hat. Or a Panama Papers-like twist to the Agusta-Westland story.

                The AgustaWestland investigation by the Enforcement Directorate is expanding in scope and the agency is closely looking at a Christian Michel-owned company incorporated in Panama. The company, Keyser Incorporated, is registered in Panama and was founded by Christian's father Wolfgang Michel, who died in 2012.

                Wolfgang Michel, ED officials said, had been close to many political leaders in India. Keyser had an earlier agreement with French company Dassault when the latter was selling Mirage fighter aircraft to India.

                ET has reviewed company papers of Keyser Inc. ED officials, who spoke for this report, did so on the condition they not be identified.

                Christian Michel-owned Panama company Keyser Incorporated in AgustaWestland probeED is already looking at Christian Michel's companies in India and Dubai. The Panama angle is the latest addition to the agency's probe into money laundering in the Agusta deal.

                Michel has been identified as the key middleman in the deal which saw, according to an Italian court, money being paid to Indian officials. ED and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) had asked Interpol to issue a red corner notice against Michel in December 2015.

                ED officials said they are confident of apprehending the middleman within 2-3 months and they believe that key information on the money trail of alleged payoffs from AgustaWestland will come to light.

                Keyser Inc was set up in 1995 in Panama. Christian's father Wolfgang was the original owner of the company along with a mysterious Vikram Singh (with no known address, said ED officials). The company was transferred to Christian in 1997.

                The company was used, ED investigators said, by Christian Michel to deal with Indian projects on at least one known occasion. It had a consultancy agreement with French company Dassault — just a year after Keyser was registered in Panama — for assistance in the sale of 10 Mirage fighters to the Indian Air Force.

                The Mirage deal with India was signed in November 2000 for 346 million euros. The Keyser agreement, which was signed in 1996 and was renewed twice, came to light in 2002 when Michel sued Dassault for failing to pay it a 'success' commission of 2.5% of the deal value.

                Michel, however, lost the case as the court ruled that the agreement with Dassault expired on December 31, 1998, two years before the Indian contract was inked, thus making him ineligible for any commission. A copy of the judgement is available with ET.

                Dassault, which is currently in negotiations for the Rafale fighter deal in India, had then said the agreement with Michel was only for advisory help. Besides Keyser, Indian investigators are also looking at Michel's other business interests involving India. One company that has been raided is Media Exim that ED alleges was being operated by Michel.

                Investigators are also looking at another UK company linked with Michel, named Beetle Nut Home Ltd, which was originally set up by Danish citizen Christine Bredo Spliid. ET reported Spliid's possible connection to the Agusta deal in its Friday edition. 

                Was 31-year-old Christine Bredo the X-factor in Agusta deal?

                RELATED VIDEO

                Was 31-year-old Christine Bredo the X-factor in Agusta deal?

                The sleuths of the Central Bureau of Investigation and Enforcement Directorate are now busy piecing together details of Spliid’s visits to India between 2010 and 2013, the officials said.
                The sleuths of the Central Bureau of Investigation and Enforcement Directorate are now busy piecing together details of Spliid’s visits to India between 2010 and 2013, the officials said.

                NEW DELHI: A 31-year-old blonde woman has added a fresh dash of mystery to theAgustaWestland helicopter scam probeChristine Bredo Spliid is believed to have walked the corridors of power in Delhi and probably helped her employer, middleman Christian Michel, swing the deal in favour of the Anglo-Italian company.

                Spliid's involvement came to light following the ongoing interrogation of the accused persons, including lawyer Gautam Khaitan, officials familiar with the details emerging from the investigation told ET on condition of anonymity.

                The sleuths of the Central Bureau of Investigation and Enforcement Directorate are now busy piecing together details of Spliid's visits to India between 2010 and 2013, the officials said.

                "Christine, then in her 20s, was Michel's front as she met government officials and even political leaders. She appears to have travelled to Dubai and Zurich in connection with the Agusta deal. We are checking all her records with immigration," a CBI official said.

                Spliid, a Danish national living in London, was appointed as director in one of Michel's companies, Beetel Nut Home Ltd, which he is believed to have used for laundering the money he received as kickbacks.

                The CBI has managed to establish her presence in India and Dubai, coinciding with the time frame of negotiations in the Rs 3,600-crore VVIP chopper deal, which was scrapped by the then UPA government in February 2013 after revelations of kickbacks emerged. Officials said the details of her movements will help the probing agencies dig deeper into Michel's activities.

                Investigations so far show that her visits to Dubai coincided with the times Michel was known to be there. "We are in the process of tying up some loose ends before we officially approach UK authorities regarding Christine. We may ask for her custody," an official said. The CBI is, however, already in touch with the authorities in London at an informal level, he said.

                Spliid joined Beetel Nut Home Ltd when the company was incorporated in 2009 and stayed on till 2012, when it was dissolved. The company was registered at 37, Warren Street, London. She continues to hold sole directorship of two companies, French Crystal Decor Limited and Croprotein Ltd, both registered at the same central London address as that used for Beetel Nut.

                Investigators believe these three companies, along with probably some more, form a labyrinth of entities related to Michel in London. Spliid met Michel through the owner of a health and fitness chain of clubs, an official said, citing information that has emerged from the probe. She was into the health sector before she was made director in Beetel Nut Home, whose business was not described in the incorporation papers.

                Now, as per information available with the CBI, Spliid is working on producing a protein bar made with natural ingredients including cricket flour. Last heard, she was trying to get crowdfunding for her project, an official said.

                AgustaWestland probe: CBI to question wife of accused


                Christin Michel confims Signora Sonia Note

                AgustaWestland: Christian Michel arms govt by confirming ‘Signora Sonia’ note

                by May 4, 2016
                When Rahul Gandhi made a one-line statement claiming, "I am always being targeted, happy to be targeted", without stopping or slowing his hurried walk inside Parliament, he would not have anticipated that only hours later Rosemary Patrizi Dos Anjos, the lawyer of Christian Michel, the middleman in the AgustaWestland VVIP chopper scam - now a wanted criminal in India - would appear live on Times Now. Or that she would accept that her client had written a note naming Sonia Gandhi and describing her as 'driving force' behind the deal.

                This has hit Congress where it could hurt it most.

                Michel's lawyer's admission came at a time when the party is doing everything in its command to deflect the heat from its Sonia Gandhi's alleged involvement in the deal. This is additional ammunition for Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar when he rises to make a statement on the AgustaWestland scam on Wednesday in the Rajya Sabha.

                The problem for the Congress and its first family is that the continuing revelations have cast a shadow on Rahul as well. BJP MP Kirit Somaiya has linked the family of Rahul's aide Kanishka Singh with the other middleman Guido Ralph Haschke. Singh has denied the charge but Somaiya has made some fresh charges against Rahul Gandhi - of buying two shops in MGF Metropolitan Mall, Saket. And although Rahul owning a shop in that mall, or leasing it to MGF and finally selling it to MGF for profit does not have any direct connection with Choppergate per se, it does suggest that Haschke had his ways around the corridors of power in Delhi.

                Somaiya tweeted:

                MGF is part of Emaar MGF and in September 2009, the company appointed Haschke and Gautam Khaitan as directors on its board. The same company had built the Commonwealth Games villages in New Delhi and hit the headlines for all the wrong reasons with the Union Urban Development Ministry and the Delhi Development Authority going out of the way to sweeten the deal for Emaar MGF.

                This coupled with the revelations that the then defence minister AK Antony approved the blacklisting of AgustaWestland only on 12 May, 2014 - after it had become certain that the Congress was about to lose power at the Centre with the last phase of poling done and exit polls indicating that the Narendra Modi-led BJP was way ahead - will add to the Congress' discomfort. The order banning procurement was finally issued on 3 July, 2014 by then defence minister Arun Jaitley.

                ]Representational image. ReutersRepresentational image. Reuters
                The other question that the Congress will have to answer is why the CBI and Enforcement Directorate (ED) virtually slept on the files for over one year, from March 2013 when the FIR was registered till May 2014 - the time the UPA government was ousted.

                The Congress had so far been claiming that the Manmohan Singh government had blacklisted AgustaWestland, ordered a CBI, ED inquiry and it is the Modi government that should be blamed for inaction on the issue. Unfortunately for the Congress, after each of their claims, evidence has emerged that the party was consciously indulging in speaking half-truths or plain lies.

                Patrizi's stating, "I know about that note" in response to a query about the veracity of the note sent by Michel to Peter Hullet, who then helmed India operations of AgustaWestland, will have a damning effect on the Congress party because her statement negates the Congress' claims about the authenticity of the unsigned note.

                When Parrikar speaks in the Rajya Sabha, the Congress benches may have to deal with some moments of deep discomfort.

                The former prime minister and former defence minister should be present in the House. However, it remains to be seen whether the Congress will allow Parrikar to make his full statement, also how Singh and Antony, if at all, counter him.

                Three days ago, Parrikar on his part had made clear what he intends to do in Parliament.

                "I will place the detailed chronology, giving facts about the chopper deal before Parliamenton Wednesday. I will place the detailed chronology, giving how and when necessary clauses or provisions were relaxed to suit the companies. Those who received kickbacks will not leave behind the proof for us to prosecute them, but we will have to prove it (that kickbacks were received).Why no action was taken against the company till 2014? Why was the company not blacklisted by then UPA government? I challenge the Congress to show the UPA government's order blacklisting the AgustaWestland company. Let them reply first why it was not banned."

                As for middleman Michel offer's to turn approver (made by his lawyer to Times Now on Tuesday night and denied later by Michel a little while later) with certain conditions attached that he would not be arrested, treated wrongly and so on, the government has already clarified that there would be no deal with him.

                "It is well known that any understanding/agreement with an accused outside the frame of law is a criminal act in itself. James Christian Michael is a criminal wanted by the Indian law enforcement agencies. We are pursuing all legal means to arrest him and have him extradited to India. Mr Michel should submit himself to the Indian legal system rather than make elliptical references to offers that are suspect in intent and reality. We are determined that the law must take its course against Mr Michel and his associates in this matter," the government said.

                Aide of 'Michel the Middleman' could help CBI unravel the AgustaWestland kickback trail

                RK Nanda, a Delhi-based entrepreneur running a travel agency, a jewellery firm, and a music business, could be the man to help the CBI unravel the AgustaWestland money trail.
                Working closely with middleman Christian Michel - the man accused of linking everyone together in the chopper deal scam - Nanda allegedly received nearly Rs 19 crore from Michel.
                It is alleged that Nanda set up a shell company, Media Exim, nominally to export jewellery and music CDs.
                It’s been more than three years since the CBI registered cases to probe kickbacks into the Rs 3,600-crore AgustaWestland VVIP helicopter deal. Christian Michel denies any wrongdoing in the failed deal.
                It’s been more than three years since the CBI registered cases to probe kickbacks into the Rs 3,600-crore AgustaWestland VVIP helicopter deal. Christian Michel denies any wrongdoing in the failed deal.
                More than three years after the CBI registered cases to probe kickbacks into the Rs 3,600-crore AgustaWestland VVIP helicopter deal, Nanda is now being interrogated by the CBI to get further leads.
                Dummy company
                Sources allege that Nanda’s company, set up in 2005, was a dummy and was used for Michel to park illegal money.
                On Michel’s instructions, Nanda also invested some money in real estate. Four properties he purchased were later sold.
                According to the CBI, Nanda received Rs 6.5 crore from Michel’s Dubai-based company Global Services FZE between 2005 and 2007.
                Nanda’s company, Supreme Airways, was used to buy air tickets for Michel's travels and his other contacts, for which a payment of Rs 12 crore was made.
                The CBI on Tuesday questioned Nanda about the monetary transactions hoping to make a breakthrough in the case.
                Earlier the CBI also questioned Michel’s chauffeur Narayan Bhadur, who drove him around the power centres of the Capital.

                ublished: May 11, 2016 01:38 IST | Updated: May 11, 2016 01:39 IST  

                Come clean on deal: Shah

                • Staff Reporter
                Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) president Amit Shah on Tuesday asked former Defence Minister A.K. Antony to reveal on whose instruction he changed the tender of the Agusta Westland deal.
                Mr. Antony should tell the country why the trial of the helicopters was done in Italy instead of India, Mr. Shah said.
                Responding to Mr. Antony’s commend that BJP leaders had come to Kerala with a hidden agenda, the BJP president said they had just an open agenda that was to throw out the corrupt UDF government.

                CBI Official statement on Christian Michel

                Published on May 12, 2016

                Central Bureau of Investigation has issued an official statement that it will take all possible steps to take#AgustaWestland case to its logical conclusion. CBI reacting to India Today's exclusive interview with Agusta middleman has said that Christian Michel should join investigations in India. Earlier Enforcement Directorate had informed that it was likely to send its team to Abu Dhabi in connection with Christian Michel as a result of his exclusive interview to India Today in which he has given details and information on the AgustaWestland scam. Probe agencies wants the extradition or deportation of Christian Michel. The agencies believes Michel is not serious with the investigation that the middleman is trying to deflect blame from him.


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                Ta. kompu branch, horn of an animal, musical horn, tusk; kompaṉ tusked or horned animal, clever man (used ironically); koppu branch. Ma. kompu

                horn, tusk, musical horn, branch, pole, mast, spear; kompan horned, male of cattle; a valiant, arrogant person; kompikka to grow arrogant, angry. Ko. kobbranch, horn of an animal, musical horn, tusk; kombn man who thinks well of himself, boastful man; fem. komby. To. kub horn blown by Kota musician. Ka.kombu branch, horn of an animal, musical horn, tusk, root; kombe, (Nanj.) kome branch. Koḍ. kombï branch, horn of an animal. Tu. kombu id., musical horn, tusk; (B-K.) kombe a buck deer; kombelů a horn used by a toddy-tapper. Te. kommu horn, musical horn, tusk; komma branch. Kol. kom branch of tree, horn. Nk. komm horn, Ga. (S.2kommu horn. Go. (Ko.) koma branch of tree (Voc. 912). Konḍa koma (pl. komeŋ) branch of tree; komu (pl. komku) horn.Pe. koma, komo id. Manḍ. kumu id. Kui 

                (Mah., p. 103) gopkā branches. Kuwi (Su.) komma (pl. -ŋa), (F.) kōma (pl. kōmanga), (S.) komma branch; (Su. P.) kommu (pl. komka), (F.) kōmū (pl. kōmka), (S.) kommu horn.(DEDR 2115)

                Archaeologist finds ancient Irish horn in India

                Sunday, May 15, 2016 14:26
                If you think ancient civilizations existed in their own bubbles, you may want to reconsider—especially as an archaeologist from the Australian National University College of Asia-Pacific claims he has discovered that ancient Irish musical traditions and instruments are currently being used in south India.
                The man who made the discovery, PhD student Billy Ó Foghlú, says this realization reveals a long, lively history of cultural exchanges between iron-age Europe and India, dating 2,000 years. He believes the two cultures shared their independently-developed musical technologies and styles, including horns, which are nearly identical when comparing modern Indian horns and iron-age Irish horns.
                “Archaeology is usually silent. I was astonished to find what I thought to be dead soundscapes alive and living in Kerala today,” said Ó Foghlú in an ANU statement. “The musical traditions of south India, with horns such as the kompu, are a great insight into musical cultures in Europe’s prehistory.
                “And, because Indian instruments are usually recycled and not laid down as offerings, the artefacts in Europe are also an important insight into the soundscapes of India’s past.”
                Published on May 12, 2016
                An archaeologist studying musical horns from iron-age Ireland has found musical traditions, thought to be long dead, are alive and well in south India.

                The realisation that modern Indian horns are almost identical to many iron-age European artefacts reveals a rich cultural link between the two regions 2,000 years ago.

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                Monday , May 16 , 2016 |

                Clues to undiscovered Ashoka inscriptions

                New Delhi, May 15: An unusual partnership that combined archaeology, mathematics and wildlife science has predicted the possible locations of undiscovered inscriptions of Ashoka, the celebrated Mauryan emperor who left behind his proclamations on boulders and pillars.
                Researchers at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) have generated a list of 121 sites represented on maps as 1km by 1km grids across the Indian subcontinent where they say there is a high likelihood of finding undiscovered edicts of Ashoka.
                Archaeologists have over the past century found 31 Ashokan edicts inscribed on rocks across the subcontinent, from Kandahar in Afghanistan to Sahasram in Bihar and Jatinga-Ramesvara in Karnataka, and seven edicts on pillars concentrated in the eastern Ganga valley along the present-day India-Nepal border.
                The inscriptions, mainly in the Brahmi script, are the first decipherable written records from the Indian subcontinent and provide insights into Ashoka's activities and thoughts, including his remorse after a great war in Kalinga and his support of Buddhism.
                Now, archaeologist Monika Smith, biogeographer Thomas Gillespie and their colleagues at the UCLA have used a mathematical model to predict the locations of edicts yet to be discovered.
                "The model predicts a high probability of finding edicts in these locations, but this is only a hypothesis," Gillespie told The Telegraph in a telephone interview. The locations are intended to guide archaeologists and other scholars when they select areas to search for more Ashokan edicts, he said.
                The researchers borrowed a tool used in wildlife science called the species-distribution model that uses multiple ecology-related parameters such as the type and abundance of vegetation, terrain features, and climate to predict the presence and abundance of species.
                They assumed that because the edicts were intended to spread the emperor's messages, those who etched the inscriptions were likely to pick sites that were near well-populated areas with appropriate boulders or rocks available to serve as the geological substrate. "We first trained and tested the model through the locations of the 31 known edicts," Gillespie said. "It is clear the sites of the known edicts are located in a non-random pattern."
                All the edicts documented thus far had been chance finds during exploration or excavations, with the first recognised inscription linked to Ashoka documented in 1915. Archaeological papers suggest that inscriptions have been discovered about once every decade with the last finding from Ratanpurwa, Bihar, reported in 2009 by University of Lucknow archaeologist K.K. Thapliyal.
                The UCLA team used a database of global population density through ancient times, geological features and climate parameters to generate the list of 121 sites where, the model predicts, the probability of finding undiscovered edicts is 70 per cent or higher.
                The locations are clustered in pockets of central India and Afghanistan. The researchers have described the results of their study in Antiquity, a global journal of archaeology, and Current Science, a journal published by the Indian Academy of Sciences.
                Sections of Indian archaeologists say the list of 121 locations may help narrow down areas for future search and excavations. But other scholars of ancient India caution that the usefulness, if any, of the methodology would depend on whether it yields discoveries.
                "In archaeology, as in many other disciplines, the proof of the pudding is in the eating," Nayanjot Lahiri, professor of history at India's Ashoka University, Sonepat (Haryana), and author of the book Ashoka in Ancient India, published last August, told this newspaper.
                "The predictive model outlined will carry credibility if discoveries are made there. That is what will make or unmake the model. We should wait for discoveries to be made before pronouncing on the importance or otherwise of this approach. For scholars and enthusiasts of ancient India, the discovery of an Ashokan edict is worth much more than a model which predicts such discoveries will take place," Lahiri said.
                But Sheila Mishra, an archaeologist at the Deccan College, Pune, said: "The period of Ashoka's reign was a very important period of Indian history - even if we were to find just a few more edicts, it would be worth the effort."


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                16 May 2016 Yvette Rosser @

                Why are these South Asianists denying the Dalit-American children in California the right to know that their ancestors were among the most revered saints in all of India?

                The Caravan published an article titled ‘In California, A Debate Over History Curricula Has Brought to Fore Denials of Caste in the Indian American Community.’ by its copy-editor Aria Thaker on April 12, 2016. The article alleges that in the on-going debate over the portrayal of India and Hinduism in the California school textbooks, the Hindu groups, which submitted the edits, have tried to erase references to the caste system. Further, it completely ignores the raging issue- the attempt to erase references to India and Hinduism, which is being opposed by various Hindu groups, and instead tries to portray the issue as one between RSS-affiliated Hindu-American groups trying to put forward Hindutva agenda and South Asian Faculty Group trying to promote truth and objectivity.
                Subsequent to this, on April 22, 2016, The Caravan published a rejoinder- ‘Denial and Destructiveness’ sent by Vamsee Juluri and Yvetter Rosser, who lead Scholars for People- a collective of academics who oppose the South Asian faculty group, along with a response from Aria Thaker to the rejoinder. In her response, Aria Thaker ignores the issues raised in the rejoinder sent by Juluri and Rosser, and instead dismisses their concerns by stating “For all of their claims about the attempted erasure of “a Hindu or even Indian civilization,” Juluri, Rosser and other Hindu advocates fail to recognise the human effects of the erasures being committed by their stance on the debate.” Subsequent to the response by Aria Thaker, Yvette Rosser sent her “Final Response” to Thaker on April 28, 2006, which The Caravan decided to not publish, after a week of ‘deliberation.’
                Here is the full text of the “Final Response” written by Yvette Rosser, that The Caravan refused to publish.
                This is one more attempt from me to help Aria Thakar and the editors of Caravan to lay to rest their seemingly persistent confusion about what is happening right now in California. As the only scholar involved in the California history debate since 2005 with actual expertise in how history is taught in schools (a PhD in Curriculum and Instruction from the University of Texas at Austin [2003]; dissertation title: “Curricula as Destiny: Forging National Identities in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh”- a comparison of high school history textbooks; an MA Thesis in Asian Studies [1997]: “Global Education: India in the U.S. Secondary Social Studies”, examined the academic treatment of non-Western cultures, particularly South Asia.), I must say that it is clear from the original article by Ms. Thakar and her more recent response last week, that she is trying very hard to deny readers an objective picture of the California history frameworks review process and the Scholars for People petition protesting the elimination of the words “India” and “Hinduism” from numerous key places in the curriculum. Her journalistic efforts are a result of her predetermined desire to reduce a broad set of issues to a mostly baseless allegation about “Saffron” inspired caste-revisionism.

                Silencing Dissenting Scholarship

                After my initial phone interviews with Ms. Thakar in which she came across as a cordial and intelligent young reporter, I am surprised that she would respond to the data presented on caste and non-caste edits by Prof Juluri and me with non-verifiable and reckless allegations about our “failing to recognize the human effects of the erasures”. Clearly, our stance on the debate was grounded in our academic disciplines, however, she dismissively equates our perspectives and scholarly objections in the same intentionally pejorative sentence with “that of other Hindu groups”.
                Our position on the debate, first of all, cannot be lumped into some vague monolithic stereotype about “Hindu groups” tweeting victory over Marxism. One of the reasons our first response to her article included graphs detailing data on the edits presented by various groups, individuals, and scholars involved in this process, was to show precisely that there is a diversity of positions in the debate on what is often loosely called “the Hindu side”.
                The observations and voices of these various groups and individuals cannot be reduced to attempts to sanitize the depiction of caste (or gender) or the humorous claim that we have manipulated South Asian geography to relocate the Indus Valley Civilization and thereby reclaim it from Pakistan.(Note: Their bibliography was totally one-sided and did not include the many books of archeologists working at IVC sites in Gujarat and Haryana.)
                You may have noticed that the scholar who submitted the most edits regarding caste, was Professor Ramdas Lamb from the University of Hawaii. Professor Lamb has worked intimately with groups formally known as ‘untouchables” some who now prefer to be called “Harijans” and some are officially referenced as “Dalits”. Professor Lamb’s eight suggested editorial corrections certainly in no way attempted to erase the hardship and discrimination experienced by members of the marginalized castes with whom he has had intimate contact for over four decades.
                The data is quite clear that the edits requested by different Hindu groups have different emphases on caste and non-caste issues (and it is also worth noting that the group mentioned in the RSS tweet quoted by Thakar in her original article submitted 33 edits of which only 3 were related to varna and jati).
                More importantly, it is also noteworthy that the caste-related edits submitted by these groups cannot all be simply assumed to be about denial of caste! (Note: 28% of the edits were about caste- inclusive of those submitted by Professor Lamb, who as mentioned is a champion of Indians formally known as untouchables. In our original analysis Prof Juluri and I stated that the edits on caste represented slightly under one-quarter of all edits, we stand corrected, it was 28%).
                If Ms. Thakar wishes to prove that all 28% of these edits were meant to erase Dalits from the curriculum, by all means she should consult the primary documents and attempt to do so. She is also free to try and prove that either Prof Juluri or I support the allegedly caste-erasing changes submitted by various “Hindu groups” with whom she lumps us.  If she cannot, she should correct herself and respect that not everyone who disagrees with her particular characterization of the issues is guilty of whatever societal sacrilege or communal sins she imagines.


                The tangential and baseless response from Ms. Thaker when confronted by facts that disturb the sort of spin she has tried very hard to put on the issue is evidence of a much deeper bias in the discourse today about which I spoke to her at length in our initial conversation as well. During our conversation, she asked three or four times if the organization HEF, that had worked with me on editorial suggestions during the 2006 textbook adoption process ten years ago… if they were associated with the RSS. I told her that it seemed she was subjecting me to the anti-Saffron ‘Agni Pariksha’. That is, in order to be believed, or credible, you must have never have had any association with the Sangh Parivar or never have known anyone who has been in the RSS.
                I explained the hyper-politicized process of ‘Saffron-Balling” as practiced by scholars of South Asian Studies and many journalists, who need to make sure, before they can trust you, that you have never been associated in any way whatsoever with the Saffron Brigade or Saffron Menace, borrowing terminology used in the 1950’s USA, where sympathizers of the “Red Menace” were blackballed and were uniformly discriminated against, not believed, and misquoted.
                Then, as now, it doesn’t really matter if you actually have an association with the Red or Saffron Menace, it just matters that you have been fingered by your accusers or by journalists. It is telling that she chose to begin her essay quoting a tweet from the RSS attempting to give them credit for events in California. She used this sensational lead-in to her story, tainting her article from the first sentence, and thereby tainting me, even after our lengthy discussion about “Saffron-balling”.

                Who Decides Who is a “Hindu Supremacist”?

                The fact remains that the main motivation for the South Asianist scholars is political, both in 2016 as in 2006. It has very little to do with academics, much less with what are appropriate learning materials for 6th grade American students. The South Asianists were concerned that some of the Hindus involved in suggesting editorial changes in textbooks in California are somehow tangentially associated with the BJP. Many of the signatories on the letter are of Indian origin and known to have written articles, and taken stands critical of the BJP and Narendra Modi. Their goal in injecting themselves in the textbook adoption process is based on their negative perspectives of the presumed political affiliation of the Hindus involved in the editorial exercise in the state of California.
                The South Asianists are not actually motivated by the substance of the editorial suggestions rather their criticism is based on the assumed identity of those making the editorial requests. There are many examples in Aria’s article where she quotes several South Asianists, who explain their reasons for objecting to the editorial efforts of the Hindus in California in order to oppose “Hindu-supremacist groups” as mentioned by “Umar Malick, the president of the Indian American Muslim Council”.
                Particularly Professor Michael Witzel and Kamala Visweswaran clearly reiterated the political motivation of their “attack” (as per their phrasing) on the Hindus working with the State Board of Education. The main effort of these Hindus, such as myself, is to ensure that Hinduism is presented to students in the same nonjudgmental and objective manner in which other religious traditions, such as Islam and Judaism are covered in the textbook narratives taught in US classrooms.
                Both the scholars of South Asianism and Ms. Thakar have a very narrow negative depiction of the motivations of second generation Hindu-Americans who went to high school in the USA and were subjected to the biased presentation about India and Hinduism as found in their social studies textbooks. Now that they have the third generation Hindu-American children in the US educational system, as citizens participating in a democratic process, they feel an obligation to correct some of the negative stereotypes abounding in the textbooks.
                Why does Caravan discount their educated and concerned viewpoints through the process of Saffron-balling? This is not a new tale, I had provided Ms Thakar URLs (1) (2) to my earlier study of the descriptions of India as found in American textbooks. I had also provided the URL for a detailed narrative documentation of the 2006 CA Textbook Tamasha. Before our interview, she said she had read them.

                Destroying Dalit Legacies in the Name of Saving Them

                What is baffling and hypocritical is that when the Hindu groups sought to include the Dalit members of society as integral members of the lineage of Indian saints and rishis, South Asianists rejected their historical narratives. Valmiki who wrote the Indian epic, the ‘Ramayana’ is considered born a Dalit by some and there is currently a caste of Dalits in India called Balmikis, who trace their ancestral heritage to the great Hindu saint Valmiki.
                Astonishingly, when the Hindus stressed that in the past low castes produced some of India’s most revered saints such as Valmiki and Vyasa, the South Asia faculty actually had the names of Valmiki and Vyasa deleted from the textbooks. In their eagerness to show caste discrimination in Hinduism they actually deleted the saintly Dalits, denying their self-ascribed identity, claiming as they did, that these two saints ‘were both Brahmins’.
                This point of view is certainly not the only scholarly perspective, as mentioned, there is a Dalit group called Balmikis, who claim their lineage from Valmiki. How can these South Asian scholars deny this Dalit group their ancestry? Perhaps there is some scholarly dispute as to whether Valmiki was a Dalit, but there are scholarly disputes as to whether Jesus Christ existed. Yet, how hypocritical to pretend that you are doing all this scholarly activism to protect the honor of Dalits from the so-called Saffronites, who are supposedly extracting them from the textbooks, but instead the professors extract a reference to Dalits that is lofty and ties them to spiritual meanings and yet leave in words such as ‘untouchable’.
                Why are these South Asianists denying the Dalit-American children in California the right to know that their ancestors were among the most revered saints in all of India? How backwards is that? Just to prove that the Saffronites whom they are attacking are casteist, they deny the Dalits, their heroes, because those heroes are integral to Hinduism and Hinduism is casteist, circuitous backwards logic. Baffling and hypocritical! No wonder the South Asianists refer to their academic interactions with Hindu-Americans as “skirmishes”. For them it is a political battle. According to Kamala Visweswaran, an ethnic-studies professor, these Hindu-Americans in California, have “documented links to Hindutva” and therefore must be opposed.
                On that point, Ms. Thakar also seems to have missed the forest for the trees as far as the Vyasa and Valmiki issue is concerned. Their names were added to the draft by the IQC last year, and then deleted upon the recommendation of the South Asia Faculty in their letter. The original line said, that “Vyasa and Valmiki were not Brahmins”. The South Asia Faculty argued that they were Brahmins and had their names deleted.
                vyasa and valmikiVyasa and Valmiki
                As neither statement is fully accurate on its own (popular understanding holds at least partially non-Brahmin parentage for both, as well as a traditionally sage-like iconography in their popular depictions), our recommendation was that the names be retained, but with a more precise language that noted that they were “not born Brahmins”.
                If Ms. Thakar wishes to contest that, she surely can, since she appears to have assumed that task on behalf of some of our colleagues in the South Asia Studies faculty, who are yet to debate any of us directly on most of these points, though we have been seeking engagement on these vital topics for two decades (their refusal to debate scholars who disagree with them has of course seldom been challenged by one-sided reporters who seem to buy their pretext that they cannot lower themselves to engage with “Saffronites,” a color-coded threat perspective also implied by Ms. Thakar).
                I also have to wonder why Ms. Thakar resorts to an unprofessional, extreme, and scolding tone in places, accusing Prof Juluri and me of ‘incoherence,’ ‘ill-wording’ and ‘irresponsibility’ for merely pointing out a self-contradiction in the South Asia Faculty position about caste. Angry words often show the lack of substance rather than anything else.
                She challenges Prof Juluri and me to prove that the South Asia Studies faculty spoke for lower castes. Ms. Thakar can read through page 2 of their November letter, where they write about how “presenting caste as entirely benign harms those of South Asian heritage like Dalits who are of castes deemed ‘untouchable’ by elites.” While we disagree with our colleagues’ claims on several issues, we also have to wonder if they really wish to be seen as NOT speaking in support of lower castes as Ms. Thakar seems to be making them out to be!
                She appears to have completely missed the point of our criticism here. Scholars for People have no interest in sanitizing caste or supporting a loose and euphemistic notion of caste as independent of birth. We do however feel that it is an injustice to delete the names of Vyasa and Valmiki given their symbolism to several lower caste Hindu communities, some of whom spoke up as part of the much demonized “Hindu groups” in Sacramento. The fact is that all Dalits in California are not blindly supportive of the South Asian faculty position. Many are practicing Hindus who do not share the popular narrow academic view of ancient Hinduism as an exclusively Brahmanical construction. Indeed, Vyasa and Valmiki are central to their identity.

                “Welcome to the 19th century!”

                Incidentally, if American society were presented to twelve year old children in India using the same sensationalist methodology in which India is presented to children in the USA, what would a child in India think of the United States of America?  In U.S. textbooks, India is frozen in time and at most places a negative appraisal of the past is stressed. After studying about India, American students often think Hindus burn their widows, starve girl babies, and worship rats, and particularly that there is a group of Indians known as “Brahmins” who force another group of Indians called “untouchables” to carry human excrement on their heads.
                Using this same negative paradigm, children in India, after studying about the USA, would think that women are often burned at the stake after standing trial for witchcraft and they must march in the streets for their basic rights and, especially, that African-Americans are still slaves. Luckily, textbooks in India don’t do this. It would be to our mutual benefit if textbooks in the USA didn’t fall into the trap of using outdated models and so-called post-orientalist /neo-Marxist theories that promote textbook narrations with subtle and not-so-subtle biases.
                I have spoken to numerous professors of South Asian Studies about working with me to take the anti-Hindu bias out of American social studies textbooks, and several have replied, “But, that’s the way we have always taught about India.” Welcome to the 19th century!Ms. Thakar should educate herself sufficiently to recognize that a critique of power is not a zero-sum game.
                Though a concern about sanitizing caste by some groups or individuals, who at any rate have little power to make such changes, might still be a valid concern, it should be not an excuse for a privileged group of first-world scholars (with the power to deny whole communities, their names) to interrogate their own theoretical positions in sanitizing medieval imperialism and conquest to attempt to deny the very existence of non-Muslims in South Asia prior to 1300CE. Importantly, that unnamed group eventually came to be known as Hindus living in the areas east of the Indus, from where we get the word Hindu, a name which has incidentally been used by Persians and Europeans to describe those people since approximately 600BC.
                I disagree thoroughly with Ms. Thakar’s attempt in her response to prove that the replacement of “conquest” with “expansion” by the South Asia Faculty is a matter of mere geographical precision. This expansion approach assumes that there were no ‘natives’ living in the subcontinent prior to the Islamic ‘expansions’. In the USA, in the 1970’s the Native American Movement worked to include their very existence in the textbooks as something other than a stereotype of wild men shooting arrows from horseback. Prior to this effort, the same genre of narratives was used to describe American expansion across the continent, as if it were empty of human habitation. There most certainly is a difference between expansion and conquest, ask “Indians” on both sides of the planet.

                The Media War on Scholars for People’s Petition

                Ms. Thakar expressed that somehow the press had “overwhelmingly focused” on our petition (though it is surprising that she offered only one link to one report on a TV news website as proof of this “overwhelming focus”) and did not talk about other issues like caste.
                But the fact is that for nearly a decade, the California textbooks issue has been depicted in the mainstream media unilaterally and inaccurately as little more than a Hindu extremist issue (aka Saffron-balled), and the past few weeks have been no different, with some very unfortunate attempts to misrepresent our petition coming from publications such as LA Times and Inside Higher Education.
                It is therefore very disappointing that Ms. Thakar ignored an opportunity to expand the conversation beyond spin and clichés, and chose to highlight this debate with baseless allegations about our views on caste and humanity.
                The fact remains, that the Scholars for People petition and the popular support for it, arose not because the IQC denied any edits that might have sanitized caste, but for a different reason altogether: the willful and intentional elimination of both the geographical existence of India and very name Hindu. Describing Hinduism as one of the world’s great religious traditions is actually the mission of the 6th grade social studies curriculum, whereas the South Asianists have attempted to eradicate all references to India and Hinduism except when referring to social divisions, conflict, and casteism.
                If Ms. Thakar thinks that 28% of rejected edits that had something to do with caste (not necessarily revisionist) constitute cause for concern, should it not also be the case that we should be even more concerned about a situation where over 50% of highly debatable edits denying the very existence of India or Hinduism were actually accepted and are poised to become a reality, totally erasing this particular piece of geography in the minds of thousands of children, and by the stroke of a pen, “disappearing” the millions of native peoples who lived there prior to 1300?
                Dr. Yvette Claire Rosser, also known as Ram Rani is an American writer and scholar. She identifies as a Hindu and teaches Hinduism to Westerners. Her Ph.D. dissertation, “Curriculum as Destiny: Forging National Identity in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh,” is a study of the politics of history in South Asia. She’s currently working on her next book on the politicization of history textbooks in the subcontinent.


                No wonder the Caravan commies didn't publish Yvette's rejoinder. The commies led by Stephen Pollock are India haters who do not understand the import of Satyam eva jayate. In the name of Dharma-dhamma, Yvette and Vamsee Juluri have to succeed, will succeed in convincing CDE that realities of Bharatam Janam and Les états hindouisés d'Extrême-Orient (Trans. The Hinduised states of the Far Orient or Far East) pace George Coedes (1944) cannot be erased by commie propaganda..The idea of India is Hindu Rashtrii, Vaagdevi of Rigveda (10.125)


                "South Asia" = "Socialist Idea of India" = "Replace india with balkanized Khalistan, Pakistan, Dravidstan"
                USA's south asianist and India's socialist academics are part of same ecosystem. They peddle identical propaganda under different labels. US South asianist use the label 'S. Asia' and Ind Socialist use the label 'Idea of India' but end goal is same. The goal is to destroy "Idea of unified Bharat" and replace it with "Idea of divisive stans". Once the Stan idea is firmly planted,Actual balkanization,of india, will pick up speed and 1000s of lives will be lost.
                Thanks Yvette for exposing S. Asianist agenda.

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                BJP unseats Congress in Assam, LDF in Kerala; Mamata retains West Bengal: Exit polls
                Didi to win West Bengal, Assam to get BJP, Kerala to turn Left, Tamil Nadu up in air

                NEW DELHI: Mamata Banerjee will sweep West Bengal again, the Left will win back Kerala, the BJP will gain Assam, the DMK will take Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, well, the mercurial state will keep everyone guessing until May 19, exit polls' results released on Monday from five states indicate.

                Two formidable women of Indian politics dominated the day -West Bengal's Didi, Mamata Banerjee and Tamil Nadu's Amma, J Jayalalithaa.

                Didi's West Bengal

                West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee looked set to sail through for a second consecutive term, beating what people thought would be a tough combine of the CPM and the Congress.

                No scam - not Narada, not Saradha - could stop her.

                Banerjee's Trinamool Congress looks to be leading in 167 seats and the CPM-Congress is ahead in 120 seats, according to CVoter Exit Polls.

                In fact, the India Today-Axis exit poll predicts a whopping 243 seats for the TMC.

                "We will wait for May 19 and the actual results. The people of Bengal will bless Trinamool abundantly. Mamata Banerjee government's peace and communal harmony will win the hearts and minds of the people of Bengal," TMC spokesperson Derek O'Brien was quoted as saying by PTI.

                However, CPM MP Ritabrata Banerjee and Congress leader Abdul Mannan told PTI that whatever the exit poll prediction for West Bengal, the formation of an alliance government was "imminent".
                The opposition kept calling this Bengal Assembly election, the 'Swacch West Bengal election'- or the 'Clean West Bengal election'. The slogan, 'From Narada to Saradha', haunted Banerjee.

                Didi was no doubt rattled and she said it as much at campaign rallies -"Mamata Banerjee is the candidate in all 294 seats".

                Given the 'Cult of Mamata', that slogan might just have helped her and the TMC.

                Tamil Nadu keeps all guessing

                The fate of the other formidable woman of Indian politics, Tamil Nadu's chief minister Jayalalithaa, had analysts scrambling as polls were divided - some indicated her winning and some indicated her losing.

                CVoter exit polls indicated 'Amma' is winning, with 139 of 234 seats for the AIADMK, 78 for Karunanidhi's DMK and 17 seats for 'others' in the state.

                Chanakya predicts just 90 seats for the AIADMK, while ABP predicts 95 seats for it.

                The News Nation TV exit poll gave 95-99 seats to Jayalalithaa and 114-118 to the DMK-Congress alliance in the state. The People Welfare Front alliance was set to get 14 seats and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) four seats, it said. Nine seats could go to others.

                The India Today-Axis exit poll predicted 124-140 seats going to the DMK-Congress alliance, 89-110 to the AIADMK, 0-3 to the BJP and 4-8 to others.

                Come May 19, if Jayalalithaa wins, she will become the first CM in decades to return to power. The last person to do so was AIADMK founder and Jayalalithaa's mentor, MG Ramachandran, in 1984.

                If the DMK wins, 91-year-old Karunanidhi will serve his sixth term as chief minister of Tamil Nadu.

                High stakes for both CM candidates, then.

                BJP's gamble in Assam paid off?

                Sneaking in as a likely giant-killer - although that result was somewhat expected - was the BJP's unassuming Sarabananda Sonowal, who looked set to oust the Congress war horse, Tarun Gogoi, who's been Assam chief minister for as long as three terms.

                For the BJP, it's one of its best showings ever, in Assam.
                According to C-Voter, the BJP and its allies are set to win between 53 and 61 seats in the state. Most of the other exit polls have also indicated a comfortable win for the BJP in the state.

                Consider this - in the last state elections, the BJP and allies won just 27 seats.

                The ruling Congress looks like it will take quite a beating - reduced to between 37 and 45 seats, from the last state election's 78.

                The AIUDF, which could be a key player in government formation, may get 14 to 22 seats while others may win 6 to 14 seats in the state.

                Exit polls conducted by ABP News and Chanakya say that the BJP is going to win as many as 81+ and 90+ seats respectively. India Today-Axis too predicts as many as 86 seats for the BJP.

                Assam, meanwhile, recorded its highest ever polling percentage - 84.72 percent.

                CM Gogoi chose to not believe the exit poll results.

                "I don't see why there will be anti-incumbency," is what he said after the exit poll results. "I trust the people of Assam, they know how much development has happened under us", he told ANI.

                The BJP's decision to field Sonowal as the chief ministerial candidate marked a big strategic shift for the party. The BJP has come to believe it lost last November's Assembly elections in Bihar because it ignored strong local leaders. And Sonowal is certainly a strong local leader.

                Sonowal's slogan was 'Sakalore Ananda Sarbananda' - which means, 'Everyone's happiness is Sarbananda'.

                For today, not just everyone, but even Sonowal, the 53-year-old bachelor, must be happy.

                'God's own Country' takes a left turn

                In Kerala, one could say the real winner was anti-incumbency, with the opposition CPM-led Left Democratic Front looking set to topple the Congress-led United Democratic Front that has been battling corruption charges.

                The CVoter Exit Poll indicates the LDF is leading in 82 seats, up from the last election's 66 seats. The incumbent Congress-led UDF is leading in 62 seats, lower than the last election's 72 seats. The BJP-led NDA is leading only in 4 seats.

                However, the India Today-Axis poll shows LDF+ leading in as many as 94 seats and the UDF in only 43.

                The LDF's chief ministerial candidate is yet to be announced. CPI-M veteran VS Achuthanandan and politburo member Pinarayi Vijayan have been embroiled in battle of wits.

                Vijayan said on Facebook last month that the media was "creating false reports" that he called 92-year-old Achuthanandan an "anti-party man.""We are facing the polls without any differences and nobody should think that they can create impediment on that," Vijayan added.

                Exit polls never turned out to be true as we've seen in Delhi, Bihar, CPM leader Sitaram Yechury said. He added that the party should wait for the final result on Thursday.

                Yechury's probably being cautious because in the last Assembly election in 2011, the UDF's Oommen Chandy won with a razor-thin majority. His UDF won just 4 seats more than the LDF.

                Still, the CPM-led LDF can be cautiously optimistic, as most polls put the LDF in the saddle.

                Politically-aware Puducherry

                In tiny Puducherry, the opposition Congress-DMK alliance looked set to win, leading in 14 of 30 seats. The incumbent All-India NR Congress (AINRC) was winning in only nine seats. The BJP appears to have won not a single seat.

                The India Today-Axis gave the DMK alliance 18 seats.

                Puducherry's chief minister N Rangaswamy broke away from the Congress to form the AINRC in 2011. That helped him win then, but he hasn't been able to consolidate his base since.

                Top Comment

                Assam is Intelligent, Bengal is idiotic, Kerala already in rumbles, TN prey to vulturesFalcon k

                Interestingly, a total of 344 candidates were in the fray for the Union territory's 30-member assembly. And, more than 7.2 lakh voters - which is 80 percent of Puducherry's electorate - voted in the elections.

                This is one state whose electorate really knows what it wants.

                Tuesday , May 17 , 2016 |

                Field is wide open. Wait for 50 hours

                - What the post-poll surveys suggest and what the fine print says
                ABP Ananda, owned by the publishers of The Telegraph, on Monday released the projections of a post-poll survey conducted by Nielsen, which forecast a Trinamul victory in the Assembly elections but with a rider. Unlike exit polls, conducted immediately after votes are cast, post-poll surveys are carried once the voter is back home. This method was followed as the pollsters had come across an unusually high degree of fear among the voters while conducting pre-election opinion polls. In an attempt to capture the relative performance of the two main contenders — the Trinamul Congress and the Left-Congress alliance — in each of the six-phase, seven-day polls, the exercise was carried out in phases. The official results are expected on Thursday.
                The following are the places where each phase was held and the number of seats  
                • Phase 1A: Purulia 9, West Midnapore 6, Bankura 3
                • Phase 1B: Midnapore 13, Bankura 9, Burdwan 9
                • Phase 2: Alipurduar 5, Jalpaiguri 7, Darjeeling 6, North Dinajpur 9, South Dinajpur 6, Malda 12, Birbhum 11
                • Phase 3: Murshidabad 22, Nadia 17, Calcutta North 7, Burdwan 16
                • Phase 4: North 24-Parganas 33, Howrah 16
                • Phase 5: South 24-Parganas 31, Calcutta South 4, Hooghly 18
                • Phase 6: Cooch Behar 9, East Midnapore 16
                According to the survey, among the seats where Trinamul is ahead, the margins are slender in 25 seats. As the outcome can change in a closely contested election, the pollsters have predicted two more likely scenarios:  
                 If these 25 do not go to Trinamul, its tally will come down to 138
                 If these 25 go to the alliance, its tally will go up to 151
                VOTE SHARE
                The post-poll survey has projected the following vote shares. Figures in per cent (picture right)
                 The 2016 Assembly polls were closely contested  
                • There is a possibility of Trinamul ending up with fewer seats than in 2011 when it bagged 184 in an alliance with the Congress. The tally, as predicted by the pollsters, is also likely to be less than the Assembly seats Trinamul could have won in the 2014 Lok Sabha polls if the parliamentary election figures are extrapolated to the Assembly segments 
                • The alliance between the Congress and the Left brought them within sniffing distance of Trinamul
                • The BJP has remained a marginal player in the state and its share of votes has dipped from over 17 per cent in 2014 to 7 per cent this summer.
                • Projections from exit polls or post-poll surveys are based on what the voters tell the pollsters. When the fear factor is high and people do not reveal their real preference, the chances of divergence with the final result are high
                • A swing of a few percentage points on the vote share can change the distribution of seats 
                • Any prediction exercise has a margin of error. If the deviation is fairly large, the difference between the two contenders can become minimal
                OTHER PROJECTIONS
                • Total seats: 294  • Majority: 148
                Times Now and India TV shared the findings of the same poll, conducted by research agency C-Voter

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                Vatsyayana signifies cryptography as mlecchita vikalpa, i.e. alternative system of representation of spoken words by mleccha (meluhha) speakers. The alternative system using symbols for writing was necessitated by the Bronze Age revolution which produced surplus products for barter and trade across Eurasia.

                There was a Tin Route preceding by 2 millennia the Silk Road reaching tin from the Tin belt of Mekong delta into Eurasia with seafaring merchants of Sarasvati-Sindhu civiization as trade intermediaries.

                Indus Script used the hieroglyphs to document metalwork catalogues fpr trade. 

                Mints used some of the hieroglyphs as celebration of metalwork on coins used as metaphors for specific products traded, an advance in regulating fair value of exchanges in barter transactions. 

                kole.l 'smithy, forge' assumes the metaphor of kole.l 'temple' during the historical periods sustained by the retained memories of the Bronze Age revolution and writing system of Indus Script.


                Vikalpa in grammar is admission of an option or alternative , the allowing a rule to be observed or not at pleasure (वे*ति विकल्पः Pa1n2. 1-1 , 44 Sch.). Such a vikalpa is Indus Script as a writing system for spoken words. The use of symbols to signify rebus words (homonyms signifying both the symbol and the intended bronze age metalwork) is comparable to the literary use of metaphors in chandas (Vedic diction or prosody). In the Vedic diction, for example, tris'iras signifies a metaphor for three strands. A similar representation occurs in Indus Script in the orthography of a trefoil (thre dotted circles) to signify three strands. Each dotted circle is a धातु constituent part , ingredient (esp. [ and in RV. only] ifc. , where often = " fold " e.g. त्रि-ध्/आतु , threefold &c cf. त्रिविष्टि-
                सप्त- , सु-RV. TS. S3Br. &c lement , primitive matter (= महा-भूत L. MBh. Hariv. &c (usually reckoned as 5 , viz.  or आकाश , अनिल , तेजस् , 
                जल , भू ; to which is added ब्रह्म Ya1jn5.iii , 145 ; or विज्ञान Buddh. ). primary element of the earth i.e. metal , mineral , are (esp. a mineral of a red colour) Mn. MBh Thus, the dotted circle signifies both 'strand' and 'element, mineral'. The symbol is used as a syllable in Brahmi script to signify the sound 'dha'. A trefoil is  त्रि-ध्/आतु , threefold, rebus: three elements.
                Silver karshapana c. 5th-4th century BCEWeight: 3.08 gm., Dim: 26 x 24 mm.
                Five punches: sun, 6-arm, and three others, plus banker's marks /
                Banker's marks Ref:  GH 36.
                kuTi 'tree' rebus: kuThi 'smelter' 
                मेढ (p. 662) [ mēḍha ] 'polar star' (Marathi) rebus:  mẽṛhet iron (metal), meD 'iron'  (Mu.Ho.) mRdu 'iron' (Samskrtam) goTa 'pebble, round' rebus: khoTa 'ingots, wedges'.

                Silver karshapana. There are three distinct punch-marks: sun, spokes, nave of wheel PLUS elephant, dotted circle with three strands and three ovals (ingots).

                Symbol 1: arka 'sun' arká1 m. ʻ flash, ray, sun ʼ RV. [√arc]
                Pa. Pk. akka -- m. ʻ sun ʼ, Mth. āk; Si. aka ʻ lightning ʼ, inscr. vid -- äki ʻ lightning flash ʼ.(CDIAL 624) अर्क [p= 89,1]m. ( √ अर्च्) , Ved. a ray , flash of lightning RV. &c, the sun (RV) fire RV. ix , 50 , 4 S3Br. Br2A1rUp. Rebus: arka 'copper' aggasAle (a compound expression of arka + sAle) 'goldsmith' (Kannada) అగసాలి [ agasāli ] or అగసాలెవాడు agasāli. [Tel.] n. A goldsmith. కంసాలివాడు.  Ta. eṟṟu (eṟṟi-) to throw out (as water from a vessel); iṟai (-v-, -nt-) to scatter (intr.), disperse; (-pp-, -tt-) to splash (tr.), spatter, scatter, strew, draw and pour out water, irrigate, bale out, squander; iṟaivaireceptacle for drawing water for irrigation; iṟaṭṭu (iṟaṭṭi-) to sprinkle, splash. Ma. iṟekka to bale out; iṟayuka id., scatter, disperse; iṟava basket for drawing water; eṟiccil rainwater blown in by the wind. To.eṟ- (eṟQ-) to scoop up (water with vessel). Ka. eṟe to pour any liquids, cast (as metal); n. pouring; eṟacu, ercu to scoop, sprinkle, scatter, strew, sow; eṟaka, eraka any metal infusion; molten state, fusion.Tu. eraka molten, cast (as metal); eraguni to melt. Kur. ecchnā to dash a liquid out or over (by scooping, splashing, besprinkling). Cf. 840 Kur. elkhnā (Pfeiffer).(DEDR 866)

                Symbol 2: spokes of wheel: ará m. ʻ spoke of a wheel ʼ RV. 2. āra -- 2 MBh. v.l. [√]
                1. Pa. ara -- m., Pk. ara -- , °ga -- , °ya -- m.; S. aro m. ʻ spoke, cog ʼ; P. arm. ʻ one of the crosspieces in a cartwheel ʼ; Or. ara ʻ felloe of a wheel ʼ; Si. ara ʻ spoke ʼ.
                2. Or. āra ʻ spoke ʼ; Bi. ārā ʻ first pair of spokes in a cartwheel ʼ; H. ārā m. ʻ spoke ʼ, G. ārɔ m.(CDIAL 594) Rebus: ara 'brass' ArakUTa 'brass' (Samskrtam) आर--कूट [p= 149,2] 'a kind of brass'.

                Symbol 3: nave of wheel: era, eraka = nave of wheel (Kannada.); rebus: era, eraka 'copper' (Kannada.)

                Symbol 4: elephant: kariba 'trunk of elephant' ibha 'elephant; Rebus: karba 'iron' ib 'iron'

                Symbol 5: dhAu 'strand' rebus: dhAu 'red mineral' PLUS khaNDa 'arrow' rebus: khaNDa 'implements'; Hieroglyph: oval-shape: rebus: khoTa 'ingot, wedge'. Three strands: tri-dhAu rebus: tri-dhAu 'three minerals'.

                Upendra Thakur called the Bronze Age, 'the Age of Symbols'. (See embedded article from the Journal of the Econimic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. XVI, Parts 2/3, December 1973, pp. 265-297).

                In his 1890 monograph, W.Theobald lists 312 'symbols' deployed on punch-marked coins. He revises the list to 342 symbols in his 1901 monograph. It should be noted that many of the symbols recorded on punch-marked coins also survive on later coinages, in particular of Ujjain and Eran and on many cast coins of janapadas. DR Bhandarkar’s view is that the early punch-marked coinage in Hindustan is datable to 10th century BCE though the numismatists claim that the earliest coinage is that of Lydia of 7th century BCE.

                W. Theobald, 1890, Notes on some of the symbols found on the punch-marked coins of Hindustan, and on their relationship to the archaic symbolism of other races and distant lands, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Bombay Branch (JASB), Part 1. History , Literature etc., Nos. III & IV, 1890, pp. 181 to 268, Plates VIII to XI

                W. Theobald, 1901, A revision of the symbols on the ‘Karshapana’ Coinage, described in Vol. LIX, JASB, 1890, Part I, No. 3, and Descriptions of many additional symbols, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Bombay Branch (JASB), No. 2, 1901 (Read December, 1899).

                Plates VIII to XI of Theobald, 1890 listing symbols on punch-marked coins...

                The 'symbols' which are a continuum from Indus script hieroglyphs all of which relate to metalwork are:

                Meluhha glosses read rebus related to metalwork for these Indus script hieroglyphs are detailed in the book, Indus Script -- Meluhha metalwork hieroglyphs (2014).

                See: Fabri, CL, The punch-marked coins: a survival of the Indus Civilization, 1935, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Cambridge University Press. pp.307-318. A comparison of Punch-marked hieroglyphs with Indus Script inscriptions:

                This follows the insightful, scintillating presentation by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale which presents an exposition of art appreciation of Indus Script Corpora with particular reference to orthographic fidelity to signify hypertext components on inscriptions.  A paper by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale on composite Indus creatures and their meaning: Harappa Chimaeras as 'Symbolic Hypertexts'. Some Thoughts on Plato, Chimaera and the Indus Civilization at 
                See: In this post, it has been argued that the hypertexts of pictorial motifs on Indus Script Corpora discussed by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale should be extended to hieroglyphs as 'signs' and ligatured hieroglyphs as 'signs' on 'texts' of the Indus inscriptions. The entire Indus Script Corpora consist of hieroglyph multiplexes -- using hieroglyphs as components -- and hence, the comparison with hypertexts need not be restricted to pictorial motifs or field symbols of Indus inscriptions. See also: Massimo Vidale, 2007, 'The collapse melts down: a reply to Farmer, Sproat and Witzel', East and West, vol. 57, no. 1-4, pp. 333 to 366).Mirror: The use of the phrase 'hypertexts' in the context of Indus Script is apposite because, the entire Indus Script Corpora is founded on rebus-metonymy-layered representations of Meluhha glosses from Indian sprachbund, speech area of ancient Bhāratam Janam of the Bronze Age.

                Since the entire Indus Scrip Corpora constitute metalwork catalogues, it is but natural that the Indus Script continuum is more pronounced in the array of symbols used by mints from Taxila to Karur. This continuum reinforces the validity of decipherment of the hypertexts of the Corpora. See:
                Many hieroglyphs of Indus Script Corpora continue to be used in historical periods:

                From a review of Indus Script Corpora of nearly 7000 inscriptions, the nature of Indus writing system is defined, while validating decipherment as catalogus catalogorum of metalwork by Bronze Age artisans of Indian sprachbund

                The Corpora will expand by over approximately 10,000 inscriptions if the hieroglyphs (so-called symbols such as svastika, tree-on-railing, elephant, tiger, fish, crocodile, srivatsa) deployed on punch-marked coins, cast coins and sculptural friezes and artifacts such as Begram ivories, from sites such as Bharhut or Sanchi stupas, Kankali-Tila or Mathura AyAgapaTTa or artifacts of Candi Sukuh, Candi Setho, Dong Son Bronze drums, are taken into reckoning as Indus Writing tradition continuum (either used as hieroglyphs or used together with Brahmi or Kharoshthi syllabic scripts providing additional inscriptions, say, names of people or titles or references to other texts such as Jataka tales in Bauddham tradition).

                1. Composed of hieroglyph elements as pictorial motifs and signs on texts; thus there are two categories of hieroglyphs: pictorial hieroglyphs and sign hieroglyphs
                2. Orthographic construction of hieroglyph multiplexes using hieroglyph elements
                3. Rebus-metonymy-layer to signify metalwork catalogues
                4. Deciphered plain Meluhha or Indian sprachbund speech texts from hieroglyphmultiplex cipher texts (i.e. hypertexts with both a) hieroglyphs on pictorial motifs and b) hieroglyphs as signs on texts)

                This definition will be explained in this note identifying some characteristic principles governing design features of the Indus writing system.

                1. A good example of constructed orthography of hieroglyph multiplex is a seal impression from Ur identified by CJ Gadd and interpreted by GR Hunter:

                Takṣat vāk, ‘incised speech’ -- Evidence of Indus writing of ...
                Seal impression, Ur (Upenn; U.16747); dia. 2.6, ht. 0.9 cm.; Gadd, PBA 18 (1932), pp. 11-12, pl. II, no. 12; Porada 1971: pl.9, fig.5; Parpola, 1994, p. 183; water carrier with a skin (or pot?) hung on each end of the yoke across his shoulders and another one below the crook of his left arm; the vessel on the right end of his yoke is over a receptacle for the water; a star on either side of the head (denoting supernatural?). The whole object is enclosed by 'parenthesis' marks. The parenthesis is perhaps a way of splitting of the ellipse (Hunter, G.R.,JRAS, 1932, 476). An unmistakable example of an 'hieroglyphic' seal. Hieroglyph:  kuṭi 'woman water-carrier' (Telugu) Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' furnace for iron' (Santali) Hieroglyph: meḍha ‘polar star’ (Marathi). Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.Mu.) Thus, meḍ kuṭhi 'iron smelter'.  (Parenthesis kuṭila is a phonetic determinan of the substantive gloss:  kuṭhi 'smelter'. It could also denote a smelter for kuṭila, 'tin metal').

                kuṭi కుటి : శంకరనారాయణ తెలుగు-ఇంగ్లీష్ నిఘంటువు 1953  a woman water-carrier.

                Splitting the ellipse () results in the parenthesis, (  ) within which the hieroglyph multiplex (in this case of Ur Seal Impression, a water-carrier with stars flanking her head) is infixed, as noted by Hunter.


                The ellipse is signified by Meluhha gloss with rebus reading indicating the artisan's competence as a professional: kōna 'corner' (Nk.); kōu angle, corner (Tu.); rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali) Alternative reading; kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bronze'. 

                kõdā is a metals turner, a mixer of metals to create alloys in smelters.

                The signifiers are the hieroglyph components: dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal';  meḍha ‘polar star’ rebus: meḍ ‘iron’;  kōna 'corner' rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; kuṭi 'woman water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' furnace for iron/kuṭila, 'tin metal').

                The entire hieroglyph multiplex stands deciphered: kõdā, 'metals turner' (with) meḍ ‘iron kuṭhi '
                smelter', kuṭila, 'tin metal'. 

                2. This hieroglyph multiplex of the Ur Seal Impression confirms the rebus-metonymy-layered cipher of Meluhha glosses related to metalwork.

                3. A characteristic feature of Indus writing system unravels from this example: what is orthographically constructed as a pictorial motif can also be deployed as a 'sign' on texts of inscriptions. This is achieved by a stylized reconstruction of the pictorial motif as a 'sign' which occurs with notable frequency on Indus Script Corpora -- with orthographic variants (Signs 12, 13, 14).
                Signs 12 to 15. Indus script: 

                Identifying Meluhha gloss for parenthesis hieroglyph or (  ) split ellipse:  குடிலம்¹ kuṭilam, n. < kuṭila. 1. Bend curve, flexure; வளைவு. (திவா.) (Tamil) In this reading, the Sign 12 signifies a specific smelter for tin metal: kuṭi 'woman water-carrier'  rebus: rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' furnace for iron/ kuṭila, 'tin (bronze)metal; kuṭila, katthīl = bronze (8 parts copper and 2 parts tin) [cf. āra-kūṭa, ‘brass’ (Samskritam) See:

                It will be seen from Sign 15 that the basic framework of a water-carrier hieroglyph (Sign 12) is superscripted with another hieroglyph component, Sign 342: 'Rim of jar' to result in Sign 15. Thus, Sign 15 is composed of two hieroglyph components: Sign 12 'water-carrier' hieroglyph; Sign 342: "rim-of-jar' hieroglyph (which constitutes the inscription on Daimabad Seal 1).

                kaṇḍ kanka ‘rim of jar’; Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe’; kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar’. Thus the ligatured Glyph is decodedkaṇḍ karṇaka ‘furnace scribe'
                Daimabad Seal 1 (Sign 342: Two hieroglyph components: jar with short-neck and rim-of-jar) -- distringuished from broad-mouthed rimless pot which is another Sign hieroglyph.

                Each hieroglyph component of Sign 15 is read in rebus-metonymy-layered-meluhha-cipher:  Hieroglyph component 1: kuṭi 'woman water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' furnace for iron/kuṭila, 'tin metal'. Hieroglyph component 2: kanka, kārṇī-ka 'rim-of-jar' rebus: kanka, kārṇī-ka m. ʻsupercargo of a shipʼ 'scribe'.

                Ligatured hieroglyph 15 using two ligaturing components: 1. water-carrier; 2. rim-of-jar. The ‘rim-of-jar’ glyph connotes: furnace account (scribe). Together with the glyph showing ‘water-carrier’, the ligatured glyphs of kuṭi ‘water-carrier’ + ‘rim-of-jar’ can thus be read as: kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka ‘smelting furnace account (scribe)’. 

                m1405 Pict-97 Person standing at the centre pointing with his right hand at a bison facing a trough, and with his left hand pointing to the Sign 15. 

                This tablet is a clear and unambiguous example of the fundamental orthographic style of Indus Script inscriptions that: both signs and pictorial motifs are integral components of the message conveyed by the inscriptions. Attempts at 'deciphering' only what is called a 'sign' in Parpola or Mahadevan corpuses will result in an incomplete decoding of the complete message of the inscribed object.

                barad, barat 'ox' Rebus: भरत (p. 603) [ bharata ] n A factitious metal compounded of copper, pewter, tin &c.(Marathi)

                pattar 'trough'; rebus pattar, vartaka 'merchant, goldsmith' (Tamil) பத்தர்² pattar 
                , n. < T. battuḍuA caste title of goldsmiths; தட்டார் பட்டப்பெயருள் ஒன்று.

                eraka 'raised arm' Rebus: eraka 'metal infusion' (Kannada. Tulu) 

                Sign 15:  kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka ‘smelting furnace account (scribe)’. 

                Thus, the hieroglyph multiplex on m1405 is read rebus from r.: kuṭhi kaṇḍa kanka eraka bharata pattar'goldsmith-merchant guild -- smelting furnace account (scribe), molten cast metal infusion, alloy of copper, pewter, tin.' 

                Sign 13 is a composition of hieroglyph component Sign 12 kuṭi 'woman water-carrier'  PLUS 
                Sign ' which signifies hieroglyph: 'notch'. Reading the two hieroglyph components together Sign 13 reads: kuṭi 'woman water-carrier' rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter' furnace for iron/kuṭila, 'tin metal'.PLUS khāṇḍā ‘notch’ Marathi: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘metal tools,  pots and pans’. Thus, the reading is: kuṭhi khāṇḍā'smelter metal tools, pots and pans'.

                Sign 14 add the hieroglyph component kōla 'arrow' or kaṇḍa ;'arrow-head' to Sign 12. This Sign 14 is deciphered as kuṭhi kaṇḍa 'smelter metal tools, pots and pans' (Thus, a synonym of Sign 13OR kuṭhi kola 'smelter, working in iron' or kuṭhi kole.l 'smelter, smithy'.

                Hieroglyph: eraka ‘raised arm’ (Telugu) Rebus: eraka ‘copper’ (Telugu); 'moltencast' (Gujarati); metal infusion (Kannada.Tulu)

                Sign 15 occurs togethe with a notch-in-fixed fish hieroglyph on Harappa 73 seal:
                Harappa seal (H-73)[Note: the hieroglyph ‘water carrier’ pictorial of Ur Seal Impression becomes a hieroglyph sign] Hieroglyph: fish + notch: aya 'fish' + khāṇḍā m  A jag, notch Rebus: aya 'metal'+  khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. kuṭi 'water-carrier' Rebus: kuṭhi 'smelter'. खोंड (p. 216) [khōṇḍam A young bull, a bullcalf; खोंडा [ khōṇḍā ] m A कांबळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood. खोंडरूं [ khōṇḍarūṃ ] n A contemptuous form of खोंडा in the sense of कांबळा-cowl (Marathi); kōḍe dūḍabull calf (Telugu); kōṛe 'young bullock' (Konda) rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali) [The characteristic pannier which is ligatured to the young bull pictorial hieroglyph is a synonym खोंडा 'cowl' or 'pannier').खोंडी [ khōṇḍī ] f An outspread shovelform sack (as formed temporarily out of a कांबळा, to hold or fend off grain, chaff &c.) ] खोंड (p. 216) [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf.(Marathi) खोंडरूं [ khōṇḍarūṃ ] n A contemptuous form of खोंडा in the sense of कांबळा-cowl.खोंडा [ khōṇḍā ] m A कांबळा of which one end is formed into a cowl or hood. खोंडी [ khōṇḍī ] f An outspread shovelform sack (as formed temporarily out of a कांबळा, to hold or fend off grain, chaff &c.)

                Hieroglyph: kōḍ 'horn' Rebus: kōḍ 'place where artisans work, workshop' কুঁদন, কোঁদন [ kun̐dana, kōn̐dana ] n act of turning (a thing) on a lathe; act of carving (Bengali) कातारी or कांतारी (p. 154) [ kātārī or kāntārī ] m (कातणें) A turner.(Marathi)

                Rebus: खोदकाम [ khōdakāma ] n Sculpture; carved work or work for the carver.
                खोदगिरी [ khōdagirī ] f Sculpture, carving, engraving: also sculptured or carved work.खोदणें [ khōdaṇēṃ ] v c & i ( H) To dig. 2 To engraveखोदींव [ khōdīṃva ] p of खोदणें Dug. 2 Engraved, carved, sculptured.
                The intimations of a metals turner as a scribe are also gleaned from the gloss: खोडाखोड or डी [ khōḍākhōḍa or ḍī ] f (खोडणें) Erasing, altering, interlining &c. in numerous places: also the scratched, scrawled, and disfigured state of the paper so operated upon; खोडींव [ khōḍīṃva ] p of खोडणें v c Erased or crossed out.Marathi). खोडपत्र [ khōḍapatra ] n Commonly खोटपत्र.खोटपत्र [ khōṭapatra ] n In law or in caste-adjudication. A written acknowledgment taken from an offender of his falseness or guilt: also, in disputations, from the person confuted. (Marathi) Thus, khond 'turner' is also an engraver, scribe.

                That a metals turner is engaged in metal alloying is evident from the gloss: खोट [ khōṭa ] f A mass of metal (unwrought or of old metal melted down); an ingot or wedge. Hence 2 A lump or solid bit (as of phlegm, gore, curds, inspissated milk); any concretion or clot. खोटीचाComposed or made of खोट, as खोटीचें भांडें.


                See: Thanks to Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale who compared Indus Script 'chimaera' to 'hypertext'. A paper (2012) by Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale on Composite Indus creatures and their meaning: Harappa Chimaeras as 'Symbolic Hypertexts'. Some Thoughts on Plato, Chimaera and the Indus Civilization at

                This note elaborates on this splendid insight argued archaeologically and orthographically in their monograph. 

                Arguments of Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale 

                The arguments of Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale are framed taking the example of a Mohenjo-daro seal m0300 with what they call 'symbolic hypertext' or, 'Harappan chimaera and its hypertextual components':
                m0300. Mohenjo-daro seal.

                Harappan chimaera and its hypertextual components. Harappan chimera and its hypertextual components. The 'expression' summarizes the syntax of Harappan chimeras within round brackets, creatures with body parts used in their correct  anatomic position (tiger, unicorn, markhor goat, elephant, zebu, and human); within square brackets, creatures with body parts used to symbolize other anatomic elements (cobra snake for tail and human arm for elephant proboscis); the elephant icon as exonent out of the square brackets symbolizes the overall elephantine contour of the chimeras; out of brackes, scorpion indicates the animal automatically perceived joining the lineate horns, the human face, and the arm-like trunk of Harappan chimeras. (After Fig. 6 in: Harappan chimaeras as 'symbolic hypertexts'. Some thoughts on Plato, Chimaera and the Indus Civilization (Dennys Frenez & Massimo Vidale, 2012) 

                Framework and Functions of Indus Script

                The unique characteristic of Indus Script which distinguishes the writing system from Egyptian hieroglyphs are as follows:

                1. On both Indus Script and Egyptian hieroglyphs, hieroglyph-multiplexes are created using hieroglyph components (which Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale call hypertextual components). 

                2. Indus Script denotes 'expressions or speech-words' for every hieroglyph while Egyptian hieroglyphs generally denote 'syllables' (principally consonants without vowels).

                3. While Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally deployed to derive 'names of people' or 'expressions denoting administrative divisions' deploying nomes, Indus Script is NOT used for syllabic combinations which result in names of people or designations. As evidenced by the use of Brahmi or Kharoshthi script together with Indus Script hieroglyphs on tens of thousands of ancient coins, the Brahmi or Kharoshthi syllabic representations are generally used for 'names of people or designations' while Indus Script hieroglyphs are used to detail artisan products, metalwork, in particular.

                The framework of Indus Script has two structures: 1) pictorial motifs as hieroglyph-multiplexes; and 2) text lines as hieroglyph-multiplexes

                Dennys Frenez and Massimo Vidale focus attention on pictorial motifs and on m0300 seal, identify a number of hieroglyph components constituting the hieroglyph-multiplex -- on the pictorial motif of 'composite animal', seen are hieroglyph components (which they call hypertextual components): serpent (tail), scorpion, tiger, one-horned young bull, markhor, elephant, zebu, standing man (human face), man seated in penance (yogi).  

                The yogi seated in penance and other hieroglyphs are read rebus in archaeometallurgical terms: kamaDha 'penance' (Prakritam) rebus: kampaTTa 'mint'. Hieroglyph: kola 'tiger', xolA 'tail' rebus:kol 'working in iron'; kolle 'blacksmith'; kolhe 'smelter'; kole.l 'smithy'; kolimi 'smithy, forge'. खोड [khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf (Marathi) rebus: khond 'turner'. dhatu 'scarf' rebus: dhatu 'minerals'.bica 'scorpion' rebus: bica 'stone ore'. miṇḍāl markhor (Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (Gujarati) Rebus:meḍ (Ho.); mẽṛhet ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.) mẽṛhet iron; ispat m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Munda) kara'elephant's trunk' Rebus: khar 'blacksmith'; ibha 'elephant' rebus: ib 'iron'. Together: karaibā 'maker, builder'.

                Use of such glosses in Meluhha speech can be explained by the following examples of vAkyam or speech expressions as hieroglyph signifiers and rebus-metonymy-layered-cipher yielding signified metalwork:

                Example 1: mũh opening or hole (in a stove for stoking (Bi.); ingot (Santali) mũh metal ingot (Santali)mũhã̄ = the quantity of iron produced at one time in a native smelting furnace of the Kolhes; iron produced by the Kolhes and formed like a four-cornered piece a little pointed at each end; mūhā mẽṛhẽt= iron smelted by the Kolhes and formed into an equilateral lump a little pointed at each of four ends;kolhe tehen mẽṛhẽt ko mūhā akata = the Kolhes have to-day produced pig iron (Santali) kaula mengro‘blacksmith’ (Gypsy) mleccha-mukha (Samskritam) = milakkhu ‘copper’ (Pali) The Samskritam glossmleccha-mukha should literally mean: copper-ingot absorbing the Santali gloss, mũh, as a suffix.

                Example 2: samṛobica, stones containing gold (Mundari) samanom = an obsolete name for gold (Santali) [bica ‘stone ore’ (Munda): meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore (Munda)].

                In addition to the use of hieroglyph-components to create hieroglyph-multiplexes of pictorial motifs such as 'composite animals', the same principle of multiplexing is used also on the so-called 'signs' of texts of inscriptions.

                Smithy with an armourer
       Seal. Mohenjo-daro. Terracotta sealing from Mohenjo-daro depicting a collection of animals and some script symbols. In the centre is a horned crocodile (gharial) surrounded by other animals including a monkey.

                In these seals of Mohenjo-daro ‘horned crocodile’ hieroglyph is the center-piece surrounded by hieroglyphs of a pair of bullocks, elephant, rhinoceros, tiger looking back and a monkey-like creature. 

                Obverse of m1395 and m0441 had the following images of a multi-headed tiger.

                Ta. kōṭaram monkeyIr. kōḍa (small) monkey;  kūḍag  monkey.  Ko. ko·ṛṇ small monkey. To. kwṛṇ  monkey.  Ka. kōḍaga monkey, ape. Koḍ. ko·ḍë monkey. Tu.  koḍañji, koḍañja, koḍaṅgů baboon. (DEDR 2196). kuṭhāru = a monkey (Sanskrit) Rebus: kuṭhāru ‘armourer or weapons maker’(metal-worker), also an inscriber or writer.

                Pa. kōḍ (pl. kōḍul) horn; Ka. kōḍu horn, tusk, branch of a tree; kōr horn Tu. kōḍů, kōḍu horn Ko. kṛ (obl. kṭ-)( (DEDR 2200) Paš. kōṇḍā ‘bald’, Kal. rumb. kōṇḍa ‘hornless’.(CDIAL 3508). Kal. rumb. khōṇḍ a ‘half’ (CDIAL 3792).

                Rebus: koḍ 'workshop' (Gujarati) Thus, a horned crocodile is read rebus: koḍ khar 'blacksmith workshop'. khar ‘blacksmith’ (Kashmiri) kāruvu ‘crocodile’ Rebus:  ‘artisan, blacksmith’.

                Hieroglyph: Joined animals (tigers): sangaḍi = joined animals (M.) 

                Rebus 1: sãgaṛh m. ʻ line of entrenchments, stone walls for defence ʼ (Lahnda)(CDIAL 12845) 

                Rebus 2: sang संग् m. a stone  (Kashmiri) sanghāḍo (G.) = cutting stone, gilding; sangatarāśū = stone cutter; sangatarāśi = stone-cutting; sangsāru karan.u = to stone (S.), cankatam = to scrape (Ta.), sankaḍa (Tu.), sankaṭam = to scrape (Skt.) 

                kol 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'. Thus, the multi-headed tiger yields one reading: rebus: kol sangaḍi 'fortified place for metal (& ore stone) workers'.

                Rebus 3: saMghAta 'caravan'

                Thus, the three tigers together with wings reads: eraka kol saMghAta 'moltencast metal, iron worker caravan'.

                सं-घात b [p= 1130,1] a company of fellow-travellers , caravan VP. close union or combination , collection , cluster , heap , mass , multitude TS. MBh. &c (Monier-Williams)

                सं-गत [p= 1128,2] mfn. come together , met , encountered , joined , united AV. &cm. (scil. संधि) an alliance or peace based on mutual friendship Ka1m. Hit.n. frequent meeting , intercourse , alliance , association , friendship or intimacy with (instr. gen. , or comp.Kat2hUp. Mn. MBh. &n.  agreement MBh.fitted together , apposite , proper , suitable , according with or fit for (comp.Ka1v. Katha1s. (Monier-Williams)

                Three entwined winged tigers (Sanchi)  kola ‘tiger, jackal’ (Konkani.) kul ‘tiger’ (Santali); kōlu id. (Telugu) kōlupuli = Bengal tiger (Te.) कोल्हा [ kōlhā ] कोल्हें [kōlhēṃ] A jackal (Marathi) Rebus: kol, kolhe, ‘the koles, iron smelters speaking a language akin to that of Santals’ (Santali) kol ‘working in iron’ (Tamil)
                 Phonetic determinant glyph: kola, kōlu ‘jackal, jackal’ (Kon.Telugu) kul ‘the tiger, felis tigris’ (Santali) कोला [ kōlā ] m (Commonly कोल्हा) A jackal. कोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] n A jackal. Without reference to sex. Pr. अडलें कोल्हें मंगळ गाय Even the yelling jackal can sing pleasantly when he is in distress. कोल्हें लागलें Applied to a practical joke. केल्हेटेकणें or कोल्हेटेकण [ kēlhēṭēkaṇē or ṅkōlhēṭēkaṇa ] n Gen. in obl. cases with बस or ये, as कोल्हेटेकण्यास बसणें To sit cowering; to sit as a jackal.कोल्हेटेकण्यास येणें To be arrived at or to be approaching the infirmities of age. 2 To be approaching to setting;--used of the sun or the day, when the sun is conceived to be about that distance from the horizon as a jackal, when he rests on his hinder legs, is from the ground. कोल्हेभूंक [ kōlhēbhūṅka ] or -भोंक f (कोल्हा & भुंकणें To bark.) The yelling of jackals. 2 Early dawn; peep of day. कोल्हेहूक [ kōlhēhūka ] f The yelling of jackals. 2 fig. Assailing or setting upon with vehement vociferations. (Marathi) See:

                kul tiger; kul dander den of tiger; an.d.kul to become tiger; hudur. to growl as tiger; maran. kul a big-headed tiger (Santali.lex.) kolo, kolea_ jackal (Kon.lex.) ko_lhuya-, kulha- jackal (Pkt.)[cf. kul.l.a-nari jackal (Ta.)(DEDR 1839)]; kolha_, ko_ jackal; adj. crafty (H.); kohlu~, kolu~ jackal (G.); kolha_, kola_ (M.)(CDIAL 3615). karaj a jackal (Santali.lex.) kudke fox (Kor.); kudike jackal (Tu.); kudka id. (Ka.); kor-o naka jackal (small in size, opposed to peri naka)(Kond.a)(DEDR 1851). kulaippu barking, snarling (Ta.)(DEDR 1811). ko_lupuli = big tiger (Te.)

                Allograph: kola ‘woman’ (Nahali); kolami ‘forge’ (Te.).kolhe ‘iron smelter’ (Santali) kol, kolhe ‘the koles, an aboriginal tribe of iron smelters akin to that of the Santals’ (Santali) kola bride, son's wife, younger brother's wife (Nk.); koral younger brother's wife; kommal (pl. kommasil) daughter (Nk.); kor.ol bride (Pa.); son's wife, younger brother's wife;, kod.c- to sprout (Ga.); kor.iya ga_r. son's wife, younger brother's wife (Mand..); kur.a,, kr.uha wife (Kui); kur.ia, ku_ria daughter-in-law; younger brother's wife (Kuwi); young (of children); qro infant (Malt.); xarruni_ wife (Br.)(DEDR 2149). kur.i_ woman, wife (Phal.); ku_ru young girl; ko_r.i_, kur.hi_ (K.); kur.a_ bridegroom (L.); kur.i_ girl, virgin, bride; woman (L.); girl, daughter (P.); kur.i, kul.i_, kol.a_ boy; kur.i_ girl (WPah.); a~_t.-kur.a_ childless (a~_t.a tight)(B.); ko_ son; ku_i_ daughter (WPah.); ko son; koi daughter; kua_, ko_i_, koa_, ku_i_ (WPah.)(CDIAL 3245). kur.matt relationship by marriage (P.)(CDIAL 3234). kola ‘woman’ (Nahali. Assamese).

                Furnace: kola_ burning charcoal (L.P.); ko_ila_ burning charcoal (L.P.N.); id. (Or.H.Mth.), kolla burning charcoal (Pkt.); koilo dead coal (S.); kwelo charcoal (Ku.); kayala_ charcoal (B.); koela_ id. (Bi.); koilo (Marw.); koyalo (G.)(CDIAL 3484). < Proto-Munda. ko(y)ila = kuila black (Santali): all NIA forms may rest on ko_illa.] koela, kuila charcoal; khaura to become charcoal; ker.e to prepare charcoal (Santali.lex.) kolime, mulime, kolume a fire-pit or furnace (Ka.); kolimi (Te.); pit (Te.); kolame a very deep pit (Tu.); kulume kanda_ya a tax on blacksmiths (Ka.); kol, kolla a furnace (Ta.); kolla a blacksmith (Ma.); kol metal (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kol iron smelters (Santali.lex.) cf. kol working in iron, blacksmith (Ta.)(DEDR 2133). Temple; smithy: kol-l-ulai blacksmith's forge (kollulaik ku_t.attin-a_l : Kumara. Pira. Ni_tiner-i. 14)(Ta.lex.) kollu- to neutralize metallic properties by oxidation (Ta.lex.) kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.); kolmi smithy (Go.)(DEDR 2133). kollan--kamma_lai < + karmas'a_la_, kollan--pat.t.arai, blacksmith's workshop, smithy (Ta.lex.) lohsa_ri_ smithy (Bi.)(CDIAL 11162). cf. ulai smith's forge or furnace (Na_lat.i, 298); smith's forge; ulai-k-kur-at.u smith's tongs; ulai-t-turutti smith's bellows; ulai-y-a_n.i-k-ko_l smith's poker, beak-iron (Ta.lex.) Self-willed man: lo_hala made of iron (Skt.); lohar, lohariyo self-willed and unyielding man (G.)(CDIAL 11161). cf. goul.i, goul.ia_ herdsman (Kon.lex.) goil cowhouse, hut, pasture ground (P.); gol drove of cattle sent to another village (P.); go_uliya herdsman (Pkt.); goili_ (P.)(CDIAL 4259). kol brass or iron bar nailed across a door or gate; kollu-t-tat.i-y-a_n.i large nail for studding doors or gates to add to their strength (Ta.lex.) Tool-bag: lokhar bag in which a barber keeps his tools (N.); iron tools, pots and pans (H.); lokhar. iron tools (Ku.); lokhan.d. iron tools, pots and pans (H.); lokha~d. tools, iron, ironware (G.); iron (M.)(CDIAL 11171). pl. carpenter's tools (G.)(CDIAL 11173). karuvi-p-pai instrument-case; barber's bag (Ta.lex.) cf. karuvu-kalam treasury, treasure-house (Ta.lex.) Cobbler's iron pounder: lohaga~ga_, lahau~ga_ cobbler's iron pounder (Bi.); leha~ga_ (Mth.); luha~_gi_ staff set with iron rings (P.); loha~_gi_ (H.M.); lavha~_gi_ (M.); laha~_gi_, loha~gi_ (M.)(CDIAL 11174). Image: frying pan: lohra_, lohri_ small iron pan (Bi.)(CDIAL 11160). lo_hi_ any object made of iron (Skt.); pot (Skt.); iron pot (Pkt.); lo_hika_ large shallow wooden bowl bound with iron (Skt.); lauha_ iron pot (Skt.); loh large baking iron (P.); luhiya_ iron pan (A.); lohiya_ iron or brass shallow pan with handles (Bi.); lohiyu~ frying pan (G.)(CDIAL 11170). lauhabha_n.d.a iron pot, iron mortar (Skt.); lo_habhan.d.a copper or brass ware (Pali); iron pot (S.); luha~_d.a_ (L.); frying pan (P.); lohn.d.a_, lo~_hd.a_ (P.); luhu~r.e iron cooking pot (N.); lohora_ iron pan (A.); loha~r.a_ iron vessel for drawing water for irrigation (Bi.); lohan.d.a_, luhan.d.a_ iron pot (H.); iron, razor (G.)[cf. xolla_ razor (Kur.); qole id. (Malt.); hola'd razor (Santali)(DEDR 2141)]; lod.hi_ iron pan (G.)(CDIAL 11173).

                Rebus: kolimi 'smithy-forge'; kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron' kolhe 'smelters' kole.l 'smithy, temple'; eraka 'wing' Rebus: eraka 'copper'.

                The artistic entwining of three tigers is seen on a seal with Indus Script from Mohenjo-daro. 

                This can be seen as a precursor model for the three tigers/lions shown on a Sanchi torana (gateway). Out of the seven friezes showing a hieroglyph-multiplex of three winged tigers, one frieze adds hieroglyphs 'leafless stalks' as horns of two tigers; two riders are also added to signify the artisans at work:

                Thus, tigers with wings joined reads: eraka kol saMghAta 'moltencast metal, iron worker caravan'. With  karaṇḍā 'stalks' as koD 'horns' and artisans (carrying goads or weapons or काण्डी kANDI 'little stalk or stem') hieroglyph components added: karaḍā eraka kol saMghAta 'hard alloy moltencast copper working in iron caravan' PLUS kuThAru 'armourer', or kamar 'artisan' PLUS koD 'workshop'. [In Udipi and coastal Dakshina Kannada districts of Karnataka, there is a practice of ‘Pili Kola’ worshiping Tiger. The festival is conducted once in every two years in Muggerkala Temple in Kaup.
      ] Rebus: खांड (p. 202) [ khāṇḍa as in lokhaṇḍa  'metal tools, pots and pans, metalware' (Marathi). Thus the two riders of the hieroglyph-multiplex of stalk-as-horn PLUS winged tigers can be read as: armourers working in a smithy-forge, kolimi and with hard alloy, karaDa; moltencast metal, eraka. The riders seem to be arrying: कुठार (p. 167) [ kuṭhāra ] m S An ax or a hatchet. Hence, they are kuThAru 'armourers'.

                mAtri is a knower, one who has true knowledge; hence, mahAmAtra is an elephant trainer. A mahout is a person who rides an elephant. The word mahout comes from the Hindi words mahaut (महौत) and mahavat (महावत), which eventually goes back to Sanskrit mahamatra (महामात्र). Another term for mahout is cornac (as in French, from the Portuguese; kornak in Polish, also a rather current last name). This word comes form Sanskrit term karināyaka, the compound of Sanskrit words karin (elephant) and nayaka (leader). In Tamil, the word used is "pahan", which means elephant keeper, and in Sinhalese kurawanayaka ('stable master'). In Malayalam the word used is paappaan.In Burma, the profession is called oozie; in Thailand kwan-chang; and in Vietnam quản tượng.

                The 'horns' are 'stalks', hieroglyphs: कारंडा [ kāraṇḍā ]करंडा [ karaṇḍā ]  m A chump or block. the stock or fixed portion of the staff of the large leaf-covered summerhead or umbrella. A clump, chump, or block of wood. करांडा [ karāṇḍā ] m C A cylindrical piece as sawn or chopped off the trunk or a bough of a tree; a clump, chump, or block. करोळा [ karōḷā ] m The half-burnt grass of a Potter's kiln: also a single stalk of it. Kalanda [cp. Sk. karaṇḍa piece of wood?] heap, stack (like a heap of wood? cp. kalingara) Miln 292 (sīsa˚) (Pali) करण्ड [L=44277] n. a piece of wood , block Bhpr.

                Rebus: fire-god: @B27990.  #16671. Remo <karandi>E155  {N} ``^fire-^god''.(Munda)

                Allograph: करडी [ karaḍī ] f (See करडई) Safflower: also its seed.

                Rebus: karaḍa ‘hard alloy’ (Marathi) See:

                It is notable that the 'stalks' as 'horns' of tigers on Sanchi South stupa architrave pillar are comparable to the three leafless stalks displayed on Sit Shamshi Bronze:

                Why three? kolmo 'three' rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'; kole.l 'smithy, temple'.

                Wooden marker or stone planted for the dead on Sit Shamshi bronze model

                kol 'pancaloha, alloy of five metals' (Tamil) 

                kolom = cutting, graft; to graft, engraft, prune; kolom dare kana = it is a grafted tree; kolom ul = grafted mango; kolom gocena = the cutting has died; kolom kat.hi hor.o = a certain variety of the paddy plant (Santali); kolom (B.); kolom mit = to engraft; kolom porena = the cutting has struck root; kolom kat.hi = a reed pen (Santali.lex.) ku_l.e stump (Ka.) [ku_li = paddy (Pe.)] xo_l = rice-sheaf (Kur.) ko_li = stubble of jo_l.a (Ka.); ko_r.a = sprout (Kui.) ko_le = a stub or stump of corn (Te.)(DEDR 2242). kol.ake,, the third crop of rice (Ka.); kolake, kol.ake (Tu.)(DEDR 2154) kolma =  a paddy plant; kolma hor.o ‘ a variety of rice plant’ (Santali.lex.) [kural = corn-ear (Ta.)] 

                Three stalks are adjacent to a stele which could have denoted the stone marker planted for the dead, Pitr-s. It may also denote meḍ ‘stake’ Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’(Munda. Ho.) Note: meḍ may refer to meteorite iron. mŏnḍ 1 म्वंड् m. (in Hindū mythology) the N. of a demon (in Skt., Muṇḍa) who with Caṇḍa was killed by Dēvī, the consort, or Śakti, of Śiva. mŏnḍa-daham म्वंड-दहम् । तिथिविशेषः the 'Muṇḍatenth', the tenth lunar day of the dark half of the month of Wāhĕkh (Skt., Vaiśākha) (April-May), on which the slaughter of Caṇḍa and Muṇḍa is celebrated. <munda>  {N} ``wooden ^marker or stone planted for the dead''.  @7722.  #20071.wana munda, 'the log harrow over which rice is threshed' (sic. L. 464;? wana-mọ̆nḍu). mọ̆nḍu । स्थाणुः m. the trunk or stump of a tree, including the solid part of the root (cf. mŏ̈nḍü 1) (El. múnd) (cf. khŏḍa-mo, p. 392a, l. 5, and nasta-mo, s.v. nast); a log, a heavy block of wood (Gr.Gr. 37, Śiv. 1856); a pillar; -- ˚ any clumsy lump (Rām. 631)(Kashmiri) muṇḍaka -- m. ʻ trunk of lopped tree ʼ lex. [Prob. of Drav. origin (A. Master BSOAS xii 354) with coalescence of two Drav. wordgroups (DED 4199, 4200); less likely Mu. connexions (J. Przyluski BSL xxx 199, PMWS 102). Not with P. Thieme ZDMG 93, 134 < *mr̥ṁṣṭa -- nor with P. Tedesco JAOS 65, 82 < vr̥ddha -- K. mŏnḍ  m. ʻ stump of a tree ʼ, f. ʻ thick underground stalk ʼ, mŏnḍuru m. ʻstump of a tree ʼ; S. muno ʻ blunt, less by a quarter ʼ, m. ʻ upright post of water -- or spinning -- wheel ʼ, munī f. ʻ post, stake ʼ; L. munn m. ʻ pillar, post ʼ, munnī f. ʻ post in middle of threshing floor, upright gravestone ʼ; P. munnī f. ʻ girl ʼ, muṇḍā m. ʻ boy ʼ, munnā m. ʻ penis, plough -- handle ʼ; Ku. mũṛo ʻ stump ʼ; Or. muṇḍa ʻ pollard, trunk ʼ, muṇḍā ʻ stump ʼ; Bi. mū̃ṛ, °ṛā, °ṛī ʻ ball at end of beam of sugar -- mill ʼ; Mth. mū̃ṛ ʻ trunk of cut tree ʼ, mū̃ṛā ʻ hornless ox ʼ, muṇḍā ʻ round cap covering the ears (worn by Brahmans) ʼ;Kho. mun ʻ stump of tree ʼ, (Lor.)  Sh. (Lor.) mūn, pl. °ní ʻ stump or bole of tree, stump of amputated leg or arm, maize stubble ʼ are either Bi. mũṛer, (Camparan) mũṛerā, (Gaya) mũṛerī ʻ masonry work at head of a well ʼ (semant. cf. SEBi. mūṛhā < *muḍḍha -- 1, and another name for the same: nirārī < nirākāra -- ʻ shapeless ʼ).WPah.kṭg. məṇḍēr, məḍēr f. (obl. -- a) ʻ fence, railing ʼ. (CDIAL 10191, 10192). 

                kolime, kolume, kulame, kulime, kulume, kulme fire-pit, furnace (Ka.); kolimi furnace (Te.); pit (Te.); kolame a very deep pit (Tu.); kulume kanda_ya a tax on blacksmiths (Ka.); kol, kolla a furnace (Ta.) kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.); konimi blacksmith; kola id. (Ka.); kolle blacksmith (Kod.); kollusa_na_ to mend implements; kolsta_na, kulsa_na_ to forge; ko_lsta_na_ to repair (of plough-shares); kolmi smithy (Go.); kolhali to forge (Go.)(DEDR 2133).] kolimi-titti = bellows used for a furnace (Te.lex.) kollu- to neutralize metallic properties by oxidation (Ta.) kol = brass or iron bar nailed across a door or gate; kollu-t-tat.i-y-a_n.i large nail for studding doors or gates to add to their strength (Ta.lex.) kollan--kamma_lai < + karmas'a_la_, kollan--pat.t.arai, blacksmith's workshop, smithy (Ta.lex.) cf. ulai smith's forge or furnace (Na_lat.i, 298); smith's forge; ulai-k-kur-at.u smith's tongs; ulai-t-turutti smith's bellows; ulai-y-a_n.i-k-ko_l smith's poker, beak-iron (Ta.lex.) [kollulaive_r-kan.alla_r: nait.ata. na_t.t.up.); mitiyulaikkollan- perumpa_)(Ta.lex.) Temple; smithy: kol-l-ulai blacksmith's forge (kollulaik ku_t.attin-a_l : Kumara. Pira. Ni_tiner-i. 14)(Ta.lex.) cf. kolhua_r sugarcane milkl and boiling house (Bi.); kolha_r oil factory (P.)(CDIAL 3537). kulhu ‘a hindu caste, mostly oilmen’ (Santali) kolsa_r = sugarcane mill and boiling house (Bi.)(CDIAL 3538).
                d.abe, d.abea ‘large horns, with a sweeping upward curve, applied to buffaloes’ (Santali)
                d.ab, d.himba, d.hompo ‘lump (ingot?)’, clot, make a lump or clot, coagulate, fuse, melt together (Santali) d.himba = become lumpy, solidify; a lump (of molasses or iron ore, also of earth); sadaere kolheko tahe_kanre d.himba me~r.he~t reak khan.d.ako bena_oet tahe_kana_ = formerly when the Kolhes were here they made implements from lumps of iron (Santali)

                Sanchi Stupa. West gateway

                Detail of three winged tigers on Sanchi Stupa as centre-piece on the top architrave and on left and right pillars (in three segments):

                Left pillar:


                Right pillar:

                m0295 Mohenjo-daro seal
                   This is a good example of hypertext with two categories of hypertext components: 1. pictorial motif hieroglyphs; 2. text hieroglyphs called signs in Indus Script Concordances such as those of Parpola and Mahadevan.

                cāli 'Interlocking bodies' (IL 3872) Rebus: sal 'workshop' (Santali) 

                Allograph: sal ‘splinter’
                Pict-61: Composite motif of three tigers

                 Text1386 Note how the hieroglyph components of the text are displayed in the space available on the seal after the pictorial motif hieroglyphs have been put together as part of the hypertext. The broken corner of the seal may have included other 'text hieroglyphs called signs'.

                Hieroglyph of ‘looking back’ is read rebus as kamar 'artisan': క్రమ్మరు [krammaru] krammaru. [Tel.] v. n. To turn, return, go  back. మరలు.  క్రమ్మరించు or  క్రమ్మరుచు  krammarinsu. V. a. To turn, send back, recall. To revoke, annul, rescind.క్రమ్మరజేయు.  క్రమ్మర krammara. Adv. Again. క్రమ్మరిల్లు or క్రమరబడు Same as క్రమ్మరు. krəm backʼ(Kho.)(CDIAL 3145) Kho. Krəm ʻ back ʼ NTS ii 262 with (?) (CDIAL 3145)[Cf. Ir. *kamaka – or *kamraka -- ʻ back ʼ in Shgh. Čůmč ʻ back ʼ, Sar. Čomǰ EVSh 26] (CDIAL 2776) cf. Sang. kamak ʻ back ʼ, Shgh. Čomǰ (< *kamak G.M.) ʻ back of an animal ʼ, Yghn. Kama ʻ neck ʼ (CDIAL 14356). Kár, kãr  ‘neck’ (Kashmiri) Kal. Gřä ʻ neck ʼ; Kho. Goḷ ʻ front of neck, throat ʼ. Gala m. ʻ throat, neck ʼ MBh. (CDIAL 4070)  Rebus: karmāra ‘smith, artisan’ (Skt.) kamar ‘smith’ (Santali)

                kolmo 'three' Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, forge'

                kola 'tiger' Rebus: kol 'working in iron'; kolle 'blacksmith'; kolimi 'smithy, forge'; kole.l 'smithy, temple'

                me ‘body’ Rebus: me ‘iron’ (Mu.) Vikalpa: kāḍ  2 काड् a man's length, the stature of a man (as a measure of length); rebus: kāḍ  ‘stone’; Ga. (Oll.) kanḍ , (S.) kanḍu (pl. kanḍkil)  stone

                kaṇḍ kanka ‘rim of jar’; Rebus: karṇaka ‘scribe’; kaṇḍ ‘furnace, fire-altar’. Thus the ligatured Glyph is decoded: kaṇḍkarṇaka ‘furnace scribe'

                kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.)

                kōna corner (Nk.); tu. kōu angle, corner (Tu.); rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali) Alternative reading; kanac 'corner' rebus: kancu 'bronze'

                sal 'splinter' Rebus: sal 'workshop'

                Thus, the message on the seal reads: me ‘iron’; kāḍ  ‘stone’;  karṇaka ‘furnace scribe'; kolimi 'smithy, forge' kole.l 'smithy, temple'; sal ‘workshop’ PLUS kõdā sal 'turner workshop' (Alternative: kancu sal 'bronze workshop')

                The entire hypertexts of pictorial and text hieroglyph components can thus be read using rebus-metonymy-layered-meluhha cipher as: 'iron stone furnace scribe smithy-forge, temple, turner or bronze workshop'.

                cāli 'Interlocking bodies' (IL 3872) Rebus: sal 'workshop' (Santali) Did the Bharhut architect who designed the Western Torana (Gateway) with hieroglyph multiplex of 3 tigers (winged) intend to send the message that the precincts are: Hieroglyph: cAli 'interlocking bodies' Rebus: sal 'workshop'?

                Hieroglyph: kul 'tiger' (Santaliकोल्हें [ kōlhēṃ ] A jackal (Marathi) kol 'tiger, jackal' (Konkani.) kOlupuli 'tiger' (Telugu) కోలు [ kōlu ] kōlu. [Tel.] adj. Big, great, huge పెద్ద. కోలుపులి or కోల్పులి a royal tiger. Rebus: kolimi 'smithy, temple'; kol 'working in iron'. Thus kol(m) could have connoted a tiger. 

                *ut-- śāla ʻ leaping up ʼ. (CDIAL 1846) śāˊlā f. ʻ shed, stable, house ʼ AV., śālám adv. ʻ at home ʼ ŚBr., śālikā -- f. ʻ house, shop ʼ lex. Pa. Pk. sālā -- f. ʻ shed, stable, large open -- sided hall, house ʼ, Pk. sāla -- n. ʻ house ʼ; Ash. sal ʻ cattleshed ʼ, Wg. šāl, Kt. šål, Dm. šâl; Paš.weg. sāl, ar. šol ʻ cattleshed on summer pasture ʼ; Kho. šal ʻ cattleshed ʼ, šeli ʻ goatpen ʼ; K. hal f. ʻ hall, house ʼ; L. sālh f. ʻ house with thatched roof ʼ; A. xālxāli ʻ house, workshop, factory ʼ; B. sāl ʻ shed, workshop ʼ; Or. sāḷa ʻ shed, stable ʼ; Bi. sār f. ʻ cowshed ʼ; H. sāl f. ʻ hall, house, school ʼ, sār f. ʻ cowshed ʼ; M. sāḷ f. ʻ workshop, school ʼ; Si. sal -- aha° ʻ hall, market -- hall ʼ.(CDIAL 12414) *kōlhuśālā ʻ pressing house for sugarcane or oilseeds ʼ. [*kōlhu -- , śāˊlā -- ] Bi. kolsār ʻ sugarcane mill and boiling house ʼ.(CDIAL 3538)  karmaśālā f. ʻ workshop ʼ MBh. [kárman -- 1, śāˊlā -- ]Pk. kammasālā -- f.; L. kamhāl f. ʻ hole in the ground for a weaver's feet ʼ; Si. kamhala ʻ workshop ʼ, kammala ʻ smithy ʼ.(CDIAL 2896) 2898 karmāˊra m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ RV. [EWA i 176 < stem *karmar -- ~ karman -- , but perh. with ODBL 668 ← Drav. cf. Tam. karumā ʻ smith, smelter ʼ whence meaning ʻ smith ʼ was transferred also to karmakāra -- ] Pa. kammāra -- m. ʻ worker in metal ʼ; Pk. kammāra -- , °aya -- m. ʻ blacksmith ʼ, A. kamār, B. kāmār; Or. kamāra ʻ blacksmith, caste of non -- Aryans, caste of fishermen ʼ; Mth. kamār ʻ blacksmith ʼ, Si. kam̆burā. Md. kan̆buru ʻ blacksmith ʼ.(CDIAL 2898) *karmāraśālā ʻ smithy ʼ. [karmāˊra -- , śāˊlā -- ] Mth. kamarsārī; -- Bi. kamarsāyar?(CDIAL 2899)

                I suggest that the three tigers with interlocked bodies DOES connote cāli 'interlocked bodies' Rebus-metonymy layered cipher yields the plain text message : kola 'tiger'> kolom 'three' PLUS cāli 'interlocked bodies' :kammasālā 'workshop' (Prakritam) < kol(m) PLUS śāˊlā, i.e. smithy workshop.

                "Tree-in-railing" - the common ancient Indian symbol. Appears on the reverse of this type only. "The Y-symbol" or "the standard" - a very common ancient Indian symbol, usually described as a "standard", but the precise meaning of this symbol is unclear.
                "Swastika" - an ancient Indian symbol. Always appears on reverse, and very rarely on obverse. "The lotus flower" - appears on the obverse in two varieties, with a dot in the middle and without (see catalogue). 
                "Two cobras" - always appear between the horns of the deer. "The Peacock" or "the Chalice" - uncertain tiny symbol appearing on the obverse of some very rare coins. 

                "Hill" - "three-arched hills" and a "five-arched hill". ncient Indian symbols. The five-arched hill always appears on the reverse of this type and (doubtfully) on the obverse of one type. The three-arched hill appears on the obverse of many of the varieties of the silver Kuninda coins.

                Dhangar 'mountain range' Rebus: Dhangar 'blacksmith' PLUS koṭhārī f. ʻcrucible' PLUS khōṭa 'alloy ingot', kuṭi  in cmpd.‘curve' Rebus:kuṭhi 'smelter' Rebus: koṭhārī ʻ treasurer ʼ
                Uncertain symbol, appearing on some Indo-Greek coins. Reported as a "vase"
                Bronze coins of Kunindas

                The bronze coins of the Kunindas are much cruder than the silver 

                Obverse: Deer standing right, crowned by two cobras, attended by Lakshmi holding a lotus flower. Legend in Prakrit (Brahmi script), various marks in fields

                Reverse:Stupa surmounted by the Buddhist symbol triratna, and surrounded by a swastika, a "Y" symbol (standard? - two different types, see catalogue), and a tree in railing, wavy line (river?) underneath, legend replaced with a circle of dots.

                List of some of the symbols encountered on the silver drachms of the Kunindas. 


                Coin refces: ACC 1 to 17




                 ranku 'liquid measure' (Santali) Rebus: ranku 'tin' (Note: The same hieroglyph is deployed on one of two pure tin ingots discovered in a shipwreck in Haifa, Israel).

                Steatite seal (two serpents) from SAr el-Jisr, Bahrain

                kuDi 'drink' rebus: kuThi 'smelter
                nAga 'snake' rebus: nAga 'lead'; dula 'pair' rebus: dul 'cast metal'
                kola 'woman' kola 'tiger' rebus: kolle 'blacksmith'; kol 'working in iron' kole.l 'smithy, temple'

                Figure 1. Map of Iran, with Jiroft, Konār Ṣandal, and sites of the 3rd millenium BCE with chlorite vessels.

                Tepe Yahya/Jiroft frieze. Zebus and lions. A zebu gores a lion (the zebu seems to be then on the verge of domestication, Figure 7f.
                c. 2900 BCE. Khafajah. The best known of the chlorite bowls is from Khafajah; it is of Mesopotamian manufacture. •A man kneels upon the hindquarters of one of a pair of standing zebu bulls facing away from each other. In each hand he holds a stream of water which flows over the head and finishes in front of each bull. Plants grow from the right stream, plants grow behind the left bull, and a plant grows in front of each bull. Above the man are a rosette, a crescent and (possibly) a snake. Above the left stream is some sort of carnivore, perhaps a panther. 
                An identical man stands behind or between two couchant panthers, rears together and tails raised but heads turned to face each other. In each hand he holds a snake; by his head is another rosette. 
                An eagle and a lion attack a bull which is lying on its back. Plants grow from behind the lion. To the left of this group is a scorpion. Below the lion’s hindquarters is a scene of two bears standing about a date palm licking their paws. 

                Chlorite vessels. Plate IV. Various: miniature vessels a-b: tronconical vessels, single-horned zebu (h 8.2 cm);
                Figure 6. Zebus: a: details of decoration on a tronconical vessel; b: line of zebus led by a man; c-d lying zebus.


                A zebu on a plaque from the Elamite Diyala Valley (Lamberg-Karlovsky and Potts 2001: 225).
                Zebu seals, Harappa

                Indus Valley Figurines: Slide #33

                Early Harappan zebu figurine with incised spots from Harappa.

                Some of the Early Harappan zebu figurines were decorated. One example has incised oval spots. It is also stained a deep red, an extreme example of the types of stains often found on figurines that are usually found in trash and waste deposits. Approximate dimensions (W x H(L) x D): 1.8 x 4.6 x 3.5 cm. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow)

                The majestic zebu bull, with its heavy dewlap and wide curving horns is perhaps the most impressive motif found on the Indus seals. Generally carved on large seals with relatively short inscriptions, the zebu motif is found almost exclusively at the largest cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. 

                The rarity of zebu seals is curious because the humped bull is a recurring theme in many of the ritual and decorative arts of the Indus region, appearing on painted pottery and as figurines long before the rise of cities and continuing on into later historical times. The zebu bull may symbolize the leader of the herd, whose strength and virility protects the herd and ensures the procreation of the species or it stands for a sacrificial animal. When carved in stone, the zebu bull probably represents the most powerful clan or top officials of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. 

                Harappa Archaeological Research Project.

                aḍar ḍangra ‘zebu’ read rebus: aduru ḍhangar ‘native-unsmelted-metal blacksmith’ (Santali); aduru denotes ‘unsmelted, native metal’. ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili)  aduru ಗಣಿಯಿಂದ ತೆಗದು ಕರಗದೆ ಇರುವ ಅದುರು (Kannada) gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru = ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Ka. Siddhānti Subrahmaṇya  Śastri’s new interpretation of the Amarakośa, Bangalore, Vicaradarpana Press, 1872, p.330). adar = fine sand (Tamil) aduru native metal (Kannada); ayil iron (Tamil) ayir, ayiram any ore (Malayalam); ajirda karba very hard iron (Tulu)(DEDR 192). Rebus: ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (Maithili)

                khũṭ mʻ Brahmani bull ʼ (Kathiawar).(CDIAL 3899) (Kathiawar) khũṭro m. ʻ entire bull used for agriculture, not for breedingʼ(Gujarati). Rebus 1: khũṭ  ‘community’ (Guild). Cf. khũṭ a community, sect, society, division, clique, schism, stock (Santali) kuṭhi, kut.i (Or.; Sad. koṭhi) the smelting furnace of the blacksmith. 

                kuṇha munda (loha) 'hard iron (native metal)'

                Malt. goṭa a seed or berry. / Cf. words meaning 'fruit, kernel, seed' in Turner, CDIAL, no. 4271 (so noted by Turner).(DEDR 2069) Rebus: khōṭa 'alloy ingot' (Marathi)

                Hieroglyph 1: adar 'zebu' rebus: aduru 'unsmelted metal or ore';

                Hieroglyph 2: पोळ (p. 534) [ pōḷa ] m A bull dedicated to the gods, marked with a trident and discus, and set at large. Rebus: पोलाद (p. 533) [ pōlāda ] n ( or P) Steel. पोलादी a Of steel. pōḷa  'magnetite' (Asuri)

                pola, ‘magnetite’  is denoted by pōḷī, ‘dewlap, honeycomb’ hieroglyphs.

                 Indus script on a tablet.

                See: Figure 13.31: Harappa 1988: Bull seal from southern edge of Mound E. (p.226)

                These three zebu (bos indicus) seals are instructive. On two seals, the hieroglyphs presented relate to the lexemes: ayas + kaNDa read rebus: metal smelter (furnace). The Harappa seal presents the hieroglyphs: kodo 'millet' (Mu.) + kolmo 'three (numeral strokes)'(Mu.) read rebus: konda 'casting furnace, kiln' + kolami 'forge, smithy' (Te.)

                It is unclear if two types of furnaces were identified by the hieroglyphs used: one type of furnace used for casting (metal) and another used for smelting (in smithy). It is also unclear if the 'three numeral strokes' glyph should be read as a phonetic determinative of the paired glyph, if the plant glyph on Harappa seal is read as: kolmo 'rice plant'. Seedecoding inscription on Indus seal of Mitathal seal. One way to resolve the issue is to identify an allograph in the script corpus and read the glyphs in the context of glyph sequences used. 

                Sign 162 (Mahadevan) and related ligatured signs
                Sign 169 and variants.

                One 'plant' glyph shows three prongs (as on the Harappa zebu seal); another shows five. (i.e. Sign 162 - with three prongs and Sign 169 - with five prongs)

                kūli-dolu rice plant; (Isr.) dulomi plant. (DEDR 3517) Rebus: dul ‘cast (metal)(Santali) 

                Vikalpa (alternative): Three prongs glyph (Sign 162) of the plant may denote kodo 'millet'. Five prongs glyph (Sign 169) of the plant may denote tagara 'a kind of flowering tree' (Telugu). If this vikalpa holds, the scribe and artisan may have used the two signs distinctly to denote types of casting or smelting furnaces: one for tin (tagaraka) and the other for other metals.


                Dots circling the bottom pot of sangaDa 'lathe + portable furnace' (standard device) is an abiding hieroglhph and continues on early Punch-marked coins of Gandhara and Magadha-Maurya. The dots are also deployed as 'dotted circle' hieroglyphs.
                m0008 Mohenjo-daro seal. This shows the bottom bowl of the 'standard device' superimposed with dotted circles. Since the top portion of the 'device' is a drill-lathe, these dotted circles are orthographic representations of drilled beads which were the hallmark of lapidaries' work of the civilization. Rebus reading of the kandi 'beads' (Pa.) is: kaND, kandu 'fire altar, smelting furnace of a blacksmith' (Santali.Kashmiri)Glyphs of dotted circles on the bottom portion of the 'standard device': kandi (pl. -l) beads, necklace (Pa.); kanti (pl. -l) bead, (pl.) necklace; kandit. bead (Ga.)(DEDR 1215). Rebus: लोहकारकन्दुः f. a blacksmith's smelting furnace (Grierson Kashmiri lex.)

                er-e = to pour any liquids; to pour (Ka.); ir-u (Ta.Ma.); ira- i_i (Ta.); er-e = to cast, as metal; to overflow, to cover with water, to bathe (Ka.); er-e, ele = pouring; fitness for being poured(Ka.lex.)Rebus: erako molten cast (Tu.lex.)eraka, er-aka = any metal infusion (Ka.Tu.); urukku (Ta.); urukka melting; urukku what is melted; fused metal (Ma.); urukku (Ta.Ma.); eragu = to melt; molten state, fusion; erakaddu = any cast thing; erake hoyi = to pour meltted metal into a mould, to cast (Ka.)

                Vikalpa (alternative): (B) {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''. See `to be left over'. @B24310. #20851.(B) {V} ``to be ^left over, to be ^saved''. Caus. . @B24300. #20861. Rebus: loa 'iron' (Mu.)Re(B),,(B) {N} ``^iron''. Pl. <-le>

                san:ghāḍo, saghaḍī (G.) = firepan; saghaḍī, śaghaḍi = a pot for holding fire (G.)sãghāṛɔ m. ‘lathe’ (G.) Rebus: san:gatarāśū = stone cutter (S.) jangaḍ iyo ‘military guard who accompanies treasure into the treasury’; san:ghāḍiyo, a worker on a lathe (Gujarati) 
                Variants of Sign 190 Mahadevan Concordance of Indus Script

                kolmo ‘rice plant’. Four such sprouts are shown. gaNDA ‘four’ Rebus: khaNDA ‘implements’.

                Upendra Thakur
                Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
                Vol. 16, No. 2/3 (Dec., 1973), pp. 265-297

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                An Open Letter to Jairam Ramesh

                An Open Letter to Jairam Ramesh on his allegations against
                Dear Sri Jairam Ramesh –
                First off, thank you for giving free publicity to our website As they say in Hollywood, any publicity is good publicity. Your allegations has boosted traffic to the site and the readers will form their opinion on what the content is all about.
                A few days back you raised some allegations about me and our website I came to know from your Press Conference that you consider me:
                1. a Modi Bhakt, who attended his meetings in the Silicon Valley
                2. funded by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS),
                3. a friend of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi, Dr. Subramanian Swamy, Sri S Gurumurthy and Prof R Vaidyanathan.
                My replies:
                1. For the record, I did attend Shri Modi’s meeting at Facebook headquarters and tweeted about it. I did not have the pleasure of meeting him or shaking his hand or even make eye contact.
                2. I have a lot of admiration for the RSS, which is the world’s biggest Non-Government Organization (NGO). They are usually the first to arrive at a national disaster site, setup camps, provide basic sanitation, food, shelter and clothing as needed and do all this with no expectations. This is just one among many of the things they do. In my opinion it is unfair to drag their name into this. You could have checked with me before alleging that they are funding PGurus.
                3. You are placing me in the company of some very highly accomplished individuals and I am thrilled and honoured to be mentioned in the same line as them.
                In future, if you are going to make allegations against our site, may I request you to please check with us before doing so? And thanks in advance to all the media publications and TV channels for publishing this response. An electronic copy of this letter can be downloaded by clicking on this link.
                Sree Iyer

                cc: Dr. Subramanian Swamy, Sri S Gurumurthy, Prof R Vaidyanathan

                0 0

                Published: May 17, 2016 13:09 IST | Updated: May 17, 2016 13:48 IST  

                Raghuram Rajan not Indian at heart, should be sacked: Subramanian Swamy

                • PTI
                BJP leader Subramanian Swamy has said that RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan should go. File photos
                BJP leader Subramanian Swamy has said that RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan should go. File photos
                In a fresh salvo at RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan, BJP MP Subramanian Swamy has written to Prime Minister Narendra Modi seeking immediate sacking of the former IMF Chief Economist while alleging he was “mentally not fully Indian” and has “wilfully” wrecked the economy.
                Following up his barb against Mr. Rajan at the end of Parliament session last week, Mr. Swamy wrote to the Prime Minister on Monday seeking termination of Mr. Rajan’s services with immediate effect.
                “The reason why I recommend this is that I am shocked by the wilful and apparently deliberate attempt by Dr. Rajan to wreck the Indian economy,” he wrote adding his concept of raising interest rates to contain inflation was “disastrous”.
                Also bad loans with public sector banks have doubled to Rs. 3.5 lakh crore in two years, he said.
                Mr. Rajan was appointed RBI Governor by the previous UPA government in September 2013 for a three-year term, which can be extended.
                “These actions of Dr. Rajan lead me to believe that he is acting more as a disrupter of the Indian economy than the person who wants the Indian economy to improve.
                “Moreover he is in this country on a Green Card provided by the U.S. government and therefore mentally not fully Indian. Otherwise why would he renew his Green Card as RBI Governor by making the mandatory annual visit to the U.S. to keep the Green Card current?” he wrote.
                Mr. Swamy had last week stated that Mr. Rajan was “not appropriate for the country” as he had in the garb of controlling inflation raised interest rates leading to “collapse of industry and rise of unemployment in the economy”.
                “The sooner he is sent back to Chicago, the better it would be,” he had told reporters in Parliament House.
                Mr. Swamy in the letter to Mr. Modi said the BJP came to power under his inspiring leadership. “I cannot see why someone appointed by the UPA government who is apparently working against Indian economic interests should be kept in this post when we have so many nationalist minded experts available in this country for the RBI Governorship.”
                He urged Mr. Modi “to terminate the appointment of Dr. Raghuram Rajan in the national interest.”
                Mr. Swamy, who was earlier this month nominated to the Rajya Sabha by the BJP government, said Mr. Rajan’s concept of containing inflation by raising interest rates was “disastrous”.
                “When the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) started to decline due to induced recession in the small and medium industry, he shifted the target from WPI to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) which has not however declined because of retail prices. On the contrary it has risen.
                “Had Dr. Raghuram Rajan stuck to WPI interest rates would have been much lower today and given huge relief to small and medium industries. Instead they are squeezed further and consequent increasing unemployment,” he wrote.
                Mr. Rajan, Mr. Swamy said, was “acting more as a disrupter of the Indian economy than the person who wants the Indian economy to improve”.

                0 0

                Published: May 17, 2016 17:40 IST | Updated: May 17, 2016 18:58 IST  

                India rejects Pakistan objections to map regulation bill

                • PTI
                This map downloaded from the Survey of India website shows the Official Boundary of India.
                This map downloaded from the Survey of India website shows the Official Boundary of India.

                Islamabad said it had expressed "serious concern" to the U.N. over India's maps regulation bill.

                India on Tuesday reacted strongly to Pakistan seeking U.N. intervention on the Indian draft bill on maps, saying it was an “entirely internal legislative matter” and Pakistan or any other party has no locus standi on it.

                External Affairs Ministry spokesperson Vikas Swarup said India “firmly rejects” repeated and increasing attempts by Pakistan to impose on the international community matters that it has always been open to address bilaterally with it.

                “The proposed bill is an entirely internal legislative matter of India, since the whole of the state of J&K is an integral part of India. Pakistan or any other party has no locus standi in the matter.

                “The Government firmly rejects Pakistan’s repeated and increasing attempts to impose on the international community matters that India has always been open to address bilaterally with Pakistan,” Mr. Swarup said in response to a question on Pakistan Foreign Office press release on India’s Geospatial Bill.

                Earlier, in Islamabad, the Pakistan Foreign Office issued a statement saying it has expressed “serious concern” to the U.N. over a draft bill in the Indian Parliament over the map of Kashmir and has asked the world body to uphold its resolutions and urge India to stop such acts which are in “violation of international law”.

                “Pakistan has expressed serious concern to the United Nations Secretary General and the President of the U.N. Security Council, through letters by our Permanent Representative in New York, with regard to the Indian government’s efforts to introduce a controversial ‘Geospatial Information Regulation Bill’ in the Indian Parliament,” it said.

                It further said that “in violation of UNSC resolutions, the official map of India has been depicting the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir as part of India which is factually incorrect and legally untenable”.

                Wrong depiction of the map of India could land the violators in jail with a maximum term of seven years and impose a fine up to Rs. 100 crore, according to the draft Geospatial Information Regulation Bill 2016.
                Printable version | May 17, 2016 7:58:11 PM |

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